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Project Gutenberg Australia
Title: The Dictionary of Australasian Biography
Author: Philip Mennell
eBook No.: .html
Language: English
Date first posted: November 2022
Most recent update: November 2022

This eBook was produced by: Colin Choat

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The Dictionary of Australasian Biography

Comprising
notices of eminent colonists
from the inauguration of responsible government
down to the present time.
[1855-1892]

by

Phillip Mennell, F.R.G.S.


Illustration


London:
Hutchinson & Co.,
25 Paternoster Square.
1892.


Printed by Hazell, Watson, & Viney, Ld., London and Aylesbury.


Production Note:

A supplementary list of biographies appeared in the book, beginning at page 529, following the main list. Entries in the supplementary section which refer to a person who already appears in the main list, have been incorporated into the main entry, together with a note that the extra information appeared in the book in the supplementary list.

Entries in the supplementary list which relate to as person not already in the main list have been placed in alphabetical order in the main list, with a note that the entry appeared in the book in the supplementary list


Go to index of biographical entries.

Go to beginning of biographical entries.


Preface

It is unnecessary to enter into any lengthened exposition of the objects and utility of a work such as the present, either from an English or an Australasian point of view. The public appetite for such publications is evidenced by the issue of innumerable "Biographical Dictionaries" and the success of such a work as the "National Dictionary of Biography," and there seems no valid reason why what Sir Thomas McIlwraith calls "the future Australasian empire" should not have the careers of its publicists in various walks of distinction recorded in permanent and concise form. Owing to the increase of federal feeling in the various colonies, the present moment seems an opportune one for the presentation of a work which "federalises," so to speak, the mass of what previous writers have produced in a similar direction in regard to the separate colonies. I have often had occasion to remark on the limited knowledge which the public men of one colony possess of the public men of another, and in a period which has produced the "Commonwealth of Australasia Bill" I may perhaps be excused for endeavouring to contribute my mite towards the extension of that intercommunity of knowledge which is to a large extent the necessary condition precedent to intercommunity of sympathy and action.

Not only has the federal feeling in Australasia witnessed a wonderful growth of recent years, but the interest in and desire for knowledge about the Australasian colonies has been quickened to at least an equal extent at the centre of the empire. It is hoped therefore that the "Dictionary of Australasian Biography" may at the present juncture equally meet the acceptance of large classes both in England and at the Antipodes. It has been one of the most difficult parts of an arduous task to combine that particularity which local biography for local circulation demands with that more comprehensive, if at the same time more condensed, treatment which is likely to suit the taste of readers twelve thousand miles away from the stage on which the actors whose achievements are set forth have played their parts. In the attempt to furnish a book which will be equally satisfactory to English and colonial readers, I cannot hope to have entirely succeeded; but I have at least kept this object in view, and am sanguine enough to believe that I have fulfilled my aim in so far as the contrarieties of the case will permit.

As to the scope of the work, it records the careers of the majority of the eminent Australasian colonists who survived to see the inauguration of responsible government in 1855, and who have died in the interval of thirty-seven years which has elapsed since that epoch-making era. It also includes the biographies of living persons, and thus contains the class of information which is to be found in the usual run of biographical dictionaries regarding deceased worthies, in addition to the more recent data respecting living persons which are afforded by such publications as the English "Men of the Time." The extent of the information presented will be best gathered when I state that the "Dictionary" comprises nearly two thousand biographies, including those of the governors of the several colonies, the prelates of the Anglican and Roman Catholic communions, the heads of the principal religious denominations and of the several universities, as well as notices of all politicians, with a few unavoidable exceptions, who have held Ministerial office in the Australian colonies, New Zealand, and Tasmania since the year 1855. The principal members of the Civil Service and the explorers, authors, scientists, musicians, and actors who have won distinction in the colonial arena have been dealt with as adequately as circumstances permitted; and the work also includes lives of a number of the pastoral, mercantile, and industrial pioneers of the various colonies, as well as of those who have distinguished themselves in the domain of sport and athleticism.

There are one or two special points to which I should like to draw attention. In the first place, the titles of honour and office given to the several subjects of biography are those which they are entitled to bear in their respective colonies, though, by a strange anomaly in the constitutional formularies of a country which will mainly go down to history in connection with the glories of its colonial empire, the most commonly borne title in the last-mentioned portion of her Majesty's dominions—that of "Honourable" — is not conceded recognition outside of the colony in which the public services of which it is the reward have been rendered. If therefore the present work should do anything to "imperialise"—if I may use the word—a title to which there is really no valid democratic objection, and to promote its recognition and that of the good service which it typifies in every part of the empire, I shall take pride in having contributed even in this humble way to the disappearance of the last vestige of that hateful doctrine of colonial inferiority which comes to us from the dark, but unfortunately not yet very distant, ages of Colonial Office ineptitude and insular presumption.

With regard to the incidence of this title of "Honourable," some confusion may arise in the minds of English, and even Australasian readers. Broadly speaking, the Australasian public man is entitled to bear the title of "Honourable" within his own colony during his actual tenure of office as a member of the Upper House or as a member of the Ministry of the day in such colony. In all the Australasian colonies members of the Ministry are members for the time being of the Executive Council, which corresponds somewhat to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, and it is to their membership of this body that they owe the title of "Honourable," which they cannot assume until they have been sworn into its privileged precincts. In all these colonies, except Victoria and Tasmania, the members of a retiring Ministry cease to be members of the Executive Council, and would thus lose the title of "Honourable" were it not that, under the Duke of Newcastle's despatch dealing with the case, any member of the Executive Council who has served as a member of the Government either consecutively or cumulatively for three years may by royal warrant be permitted to retain the title of "Honourable" within his particular colony for the term of his life. In Victoria and, it would also seem, in Tasmania, when once a public man has been sworn a member of the Executive Council, he remains one for life, and thus retains the degree of "Honourable" for life also. The Speaker of the Lower House in each colony assumes the title whilst he occupies the chair, and it is a moot point whether the judges of the Supreme Court are not entitled to the distinction, though the preponderance of local custom gives them (including even the Chief Justice) the designation of "His Honour" in common with the District and County Court judiciary.

There may be some confusion, too, in the English mind as to the designation of members of Parliament in the various Australasian colonies. Membership of the Upper House in each of the colonies is signified by the addition of the letters "M.L.C."; but with regard to the Lower House a good deal of contrariety prevails. In New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, and Western Australia the Lower House is called the Legislative Assembly, and except in the case of South Australia the members are styled "M.L.A." In the case of the latter colony, however, the more pretentious affix of "M.P." is employed. In this regard there is a general tendency in all the colonies to give the title of "M.P." to members of the Lower House, especially where it is desired to be particularly complimentary; but in South Australia alone does the designation "M.P." appear to have crystallised into normal official and social use. In Tasmania the Lower House is called the House of Assembly, and members are styled "M.H.A." In New Zealand what is known as the Legislative Assembly in most of the other colonies is styled the House of Representatives, and the letters "M.H.R." are appended to the names of members.

It now remains for me to return my grateful thanks to the various gentlemen but for whose aid, even after eighteen months of almost continuous labour, it would have been impossible for me to give my work to the public at so early a date. Here it may be premised that all occurrences in the present volume have as far as possible been brought down to July 1892. Mr. J. Henniker Heaton, M.P., so well known in connection with the universally interesting question of postal reform, must have the credit of having been the first to explore in any comprehensive manner the mine of Australasian biography, in his "Australian Dictionary of Dates and Men of the Time," published in 1879. "Much," however, "has happened" during the thirteen years which have elapsed since this book saw the light, and as regards the biographical portion it is now completely out of date, except in the case of those "worthies" whose careers had been closed by death prior to 1879. Even as regards these, however, their lives are given in the present volume in almost every instance in an expanded and revised form, the result of much laborious personal research. In addition to the valuable aid derived from his "Men of the Time," I am indebted to Mr. Heaton for a considerable amount of information deduced from his valuable stores of Australasian data in print and manuscript.

I have to return my sincere thanks for much assistance afforded me by the present Agents-General, as well as by their immediate predecessors, and by the able and courteous Secretaries to their several offices. In this connection I may especially mention the late Sir Arthur Blyth, the predecessor of Sir John Bray in the London representation of South Australia. That gentleman kindly revised my list of "worthies" of that colony, and covered it with copious annotations drawn from his long experience of South Australia and his special aptitude for biographical investigation and local chronology. As regards Tasmania, Sir E. N. C. Braddon performed for me much the same services, and in the case of South Australia and Queensland I am specially indebted to Mr. S. Deering, the Assistant Agent-General of the former colony, and to Mr. C. S. Dicken, C.M.G., Secretary to the Agent-General for the latter, both of whom bring to bear on all matters connected with their several colonies a very accurate personal knowledge of their history and circumstances. I am also under considerable obligations to Mr. S. Yardley, of the New South Wales, Mr. W. Kennaway, C.M.G., of the New Zealand, and to Mr. S. B. H. Rodgerson, of the Victoria office.

The most substantial contribution in the way of literary assistance I have received from Mr. James Backhouse Walker, of Hobart, whose equally accurate memory and memoranda have enabled him, as his kindness prompted him, to supply me with a number of admirably compiled biographies, which add an element of real historical value to the department of the work which he generously undertook, and which, in addition to much original matter, comprised the laborious revision of the biographies of eminent Tasmanians which I already had in print, when I had the good fortune to be introduced to him by a member of the eminent firm of Tasmanian publishers, Messrs. Walch and Co., of Hobart.

Next in order I must acknowledge my obligations to my friends Mr. A. Patchett Martin and Mr. H. B. Marriott Watson, both of whom have not only contributed a number of complete lives, but have greatly aided me in the selection of names and the revision of proofs. In this connection, as very valuable and substantial helpers, I must also mention Mr. G. W. Rusden, the distinguished historian of Australia and New Zealand, who has supplemented the stores of information which I have derived from his works with much valuable data personally conveyed; my old friend Mr. A. M. Topp, of the Melbourne Argus; Mr. Alexander Sutherland, the well-known Australian littérateur; and Mr. J. F. Hogan, whose "Irish in Australia" is a mine of biographical detail, and to whose personal assistance I am also greatly beholden. My South Australian biographies would have been sadly incomplete but for the aid I derived from my friend Mr. J. L. Bonython, of the Adelaide Advertiser, and from Mr. F. Johns, of the South Australian Register, who, through the medium of the proprietor of that paper, Mr. R. Kyffin Thomas, kindly cleared up for me a number of troublesome queries and essential dates. The New Zealand portion of my work owes a heavy debt to Mr. Leys, of the Auckland Star, who kindly forwarded a number of biographies and carefully checked others. Mr. George Fenwick, of the Otago Daily Times, has also helped me materially; and I have to thank Sir Walter Buller for a valuable element in the insertion of a number of Maori biographies. Through Mr. Fenwick I was fortunate enough to enlist the aid of Dr. Hocken, of Dunedin, an expert and enthusiast in all that concerns New Zealand history and antiquities, and who kindly placed his fine library at my disposal. To my wife I owe thanks for invaluable aid in the work of transcription, and to Mr. David and Mr. Joseph Cowen Syme, of Melbourne, for much kindly assistance in promoting the success of the work.

Taking the colonies separately, I have to acknowledge valuable help as regards New South Wales from Mr. F. W. Ward, the late editor of the Sydney Daily Telegraph, from Mrs. Ward, and from Mr. C. A. W. Lett and Mr. Gilbert Parker; Victoria: Hon. J. F. Vesey Fitzgerald, Hon. Alfred Deakin, Mr. George Syme, Mr. T. S. Townend, and Mr. Charles Short, of the Melbourne Argus, Mr. Julian Thomas, and Mr. H. Britton; Queensland: Mr. Buzacott, Mr. Brentnall, and Mr. Gresley Lukin; Western Australia: Sir John and Lady Forrest, Sir James G. Lee Steere, Hon. G. W. Leake, M.L.C., Hon. J. W. Hackett, M.L.C.,and Mr. F. Hart; New Zealand: Mr. H. Brett, Mr. W. L. Rees, M.H.R., Rev. H. C. M. Watson, Christchurch; Mr. T. E. Richardson, Wellington; Mr. Hart, The Press, Christchurch; and Mr. Ahearne, Lyttelton Times, Christchurch.

In regard to matter drawn from books, my first acknowledgments are due to Mr. David Blair's "Encyclopædia of Australasia," of which a second edition is much called for. I must also mention, as having supplied me with much excellent material, Mr. George Rusden's "History of Australia" and "History of New Zealand," "Victorian Men of the Time," "Victoria and its Metropolis," McCombie's "History of the Colony of Victoria," Mr. James Bonwick's "Port Phillip Settlement," Mr. George E. Loyau's "Representative Men of South Australia," Stow's "South Australia," "The Statistical Register of South Australia," Mr. H. Brett's "Heroes of New Zealand" and "The Early History of New Zealand," Mr. Gisborne's "New Zealand Balers and Statesmen," Mr. Alfred Cox's "Men of Mark of New Zealand" and "Recollections"; the admirable annual "Blue-books" of the several colonies, which are in every case a credit to those responsible for their production; Messrs. Gordon and Gotch's "Australian Handbook" and Mr. Greville's "Year-book of Australia." Amongst works of a more general character, I must confess my great indebtedness to "The National Dictionary of Biography," Mr. F. Boase's "Modern English Biography," to "The Colonial Office List," Burke's "Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage" and "Colonial Gentry," Debrett's "Baronetage, Knightage, and Companionage" and "House of Commons and the Judicial Bench, Mr. Joseph Foster's "Men-at-the-Bar," Messrs. Routledge's "Men and Women of the Time" and "Men of the Reign," Crockford's "Clerical Directory" and "The Annual Register."

PHILIP MENNELL.
St Stephen's Club, S.W.,
August 1st, 1892.



Index of Biographical Entries


Abbott, Hon. Sir Joseph Palmer
Abbott, Robert Palmer
a'Beckett, His Honour Thomas
a'Beckett, Hon. Thomas Turner
a'Beckett, Sir William
a'Beckett, Hon. William Arthur Callendar
Abigail, Francis
Abraham, Right Reverend Charles John
Adams, Francis William Leith
Adams, Philip Francis
Adams, Robert Dudley
Adams, Hon. Robert Patten
Adamson, Travers
Addis, William E.
Agg, Alfred John
Agnew, Hon. James Wilson
Ahearne, Surgeon-Major Joseph
Airy, Major Henry Park
Akhurst, William
Alexander, Samuel
Allen, Hon. George
Allen, Hon. Sir George Wigram
Allen, Harry Brookes
Allen, James
Allen, Captain William
Allen, Rev. William
Allport, Morton
Allwood, Rev. Canon Robert
Anderson, George
Anderson, John Gerard
Anderson, Lieut.-Colonel Joseph
Anderson, Hon. Robert Stirling Hore
Anderson, Hon. William
Anderson, Colonel William Acland Douglas
Andrew, Professor Henry Martyn
Andrew, Rev. John Chapman
Andrews, Henry James
Andrews, Hon. Richard Bullock
Andrews, Walter Boyd Tate
Angas, George Fife
Angas, George French
Angas, Hon. John Howard
Angelo, Lieut.-Col. Edward Fox
Annett, Thomas Henderson
Anstey, Hon. Henry Frampton
Aplin, Hon. William
Archer, Alexander
Archer, Archibald
Archer, Rev. Canon George Frederick
Archer, Thomas
Armytage, George
Arney, Sir George Alfred
Arnold, Thomas
Arnold, Hon. William Munnings
Aspinall, Hon. Butler Cole
Atkins, Robert Travers
Atkinson, Major Hon. Sir Harry Albert
Austin, Thomas
Ayers, Hon. Sir Henry

B

Backhouse, James
Badgery, Henry Septimus
Badham, Rev. Charles
Bagot, Captain Charles Hervey
Bagot, John Tuthill
Bailey, Frederick Manson
Baillie, Sir George
Baker, Hon. Ezekiel Alexander
Baker, Hon. John
Baker, Hon. Richard Chaffey
Baker, Rev. Shirley W.
Balfe, John Donellan
Balfour, Hon. James
Ballance, Hon. John
Bancroft, Joseph
Barker, Right Rev. Frederic
Barker, John
Barkly, Sir Henry
Barlee, Sir Frederick Palgrave
Barling, Joseph
Barlow, Right Rev. Christopher George
Barrow, John Henry
Barry, Right Rev. Alfred
Barry, Hon. Sir Redmond
Barton, Hon. Edmund
Barton, George Burnett
Basedow, Martin Peter Friedrich
Bates, Hon. William
Bath, James
Bathgate, Alexander
Bathgate, Hon. John
Bayles, Hon. William
Bayley, Hon. Lyttleton Holyoake
Beach, William
Bealey, Samuel
Beaney, Hon. James George
Begg, Ferdinand Faithfull
Belcher, Rev. Robert Henry
Bell, Hon. Sir Francis Dillon
Bell, Hon. James
Bell, Hon. Sir Joshua Peter
Belmore, Right Hon. Somerset Richard Lowry Corry, 4th Earl of
Belstead, Charles Torrens
Belstead, Francis
Benjamin, Hon. Sir Benjamin
Bennett, David
Bennett, George
Bennett, Samuel
Bennett, William Christopher
Bent, Hon. Thomas
Beor, Hon. Henry Rogers
Berkeley, Hon. Henry Spencer Hardtman
Bernays, Lewis Adolphus
Berncastle, Julius
Berry, David
Berry, Hon. Sir Graham
Berry, Hon. John
Best, Robert Wallace
Beveridge, Peter
Bews, Hon. David
Bickerton, Alexander William
Bindon, Hon. Samuel Henry
Bird, Hon. Bolton Stafford
Birnie, Richard
Black, Alexander
Black, Maurice Hume
Black, Hon. Neil
Blackall, Col. Samuel Wensley
Blackett, Cuthbert Robert
Blackett, John
Blackmore, Edwin Gordon
Blackmore, James Newnham
Blair, David
Blair, William Newsham
Blakeney, William Theophilus
Bland, Rivett Henry
Bland, William
Blyth, Hon. Sir Arthur
Blyth, Neville
Bolton, Hon. Henry
Bonney, Charles
Bonwick, James
Bonython, John Langdon
Boothby, His Honour Benjamin
Boothby, Josiah
Boothby, William Robinson
Bosisto, Joseph
Boucaut, Hon. James Penn
Bourke, General Sir Richard
Bourne, Joseph Orton
Bowen, Hon. Charles Christopher
Bowen, Right Hon. Sir George Ferguson
Bower, David
Boyce, Rev. William Binnington
Boyes, Edward Taylor
Bracken, Thomas
Braddon, Sir Edward Nicholas Coventry
Bramston, John
Bray, Hon. Sir John Cox
Brennan, Louis
Brentnall, Hon. Frederick Thomas
Brett, Henry
Bride, Thomas Francis
Brierly, Sir Oswald Walters
Bright, Charles Edward
Bright, Hon. Henry Edward
Brisbane, General Sir Thos. Makdougall
Britton, Alexander
Britton, Henry
Bromby, Charles Hamilton
Bromby, Right Rev. Charles Henry
Bromby, Rev. Henry Bodley
Bromby, Rev. John Edward
Brooke, Gustavus Vaughan
Brooke, Hon. John Henry
Broome, Sir Frederick Napier
Broome, Mary Anne, Lady
Broughton, Vernon Delves
Brown, Gilbert Wilson
Brown, Henry Yorke Lyell
Brown, Professor John McMillan
Brown, Hon. Nicholas John
Brown, Sir William
Browne, Thomas Alexander
Browne, Sir Thomas Gore
Brownless, Anthony Colling
Brownrigg, Major Henry Studholme
Bruce, Lieut.-Col. John
Brunker, Hon. James Nixon
Brunton, William
Bryce, Hon. John
Buchanan, Hon. David
Buckley, William
Buckland, Rev. John Richard
Buckley, Hon. Sir Patrick Alphonsus
Budge, Alexander Campbell
Bull, John Wrattall
Buller, Sir Walter Lawry
Bundey, Hon. William Henry
Bunny, Brice Frederick
Burgess, William Henry
Burgoyne, Thomas
Burke, Robert O'Hara
Burnett, Commodore William Farquharson
Burns, Hon. John Fitzgerald
Burns, Rev. Thomas
Burrowes, Hon. Robert
Burt, Sir Archibald Paull
Burt, Octavius
Burt, Hon. Septimus
Burton, Sir William Westbrooke
Butler, Hon. Edward
Butler, Hon. Henry
Butler, Very Rev. Joseph
Buvelot, Abraham Louis
Buzacott, Charles Hardie
Byrne, Right Rev. Joseph Patrick
Byrne, Hon. Robert
Byrnes, Hon. James
Byrnes, Hon. Thomas Joseph

C

Cadell, Francis
Cadman, Hon. Alfred Jerome
Caffyn, Stephen Mannington
Cairns, Rev. Adam
Cairns, Sir William Wellington
Calder, James Erskine
Calvert, Caroline Louisa Waring
Calvert, Rev. James
Calvert, John Jackson
Cameron, General Sir Duncan Alexander
Camidge, Right Rev. Charles Edward
Campbell, John Logan
Campbell, Hon. Robert
Campbell, Hon. Sir Thomas Cockburn
Campbell, Rev. Thomas Hewitt
Cani, Right Rev. John
Canterbury, Right Hon. John Henry Thomas Manners Sutton, 3rd Viscount
Cape, William Timothy
Carey, Major-General George Jackson
Cargill, Captain William
Carleton, Hugh Francis
Carr, Hon. John
Carr, His Grace the Most Rev. Thomas J.
Carrington, Right Hon. Charles Robert, Baron
Carrington, Francis Thomas Dean
Carrington, Frederic Alonzo
Carrow, Richard
Carruthers, Joseph Hector McNeil
Casey, Hon. James Joseph
Castella, Hubert de
Castella, Paul de
Catt, Hon. Alfred
Cavenagh-Mainwaring, Hon. Wentworth
Chaffey, George and William Benjamin
Challis, John Henry
Chalmers, Rev. James
Chalmers, Right Rev. William
Chambers, Charles Haddon
Champ, Colonel Hon. William Thomas Napier
Chandler, Alfred Thomas
Chanter, John Moore
Chapman, Hon. Henry Samuel
Chapman, Hon. Thomas Daniel
Cheeke, Hon. Alfred
Chester, Henry Majoribanks
Chetham-Strode, Alfred Rowland
Childers, Right Hon. Hugh Culling Eardley
Chisholm, Caroline
Christie, Major William Harvey
Chubb, Hon. Charles Edward
Chute, General Sir Trevor
Clark, Hon. Andrew Inglis
Clark, Rev. Charles
Clark, John Howard
Clarke, Lieut.-General Hon. Sir Andrew
Clarke, Hon. Fielding
Clarke, Rev. George
Clarke, James Langton
Clarke, Joseph
Clarke, Marcus
Clarke, William
Clarke, Rev. William Branwhite
Clarke, Hon. Sir William John
Clarke, Hon. William John Turner
Clayden, Arthur
Clifford, Sir Charles
Clifton, Leonard Worsley
Cockburn, Hon. John Alexander
Cockle, Sir James
Coghlan, T. A.
Cohen, Hon. Edward
Cohen, Hon. Henry Emanuel
Cole, Edward William
Cole, Hon. George Ward
Colenso, Rev. William
Coles, Hon. Jenkin
Colton, Hon. Sir John
Combes, Hon. Edward
Conigrave, John Fairfax
Conolly, His Honour Edward Tennyson
Cooke, Ebenezer
Cooper, Sir Charles
Cooper, Sir Daniel
Cooper, George Sisson
Cooper, Hon. Pope Alexander
Cope, His Honour Thomas Spencer
Copeland, Hon. Henry
Copley, Hon. William
Coppin, Hon. George Selth
Corbett, Right Rev. Dr. James Francis
Corney, Hon. Bolton Glanvill
Costley, Edward
Cottar, Thomas Young
Couchman, Lieut.-Col. Thomas
Counsel, Edward Albert
Courthope, Edward L.
Couvreur, Jessie Catherine ("Tasma")
Cowie, Right Rev. William Garden
Cowley, Hon. Alfred Sandlings
Cowlishaw, Hon. James
Cowper, Hon. Sir Charles
Cowper, Charles
Cowper, Ven. Archdeacon William
Cowper, Very Rev. and Ven. William Macquarie
Cox, Alfred
Cracknell, Edward Charles
Crane, Right Rev. Martin
Crawford, James Coutts
Croke, The Most Rev. Thomas William
Cross, Ada
Crossman, Major-General Sir William
Crowther, Hon. William Lodewyk
Cullen, Edward Boyd
Cuninghame, Archibald
Curnow, Francis
Curnow, William
Curr, Edward Micklethwaite
Curtis, Oswald
Cuthbert, Hon. Henry

D

Daintree, Richard
Daldy, Captain William Crush
Dalley, Right Hon. William Bede
Dalrymple, George Augustus Frederick Elphinstone
Daly, Sir Dominic
Daly, Dominick Daniel
Dampier, Alfred
Dangar, Hon. Henry Cary
Darley, Hon. Sir Frederick Matthew
Darling, Sir Charles Henry
Darling, Hon. John
Darling, Lieut.-General Sir Ralph
Darrel, George
Darvall, Hon. Sir John Bayley
Davenport, Sir Samuel
Davidson, Rev. John
Davidson, William Montgomery Davenport
Davies, Hon. David Mortimer
Davies, Hon. John
Davies, Hon. John Mark
Davies, Hon. Sir Matthew Henry
Davies, Rowland Lyttleton Archer
Davis, Hon. George
Davis, James Davidson
Davy, Edward
Dawes, Right Rev. Nathaniel
Dawson, James
Day, William Henry
Deakin, Hon. Alfred
De Boos, Charles
Deering, Samuel
Deffell, George Hibbert
Deighton, Edward
de Labilliere, Francis Peter
Deniehy, Daniel Henry
Denison, Major-General Sir William Thomas
Denniston, His Honour John Edward
De Quincey, Lieut.-Col. Paul Frederick
Derham, Hon. Frederick Thomas
Derrington, Edwin Henry
Deshon, Edward
Des Voeux, Major Charles Hamilton
Des Voeux, Sir George William
de Winton, Major George Jean
Dibbs, Sir George Richard
Dick, Hon. Thomas
Dicken, Charles Shortt
Dickinson, Sir John Nodes
Dickson, Hon. James Robert
Disney, Colonel Thomas Robert
Dobson, Hon. Alfred
Dobson, Edward
Dobson, Hon. Frank Stanley
Dobson, Hon. Henry
Dobson, Hon. Sir William Lambert
Docker, Hon. Joseph
Dodds, Hon. John Stokell
Dodery, Hon. William
Domett, Alfred
Don, Charles Jardine
Donaldson, Hon. John
Donaldson, Sir Stuart Alexander
Douglas, Hon. Adye
Douglas, Hon. John
Dow, Hon. John Lamont
Dowling, Henry
Dowling, His Honour James Sheen
Downer, Henry Edward
Downer, Hon. Sir John William
Downes, Major-General Major Francis
Doyle, Right Rev. Jeremiah Joseph
Drake, Sir William Henry
Draper, Rev. Daniel James
Drew, William Leworthy Goode
Driver, Richard
Drury, Albert Victor
Drury, Lieut.-Colonel Edward Robert
Dry, Hon. Sir Richard
Du Cane, Sir Charles
Duffield, Walter
Duffy, Hon. Sir Charles Gavan
Duffy, Hon. John Gavan
Duncan, William Augustine
Dunne, Right Rev. John
Dunne, the Most Rev. Robert
Dutton, Hon. Charles Boydell
Dutton, Francis Stacker

E

Eager, Hon. Geoffrey
Eaton, Henry Francis
Ebden, Hon. Charles Hotson
Edwards, Major-General Sir James Bevan
Edwards, Worley Basset
Egan, Hon. Daniel
Eggers, William
Elder, Alexander Lang
Elder, David
Elder, Sir Thomas
Elder, William
Eliott, Gilbert
Ellery, Robert Lewis John
Emberson, Hon. Horace G. C.
Embling, Thomas
English, Hon. Thomas
Erskine, Vice-Admiral James Elphinstone
Evans, Hon. George Samuel
Evans, Gowen Edward
Everard, William
Eyre, Edward John

F

Fairfax, Rear-Admiral Henry
Fairfax, Hon. John
Farjeon, Benjamin Leopold
Farnell, Hon. James Squire
Farr, Ven. Archdeacon George Henry
Farrell, Very Rev. James
Farrell, John
Faucett, Hon. Peter
Favenc, Ernest
Fawkner, Hon. John Pascoe
Featherston, Isaac Earl
Fehon, William Meeke
Fellows, Hon. Thomas Howard
Fenton, Francis Dart
Fenton, James
Fenton, Hon. Michael
Fenwick, George
Fergus, Hon. Thomas
Fergusson, Right Hon. Sir James
Fergusson, Major John Adam
Finch-Hatton, Hon. Harold
Fincham, James
Finlayson, John Harvey
Finn, Edmund
Finniss, Lieut.-Colonel Hon. Boyle Travers
Firth, Josiah Clifton
Fisher, George
Fisher, Sir James Hurtle
Fitzgerald, Captain Charles
Fitzgerald, Hon. George Parker
Fitzgerald, James Edward
Fitzgerald, Hon. John Foster Vesey
Fitzgerald, Hon. Nicholas
Fitzgerald, Thomas Henry
FitzGibbon, Edmond Gerald
Fitzherbert, Hon. Sir William
Fitzpatrick, Michael
Fitzroy, Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Charles Augustus
Fitzroy, Vice-Admiral Robert
Flanagan, Roderick
Fleming, Sir Valentine
Fletcher, James
Fletcher, Rev. William Roby
Flood, Hon. Edward
Folingsby, George Frederick
Forbes, Frederic Augustus
Forbes, Henry Ogg
Forbes, Sir William Stuart
Forrest, Alexander
Forrest, Hon. Edward Barrow
Forrest, Hon. Sir John
Forrest, Hon. William
Forsaith, Rev. Thomas Spencer
Forster, Anthony
Forster, Hon. William
Fosbery, Edmund Walcott
Foster, Hon. William John
Fowler, David
Fowler, George Swan
Fox, Sir William
Francis, George W.
Francis, Hon. James Goodall
Frankland, Frederick William
Franklin, Lady
Franklyn, Henry Mortimer
Fraser, Hon. Alexander
Fraser, Sir Malcolm
Fraser, Hon. Simon
Freeling, Major-General Sir Arthur Henry
French, Colonel George Arthur
Frome, General Edward Charles
Furner, Luke Lydiard
Fysh, Hon. Philip Oakley

G

Gahan, Charles Frederick
Galloway, Frederic William
Galloway, John James
Garner, Arthur
Garran, Hon. Andrew
Garrard, Jacob
Garrett, Thomas
Garrick, Hon. Sir James Francis
Garvan, Hon. James Patrick
Gaunson, David
Gawler, Colonel George
Gawler, Henry
Gellibrand, Hon. Walter Angus Bethune
Geoghegan, Right Rev. Patrick Bonaventure
Gibbes, Sir Edward Osborne
Giblin, Hon. William Robert
Gibney, Right Rev. Matthew
Gifford, Right Hon. Edric Frederick
Giles, Ernest
Giles, William
Gill, Rev. William Wyatt
Gillen, Hon. Peter Paul
Gilles, Lewis W.
Gilles, Osmond
Gillies, Hon. Duncan
Gillies, Hon. Thomas Bannatyne
Gillon, Edward Thomas
Gilmore, George
Gisborne, Hon. William
Glasgow, His Excellency the Right Hon. David (Boyle), Earl of
Glass, Hugh
Glyde, Hon. Lavington
Godley, John Robert
Goe, Right Rev. Field Flowers
Goldsbrough, Richard
Goldsworthy, Sir Roger Tuckfield
Goodchap, Hon. Charles Augustus
Goodenough, Commodore James Graham
Goold, Most Rev. James Alipius
Gordon, Adam Lindsay
Gordon, Hon. Sir Arthur Hamilton
Gordon, Hon. John Hannah
Gordon, Major James Miller
Gordon, William Montgomerie
Gore, Sir Ralph St. George Claude
Gore, Sir St. George Ralph
Gore, Hon. St. George Richard
Gorrie, Sir John
Gorst, Right Hon. Sir John Eldon
Gosman, Rev. Alexander
Gosse, William Christie
Gould, Albert John
Gould, John
Goyder, George Woodroffe
Grace, Hon. Morgan Stanislaus
Graham, Hon. George
Grant, Hon. Charles Henry
Grant, Hon. James Macpherson
Graves, Hon. James Howlin
Graves, John Woodcock
Gray, His Honour Moses Wilson
Gray, Robert John
Greeves, Hon. Augustus Frederick Adolphus
Gregory, Hon. Augustus Charles
Gregory, Hon. Francis Thomas
Gregson, Hon. John Compton
Gregson, Hon. Thomas George
Gresson, Henry Barnes
Greville, Hon. Edward
Greville, John Roger
Grey, Sir George
Griffith, Charles James
Griffith, Hon. Sir Samuel Walker
Griffiths, George Samuel
Grimes, Right Rev. John Joseph
Groom, William Henry
Gudgeon, Lieutenant Thomas Wayth
Guenett, Thomas Harbottle
Guérard, Jean Eugene von
Guilfoyle, William Robert
Gullett, Henry
Gunn, Robert Campbell
Günst, Johannes Werner
Gurner, Henry Field
Gwynne, Edward Castres

H

Haast, Sir John Francis Julius von
Habens, Rev. William James
Hack, John Barton
Hackett, Hon. John Winthrop
Haddon, Frederick William
Hadfield, Right Rev. Octavius
Haines, Hon. William Clarke
Hale, Right Rev. Matthew Blagden
Hall, Edward Swarbreck
Hall, Hon. Sir John
Halloran, Henry
Ham, Hon. Cornelius Job
Hamilton, Edward Angus
Hamilton, Edward William Terrick
Hamilton, George
Hamilton, Sir Robert George Crookshank
Hamilton, Rev. R.
Hamley, Major-General Francis Gilbert
Hampton, John Stephen
Handyside, Hon. Andrew Dodds
Hannaford, Samuel
Hannam, Willoughby
Hannay, W. M.
Hanson, Hon. Sir Richard Davies
Harcus, William
Harding, Hon. George Rogers
Hardman, Edward Townley
Hare, Charles Simeon
Hargrave, His Honour the Hon. John Fletcher
Hargraves, Edward Hammond
Harker, Hon. George
Harper, Andrew
Harper, Right Rev. Henry John Chitty
Harpur, Charles
Harris, Rev. Richard Deodatus Poulett
Hart, Hon. Frederic Hamilton
Hart, Hon. John
Hartley, John Anderson
Hartnoll, Hon. William
Harvest, Major-General Edward Douglas
Haselden, Charles John Allen
Hastings, Rev. Frederick
Haultain, Hon. Colonel Theodore Minet
Hawker, Hon. George Charles
Hay, Hon. Alexander
Hay, Ebenezer Stony
Hay, Hon. Sir John
Hayter, Henry Heylyn
Heales, Hon. Richard
Heaphy, Major Charles
Hearn, Hon. William Edward
Heath, Alfred
Heath, Commander George Poynter
Heaton, John Henniker
Hector, Sir James
Heke, Hoani
Helmich, A.
Hemmant, William
Henderson, Rev. Anketell Matthew
Henry, Hon. John
Hensman, His Honour Alfred Peach
Henty, Edward
Henty, Francis
Henty, Hon. James
Henty, Hon. William
Herbert, Hon. Sir Robert George Wyndham
Heron, Mrs. Henry
Hervey, Hon. Matthew
Heussler, Hon. Johann Christian
Heydon, Hon. Louis Francis
Heyne, E. B.
Hickson, Robert Rowan Purdon
Higgins, Right Rev. Joseph
Higinbotham, His Honour the Hon. George
Hill, Henry John
Hindmarsh, Rear-Admiral Sir John
Hingston, James
Hislop, John
Hislop, Hon. Thomas William
Hitchin, Edward William
Hixson, Capt. Francis
Hobbs, William
Hobhouse, Right Rev. Edmund
Hocken, Thomas Morland
Hocking, Henry Hicks
Hoddle, Robert
Hodges, His Honour Henry Edward Agincourt
Hodgkinson, Hon. William Oswald
Hodgson, Sir Arthur
Hogan, James Francis
Holder, Hon. Frederick William
Holdsworth, Philip Joseph
Holroyd, His Honour Arthur Todd
Holroyd, Hon. Edward Dundas
Holt, James Richard
Holt, Hon. Thomas
Homburg, Robert
Hopetoun, His Excellency the Right Hon. John Adrian Louis (Hope), Earl of
Horne, Richard Henry
Horne, Hon. Thomas
Hoskins, Hon. James
Hoskins, William
Hotham, Captain Sir Charles
Hovell, Captain William Hilton
Howard, Rev. Charles B.
Howe, Hon. James Henderson
Howitt, Alfred William
Howitt, Richard
Howitt, William
Hughes, Henry Kent
Hughes, Sir Walter Watson
Hull, Hugh Munro
Hume, Lieut.-Col. Arthur
Hume, (Alexander) Hamilton
Hume, Fergus
Hume, Walter Cunningham
Humffray, Hon. John Basson
Hunt, Robert
Hutchinson, Right Rev. Monsignor John
Hutton, Captain Frederick Wollaston
Hyde-Harris, John

I

Inglis, James
Innes, Hon. Frederick Maitland
Innes, Hon. Sir Joseph George Long
Ireland, Hon. Richard Davies
Irving, Martin Howy
Ives, Joshua

J

Jack, Robert Logan
Jackson, John Alexander
Jackson, Hon. John Alexander
Jacob, Hon. Archibald Hamilton
Jacobs, Very Rev. Henry
James, John Charles Horsey
Jardine, Alexander William
Jarvis, Arthur Harwood
Jefferis, Rev. James
Jenkins, John Greeley
Jenks, Professor Edward
Jenner, Hon. Caleb Joshua
Jennings, Hon. Sir Patrick Alfred
Jenyns, Essie
Jersey, His Excellency the Right Hon. Victor Albert George Child Villiers
Jervois, Lieut.-General Sir William Francis Drummond
Jessop, John Shillito
Johnson, Edwin
Johnson, Joseph Colin Francis
Johnston, Andrew
Johnston, Alexander James
Johnston, Hon. James Stewart
Johnston, Hon. John
Johnston, Robert Mackenzie
Johnston, Hon. Walter Woods
Jollie, Francis
Jones, Charles Edwin
Jones, John
Jones, Richard
Jordan, Henry
Josephson, His Honour Joshua Frey
Julius, Right Rev. Churchill

K

Katene, Wiremu
Kavel, Rev. August
Kawepo, Renata
Keene, William
Keepa, Major
Keilly, Henry
Kemble, Myra
Kendall, Henry Clarence
Kennaway, Walter
Kennedy, Sir Arthur Edward
Kennerley, Hon. Alfred
Kennion, Right Rev. George Wyndham
Kerferd, Hon. George Biscoe
Kermode, Hon. Robert Quayle
Kernot, William Charles
King, Hon. George
King, Henry Edward
King, John
King, Hon. John Charles
King, Hon. Philip Gidley
King, Rear-Admiral Phillip Parker
King, Thomas
King, Thomas Mulhall
Kingsley, Henry
Kingston, Hon. Charles Cameron
Kingston, Hon. Sir George Strickland
Kintore, Right Hon. Algernon Hawkins Thomond Keith-Falconer
Knight, Godfrey
Knight, John George
Knight, Maggie
Knight, Thomas John
Knox, William
Krichauff, Hon. Friedrich Edouard Heinrich Wulf
Kyte, Ambrose
L

Lackey, Hon. John
Lalor, Hon. Peter
Lamb, Edward William
Landsborough, William
Lang, Rev. John Dunmore
Langridge, Hon. George David
Langton, Hon. Edward
Langtree, Charles William
Lanigan, Right Rev. William
Larnach, Donald
Larnach, Hon. William James Mudie
Latrobe, Charles Joseph
Laurie, Henry
Lavater, George Theodore Adams
Layard, Edgar Leopold
Leake, George
Leake, Hon. George Walpole
Leake, Hon. Sir Luke Samuel
Learmonth, Somerville Livingstone
Learmonth, Thomas Livingstone
Leary, Joseph
Le Cren, Charles
Lee Steere, Hon. Sir James George
Leeper, Alexander
Le Fleming, Sir Andrew Fleming Hudleston
Lefroy, Anthony O'Grady
Lefroy, Lieut.-General Sir John Henry
Legge, Colonel William Vincent
Lette, Hon. Henry Elms
Levey, George Collins
Levien, Hon. Jonas Felix
Lewis, Hon. Neil Elliott
Leys, Thomson Wilson
Ligar, Charles Whybrow
Lilley, Hon. Sir Charles
Lindauer, Gottfried
Linton, Right Rev. Sydney
Lipson, Captain Thomas
Lisgar (1st Lord)
Lissner, Isodor
Liversidge, Professor Archibald
Lloyd, Hon. George Alfred
Loch, His Excellency Sir Henry Brougham
Loftus, Augustus Pelham Brooke
Loftus, The Right Hon. Lord Augustus William Frederick Spencer
Long, Hon. William Alexander
Longmore, Hon. Francis
Lonsdale, Captain William
Lord, Hon. George William
Lorimer, Hon. Sir James
Loton, William Thorley
Lovett, Major Henry Wilton
Lovett, William
Lowe, Right Hon. Robert
Lowrie, William
Loyau, George E.
Lucas, Arthur Henry Shakespeare
Lucas, Hon. John
Lucas, Richard James
Lukin, Gresley
Lutwyche, His Honour Alfred James Peter
Lyne, Hon. William John
Lyster, William Saurin
Lyttelton, Right Hon. George William, Lord

M

Macalister, Hon. Arthur
Macandrew, James
McArthur, Alexander
Macarthur, David Charteris
Macarthur, Lieut.-General Sir Edward
Macarthur, Hannibal Hawkins
Macarthur, James
Macarthur, Hon. Sir William
McArthur, William Alexander
McCombie, Hon. Thomas
Macartney, Very Rev. Hussey Burgh
Macartney, Sir John, Bart.
MacBain, Hon. Sir James
McCoy, Prof. Sir Frederick
McCrae, George Gordon
McCulloch, Hon. Sir James
McCulloch, Hon. William
MacDermott, Marshall
MacDermott, Hon. Townsend
Macdonald, James William
Macdonald-Paterson, Hon. Thomas
McDonnell, Lieut-Colonel John
McDonnell, Hon. Morgan Augustus
MacDonnell, Sir Richard Graves
McDonnell, Lieut-Col. Thomas
McDougall, Hon. John Frederick
McEncroe, Ven. Archdeacon John
McFarland, His Honour Alfred
MacFarland, John Henry
McGowan, Samuel Walker
MacGregor, Duncan
Macgregor, Hon. John
MacGregor, Sir William
McIlwraith, Hon. Sir Thomas
Mackay, Hon. Angus
McKean, Hon. James
MacKellar, Hon. Charles Kinnaird
Mackelvie, James Tannock
Mackenzie, Lieut-Col. Henry Douglas
McKenzie, Hon. John
Mackenzie, Sir Robert Ramsay
McKerrow, James
McKinlay, John
Mackinnon, Lauchlan
MacLaurin, Hon. Henry Norman
McLean, Hon. Allan
McLean, Sir Donald
McLean, Hon. George
Maclean, Hon. John Donald
McLean, Peter
Macleay, Sir George
Macleay, Hon. Sir William John
Macleay, William Sharp
McLellan, Hon. William
MacMahon, Captain Hon. Sir Charles
MacMahon, Philip
McMillan, Angus
McMillan, William
Macnab, Henry Black
McNeill, Major-General Sir John Carstairs
Macpherson, Hon. John Alexander
Macrossan, Hon. John Murtagh
Madden, Hon. John
Madden, Richard Robert
Madden, Hon. Walter
Mair, Major William Gilbert
Mais, Henry Coathupe
Maniapoto, Rewi
Maning, Frederick Edward
Mann, Charles
Mann, Hon. Charles
Mann, John
Manning, Hon. Charles James
Manning, Frederic Norton
Manning, Hon. Sir William Montagu
Mansfield, Rev. Ralph
Mantell, Hon. Walter Baldock Durant
Marmion, Hon. William Edward
Marsden, Right Rev. Samuel Edward
Martin, Arthur Patchett
Martin, His Honour the Hon. Sir James
Martin, Sir William
Mason, Clayton Turner
Matheson, John
Mathieson, John
Matveieff, Alexey Froloff
Maunsell, Ven. Robert
Maxwell, J. P.
Meaden, John William
Meares, George
Mein, Hon. Charles Stuart
Melba, Madame (Helen Porter Armstrong)
Melville, Ninian
Menpes, Mortimer
Mercer, Rev. Peter
Meredith, Hon. Charles
Meredith, Louisa Anne
Merewether, Francis Lewis Shaw
Mewburn, William Richmond
Meyer, Oscar
Michael, James Lionel
Michie, Hon. Sir Archibald
Middleton, Lieut.-General Sir Frederick Dobson
Midwinter, William
Miles, Hon. William
Milford, Samuel Frederick
Miller, Granville George
Miller, Hon. Henry
Miller, Hon. Henry John
Miller, Hon. Maxwell
Miller, Hon. Robert Byron
Mills, James
Milne, Hon. Sir William
Mitchell, Sir Thomas Livingstone
Mitchell, Hon. Sir William Henry Fancourt
Mitchelson, Hon. Edwin
Mitford, Eustace Reveley
Moffatt, Hon. Thomas de Lacy
Molesworth, His Honour Hickman
Molesworth, Hon. Sir Robert
Moncrieff, Alexander Bain
Monro, Sir David
Montgomery, The Right Rev. Henry Hutchinson
Montgomery, William
Montrose, Charles
Moore, Hon. David
Moore, Right Rev. James
Moore, Maggie
Moore, Hon. William
Moorhouse, Right Rev. James
Moorhouse, William Sefton
Moran, Right Rev. Patrick
Moran, His Eminence Patrick Francis, Cardinal
Morehead, Hon. Boyd Dunlop
Moreton, Hon. Berkeley Basil
Morgan, Frederick Augustus
Morgan, Hon. Sir William
Morgan, William Pritchard
Morphett, Sir John
Morrah, Arthur
Morris, Edward Ellis
Morris, Henry Thomas
Mort, Thomas Sutcliffe
Moss, Frederick Joseph
Moulden, Beaumont Arnold
Mueller, Baron Sir Ferdinand von
Mundy, Alfred Miller
Munro, Hon. James
Murdoch, William Lloyd
Murphy, The Most Rev. Daniel
Murphy, Sir Francis
Murphy, Right Rev. Francis
Murphy, William Emmet
Murray, Hon. David
Murray, George Gilbert Aimé
Murray, Right Rev. James
Murray, Reginald Augustus Frederick
Murray, Hon. Sir Terence Aubrey
Murray-Prior, Hon. Thomas Lodge
Musgrave, Sir Anthony
Musgrove, Alexander William
Mylne, Thomas

N

Nairn, Hon. William Edward
Neales, Hon. John Bentham
Neild, James Edward
Neill, Andrew Sinclair
Nelson, Hon. Hugh Muir
Nevill, Right Rev. Samuel Tarratt
Newbery, James Cosmo
Newland, Simpson
Newton, Hon. Hibbert
Nichols, George Robert
Nicholson, Sir Charles
Nicholson, Hon. William
Nickle, Major-General Sir Robert
Nimmo, Hon. John
Nisbet, Hume
Nisbet, William David
Nixon, Right Rev. Francis Russell
Noel, Arthur Baptist
Noel, Wriothesley Baptist
Norman, General Sir Henry Wylie
Normanby, The Most Noble George Augustus Constantine Phipps
Norton, Hon. Albert
Norton, Hon. James
Nowell, Edwin Cradock

O

O'Connell, Hon. Sir Maurice Charles
O'Connor, C. Y.
O'Connor, Hon. Daniel
O'Connor, Right Rev. Michael
O'Connor, Hon. Richard Edward
O'Doherty, Kevin Izod
O'Donovan, Dennis
Officer, Charles Myles
Officer, Sir Robert
O'Grady, Hon. Michael
O'Halloran, Joseph Sylvester
O'Halloran, Major Thomas Shuldham
O'Halloran, Captain William Littlejohn
Okeden, William Edward Parry
Oliver, Charles N. J.
Oliver, Hon. Richard
O'Loghlen, Hon. Sir Bryan
O'Malley, Michael
Onslow, Alexander Campbell
Onslow, Captain Arthur Alexander Walton
Onslow, Right Hon. William Hillier, Earl of
Ord, Major-General Sir Harry St. George
O'Reilly, Hon. Christopher
Ormond, Hon. Francis
Ormond, Hon. John Davies
O'Rorke, Sir George Maurice
O'Shanassy, Hon. Sir John
Osman, John James
Outtrim, Hon. Alfred Richard
Owen, Major-General John Fletcher
Owen, Hon. Robert
Owen, His Honour William

P

Packer, Frederick Augustus
Packer, John Edward
Palmer, Colonel the Hon. Sir Arthur Hunter
Palmer, Hon. Sir James Frederick
Parata, Wiremu
Parker, Gilbert
Parker, Sir Henry Watson (N.S.W. Premier)
Parker, Stephen Henry
Parkes, Edmund Samuel
Parkes, Hon. Sir Henry
Parnell, Samuel Duncan
Parry, Right Rev. Edward (Bishop Suffragan of Dover)
Parry, Right Rev. Henry Hutton (Bishop of Perth)
Parsons, Hon. John Langdon
Pasley, Major-General Hon. Charles
Pater, Thomas Kennedy
Paterson, Alexander Stewart
Paterson, Hon. William (correct spelling is Pattison)
Paton, Rev. John Gibson
Patterson, Hon. James Brown
Patteson, Right Rev. John Coleridge
Paul, George William
Peacock, Hon. Alexander James
Pearson, Hon. Charles Henry (Minister of Public Instruction in the Gillies-Deakin Ministry)
Pearson, Right Rev. Josiah Brown (Bishop of Newcastle)
Pearson, Hon. William (M.L.A. North Gippsland and M.L.C. for Eastern Province; racehorse owner)
Pedder, Sir John Lewis
Pell, Professor Morris Birkbeck
Pennefather, Frederick William
Penn, Lieutenant-Colonel Fitzroy Somerset Lanyon
Perceval, Westby Brook
Perkins, Hon. Patrick
Perrin, George Samuel
Perry, Right Rev. Charles
Peterswald, William John
Petherick, Edward Augustus
Phillimore, Major William George
Phillips, Major George B.
Philp, Robert
Piddington, Hon. William Richman
Pilkington, Captain Henry Lionel
Pillinger, Hon. Alfred Thomas
Pirani, Frederick Joy
Pitt, Lieutenant-Colonel Douglas Charles Dean
Playford, Hon. Thomas
Plunkett, Hon. John Hubert
Pohlman, His Honour Robert Williams
Polding, Most Rev. John Bede
Pollen, Hon. Daniel
Pompallier, Right Rev. John Baptist Francis
Potatau
Powers, Hon. Charles
Praed, Mrs. Campbell
Pratt, Lieut.-General Sir Thomas Simson
Prendergast, Hon. Sir James
Price, Rev. Charles
Price, Edward William
Price, John
Pring, His Honour the Hon. Ratcliffe
Prout, John Skinner
Pugh, Theophilus Parsons
Pullen, Admiral William John
Pulsford, Edward
Purves, James Liddell
Pyke, Hon. Vincent

Q

Quick, John
Quinn, Right Rev. James
Quinn, Right Rev. Matthew

R

Radford, Henry Wyat
Rae, John
Raff, George
Ramsay, Hon. John James Garden
Ramsay, Hon. Robert
Randell, William Richard
Rawson, Charles Collinson
Real, His Honour Patrick
Redwood, Most Rev. Francis
Rees, William Lee
Reeves, Hon. William
Reeves, Hon. William Pember
Reibey, Hon. Thomas
Reid, Donald
Reid, George Houston
Reid, Hon. Robert Dyce
Rennie, Edward Alexander
Rentoul, Rev. J. Laurence
Renwick, Hon. Arthur
Revans, Samuel
Reville, Right Rev. Stephen
Reynolds, Most Rev. Christopher Augustine
Reynolds, Hon. Thomas
Reynolds, Hon. William Hunter
Richardson, Hon. Edward (N.Z. politician, Minister for Public Works)
Richardson, Hon. Sir John Larkins Cheese (N.Z. politician, Postmaster-General)
Richardson, Major-General John Soame (Commander of the Forces, N.S.W.)
Richardson, Hon. Richard (Vic. politician, Minister of Lands and Agriculture)
Richmond, Hon. Christopher William (N.Z. M.P., Minister of Native Affairs and Colonial Treasurer)
Richmond, Hon. James Crowe (N.Z. M.P. for Omata and 'Grey and Bell', M.L.C.)
Richmond, Major Hon. Matthew (N.Z. M.P. and Chairman of Committees)
Ridley, Rev. William
Rignold, George
Rintel, Rev. Moses
Robe, Major-General Frederick Holt
Roberts, Col. Charles Fyshe (N.S.W. Under-Secretary Defence)
Roberts, Charles James (N.S.W. politician and Postmaster-General)
Roberts, Hon. Daniel Foley (Chairman of the Legislative Council, Queensland)
Roberts, John ( Mayor of Dunedin, N.Z.)
Robertson, Hon. Sir John (N.S.W. Premier)
Robinson, Right Hon. Sir Hercules George Robert (Governor of New Zealand)
Robinson, His Excellency Sir William Cleaver Francis (Governor of Western Australia)
Robertson, William
Roe, Captain John Septimus
Rogers, John Warrington (Solicitor-General Tas.; judge in Vic.)
Rogers, John William Foster (Author and Inspector of Schools at Sydney, N.S.W.)
Rogers, G. H. (comedian)
Rolfe, Hon. George
Rolleston, Christopher
Rolleston, Hon. William
Romilly, Hugh Hastings
Rooke, Hon. Henry Isidore Joachim Raphael
Rose, W. Kinnaird
Rosewarne, David Davey
Ross, Hon. Sir Robert Dalrymple
Rounsevell, Hon. William Benjamin
Rous, Admiral Hon. Henry John
Rowan, Marian Ellis
Rusden, George William
Russell, Very Rev. Alexander
Russell, Lieut.-Col. Andrew Hamilton
Russell, Henry Chamberlain
Russell, James George
Russell, Thomas
Russell, Captain William Russell
Rutledge, Hon. Arthur
Ryan, Charles Snodgrass

S

St. Hill, Lieut.-Colonel Windle Hill
St. Julian, Charles James Herbert
Salomons, Hon. Sir Julian Emanuel
Salvado, Right Rev. Rosendo
Samuel, Hon. Sir Saul
Sanderson, Frederic James
Sandford, Rt. Rev. Daniel Fox
Santo, Philip
Sargood, Lieut.-Col. Hon. Sir Frederick Thomas
Saunders, Alfred
Sawyer, Right Rev. William Collinson
Schomburgk, Richard Von
Scott, Rear-Admiral Lord Charles Thomas Douglas Montagu
Scott, Hon. James Reid
Scratchley, Major-General Sir Peter Henry
Seafield, Earl of
Searle, Henry Ernest
Seddon, Hon. Richard John
See, Hon. John
Selby, Prideaux
Selfe, Henry Selfe
Selwyn, Alfred Richard Cecil
Selwyn, Right Rev. George Augustus
Selwyn, Right Rev. John Richardson
Senior, William
Service, Hon. James
Sewell, Hon. Henry
Seymour, David Thompson
Shaw, Bernard
Sheehan, Hon. John
Sheil, Right Rev. Lawrence Bonaventure
Shelton, Edward M.
Shenton, Hon. George
Sheppard, Hon. Edmund
Sheppard, Herbert Norman
Sheppard, William Fleetwood
Sherbrooke, Viscount
Sheridan, Lieut.-Col. Richard Bingham
Sherwin, Amy
Shiels, Hon. William
Shillinglaw, John Joseph
Sholl, Lionel Henry
Sholl, Captain Richard Adolphus
Short, Right Rev. Augustus
Shortland, Lieutenant Willoughby
Sillitoe, Right Rev. Acton Windeyer
Simpson, Hon. George Bowen
Sinclair, Andrew
Singleton, Francis Corbet
Sinnett, Frederick
Sitwell, Hon. Robt. Sacheverell Wilmot
Skene, Alexander John
Sladen, Hon. Sir Charles
Sladen, Douglas Brooke Wheelton
Slattery, Hon. Thomas Michael
Smart, Hon. Thomas Christie
Smith, Hon. (Arthur) Bruce
Smith, Sir Edwin Thomas
Smith, Hon. Sir Francis Villeneuve
Smith, Hon. George Paton
Smith, James (Tas)
Smith, James (Vic)
Smith, Hon. James Thornloe
Smith, Professor the Hon. John
Smith, Hon. John Thomas
Smith, Joseph Henry
Smith, Hon. Louis Lawrence
Smith, Captain M. S.
Smith, Hon. Robert Burdett
Smith, Robert Murray
Smith, Hon. Sydney
Smith, Lieut.-Colonel Hon. William Collard
Smith, William Jardine
Smith, Right Rev. William Saumarez
Smyth, Robert Brough
Smythe, Robert Sparrow
Solly, Benjamin Travers
Spain, William
Spalding, Colonel Warner Wright
Speight, Richard
Spence, Charlotte H.
Spence, John Brodie
Spencer, Professor Walter Baldwin
Spensley, Hon. Howard
Spofforth, Frederick Robert
Sprent, Charles Percy
Sprent, James
Spring, Gerald
Stafford, Hon. Sir Edward William
Stanbury, James
Standish, Captain Charles Frederick
Stanley, Major Henry Charles
Stanton, Right Rev. George Henry
Stawell, Hon. Sir William Foster
Steel, Rev. Robert
Stenhouse, Nicol Drysdale
Stephen, Hon. Sir Alfred
Stephen, Sir George
Stephen, George Milner
Stephen, Hon. James Wilberforce
Stephen, His Honour Matthew Henry
Stephens, James Brunton
Stephens, Samuel
Stephens, Thomas
Stephens, Thomas Blackett
Stephens, William John
Stevens, Hon. Edward Cephas John
Stevenson, George
Steward, Major Hon. William Jukes
Stewart, Miss Nellie
Stewart, Robert Muter
Stirling, Admiral Sir James
Stock, Hon. William Frederick
Stone, His Honour Edward Albert
Stops, Frederick
Stout, Hon. Sir Robert
Stow, Augustine
Stow, Jefferson Pickman
Stow, His Honour Randolph Isham
Stow, Rev. Thomas Quentin
Strachan, Hon. James Ford
Strahan, Major Sir George Cumine
Strangways, Hon. Henry Bull Templer
Strangways, Thomas Bewes
Strickland, Sir Edward
Strong, Rev. Charles
Strong, Herbert Augustus
Strzelecki, Sir Paul Edmund de
Stuart, Hon. Sir Alexander
Stuart, Rev. Donald McNaughton
Stuart, Right Hon. Edward Craig
Stuart, Hon. Frank
Stuart, James Martin
Stuart, John McDouall
Sturt, Capt. Charles
Sullivan, Barry
Summers, Charles (sculptor)
Summers, Joseph (Musical Examiner)
Supple, Gerald Henry
Suter, Right Rev. Andrew Burn
Sutherland, Alexander (author)
Sutherland, George
Sutherland, Hon. John (N.S.W. politician, Minister of Public Works)
Suttor, Hon. Francis Bathurst (N.S.W. politician, Postmaster-General)
Suttor, Hon. William Henry (N.S.W. politician, Vice-President of the Executive Council)
Swainson, Hon. William (N.Z. Attorney-General)
Swainson, William (botanist)
Swan, Nathaniel Walter
Sword, Thomas Stevenson
Syme, David
Syme, Ebenezer
Syme, George Alexander
Symon, Josiah Henry
Symonds, Edward C. (Vic. public servant, Comptroller)
Symonds, Edward Stace (Under-Treasurer of Victoria)

T

Tancred, Clement William
Tancred, Hon. Henry John (N.Z. M.L.C.)
Tawhiao
Taylor, Francis Pringle
Tebbutt, John
Teece, Richard
Thakombau
Te Kooti, Rikirangi
Te Whiti
Therry, Very Rev. John Joseph
Therry, Sir Roger
Thierry, Charles, Baron de
Thomas, Hon. James Henry
Thomas, Julian
Thomas, Margaret
Thomas, Right Rev. Mesac
Thomas, Robert
Thomas, Robert Kyffin
Thomas, William Kyffin
Thompson, Hon. John Malbon
Thomson, Hon. Sir Edward Deas
Thomson, James
Thomson, James William
Thorn, Hon. George
Thornton, Hon. George
Thornton, Right Rev. Samuel
Thurston, His Excellency Sir John Bates
Thynne, Hon. Andrew Joseph
Todd, Charles
Tolmer, Alexander
Topp, Arthur Manning
Topp, Charles Alfred
Topp, Samuel St. John
Torrance, Rev. George Williams
Torreggiani, Right Rev. Elzear
Torrens, Hon. Sir Robert Richard
Townley, Captain William
Towns, Hon. Robert
Townsend, William
Tozer, Hon. Horace
Travers, William Thomas Locke
Trench, Hon. Robert Le Poer
Trenwith, William Arthur
Trevor, Lieut.-General Wm. Cosmo
Trickett, Hon. William Joseph
Tryon, Vice-Admiral Sir George
Tucker, Hon. Albert Lee
Tucker, Thomas George
Tufnell, Right Rev. Edward Wyndham
Tulloch, Major-General Alexander Bruce
Tully, William Alcock
Turner, Hon. George
Turner, Lieut.-Colonel George Napier
Turner, Henry Gyles
Turner, Right Rev. James Francis
Twopenny, Richard Ernest Nowell
Tyas, John Walter
Tyrrell, Right Rev. William
Tyson, James

U

Ullathorne, The Most Rev. William Bernard
Umphelby, Captain Charles Edward
Umphelby, Capt. Charles Washington
Unmack, Hon. Theodore

V

Vaughan, Most Reverend Roger William Bede
Vaughn, Robert Matheson
Venables, Henry Pares
Venn, Hon. Harry Whittall
Verdon, Edward Theophilus de
Verdon, Hon. Sir George Frederick
Viard, Right Rev. Dr.
Vincent, J. E. Matthew
Vogan, Arthur James
Vogel, Hon. Sir Julius
Von Tempsky, Major Gustavus F.

W

Wahanui, Tamati Ngapora
Waharoa, Wiremu Tamihana Te
Wahawaha, Major Hon. Ropata
Waka, Nene Tamati
Wakefield, Edward
Wakefield, Edward Gibbon
Wakefield, Edward Jerningham
Wakefield, Felix
Walch, Garnet
Walcot, Captain John Cotterel Phillips
Walker, George Washington
Walker, James Backhouse
Walker, Hon. John
Walker, Richard Cornelius Critchett
Walker, Hon. William Froggatt
Wallace, William Vincent
Wallen, Robert Elias
Walsh, Hon. Robert
Walsh, Hon. William Henry
Walstab, George Arthur
Want, John Henry
Warburton, Major Peter Egerton
Ward, Crosbie
Ward, Hon. Ebenezer
Ward, Edward Grant
Ward, Major-General Sir Edward Wolstenholme
Ward, Frederick William
Ward, Mrs. Humphry
Ward, Hon. Joseph George
Ward, His Honour Robert
Warton, Charles Nicholas
Waterhouse, George Marsden
Waterhouse, George Wilson
Watson, Henry Brereton Marriott
Watson, Rev. Henry Crocker Marriott
Watson, Hon. James
Watt, John Brown
Watterston, David
Way, Arthur S.
Way, His Honour the Hon. Samuel James
Waylen, Alfred Robert
Wearing, Hon. William
Webb, His Honour George Henry Frederick
Webb, Thomas Prout
Webber, Right Rev. William Thomas Thornhill
Wedge, Hon. John Helder
Weekes, Hon. Elias Carpenter
Weld, Sir Frederick Aloysius
Wentworth, William Charles
Were, Jonathan Binns
West, Rev. John
West-Erskine, William Alexander Erskine
Westgarth, William
Weston, Hon. William Pritchard
Wheeler, Hon. James Henry
Whitaker, Hon. Sir Frederick
White, Hon. James
White, John
Whitehead, Charles
Whitington, Rev. Canon Frederick Taylor
Whitmore, Major-General the Hon. Sir George Stoddart
Whittell, Horatio Thomas
Whitton, John
Whitworth, Robert Percy
Whyte, Hon. James
Wigley, Henry Rudolph
Wilkinson, Charles Smith
Wilkinson, William Hattam
Williams, Sir Edward Eyre
Williams, His Honour Hartley
Williams, Ven. Henry
Williams, Major Horatio Lloyd
Williams, John
Williams, His Honour Joshua Strange Williams, Right Rev. William
Williamson, James Cassius
Williamson, John
Willis, John Walpole
Willoughby, Howard
Wills, William John
Willson, Right Rev. Robert William
Wilson, Rev. Ambrose John
Wilson, Hon. Andrew Heron
Wilson, Edward
Wilson, Hon. Sir James Milne
Wilson, Hon. John Bowie
Wilson, Sir John Cracroft
Wilson, Hon. John Nathaniel
Wilson, Sir Samuel
Wilson, Hon. Walter Horatio
Wilson, Hon. William
Wilson, William Chisholm
Windeyer, His Honour Sir William Charles
Windsor, Arthur Lloyd
Winter-Irving, Hon. William Irving
Wisdom, Hon. Sir Robert
Wise, Bernhard Ringrose
Wise, His Honour Edward
Withers, William Bramwell
Wood, Harrie
Wood, Hon. John Dennistoun
Wood, Hon. Reader Gilson
Woods, Hon. John
Woods, Rev. Julian E. Tenison
Woolley, Rev. John
Woolls, Rev. William
Wragge, Clement Lindley
Wrensfordsley, Sir Henry Thomas
Wright, Francis Augustus (N.S.W. M.L.A.)
Wright, George Speller (S.A. Secretary to the Commissioner of Crown Lands )
Wright, Hon. John Arthur (W.A. M.L.C.)
Wrixon, Hon. Sir Henry John
Wynyard, General Edward Buckley
Wynyard, Lieut.-General Robert Henry (acting Governor of New Zealand)
Wyselaskie, John Dickson

Y

Youl, Sir James Arndell
Young, Adolphus William
Young, Sir Henry Edward Fox
Young, James Henry
Younghusband, William
Yuille, William Cross

Z

Zeal, Hon. William Austin



The Dictionary of Australasian Biography


A

Abbott, Hon. Sir Joseph Palmer, M.L.A., Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, New South Wales, was born at Muswellbrook, N.S.W., on Sep. 29th, 1842. From his youth Mr. Abbott has been engaged in pastoral pursuits; but he is also a solicitor by profession. He was M.L.A. for the district of Gunnedah from 1880 to 1885, and has since represented Wentworth. Mr. Abbott was Secretary for Mines in the Stuart Government from Jan. 7th, 1883, to Oct. 7th, 1885; and held the post of Secretary for Lands in the Dibbs Ministry from Nov. 7th to Dec. 22nd, 1885. Subsequently Mr. Abbott sat with Mr. Dibbs in Opposition. He, however, found occasion to take an independent stand, and separated himself from the main body of protectionists, and was looked upon as leader of the Third Party in the Assembly—a section also known as the Independent and the "Law and Order" party. He was a member of the New South Wales Commission for the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition of 1888; and in Oct. 1890 he was elected Speaker of the Legislative Assembly on the retirement of Mr. Young. He was one of the delegates of New South Wales to the Federation Convention held in Sydney in 1891. During the shearers' strike in 1891 he offered his intervention. He was re-elected Speaker later in the year, and was gazetted to a knighthood on May 25th, 1892.

Abbott, Robert Palmer, J.P., was born in Ireland, and came to Sydney when a boy with his parents. He was admitted a solicitor in 1854. Mr. Abbott entered the Legislative Assembly in 1872 as member for Tenterfield, and was returned for Hartley in 1880. He was nominated to the Legislative Council in 1885, and sat till March 1st, 1888, when he resigned, owing to his objection to certain appointments. He was Secretary for Mines in the first Parkes Administration from July 27th, 1874, to Feb. 8th, 1875, and a member of the New South Wales Commission in London for the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886.

a'Beckett, His Honour Thomas, puisne judge, Victoria, is the eldest son of Mr. Thomas Turner a'Beckett (q.v.) and was born in 1836. He went to Victoria with his father, and returned to London in 1856, entering as a student of Lincoln's Inn on May 18th, 1857. He won a studentship in Nov. 1859, and was called to the bar on Nov. 17th of the same year. Judge a'Beckett returned to Victoria, and was admitted to the bar there on Aug. 16th, 1860, and practised before the Supreme Court in Melbourne. He married, in 1875, Isabella, daughter of Sir Archibald Michie, K.C.M.G., Q.C. (q.v.) and was appointed a puisne judge of the Supreme Court of Victoria on Sept. 30th, 1886. Mr. Justice a'Beckett was formerly a law lecturer in Melbourne University, but resigned in 1880. He is still a member of the Faculty of Law in the University, and was elected a member of the Council on Jan. 10th, 1887.

a'Beckett, Hon. Thomas Turner, J.P., comes of a well-known Wiltshire family, long settled at West Lavington, in that county. He is the son of the late William a'Beckett, a solicitor in London, and a brother of the late Sir William a'Beckett (q.v.), and of the late Gilbert Abbott a'Beckett, the well-known London police magistrate, comic author, and contributor to Punch. Another brother, Arthur Martin a'Beckett, F.R.C.S., was a prominent resident in Sydney, and died there on May 23rd, 1871. Mr. a'Beckett was born on Sept. 18th, 1808, and educated at Westminster School. After leaving he was articled to his father, and admitted a solicitor and attorney in 1829, when he joined his father in practice. Mr. a'Beckett wrote a number of able pamphlets advocating legal reforms, and was a member of the Council of the Law Amendment Society down to 1850, when he emigrated to Victoria, being admitted to practise as a solicitor in Melbourne in 1851, and was registrar of the diocese from 1854 to 1887. During the gold fever he published a pamphlet entitled "Gold and the Government," and was nominated to the Legislative Council on July 14th, 1852. On the inauguration of responsible government in 1855 he unsuccessfully attempted to enter the Lower House for Collingwood, but was elected to the Legislative Council for the central province, and sat from 1858 to 1878, when he retired from political life, in the course of which he opposed the ballot, the abolition of state aid to religion and the export duty on gold, and gave his adhesion to payment of members. Mr. a'Beckett was a member of the Heales Ministry without portfolio from Nov. 26th, 1860, to Nov. 11th, 1861, and was sworn of the Executive Council on Jan. 7th, 1861. In April 1868, on the resignation of Sir James McCulloch during the Darling Grant crisis, Mr. a'Beckett was applied to by Lord Canterbury to form a conciliation ministry; but this, after considerable negotiation, he found himself unable to do, and in the result the Sladen Ministry was formed. Mr. a'Beckett was Commissioner of Trade and Customs in the third McCulloch Administration, from April 9th, 1870, to June 19th, 1871. He was a member of the Royal Commission on the Civil Service in 1862, and Chairman of that of 1870. Mr. a'Beckett was also for many years a member of the Council of Melbourne University, and a trustee of the Public Library. He was Chairman of the Hobson's Bay Railway Company down to the time when the line became absorbed in the Government railway system. Before leaving London, Mr. a'Beckett published "Remarks on the Present State of the Law of Debtor and Creditor," 1844; "Railway Litigation, and How to Check It," 1846; "Law-reforming Difficulties: a Letter to Lord Brougham," 1849. After his arrival in Victoria he published "A Comparative View of Court Fees and Attorneys' Charges," 1854; "A Defence of State Aid to Religion," 1856; "State Aid Question—Strictures on Pamphlets of Dr. Cairns," 1856. Mr. a'Beckett from time to time delivered lectures at the Industrial and Technological Museum, Melbourne. Several of these, including "Painting and Painters," have been published. [Hon. Thomas Turner à Becket died in Melbourne on July 1st, 1892. Appended in Supplement, p. 529]

a'Beckett, Sir William, first Chief Justice of Victoria, was the eldest son of William a'Beckett, and the brother of T. T. a'Beckett (q.v.). He was born in London on July 28th, 1806, and educated at Westminster School, where, in conjunction with his brother Gilbert Abbott a'Beckett, he started two periodicals of very promising ability, entitled the Censor and Literary Beacon. He was called to the English bar in 1827, went to New South Wales in 1837, and was in 1841 appointed Solicitor-General, and subsequently Puisne Judge. He became judge of the Supreme Court for the district of Port Phillip on Feb. 3rd, 1846, and on Jan. 19th, 1851 was made first Chief Justice of the newly constituted colony of Victoria. In the same year the reckless abandonment of the population to the excitement of the gold fever called forth a cautionary pamphlet from Sir William. It was published under the pseudonym "Colonus," and was entitled, "Does the Discovery of Gold in Victoria, viewed in relation to its Moral and Social Effects as hitherto developed, deserve to be considered a National Blessing or a National Curse?" The judge evidently leant to the latter view. The experiences of a holiday trip to Europe are contained in a volume by Sir William, published in London in 1854 entitled "Out of Harness," containing notes on a tour through Switzerland and Italy. Sir William's health failed, but he postponed his retirement to suit the convenience of the Haines Ministry. In 1857, however, he left the bench and returned to reside in England in 1863, where he published in London "The Earl's Choice, and other Poems." Sir William died at Upper Norwood, in Surrey, on June 27th, 1869. In 1832 he married Emily, daughter of Edward Hayley, who died in 1841. In addition to the works already mentioned, Sir William published "The Siege of Dumbarton Castle and other Poems," 1824, a large number of biographies in "The Georgian Era" (4 vols., 1834-4): "A Universal Biography; including Scriptural, Classical, and Mythological Memoirs, together with Accounts of many Eminent Living Characters" (3 vols., London, 1835); and "The Magistrates' Manual for the Colony of Victoria" (Melbourne, 1852).

a'Beckett, Hon. William Arthur Callendar, J.P., eldest son of the late Sir William a'Beckett (q.v.), was in the Legislative Council of Victoria from 1868 to 1876, and held office without portfolio in the Administration of Sir Charles Gavan Duffy from June 1871 to June 10th, 1872. He was sworn in as a member of the Executive Council on July 31st, 1871. He represented the first Berry Government in the Legislative Council, being a member of the Ministry without office from Aug. 7th to Oct. 20th, 1875. He was admitted to the Victorian bar on Sept. 15th, 1875. Mr. a'Beckett, who was born at Kensington on July 7th, 1833, and educated at King's College, London, and at Downing College, Cambridge, where he was a Fellow Commoner, has also been called to the English (Inner Temple) and New South Wales bars. He married, in Sept. 1855, Emma, only child and heiress of John Mills, of Melbourne. He has been a magistrate of the colony of Victoria since 1862, but now resides at Penleigh House, Westbury, Wilts.

Abigail, Francis, J.P., son of the late William Abigail, was born in London in 1840. He emigrated to Sydney in 1860, and married there, in 1861. Mr. Abigail was M.L.A. for West Sydney from 1880 to June 1891, when he was defeated. He was Minister of Mines in Sir Henry Parkes' Administration from Jan. 20th, 1887, to Jan. 10th, 1889, and is a J.P. of the colonies of New South Wales and Victoria. He was a member of the New South Wales Commission for the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition of 1888, and for the Exhibition of Mining and Metallurgy, held at the Crystal Palace in 1890, in which year he visited England, and received a cordial welcome from the various Orange bodies in England and the north of Ireland. Whilst in London he gave valuable evidence before the Royal Commission on Mines.

Abraham, Right Reverend Charles John, M.A., D.D., the son of the late Captain Abraham, R.N., of Farnborough, Hants, was born in 1815, and educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge, of which he was successively Scholar and Fellow. He was admitted to the degree of B.A. in 1837, M.A. in 1840, B.D. in 1849, and received the degree of D.D. in 1859. He was ordained deacon in 1838, and priest in the following year. He was Assistant Master at Eton until 1850, when he went out to New Zealand to become Master of the English department of St. John's College, Auckland. In 1853 he was appointed Archdeacon of Waitemata by the Bishop (Selwyn) of New Zealand. The Bishop had for two or three years been offering to members of the Church of England a Church Constitution, whereby they were to govern themselves; and during the two years which followed, while absent in England, he left Archdeacon Abraham to propagate and expound the principles of the Church Constitution. In 1857 a convention of representative churchmen from all parts of the colony was held in Auckland, which resulted in the framing of the Constitution now in force. In the following year Archdeacon Abraham, who had also been acting as chaplain to the Bishop, was consecrated first Bishop of Wellington by the Archbishop (Sumner) of Canterbury and Bishops (Wilberforce) of Oxford and (Lonsdale) of Lichfield. When the Maori war broke out by reason of the purchase by the Government of the Waitara block, Bishop Abraham presented a protest to the Governor, claiming for the Maoris as British subjects the right to be heard in the Supreme Court. In 1870 he resigned his see, and, returning to England, was made coadjutor to Dr. Selwyn, then Bishop of Lichfield. This office he held until the death of Bishop Selwyn, in 1878. From 1872 to 1876 he was Prebendary of Bobenhall in Lichfield Cathedral, and in 1875-6 was rector of Tattenhill, Staffordshire. Since 1876 he has been Canon and Precentor of Lichfield Cathedral. He married in 1850 Caroline Harriet, daughter of Sir Charles Thomas Palmer, Bart., of Wanlip Hall, Leicestershire, and cousin of the wife of Bishop Selwyn. She died in 1877. Bishop Abraham is the author of "Festival and Lenten Lectures in St. George's Chapel, Windsor," 1848-9 (Parker), and other works.

Adams, Francis William Leith, is the son of the late Professor Andrew Leith Adams, F.R.S., F.G.S., and grandson of Francis Adams, M.D., LL.D., a distinguished Scotch physician and classical scholar. His mother is the well-known authoress, Mrs. Bertha Leith Adams (now Mrs. B. S. de Courcy Laffan), of Stratford-on-Avon. Mr. Adams resided in Queensland and various other parts of Australia, and published his "poetical works" in Brisbane. He has also written "Leicester, an Autobiography" (London, 1885); "Australian Essays" (Melbourne, 1886); "Songs of the Army of Night" (London, 1890). The next year he contributed a series of remarkable articles on Australia to the Fortnightly Review, and early in 1892 published in London a collection of Australian tales.

Adams, Philip Francis, ex-Surveyor General, New South Wales, was born in Suffolk in 1828. Ten years later his family removed to the north of Ireland, and he was educated at the Belfast Institution. In 1851 he emigrated to Canada, and subsequently had an unlucky experience at the Californian diggings. He came to Sydney in 1854, and was Government Land Surveyor for the Maitland district till 1857. He was afterwards connected with the Trigonometrical Survey of New South Wales. In 1864 he was appointed Deputy Surveyor General, and Surveyor General on March 17th, 1868. Mr. Adams retired on a pension, and was a member of the New South Wales Commission in Sydney for the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886.

Adams, Robert Dudley, was born on July 9th, 1829, on board the Rotterdam packet, in which his mother was travelling to England. He was for a time private secretary to the Hon. Sidney Herbert (afterwards Lord Herbert of Lea), the popular War Minister. He arrived in New South Wales on Sept. 21st, 1851, and engaged in commercial and pastoral pursuits, in the intervals of which, between 1860 and 1880, he wrote a series of articles on "Australian Finance and Resource" for the English press and magazines, also for the colonial press, numerous political sketches, reviews, and essays, also two poems, the "Psalm of Time" and "Song of the Stars" (the latter subject suggested to him by the late Prince Albert). He has been a member of all the New South Wales Exhibition Commissions (except one), including that for Chicago.

Adams, Hon. Robert Patten, puisne judge, Tasmania, third son of James White Adams, of Martook, Somerset, and Mary Anne Elizabeth his wife, was born on March 4th, 1831, and educated at Martock grammar school and at King's College School, London. He entered at the Middle Temple in April 1851, and was called to the bar on May 1st, 1854. Mr. Justice Adams emigrated to Tasmania, and was called to the bar there on Sept. 25th, 1856. He subsequently became Chairman of Quarter Sessions and a Commissioner of the Court of Requests for the northern division of Tasmania. Having embraced political life, he entered the House of Assembly, and was returned for Hobart in 1859, 1861, and from 1862-6. He became Solicitor-General in 1867, and held the appointment till 1887, when on March 14th he was appointed a puisne judge. He is Chancellor of the Diocese of Tasmania, and has been twice married; his first wife, who died in 1867, being Harriett Matilda, daughter of the late Captain George King, R.N. He married secondly Kate, daughter of the late George Francis Huston, J. P., of New Norfolk, Tasmania.

Adamson, Travers, was called to the Irish bar at King's Inn in April 1850, and admitted to practise at the Victorian bar on Nov. 24th, 1852. He represented the Murray district in the first Legislative Assembly of Victoria, which assembled in Nov. 1856. Mr. Adamson was Solicitor-General in the Nicholson Administration from Oct. 27th, 1859, to March 5th, 1860, and was for many years Crown prosecutor.

Addis, William E., B.A., son of the late Rev. Thomas Addis, of Edinburgh, minister of the Free Church, was born in 1844, and was Snell Exhibitioner to Balliol College, Oxford. He matriculated on Oct. 12th, 1861, and took a first class in Classical Moderations in 1863, and a first class in the final classical schools in 1865. He took his B.A. degree in 1866, and very shortly afterwards became a convert to the Roman Catholic Church, and a member of the congregation of St. Philip Neri at the Brompton Oratory. He left the Oratory, and became priest in charge of Lower Sydenham. In 1888 he resigned the priesthood, after issuing a circular to his parishioners announcing his abjuration of Roman Catholic doctrines, and was married, at St. John's, Notting Hill, to Miss Flood. At the end of the year he accepted the post of assistant to the Rev. Charles Strong, of the Australian Church, Melbourne. Mr. Addis is the author of "Anglicanism and the Fathers," "Anglican Misrepresentation," and of the "Catholic Dictionary," compiled in conjunction with Thomas Arnold (q.v.), which was published in 1884. Since his residence in Melbourne Mr. Addis has published some articles on Biblical criticism, displaying an acquaintance with the more advanced school of German theologians.

Agg, Alfred John, sometime Commissioner of Railways, Victoria, was born in 1830 at Evesham, Worcestershire. He was educated at the Worcester grammar school, and entered the service of the Great Western Railway Company as a clerk at Reading in 1845, where he remained until 1850, when he emigrated to Australia. He arrived in Victoria in 1851, and was employed in the Chief Secretary's office and the Immigration Department. He was afterwards appointed Government Storekeeper, which position he resigned in 1856, and became president of the new department created to supersede the old system of commissariat control. His abilities in this office were rewarded by his appointment as Under Treasurer, and on Oct. 13th, 1857, he was made Commissioner of Audit. In 1883 he was granted a year's leave, which he spent in making a tour of the world, and in his absence he was nominated to act under Mr. Speight as a commissioner under the Railways Management Act. Mr. Agg was admitted to the Victorian bar on Dec. 6th, 1860, and died on Oct 16th, 1886.

Agnew, Hon. James Wilson, M.D., J.P., ex-Premier of Tasmania, was admitted a member of the Royal College of Surgeons (England) in 1838, and M.D. of Glasgow University in 1839. Soon afterwards he emigrated to Tasmania, and for many years practised his profession in Hobart Dr. Agnew was made a J.P. for Tasmania on Feb. 10th, 1862. He was a member of the Legislative Council 1877-81, and from 1884 to July 1887, when he resigned. He was a member of Mr. Fysh's Ministry without office from Aug. 9th, 1877 (on which date he was sworn of the Executive Council) to March 5th, 1878, and of the Giblin Ministry, which succeeded, from March 5th to Dec. 20th, 1878. He again took office with Mr. Giblin, without portfolio, on Oct. 30th, 1879; but resigned on Feb. 5th, 1881. Dr. Agnew became Premier and Chief Secretary of the Colony on March 8th, 1886. On March 1st, 1887, Mr. Rooke was taken into the Ministry as Chief Secretary, Dr. Agnew remaining Premier until the 29th of the month, when he resigned with his colleagues. Dr. Agnew is Vice-President and Honorary Secretary of the Royal Society of Tasmania, and a member of the Council. He was for many years a member of the Tasmanian Council of Education, and on the establishment of the Tasmanian University was elected a member of the Council, but, in consequence of absence from the colony, resigned in 1891. He was President of the Tasmanian Commission for the Melbourne International Exhibition of 1880.

Ahearne, Surgeon-Major Joseph, L.R.C.P., L.R.C.S., is a native of Ireland, and was admitted L.R.C.S. (Ireland) in 1871, and L.R.C.P. (London) in 1878. He emigrated to Queensland, and was appointed Government Medical Officer at Townsville in Nov. 1879. He was appointed Surgeon-Major and Principal Medical Officer of the defence force for the Northern District in Nov. 1886, and Health Officer at Townsville on Nov. 25th, 1886. In that year he visited England as the representative of the North Queensland Separation League; and much of the progress which has since attended the operations of the League is to be ascribed to the impetus given to it by Dr. Ahearne's exertions. Dr. Ahearne married Miss Cunningham, the daughter of Edward Cunningham, a Queensland squatter.

Airy, Major Henry Park, D.S.O., of the New South Wales Artillery, was formerly in the 101st Foot; and having become attached to the New South Wales military forces, of which he became captain in March 1885, served in the Soudan campaign with the colonial contingent, receiving a medal, with clasp, for the advance on Tamai. He served with the British army in Burmah in 1886 and 1887, and having behaved with great gallantry and been severely wounded, was created a Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (in 1888), was mentioned in despatches, and pensioned by the Government of India. In further recognition of his brilliant services in Burmah, he was, in June 1887, appointed a brevet-major in the New South Wales forces by Lord Carrington, then Governor of that colony.

Akhurst, William, the actor, was born at Hammersmith on Dec. 29th, 1822, and went to Melbourne, Australia, in 1850. Here he joined the Melbourne Argus as sub-editor and musical critic. Subsequently he wrote fourteen pantomimes, one of his burlesques, the "Siege of Troy," running sixty nights. In 1870 he returned to England, and wrote pantomimes for Astley's, the Pavilion, and the Elephant and Castle Theatres. He died on board of the Patriarch, whilst on his way out to Sydney, on June 7th, 1878.

Alexander, Samuel, M.A., Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, son of Samuel Alexander and Eliza [Sloman] his wife, was born in Sydney on Jan. 6th, 1859. He was educated at Wesley College, Melbourne, and Melbourne University, where he matriculated in 1875, winning three exhibitions. During the next two years he won five exhibitions in the arts course, in classics, mathematics, and natural science. Mr. Alexander was elected scholar of Balliol College, Oxford, in Nov. 1877; was Prox. Acc. University Junior Mathematical Scholarship in 1878; and was first class in Classical Moderations, and first class in Mathematical Moderations in 1879. He was first class in the Final School of Litteræ Humaniores in 1881. He received the degree of B.A. in 1881, and of M.A. in 1884. Since taking his degree Mr. Alexander has devoted himself to the study of philosophy. He was elected Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, in 1882, and from 1883 to the end of 1888 lectured on philosophy at Lincoln College. In 1885 he was appointed examiner in the Final School of Litteræ Humaniores, a position which he held till 1887, when he was awarded the Green Memorial Prize for Moral Philosophy. In 1889 he published a treatise on Ethics, entitled "Moral Order and Progress" (London, Trübner). This had been partly founded on a prize essay. Mr. Alexander is the author of various smaller contributions in Mind, and elsewhere; an article on Hegel's "Conception of Nature," in Mind for 1886, being especially worthy of notice.

Allen, Hon. George, M.L.C., was the son of Dr. Richard Allen, physician to George III., and was born in London in Nov. 1800. He arrived in New South Wales in Jan. 1816, and was the first attorney and solicitor admitted by the Supreme Court of New South Wales. This took place on July 26th, 1822, and he had much difficulty in maintaining his status against the English-bred attorneys who desired to monopolise the practice. He married in 1823, and was elected Alderman of the Brisbane Ward in the first corporation of the city of Sydney in 1842, acting as third Mayor of the city in 1845. In the latter year he was nominated to a seat in the old Legislative Council, and was appointed honorary Police Magistrate of the City and Port. In 1856 he became a member of the present Legislative Council, and was elected Chairman of Committees, an office which he resigned in 1873, along with his membership of the Council of Education, which he had held since 1866. He assisted in founding Sydney College, and held office on the governing body for many years. In 1859 he was elected a member of the Senate of the University, to which he bequeathed £1000 for a scholarship for proficiency in mathematics in the second year. Mr. Allen, who was a prominent member of the Wesleyan-Methodist body, died at Toxteth Park Glebe on Nov. 3rd, 1877.

Allen, Hon. Sir George Wigram, K.C.M.G., son of the late Hon. George Allen, M.L.C. (q.v.), was born in Sydney on May 16th, 1824. He was educated at Cape's school and at Sydney College where he distinguished himself in classics and mathematics. He was articled to his father, and admitted an attorney and solicitor of the Supreme Court of New South Wales in 1846. He married, in July 1851, Marian, eldest daughter of the late Rev. William Billington Boyce, first President of the Australian Wesleyan Conference, who survived him. He was a Commissioner of National Education from 1853 to 1866, and became a member of the Council of Education in 1873. In 1859 he was made a magistrate, and chosen first Mayor of The Glebe, an office to which he was many times consecutively re-elected. He was appointed a member of the Legislative Council in 1860, but resigned his seat; and was elected a member of the Legislative Assembly for The Glebe in 1869. He was chosen President of the Law Institute in 1870; and on Dec. 9th, 1873, he accepted office in the Parkes Ministry, becoming the first Minister of Justice and Public Instruction appointed after the creation of the office. He retired with his colleagues on Feb. 8th, 1875, and was chosen Speaker of the Legislative Assembly on March 23rd, 1875, being re-elected on Nov. 27th, 1877 (in which year he was knighted), and Dec. 15th, 1880. In the next parliament he was displaced by Mr. Barton (Jan. 3rd, 1883). In 1878 Sir George was elected to the Senate of Sydney University, to fill the vacancy created by the death of his father. Sir George was one of the vice-presidents of the Royal Commission for the Sydney International Exhibition of 1879, and also of the New South Wales Commission for the Melbourne International Exhibition of 1880. In 1884 Sir George was created K.C.M.G., and died on July 23rd, 1885.

Allen, Harry Brookes, M.D., Professor of Anatomy and Pathology in Melbourne University, graduated M.B. at Melbourne University in 1876, M.D. in 1878, and Ch.B. in 1879. He was appointed Professor of Descriptive and Surgical Anatomy and Pathology in the University in Nov. 1882. He is President of the Melbourne Medical Students' Society and of the Melbourne University Boat Club. He was president of the Commission which sat in 1889 to inquire into the sanitary state of Melbourne; and, having received a year's leave of absence, visited Europe in 1890 to inquire into the management of the various medical schools of the United Kingdom and the Continent. At Dr. Allen's instance the General Medical Council in England agreed to recognise Melbourne medical degrees, and he was himself the first M.D. of the University to be registered in accordance with the new arrangement. He was married at Sutton Forest, Sydney, to Miss Ada Rose Elizabeth Mason.

Allen, James, was born at Birmingham in 1806, and educated at Horton College. He was for some time a reporter on the Morning Post, but emigrated to Adelaide, South Australia, where he started the Times and aided in establishing the South Australian Register. In the year 1857 he went to Melbourne, where he edited the Herald and started the Mail, the first penny evening paper issued in that city. In 1865 Mr. Allen removed to Hobart, Tasmania, and edited the Mercury, afterwards starting the Evening Mail. Mr. Allen then went to New Zealand, and conducted the Auckland Evening News till 1870, when he returned to Victoria and purchased the Camperdown Chronicle, of which he remained owner till 1880. Mr. Allen, who died in 1886, published a "History of Australia" in 1882.

Allen, Captain William, was for many years a commander in the Hon. East India Company's marine, in which he greatly distinguished himself. He arrived in Adelaide in 1839, and, in conjunction with Mr. John Ellis, bought a portion of the "Milner Estate," in the neighbourhood of Port Gawler. In 1845 he became associated in the purchase of the Burra Mine, and assisted in forming the South Australian Mining Association, of which he became chairman. Captain Allen was a member of the Church of England, but contributed liberally to the funds of various Protestant bodies. He helped to establish St. Peter's College in 1849, and was a benefactor to its funds to the extent of £7000. Captain Allen revisited England in 1853, returning in 1855. He died suddenly on Oct. 17th, 1856, and by his will bequeathed £5000 for pastoral aid purposes in connection with the Anglican Church in South Australia, the disposition of the amount being left to the discretion of the Bishop of Adelaide, as trustee.

Allen, Rev. William, was born on Nov. 4th, 1847, at Betchworth, Surrey, and was taken to Victoria in 1852. He was educated at the Scotch and Congregational colleges in Melbourne, and matriculated at the Melbourne University in 1869. He became pastor of the Sandhurst Congregational church in Jan. 1871, was transferred to Maryborough in Jan. 1875, and in Jan. 1880 was appointed to his present living at Carlton. Since 1871 Mr. Allen has written for the religious press; he was Chairman of the "Congregational Union and Mission of Victoria" in 1886 and 1886, and in the latter year published "Random Rhymes." Mr. Allen gained the first prize for the cantata which he composed for the opening of the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition in 1888.

Allport, Morton, F.L.S., son of Joseph Allport, was born in England on Dec. 4th, 1830. The family emigrated to Tasmania when Mr. Allport was an infant. He was educated in the colony, and chose his father's profession, being admitted a solicitor of the Supreme Court in 1852. Mr. Allport was an ardent and accomplished naturalist, and by his original work added largely to the knowledge of the zoology and botany of Tasmania. To the study of the fishes of the colony he gave special attention. He introduced the perch and tench into Tasmanian waters, and was a zealous promoter of the acclimatisation of salmon and trout, an experiment which he lived to see a splendid success. He also introduced the English water-lily into the colony. Mr. Allport was a Fellow of the Linnæan Society of London and of the Zoological Society, corresponding member of the Anthropological Institute, life member of the Entomological and Malacological Societies, and foreign member of several Continental scientific societies. He was a Vice-President of the Royal Society of Tasmania, to the Proceedings of which last-named Society he contributed a number of valuable papers on the subjects of his favourite studies. He was a member of the Council of Education for many years. He died at Hobart on Sept. 10th, 1878.

Allwood, Rev. Canon Robert, B.A., ex-Vice-Chancellor of Sydney University, was the son of Chief Justice Allwood, of Jamaica, and was educated at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1825. He took holy orders, and was ordained deacon in 1826 by the Bishop of Bath and Wells, and priest in 1827 by the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol. He was a minor canon of Bristol Cathedral from 1826 to 1839, and curate of Clifton from 1829 to 1839. In the latter year he emigrated to New South Wales, arriving in Sydney on Dec. 8th. From 1840 to 1884 he was incumbent of St. James's, Sydney, and was appointed canon of St. Andrew's Cathedral in 1852. Canon Allwood was Chancellor of the diocese of Sydney from 1876 to 1884, and Vice-Chancellor of the University in 1869. In 1843 he published a brochure entitled "The Papal Claim of Jurisdiction" (in Australia). He died on Oct. 27th, 1891.

Anderson, George, Deputy-Master Melbourne Mint, is the son of the late George Anderson, of Luscar, Fifeshire, Scotland. He was born in 1819, and educated at Edinburgh and St. Andrew's Universities. He was formerly Major 4th Lanark Rifle Volunteers. He represented the City of Glasgow in the House of Commons from 1868 to 1885. On March 13th of the latter year he was appointed Deputy-Master of the Mint at Melbourne, in succession to Mr. V. D. Broughton (q.v.), a position he still holds.

Anderson, John Gerard, M.A., J.P., Under Secretary for Public Instruction Queensland, son of the late Rev. James Anderson, M.A., of Orphir, Orkney, was born on Feb. 12th, 1836, and graduated M.A. at Aberdeen University, afterwards remaining there as a student of divinity. He emigrated to Queensland in 1862, and became connected with the Education Service in Sept. 1863 as first District Inspector of Schools. He was appointed Senior Inspector in June 1869, Acting General Inspector in Sept. 1874, General Inspector in 1876, and Under Secretary in Nov. 1878—a position he still holds.

Anderson, Lieut.-Colonel Joseph, C.B., K.H., was born in 1789, and joined the army in 1805 as ensign in the 78th Regiment. He served with singular bravery and distinction, being on several occasions severely wounded in Egypt and at Talavera, Busaco and Torres Vedras in the Peninsular War. Having become major of the 50th Regiment he was in 1834 appointed by Governor Sir Richard Bourke, of New South Wales, to take charge of the convict establishment at Norfolk Island, as Military Commandant and Civil Superintendent. The miserable felons were then in a state of chronic mutiny, and steeped in every species of crime. At imminent personal risk, Major Anderson, whilst maintaining rigid discipline, introduced a kindlier and more humanising system, and with the best results. In 1837 Major Anderson was created K.H., and subsequently became lieut.-colonel After leaving Norfolk Island, he saw active service in India, and commanded a brigade in the Gwalior campaign in 1843, during which he was severely wounded, and for which he received the C.B. in 1844. In 1848 he retired from the army, and took up his permanent residence in Port Phillip, where he engaged in squatting pursuits on the Goulburn River. In 1852 he was nominated to the first Legislative Council of Victoria, to fill a vacancy in the list of non-official nominee members, caused by the death of Mr. Dunlop. In this capacity he supported the Convicts Act Prevention Bill, which was designed to prevent the influx of convicts from Tasmania into Victoria; and when the measure, having been disallowed by the Imperial authorities, was again adopted by the Council in the ensuing session, Colonel Anderson was the mover of an address to the Queen, setting forth the reasons which induced the Legislative Council to again pass the bill. In 1854 Colonel Anderson served on the Colonial Defence Committee, and in the following year in a debate on the immigration question strongly advocated the adoption of prohibitive legislation, with the view of stopping the influx of Chinese. Colonel Anderson died at South Yarra, Melbourne, on July 18th, 1877.

Anderson, Hon. Robert Stirling Hore, M.L.C., was a native of Coleraine, Londonderry, Ireland, and was educated at the Belfast Academy and at the University of Dublin, where he graduated. After practising as a solicitor in Dublin for eight years he decided to emigrate, and arrived in Victoria in June 1854. Whilst practising as a solicitor in Melbourne he resided in the suburb of Emerald Hill, and was Chairman of the Municipal Council and representative of the district in Parliament. Mr. Anderson was Commissioner of Trade and Customs in the Heales Ministry from November 1860 to January 1861, when he resigned, owing to the policy of the Ministry being dictated by the opposition, Mr. Heales revising his budget in accordance with Sir John O'Shanassy's resolution that the public expenditure should be kept down to £3,000,000 per annum. Mr. Anderson, however, took office in the O'Shanassy Ministry which succeeded the Heales Government, being Commissioner of Trade and Customs from November 1861 to June 1863. When Mr. Haines died in 1864 Mr. Anderson succeeded him as member for the Eastern Province in the Legislative Council, and he was Commissioner of Public Works and vice-president of the Board of Land and Works in the Francis Ministry from May to July 1874, when the Cabinet was reconstructed under the premiership of the late Mr. Kerferd, under whom Mr. Anderson held the same offices till August 1875, when the first Berry Ministry was formed. The latter having been defeated, Mr. Anderson came back to office under Sir James McCulloch in October 1875 as Commissioner of Trade and Customs, and held that post till the Ministry was again displaced by Mr. (now Sir Graham) Berry in May 1877. From March to August 1880 Mr. Anderson was a member of Mr. Service's first cabinet, but held no portfolio. When the Service-Berry coalition was formed in March 1883 Mr. Anderson became Minister of Justice, and retained the post until his death on Oct. 26th of the same year.

Anderson, Hon. William, J.P., son of James Anderson and Hannah his wife, was born at Montrose, Scotland, on Jan. 3rd, 1828, and was taken to Launceston, Tasmania, in Oct. 1841, arriving on April 1st of the following year. The family removed to Port Fairy in Victoria, in 1844; and in 1849 he took over his father's business as a builder, which he managed until 1854, when he joined his father in purchasing Rosemount Farm, his present home. He became a member of the first Belfast Road Board, was elected president of the Belfast Shire Council, made a justice of the peace in 1864, and sat in the Assembly for Villiers and Heytesbury from 1880 till April 1892, when he was defeated. In 1854 he was elected an elder of the Presbyterian church, and was for two years president of the Protection of Aborigines Society. He succeeded the late Chief Justice Stawell as president of the Royal Horticultural Society of Victoria. In 1887 he was awarded the Minister of Agriculture's prize for the best managed farm in southern Victoria. He was appointed Minister of Public Works in the Gillies Government on Sept. 2nd, 1890, and resigned with the rest of his colleagues in the following November.

Anderson, Colonel William Acland Douglas, C.M.G., son of Lieut.-Colonel Joseph Anderson (q.v.), was born in 1829, was an ensign in his father's regiment, the 50th, but sold his commission after a few years' service, and was appointed a Commissioner of Goldfields in Victoria. He was at one time member for Evelyn in the old Legislative Council, and succeeded Major-General Dean Pitt in the chief command of the Victorian Volunteer force in 1862. He was created C.M.G. in 1878, and died on Jan. 23rd, 1882.

Andrew, Professor Henry Martyn, M.A., son of Rev. M. Andrew, was born at Bridgenorth, on Jan. 3rd, 1846, and educated at several English and Continental schools, and after his arrival in Victoria in 1857, at the Church of England grammar school, Melbourne, under the Rev. Dr. Bromby. He entered the Melbourne University in 1861, and graduated B.A. in 1864, with the scholarship in mathematics and natural philosophy, and first-class honours in natural science. He was appointed in June of that year Lecturer on Civil Engineering, being the first graduate of Melbourne to be appointed to office in the University, and resigned the position in June 1868 on his departure for England. He also resigned the second mastership of Wesley College, which he had accepted in 1866; and on his arrival in England in Oct. 1868 he entered St. John's College, Cambridge, where in 1870 he was second foundation scholar and a Wright's prizeman. He graduated B.A. as 27th wrangler in Jan. 1872, accepted the professorship of mathematics and natural philosophy at the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, took his M.A. degree in 1875, returned to Wesley College, Melbourne, in the same year as second master under Professor Irving, whom he succeeded as head master at Christmas 1875. In 1882 he left Wesley College to succeed Mr. Pirani as Lecturer on Natural Philosophy in Melbourne University, where he became first professor on the establishment of the chair on that subject, and continued in this position until his death at Suez on Sept. 18th, 1888, whilst on leave. Professor Andrew was author of a paper on "Brain Waves," joint author with the late Mr. F. J. Pirani, M.A., C.E., of an edition of the first three books of Euclid, graduated M.A. at Melbourne University in 1867, and acted as joint secretary of the University Senate. He was three times elected a member of the University Council between 1867 and 1886. Professor Andrew was ensign in the St. John's company of the Cambridge University Volunteer Corps, and captain of the Melbourne University company; and both as a musician and a contributor to the press he did valuable work. His widow has adopted the dramatic profession, under the name of Miss Constance Edwards.

Andrew, Rev. John Chapman, M.A., J.P., was born on March 7th, 1822, at Whitby, in Yorkshire, his father, the Rev. James Andrew, being then rector of the parish. He was educated first at Whitby, and then at St. Peter's school, York, from which latter, having taken an exhibition, he proceeded to University College, Oxford. Having graduated B.A. in 1840, taking second-class honours in both classics and mathematics, Mr. Andrew was appointed one of the masters to the new school at Rossal, in Lancashire. In 1845 he was elected Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford; and, having proceeded to the degree of M.A. in 1847, was ordained deacon in the same year, and priest in 1848, being vicar of St. Michael's, Oxford, 1848-9. At Lincoln College Mr. Andrew acted as mathematical lecturer, Greek lecturer, and tutor successively; and in 1857 went out to Wellington, New Zealand, where he had a sheep station on the Waitangi for some years. He was a member of the Provincial Council of Wellington from 1868 until the abolition of the provincial system in 1875. In 1870 Mr. Andrew was returned as one of the two members for Wairarapa in the General Assembly, as also in 1876. In the latter year he migrated to Nelson, and in 1880 was appointed principal of Nelson College. He has always been actively interested in educational matters in New Zealand, and from 1868 to 1876 was a member of the Wellington Education Board. In 1878 he was appointed to the Senate of the New Zealand University, and is now the Vice-Chancellor. He was appointed J. P. by Sir Edward Stafford's Government.

Andrews, Henry James, J.P., sometime Under Secretary and Government Statist, South Australia, was at one time a teller in the Bank of Australasia. He entered the Civil Service of South Australia in 1852 as assistant in the Assay Office, and in the next year became cashier and accountant. In 1860 he was appointed Secretary to the Central Road Board; in 1874 Secretary to the Commissioner for Public Works; in 1875 Secretary to the Commissioner of Crown Lands; and in Feb. 1882 Under Secretary and Government Statist. He died on April 25th, 1890.

Andrews, Hon. Richard Bullock, sometime Puisne Judge South Australia, was admitted to the South Australian bar in 1855, and was member for Yatala in the Assembly from 1857 to 1860, and for Blurt from 1863 to 1869. Mr. Andrews was Attorney-General in the Torrens Ministry for a few weeks in Sept. 1857, and in the still more short-lived Dutton Administration in July 1863. He filled the same post in Mr. (now Sir) Henry Ayers' Government from July 1863 to July 1864, and in the second Dutton and third Ayers Ministries from March to Oct. 1865. He was also Attorney-General in the fourth and fifth Ayers Ministries from May 1867 to Sept. 1868, and from Oct. to Nov. 1868. In March 1865 he was appointed Q.C., Crown Solicitor and Public Prosecutor in 1870, and Puisne Judge in 1881. He died at Hobart on June 28th, 1885.

Andrews, Walter Boyd Tate, J.P., late Registrar-General South Australia, elder brother of Henry James Andrews (q.v.) entered the South Australian Civil Service in 1848; was appointed Deputy Registrar-General of the Colony in 1856, and Registrar-General in 1865. He retired in Sept. 1889.

Angas, George Fife, J.P., was the seventh son of Caleb Angas, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, a coachbuilder, merchant and shipowner in a largo way of business in that town, where he was born on May 1st, 1789. The family was of Scotch origin, and the first of its representatives to settle on Tyneside was one Alexander Angus, about the year 1584. This Alexander, from whom Caleb was fifth in lineal descent, ultimately located himself at Raw House, near Hexham, in Northumberland, where his descendants were farmers for several generations. It was John Angus, of Scotland, Hexham, the grandfather of the subject of this notice, who first changed the spelling of the family name from Angus to Angas. Caleb Angas wished his son on leaving school to embrace the legal profession; but he preferred entering his father's business, and was duly apprenticed to the coachbuilding, working his way through the various grades of the craft, and ultimately supplementing his local experience by serving as a journeyman in a London factory, which he left in 1809 to assume the oversight of his father's establishment Shortly after his return to Newcastle he was admitted a member of the Baptist Church, a religious body to whose tenets he ever afterwards remained attached. Mr. Angas married, on April 8th, 1812, Rosetta, daughter of Mr. French, of Hutton. His father's firm was largely interested in the trade of British Honduras, where they had an agency, and from whence they were large importers of mahogany and dyewoods. Mr. Angas, at an early period, took a deep interest in the welfare of the Indian aborigines, who, in defiance of the law, were held in slavery, and deprived of all means of improvement and civilisation. Mainly through his persevering efforts their freedom was assured, and means of instruction provided by the establishment of missions. Mr. Angas also took a deep interest in educational matters at home, and was one of the founders of the Newcastle Sunday School Union, a history of the successful operations of which body was many years later (1869) published at his expense. In 1823 Mr. Angas became greatly impressed with the importance to British interests of cutting a canal through the Isthmus of Darien, on the lines recently adopted by the Nicaragua Canal Company. In the result, however, the scheme dropped through, as far as any practical action on Mr. Angas's part was concerned. A project for the establishment of a society for promoting Christianity and civilisation through the medium of commercial, scientific and professional agency was also mooted in 1825 by Mr. Angas, who thought that trade and evangelisation should go hand in hand; but this scheme, too, had to be dropped from want of encouragement on the part of the mercantile community. About this time the foreign trade of the firm rendered it necessary to open an office in London, and Mr. Angas, who had been for some time in partnership with his father and brothers, removed to the south, in order to superintend the working of the new departure. His capacity and resources were strained to the uttermost by the commercial panic of 1826, and at the end of that year he retired from connection with the coachbuilding establishment at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and carried on a distinct mercantile and shipping business, under the style of "G. F. Angas & Co.," of London, and "Angas & Co.," of Newcastle-on-Tyne. He was strongly interested in the reform agitation, and when the passage of the bill of 1832 was assured he was pressed to stand for his native town, and subsequently for the borough of Sunderland. Both these invitations he, however, declined. In 1833 Mr. Angas took an active part in founding the National Provincial Bank of England, of which his cousin, Mr. Joplin, was the originator. Of this eminently successful concern Mr. Angas was for three years a director, resigning his seat on the board in 1836, when, having taken up his residence at Dawlish, in Devonshire, he desired to restrict his commercial responsibilities in London as far as possible to his own business. In the meantime Mr. Angas had prospered in his various concerns, and became a wealthy man. In the year 1829 Mr. Robert Gouger formed the idea of founding the colony of South Australia, on the principles of Edward Gibbon Wakefield, but the project did not get beyond the appointment of a provisional committee. Two years later Mr. Gouger recurred to his previous design, and formulated a scheme for starting a "South Australian Land Company." Of the provisional committee of this company, Mr. Angas, who had all along been an ardent advocate of emigration and colonisation, became a member, and subscribed for a sufficient number of shares to qualify himself as a director. His first steps were to enter a protest against paupers being sent out, to express the hope that the appointment of a governor would be left in the hands of the Company until the population reached 10,000, and secured a Legislative Assembly, and that "Bible truth should be given unfettered, and without State aid." In the event of his associates not approving of these views, he begged that his name might be struck out of the list of promoters. As the colonisation scheme shaped itself more clearly in his mind, the platform of Mr. Angas was enlarged, and he stood out for the following distinctive points: 1. The exclusion of convicts; 2. The concentration of the settlers; 3. The taking out of persons of capital and intelligence, and especially men of piety; 4. The emigration of young couples of good character; 5. Free trade, free government, and freedom in matters of religion. Though the prospects at first appeared favourable, the minister of the day, Lord Goderich, ultimately declined to adopt the draft charter submitted to him, or to suggest an alternative scheme; with the result that the second attempt to found the colony fell to the ground, and Mr. Angas made up his mind not to take part in any future attempts to settle South Australia. Events were, however, too strong for him, for in 1834, spurred on by the indefatigable Mr. Gouger, a number of influential public and commercial men formed themselves into "The South Australian Association," with Mr. W. W. Whitmore, M.P., as chairman, and Mr. George Grote, M.P., as treasurer. The new combination succeeded in securing the passing of an Act constituting the colony of South Australia, and conferring the power of disposing of the lands of the territory on a Board of Commissioners to be appointed under it Mr. Angas, at the request of Mr. Gouger, consented to join the Board if the Government approved; and in May 1835 the names of himself and his colleagues were gazetted, Mr. (afterwards Sir) Rowland Hill becoming secretary to the Commissioners. Amongst other things the Act stipulated that £35,000 worth of land must be disposed of, and a loan of £20,000 raised, with the view of guaranteeing the Home Government against possible outlay, before the colony could occupied, or the Commissioners exercise their powers. Mr. Angas insisted that the only way in which these conditions could be satisfied would be by forming a joint stock company, to buy the stipulated quantity of land and take over the whole of the pecuniary responsibility. To this the majority of the Commissioners could not at first be induced to assent; but, all other methods proving fruitless, they, after a prolonged period of indecision and delay, allowed Mr. Angas to have his way. He, with two others, agreed to find the necessary purchase-money, on condition that the price of the land was reduced to 12s. per acre from 20s., at which it had been fixed. This was agreed to, the Company was formed, and the £35,000 worth of land was then transferred to them at cost price, Mr. Angas being appointed chairman of the first Board of Directors. This was the origin of the South Australian Company, which started in Oct. 1835 with a capital of £200,000. Mr. Angas now found that the Government considered the duties of a commissioner and of a director of the Company incompatible. As, however, his colleagues on both boards were desirous of retaining his services, Lord Glenelg was interviewed upon the matter, but ultimately decided, with great reluctance, that if Mr. Angas remained a director of the Company he could not continue a member of the Board of Commissioners. He thought, however, that there could be no objection to Mr. Angas remaining on the Board of Commissioners till his successor was appointed, or for a limited period, say of three months. This decision Mr. Angas accepted, and then resigned in Dec. 1836. In the meantime the success of the Company's operations was almost wholly due to the individual energy of Mr. Angas, under whose auspices the first shiploads of emigrants were despatched in Feb. 1836, the colony being proclaimed by Captain Hindmarsh, the first Governor, in December following. At Mr. Angas's suggestion, and almost entirely on the lines he sketched out, a banking department was instituted, and proved of immense use in affording financial facilities to the early settlers. In 1841 the department (again at Mr. Angas's instigation) was formed into a separate concern, with the title of the "South Australian Banking Company," which latter was in 1867 again transmogrified into the "Bank of South Australia." In 1837 Mr. Angas became one of the founders of the Union Bank of Australia, and was the first chairman of the Board of Directors, all of whom were appointed on his personal selection. Amongst the stipulations in the deed of settlement of the Union Bank was one restricting them from opening a branch in South Australia without the assent of the South Australian Company. In the same and the next year Mr. Angas laid the foundation of German emigration to South Australia by advancing a large sum of money to enable several hundreds of Prussian Lutherans to seek refuge in the new colony from the persecution with which they were threatened, in consequence of their opposition to the Government scheme for uniting the Reformed and Lutheran Churches. In 1838 Mr. Angas cautioned the British Government against the danger of having New Zealand exposed to the risk of a French annexation; and, as the result of his expostulations, Captain Hobson, R.N., was sent out to treat with the natives for the acceptance of the Queen's sovereignty only just in time to avert the action on the part of the French Government which Mr. Angas had foreseen. For the next few years Mr. Angas was plunged in financial embarrassments, owing, in a large degree, to the unauthorised action of his confidential agent, Mr. Flaxman, who had gone out with the first batch of German emigrants, in buying considerable tracts of Land in South Australia, and then drawing on his employer for large sums to meet the purchase-money. Just at the pressing moment the German emigrants, to whom he looked for partial relief, failed to pay up the instalments of the money advanced them as stipulated, and thus added greatly to their benefactor's difficulties. Amidst his own distresses he was, however, able to lend a helping hand to South Australia when her affairs became involved, through the dishonour of Governor Gawler's drafts on the Home Government; it being greatly owing to his exposition of her resources and prospects before the select committee which was appointed, that the Imperial authorities were induced to come to the assistance of the nascent colony. Mr. Angas was, in the meantime, indefatigable in his efforts to popularise South Australia as an emigration field; delivering lectures on the subject in various parts of the country, and starting two weekly newspapers, The South Australian Colonist and The South Australian Weekly News, at a heavy financial loss, in order to disseminate reliable data. Mr. Angas's two eldest sons had already proceeded to South Australia, and as his prospects darkened in England they appeared to be brightening at the antipodes. Having resigned his seat on the Board of the South Australian Company in 1848, he determined to take up his residence on his Australian property, and, fortunately, was able to dispose of his English concerns on advantageous terms. He sailed for Adelaide by the ship Ascendant on Oct. 3rd, 1850, with his wife and youngest son, William Henry, who died in 1879. He was cordially welcomed on his arrival as the virtual father and founder of South Australia, and seemed never able to divest himself of the idea that the colony was still in as much need as in the days of its initiation of his paternal care and control. There was thus a dictatorial tone in his speeches and addresses, which prevented his becoming a popular, though he was always a respected, publicist. Even in this direction he had his consolations, for the new constitution rendering the Legislative Council partially representative having gone out in the same ship as that by which he travelled, he was at once returned to the new body for Barossa, and, in his parliamentary capacity, had the privilege of assisting in giving the final death-stroke to the system of State aid to religion, to which he had all along been so strenuously opposed. In connection with the New Constitution Act an amusing story is told. It had been an ambition of Mr. Angas's to be the personal bearer of the official copy of the Act to the colony; but it was found to be contrary to precedent, and red-tape triumphed, the important document being sent from the Colonial Office in charge of a clerk, who gave the package to a steward, who, being very busy, thrust it into the nearest place of safety. On arrival in Adelaide the proper authorities came on board to demand their Constitution, and receive it with due honour. The captain, however, protested that he had seen nothing of it, and there was a great hue and cry for the lost Constitution, until one day shortly after, in turning out the captain's soiled linen for the laundress, it was found, to the great amusement of every one, at the bottom of the bag, the place in which the steward had hurriedly placed it for security. In 1855, when he was again re-elected, Mr. Angas assisted in framing the present Constitution Act, and thus participated in crowning the edifice of public freedom in the colony, whose foundations he had laid in fear and trembling, and amidst much of doubt and difficulty. In his worldly affairs his prosperity was great and growing; the property purchased by Mr. Flaxman turning out to have been admirably selected, and rendering its proprietor wealthy beyond any dreams of avarice in which he might have indulged. Mr. Angas was a liberal contributor to charitable and religious objects of a Protestant character. The Roman Catholic Church was the object of the strongest abhorrence, and it was doubtless a severe blow to him to witness its growth and progress under a régime of religious equality, which he had fondly believed would secure the undisputed predominance of Protestant Nonconformity. Even in his eighty-first year he flooded the colony with an issue of anti-papal literature, which certainly did not lack controversial vigour and pugnacity. Whatever may have been his faults of egotism and intolerance, they were the outcome of one of those strong and sturdy individualities which have made England what it is; and South Australia certainly owes it to Mr. Angas that she took her place in the ranks of civilised communities many years earlier than would otherwise have been the case. During the discussions on the present Constitution Act Mr. Angas, whilst opposing manhood suffrage and vote by ballot, was a staunch supporter of an elective as against a nominee Upper House, and this was the principle ultimately adopted. In 1857 he was elected a member of the new Council, and was absent for two years in England (Dec. 1857 to Sept. 1859) without resigning his seat. In 1865 he was re-elected on his seat becoming vacant by effuxion of time, but he retired from parliament in the following year, and died on Jan. 15th, 1879. Mrs. Angas died on Jan. 14th, 1867.

Angas, George French, F.L.S., eldest son of the late George Fife Angas (q.v.) and Rosetta [French], his wife, was born at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and devoted himself to artistic pursuits. In Sept. 1843 he left London on an art tour through Australia and New Zealand, returning in March 1846 with a large collection of native costumes and implements, besides many portraits of natives which he had taken, as well as sketches of the places he had visited. These he had the honour of showing to Her Majesty and the Prince Consort, who became patrons of the illustrated volumes he subsequently published on South Australia and New Zealand. He subsequently returned to South Australia, where he was resident when his father went out in 1850. Returning to England, he died in London in Oct 1886. "South Australia Illustrated" and "New Zealand Illustrated," two illustrated folio works, were issued at intervals in 1847.

Angas, Hon. John Howard, M.L.C., second son of George Fife Angas (q.v.) and Rosetta [French], his wife, was born at Newcastle-on-Tyne, on Oct. 5th, 1823. When but twenty years of age (April 1843) he left England for South Australia to assume the management of his father's affairs in that colony, and especially to develop his landed property, a mission he accomplished with eminent success. In 1854, four years after his father's arrival in the colony, he revisited England, and married, in 1855, Miss Susanna Collins, of Bowden, near Manchester. The next year he returned to South Australia, and became famous as a breeder of first-class sheep, cattle and horses. In Dec. 1871 he was elected to the Legislative Assembly for the district of Barossa, and sat till May 1875, when he resigned. In 1882 Mr. Angas gave up squatting on a large scale, but still takes an active interest in his stud farms at Hill River and Collingrove. He has been a member of the Legislative Council for a number of years past. Mr. Angas, who started the Bushman's Club, has founded an engineering scholarship and three engineering exhibitions in connection with the University of Adelaide, and has given other liberal donations to public objects. A year or two ago he informed the committee of the Adelaide Home for Incurables of his willingness to contribute £2500 for the erection of a wing to the building, and suggested that the Government should be asked to contribute a like sum towards the establishment of a maintenance fund.

Angelo, Lieut.-Col. Edward Fox, was born on Dec 14th, 1836, and received his first commission in the army in Dec. 1854, as ensign in the 28th Regiment of Foot. He served in the Crimean campaign in the following year, and for his services at the siege of Sebastopol received a medal with clasps and a Turkish medal. He was appointed captain 1st Foot in 1864, and retired, after filling various important military positions in India, in 1878, with the honorary rank of lieut.-colonel. Colonel Angelo was commandant of the Tasmanian local forces from 1880 to 1882, and in the latter year became Inspecting Field Officer in Western Australia. Having resigned that position, he was appointed Government Resident of the Northern Division of that Colony in 1886, and Resident Magistrate at Bunbury in 1889. Since 1890 he has been Government Resident and superintendent of the prison establishment at Rot-nest Island, W.A.

Annett, Thomas Henderson, entered the Queensland Civil Service in May 1878, and was appointed principal Assistant Engineer of Railways for the Southern and Central Divisions in 1889, in which year he succeeded Mr. Hannam as Chief Engineer for the Northern and Carpentaria and Cook Railways.

Anstey, Hon. Henry Frampton, K.S.G., was son of Thos. Anstey, of Anstey Burton, Tas., and was elected to the Legislative Council of Tasmania in 1850, and to the first House of Assembly in 1856, on both occasions for the district of Oatlands. He was Secretary for Lands and Works in the first Tasmanian Ministry from Nov. 1856 to Feb. 1857. Having been received into the Roman Catholic Church in 1842, he was created a Knight of St. Gregory by Pius IX., and by special privilege was buried in the Church of Santa Maria del Popolo at Rome, where he resided for two years prior to his death on July 8th, 1862, at the age of forty. He was Roman correspondent of the London Tablet during his stay in the Eternal City, and was brother of Mr. T. Chisholm Anstey, the well-known and eccentric Indian publicist and member of the House of Commons.

Aplin, Hon. William, M.L.C., J.P., was born at Combe St. Nicholas, Somerset, England, in April 1840, and came to Brisbane, Qd., in 1862. Settling at Townsville, he founded the mercantile firm of Aplin, Brown & Co., and subsequently went into "squatting." He was called to the Legislative Council in Oct. 1880.

Archer, Alexander, son of William Archer, of Laurvig, Norway, by Julia, daughter of David Walker, was born in Norway in 1828. He was educated at Perth, Scotland; and left for Victoria in 1852, where he was appointed agent for the Bank of New South Wales at the "Ovens" goldfield (now Beechworth). He became manager at Kyneton, Victoria, in 1854, at Brisbane, Queensland, in 1864, and Inspector in 1867. In 1871 he married Mary Louisa, eldest daughter of Sir Robert Ramsay Mackenzie, of Coul, Ross-shire. 10th Bart., by Louisa Alexandrina, daughter of Richard Jones, of Sydney, N.S.W. After thirty-six years' service in the Bank, he left for England by the R.M.S. Quetta, in Feb. 1890, accompanied by his wife, and on the 28th of the month both were lost in the wreck of that ship at the entrance to Torres Straits.

Archer, Archibald, M.L.A., J.P., sometime Colonial Treasurer of Queensland, son of William Archer, of Laurvig, Norway, to which country he went with his father when five years old, was born at Fife, in Scotland, on March 18th, 1820, and educated in Norway. After spending five years in an engineering establishment in Scotland, Mr. Archer emigrated to Australia, where he arrived in 1842, but only stayed five months, subsequently spending thirteen years in the South Sea and Sandwich Islands. In the latter he was engaged on coffee and sugar plantations. Returning to Queensland in 1860, he took up his residence at Gracemere station, and in 1867 was returned to the Legislative Assembly for the Rockhampton district, which he still represents, though he has been out of Parliament and has sat for other constituencies in the interim. Mr. Archer, who assisted in passing the Land Act of 1868, was Colonial Treasurer and Secretary for Public Instruction in the first McIlwraith Government from Jan. 1882 to Nov. 1883. Mr. Archer has recently figured as a strong advocate of the subdivision of Queensland. In 1892 Mr. Archer visited England in company with Mr. John Ferguson as a deputation on behalf of the Central Queensland Separation League.

Archer, Rev. Canon George Frederick, M.A., won the Tasmanian scholarship in 1867, and proceeded to Christ College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1872 and M.A. in 1884. He was ordained deacon in 1872, and priest in 1878, being curate of Christ Church, Frome Selwood, from 1874 to 1876, when he was appointed rector of All Saints', Hobart Town, and canon of the cathedral. Canon Archer is a member of the Council of Education.

Archer, Thomas, C.M.G., J.P., ex-Agent-General for Queensland, son of William Archer by Julia, daughter of David Walker, of Perth, Scotland, was born at Glasgow on Feb. 27th, 1823. At the age of seventeen he emigrated to New South Wales, arriving in Sydney on Dec 31st, 1837. He engaged in pastoral pursuits, and, with two of his elder brothers, Messrs. John and David Archer, decided to try his fortunes in Queensland, then the Moreton Bay district of New South Wales. In August 1841 the three brothers started from Castlereagh River, N.S.W., with about five thousand sheep, passing near where now stands Goondiwindia, the line which sixteen years later became the boundary between New South Wales and Queensland. They then crossed the Condamine about a dozen miles below Canning Downs, which had shortly before been discovered and occupied by the brothers Patrick, Walter, and George Leslie, and where the flourishing town of Warwick was afterwards founded; travelled across Darling Downs, then without road or track, to Eton Vale, which had been lately occupied by Mr. (now Sir Arthur) Hodgson. Continuing on their way, past where now stand Drayton and Toowoomba townships, they crossed the Main Range by "Hodgson's Gap," and turned northward, through unoccupied country, by Wingate's Lagoon and Mount Brisbane, soon after taken up by the brothers Frederick and Francis Biggs. Thence they pushed on to Durandur, on Stanley Creek, the eastern head of the Brisbane, near Glasshouse Mountains, a country that had been explored by David Archer. Here they remained some four or five years, and were soon joined by their eldest brother Charles. They afterwards explored and occupied two runs close under the Main Range, called Emu Creek and Cooyar, where they remained about four years. Hearing that Fitzroy Downs and Mount Abundance had been discovered by Sir Thomas Mitchell, Surveyor-General of New South Wales, who came upon it from the south, Mr. Archer started in 1848 across the Main Range to Jimbour, then occupied by Sir Joshua Peter Bell. From Jimbour he set off, accompanied by Mr. Arthur Chauvelle and a black boy, to find a way to Fitzroy Downs; and after a fortnight's scrambling through scrubs and over mountains, one of which he named Mount Horrible, they emerged upon Fitzroy Downs, and saw Mount Abundance in the distance, and then returned half-starved to Darling Downs, having for a week existed on blackducks and tea. Fitzroy Downs being too distant to be taken up by small squatters, Mr. Archer set off on another exploration trip to the Upper Burnett River, where he discovered two runs, which were afterwards named Eidsvold and Coonambula. From here they opened a road to Wetherun Station, then held by Messrs. Humphries and Herbert, and were the first—or among the first—who took a load of wool to Maryborough, and shipped it, in that now flourishing port, for Sydney, in a forty-ton schooner. After about a year on the Burnett, Mr. Archer set off in 1849 for California; and, after three years there, returned to England viâ Panama. He was absent from the colony about four years, and in 1853, shortly before he returned, his brothers Charles and William explored what was afterwards Gracemere Station, and discovered and named the Fitzroy River. The portion of the Dee Range, from which they obtained their first view of Gracemere, was not far from the now world-renowned Mount Morgan, but no portion of it ever fell to their lot. Gracemere was occupied and stocked in 1854-5. A sailing-boat, Elida, was built at Maryborough, and in her one of Mr. Archer's younger brothers, Colin, with one man, sailed with a cargo of supplies, via Gladstone and Keppel Bay, up the Fitzroy—then unsurveyed, and to white men unknown—the cargo being landed on a wharf made of slabs and saplings, on the spot where now stands the Government wharf at Rockhampton. Mr. Archer's brothers also gave Norwegian names—Berserker and Sleipner—to hills on the north side of the Fitzroy, Norway having been their home in their boyhood. About a year after Gracemere was occupied, Charles Archer, in company with Mr. Wiseman, police magistrate, after much exploration and discussion, fixed upon the site for a township, Mr. Wiseman naming it Rockhampton, that name being adopted on account of the rocky bar above the town, which blocks navigation for large vessels. Mr. Archer, having revisited England, returned to the Colony in 1871, remaining until 1878, when he finally took up his residence in England. He was appointed Acting Agent-General for Queensland in London in July 1881, and Agent-General in Nov. 1881. From this post he retired in May 1884, but was reappointed on Sir Thomas McIlwraith's return to power in June 1888, but again resigned on Dec. 10th, 1890. Mr. Archer was created C.M.G. in 1884. He was married in 1853, at Perth, N.B., to Grace Lindsay, daughter of James Morison, of Muirton, Perth. His eldest son, Mr. William Archer, is the well-known author and dramatic critic.

Armytage, George, son of George Armytage, who died in Australia in 1853, having emigrated at the age of eighty-seven, was born at Ticknall, Derbyshire, England, in 1795, and was educated at schools in Yorkshire. He subsequently studied engineering in London until his twentieth year, when, on Feb. 28th, 1815, he sailed for Australia in the Hebe, which reached Sydney in August. In the following year he landed in Tasmania, where he was allotted a few acres of land at Bagdad, which were increased to 500 acres in 1817. In 1826 he received a further grant of 1000 acres, built upon it the first watermill in Tasmania, and, in spite of troubles with blacks and bushrangers, became successful. In 1835 Port Phillip commenced to attract settlers; and in 1836 his eldest son Thomas visited the district, and camped on the Werribee. In 1847 Mr. Armytage proceeded to Victoria, and settled upon his son George Armytage's station at Ingleby, where his eldest son had died of typhus fever on Sept. 12th, 1842. In 1851 he settled at Geelong, and built "The Hermitage." In 1818 he married Miss Elizabeth Peters. He died of erysipelas in 1862, his widow surviving him till 1873.

Arney, Sir George Alfred, seventh son of William Arney, of The Close, Salisbury, by Maria Charlotte, daughter of Thomas Greene White, of Kew Green, Middlesex, was born in 1806, and educated at Winchester and Brasenose College, Oxford, graduating B.A. in 1829 and M.A. in 1830. He was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1834, and was engaged upon the Western Circuit. In 1833 he married Harriett, daughter of Captain Thomas Parr, R.N., who died without issue in 1844. In 1858 Mr. Arney went out to New Zealand, and was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, in which position he remained until 1875. From March 21st to June 14th, 1873, Sir George Arney, who was knighted in 1862, administered the government of the colony between the departure of Sir George Bowen and the arrival of Sir James Fergusson. He was also a member of the Legislative Council for some years, and member of the Executive Council. He returned to England on his resignation in 1875, and died April 7th, 1883.

Arnold, Thomas, M.A., is the second son of the late Dr. Arnold, of Rugby, and was born at Laleham, Staines, on Nov. 30th, 1823. He was educated at Winchester, Rugby, and University College, Oxford, where he took his degree (first class in classics) in 1848. After serving for some time in the Colonial Office he emigrated in 1847 to New Zealand, intending to settle there as a farmer. Not finding this employment congenial or profitable, he proceeded to Tasmania, where he received the appointment of Inspector of Schools. While in Tasmania he married Julia, daughter of William Sorell, Registrar of Deeds, and granddaughter of Colonel Sorell, sometime Governor of the island. In 1855 Mr. Arnold, carried away even in the Antipodes by the "Oxford Movement," followed its leader into the Church of Rome. He relinquished his post and returned to England, when he received the appointment of Professor of English Literature in the now defunct Catholic University of Dublin, where he remained for six years, subsequently following the late Cardinal Newman to Edgbaston. He is author of numerous works, mostly on English literature.

Arnold, Hon. William Munnings, M.L.A., second son of the Rev. Richard Arnold, was born at Ellough, Suffolk, England, in 1820, and arrived in New South Wales in 1839, when he settled on the Paterson river. In 1856 he was elected to the Legislative Assembly for Durham and Paterson, and in 1858 was chosen Chairman of Committees. From March 1860 to Oct. 1863 he was Minister for Public Works in the Robertson and Cowper Ministries, and shared in the carrying of the Land Act of 1861. In the subsequent Cowper Ministry he held the same post from Feb. to Oct. 1865, when he was for a few days Minister of Lands, and subsequently acted as Speaker of the Assembly from Nov. 1865 to March 1st, 1875, when he was drowned in the floods at Stradbroke, his estate on the Paterson River.

Aspinall, Hon. Butler Cole, son of the Rev. James Aspinall, rector of Althorp, Lancashire, and brother of John Bridge Aspinall, Q.C., Recorder of Liverpool, and Attorney-General of the County Palatine of Durham, was called to the English bar in 1853. Having been a contributor to the Morning Chronicle and other London papers, when he was known to Mr. G. H. Lewes, Rossetti, and many other literary celebrities, he went to Victoria in 1854 as law reporter to the Melbourne Argus. Subsequently he contributed to the Morning Herald, Age, and Melbourne Punch. He commenced to practise as a barrister on leaving the Argus, and gained a great reputation as an advocate by his defence of the Eureka rioters. In 1856 he entered parliament as member of the Legislative Assembly for Talbot, established a reputation as a debater, and became still more widely celebrated in social circles as the recognised wit of the colony. He succeeded Mr. R. D. Ireland as Attorney-General in the Heales Administration in July 1861, and held office until November of that year. He became member for Portland, and was Solicitor-General in the Macpherson Ministry from Jan. to April 1870. In 1868 he went to Sydney and defended O'Farrell, who was tried and executed for the attempted assassination of the Duke of Edinburgh. Mr. Aspinall resigned his seat in Parliament in 1870, and the following year became insane. He died in England on April 4th, 1875.

Atkins, Robert Travers, a well-known journalist and member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly, was born at Fernhill, Cork, Ireland, on Nov. 29th, 1841, and died at Sandgate, Qd., on May 25th, 1872. He was a relative of the late Thomas Davis, whose biography has recently been written by Sir Charles Gavan Duffy. He was buried at Sandgate, where a monument was erected to his memory by the members of the Hibernian Society of Queensland, of which he was vice-president.

Atkinson, Major Hon. Sir Harry Albert, K.C.M.G., M.L.C., President Legislative Council, New Zealand, is a native of England. [He was born in Cheshire in 1831*] and emigrated to New Zealand, where he landed in 1855 with his brother Decimus, and settled on some land in the Taranaki district, where he lived all through the Maori war. The energy of the young colonists in these parts soon took upon it the burden of the tedious war; and a band of volunteers was organised, with Mr. Atkinson as captain, which proved more effective in the issue than the trained regulars, whose freedom of action was hampered by military traditions. The first action in which Mr. Atkinson was engaged was at Waireka, on March 28th, 1860, where the Colonial troops greatly distinguished themselves. Subsequently he took part in the capture of several pas at Kaihihi in Oct. 1860, in the battle of Mahoetahi on Nov. 6th, and the battle of Matarikoriko in December. He was present at the capture of Kaitake on March 24th, 1864, at Sentry Hill, at Ahu-Ahu, at Allen's Hill, at Manutahi, and at Mataitawa. For these and other services he was advanced to the rank of major, and received the thanks of the Government. Previous to this he had been elected to the Parliament of 1863, and on Nov. 24th, 1864, took office as Minister of Defence under Sir Frederick Weld. This was a time of great difficulties, for the conduct of the war had forced upon the consideration of the Ministry the advisability of dispensing with the support of the Home Government. It was upon this point that Major Atkinson came first into notice as a politician, for his speech upon the second reading of the Militia Act Repeal Bill was the proclamation of a new era. The English forces were to be withdrawn, and henceforth the colony was to depend upon herself. This principle was accepted by both Houses, and it seemed at first as if the Weld Government, called to establish a new régime, would carry with it the sense of the country. But a series of misfortunes befell the Ministry. The removal of the seat of government from Auckland to Wellington leagued the north against them; financial difficulties embarrassed them; misunderstandings between the Governor and the Ministry were succeeded by a quarrel between the Governor and Sir Duncan Cameron, the general in command of the English forces. In the end, despite some changes in the personnel of the Government, Sir Frederick Weld resigned upon a virtual defeat in an attempt to carry stamp duties, and Sir Edward Stafford was called to power, on Oct 16th, 1865. The Stafford Ministry lasted, with some alterations, till June 28th, 1869; and in 1867-8 Major Atkinson took an active part in the discussions which took place upon the war. From 1869 to 1873 he was not in Parliament. In the latter year he was again returned to the General Assembly. In Oct. 1872 the third Stafford Administration, which lasted only for a month, was succeeded by a Ministry, with Mr. G. M. Waterhouse as Premier; but this Cabinet was reconstructed twice, the first time under Sir William Fox, and the second under Sir Julius Vogel. Under the latter Major Atkinson accepted the portfolios of Secretary for Crown Lands and Minister for Immigration on Sept. 7th and 10th, 1874, respectively. On July 6th, 1875, a third reconstruction took place, and Dr. Pollen became Premier, Major Atkinson taking from him the portfolio of Colonial Treasurer, which he added to his former offices. It was in 1875 that the very important Bill abolishing the provincial legislatures, which had been announced in the previous year by Sir Julius Vogel as the policy of the Government, was carried; and it fell to the task of Major Atkinson, as leader of the Lower House, to move the second reading of the bill, which was carried by 52 votes to 17, and subsequently passed through the Upper House and became law. On Feb. 15th, 1876, Sir Julius Vogel resumed his place as Premier and Colonial Treasurer; and, in lieu of the latter office, allotted to his colleague the portfolio of Commissioner of Customs; and at the last rearrangement of this changeful Ministry, upon the departure of Sir Julius Vogel to assume the position of Agent-General in London, Major Atkinson took his place as Premier and Colonial Treasurer. But twelve days later there was a readjustment of offices, and the Premier became also Secretary for Crown Lands and Minister for Immigration once more. On Oct. 14th, 1877, the Atkinson Ministry retired, and was succeeded by the Grey Cabinet, which, however, was defeated on Oct. 8th, 1879, when Mr. (afterwards Sir) John Hall came into office, Major Atkinson becoming Colonial Treasurer. On April 21st, 1882, Sir John Hall retired from the Premiership owing to ill-health, and was succeeded by Sir Frederick Whitaker, Major Atkinson continuing to hold the office of Colonial Treasurer, as well as those of Commissioner of Stamp Duties and Customs and Minister of Marine. On Sept. 25th, 1883, he became Premier; but retired on Aug. 18th, 1884, when Sir Julius Vogel formed a Ministry. The Vogel Cabinet only lasted ten days, and on Aug. 28th Major Atkinson again came in; but the party led by Sir George Grey once more overthrew the balance, and the Ministry resigned on Aug. 30th, giving place to a combination of Sir Julius Vogel and Mr. (now Sir) Robert Stout. This lasted until Oct. 11th, 1887, when Major Atkinson once more came into office as Premier and Colonial Treasurer. In 1890 Major Atkinson, who had been in exceedingly bad health, retired from active work, though still holding together his colleagues as nominal Premier. The result of the general election in December of that year being adverse, Sir Harry Atkinson, who was created K.C.M.G. in 1888, advised his own nomination to the post of President of the Legislative Council in succession to the late Sir William Fitzherbert. His acceptance of this position, broke up the Ministry, and made way for the accession to office of Mr. Ballance and his colleagues in Jan. 1891. [Sir Harry Atkinson died on June 28th, 1892—Appended in Supplement, p. 529]

Austin, Thomas, a well-known Victorian squatter, came out with his parents from Great Britain to Tasmania about the year 1835. The former, however, soon returned to the old country, leaving their family to test the advantages of colonial life. Mr. Thomas Austin, accompanied by his brother, James (now of Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset), left Tasmania in 1839, for the then little known settlement of Port Phillip, taking with them a number of sheep which they ultimately depastured on country to the west ward of Geelong, on the east bank of the Barwon River, near what is now the town of Winchelsea. To this property they gave the name of Barwon Park—a name now historic in the annals of stock raising and wool growing, Mr. Austin being the first to introduce Lincoln sheep into Australia, besides which he acclimatised various kinds of game on his extensive property, which still remains in the possession of the family. Mr. Austin married, on August 14th, 1845, Elizabeth Phillip Harding, daughter of Robert Harding, of Middle Chinnock, Somerset, and granddaughter of James Harding, of Hurly Grove, in that county, the munificent founder of the Hospital for Incurables at Heidelberg, near Melbourne, and a lady whose acts of charity have rendered her name a household word throughout the colony of Victoria. Mr. Thomas Austin died on Dec. 15th, 1871.

Ayers, Hon. Sir Henry, K.C.M.G., M.L.C., son of Mr. Ayers of Portsmouth Dockyard, was born at Portsea, England, on May 1st, 1821, and emigrated to South Australia in 1840, where he engaged in legal pursuits until 1845, when he took the management of the Burra Burra Mines, as Secretary to the Company formed to work them. In March 1857 he was elected a member of the Legislative Council, and has ever since retained a seat in that body. He was a member of the Dutton Ministry, without office for a few days in July 1863, and then formed an Administration, of which he was Chief Secretary and Premier. This Government lasted till August 1864, Mr. Ayers retaining the Chief Secretaryship under his two successors in the Premiership, and in his own subsequent Administration till Oct. 1865. He was Premier and Chief Secretary on four subsequent occasions—viz. from May 1867 to Sept. 1868, Oct. to Nov. 1868, Jan. to March 1872, and March 1872 to July 1873. Mr. Ayers was also Chief Secretary in the Colton Government from June 1876 to Oct. 1877. In Feb. 1870 he was created C.M.G, and K.C.M.G. in Dec. 1872, owing to the fact of his being Premier of South Australia at the time when the overland telegraph line was opened for traffic. In June 1881 Sir Henry was elected President of the Legislative Council, and has since been re-elected to the position, which he still holds.

B

Backhouse, James, son of James Backhouse, of Darlington, Durham, England, and Mary his wife, daughter of N. Dearman, of Pindar Oaks, Darfield, Yorkshire, was born at Darlington on July 8th, 1794. The Backhouse family were well known throughout the North of England as bankers, but James Backhouse was early attracted to the study of botany, and in 1815 he purchased the nursery grounds of Messrs. Telford at York, in which business he found an occupation congenial to his tastes. He early became a minister of the Society of Friends, of which body his family were prominent members. In 1827 he married Deborah, daughter of Richard Lowe of Worcester. For some years he was impressed with the belief that it was his duty to visit the Australian colonies, and eventually, in the year 1880, he determined to leave his business for that purpose, and he was accredited by the Society of Friends on a religions mission to the "Colonies and Settlements of New Holland, Van Diemen's Land, and South Africa." Mr. Backhouse was accompanied by Mr. George W. Walker (q.v.). The two friends arrived in Hobart in February 1832, and began the work which was to occupy them more than eight years. They spent three years in Van Diemen's Land and two years in New South Wales, travelling in all places where settlers were to be found, and systematically visiting every chain-gang and convict station, including the penal settlements of Macquarie Harbour, Norfolk Island, and Moreton Bay (now Brisbane). The Governors of the Colonies offered them every facility and encouragement in their benevolent efforts for the welfare of the prisoners, and their reports had no small influence in promoting reforms of the penal system, and in bettering the condition of the convicts. Leaving Hobart on their way to the Cape, they visited (1837) Melbourne, Adelaide, King George's Sound, and Swan River,—settlements then in their infancy. After a few months' stay at Mauritius, they reached Cape Town in 1838. They spent nearly two years in Cape Colony, travelling in their ox-wagon to the most remote parts, visiting mission stations, and specially devoting their efforts to benefiting the coloured people and the poorest classes of the population. Mr. Backhouse returned to England in 1841, and published an account of his travels in two works of much interest—"Narrative of a Visit to the Australian Colonies" (London, 1843); and "Narrative of a Visit to the Mauritius and South Africa" (London, 1844). These volumes contain a mass of interesting information concerning the condition of the Colonies, and are full of valuable observations with regard to the natural history, and especially the flora of Tasmania and Australia, Mr. Backhouse being an enthusiastic and accomplished botanist. From the date of his return to England in 1841, to his death, Mr. Backhouse devoted his attention to business at the well-known Nursery Gardens at York, and introduced many new ferns and other plants into English gardens. Besides the works above mentioned, he was joint author of "The Life and Labours of George W. Walker" (London, 1862). He died at York on Jan. 20th, 1869.

Badgery, Henry Septimus, was born at Sutton Forest, N.S.W., on Dec. 9th, 1840, and married, in 1869, Julia, daughter of G. M. Pitt, of Sydney. He was for some time member for East Maitland in the Legislative Assembly of New South Wales, and was afterwards twice elected for Monaro. Having joined the Dibbs Ministry as Secretary for Public Works, on Oct. 7th, 1885, he was defeated at Camden, and resigned office on the 31st of the same month.

Badham, Rev. Charles, D.D., the son of Charles Badham, M.A., F.R.C.S., F.R.S., Regius Professor of Physics in Glasgow University, by his marriage with Margaret, daughter of John Campbell, a cousin of Thomas Campbell the poet, was born at Ludlow, in Shropshire, on July 18th, 1813, and educated under the celebrated Pestalozzi, and afterwards at Eton. He matriculated at Wadham College, Oxford, in 1831, and graduated B.A. in 1837, taking his M.A. degree in 1839. After spending seven years in Germany and Italy, he was incorporated M.A. of St. Peter's College, Cambridge, ordained deacon in 1847, priest in 1848; appointed Head Master of King Edward's School, Southampton, in 1851, D.D. of Cambridge in 1852, Head Master of the Birmingham and Edgbaston Proprietary School in 1854; received from the University of Leyden the degree of Doctor Literarum Honoris Causâ in 1860; was appointed Examiner in Classics to the University of London in 1863, and in 1867 First Professor of Classics and Logic in the University of Sydney. Dr. Badham was one of the greatest Greek scholars of his time, and had a wide acquaintance with modern languages; but he failed, from faults of temper and lack of method, from gaining the recognition in England to which his talents would have otherwise entitled him. He is said to have known all Greek poetry by heart, and is famed for his scholarly editions of several Greek dramas, and of the "Philibus," the "Euthydemus," and "Laches" of Plato. He died in Sydney on Feb. 26th, 1884.

Bagot, Captain Charles Hervey, was born in Ireland, and entering the army, reached the rank of captain, serving with distinction in the East. He emigrated to South Australia during Colonel Gawler's term of office, and engaged in pastoral pursuits at Kapunda. He was a member of the first entirely nominee Legislative Council, was member for Light in the mixed Council which replaced it, and also sat in the present Upper House under responsible government. In the first-named he distinguished himself by his opposition to Colonel Robe's proposals for endowing the religious bodies and imposing a royalty on minerals. He is mainly known as one of the discoverers and original owners of the Kapunda Copper Mines. He was also the founder of the town of Kapunda. He died in Adelaide on July 28th, 1880, at the advanced age of ninety-two.

Bagot, John Tuthill, second son of Charles Bagot, of Kilcoursie House, King's County, by Anna, eldest daughter of John Tuthill, of Kingsland, co. Limerick, was born in 1819, and admitted to the Irish bar. He married in 1848 Eliza, daughter of John Meyler. He emigrated to South Australia, and was elected to the semi-elective Legislative Council of 1855-6, for the district of Light. From 1857 to 1864 he represented that district in the Legislative Assembly. On Sept. 26th, 1866, Mr. Bagot was elected to the new Legislative Council, and continued to hold the seat until June 16th, 1870, when he resigned. Mr. Bagot was Solicitor-General in Mr. Baker's Ministry from August 21st to Sept. 1st, 1857; Commissioner of Crown Lands and Immigration in Mr. Reynolds' Ministry from May 9th, 1860, to May 20th, 1861; Attorney-General in Mr. Hart's Ministry from Sept. 24th to Oct. 13th, 1868; and Chief Secretary in Mr. Strangways' Government from Nov. 3rd, 1868, to May 12th, 1870. Mr. Bagot died on August 13th, 1870.

Bailey, Frederick Manson, F.L.S., Colonial Botanist, Queensland, second son of the late John Bailey, first Colonial Botanist of South Australia, was born in London; emigrated to South Australia in 1839, arrived in Queensland in 1861, and was appointed to his present position of Colonial Botanist in 1881. He is the author of "Handbook to the Queensland Ferns," "The Fern World of Australia," "A Synopsis of the Queensland Flora," and several catalogues and papers upon the plants, ferns, and woods of the colony. In 1889, in connection with Mr. P. R. Gordon, Chief Inspector of Stock, Mr. Bailey published an illustrated work, "Plants reported Poisonous and Injurious to Stock," a work of value to pastoralists.

Baillie, Sir George, Bart., eldest son of the late Thomas Baillie, of Toorak, Melbourne, fourth son of Sir William Baillie, 1st Bart., of Polkemmet, Linlithgowshire, by his marriage with Elizabeth, daughter of Captain James Ballingall, R.N., of Melbourne, was born in Victoria on Oct. 20th, 1856. Sir George Baillie, who was educated at the Scotch College, Melbourne, and at Caius College, Cambridge (B.A. 1881), succeeded his uncle, Sir William Baillie, in 1890, the latter dying without issue. Like his father, Sir George is largely interested in squatting pursuits in Australia.

Baker, Hon. Ezekiel Alexander, was born in Middlesex, England, in 1823, and emigrated to New South Wales in 1853 as mineralogist to a mining company. In 1870 he was elected to the Legislative Assembly for the Southern Goldfields, and was also a member of the Goldfields Committee. When Mr. Garrett, the Minister of Lands in the Robertson Ministry, resigned his office, in Feb. 1877, Mr. Baker was appointed to succeed him, but the Government only held office till March. He was appointed Secretary for Mines in the next Robertson Administration, in August of the same year, exchanging that post for the portfolio of Lands in November, and going out of office with his colleagues in December. Mr. Baker was again Minister of Mines in the Parkes Government from Dec. 1878 to August 1881, when he was expelled from the Assembly on a charge of corrupt conduct.

Baker, Hon. John Baker, Hon. John, M.L.C., J.P., F.R.G.S., sometime Premier of South Australia, was the eldest son of Richard Chaffey Baker, of Lopen, Somersetshire, and Mary, his wife, daughter of John Anstice, of South Petherton, Somersetshire. He was born at Ilminster, Somerset, England, in Dec 1812. He emigrated to Tasmania in early life, and married on June 7th, 1838, Isabella, second daughter of George Allan, of Allan Vale, Tasmania. In the same year he visited South Australia, where he permanently settled about a year later. Soon after his arrival he concluded an arrangement with the South Australian Company for the importation of ten thousand sheep from Tasmania; and from this time entered largely into pastoral pursuits, and was very successful. Mr. Baker was also concerned in forming a company to import draught horses from England, and bred and trained many successful performers on the turf. He was a director of the Bank of Australasia and of the South Australian Mining Association, and was the first chairman of the Chamber of Commerce on its establishment in 1850. He was also a lieut.-colonel in the South Australian Infantry force, and represented Mount Barker in the mixed Legislative Council from 1851 to 1856. Whilst a member of this body he opposed the abolition of State aid to religion, and supported the proposal for a nominee Upper House—in each case unsuccessfully. When responsible government was inaugurated, in 1857, he was elected to the new Legislative Council, and retained his seat till his death. He was Premier and Chief Secretary for eleven days—viz., from August 21st to Sept. 1st, 1857. The next year he was commissioned by his fellow-colonists to present an address to Her Majesty the Queen on the occasion of the marriage of the Princess Royal, and this he did at a levée at St. James's Palace in March 1859. Shortly afterwards he returned to South Australia, and died at Morialta on May 19th, 1872.

Baker, Hon. Richard Chaffey, C.M.G., M.L.C., M.A., eldest son of the late John Baker, of Morialta, South Australia, and Isabella (Allan) his wife, was born at North Adelaide in 1841, and educated at Eton, and at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. (Mathematical Tripos) in 1864, and M.A. in 1870. Mr. Baker, who is a member of the legal firm of Baker & Barlow, of Adelaide, became a student at Lincoln's Inn in Jan. 1861, and was called to the bar in June 1864. He entered the Legislative Assembly of South Australia as member for Barossa in 1868, and represented that constituency till 1871. He was Attorney-General in the Ministry of the late Captain Hart from May 1870 to July 1871, when he resigned. He also held office in Mr. Colton's Cabinet as Minister of Justice and Education from June 1884 to June 1886. In the latter year Mr. Baker was sent to England as the representative of the Australian colonies to negotiate with the Imperial Government, in connection with the renewal of the expiring mail contracts. He succeeded in obtaining some important concessions, and was created C.M.G. in 1886, in recognition of his services. Mr. Baker, who has been a member of the Legislative Council since 1877, was elected to act as one of the representatives of South Australia at the Federation Convention in Sydney in March 1891, and distinguished himself by his championship of the state rights of the smaller colonies. He was married at Glenelg, S.A., to Katherine Edith, daughter of Richard Bowen Colley.

Baker, Rev. Shirley W., late Premier of Tonga, was sent to Tonga in the year 1860 by the Australian Wesleyan Conference, and remained a missionary for about twenty years, being head of the mission for the latter half of that period, a position which he resigned to become adviser to King George of Tonga and Premier of the Tongan Government. During his residence in the islands he did much to obtain liberty for the people, who previously had been simply serfs of the chiefs. Mr. Baker had also forestalled the doctrine of Henry George many years before "Progress and Poverty" was written, by nationalising the lands of Tonga and enabling each taxpayer to claim land sufficient to assist him in paying his taxes and providing for his family. He also gave the Tongans their flag, and secured for them in 1875 a constitution which is still the law of the land, also a judiciary system embracing police courts and a police force. He compiled a code of laws, and had roads made through all the islands. Instead of the meeting of chiefs to manage the affairs of the kingdom, he gave them a Legislative Assembly, consisting of an equal number of hereditary chiefs and representatives of the people elected by ballot, each taxpayer able to read and write having a vote. He also made education free and compulsory. The public buildings which were put up under his supervision were highly creditable, and the King's private church is reckoned one of the finest pieces of architecture in the South Seas. He also succeeded in getting Tonga acknowledged as an independent kingdom by England, Germany, and America. During the latter part of Mr. Baker's administration as Premier of Tonga, trouble arose between the Government and the Wesleyan Church, owing chiefly to the fact that the absorption of money for the purposes of governing the islands caused a great falling off in the annual collections among the islands for Foreign Missions. After ineffectual attempts to induce the Australasian Wesleyan Conference to confer local government upon the Tongan Church, Mr. Baker established an independent Methodist body under the title of the "Free Church of Tonga," which drew away the majority of natives from the orthodox Wesleyan Church. In these islands religion enters into every relation of life, and the rivalries, political and religious, grew so intense that a discontented faction made an attempt to assassinate Mr. Baker whilst he was out driving. His son and daughter, who occupied seats in the buggy with him, were severely wounded, but Mr. Baker escaped. The offenders were brought to trial, some of them executed, and a considerable number banished for treason against the Government. About this time the administration of Tonga, Samoa, and other Pacific islands became a subject of secret international agreements, and through influences exercised in England Sir John Thurston visited Tonga in a man-of-war in 1890 and forcibly deported Mr. Baker to Fiji, issuing an order against his return to Tonga for a period of two years. A purely native Government, assisted by two European officials in non-political matters, has since ruled the islands. Mr. Baker removed to Auckland, N.Z., where he now resides.

Balfe, John Donellan, son of James Balfe and Sara Sutherland his wife, daughter of the last Lord Duffus, was born at Sallybrook, Drumcondra, Ireland, in the year 1816. He was educated at Clongoeswood College, near Dublin, conducted by Jesuits, where he received a good classical education. After leaving college he joined the Life Guards, and was stationed at Windsor for two years. He was one of those detailed to escort the Queen on her marriage from Windsor Castle to Buckingham Palace. Mr. Balfe took an active part in the political affairs of Ireland, and became a prominent member of the Repeal Association under O'Connell. He was one of the declaimers at Conciliation Hall, and warmly advocated the redress of Irish grievances. He was also identified with the Irish confederation, but withdrew from the party on finding their schemes were wild and visionary, and could not be attained without a general rising of the peasantry. He was author of a number of letters on the Landlord and Tenant question published in the Dublin Evening Post and signed "An Irish Farmer," and also contributed to a Liverpool journal under the name of "Peter Carroll, Stonemason." In 1850 he married Mary, daughter of Terence O'Reilly of Ballybeg, and shortly afterwards emigrated to Tasmania. Mr. Balfe brought letters of introduction from the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland to Governor Denison, and shortly after his arrival was appointed Assistant Comptroller General of Convicts. After three years he resigned his office, and went to reside on his location at Lisadern, near Port Cygnet, Huon River. He brought himself into notice as the writer of letters signed "Bill Shingle," which called attention to the wants of the Huon district, and also as the author of a series of letters signed "Dion," in opposition to the aims of the Anti-Transportation League. On the introduction of responsible government in 1856, he was elected a member of the House of Assembly for the Franklin district. He retained his seat in the Assembly, with the exception of one session, until his death, a period of twenty-four years, representing successively Franklin, South Launceston, and West Hobart. Mr. Balfe's speeches were marked by considerable power of humorous satire, and his ability and force as a debater made him for many years a prominent figure in Tasmanian politics. He was at various periods editor of several Tasmanian newspapers. He died at Hobart on December 13th, 1880. An account of his trial for assaulting Mr. T. G. Gregson was published in Tasmania in 1853.

Balfour, Hon. James, M.L.C., son of John Balfour, a merchant of Leith, was born in 1830 in Edinburgh, and educated at the Edinburgh Academy and the University. After some commercial experience in London, from 1849 to 1852, he went to Melbourne as the representative of Messrs. Matheson, of Lombard Street, to the firm of James Henty & Co. In 1854 he opened a branch house of the latter firm at Geelong. He visited England in 1857-8, resigned his position in Geelong in 1863, and in 1866 entered the Assembly as member for East Bourke. He was for three years one of the Commissioners of Education prior to the organisation of the department under a responsible minister. In 1868 he made another visit to England, prior to which he resigned his seat in the Assembly, and returned to Australia and entered the Legislative Council in 1874, being re-elected for the south-eastern province on Aug. 17th, 1880. He made another trip home in 1878, and on his return established the firm of Balfour, Elliott, & Co., which was made into a limited company in 1887. Mr. Balfour is an old member of the Melbourne Chamber of Commerce, of which he has been President and Vice-President. He acted on the Irrigation and Water Supply, and on the Banking Laws Commissions; is Chairman of the Australian Deposit and Mortgage Bank, Limited, and of the Equitable Assurance Company of the United States, and Vice-Chairman of the Trustees, Executors, and Agency Company, Limited, and is a member of the Council of Ormond College. In 1859 he married Frances Charlotte, eldest daughter of the late Hon. James Henty, M.L.C. Mr. Balfour was a member of the Gillies Government without portfolio from May 1890 till its resignation in November of that year.

Ballance, Hon. John, M.H.R., Premier of New Zealand, was born at Glenavy, in the county of Antrim, Ireland, on March 27th, 1839, his father, Samuel Ballance, being a tenant farmer on Lord Hertford's estate. He received his preliminary education at the National School, but at the age of fourteen left his father's farm to be apprenticed to an ironmonger. This line of life took him later on to Birmingham, where he remained eight years, profiting in every way by the intellectual progressive life of the great manufacturing centre. While following his business he found time to attend the evening classes in the Midland Institute for the purpose of completing his education. Earnestly bent on self-culture, he took part in debating societies, and contributed largely to the press. At the age of twenty-seven he determined to emigrate, and, sailing for New Zealand, arrived at Wellington in August 1866. He at once proceeded to Wanganui with the intention of engaging in sheep-farming, an occupation which he had been led to believe was an easy way of making money without much capital. On this point he was soon undeceived, and he then opened a jeweller's shop of the better class, but losing money in this enterprise, he promptly abandoned it and started a newspaper under the name of the Wanganui Herald, Of this paper Mr. Ballance was both proprietor and editor, and up to the present time he has continued to be its guiding spirit. As is usual with newly established newspapers in young communities, the Wanganui Herald had many initial difficulties to overcome; but in the end its founder's energies were rewarded, and his "daily" became recognised throughout the colony as one of the best organs of public opinion. Mr. Ballance had soon achieved a reputation as an able and incisive writer; but it was not till he had surprised a Wanganui meeting by an unlooked-for speech that his qualities as a public speaker became appreciated. He contested the Egmont seat in 1873, in the interests of the Stafford Ministry, his opponents being the late W. S. Moorhouse and Sir Harry Atkinson. Although considered by his friends practically safe, he retired in favour of the latter candidate on his pledging himself to support Sir Edward Stafford. He was elected for Wanganui in 1875 on the Abolition (of provinces) ticket, having taken for many years a prominent part in local politics in opposition to the provincial system, then in existence. He marked his first session by introducing a bill to enable municipalities to raise loans by vote of the ratepayers on security of a special rate without the necessity of permissory legislation in each case. This important measure passed the House, but was rejected in the Council by a narrow majority; and in the following session it was embodied in the Municipal Corporations Bill by Sir Julius Vogel, who freely acknowledged his indebtedness to the author of the scheme. The measure finally became law, and was found to work admirably. In the session of 1877 Mr. Ballance moved an amendment to the Native Land Court Bill, against free trade in native lands, and the bill was ultimately withdrawn by the Government. Throughout that session he supported the newly formed Grey Ministry, refusing, however, to accept a portfolio whilst the Cabinet was being formed. Shortly after the termination of the session, the Ministry again pressing office upon him, and Sir George Grey himself soliciting his assistance, Mr. Ballance accepted the post of Minister of Education in Jan. 1878, which he exchanged for that of Colonial Treasurer in July of the same year; but in June 1879 he resigned rather than comply with what he regarded as the arbitrary methods of the Premier. At the general election in the same year he stood for Wanganui, and defeated Sir William Fox, Messrs. Ballance and Bryce, the late leader of the Opposition, being the two successful candidates. During the successive sessions of 1879, 1880, and 1881 he took a very active part in opposition to the Hall and Whitaker Ministries. At the general election in Dec. 1881 he stood for Wanganui, and was defeated by W. H. Watt, but by a majority of only four. At the general election of 1884 he was elected by a majority of two to one over Messrs. Watt and George Hutchinson, and at the general election of 1887 by a similar majority over Mr. G. Carson. He was returned again for Wanganui at the general election of 1890, but by a greatly reduced majority. In Sept. 1884 Mr. Ballance joined the Stout-Vogel administration as Native Minister and Minister for Defence and Lands, and retained office till the retirement of that Ministry in Oct. 1887. In the following year he was formally chosen as leader of the Opposition; and he became Premier, Colonial Treasurer, and Commissioner of Customs on the resignation of Sir Harry Atkinson's Government in Jan. 1891. Outside of politics Mr. Ballance has done the colony good service. In 1868, when the Maori insurgents under Titokowaru were ravaging the district, Mr. Ballance helped to raise the Wanganui Cavalry and took his place in the ranks, but was immediately elected Cornet of the corps, which afterwards did good service in the field. He was, however, removed from his military position for having contributed to his paper some criticisms on the campaign which gave umbrage to the Government. Mr. Ballance was the author of the scheme for returning to the local bodies one-third of the land revenue derived from deferred payments, having introduced it into the Land Bill of 1877, when it was before the Waste Lands Committee; and the principle has since been extended to the perpetual lease system. Soon after first taking office in 1878, he announced that the Government would introduce a measure conferring the residential franchise, virtually manhood suffrage, this being the first announcement of the kind ever made in any of the colonies. As Colonial Treasurer in 1878 he introduced a land tax, and carried it into law. It was, however, repealed by the Atkinson Ministry in the following year. In the Stout-Vogel Ministry Mr. Ballance introduced and put in practice the village homestead system, under which a thousand families were placed on the land in eighteen months. He also inaugurated the policy by which a large military force to overawe the natives was got rid of, and the Maori people brought under the ordinary civil law, a policy which proved completely successful. As Defence Minister he fortified the principal ports and organised a colonial military force known as the Permanent Militia. As Native Minister he succeeded in bringing about a better understanding between the two races than had existed for years, especially in the so-called "King Country." In the second session of 1891, having formed a strong Government, he introduced and carried the various policy Bills, the principles of which the country had affirmed at the previous general election. He is a strong advocate of a closer alliance with the mother country, holding that there is already a system of imperial federation which may be developed—that an Imperial Council of Advice in London should be the nucleus of an Imperial Parliament—and that the colony should share in proportion to population and wealth in the defence of the empire. He is opposed to New Zealand being part of an Australasian Federation on the broad ground that the conditions are dissimilar, and that autonomy would ultimately be destroyed. In May 1870 Mr. Ballance married Ellen, daughter of the late David Anderson, of Wellington.

Bancroft, Joseph, M.D., M.R.C.S., L.S.A., President of the Medical Board, Queensland, was admitted M.D. of St. Andrews University, M.R.C.S. England, and L.S.A. London in 1859. He practises in Brisbane, and is president of the Medical Board and a member of the Central Board of Health. He has been a trustee of the Queensland Museum

Barker, Right Rev. Frederic, D.D., second Bishop of Sydney, was the son of the late Rev. John Barker, Incumbent of Baslow, in Derbyshire. He was born in 1808, and educated at Grantham School and Jesus College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1829. He was ordained in 1831, and was subsequently incumbent of Upton, in Cheshire, Edgehill, near Liverpool, and of his native parish of Baslow. After the death of Dr. Broughton, the first Bishop of Sydney, he was selected by the Archbishop of Canterbury to succeed him in his episcopate, and as Metropolitan of the Province of Australia. His consecration took place in Nov. 1854, and he arrived in Sydney in May 1855. For some time previously the project of introducing Synodical Church Government had been before the Church, and after the passing of the Grants for Public Worship Prohibition Act, the organisation so much desired by the clergy and laity was at length established, the first synod of the diocese of Sydney assembling on Dec. 5th, 1866, and Bishop Barker, by the constitutions of the Church, becoming its President. The diocese of Sydney made great progress under his care, and he thrice visited England in the promotion of its interests. When State aid was abolished statutory provision was made for the retention of Bishop Barker's stipend of £2,000 per annum. Under his primacy no less than seven new sees were established in Australia, viz., Perth [Western Australia] in 1856; Brisbane [Queensland] in 1859; Goulburn [New South Wales] in 1863; Grafton and Armidale [New South Wales] in 1866; Bathurst [New South Wales] in 1869; Ballarat [Victoria] in 1875; and North Queensland in 1878. His first wife died in Sydney in 1876, and he married, secondly, Mary Jane, elder daughter of Edward Woods of London, and having had a paralytic seizure, he paid a fourth visit to Europe in 1881 to recuperate his health, but died after an illness of four weeks at San Remo on April 6th, 1882. He was buried at Baslow.

Barker, John, sometime Clerk of the Parliaments, Victoria, is the eldest son of the late John Barker and Mary Anne, his wife, and was born at Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire. He emigrated to Port Phillip (now Victoria) in 1840, after entering himself for the bar at Lincoln's Inn, and engaged in pastoral pursuits with his brother Edward, afterwards a well-known physician in Melbourne. Revisiting England, he was called to the bar in 1843; and in 1844 married Susanna, daughter of Richard Hodgkinson, of Morton Grange, Nottingham. He returned to Port Phillip in Nov. 1844, accompanied by his brother William (who subsequently practised as a surgeon at Emerald Hill, Melbourne). In the next year he was appointed a magistrate, and in August 1849 was one of the Commissioners under the Disputed Boundaries Act, having the Hamilton district assigned to him. Mr. Barker, who was admitted to the Victorian bar in Nov. 1851, was in October of that year, on the separation of Port Phillip from New South Wales and its formation into the colony of Victoria, appointed Clerk of the Legislative Council then constituted, and successfully performed the difficult task of inaugurating its procedure. When responsible government came into operation in 1856, Mr. Barker was offered the choice of the clerkship of the new Upper or Lower Chamber. He accepted the latter, and remained Clerk of the Assembly until April 1882, when he was appointed Clerk of the Legislative Council and Clerk of Parliaments, a post which he resigned in 1891. He died on Nov. 15th of that year.

Barkly, Sir Henry, K.C.B., G.C.M.G., sometime Governor of Victoria, is of Scottish extraction, being the only son of the late Aeneas Barkly, of Monteagle, Ross-shire, an eminent West India merchant in London, where his son was born in 1815. He was educated at Bruce Castle School, Tottenham, and went into business. From April 1845 to Feb. 1849 he was M.P. for Leominster, as a supporter of Sir Robert Peel. In Dec. 1848 he was appointed Governor and commander-in-chief of British Guiana (where he owned estates), and where as Governor he advocated the introduction of coolies and Chinese as labourers. He was Governor of Jamaica from 1853 to 1856, being created K.C.B. in the former year. In Dec. 1856 he was appointed Governor of Victoria in succession to Sir Charles Hotham, and held that position till Sept. 1863. During his government of Victoria constitutional questions of some delicacy cropped up in connection with the initiatory stages of responsible government in that colony, but on the whole his régime was popular and respected. His first wife, who was the daughter of J. F. Timins, of Hatfield House, died in 1857, a few months after his arrival in Victoria, where in 1860 he married the only daughter of Sir Thomas Simson Pratt, K.C.B. In 1863 he was appointed Governor of Mauritius, and was Governor and High Commissioner at the Cape from 1870 to 1876. Meanwhile he was created G.C.M.G. in 1874. Sir Henry Barkly is in the enjoyment of a pension, and resides in London.

Barlee, Sir Frederick Palgrave, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S., was born in 1827, and served in the Ordnance Department from 1844 to 1855, when he retired, and was appointed Colonial Secretary for Western Australia, with a seat in the Executive and Legislative Councils. He resigned this post in 1875, and was Lieut.-Governor of British Honduras from 1877 till 1882. Sir Frederick, who was created C.M.G. in 1877, and K.C.M.G. on his retirement from the Colonial service, married in 1851, Jane, daughter of Edward John Oseland, of Coleraine, Ireland, who survived him. He died on August 8th, 1884.

Barling, Joseph, is a native of England, and was educated at Poole, Dorsetshire. He emigrated to Australia, and entered the New South Wales public service as a clerk in the Railway Department in July 1860, and subsequently held the appointments of chief clerk and accountant in the Harbours and Rivers Department, acting accountant in the Railway Department, and chief clerk in the Public Works Department. In 1888 he was promoted to his present position as Under Secretary for Public Works.

Barlow, Right Rev. Christopher George, Bishop of North Queensland, was ordained deacon by the ex-Bishop of North Queensland in 1881 and priest in 1882. He was curate of Mackay, Queensland, from 1881 to 1882, of St. Paul's, Charters Towers, from 1882 to 1884, and incumbent of the latter from 1884 to 1885, when he undertook duty as missionary chaplain until 1886, when he was appointed vicar of St. James's, Townsville. In 1891 he was appointed Bishop of North Queensland in succession to Bishop Stanton, who had accepted the bishopric of Newcastle, N.S.W., in the previous year.

Barrow, John Henry, M.P., was born in England in 1817, and was for a number of years on the literary staff of the Bradford Observer and other leading provincial journals. In 1852 he emigrated to South Australia, and became connected with the commercial, and subsequently the literary, department of the South Australian Register and Observer. He succeeded Dr. Garran as principal leader-writer for these papers, and at the same time occupied the pulpit of the Clayton Church, Norwood. In 1858 he resigned both employments, and started the Advertiser and Chronicle newspapers, entering the Legislative Assembly in the same year as member for East Torrens. Of the two journals mentioned he was editor and part proprietor with the late Mr. Thomas King down to the time of his death. In March 1861 he was returned to the Legislative Council, and occupied a seat in that House till 1869, when it became vacant by effluxion of time. In 1870 he was re-elected, but resigned in the next year, and was returned to the Assembly for Sturt, which he represented till his death, which took place at Adelaide on August 22nd, 1874. Mr. Barrow was Treasurer in the Ayers Ministry from March 1872 to July 1873.

Barry, Right Rev. Alfred, D.D., D.C.L., formerly Bishop of Sydney, Metropolitan of New South Wales, and Primate of Australia, is the son of Sir Charles Barry, B.A., the celebrated architect, by his marriage with Sarah, daughter of Samuel Bowsell. He was born in London on Jan. 15th, 1826, and educated at King's College, London, and at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. as 4th Wrangler, 2nd Smith prizeman, and seventh in 1st class of Classical Tripos in 1848, M.A. in 1851, B.D. in 1858, and D.D. in 1865. He was elected a fellow of Trinity College in 1849, ordained deacon in 1850, and priest in 1851. From 1850 to 1854 he was sub-warden of Trinity College, Glenalmond; from 1854 to 1862 head master of Leeds Grammar School; from 1862 to 1868 principal of Cheltenham College; and from 1868 to 1883 principal of King's College, London. In the latter year he was appointed Bishop of Sydney, in succession to Dr. Barker. In the meantime he was Canon Residentiary of Worcester from 1871 to 1881; Chaplain to the Queen from 1879 to 1883; and Canon of Westminster from 1881 to 1883. Bishop Barry was consecrated on Jan. 1st, and installed in April 1884, revisited England in 1887, and again returned to Sydney, but resigned his see, for urgent family reasons, in May 1889, when he became Assistant Bishop to Bishop Thorold of Rochester. In 1890 this appointment having lapsed, on the translation of Bishop Thorold to the see of Winchester, he became Canon of Windsor. Bishop Barry, as well as being an eloquent preacher and admirable lecturer, is a well-known author, and has published, inter alia, the following works:—"Introduction to the Old Testament" and "Notes on the Gospels," "Cheltenham College Sermons," "Notes on the Catechism," "Life of Sir Charles Barry, R.A.," "University Sermons," "First Words in Australia" (1884), "The Teacher's Prayer Book," "The Parables of the Old Testament," and "Christianity and Socialism" (1891), as well as various volumes of Sermons, including the Boyle Lectures for 1876 and for 1877-8.

Barry, Hon. Sir Redmond, K.C.M.G., M.A., LL.D., First Chancellor of Melbourne University, was the third son of the late Major-General Henry Green Barry, of Ballyclough, co. Cork, by his marriage with Phoebe, daughter of John Armstrong Drought, of Lettybrook, King's County, was born in 1813, and after being at a military school at Hall's Place, Bexley, Kent, returned to Ireland, where he entered at Trinity College, Dublin, and graduated B.A. in 1838. In the same year he was called to the Irish bar, and emigrated to Australia in the following year, landing at Sydney, where he only remained a few weeks before proceeding to Melbourne, the capital of what was then known as the Port Phillip District of New South Wales. Here he entered on the practice of his profession with much success until 1842, when he was appointed Commissioner of the Court of Bequests, then the second judicial office in the future colony of Victoria. Mr. Barry became Solicitor-General in 1851, when separation from New South Wales was achieved, with a seat in the Legislative and Executive Councils. In January of the following year he was made a judge of the Supreme Court. In 1855 Sir Redmond was appointed First Chancellor of the University of Melbourne, and in the following year President of the Trustees of the Public Library, both of which positions he held till his death. Of each of these institutions he was regarded as the Father, the success of the National Gallery being mainly attributable, as in the case of the Library, to his energy in developing the collection. Sir Redmond, who was Acting Chief Justice in the absence of Sir William à Beckett, and who administered the government of the colony in the simultaneous absence of the Governor and Chief Justice in the winter of 1876 to 1877, was knighted in 1860, and created K.C.M.G. in 1877. He was appointed a Commissioner for Victoria at the International Exhibition held in Lon- in 1862, and received the degree of LL.D. from his Alma Mater in 1876; the University of Melbourne subsequently investing him with the degrees of M. A. and LL.B. In 1876 Sir Redmond visited America as one of the Victorian Commission to the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia. He died in Melbourne on Nov. 23rd, 1880.

Barton, Hon. Edmund, M.L.A., Q.C., M.A., Attorney-General New South Wales, is a native of New South Wales, and was born at the Glebe, Sydney, on Jan. 18th, 1849. He was educated at the Sydney Grammar School, and matriculated at the university at the age of sixteen, receiving a special prize from the Senate for proficiency in classics. During the second and third years of his university course he held successively the Lithgow and Cooper scholarships, and graduated in 1868 with first class classical honours, and the university prize of £25. In 1870 he took his M.A. degree at Sydney University, and is a member of the Senate of that body. He was called to the colonial bar in 1871. He contested the seat in the Assembly given to the university in 1877 against Mr. (now Sir William) Windeyer, but was defeated by six votes. Practising his profession, he was a Crown Prosecutor till 1879, when Mr. Windeyer retired, and he again contested the seat for the university, beating Dr. Renwick by a large majority. Subsequently Mr. Barton represented Wellington in the Legislative Assembly, and was Speaker of the Lower House from Jan. 1883 to Jan. 1887. In the following February he was nominated to the Legislative Council, and from Jan. to March 1889 held a seat in the Dibbs Ministry as Attorney-General and representative of the Government in the Upper House. Mr. Barton, who is a Q.C., announced his adhesion to protectionist views in 1889. He was one of the representatives of New South Wales at the Federation Convention held in Sydney in March 1891. Mr. Barton is a strong supporter of the Commonwealth Bill, which he assisted Sir Samuel Griffith in drafting, and regards Protection in New South Wales as occupying a secondary place to intercolonial federation. In 1891 Mr. Barton resigned his seat in the Legislative Council, and was returned to the Assembly for East Sydney. On the formation of the Dibbs Ministry in Oct. 1801, Mr. Barton accepted the office of Attorney-General, and was acting Premier during the absence of Mr. Dibbs in England from May to Sept. 1892.

Barton, George Burnett, second son of William Barton of Sydney, New South Wales, and brother of the above, entered as a student at the Middle Temple in April 1857, and was called to the bar in Nov. 1860. He subsequently practised his profession at Dunedin, New Zealand, and was editor of the New Zealand Jurist, and author of "Practical Statistics of New Zealand." He subsequently took up his residence in Sydney, and published "Literature in New South Wales" (1866), "Poets and Prose Writers of New South Wales" (1868). He was engaged by the Government of New South Wales to compile the official history of that colony; but after seeing one volume through the press, and preparing a portion of the second, the engagement was cancelled, and the completion of the work entrusted to Mr. A. Britton (q.v.).

Basedow, Martin Peter Friedrich, M.P., J.P., is a native of Hanover, Germany. He is identified with the Zeitung, a German newspaper published in South Australia, and has represented Barossa in the Assembly since 1876. He was Minister of Education in the Morgan Ministry from March to June 1881.

Bates, Hon. William, was born at Uxbridge, in Middlesex, and emigrated to South Australia in 1850. In 1852 the gold discoveries tempted him to Victoria, where he went into business at Sandhurst, and after four years' successful trading, removed to Melbourne, where he had a prosperous career as a general merchant. In 1868 he was returned to the Assembly for Collingwood as a supporter of the Darling Grant, defeating no less a candidate than the Hon. James Service. He was Minister of Public Works in the McCulloch Government from April 1870 to June 1871, but did not re-enter Parliament after 1874. Mr. Bates was a prominent member of the Congregationalist body, and was Treasurer of the Jubilee Fund which was raised a few years ago to celebrate the jubilee of the establishment of the first church of the denomination in Victoria. That movement was so successful that close upon £48,000 was raised, and the denomination was able to pay off the debts on all its churches in the colony. Mr. Bates died at Fitzroy, Melbourne, on Jan. 12th, 1891, at the age of sixty-five.

Bath, James, J.P., Secretary of Education South Australia, was appointed Secretary to the Board of Education in August 1867 and Secretary to the Education Department in August 1883.

Bathgate, Alexander, son of John Bathgate (q.v.), is a barrister and solicitor of Dunedin, N.Z., and the author of "Colonial Experiences; or, Sketches of People and Places in the Province of Otago, N.Z." (Glasgow, 1874); "Waitaruna: a Story of New Zealand Life" (London, 1881); "Far South Fancies" (Griffith & Farran, 1890). Mr. Bathgate has contributed many verses to the colonial press.

Bathgate, Hon. John, M.L.C. New Zealand, was born in Edinburgh in 1809, and educated at Edinburgh High School and Edinburgh University. He was admitted as a writer and practised his profession in Peebles, holding the office of Procurator Fiscal for the county for many years. He went to Dunedin, N.Z., in 1863, as General Manager of the Bank of Otago. He was elected a member of the Provincial Council of Otago in 1869, and for a time held office in the executive as Provincial Solicitor. He was appointed major of Volunteers in 1866, and practised as a barrister and solicitor in Dunedin from the year 1869. In 1871 he was elected to the House of Representatives for Dunedin city, and on Oct. 11th, joined the short-lived Waterhouse Ministry as Commissioner of Customs, which office he exchanged on the 29th for those of Minister of Justice and Commissioner of Stamps. On March 3rd, when Mr. Waterhouse retired in favour of Sir Julius Vogel, Mr. Bathgate retained his portfolios. During his term of office he carried a district county bill and an insolvency bill; and on Feb. 20th, 1874, he retired from the House, and was later appointed to a district judgeship in Otago. Having obtained a year's leave of absence, he went to England, where he embraced every opportunity of bringing the colony before the public by lecturing and otherwise. Shortly after his return to the colony the office of District Judge at Dunedin was abolished, and in 1885 he was called to a seat in the Legislative Council. He died Sept. 21st, 1886. Mr. Bathgate was the author of "New Zealand: its Resources and Prospects" (London and Edinburgh), 1881.

Bayles, Hon. William, second son of William Bayles of Hunderthwaite, Yorkshire, was born in 1820, and emigrated to Tasmania in 1846. Removing to Melbourne in 1852, he went into business as a merchant and shipowner, and was Mayor of Melbourne in 1865, in which year he retired from active business. In 1864 he was elected to the assembly for Villiers and Heytesbury, and was Commissioner of Trade and Customs in the shortlived Sladen Ministry from May to July 1868. He has for some years past taken no part in public life. He married, in 1854, Isabel, third daughter of Arthur Buist, of Macquarie River, Tasmania.

Bayley, Hon. Lyttleton Holyoake, second son of Sir John Edward George Bayley, Bart., and brother of Sir John Robert Laurie Emilias Laurie, Bart., was born on May 6th, 1827, and educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. He was called to the bar at the Middle Temple in May 1850, and married, in May 1852, Isabella, daughter of Anthony Mactier, of Durris House, Kincardineshire, who died in April 1860. He emigrated to Australia, and was Attorney-General of New South Wales in the second Cowper Government from March to Oct. 1859, in succession to Mr. (afterwards Judge) Lutwyche. His appointment gave great offence to the legal fraternity, as he had been but a short time in the colony; and Mr. Deniehy moved a resolution censuring his nomination. It was not, however, carried. In 1866 Mr. Bayley was appointed Advocate-General at Bombay, and Puisne Judge in 1869. This position he still holds.

Beach, William, the well-known New South Wales oarsman, was born in Surrey, England, and was beaten by Trickett, the then champion sculler of the world, on the Parramatta river on July 28th, 1883. The weather was rough on this occasion, but under more favourable conditions Beach beat Trickett in three successive matches. On Jan. 26th, 1884, Trickett again beat Beach on the Parramatta; but as a foul occurred the race was rowed over again, with the same result, Beach being unwell. On April 12th following the positions were again reversed, with great apparent ease by Beach, who defeated Hanlan, the Canadian sculler, on August 16th of the same year over the Parramatta champion course in 21 minutes 17 seconds. In the next year Beach defeated Clifford, repeated his defeat of Hanlan, and also vanquished Neil Matterson, a young sculler of his own colony. On March 27th, 1886, Beach sailed for England, and arrived at Plymouth on May 17th. He at once accepted a challenge from Hanlan, but nothing coming of it, he challenged the world. Beach then won the first prize of £1200 in the International Sweepstake on the Thames, defeating Bubear, Lee, Teemer, and others. On Sept. 18th he rowed Gaudaur on the Thames for £1000 and the championship of the world, and won the day after a tough struggle. On Sept. 25th he defeated Wallace Ross for a similar stake, and soon afterwards left for Australia, arriving in Sydney on Dec. 3rd, 1886. Hanlan followed him to Australia, and they met on the Nepean, when Beach's superiority was again asserted. He then wished to relinquish the championship, and on Peter Kemp challenging him resigned it to him, declining to row him. He subsequently kept a public house in Sydney.

Bealey, Samuel, M.A., was born in Lancashire in 1821, and was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took his degree in 1852. In the same year he went out to the Canterbury settlement in New Zealand, then newly founded, and set up as a station-holder in conjunction with his brother John. When Canterbury was constituted a province Mr. Bealey was one of the members for Christchurch in the Provincial Council, and in 1863 was elected Superintendent. The harbour works at Port Lyttelton were constructed under his official régime, and he was a warm advocate for the erection of the breakwater which contributes so much to the safety of the harbour. At the close of his term of office he returned to England.

Beaney, Hon. James George, M.L.C., M.D., F.R.C.S.E., L.K.Q.C.P.I., M.R.I.A., was born at Canterbury, in Kent, where he was educated, and studied surgery with Mr. W. J. Cooper. He was afterwards a student at Edinburgh University, at Paris, and at Guy's Hospital. He commenced his medical career as regimental surgeon in the Mediterranean, and with the Turkish contingent in the Crimean war. After the campaign he made several trips to America, and ultimately went to Melbourne, where in 1858 he became assistant to Dr. John Maund, at whose death he succeeded to his practice. In 1860 he was appointed surgeon to the Melbourne Hospital, surgeon to the Royal Victorian Artillery, and was elected a member of the Royal Society of Victoria. He was again elected surgeon to the hospital and banquetted at the town hall in 1875, and was subsequently re-elected despite the strenuous opposition of a large section of the medical profession. In 1878 Dr. Beaney visited England with a semi-official commission from the Berry Government to report on medical matters. In 1883, after a severe contest, he was elected to the Legislative Council for the North Yarra Province, and was re-elected for a period of six years, in 1885, when he defeated the Hon. James Munro, the late Premier of Victoria. Dr. Beaney was the author of several medical works, including "Contributions to Conservative Surgery." He was munificent in his donations to public institutions in his native place, and offered various medical prizes. He died in Melbourne on June 30th, 1891, bequeathing by his will £10,000 to his native place.

Begg, Ferdinand Faithfull, F.R.G.S., is the son of Dr. James Begg, of the Free Church of Scotland, and was born in Edinburgh in 1847. He emigrated to New Zealand, where he entered the service of the Union Bank of Australia and remained for a number of years. Returning to Scotland, Mr. Begg started as a stock-broker in Edinburgh, and became chairman of the Stock Exchange in that city. Subsequently he joined the London Stock Exchange, and is head of the firm of Faithfull Begg & Co. He married in 1873 Miss Jessie M. Cargill, of Dunedin, N.Z. In July 1892 he unsuccessfully contested Kennington for a seat in the House of Commons in the Conservative interest. Mr. Begg has been one of the foremost advocates of imperial federation. [This biography appeared in the Supplement at the end of the book.]

Belcher, Rev. Robert Henry, M.A., entered the London University in 1864, and graduated B.A. in honours 1867, M.A. 1868, becoming Fellow of King's College in 1885. He was ordained priest in 1871 by the Bishop of London. After serving in various curacies he was assistant master in King's College School, 1871-4; classical master and chaplain, 1874-86. In 1886 he was appointed rector of the Otago High School, in Dunedin, N.Z., which position he now holds. He is the author of "Degrees and 'Degrees'" (Hardwicke), an exposure of traffic in academical titles (republished with additions in 1888); of "Latin Prose Compositions," Part I., 1874. Part II., 1879; "Keys to both" (Macmillan, 1883); of "The Bonny Kate": a Story of the Sixteenth Century (Hayes, 1876): editor of "Livy, Book II., with Notes" (Rivington,1882): "Manuel des Examens" (Hachette, 1884): and is the author of "A New Latin Grammar," in two parts (Hachette, 1891). He is the Commissary and Examining Chaplain for the diocese of Dunedin, and was President of the Otago Institute in 1890.

Bell, Hon. Sir Francis Dillon, K.C.M.G., C.B., sometime Agent-General for New Zealand, second and eldest surviving son of Edward Bell, of Hornsey (who died in 1864), by Fanny, daughter of Rev. J. Matthews, of Cirencester (she died in 1870), comes of a family, which, through Robert Barclay, of Urie, the Quaker apologist, claims descent from the blood royal of England. He was born on Oct 8th, 1822, and educated in France. In 1839 he entered the service of the New Zealand Company, and for a time was assistant secretary, and afterwards secretary, in London. He emigrated to New Zealand shortly after the settlement of Wellington and New Plymouth, and was agent of the Company till 1850 at Nelson, Auckland, New Plymouth, and elsewhere. In 1848 he was called to the Legislative Council of New Minister, but resigned in 1850. In 1846 he was made J.P., and in 1851, upon the surrender of the charter of the New Zealand Company, he became Commissioner of Crown Lands. In 1853 he entered the Provincial Council of Wellington, where he remained for three years; and in 1854 he was called to the Legislative Council and held office without portfolio from June 30th to July 11th, under the system of semi-responsible government which then obtained. Mr. Bell was Colonial Treasurer in the first responsible ministry (formed by Mr. Sewell and himself), from May 7th to May 20th, 1856. In the same year he was appointed Commissioner of Land Claims, which office he held till 1862. He was Colonial Treasurer (August 6th to 21st, 1862), Minister for Native Affairs (August 6th, 1862, to Oct. 30th, 1863), and Commissioner of Customs (August 7th to 21st, 1862), in the Domett Ministry. Of the Fox Ministry he was a member without portfolio from July 2nd, 1869, to August 14th, 1871. It was, however, in his capacity of Commissioner of Land Claims, from 1856 to 1862, and as Special Commissioner on the west coast of the North Island from 1879 to 1881, that he rendered the most eminent services to the colony. In 1862 he went with Mr. Gorst to Australia, and succeeded in raising a force of military settlers to plant in the disturbed Waikato district. In 1864 he removed to Otago, and in the following year was elected to the Provincial Council. In 1866 he was elected once more to Parliament for the constituency of Mataura. In 1869 he went to England, in company with Dr. Featherston, on a special commission to raise fresh forces for the colony, and to obtain the imperial guarantee to a loan of £1,000,000 for immigration and public works. In this latter difficult task the commissioners were entirely successful. He returned to Otago in 1871, and re-entering parliament was elected Speaker of the House of Representatives, which office he held for five years. In 1873 he was made a Knight Bachelor, and in 1877 was nominated to the Legislative Council. In 1881 Sir Francis succeeded Sir Julius Vogel as Agent-General for New Zealand, and held the position till the autumn of 1891, when he returned to New Zealand. It is only just to say that during the whole ten years of his régime he was not only a most able and single-minded representative of his own colony, but was recognised by the agents-general of the Australian colonies as their leader in all representations to the Colonial Office on the complicated subject of Australasian relations in the Western Pacific, including the annexation of New Guinea, the New Hebrides embroglio, and the Recedivist influx. At the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in 1886 he was Executive Commissioner, and in 1889 was not only Executive Commissioner for New Zealand at the Paris Exhibition, but was also a member of the Mansion House Committee. For his services in this connection the French Government bestowed upon him the Commandership of the Legion of Honour. In 1887 he was delegate to the Colonial Conference. Sir Francis Bell was created K.C.M.G. in 1881, and C.B. in 1886. He married on April 2nd, 1849, Margaret, daughter of A. Hort. In 1891 he received the thanks of the Legislative Council for his services. He returned to New Zealand in Nov. 1891, but left again for England in April 1892, where Lady Bell died on June 12th, 1892.

Bell, Hon. James, M.L.C., emigrated to Victoria in 1857, commenced business at Dunolly, and was one of the first representatives of the district, in the Legislative Council, when in 1881 the Reform Act included it in the North-West Province. In 1886 he opened a business in Melbourne. He accepted office without portfolio in the Gillies-Deakin Government on April 20th, 1886, and acted as Minister of Defence during Sir James Lorimer's absence in England, in 1887. He also assisted Mr. Dow in discharging the duties of Minister of Water Supply during Mr. Deakin's attendance at the Colonial Conference in London in that year. On the death of Sir James Lorimer, in Sept. 1889, he was appointed Minister of Defence, and retired with his colleagues in Nov. 1890.

Bell, Hon. Sir Joshua Peter, K.C.M.G., M.L.C., sometime President of the Legislative Council, Queensland, was born in the county of Kildare in Ireland in 1826. The family having emigrated to New South Wales in 1830, he was educated at Sydney College and at the King's School, Parramatta. In 1847 he, with his father and brothers, acquired a large property known as Jimbour, near Dalby, in the present colony of Queensland. Sir Joshua first entered the Queensland Assembly in 1863, and continued to hold a seat till he was nominated to the Legislative Council, of which he became President in March 1879. Sir Joshua was Colonial Treasurer in the first ministry formed (under Sir Robert Herbert) after the separation of Queensland from New South Wales, succeeding the late Mr. Moffatt. This post he continued to hold till July 1866, for the last six months of the time under the Premiership of the late Mr. Macalister, in whose second ministry he was Secretary for Public Lands from August 1866 to August 1867. Sir Joshua was again Treasurer in the Palmer Ministry from March 1871 till he resigned with his colleagues in Jan. 1874. He married in 1862 Margaret Miller, daughter of William McTaggart D'Orsey, M.D., who survived him. Sir Joshua, who administered the government of Queensland during the absence on leave of Sir Arthur Kennedy from March to Nov. 1880, died in December of the following year, when he was succeeded in the Presidency of the Legislative Council by Sir Arthur Palmer. He had just previously been created K.C.M.G.

Belmore, Right Hon. Somerset Richard Lowry Corry, 4th Earl of, P.C., G.C.M.G., M.A., is the son of the third earl by his marriage with Emily Louise, youngest daughter of William Sheppard, of Bradbourne, Kent. His lordship, who is an Irish Representative Peer, is also Viscount Belmore and Baron Belmore, of Castle Coole, co. Fermanagh, in the peerage of Ireland. He was born in London on April 9th, 1835, and succeeded to the title on the death of his father in 1845. He graduated M.A. at Cambridge University in 1856, and was elected one of the representative peers for Ireland in January of the next year. Having held the post of Under Secretary for the Home Department in the Disraeli Government from July 1866 to July 1867, he was created, in January of the following year, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of New South Wales, a post which he retained till Feb. 1872, when he resigned and returned to England, being created K.C.M.G. in that year and G.C.M.G. in 1890. During his term of office the Duke of Edinburgh visited the colony, and the attack on his life by O'Farrell took place at Clontarf. Lord Belmore, whose eldest son and heir, Armar, Viscount Corry, was born at Government House, Sydney, in 1870, is a first cousin of Lord Rowton, better know as Montagu Corry, the well-known secretary to the late Earl of Beaconsfield and his literary executor. His lordship married, on August 22nd, 1861, Anne Elizabeth Honoria, second daughter of the late Captain John Neilson Gladstone, R.N. (elder brother of the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone), by his marriage with Elizabeth Honoria, daughter of Sir Robert Bateson, Bart.

Belstead, Charles Torrens, son of Henry Belstead, captain in the 85th King's Own Light Infantry, was appointed in Jan. 1848 to the Imperial Penal Establishment, Norfolk Island, and served there until transferred to Tasmania in 1855, where he became Chief Clerk in the Penal Establishment at Hobart in 1856; clerk in the Comptroller-General's office in 1858; acting Comptroller-General in Sept. 1868; Governor's Secretary for Penal Establishments in May 1869, and Agent for Imperial Expenditure and Paymaster of Imperial Pensioners in June 1872. He is a member of the Council of the Royal Society of Tasmania, and a manager of the Hobart Savings Bank. Mr. Belstead was appointed a member of the Royal Commission to inquire into the Fisheries of the Colony in May 1882.

Belstead, Francis, J.P. (brother of the preceding), was appointed Assistant Superintendent in the Convict Department, Norfolk Island, in August 1850; Clerk of Petty Sessions at Westbury, Tasmania, in May 1858; Clerk of the Municipal Council in Dec. 1863; Commissioner of Mines and Goldfields, and Magistrate and Coroner at Launceston in Feb. 1883; and Secretary and Chief Commissioner of Mines and Goldfields for Tasmania in Feb. 1886.

Benjamin, Hon. Sir Benjamin, Kt., M.L.C., J. P., eldest son of the late Moses Benjamin, J.P., was born in London in 1834, and arrived in Victoria in 1843. He was elected to the Melbourne City Council in 1870, became alderman in 1881, and was mayor from 1887 to 1889. In the year 1888 he was a commissioner for the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition, and was knighted in 1889 in recognition of his services and hospitalities during the Exhibition year. He is President of the Melbourne Hebrew Congregation, a trustee of the Jewish Philanthropic Society and the Ladies' Hebrew Benevolent Society, and is the representative of the Melbourne province in the Legislative Council. He is a director of the Colonial Bank of Australasia, and of the Union Trustees' Executors and Agency Company, and is a justice of the peace for Victoria and New South Wales. In 1857 Sir Benjamin Benjamin married Fanny, daughter of Abraham Cohen, of Sydney.

Bennett, David, was born in Dundee in 1830, and apprenticed to Messrs. Kimmond, Hutton & Steel, mechanical engineers in that city. He decided to emigrate, and landed in Melbourne early in 1856. Mr. Bennett entered Langland's Foundry, where he remained many years. He took an important part in support of the Eight Hours Movement, initiated by his fellow-countryman, James Galloway, in Melbourne (1855), and in promoting the Association of Engineers (1858), of which for twenty years he acted as secretary. Mr. Bennett was also one of the founders of the Trades Hall; and for many years acted as honorary secretary to the Trades Hall Council. To this body he was appointed paid secretary in 1888.

Bennett, George, M.D., F.R.C.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., was born at Plymouth on Jan. 31st, 1804. He visited Ceylon in 1819, and on his return studied for the medical profession, becoming M.R.C.S. (England) in 1828, F.R.C.S. (England) and M.D. of Glasgow University in 1859. After passing the college he took charge of a circumnavigating expedition, the results of which he published in papers contributed to the leading scientific journals. In 1832 he revisited New South Wales to investigate the manners, habits and anatomy of the Monotremata, and the natural history of the colony in general. After visiting Java, Singapore and China, he published his "Wanderings in New South Wales" in 1834, and finally settled in that colony in 1836. He was the first secretary to the Australian Museum, and, although much occupied with his extensive practice as a medical man, was able to add materially to the knowledge of the natural history of New South Wales. He was the first to discover the Nautilus in a living state, and sent a specimen to Professor Owen. In 1860 he published "Gatherings of a Naturalist."

Bennett, Samuel, was a native of Cornwall, and was born on March 20th, 1815. He went to Australia in 1841, having been engaged by Messrs. Stevens & Stokes, of the Sydney Morning Herald, to superintend the typographical department of that paper. Having held this post for seventeen years, Mr. Bennett, in 1859, purchased the Empire newspaper which had been started by Mr. (now Sir) Henry Parkes nine years previously. Messrs. Hanson & Bennett conducted the Empire for several years as a daily and weekly journal, Mr. Bennett becoming sole proprietor some time before it ceased publication. He also started in 1867 The Evening News, and in 1870 The Australian Town and Country Journal, a weekly newspaper, both of which achieved phenomenal success. Mr. Bennett was the author of "The History of Australian Discovery and Colonisation," which is recognised as a standard work of reference. He died at his residence, Mundarrah Towers, Little Coogee, Sydney, N.S.W., on June 2nd, 1878.

Bennett, William Christopher, M.I.C.E., was employed as a pupil on various territorial and railway surveys and other works in Ireland from 1840 to 1845, and as assistant engineer in charge of drainage works, under the Board of Public Works in Ireland, from 1845 to 1852. During 1852-3 he was employed in reporting on the navigation of the Rhone and Saone, and making surveys and reports on the navigation of the Magdalena, with connecting canals, roads or railways, in New Grenada. Mr. Bennett was engaged on the International (French, American and English) Ship Canal Survey at Darien, in 1854, having charge of the English survey on the Pacific side in the absence of Mr. Forde, M.I.C.E., on which occasion Mr. Bennett received the thanks of the American Government for having, in conjunction with Lieut. Forsythe and a party from H.M.S. Virago, relieved Lieut. Strain, United States navy, and his missing exploring party, at no small personal risk. At the end of 1854 Mr. Bennett proceeded, viâ New Zealand, to New South Wales, and was for about ten months attached to the Survey Department as an assistant surveyor. In April 1856 he was appointed assistant engineer to the Commission for the Sewerage and Water Supply of Sydney; was engaged in the Railway Department, New South Wales, from Jan. to Sept. 1857, and was then transferred to the Department of Roads, which, as assistant engineer, and ultimately as engineer, he assisted Captain (afterwards Colonel) Martindale, C.B., R.E., in organising. Mr. Bennett left the colony for Europe in Jan. 1861, and on his return he was appointed, in Nov. 1862, commissioner and engineer-in-chief for roads, New South Wales, which office he occupied until a short time before his death, having been in addition occasionally employed on the western goldfields and narrow gauge railways, the water supply of Sydney, and the drainage of the Hunter River. Mr. Bennett died on Sept. 29th, 1889, at the age of sixty-five.

Bent, Hon. Thomas, M.L.A., Speaker of Legislative Assembly, Victoria, was born at Penrith, near Sydney, where his father was a contractor, on Dec. 17th, 1838, and came to Melbourne with his family in 1849. Having joined his father in business as a market gardener at Brighton, Vict., he was elected to the Moorabbin Shire Council in 1862, and was President in 1868. In 1871 he first achieved general notoriety by opposing Mr. (now Chief Justice) Higinbotham for the Brighton seat in the Legislative Assembly. To the amazement of every one, he was successful, and has ever since represented that electorate. Though strongly opposed to the last McCulloch Government, Mr. Bent was not a supporter of the Berry party, being indeed a consistent Freetrader. At the first dissolution in 1880 the Conservatives, under Mr. Service, secured a majority; and Mr. Bent was included in the Cabinet formed by that gentleman in March 1880, with the portfolio of Public Works. The Reform Bill of the Ministry proved distasteful to the country on the appeal to the constituencies made in June 1880, and Mr. Bent retired with his colleagues in the following August. Mr. Bent was a highly potential member of the O'Loghlen Government as Minister of Railways from July 1881 to March 1883. In Oct. 1887, on the retirement of the late Mr. Lalor, Mr. Bent was a candidate for the Speakership of the Legislative Assembly, but was defeated by Sir M. H. Davies by one vote. On the meeting of the present parliament in May 1892 Mr. Bent was again a candidate, and was unanimously elected after the claims of Mr. J. G. Duffy and Sir H. J. Wrixon had been disposed of.

Beor, Hon. Henry Rogers, M.L.A., was the son of Henry Beor, a solicitor at Swansea, in South Wales. He graduated at Oxford, and was called to the bar at the Middle Temple in 1870. In 1875 he went to Queensland, and was admitted to the bar there in the same year. Entering the Legislative Assembly as member for Bowen in 1877, he succeeded the late Mr. Justice Pring as Attorney-General in the first McIlwraith Ministry in June 1880. He in the same year was made Q.C. Shortly afterwards his health failed, and he shot himself on board the steamer Rotorua, whilst on the passage from Sydney to Auckland, in New Zealand. The fatal event, the outcome of nervous depression, took place on Dec. 5th, 1880, and he was buried at sea.

Berkeley, Hon. Henry Spencer Hardtman, third son of Thomas Berkeley Hardtman Berkeley, of St. Kitts, was born on Sept. 3rd, 1851, and called to the bar at the Inner Temple in June 1873. Having been admitted to the bar of the Leeward Islands in the following July, he filled various legal and official posts there until 1885, when he was appointed Attorney-General of Fiji, and in 1889 Chief Justice and Judicial Commissioner for the Western Pacific.

Bernays, Lewis Adolphus, C.M.G., F.L.S., F.R.G.S., son of the late Dr. Bernays, Professor of the German Language and Literature at King's College, London, was born on May 3rd, 1831, and educated at King's College. He also studied in the laboratory of his brother, the well-known Professor A. E. Bernays, and subsequently emigrated to New Zealand, where he spent two years; and then proceeded to New South Wales, where he was an officer of Parliament from 1853 to 1859; when he proceeded to Queensland to become Clerk to the Legislative Assembly, a post which he has held ever since. Mr. Bernays, who has written several works on economic botany, was for sixteen years Vice-President of the Queensland Acclimatisation Society, of which he was the originator. He was created C.M.G. on May 25th, 1892.

Berncastle, Julius, was educated at the university of Paris and Guy's Hospital, London, for the medical profession, and was Assistant Colonial Surgeon of Van Diemen's Land in 1841-2. Subsequently he practised at Croydon, in Surrey, and in London. In 1854 he set up as an oculist and aurist in Sydney, and practised there till 1867, when he removed to Melbourne, where he died on June 30th, 1870, aged fifty-one years. He was author of "A Voyage to China" (2 vols., 1850); "The Revolt of the Bengal Sepoys" (1857); "The Defenceless State of Sydney" (1865); "Australian Snakebites" and "The Use and Abuse of Tobacco" (1868). [This biography appeared in the Supplement at the end of the book.]

Berry, David, a well-known New South Wales colonist, was born at Cupar, Fife, Scotland, and was educated at St. Andrews University. He arrived in New South Wales in July 1836, and proceeded to the estate of his elder brother, Dr. Alexander Berry, at Coolangatta, which he managed in conjunction with another brother, John, for eleven years, and after the letter's death carried on the concern alone until 1873, when Dr. Alexander Berry died and devised the whole of his property to his brother David, who followed the system of cultivating and fencing a large portion of his land whilst the remainder was leased out in farms of varying size on peculiar and unusually profitable terms. Mr. Berry died, at the age of ninety-seven, on Sept. 22nd, 1889, and by his will bequeathed £100,000 to his alma mater, St. Andrews University, and a like sum to found a hospital in the Shoalhaven district of New South Wales.

Berry, Hon. Sir Graham, K.C.M.G., Treasurer of Victoria, is the son of the late Benjamin Berry, of Twickenham, and Clara Graham, his wife. He was born at Twickenham on August 28th, 1822, and emigrated to Victoria in 1852. In 1860 Mr. Berry purchased the Collingwood Observer, which he conducted for a considerable period. The same year Mr. Berry was elected to the Victorian Assembly under somewhat exceptional circumstances. A vacancy had occurred in East Melbourne through the death of the sitting member, and Mr. E. Cohen and Mr. Patrick O'Brien were contesting the vacancy, when suddenly a dissolution was granted, thus necessitating a dual election. In order to save expense it was agreed between the candidates that some one outside the colony should be nominated for the prior vacancy, and that the real contest would take place on the second election. This arrangement did not commend itself to the constituency, and at the nomination Mr. Berry's name was proposed, when, there being no other candidate, he was declared elected. At the general election Mr. Berry transferred his attentions to Collingwood, where he beat Mr. Langton, and was returned as an advanced Liberal and Protectionist. In 1864 he was re-elected for the same constituency. In the meantime Sir James McCulloch had come into office, with Mr. (now Sir) George Verdon as Treasurer. The latter gentleman proposed the imposition of ad valorem duties, mainly on articles producible in the colony; and the budget was thus a step in the direction of that full policy of protection to native industries which was to be so astonishingly developed under succeeding administrations. Of that policy Mr. Berry had from his first entry into political life been a firm and consistent advocate, leading a small section of the House, who made the question their pièce de résistance. He accordingly welcomed the proposals of the Ministry as a promising instalment, and accorded them a cordial support in the great constitutional struggle which ensued on the tacking of the Customs Bill to the Appropriation Bill—a device resorted to in order to force the measure through the Upper House, by whom, however, it was set aside, thus leaving the Government without means to pay the salaries of the public servants and other Governmental expenses. In this extremity the Government had recourse to the device of borrowing from a bank, and confessing judgments, which is fully described in the notice of Sir James McCulloch. This device found no favour with Mr. Berry, who had previously stumped the country on behalf of the Ministerial tack; and he lost no time in denouncing any payments except by the ordinary constitutional procedure, on the ground that the action taken by the Government was an absolute giving way on the part of the Assembly, and certain to lead to discomfiture. The country went wholly with Sir James McCulloch, and, at the dissolution, Mr. Berry was badly beaten, both at Collingwood and for the Murray Boroughs, remaining out of Parliament for three years. In 1866 he joined with others in purchasing the Geelong Register, with which the Advertiser was shortly amalgamated, and went to reside in that town. Not long afterwards he unsuccessfully contested South Grant against Mr. Stutt; but in 1868 was returned for Geelong West, having in the meantime performed the active duties of editor of the Advertiser, and written most of the leading articles. Mr. Berry first acceded to ministerial office as Treasurer in the short-lived Macpherson Government in 1870. Beyond making his first budget speech, Mr. Berry had, however, very little opportunity of distinguishing himself, his chief being promptly displaced by Sir James McCulloch. In 1871 Mr. Berry was again returned for Geelong West, and entered the Ministry of Sir Charles Gavan Duffy as Treasurer and Minister of Customs in June of that year. He, however, resigned the latter post in the following November, and finally left the Ministry in May 1872. In 1874 he was again returned for Geelong West. In the meantime the Francis and Kerferd Ministries intervened, the defeat of Mr. Service's budget In the latter Government bringing Mr. Berry into power for the first time, as Premier and Chief Secretary of Victoria, in August 1875. The introduction of a land tax caused the speedy defeat of the new Government. Mr. Berry thereupon applied for a dissolution, which was refused him by the Acting Governor (Sir William Stawell), and Sir James McCulloch once more returned to power. Mr. Berry, however, holding that he had been unconstitutionally refused an appeal to the people, determined to block all Government business, with a view of forcing on a general election, his contention being that the majority in the Assembly were a decided minority in the country. He and his followers now received the sobriquet of "stonewallers"; and, whilst they blocked business in the House, stumped the country with extraordinary perseverance and success, Mr. Berry's platform deliverances exciting great enthusiasm throughout the colony. Sir James McCulloch strove to put down Parliamentary obstruction by the imposition of a species of closure, which became famous under the designation of the "Iron Hand." By this means he warded off a dissolution until Parliament had run the statutory time. At the general election which ensued the tables were, however, completely turned, only a meagre remnant of his following being returned, the polls giving Mr. Berry an overwhelming majority. Sir James McCulloch having resigned, the popular idol was sent for, and at once opened negotiations with Mr. Service, who had assumed an attitude of independent hostility to the McCulloch Government, and with several leading members of the Opposition who had not been included in the previous Administration. They, however, all declined his overtures, though Mr. Service for a considerable time observed towards him a friendly neutrality; and Mr. Berry was obliged to be content with the materiel of his first Cabinet, with the exception of Mr. Munro, who refused office. Had the gentlemen to whom Mr. Berry primarily applied found it compatible with their sentiments to respond to the invitation, it is probable that most of the acerbity which characterised the proceedings of the next three years would never have been aroused—certainly it would never have reached the same height. It is beyond our scope to detail the particulars of the struggle which followed. A land tax, having for its object to restrict the accumulation of land in the hands of individuals, was carried through Parliament; but the inclusion of payment of members in the ordinary Appropriation Bill, instead of its being dealt with by a special bill, brought on the storm which had previously evaporated in protests, the Council setting it aside, whereupon a deadlock ensued, which lasted from May 1877 to April 1878, when a compromise was arrived at which saved the dignity of both parties. It was during this struggle that the dismissals of the civil servants took place on what has become memorable as Black Wednesday, Mr. Berry declining to consider any arrangements for the borrowing of funds similar to those which he had condemned when adopted by Sir James McCulloch. Though the storm was somewhat allayed, Mr. Berry was so strongly impressed with the necessity of reorganising the constitution, with a view of defining the powers of the respective Houses, and of preventing deadlocks by providing a legislative safety-valve, that he introduced a measure containing the novel expedient of the plébiscite, combined with a system of nominated representatives. This measure was naturally repudiated by the Upper Chamber, involving as it did their complete obliteration; and in the winter of 1878-9 Mr. Berry undertook his famous mission to England known as "the Embassy," in conjunction with Mr. C. H. Pearson, with the view of inducing the British Government to bring a bill into the Imperial Parliament having for its object the reform of the Constitution of Victoria. The delegates had several interviews with Sir Michael Hicks Beach, the then Colonial Secretary, and obtained from him much good advice and a modified promise to interfere in case the deadlock proved irremediable after a further recourse to the country. With this small measure of comfort Mr. Berry had to be content, and returned to Victoria, where Sir B. O'Loghlen had been Acting Premier during his absence. One substantial result of his visit to London was the successful floating of a loan of £3,000,000 on behalf of the colony, which was rendered more remarkable from the fact that Mr. Berry insisted on fixing a higher minimum than the banks advised, and that the political disturbances of the preceding year had created feelings of distrust as to the stability of Victoria in the minds of English capitalists. In 1880 Mr. Berry reintroduced his Reform Bill, and then appealed to the country, in accordance with the advice of Sir M. Hicks Beach. The Ministry were, however, placed in a minority, and Mr. Service acceded to power in March 1880. He also, being impressed with the necessity for a substantial constitutional change, introduced a Reform Bill, which also proving abortive, he retired from office in August of the same year, when Mr. Berry once more assumed the Premiership, and succeeded in coming to a compromise with the Council on the basis of a Reform Bill, which considerably reduced the franchise and qualification for members of the Upper Chamber. Mr. Berry was subsequently defeated by a combination of Conservatives with the dissatisfied Liberals, and resigned office, when Sir Bryan O'Loghlen took the reins, and continued as Premier on sufferance until after the general election in Feb. 1883, when he and most of his small following lost their seats, and a House was returned in which the Conservatives, led by Mr. Service, and the Liberals, led by Mr. Berry, were almost equal in strength. To obviate a continuance of weak ministries and merely factious warfare, the Service-Berry coalition was formed, and conferred incalculable benefits on Victoria, until the voluntary termination of its tenure by the resignation of Messrs. Service and Berry in Feb. 1886. In the following March Mr. Berry quitted Victoria to take up the Agent-Generalship of the colony in succession to Mr. Murray Smith. He was also appointed Executive Commissioner to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, for his services in connection with which he was created K.C.M.G. Sir Graham Berry was one of the representatives of Victoria at the Colonial Conference held in London in 1887, and took a prominent part in its proceedings. For his services in connection with the Paris Exhibition of 1889 he was appointed a Commander of the Legion of Honour by the French Government. Sir Graham married, in 1869, a daughter of John B. Evans, of Victoria. In Feb. 1889 Sir Graham Berry was reappointed Agent-General for a further term of three years, and the Munro Government having decided not to again renew his appointment, he left for Melbourne in Dec. 1891. When the Munro Government was reconstructed under Mr. Shiels, he was offered a portfolio, but declined to join the Ministry except in the capacity of Premier. At the General Election in April 1892 he was returned to the Assembly at the head of the poll for the East Bourke Boroughs, and a few days later accepted the post of Treasurer in the Shiels Ministry.

Berry, Hon. John, M.L.C., is the eldest son of the late John Berry, of Albury, New South Wales, who emigrated to that colony from Meath, Ireland, and was born on Oct. 11th, 1840. He married in Feb. 1883 Sara Eugenie, daughter of the late James Morey, of Sydney. Mr. Berry was first employed in the Survey Department of New South Wales in 1866, and in 1877 entered the same department under the Government of Fiji. Two years later he was appointed Acting Surveyor-General, and in 1882 Commissioner of Crown Lands and Works and Crown Surveyor. He has been a member of the Executive and Legislative Councils of Fiji since 1883.

Best, Robert Wallace, M.L.A., was born in Fitzroy, Melbourne, in 1856, and practises as a solicitor in Melbourne. He stood for Fitzroy at the General Election of March 1890, and was returned at the head of the poll, displacing Mr. R. D. Reid. He was again elected in April 1892, and was formerly Mayor of Fitzroy. He married a daughter of the late Hon. G. D. Langridge. In April 1892, when the Shiels' Ministry was reconstructed, after the General Election had resulted in their favour, he was offered a seat in the Cabinet without portfolio.

Beveridge, Peter, was born at Dunfermline, Scotland, and went to Victoria ten years later with his father, who engaged in pastoral pursuits near the township of Beveridge, to which the family gave their name. In 1845 Mr. Peter Beveridge took up country on the lower Murray, settling at Tyntyndyer, some ten miles below what is now Swan Hill. Here for twenty-three years he made a careful study of the habits and customs of the then numerous aborigines of the Lower Murray and Riverine districts. The result of his observations was embodied in a work entitled "The Aborigines of Victoria and Riverine," published posthumously in 1889. Mr. Beveridge, who latterly resided at French Island, died at Woodburn, near Kilmore, on Oct. 4th, 1885.

Bews, Hon. David, M.P., sometime Minister of Education for South Australia, was born near Kirkwall, in the Orkney Islands, in 1850, and went to South Australia with his parents the following year. In 1853, during the gold rush in Victoria, his family removed to that colony, but only to return one year later. Mr. Bews' father then engaged in farming operations near Port Elliot, and afterwards near Adelaide. Mr. Bews continued as a farmer till he attained his majority, when he secured a position as clerk with the Kadina & Wallaroo Railway Company. He subsequently became goods manager; but seven years later (in 1879), when the Government took over the line, he left the service, and entered the ranks of journalism by taking charge of the Wallaroo Times. He was three times mayor of the Wallaroo Corporation, besides which he was a member of the late Yorke's Peninsula Local Road Board, and the School Board of Advice. In 1885 Mr. Bews first entered the House of Assembly as member for Wallaroo, and was re-elected on March 19th, 1887, and at the General Election in 1890. In August of that year he accepted the office of Minister of Education in Mr. Playford's Government. Mr. Bews, who had been appointed one of the South Australian delegates at the Postal Convention, died in Melbourne whilst en route to Sydney on Feb. 24th, 1891.

Bickerton, Alexander William, F.C.S., was born at Alton, Hants, in 1842, and educated at the Grammar School of the town. After a preliminary engineering course, he gained an exhibition at the Royal School of Mines, London, where he distinguished himself in physical science, gaining a Senior Queen's Scholarship. After leaving the School of Mines, he joined the staff of the Hartley Institution, Southampton, and was subsequently appointed Lecturer on Science at Winchester College, and was Public Analyst in Hampshire. In 1873 Mr. Bickerton accepted the post of Professor of Chemistry and Physics at Canterbury College, N.Z. He has held this position ever since, has written many papers on scientific subjects, and is the author of an astronomical theory which he terms "Partial Impact."

Bindon, Hon. Samuel Henry, was born in Ireland in 1812, and educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated in 1835. He was called to the Irish bar, and after practising for some years in Dublin, went out to Victoria in 1855; in May of which year he was admitted to the bar of that colony. He sat in the Legislative Assembly from 1864 to 1869, and was Minister of Justice in the Sir James McCulloch Government from July 1866 to May 1868. In 1869 he was appointed a County Court Judge, and held that position, with the exception of a short interval in 1878, when he was one of the victims of the Black Wednesday dismissals, till his death on August 1st, 1879.

Bird, Hon. Bolton Stafford, Colonial Treasurer of Tasmania, was born near Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1840. He has been in the Australasian colonies since 1853, and in Tasmania since 1879. About twelve years of his life were spent as a minister of the Congregational Church. Soon after his arrival in Tasmania he resigned the charge of the Davey Street Congregational Church, Hobart, of which he was the minister, and betook himself to fruit-growing in the Huon district. He has taken an active part in the recent establishment of the fruit export trade to England. He has represented the Franklin district in the House of Assembly since 1882. In March 1887 he joined the Fysh Ministry as Colonial Treasurer. He was a member of the Commissions on Education and on Lunatic Asylums in 1883, and is a member of the Council of the University of Tasmania. Mr. Bird was one of the representatives of the colony at the third and fourth sessions of the Federal Council of Australasia, and at the Federation Conference at Melbourne in 1890, and the Sydney Federation Convention in 1891.—[In August 1892 Mr. Bird resigned the position of Treasurer of Tasmania, and retired with his colleagues, owing to the defeat of his financial proposals in the House of Assembly. (In appended Supplement, p. 529)

Birnie, Richard, second son of the late Sir Richard Birnie, Chief Metropolitan Police Magistrate at Bow Street, was born in London in 1808. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1830, and M.A. in 1837. He entered at the Inner Temple on Jan. 9th, 1828, and was called to the bar on May 7th, 1833. After practising in the Central Criminal Court Mr. Birnie was appointed by the Duke of Newcastle Advocate-General of Western Australia, in which colony he arrived in Jan. 1854. After holding this post for nearly six years he acted as judge for about a year. Arriving in 1859 in Melbourne, he was called to the Victorian bar on Oct. 13th in the same year. He was on several occasions employed as crown prosecutor in Victoria, but has been mainly known as a contributor of essays to the Australasian. His father, Sir Richard Birnie, was originally a saddler, but is chiefly known by his success in detecting and hunting down the "Cato Street" conspirators. [He died in Melbourne on Sept. 16th, 1888.—In appended Supplement, p. 529.)]

Black, Alexander, ex-Surveyor-General of Victoria, was born in Banffshire, educated in Aberdeen as a land surveyor, and emigrated to Victoria in 1852, where he arrived in December, and proceeded to the Castlemaine goldfield. He returned to Melbourne in 1853, and practised his profession. On April 18th, 1854, he was appointed Government Assistant-Surveyor, and Geodetic Surveyor in 1860, and in this capacity surveyed the boundary line between Victoria and New South Wales. Mr. Black became District Surveyor in 1871, Assistant Surveyor-General in 1878, and succeeded to his late position of Surveyor-General of Victoria on the retirement of Mr. Skene in 1886. Mr. Black was a member of the Board of Land and Works, a Commissioner of Land Tax, and Chairman of Parks and Gardens Committees until he retired in 1892.

Black, Maurice Hume, M.L.A., is a grand-nephew of the celebrated Joseph Hume, Member for Montrose in the British House of Commons. He was born in London on Dec. 15th, 1835, and married in 1861 a niece of the great statesman, George Canning. Having emigrated to Victoria in 1852, Mr. Black left the goldfields of that colony to try his luck in pastoral pursuits in South Australia, subsequently going to Riverina, and in 1864 to Queensland, where he still resides. He is the inventor of a steam sheep-washing process, and went into sugar planting in the Mackay district of Queensland in 1871. In 1881 he was returned to the Legislative Assembly for that electorate, for which he still sits. Having taken a prominent part in the agitation for the separation of Northern Queensland from the rest of the colony, and its formation into a distinct colony, he was in 1887 commissioned to go to England with Mr. Lissner to press the matter upon the attention of the Home Government, Mr. Harold Finch-Hatton and Dr. Ahearne having done much to bring the matter into the region of practical politics by their exertions during the previous year. Though not successful in inducing Lord Knutsford to take steps for the separation of Northern Queensland, the advanced phase which the question has since assumed is a good deal due to the efforts of the delegation of 1887. In June 1888, on the formation of the second McIlwraith Administration, Mr. Black became Secretary of Public Works, and continued to hold the post when five months later the Ministry was reconstructed under Mr. Morehead. He resigned with his colleagues in August 1890.

Black, Hon. Neil, M.L.C., J.P., was the son of Alexander Black, and was born at Cowal, Argyleshire, in 1804. He emigrated to Australia in 1839, and went to the Camperdown district, where, as the representative partner of Mr. Finlay, of Castle Toward, Argyleshire, Mr. Stuart Gladstone, of Capenock, and Mr. Stewart, of Glenormiston, Perthshire, Scotland, he purchased the Glenormiston property. The partnership, which was highly remunerative after 1846, continued until 1868, when the property was divided. Mr. Black bought Mr. Gladstone's portion, now known as Mount Noorat, and resided on it until his death May 15th, 1880. Mr. Black, who married Miss Grace Greenshiels Leadbetter, for many years represented the Western Province in the Legislative Council, and was also a magistrate for the southern bailiwick. As a politician he was a staunch Conservative, and opposed the introduction of free education.

Blackall, Col. Samuel Wensley, sometime Governor of Queensland, was the eldest son of Major Robert Blackall, H.E.I.C.S., of Colamber Manor, co. Longford. He was born on May 1st, 1809, in Ireland, and took his degree at Trinity College, Dublin. He served in the 85th Light Infantry, was then major in the Longford Militia, and afterwards honorary colonel in the Leitrim Militia. Col. Blackall was M.P. for Longford in the House of Commons, from 1847 to 1851, a D.L. for counties Longford and Leitrim, High Sheriff of Longford in 1833, and for Tyrone in 1861. He was Lieutenant-Governor of Dominica from 1851 to 1857; Governor of Sierra Leone from 1862 to 1865; Governor-in-chief of the West African Settlements from 1865 to 1867; and Governor of Queensland, in succession to Sir George Bowen, from August 1868 to Jan. 2nd, 1871, when he died at Brisbane and was buried in the new cemetery there on the following day. Colonel Blackall married first, in 1833, Georgina, daughter of Henry Rowles, of London; and secondly, in 1848, Kate, daughter of the late James Bond, who died in 1864.

Blackett, Cuthbert Robert, F.C.S., J.P., Government Analytical Chemist, is son of the late Rev. C. R. Blackett, Independent minister at Southminster, England, where he was born Oct. 9th, 1831. Having served his time as a pharmaceutical chemist, he arrived in Melbourne in Jan. 1853, and became a member of the first council of the Pharmaceutical Society, and ultimately its Secretary and President. He was also for five years editor of the journal published by that society. On the passing of the Pharmacy Act in 1877, the Government appointed him one of the members of the Pharmacy Board, and on the retirement of Mr. Bosisto he was elected President. He was examiner in chemistry to the College of Pharmacy, and for some time acted as lecturer on chemistry, materia medica, and botany, pending the arrival of Professor A. H. Jackson, B.Sc. In 1879 he was elected to the Assembly for Fitzroy in the Conservative interest. Mr. Blackett was President of the Royal Technological Commission; and when the Central Board of Health was formed he was offered the position of president, but declined it. In 1882 he was again returned for Fitzroy, but was defeated at the next general election, owing to his pronounced free-trade views. Mr. Blackett was appointed Government Analytical Chemist on the death of Mr. Johnson, in 1887, and is also a Fellow of the Chemical Society of London, and was co-examiner in chemistry to the Melbourne University, until he resigned the office. Mr. Blackett married in May 1870 at Stokesley, England, Miss Margaretta Palmer.

Blackett, John, M.Inst.C.E., was educated at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and was a pupil with Messrs. R. & W. Hawthorn, engineers, 1834-41; draughtsman and office engineer to the Great Western Steamship Company, 1841-4; head engineer in iron shipbuilding and railway work with T. R. Guppy, A.I.C.E., 1844-6; engineer to the Governor and Company of Copper Mines in England at Cwm Avon, South Wales, 1846-8. From 1848 to 1851 he practised privately as an engineer in England. In 1859 Mr. Blackett was appointed provincial engineer at Nelson, N.Z., and in 1870 was advanced to the position of Acting Engineer-in-chief for New Zealand, becoming also Marine Engineer in the following year. In 1878 he was made Engineer-in-charge of the North Island, and in 1884 Engineer-in-chief of the colony. Mr. Blackett is now Consulting Engineer of the Government of New Zealand in London.

Blackmore, Edwin Gordon, Clerk of the Legislative Council and Clerk of Parliaments, South Australia, was educated at King Edward VI. Grammar School, Bath; served with the Taranaki Rifle Volunteers in the New Zealand war from 1863 to 1864, and was present, in reserve, at the action of Poutoko, on Oct. 2nd, 1863, and at the storming and capture of the rebel Maori strongholds at Ahuahu and Kaitake in March 1864. For these services Mr. Blackmore received the New Zealand medal. He was appointed Parliamentary Librarian to the Legislature of South Australia in Oct. 1864; Clerk Assistant and Sergeant-at-arms, House of Assembly, in Dec. 1869; Clerk of the House of Assembly in May 1886; Clerk of the Legislative Council and Clerk of Parliaments in May 1887. Mr. Blackmore is author of "The Decisions of Mr. Speaker Denison on Points of Order, Rules of Debate, and the General Practice of the House of Commons from 1857 to 1872," "The Decisions of Mr. Speaker Brand from 1872 to 1884," "The Decisions of Mr. Speaker Peel from 1884 to 1886, and 1887 to 1889," and "Manual of the Practice, Procedure, and Usage of the House of Assembly of South Australia."

Blackmore, James Newnham, J.P., brother of the foregoing, was born in 1836, and was employed in the South Australian Chief Secretary's office from 1854 to 1857, when he was appointed Assistant Clerk and Sergeant-at-arms in the House of Assembly. Nine years later he became Secretary to the Commissioner for Crown Lands, and in 1870 Under Treasurer, a post which he held till his death, which took place in Adelaide on April 7th, 1875.

Blair, David, was born in 1820, and came to New South Wales at the instigation of Dr. Lang, in 1850, where he assisted Mr. (now Sir) Henry Parkes in establishing the Empire newspaper in Sydney. In 1852 Mr. Blair settled in Victoria as correspondent for the Sydney Morning Herald, and became sub-editor of the Melbourne Argus. In 1854 he was appointed editor of the Age, and advocated the cause of the miners in their opposition to the unpopular digging licences. Mr. Blair was elected to the Assembly for Talbot in 1856, and for Crowlands in 1868. In 1867 he was appointed Secretary to the Royal Commission on Education, and acted in the same capacity to the Penal Commission in 1873. He wrote the first history of Australia in 1878, and in 1881 compiled the "Cyclopaedia of Australasia," a work which displays a minute and comprehensive knowledge of persons and events connected with the pioneer days of the colonies. In 1876 he edited the speeches of Sir Henry Parkes, which he prefaced with an introduction.

Blair, William Newsham, M.Inst.C.E., was in the service of the Provincial Government of Otago from 1864 to 1865; became district engineer in the Public Works Department of New Zealand in 1871, Engineer-in-charge of the Middle Island in 1878, and Assistant Engineer-in-Chief for the colony in 1884. In 1890 Mr. Blair was appointed Engineer-in-chief, and died on May 4th, 1891.

Blakeney, William Theophilus, Registrar-General of Queensland, comes of an Anglo-Irish family long settled at Abbert Castle, Blakeney, co. Galway, and was educated at the Collegiate School, Elphin, co. Roscommon, and at Stackpool's High School at Kingstown. He emigrated to Sydney in 1853, and was engaged in mercantile pursuits until Feb. 1856, when he received an appointment in the sheriff's office, which he exchanged in 1860 for a similar position in the sheriff's office of the then new colony of Queensland. He was appointed Under Sheriff of Queensland in 1862, Deputy Registrar-General in 1865, and Registrar-General upon the retirement of Mr. Jordan in 1883. Mr. Blakeney is also a Commissioner of Stamp Duties, and Registrar of Friendly Societies, Building Societies, and Trades Unions. He was Registrar of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks from 1883 to 1889, when he resigned.

Bland, Rivett Henry, is the son of Dr. Thomas Bland, and was born at Newark, Nottinghamshire, on Feb. 2nd, 1811. He was educated at the Grammar School, Newark, and studied for the medical profession at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London. Leaving England in May 1829, for Western Australia, he arrived in August, and after a short interval was appointed by the then Governor (Sir James Stirling) to settle the York district, about seventy miles distant from Perth. In this locality he remained for a number of years as resident magistrate, his principal duty being to protect the settlers from the blacks, with whose language and customs he obtained an intimate acquaintance. Towards the end of 1848 he accompanied Captain Charles Fitzgerald, who had in the meantime become Governor of Western Australia, in the capacity of private secretary, on an expedition to Champion Bay, for the purpose of examining a lode of galena, discovered on the Murchison River by Mr. Augustus C. Gregory. The party consisted of the Governor, Mr. Bland, Mr. Gregory, three soldiers, and a servant. The discovery was verified, but on the return journey the Governor was speared in the leg by the blacks, and Mr. Bland had a narrow escape. Returning to England after a visit to the eastern colonies, he was in 1852 appointed resident Director of the Port Phillip and Colonial Gold Mining Company, and arrived in Melbourne towards the end of that year. In 1856 he arranged with the proprietors of some land at Clunes to commence mining operations on some quartz lodes, and erected an extensive plant of machinery in conjunction with a party of miners, afterwards called the Clunes Quartz Mining Company. This mine has continued to be worked to the present time with varying results. The total gold, raised from 1857 to 1884 was 506,220 ounces, of the value of £2,029,078 13s. 7d., giving a profit of nearly half a million from an outlay under £20,000.

Bland, William, M.R.C.S., the son of Dr. Robert Bland, an eminent physician and writer on medical subjects, was born in London on Nov. 5th, 1789, and educated at Merchant Taylors' School. Having been admitted M.R.C.S. in 1810, he received an appointment in the Royal Navy, and sailed for Bombay. During the voyage he quarrelled with the purser, and when they reached land a duel was fought, in which the purser was killed. Lieutenant Randall, one of the ship's officers, having insinuated unfairness, Mr. Bland fought him without result, but they were afterwards arrested, tried at Calcutta, and sentenced to seven years' transportation; Mr, Bland being sent to Sydney, where he arrived in 1814, and having received a free pardon, practised his profession. In the course of divorce proceedings which he had instituted against his wife, Mr. Bland referred in libellous terms to Governor Macquarie, and in consequence was criminally indicted before the Supreme Court of New South Wales, and fined £50, with twelve months in Parramatta Gaol, which sentence was fully exacted. On his release Mr. Bland devoted himself to benevolent projects, and took a prominent part as a member of the Patriotic Association, in the great struggle for political emancipation which was then engrossing the attention of the colonists, his efforts in the cause of local autonomy entitling him to rank with Wentworth amongst the greatest benefactors of the community, amongst whom he originally came under such inauspicious circumstances. When the elections to the first partially representative Legislative Council of New South Wales took place in 1843, Mr. Bland was returned, along with Wentworth, for the city of Sydney. Five years later, however, the tide of popular feeling turned against him in favour of more extremist agitators, headed by Mr. Robert Lowe (now Lord Sherbrooke); and when, in 1848, the elections took place for the new Legislative Council, in which Sydney had three members given her instead of two, Mr. Bland was lowest on the poll of the four candidates, Messrs. Wentworth, Lowe, and Lamb being elected, despite the incisive attack made by Wentworth on Mr. Lowe's inconsistencies, and his impassioned appeal to the constituency to reject himself rather than his friend Mr. Bland, of whom he said, "No man has ever served a country in a purer spirit of patriotism, no man ever more deeply deserved the gratitude of a generous people, than he has." Mr. Bland died suddenly in Sydney, on July 21st, 1868. He was the author of "Suppression of Spontaneous Combustion in Woolships" (second edition, 1845), "Letters to Charles Buller, M.P." (1849), and other brochures.

Blyth, Hon. Sir Arthur, K.C.M.G., C.B., late Agent-General for South Australia, was the son of William Blyth, late of Adelaide, S.A., but previously of Birmingham, England, by Sarah, daughter of Rev. William Wilkins, of Bourton-on-the-Water, in Gloucestershire. He was born at Birmingham on March 19th, 1823, and educated at King Edward VI. Grammar School, in that town. Having emigrated to South Australia with his father and brothers in 1839, only three years after the formal constitution of the colony, he engaged in commercial pursuits, from which he retired in 1861. An instalment of representative government having been conceded, Sir Arthur, in 1855, entered the semi-elective Council as elected member for Yatala. Prior to this he had occupied various local posts, having been Chairman of the Mitcham District Council, Assessor of the City Corporation, Captain of the first Volunteer Force, formed during the Russian War scare; and a member of the Central Road Board, and of the Chamber of Commerce. The Council had been dissolved by Sir Richard MacDonnell, the then Governor, with a view to the adoption of a new constitution on more liberal lines than the one previously in force. This great work was promptly achieved, and Sir Arthur Blyth took a prominent part in the legislation which enlarged the suffrage, instituted the bicameral system, and settled the constitution upon what, with slight changes, is its present basis. In the Legislative Assembly constituted under the Bill, Sir Arthur took his seat as member for Gumeracha, and represented the constituency till 1868. The Finniss Ministry, which included the author of the Torrens Act, having resigned office, the Baker Ministry was formed, in which Sir Arthur Blyth held the post of Commissioner of Public Works throughout its short-lived existence, from August to Sept. 1857. From June 1858 to May 1860 Sir Arthur held a similar position in the Hanson Ministry. In October of the following year Sir Arthur accepted the post of Treasurer under Mr. Waterhouse's premiership, but resigned with his colleagues in July 1863. In August 1864 Sir Arthur formed his first Administration, holding, along with the premiership, the rather unusual post of Commissioner of Crown Lands and Emigration. In March 1865 he was thrown out of power, but came back as Treasurer under his old colleague, Sir Henry Ayers, in Sept. 1865. This Ministry was also only formed to die; but Sir Arthur was not long in opposition, becoming Chief Secretary under Mr. Boucaut in March 1866. The May of 1867 saw him again out of office, and he remained in opposition until May 1870, when he joined Mr. Hart as, for the second time, Commissioner of Crown Lands and Immigration. In Nov. 1871 the Government was reconstructed, and Sir Arthur became Treasurer and Premier. He did not secure a firm tenure, being thrown out in the January following. He, however, became Premier for the third time in July 1873, and was successful in holding his own till June 1875, when Mr. Boucaut's extensive scheme of public undertakings caused the electors to look askance at the more cautious policy of Sir Arthur Blyth's Cabinet. In March 1876 he accepted office as Treasurer in the reconstructed Boucaut Ministry, and in Feb. 1877 was appointed Agent-General in succession to the late Mr. F. S. Dutton. Prior to this Sir Arthur had revisited England, remaining from 1868 to 1870, in which latter year he was re-elected for Gumeracha, and sat until 1875, when he transferred his services to North Adelaide. In 1850 Sir Arthur married Jessie Anne, daughter of Edward Forrest, of Birmingham. In 1877, soon after his arrival in London, he was created a Knight Commander of St. Michael and St. George, and in 1886 received the Civil Companionship of the Order of the Bath, in recognition of services rendered in connection with the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, at which he represented his colony both as Royal and Executive Commissioner. He was also presented with the freedom of the Salters' Company, one of the most ancient and exclusive of the City Guilds. In 1887 Sir Arthur was associated with Sir John Downer as one of the representatives of South Australia, at the Colonial Conference held in London in that year. He died at Bournemouth on Dec. 7th, 1891. Lady Blyth died a fortnight later.

Blyth, Neville, J.P., brother of the above and son of the late William Blyth, of Adelaide, by Sarah, third daughter of Rev. William Wilkins, of Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire, was born at Birmingham in 1828. He arrived in South Australia with his father in 1839, and engaged in commercial pursuits. He was member for East Torrens from March 13th, 1860, to July 9th, 1867, when he resigned. He was returned for Encounter Bay on April 16th, 1868, but retired at the dissolution on March 2nd, 1870. He was elected for Victoria on Aug. 24th, 1871, and at the dissolution in Nov. 1871 unsuccessfully contested Encounter Bay. He visited England and the continent of Europe from 1873 to 1875. On his brother, Hon. (now Sir) Arthur Blyth, accepting the office of Agent-General, he was returned in his stead for North Adelaide, on March 14th, 1877. Mr. Blyth was re-elected on March 29th, 1878, but resigned and finally retired from Parliament on Dec. 2nd in the same year. He was Treasurer in Mr. Hart's Ministry from Sept. 24th to Oct. 13th, 1868, and Minister of Education in Mr. Boucaut's Cabinet from Oct. 26th, 1877, to Sept. 27th, 1878. Mr. Blyth married at Alderley Edge, Cheshire, in 1852, Miss Julia Barnes, who still survives. Mr. Blyth took up his residence in England in 1878, and was a member of the London Commission for the Adelaide Jubilee Exhibition of 1887. He died at Sutton, Surrey, on Feb. 15th, 1890.

Bolton, Hon. Henry, J.P., is the son of a farmer and civil engineer of Galway, Ireland, where he was born in 1842. He came to Victoria in 1861, and started as a brewer at Heathcote, removing to Seymour in 1869. He was president of the Seymour Shire Council, and having unsuccessfully contested Moira in the Liberal interest in 1877, was returned to the Legislative Assembly for that constituency in 1880. He was Postmaster-General in the O'Loghlen Government from July 1881 to March 1883. He subsequently retired from public life in Victoria, and commenced business in Queensland. Mr. Bolton married, in 1866, Annie, second daughter of James Eagan, of the Major's Line Station.

Bonney, Charles, was born at Sandon, near Stafford, on Oct. 31st, 1813, and educated at the Grammar School, Rugby. He went to Sydney in 1834 as clerk to Sir William Westbrooke Burton. In April 1837 he brought the first lot of cattle overland from New South Wales to Victoria for Mr. Ebden, and in April of the following year the first mob of cattle from N.S.W. to South Australia, in which colony he subsequently settled. From 1842 to 1857 he was Commissioner for Crown Lands, S.A. From Oct. 1856 to August 1857, was a member of the first Ministry formed under responsible government. Mr. Bonney was member for East Torrens in the Legislative Assembly from 1857 to 1858, and was a member of the Legislative Council in 1865 and 1866. He was Manager of Railways from 1869 to 1871, when he was appointed Inspector of "Lands Purchased on Credit." He now resides in Sydney.

Bonwick, James, F.R.G.S., son of James and Mary Ann Bonwick, was born in London on July 8th, 1817, and married Miss Esther Beddow, April 17th, 1840. In the following year he emigrated to Australia, arriving at Hobart on Oct. 10th. He spent eight years in Tasmania, three in South Australia, twenty in Victoria, and travelled extensively throughout New South Wales and Queensland. He acted as Inspector of Schools for the Ballarat district of Victoria for four years, when a severe sunstroke, which caused partial paralysis, incapacitated him from all work for nearly four years. He opened a school at St. Kilda, near Melbourne, in 1863, and returned to England for the benefit of his health in 1870, but has since several times revisited Melbourne. He has been engaged for the last four years as Archivist to the New South Wales Government, in the preparation of materials for the official history of that colony. Mr. Bonwick has been a most industrious author and compiler. Amongst his numerous works may be mentioned "Geography for Australian Youth," 1845; "Boroondara," 1854; "Western Victoria," 1857; and at various dates, "Orion and Sirius," "French Colonies," "Early Struggles of Trade in New South Wales," "Early Struggles of the Australian Press," "Early Struggles of the New Zealand Trade and Press," "Our Nationalities," "Geography of Australia," "Discovery and Settlement of Port Phillip," "Buckley, the Wild White Man," "John Batman, the Founder of Victoria," "The Last of the Tasmanians," "Daily life of the Tasmanians," "Curious Facts of Old Colonial Days," "Mormons and Silver Mines," "Pyramid Facts and Fancies," "Egyptian Belief and Modern Thought," "Resources of Queensland," "First Twenty Years of Australia," "Port Phillip Settlement," "Romance of the Wool Trade," "The The Bushrangers of Van Diemen's Land," "Bible Stories for Young Australians," "Astronomy for Young Australians," etc.

Bonython, John Langdon, J. P., was born in London, Oct. 15th, 1848. He is a son of George L. Bonython, and is descended from an old family—the Bonythons of Bonython, and Carclew, in Cornwall. At an early age he went with his parents to South Australia, and was educated in Adelaide. He joined the literary staff of The Advertiser, which is the popular journal of South Australia. Having served as reporter and sub-editor, he became some years ago the editor, which position he now fills. In 1879 he entered the proprietary of The Advertiser and associated journals (The Express, an evening paper, and The Chronicle, a weekly paper); and eventually the firm, which had been Barrow & King, became Burden (Mr. F. B. Burden, J.P.) & Bonython. When the Adelaide School Board was appointed, Mr. Bonython was nominated a member. In 1883 he was elected chairman, and at the present time holds that office. He was a member of a board appointed by the Government in 1886 to consider the question of technical education. As recommended by this Board a School of Mines and Industries was established, and Mr. Bonython was made a member of the Council, which included some of the best known and most representative men in the colony. The first chairman, Dr. Cockburn, having soon after his appointment to resign through becoming Premier, Mr. Bonython was unanimously elected to the position, which he now occupies. He was one of the local commission for the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition of 1888. He is a justice of the peace, a member of the council of the South Australian branch of the Geographical Society of Australasia, and vice-president of the South Australian Cornish Association. Mr. Bonython is recognised as a shrewd politician, who has probably had as much influence on the legislation of the country as men actively engaged in politics. To his untiring energy the success of the journals with which he is connected is largely due.

Boothby, His Honour Benjamin, sometime Judge of the Supreme Court of South Australia, son of the late Benjamin Boothby, was born at Doncaster in Yorkshire on Feb. 5th, 1803. He was called to the bar at Gray's Inn in 1825, and became Revising Barrister for the West Riding of Yorkshire, and Recorder of Pontefract. In Feb. 1853 he was appointed Second Judge of the Supreme Court of South Australia, and was sworn in on Oct. 17th, 1853. Soon after his arrival he manifested a dislike to colonial enactments, which he did not attempt to conceal. The words " "ultra vires" and "repugnant" constantly figured in his judicial pronouncements, and he protested from the bench against the validity of the appointments of his colleagues, Chief Justice Hanson and Mr. Justice Gwynne. Twice the Parliament passed addresses for Mr. Justice Boothby'a removal from the bench, but in vain. He had warm defenders in Parliament, and one ministry resigned on account of differences of opinion in the Cabinet with regard to the action to be taken. Some of his decisions against the validity of the South Australian statutes were confirmed on appeal to the Privy Council, and this greatly encouraged him in his warfare against things colonial. Several validating Acts were passed by the Imperial Parliament to give force to the South Australian laws or remove doubts concerning them. Still the judge was not more practicable. Suitors suffered seriously from delays and obstructions in the Supreme Court, and at last business in that tribunal was brought into such a condition that it was necessary for the Executive to take decided action. Several years before Mr. Justice Boothby arrived in the colony grand juries had been abolished, Parliament regarding them as useless. Soon, if not immediately, after his arrival the judge expressed his strong disapproval of this innovation; but still he tried prisoners without grand juries for about thirteen years, and then, at a particularly heavy criminal sittings, declared that the accused persons on the calendar could not legally be tried without a grand jury. They were all kept in gaol or had their bail renewed, as the case might be, till the next criminal sittings, when another judge tried them. This was the occasion of the second unsuccessful Parliamentary Address to the Queen for Mr. Justice Boothby's removal. He was not allowed to preside at a criminal sitting again; when his turn came round he was prevented, by a special commission to the Chief Justice directing him to try prisoners. In 1867 the patience of the Judicial Bench, the bar, and the colonists was exhausted. Charges were made against Mr. Justice Boothby of obstructing the administration of justice, and of unseemly conduct on the bench, as exhibited in his demeanour towards his colleagues and towards counsel. These charges were dealt with by the Executive Council under the authority of an Act of George III., the Governor presiding, and the judge was "amoved." The Crown Solicitor, Mr. Wearing, who was afterwards drowned in the wreck of the Gothenburg, in Torres Straits, was appointed to succeed him. Out of all this trouble, observes Mr. J. P. Stow (whose account has been quoted) some benefit accrued to the colony: the amoved judge accurately ruled that, owing to some omission in bringing the new constitution into force, the Legislative itself was invalid, and the defect was remedied by the Imperial Parliament. The repugnancy nuisance was effectually disposed of. Nothing can now be ruled repugnant unless it is so to an Imperial Act specifically applying to the colonies. The last Imperial Validating Statute was of a most comprehensive character. With the above exception no Colonial Act can be ruled invalid after receiving the Queen's assent, or after proclamation that she has not exercised her power of disallowance. The greatest inconvenience and alarm was caused in the year 1865 by the decision of the majority of the judges—namely, Justices Boothby and Gwynne—that the South Australian Legislature had no power to establish Courts of Judicature. This invalidated all the local courts of the colony, they having jurisdiction in civil cases up to £100, and the Insolvency Court. The Imperial Validating Act, however, settled this difficulty, greatly to the relief of suitors in particular, and the public generally. The powers of the Local Court of Appeal were enlarged by an Act of the South Australian Parliament, passed in 1861. This anomalous tribunal, consisting of the Executive, of whom nearly all are laymen, owes its continued existence to the recollection the colonists have of the "repugnancy" and "ultra vires" troubles. Judge Boothby died on June 21st, 1868, whilst on the point of leaving for England to initiate an appeal to the Privy Council.

Boothby, Josiah, C.M.G., fifth son of the late Benjamin Boothby, sometime Judge of the Supreme Court of South Australia, was born at Nottingham on April 8th, 1837. He went to the colony with his father in 1853, and in that year became Clerk in the Colonial Secretary's Office, Clerk in the Audit Office in 1854, Chief Clerk in the Audit Office in 1856, Chief Clerk in the Chief Secretary's Office in 1859, also Government Statist and Superintendent of Census in 1860, Assistant Secretary and Government Statist in 1866, and Under Secretary and Government Statist in 1868. He was elected Corresponding Member of the Statistical Society, London, in 1869; was appointed Trustee of the Savings Bank, South Australia, in 1869; a Commissioner for International Exhibitions in 1872; joint editor of a work "South Australia: its History, Resources, and Productions," published by authority of Government in 1876, and Executive Commissioner representing South Australia at the Paris Universal Exhibition in 1878, in connection with which he was created C.M.G., and received the Cross of the Legion of Honour. Owing to a dispute in connection with the expenses of the Paris Exhibition he retired from the public service of South Australia in 1880.

Boothby, William Robinson, B.A., J. P., Sheriff of South Australia, son of Benjamin Boothby, formerly judge of the Supreme Court of South Australia, was born in England on Sept. 26th, 1829. He was educated at London University, where he graduated B.A., and went to South Australia with his father in 1853. In the following year he was appointed Sheriff and Returning Officer of the province of South Australia, and Marshal of the Court of Vice-Admiralty in addition in 1862. Mr. Boothby, who is Comptroller of Prison Labour, is a member of the Council of the Senate of Adelaide University.

Bosisto, Joseph, C.M.G., M.L.A., is the son of the late William Bosisto, of Cookham, Berks, and was born on March 21st, 1827, at Hammersmith. Becoming a druggist, he emigrated to Adelaide, S.A., in 1848, where he established the business of Messrs. Faulding & Co. He proceeded to Melbourne in 1851, and began business at Richmond. Having discovered the remarkable antiseptic properties of the eucalyptus, he went largely into the manufacture of its products. The Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria was founded mainly through his instrumentality in 1857. He was twice mayor of Richmond, and chairman of the local bench for five years consecutively. From 1874 to 1889 he was M.L.A. for the city, but was defeated in the latter year. Having represented Victoria at the Calcutta Exhibition in 1883, he was appointed President of the Royal Commission of that colony at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, held at South Kensington in 1886, for his services at which he was created C.M.G. on June 28th of that year. Mr. Bosisto is a J.P. for Victoria, and has been president of the Technological Commission, and Examiner in Materia Medica and Botany at the College of Pharmacy. In April 1892 Mr. Bosisto was re-elected to the Assembly for the Jolimont subdivision of his old constituency.

Boucaut, Hon. James Penn, Puisne Judge South Australia, son of the late Captain Ray Boucaut, H.E.I.C.S., by Winifred, daughter of the late James Penn, Superintendent of H.M.'s Dockyard, Mylor, Falmouth, was born near that place on Oct. 29th, 1831. He came to South Australia with his father (who died in 1872) in 1846, and was called to the bar in 1855. He was returned to the Legislative Assembly for the city of Adelaide on Dec. 9th, 1861, on the resignation of Sir R. D. Hanson; but was defeated at the general election in Nov. 1862. He was returned for West Adelaide at the general election in March 1865, and sat till the dissolution in March 1868, when he was returned for the Burra. He was, however, defeated at the general election in March 1870; but in August 1871 re-entered the Assembly as member for the West Torrens district, in succession to Mr. Strangways, who resigned. He was again returned for West Torrens at the general election in Dec. 1871, and sat till the dissolution in 1875, when he became member for Encounter Bay; and having been re-elected in April 1878, he finally retired on Sept. 25th in the same year, on being appointed a judge. Mr. Boucaut first took office in Mr. Hart's Ministry, on Oct. 23rd, 1865, being appointed Attorney-General, a position which he had refused when offered him by Mr. (afterwards Sir) Henry Ayers, immediately after his return for West Adelaide in March. On March 28th, 1866, the Ministry was reconstructed under the premiership of Mr. Boucaut, who continued to hold office as Attorney-General until May 3rd, 1867, when he retired with his colleagues, in connection with the Moonta question. At this time he refused a Q.C.-ship, and subsequently frequently declined office. In 1872, however, he joined Mr. Hughes', or, as it is generally called, Mr. Ayers' Ministry, "to establish the principle that the Governor was not entitled absolutely to say that the framer of the Government should necessarily be its head." Having established this principle, the ministry resigned, and Mr. Boucaut was out of office till June 3rd, 1875, when he again became Premier, and initiated the famous "Boucaut policy," which embraced a wide scheme of public works. In this, his second administration, Mr. Boucaut held the post of Commissioner of Crown Lands and Immigration, and subsequently the commissionership of Public Works. On March 25th, 1876, Mr. Boucaut reconstituted his ministry, Mr. Way having become Chief Justice, and Mr. (afterwards Sir) Wm. Morgan and Mr. Colton having retired. He was turned out of office on June 6th, 1876, partly, as his friends asserted, by backstairs cabals, and partly because he refused to borrow large sums of money without making provision to pay the interest, his taxation proposals having been rejected in two sessions by the Legislative Council. Mr. Boucaut again became Premier on Oct. 25th, 1877, and held that office till he was raised to the judicial bench in Oct. 1878. "As a politician," a friendly hand writes, "his horror of a plutocracy made him democratic; but his love of fair play often tinged that with conservatism, as he generally opposed extreme views, and did not sacrifice a far-seeing purpose for the sake of a present advantage, nor would he court popularity by the sacrifice of independence. He was amongst the most national of Australian politicians, and strongly dwelt upon the community of interest between South Australia and New South Wales. He advocated a gradual extension of railways from Adelaide to Wentworth, in order to join the Sydney lines to the Barrier Ranges, to Innamincka, and northwards across the Continent, although strongly opposing any immediate attempt to extend it to Port Darwin." Judge Boucaut was Acting Chief Justice during the absence in England on leave of Chief Justice Way, 1891-92. He has been several times Deputy Governor and twice administrator of the Government.

Bourke, General Sir Richard, K.C.B., sometime Governor of New South Wales, eldest son of John Bourke, of Thornfield, co. Limerick, Ireland, by his marriage with Anne, daughter of Edmund Ryan, of Boscobel, co. Tipperary, was born on May 4th, 1778, and educated at Westminster School and Oxford University, where he matriculated at Oriel College in 1793, and graduated B.A. at Exeter in 1798. Sir Richard, who succeeded to his father's property in 1795, entered the army in 1798, and served with great distinction in Holland in the next year's campaign, being severely wounded in the face. After being, for a short time, Superintendent of the Military College at Marlow, he was appointed Quartermaster-General in South America in 1806, and in the following year was present at the storming of Monte Video. He served in the Peninsular year from 1809 to 1814, was raised to the rank of major-general in 1821, and acted as Lieut.-Governor of the Cape of Good Hope from 1826 to 1828. Sir Richard assumed office as Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief of New South Wales and its dependencies in Dec. 1831, and held the reins until Dec. 1837, when he left the colony amidst the regrets of the people. Sir Richard, who was created K.C.B. in 1835, and was made colonel of the 64th regiment on his leaving New South Wales in 1837, became lieut.-general in Jan. 1851, and general in November of the same year. He was one of the witnesses to the will of the Right Hon. Edmund Burke, with whom he claimed kinship; and he edited, in conjunction with Charles, 5th Earl Fitzwilliam, an edition of that great statesman's correspondence. Sir Richard, who was High Sheriff of co. Limerick in 1839, married, on March 1st, 1800, Elizabeth Jane, youngest daughter of John Bourke, of Carshalton, Surrey, Receiver-General of the Land Tax for Middlesex, by his wife, Mary Battye of Yorkshire. This lady died at Parramatta, N.S.W. on May 7th, 1832, and was interred there. Sir Richard died on August 12th, 1855, at his seat at Thornfield, where his only surviving son Richard resided. A monument was erected to Sir Richard Bourke's memory in the Domain, Sydney, the inscription on which well summarises his services as Governor of New South Wales, at a time when the Queen's representatives in Australia were allowed a much greater initiative than is the case at present. It runs as follows: "This statue of Lieutenant-General Sir Richard Bourke, K.C.B., is erected by the people of New South Wales, to record his able, honest, and benevolent administration from 1831 to 1837. Selected for the government at a period of singular difficulty, his judgment, urbanity, and firmness justified the choice. Comprehending at once the vast resources peculiar to this colony, he applied them, for the first time, systematically to its benefit. He voluntarily divested himself of the prodigious influence arising from the assignment of penal labour, and enacted just and salutary laws for the amelioration of penal discipline. He was the first Governor who published satisfactory accounts of public receipts and expenditure. Without oppression or detriment to any interest he raised the revenue to a vast amount, and from its surplus realised extensive plans of immigration. He established religions equality on a just and firm basis, and sought to provide for all, without distinction of sect, a sound and adequate system of national education. He constructed various public works of permanent utility. He founded the flourishing settlement of Port Phillip, and threw open the wilds of Australia to pastoral enterprise. He established savings banks, and was the patron of the first Mechanics' Institute. He created an equitable tribunal for determining upon claims to grants of lands. He was the warm friend of the liberty of the Press. He extended trial by jury after its almost total suspension for many years. By these, and numerous other measures for the moral, religious and general improvement of all classes he raised the colony to unexampled prosperity, and retired amid the reverent and affectionate regret of the people, having won their confidence by his integrity, their gratitude by his services, their admiration by his public talents, and their esteem by his private worth." Sir Richard, though in the first instance he discountenanced the formation of a settlement at Port Phillip, ultimately induced the Home Government to recognise it. In 1837 he visited the incipient colony, and was the author of most of its existing nomenclature, giving the present names to Hobson's Bay, and the city of Melbourne itself, and his own family designation to the metropoltian county, and to one of the principal streets of the embryo capital of what was to become the great colony of Victoria.

Bourne, Joseph Orton, Registrar of Titles, Queensland, was born at Windsor, N.S.W., in 1854, and was the first pupil enrolled at the Normal School at Brisbane, where he went with his parents in 1859. He entered as a cadet in the Survey Office in 1861, became a draftsman in 1862, joined the Real Property Office as head draftsman in 1873, became principal Deputy Registrar of Titles in 1884, and received his present appointment as Registrar of Titles on Dec. 4th, 1889. He is a captain unattached in the Queensland Defence Force.

Bowen, Hon. Charles Christopher, M.L.C., was born at Milford, co. Mayo, Ireland, in 1830, being the eldest son of Charles Bowen, one of the founders of Canterbury, who was Speaker of the Provincial Council from 1855 to 1864. He was educated at Rugby and Cambridge, but left the University without taking a degree, and went out to the Canterbury Settlement in one of the first four ships, acting, until Dec. 1852, as secretary to Mr. Godley. In the Provincial Council of Canterbury Mr. Bowen was for some years Treasurer. In 1859 he visited England, where he remained till 1862; and upon his return was, in 1864, appointed Resident Magistrate at Christchurch, which office he held till 1874. From 1872 to 1874 he was Chairman of the Canterbury Board of Education. Mr. Bowen, on Dec. 16th, 1874, was called to the Legislative Council to take office under Sir Julius Vogel, but immediately afterwards resigned his seat and entered the Lower House as member for Kaiapoi. His offices were those of Minister of Justice and Commissioner of Stamps, which he held until the advent of the Grey Ministry into power on Oct 14th, 1877. During his tenure of office, he busied himself with the reform of prison management, introducing the system of "marks" into gaols. He also carried through the House in 1877 the Education Act, which established free primary schools and compulsory attendance throughout the colony. Mr. Bowen retired from Parliament in 1881, when he paid another visit to England. Mr. Bowen was called to the Upper House in 1891.

Bowen, Right Hon. Sir George Ferguson, G.C.M.G., D.C.L., LL.D., successively Governor of Queensland, N.Z., and Victoria, is the eldest son of the late Rev. Edward Bowen, rector of Taughboyne, county Donegal, and was born in 1821. He was educated at the Charterhouse and at Trinity College, Oxford, where he obtained a scholarship in 1840, and graduated B.A. as first class in classics in 1844. In the same year he was elected to a fellowship at Brasenose College, and became a member of Lincoln's Inn, In 1847 he was appointed President of the University of Corfu, and in 1854 became Chief Secretary of the Government of the Ionian Islands, in which post he remained till 1859, when he was appointed the first Governor of the new colony of Queensland. Taking with him Mr. (now Sir Robert) Herbert as Colonial Secretary, he successfully organised the government of the infant colony, and presided over the inauguration of responsible institutions, Mr. Herbert becoming the first Premier. His term of Office expiring in Jan. 1868, he became Governor of New Zealand, where he had the difficult task of bringing the Maori War to an end. His rule gave entire satisfaction to the Colonial Office, and when in March 1873 he was transferred to Victoria, the official intimation of his promotion was couched in very complimentary terms. From Jan. 1875 to Jan. 1876 he was at home on his first leave of absence. On his return to Melbourne his troubles began. Sir William Stawell, who had held the reins in the interim, had shown somewhat too little flexibility in the exercise of his temporary powers, with the result that a constitutional struggle of unparalleled bitterness had been commenced between the supporters of Sir James McCulloch on the one hand and those of the Liberal party, under Mr. (now Sir Graham) Berry, on the other. At the general election in May 1877 the latter swept the country, and Mr. Berry formed an administration, which in the course of a lengthened struggle with the Upper House on the question of payment of members, and ultimately of the reform of the latter body itself, resorted to measures which were denounced by its opponents as unconstitutional and cruel, the latter term being applied to what were known as the "Black Wednesday" dismissals of civil servants in Dec. 1878. Throughout the whole of the struggle Sir George Bowen acted on the constitutional principle of accepting the advice of his Ministers when not illegal. He was thus exposed to some personal animadversion from the Council and its organs in the press. On the whole, however, the Colonial Office justified his attitude, which was also approved by Mr. Gladstone, Mr. Childers, the late Earl of Carnarvon, and the late Mr. W. E. Forster. Sir George Bowen quitted the government of Victoria in Feb. 1879, on the expiry of the usual term of office, and was Governor of Mauritius till 1883 and of Hong Kong from that year till 1887, when he retired on a pension, having declined the offer made to him of continuing at Hong Kong. In 1886 he was appointed to the Privy Council, having been created C.M.G. in 1855; K.C.M.G. in 1856; and G.C.M.G. in 1860. In 1888 Sir George Bowen was appointed Royal Commissioner at Malta to make arrangements respecting the new constitution granted to that island. He is the author of "A Handbook for Travellers in Greece," in Murray's Series; "Mount Athos, Thessaly, and Epirus: a Diary of a Journey from Constantinople to Corfu" (1852); "Ithaca in 1850"; and "Imperial Federation" (1886). A full account of his public services will be found in "Thirty Years of Colonial Government," which comprises a selection from his despatches and letters whilst in the service of the Colonial Office, and was edited by Mr. Stanley Lane Poole. Sir George Bowen, besides being an honorary D.C.L. of Oxford and an honorary LL.D. of Cambridge, is a member of the governing bodies of the Imperial Institute and of Charterhouse School. He married in 1856 the Countess Roma, only surviving daughter of Count Roma, G.C.M.G., then President of the Senate of the Ionian Islands.

Bower, David, was born at Upper Mill, near Saddleworth, Yorkshire, on April 11th, 1819. In 1841 he emigrated to Port Phillip (now Victoria), and after a varied experience in New Zealand and New South Wales, finally settled in South Australia in 1847, where he established a successful business as a timber merchant at Port Adelaide. In 1865 he was returned to the Assembly as member for the combined electorate of Wallaroo and Port Adelaide, and in 1875 was elected for Port Adelaide, which he represented for a number of years. Mr. Bower was Commissioner of Public Works in the Bray Ministry from April to June 1884.

Boyce, Rev. William Binnington, one of the oldest colonists and one of the leading clergymen of the Wesleyan Methodist Church of New South Wales, was a native of the United Kingdom. In his early career his time was chiefly given to missionary work, and about 1830 he proceeded to South Africa, where he laboured for thirteen years as a missionary. In Jan. 1846 he arrived in Sydney, with the appointment of General Superintendent of Wesleyan Missions. Subsequently he was unanimously elected President of the first Wesleyan Conference held in Australia. In 1850 he was appointed a member of the Senate of the Sydney University, being one of the sixteen original members of that body. He died in Sydney, at the age of eighty-four, on March 8th, 1889. Mr. Boyce was the author of several works of a theological character. [This biography appeared in the Supplement at the end of the book.]

Boyes, Edward Taylor, J.P., Collector of Customs, Tasmania, was formerly Collector and Landing Surveyor at Launceston, and in March 1883 was appointed Collector and Inspector of Customs, Landing Surveyor and Registrar of Shipping at Hobart.

Bracken, Thomas, was born Dec. 21st, 1843, in Ireland, and arrived in Victoria at the age of twelve. After experiencing the ups and downs of colonial life for several years, Mr. Bracken went to Otago, N.Z., in 1869, and connected himself shortly afterwards with journalism in that province. He was connected with the Otago Guardian in the first year or two of its existence, and subsequent founded a weekly paper, called The Saturday Advertiser, which he conducted with marked ability. In 1881 he was elected to represent Dunedin Central in the House of Representatives, but lost his seat at the elections of 1884. Mr. Bracken is best known as the author of several collections of verses, and the following books are from his pen: "Flowers of the Freelands," "Paddy Murphy's Budget," "Pulpit Lectures," "Beyond the Tomb, and other Poems," "The New Zealand Tourist," "The Land of the Maori and the Moa," and "Musings in Maori Land" (Keirle, Dunedin, 1890).

Braddon, Sir Edward Nicholas Coventry, K.C.M.G., born June 11th, 1829, is the son of Henry Braddon, of Skisdon, and member of the junior branch of the Braddons of Treglith and Treworgye, who temp. Elizabeth sent representatives of Liskeard to the British House of Commons. He went to India in 1847 to join his cousin's mercantile house in Calcutta. After varied experience, he accepted an appointment in the Government service as Assistant Commissioner in Santhalia; served in the Santhal rebellion with favourable mention; after the suppression of the Santhal outbreak, raised a regiment of Santhals, for which he was specially thanked by the Lieut.-Governor of Bengal; and then served with Sir George Yule's Volunteer force in the Indian mutiny (medal and favourable mention). In 1862 he was appointed Commissioner of Excise and Stamps, and, subsequently, Inspector-General of Registration and Superintendent of Trade Statistics in that province. During eighteen months he acted also as Secretary to the Chief Commissioner in the Revenue Departments. In 1870 he was specially deputed to inquire into and report upon the operation of the salt tax in Oudh and the north-west provinces, and, as one result of his labours, obtained a considerable relaxation of the law in respect of the illicit manufacture of salt, which had been exceedingly harsh and oppressive. In 1878 he retired on pension, and went to Tasmania. In July 1879 he was elected to the House of Assembly as member for West Devon, and held that seat continuously (being twice elected against opposition and twice unopposed) until Oct. 29th, 1888, when he was appointed Agent-General for the Colony in London. Mr. Braddon is a staunch Free Trader, and was a prominent Oppositionist until he carried his party into power. When in March 1887 he was called upon to form an Administration, Mr. Braddon resigned the Premiership to the Hon. P. O. Fysh, a colonist of longer standing, and took the leadership of the Assembly as Minister of Lands and Works, holding also the portfolio of Minister of Education. He was sworn of the Executive Council, on March 29th, 1887, and was one of the representatives of Tasmania at the second session of the Federal Council of Australia, held at Hobart in Jan. 1888. As Agent-General Mr. Braddon was instrumental in the successful notation of the first Three-and-a-half per Cent. Tasmanian Loan. He has also devoted much attention to the promotion of Tasmanian industries, notably the fruit and timber trades and mining. He read a paper on "Tasmania, its Resources and Products," before the Royal Colonial Institute, session 1888-9. Mr. Braddon, who is a brother of Miss Braddon, the well-known authoress, was created K.C.M.G. on Jan. 1st, 1891.

Bramston, John, C.B., B.A., D.C.L., Assistant Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, second son of the late T. W. Bramston, M.P. of Skreens, Essex, was born on Nov. 14th, 1832, and educated at Winchester, and at Balliol College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. in 1854, becoming Fellow of All Souls' in the same university in the following year, and D.C.L. in 1863. He entered at the Middle Temple in Nov. 1854, and was called to the bar in June 1857. He went to Queensland in 1859 as private secretary to Sir George Bowen, the first governor, and held that post for two years, when he resigned. From 1863 to 1866 he sat in the Legislative Council, and was a member without portfolio of the first Ministry formed by his friend Mr. (now Sir) Robert Herbert from July 1863 to Feb. 1866, acting temporarily as Attorney-General from August to Sept. 1865. Subsequently he returned to England, and remained for two years, acting in 1867 as Assistant Boundary Commissioner for Devon and Cornwall under the Reform Act of that year. Returning to Queensland in 1868, he represented Burnett in the Legislative Assembly from April 1871 to Dec. 1873, and was Attorney-General in the Palmer Ministry from May 1870 to Jan. 1874, when he resigned to accept the same office in Hong Kong, where he also acted as judge. In June 1876 Mr. Bramston was appointed to his present post as Assistant Under Secretary of State in the Colonial Office, being employed on a mission to Berlin in connection with the Angra Pequena negotiations in July 1886, in which year he was created C.B. Mr. Bramston married, on Dec. 12th, 1872, Eliza Isabella, daughter of the late Rev. Harry Vane Russell. He was appointed Registrar of the Order of St. Michael and St. George in 1892.

Bray, Hon. Sir John Cox, M.L.A., Agent-General for South Australia, is the son of the late T. C. Bray, and was born in East Adelaide in 1842. He commenced his education at St. Peter's College in that city, but completed it in England. On his return to Australia, he commenced to qualify for practice as a solicitor, and on the expiry of his articles first entered Parliament in 1871 as the representative of East Adelaide, by which district he has been returned to the House of Assembly ever since. It was not until 1875 that he filled any ministerial position. When Mr. Justice Bundey, who had been Minister of Justice and Education in the Blyth Ministry, resigned, Mr. Bray was appointed in his place on March 15th, 1875, but the Government only lasted till June 3rd of the same year. In June 1876 Mr. Colton formed his first Administration, and appointed Mr. Bray to the post of Attorney-General, which he held till the Ministry retired, on Oct. 26th, 1877. For the next four years Mr. Bray was the generally recognised leader of the Opposition, although when Sir William Morgan's Ministry resigned in 1881, the Governor sent for Mr. Colton. This gentleman, however, declined the task of forming a ministry, and Mr. Bray was sent for, and got together a ministry which was strong enough to remain in office for three years. In 1884 Mr. Bray made a trip to England, and returned to the colony by way of America. On arriving in Adelaide, he found the Downer Government in power, and on the resignation of Mr. Darling, who held office as Commissioner of Public Works, he joined Mr. Downer as Chief Secretary on Oct. 14th, 1885, resigning that position for the post of Treasurer on June 8th, 1886. He went out of office on the downfall of the Downer Ministry, on June 7th, 1887; but in May 1888, on the death of the late Sir Robert Ross, he was elected to fill the position of Speaker of the House of Assembly—a post which he held with marked ability during the remainder of the Parliament. He declined, however, to again accept the position at the opening of the Parliament in 1890, preferring to re-enter the active arena of politics. Mr. Bray was created K.C.M.G. in 1890, his acceptance of the distinction provoking considerable comment, it having been understood that he had on a previous occasion declined it, on grounds similar to those which influenced Mr. Higinbotham, Mr. Francis, and Mr. Deakin, in refusing the title. Sir John Bray, however, defended his action on the ground that, having accepted an office under the Crown which, according to well-known custom, carried with it the honour of knighthood, he would have been casting a slur upon his predecessors and doing an injustice to his successors in repudiating it. Sir John Bray, who accepted the post of Chief Secretary in the Playford Government in August 1890, has taken an active part in the proceedings of the South Australian Natives Association, and presided over the Intercolonial Conference of these bodies, which in 1890 declared in favour of Australasian Federation. He was elected by the South Australian Legislative Assembly to be one of the representatives of the colony to the Federation Convention, held in Sydney in 1891. Sir John Bray was, it may be added, one of the representatives of his colony at the Intercolonial Conference held In Sydney in Nov. 1883, out of which the Federal Council of Australasia sprang. He was a member of the South Australian Commission for the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886, and Vice-President of the South Australian Commission to the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition of 1888. In Jan. 1892 Sir John Bray left Adelaide to assume the post of Agent-General in succession to the late Sir Arthur Blyth, and took over charge of the London office on Feb. 29th of that year.

Brennan, Louis, C.B., the inventor of the torpedo which bears his name, is the son of Thomas Brennan by his marriage with Miss Bridget MacDonel, and was born in Ireland on Jan. 28th, 1852. He went to Melbourne with his parents when eleven years of age. A few years later he was articled to Mr. Alexander Kennedy Smith, the well-known civil and mechanical engineer, and quickly displayed great aptitude in his profession. Mr. Brennan may be said to have first conceived the idea of his now celebrated torpedo in May 1874, but the initiatory stages of perfecting the invention, proving it by trials, and bringing it into notice in the right quarters occupied several years, Mr. Brennan being ultimately aided by a grant of £700 from the Victorian Government. With a view to securing its adoption by the imperial authorities, Mr. Brennan formed a small company to exploit the invention, and himself went to England towards the end of 1880. The torpedo, through the kindly interposition of Sir Andrew Clarke, was favourably considered by the War Office, but it was not finally adopted by the British Government till 1887, when, after years of anxious thought and laborious experiment, Mr. Brennan brought the apparatus to its present perfection, and it was purchased by the Imperial Government for £110,000, Mr. Brennan being employed by the Government to superintend the manufacture and to aid in its practical utilisation for a period of five years. On the expiry of this engagement it was again renewed, in March 1892; and on May 25th following Mr. Brennan was gazetted to the distinction of C.B. He married in Dublin on Sept. 10th, 1891, his cousin, Miss Anna Quinn. An excellent description of the torpedo will be found in the recent issue of the "Encyclopædia Britannica." [This biography appeared in the Supplement at the end of the book.]

Brentnall, Hon. Frederick Thomas, M.L.C., was born at Ridings, Derbyshire, in 1834, and educated at Alfreton. He was sent by the British Wesleyan Conference to New South Wales in 1863 to join the ranks of the Wesleyan ministry in that colony. An affection of the throat, however, necessitated his resignation about 1883, when he bought an interest in the Brisbane Telegraph, and joined the literary staff, becoming Chairman of the Company upon the retirement of the Hon. James Cowlishaw in Oct. 1885. Mr. Brentnall is a director of several companies, including the Queensland Deposit Bank and Building Society, and the Queensland General Insurance Company, Ltd.; and has been a member of the Legislative Council since April 17th, 1886.

Brett, Henry, J.P., an enterprising newspaper proprietor and publisher in New Zealand, who has issued a large number of standard works on colonial subjects, was born in the south of England, and brought up to the printing trade in the office of his uncle, the proprietor of the Hastings and St. Leonards Gazette. He left for New Zealand with the Non-conformist special settlers in 1862, intending to settle upon the land, but on arrival at Auckland the vessel was boarded by a representative of the Daily Southern Cross in search of compositors, and Mr. Brett was persuaded to accept an engagement on that paper. Shortly afterwards he joined the reporting staff of the New Zealand Herald and maintained his connection with that journal till 1870, when for the sum of £90 he acquired a third interest in the Evening Star, which had been recently started by Mr. G. M. Reid, and was then in a struggling condition. By the infusion of additional energy, and the employment of carrier pigeons to supply the want of telegraphs in those days—this being one of the most successful innovations in journalism introduced by Mr. Brett—the Star forged ahead and extinguished its evening rival. In Feb. 1876, Mr. Reid disposed of his interest to Mr. Brett, the share of the third partner having previously been acquired by the firm, Mr. Brett thus becoming sole proprietor. He has since disposed of a partnership interest to Mr. T. W. Leys, who succeeded Mr. Reid in the editorship of the paper, which is commonly reported to have the largest circulation in New Zealand. The second publishing venture of the firm was the Auckland Almanack and Provincial Handbook, started in 1872; and they have also established the New Zealand Farmer and Bee and Poultry Journal, a monthly agricultural magazine, and more recently the New Zealand Graphic, Mr. Brett, who is a director of the New Zealand Press Association and President of the Auckland Choral Society, occupied a seat in the Auckland City Council from 1874 to 1878, and in the latter year, without a contest, was chosen Mayor.

Bride, Thomas Francis, LL.D., was born at Cork, Ireland, in 1851, and went to Victoria at three years of age. He graduated at Melbourne University in 1873. In the same year he was appointed Assistant Librarian of the University, and later Assistant Registrar, both of which positions he held until August 1881, when he was appointed Librarian of the Melbourne Public Library. In 1879 Dr. Bride took the degree of Doctor of Laws, being the third who achieved that distinction at the Melbourne University. In Feb. 1880 he unsuccessfully contested North Melbourne in the Conservative interest.

Brierly, Sir Oswald Walters, R.W.S., F.R.G.S., marine painter to the Queen since 1874, is the son of the late Thomas Brierly, and was born at Chester in 1817. He was on board H.M.S. Rattlesnake during her surveys of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia, the Louisiade Archipelago, and part of New Guinea. He visited New Zealand, Tongatabu, Tahiti, and many other places in the Meander; and has cruised in different parts of the world for eleven years on board various of her Majesty's ships, an island of the Louisiade and a point in Australia being named after him. Sir Oswald Brierly—as he became in 1885—was during the Russian war present at the operations with the fleet in the Baltic, Black Sea, and Sea of Azoff; he was also by command on board the royal yacht at the great naval review at the close of the Russian war to make sketches for the Queen. In 1867 he went with H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh in his voyage round the world in the Galatea, and his sketches of the cruise were exhibited at South Kensington. In 1868 he was attached to the suite of the Prince and Princess of Wales during their trip up the Nile. He has painted many important historical marine pictures, the principal of which have been engraved. He has been awarded the fourth class Medjidie, fourth class Osmanieh, and the Turkish war medal, and is an Officer of the Redeemer of Greece. He was formerly a J.P. for New South Wales, and is at present Curator of the Painted Hall, Greenwich.

Bright, Charles Edward, C.M.G., J.P., belongs to an old Worcestershire family possessing estates in the counties of Worcester and Hereford, and is the fifth son of the late Robert Bright, of Bristol and Abbots Leigh, Somerset, by Caroline, daughter of Thomas Tyndall, of The Fort, Bristol. Mr. Bright is brother to Richard Bright, who was elected M.P. for East Somerset in 1868, and to Lieut.-General Sir Robert Onesiphorus Bright, K.C.B. He emigrated to Australia, arriving in Melbourne in Jan. 1854; and is a partner in the firms of Messrs. Antony Gibbs & Co. and Messrs. Gibbs, Bright & Co. He was twice Chairman of the Melbourne Harbour Trust, and for many years Trustee of the Public Library, Museum, and National Gallery of Victoria. He was Commissioner to the Exhibition of London, 1861-2; Dublin, 1864; Melbourne, 1866-7; London, 1873-4; Melbourne, 1880; Calcutta, 1883; Adelaide, 1887; and Melbourne, 1888. He married, on August 25th, 1868, the Hon. Anne Maria Georgiana Manners-Sutton, daughter of the third Viscount Canterbury (Governor of Victoria 1866-73), by Georgiana, youngest daughter of the late Charles Thompson, of Witchingham Hall, Norfolk; and was created C.M.G. on May 24th, 1883.

Bright, Hon. Henry Edward, M.L.C., son of Edward Bright and Mary Ann his wife, was born in London on June 30th, 1819, and arrived in Adelaide in April 1850. He was member for Stanley in the Legislative Assembly of South Australia from 1866 to 1874, and for Wooroora from 1875 to 1885. From July 1873 to June 1875 he was Commissioner of Public Works in the Government of the Hon. (now Sir) Arthur Blyth, and in May 1885 was elected to the Legislative Council, of which he is still a member. Mr. Bright married, at St. George's, Hanover Square, London, W., on March 15th, 1841, Miss Jane Prudence King, with whom he recently celebrated his golden wedding.

Brisbane, General Sir Thos. Makdougall, Bart., G.C.B., G.C.H., D.C.L., sometime Governor of New South Wales, was descended from the ancient family of the Brisbanes of Brisbane, Ayrshire, and was born on July 23rd, 1773, at Brisbane House, Largs, the seat of his father, Thomas Brisbane, his mother being Eleanor, daughter of Sir Wm. Bruce. He entered the army in 1789 as ensign in the 38th Infantry, stationed in Ireland, where he became acquainted with the Duke of Wellington, then a lieutenant in a cavalry regiment. In 1793 Captain Brisbane took part in all the affairs of the Flanders campaign from St. Amand to Nimeguen, and in 1796 he served in the West Indies, under Sir Ralph Abercromby. In 1810 he was appointed Assistant Adjutant-General to the staff at Canterbury, which he held till he obtained command of a brigade under the Duke of Wellington, whom he joined at Coimbra in 1812, and under whom he served during the remainder of the Peninsular war. At the battle of the Nive he highly distinguished himself, and for his bravery received the thanks of Parliament. In 1813, on the recommendation of the Duke of Wellington, Sir Thomas was appointed to a command in Canada, and in 1821 was nominated to succeed General Macquarie as Governor of New South Wales, where he remained four years, viz., from Dec. 1821 to Dec. 1825. In New South Wales he improved the condition of the convicts, substituting useful labour for the treadmill and giving them tickets of leave for good conduct. He was mainly, however, a man of science, and established an observatory at Parramatta, where he is said to have fixed the positions of and catalogued 7,385 stars, hitherto scarcely known to astronomers. For his work "The Brisbane Catalogue of Stars" he received the Copley medal from the Royal Society, and the universities of Cambridge and Oxford conferred on him honorary degrees. During his term of office in New South Wales, he introduced good breeds of horses into the colony at his own expense, and encouraged the cultivation of the sugar-cane, vines, tobacco, and cotton. His government is memorable as inaugurating free immigration on a large scale. To arrivals who paid their passages to the Colony he gave every encouragement to settle. He conferred on them grants of land, and assigned to them as many prisoners as they were able to employ. Very speedily, as Mr. Blair narrates, the fine lands of the colony were covered with flocks and herds, and the applications for prisoners became so numerous that at one time two thousand more were demanded than could be supplied. Hence began an important change in the colony. The costly Government farms were one after another broken up, and the prisoners assigned to the squatters. The unremunerative public works were abandoned, which all tended to good, as when the convicts were thus scattered they were more manageable and more likely to reform, than when gathered in large crowds. In Macquarie's time not one prisoner in ten could be usefully employed; seven or eight years after, there was not a prisoner in the colony whose services were not eagerly sought and well paid for by the squatters. The area of cleared land was thus doubled, and the export of wool quintupled. Financially, however, he was not an administrative success, and this led to his early recall. On his return from Australia, Sir Thomas established an astronomical and magnetic observatory at Makerstown, and published three large volumes of observations in the "Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh." He was created a baronet in 1836 and G.C.B. in 1837, and in 1841 was made a general in the army. On the death of Sir Walter Scott he was also elected President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. He founded two gold medals as rewards for scientific merit in connection with the Royal Society and the Society of Arts respectively. He died at his residence, Brisbane House, Largs, Ayrshire, on Jan. 27th, 1860. The capital of the colony of Queensland is named after him. Sir Thomas married, in 1819, Anna Maria, daughter of Sir Henry Hay Makdougall, but left no surviving issue. During his peninsular campaigns he took regular observations with a pocket sextant, and, as the Duke of Wellington said, "kept the time of the army." As showing his ruling bent, it is related of him that, whilst sheathing his sword after the Battle of Vittoria, he exclaimed, looking round from a lofty eminence, "What a glorious site for an observatory!"

Britton, Alexander, son of the late Alexander Britton, and brother of Henry Britton (q.v.), embraced journalism, and was sub-editor of the Melbourne Argus, and subsequently of the Sydney Morning Herald. In 1890 he was engaged by the Government of New South Wales to complete the official "History of New South Wales," the first volume of which had been edited by Mr. G. B. Barton (q.v.).

Britton, Henry, journalist, second son of Alexander and Lydia Britton, was born on Jan. 24th, 1846, in Derby, England, where his father was engaged in tuition, was also a contributor to the press, and had some repute as a public lecturer. The subject of this notice emigrated to Australia with his family in Nov. 1854, and reached Melbourne in Feb. 1855. He at once proceeded to Castlemaine, Victoria, where his father established a newspaper called The Miners' Right, subsequently named The Castlemaine Advertiser. He learned the business of a journalist in his father's office. In 1863 he joined the parliamentary reporting staff of the Age newspaper, Melbourne. Two years later he transferred his services to the Argus, Melbourne. In 1870 he acted as special correspondent for the Argus in Fiji. The series of letters he wrote was republished under the title of "Fiji in 1870," and the volume had a large sale. In Dec. 1871, as special correspondent of the Argus, he accompanied the Australian Eclipse Expedition to Cape York, northern coast of Australia, where observations of the total eclipse of the sun were made. His account of the proceedings of the expedition was afterwards republished in Nature, the London scientific journal. In 1873 he went to Fiji again as special commissioner for the Argus to inquire into the working of the South Pacific labour trade, in connection with which many scandals had arisen. The notorious brig Carl had kidnapped a number of South Sea Islanders under circumstances of great atrocity. The Australian Governments agreed to pay the expense of returning the kidnappees to their several homes in the islands. One of the vessels commissioned for this purpose by Commodore Stirling was H.M. schooner Alacrity. Mr. Britton was allowed a passage in this vessel with some fifty or sixty of the savages, and he assisted at their landing under circumstances of considerable danger at their various homes in the Marshall, Gilbert, and Ellice groups of islands, north and south of the line. In 1874 he was again called upon in the capacity of special correspondent of the Argus to go to Fiji in the suite of Sir Hercules Robinson, the then Governor of New South Wales, who had made a request that he might be sent on the occasion of the annexation of that country. Mr. Britton was present at the official interviews with Thakombau and the other leading chiefs, and he fully described the annexation ceremonies, which included many incidents of peculiar interest. Mr. Britton was also acting at this time as special correspondent for the Times. In 1877 he was made chief of the Argus reporting staff and sub-editor. Falling into bad health, and having a desire to visit the old country, which he had not seen since infancy, he in 1878 made a voyage round the world. Returning to Melbourne, after a year's absence, he resumed his connection with the Argus, to which he contributed a series of social sketches under the signature of "Marcellus," and also a series of papers explaining the modus operandi of the medical clairvoyants of Melbourne. Early in 1883 he joined the contributing staffs of the Age and Leader. At the end of that year he published a romance called "Loloma," illustrative of cannibal life among the Fijians in the olden time. At the general election of 1886, he sought parliamentary honours at the hands of the electors of Castlemaine, but was not successful. In Nov. 1889 the proprietors of the Leader offered prizes for the two best locally produced Christmas stories for publication in their Christmas number; there was a very large number of competitors, and Mr. Britton was awarded the first prize for his story "Jack Travis's Merry Christmas: a Tale of Australian Adventure." In March 1890 Mr. Britton was appointed dramatic editor of the Australasian, and he still holds that position.

Bromby, Charles Hamilton, B.A., L.C.L., formerly Attorney-General Tasmania, is the second son of Right Rev. Charles Henry Bromby, sometime Bishop of Tasmania, by Mary Anne, eldest daughter of the late William Hulme Bodley, of Brighton, Sussex. He was born at Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, on July 17th, 1843, and educated at Cheltenham College and St. Edmund's Hall, Oxford, where he graduated. He entered as a student of the Inner Temple on June 7th, 1864, and was called to the bar on Nov. 18th, 1867. He emigrated to Tasmania, where he arrived in Dec. 1874, and was M.H.A. for Launceston from 1876 to 1877, for Longford from 1877 to 1878, and subsequently for Richmond. Mr. Bromby was Attorney-General in Mr. Reibey's Ministry, and a member of the Executive Council from July 20th, 1876, to August 9th, 1877. He was admitted a member of the bar of New South Wales in 1881; but now resides in England, and practises as a barrister in London and on the North-Eastern Circuit. He edited "Spike's Law of Master and Servant," 3rd edition.

Bromby, Right Rev. Charles Henry, D.D., formerly Bishop of Tasmania, son of the Rev. John Healey Bromby, vicar of Holy Trinity, Hull, was born at Hull in 1814, and educated at Uppingham School and at St. John's College, Cambridge, of which he was scholar and exhibitioner. He graduated B.A. (Junior Optime and third class in classics) in 1837, and M.A. in 1840, being admitted to the honorary degree of D.D. in 1864. He was ordained deacon in 1838, and priest in 1839, and was curate of Chesterfield from 1838 to 1839; vicar of St. Paul's, Cheltenham, and Principal of the Normal College there from 1843 to 1864, when he was appointed Bishop of Tasmania by the Queen's letters patent, being consecrated in Canterbury Cathedral by Archbishop Longley on June 29th, 1864, and enthroned in St. David's Cathedral, Hobart, on Jan. 7th, 1865. Having resigned his see in 1882, Bishop Bromby was appointed in that year rector of Shrawardine-with-Montford, and Assistant Bishop to the Bishop of Lichfield. In 1887 he resigned his rectory, and became Warden of St. John's Hospital, Lichfield. He married in 1839 Mary Anne, daughter of Dr. Bodley, of Brighton, who died in 1885. He is the author of the "Church Student's Manual," "History and Grammar of the English Language," and editor of "Wordsworth's Excursion, Book I."

Bromby, Rev. Henry Bodley, B.A., formerly Dean of Hobart, Tasmania, is the son of the Right Rev. Charles Henry Bromby, D.D., formerly Bishop of Tasmania, and was educated at Jesus College, Cambridge, of which he was Rustat Scholar. He graduated B.A. in 1864, and in the same year he was ordained deacon, and priest in 1865. He was canon of St. David's Cathedral, Hobart, from 1865 to 1868, and 1870 to 1877; incumbent of St. Johns, Hobart, from 1868 to 1873; incumbent of the cathedral parish of Hobart from 1873 to 1884; and Dean of Hobart from 1877 to 1884, when he left the colony for England, and in the next year was appointed vicar of St. John the Evangelist, Bethnal Green.

Bromby, Rev. John Edward, M.A., D.D., son of Rev. J. H. Bromby, Vicar of Holy Trinity Church, Hull, and elder brother of the Right Rev. Charles Henry Bromby, sometime Bishop of Tasmania, was born in 1809, and educated at Uppingham and at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was for some time scholar; Bell's University Scholar in 1829; B.A. (9th Wrangler and second-class in the Classical Tripos) in 1832; Fellow of St. John's College from 1834 to 1836; M.A. in 1835; B.D. in 1845; D.D. in 1850. Dr. Bromby was ordained deacon in 1834, priest in 1835, and was Vice-principal of Bristol College and Principal of Elizabeth College, Guernsey, from 1847 to 1855, and senior Curate of Holy Trinity, Hall, from 1855 to 1857. He was subsequently appointed headmaster of the Melbourne Church of England Grammar School, and arrived in Melbourne in Feb. 1858. This post Dr. Bromby held until 1875, when he retired amidst universal regret and respect on the part of his old pupils and the public generally. In 1877 he was appointed incumbent of St. Paul's, Melbourne. He married in 1836 a daughter of Alderman Lilley of Bristol, and died on March 9th, 1889.

Brooke, Gustavus Vaughan, the well-known actor, was the son of Gustavus Vaughan Brooke of Dublin, was born on April 25th, 1818, at Hardwick Place, Dublin, and was educated at a school conducted by the brother of Maria Edgeworth. When about fifteen he applied to Calcraft of the Theatre Royal, Dublin, for an engagement; and owing to the sudden indisposition of Edmund Kean he was allowed to appear as William Tell on Easter Monday (April 9th) 1833. Permanent employment followed. He subsequently made his first appearance in London as Virginius at the Victoria Theatre, and in 1840 he entered into an engagement with Macready to appear at Drury Lane, but threw it up through dissatisfaction with his part. His real début in London took place on Jan. 3rd, 1848, when he appeared as Othello at the Olympic, and scored a great success with the public as well as with critics of judgment. Later on he went to America, and played Othello at the Broadway Theatre, New York, on Dec. 15th, 1851. His success in the States led him to take the Astor Place Opera House in New York, which he opened in May 1852. The venture was a disastrous failure, and after a fresh tour in the States he reappeared at Drury Lane, then under the management of E. T. Smith, the father of the Hon. L. L. Smith of Victoria (q.v.). Mr. George Coppin visited England in 1854 with the view of engaging "stars" for Australia, and amongst others secured G. V. Brooke who from 1855 to 1857 received as much as £100 a night for playing in Australia and New Zealand. He went into partnership with Coppin in the Theatre Royal, Melbourne, and the Melbourne Cremorne, with results so disastrous that both were beggared, and dissolved partnership in Feb. 1859, when Brooke returned to England to find his prospects far from bright. His reappearance at Drury Lane as Othello was a failure, habits of dissipation having left their deteriorating traces on his once fine presence and splendid voice. Brooke married Miss Avonia Jones, an actress of no great merit. Disgusted by his ill success in London, Brooke decided to return to Australia, and took his passage in the ill-fated ship London, which foundered in the Bay of Biscay on Jan. 11th, 1866. Brooke was amongst those who perished, his manly and even heroic conduct during the long agony which preceded the final sinking of the vessel being such as to shed lustre over a career which, in its later phases, had been clouded by a deplorable absence of self-control.

Brooke, Hon. John Henry, who was Commissioner of Crown Lands in Victoria under the Heales administration from Nov. 1860 to Nov. 1861, will long be remembered in connection with the land system of that colony. In 1857, as a member of the Assembly, he was prominent in opposition to the Haines Land Bill, which proposed giving annual licences to the squatters. On his own accession to office he, in conjunction with his colleagues Mr. J. M. Grant and Mr. Ireland, the Attorney-General, brought into operation the famous licences to occupy the waste lands of the Crown, which formed the basis of popular settlement for cultivation purposes on the public lands of Victoria. The scheme was formulated by a mere Gazette notice, the issue of which was formally censured by the Legislative Council. As the result of a dissolution of the Assembly Mr. Brooke's policy was approved by the country, and formed the subject of express eulogy in the Governor's opening speech to the new Parliament in August 1861. The occupation licences were approved by the new Assembly and again condemned by the Council, who denounced the introduction of the new departure by a mere departmental regulation as a breach of the principles of responsible government. The Governor regretted the disapprobation of the Council, but when they entreated that the legality of the licences might be tested in the Supreme Court, replied that his advisers were "satisfied of their legality." Mr. Brooke subsequently left Victoria, and is now a resident in Japan.

Broome, Sir Frederick Napier, K.C.M.G., eldest son of the late Rev. Frederick Broome, rector of Kenley, Salop, by his wife Catherine Eleanor, eldest daughter of Lieut-Col. Napier, formerly Superintendent Indian Department, Canada, was born in Canada, on Nov. 18th, 1842, and educated at Whitchurch Grammar School, Salop. He emigrated to New Zealand in 1857, and engaged in pastoral pursuits. Visiting England in 1864, he married on June 21st, 1865, Mary Anne, widow of the late Col. Sir George Barker, R.A., K.C.B. (q.v.). Returning the same year to his New Zealand sheep-station, in the Malvern Hills, province of Canterbury, he continued colonial life for a time; but finally left New Zealand for London in 1869, and for the six following years contributed largely to the Times newspaper, acting as correspondent for that journal at the Duke of Edinburgh's marriage at St. Petersburg, and on many other occasions, and furnishing numerous literary reviews, art criticisms, and miscellaneous articles to the columns of the leading journal, then edited by the late Mr. John Delane. He published two volumes of verse, "Poems from New Zealand" (1868) and "The Stranger of Seriphos" (1869), and contributed verse to the Cornhill, Macmillan's Magazine, and other periodicals. He was appointed, in 1870, Secretary to the St. Paul's Cathedral Completion Fund, and in 1873 Secretary to the Royal Commission on Unseaworthy Ships, and held for some time a commission in the Essex yeomanry. He was selected by the late Earl of Carnarvon, in 1875, to proceed with Lord (then Sir Garnet) Wolseley on a special mission to Natal, as Colonial Secretary of that colony. He hold that post until 1878, when he was promoted to the Colonial Secretaryship of Mauritius, where he administered the government in 1879, and was Lieutenant-Governor of the island from 1880 to 1888. On receiving the news of the disaster at Isandula, he despatched at once to the assistance of Lord Chelmsford nearly the whole of the garrison of the colony. For this service he was warmly thanked by the Governor and High Commissioner of the Cape Colony (the late Sir Bartle Frere), and by the colony off Natal through its Lieut.-Governor, Sir Henry Bulwer, his action being also fully approved by Her Majesty's Government. He was appointed on Dec. 14th, 1882, Governor of Western Australia, and assumed office in June 1883. Sir Frederick was created C.M.G. in 1877, K.C.M.G. in 1884; and visited England in 1885, when, with the "view of extending a knowledge of the resources of what was at that time a little known colony, he read a paper on "Western Australia" before the Colonial Institute, H.R.H. the Prince of Wales taking the chair. Sir Frederick Broome's term of government of Western Australia was marked by a great extension of railways and telegraphs, and much general progress. The question of a change of the constitution of the colony to the form known as responsible government having come forward, it became Sir Frederick's duty to act as intermediary between the Legislative Council and the Secretary of State. After considerable correspondence the details of the new constitution were settled, and a bill, approved by Her Majesty's Government, finally passed the local legislature in 1889. Imperial parliamentary sanction being required for the transfer of the Crown lands to the Colonial Legislature, the necessary bill was at once introduced by Lord Knutsford, and passed the House of Lords; but, owing to a strong opposition to handing over the immense tract of Crown lands to the colonists, which suddenly showed itself in the home press and in the House of Commons, the bill could not be proceeded with in the House in 1889, and had to be deferred to the following year. To clear up the extraordinary misapprehensions which existed on the matter, Sir Frederick Broome addressed a letter to the Times, which had a considerable effect. A good deal of determined opposition to the bill, however, continued; and Sir Frederick and two leading members of the Western Australian Legislature came to England, in Dec. 1889, at the wish of the colony and with Lord Knutsford's concurrence, to give evidence before the select committee of the House of Commons, to which, early in the session of 1890, the Constitution Bill was referred. The whole facts of the case were most fully explained to the select committee by Sir Frederick Broome and the other witnesses, the blue book containing the report of the evidence being a complete compendium of information respecting Western Australia. The commission reported, much to the surprise of the London press, in favour of the bill and of the transfer of all lands to the colony. Opposition was at length overcome, or nearly so. The Government stood firm, and had the support of the front Opposition bench; and after some applications of the closure, Sir Frederick Broome had the satisfaction of witnessing the passage of the bill through committee with all restrictions erased, the whole of the lands of the vast territory—1,060,000 square miles in extent—being freely handed over to the Legislature of Western Australia, which thus obtained its new constitution on the same basis as the other colonies of the continent, there being no opposition to the bill in the House of Lords. On quitting Western Australia, in Dec. 1889, for the mission to England in connection with the Constitution Bill, Sir Frederick and Lady Broome received many proofs of the esteem and regard of the colonists. Sir Frederick's tenure of the government of Western Australia came to an end with his mission to England, and finally ceased in Sept 1890. In July 1891 he was appointed Governor of Trinidad.

Broome, Mary Anne, Lady, the wife of Sir Frederick Napier Broome, K.C.M.G., the late Governor of Western Australia, was the eldest daughter of Hon. Walter G. Stewart, Island Secretary of Jamaica. She was sent to England to be educated when two years old, and returned to Jamaica in 1850. She married first, in 1852, Colonel Sir George Barker, B.A., K.C.B., an officer distinguished for his Crimean and Indian services, who died at Simla in 1861. She married secondly, June 21st, 1865, Sir (then Mr.) Frederick Napier Broome, whom she accompanied to New Zealand the same year. Returning with her husband to England in 1869, Lady Barker, as she was then styled, became well known as a successful authoress. She has published "Station Life in New Zealand" (1870), followed by "Stories About," "Ribbon Stories," "A Christmas Cake," "A Year's Housekeeping in Natal," "Letters to Guy," descriptive of life in Western Australia, and other works. She published a useful manual in 1874, entitled "First Principles of Cookery," and was appointed Lady Superintendent of the National School of Cookery at South Kensington, a post she relinquished on accompanying her husband to Natal in 1875. Her next home was in Mauritius, 1878-83, when she organised a fund for the relief of the sick and wounded in the Zulu war. For this service she received a special official acknowledgment in a despatch from the Secretary of State for the Colonies. A movement in favour of the higher education of women was also initiated by her in Mauritius.

Broughton, Vernon Delves, son of the late Rev. Thomas Delves Broughton (grandson of the 6th baronet of this name, of Broughton, Staffordshire) by his marriage with Frances, daughter of Lewis Corkran, was born in Dec. 1834, at Bletchley in Buckinghamshire. He was educated at Marlborough School and at Magdalen College, Oxford. Having entered the Civil Service whilst still an undergraduate, he was employed in the Treasury from 1855 to 1877, acting in the interval as private secretary to Lord Lingen, when Secretary to the Treasury, and to Lord Sherbrooke when Chancellor of the Exchequer. In Nov. 1877 Mr. Broughton was appointed Deputy-Master of the Mint, and Chief Officer of the Melbourne Branch, a position which he retained till a short time before his death in 1886. Mr. Broughton married in 1861 Augusta, eldest daughter of George Arbuthnot, Auditor of the Civil List.

Brown, Gilbert Wilson, M. A., Clerk of the Executive Council, Victoria, was educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, of which he was scholar in 1852, and graduated B.A. (Mathematical Tripos) in 1855, and M.A. in 1881. He went to Victoria, and took up the position of Assistant Master in the Scotch College, Melbourne, in April 1857. In Jan. 1858 he was appointed Head Master of the National Grammar School at Geelong, and Organising Master and Inspector of National Schools in May 1859. In Sept. 1862 he was appointed Organising Inspector under the Board of Education, and Inspector-General of the Education Department in Jan. 1873. He was Secretary for Public Instruction from March 1878 to April 1889, when he was appointed to his present position of Clerk of the Executive Council.

Brown, Henry Yorke Lyell, Government Geologist, South Australia, was Government Geologist of Western Australia, and was appointed to his present position in Dec. 1882.

Brown, Professor John McMillan, M.A., was born in 1846, and educated at Irvine Academy and at Glasgow University, where he graduated M.A. in 1869. Having gained the Snell Exhibition in English Language, Literature, and History, Mr. Brown proceeded to Balliol College, Oxford, in 1870; but ill-health prevented him from completing his course, and in 1874, when Canterbury College, Christchurch, was founded in affiliation to the University of New Zealand, he was selected to fill the chair of Classics and English. In 1879 Mr. Brown resigned the chair of Classics, and became Professor of English and English History. In the same year he was a member of the Royal Commission on the state of higher education in New Zealand, and was appointed Fellow of the University Senate. He was one of the founders of the short-lived New Zealand Magazine in 1875. In 1886 Mr. Brown married Miss Helen Connon, one of the first lady graduates in Her Majesty's dominions.

Brown, Hon. Nicholas John, M.H.A., J.P., son of Richard Brown, was born at Hobart in 1838, was educated at the Hutchins School, Hobart, and has since been engaged in pastoral pursuits. He has been member for the Cumberland District in the Tasmanian House of Assembly since Jan. 1875. He was Minister of Lands and Works in the first Fysh Ministry from August 1877 to Dec. 1878, and held the same post in the Giblin Ministry from Dec. 1882 to August 1884, and in the Douglas and Agnew Ministries from that date till March 1887. Mr. Brown was one of the representatives of Tasmania at the Sydney Convention of 1883, at which the draft of the Federal Council Bill was agreed to. In March 1886 he was appointed one of the Tasmanian representatives in the Federal Council; but when the Fysh Ministry came into power he was objected to as a political opponent, and has not since taken his seat. In March 1891 Mr. Brown was one of the representatives of Tasmania at the Sydney Federation Convention. In July 1891 he was elected Speaker of the House of Assembly in succession to Mr. Reibey.

Brown, Sir William, Bart., eldest son of Sir William Brown, 9th baronet, of Coulston, Haddingtonshire, who resided in New South Wales, and died in 1882, when the present Sir William succeeded him as 10th baronet. The latter was born in Dec. 1848, and married, in 1871, Alice Jane, daughter of J. C. Peters, merchant, Hope House, Manby Beach, near Sydney. He resides at Tareela, Barraba, N.S.W.

Browne, Thomas Alexander (Rolf Boldrewood), the eldest son of the late Captain Sylvester John Browne, of the East India Company's Service, and of Enmore, N.S.W., and Hartlands, Victoria, by his marriage with Eliza Angell Alexander, was born in England on August 6th, 1826. He arrived in New South Wales with his father in April 1830, and was educated at Mr. T. W. Cape's school in Sydney, and afterwards at Sydney College, when Mr. Cape was appointed head-master and transferred his scholars. Mr. T. A. Browne, when about seventeen years of age, started with a herd of cattle for the Port Fairy district, in Victoria (then only partially explored), and became a pioneer squatter there, forming the station known as Squattlesea Mere. Here he remained until 1856. He visited England in 1860, returning in 1861. Having sold his property in Victoria, he, in 1864, took up a sheep station on the Murrumbidgee. The droughts of 1866 and 1868 were terribly severe, and Mr. Browne's losses were so heavy that he was compelled in 1869 to give up squatting. In 1870 he was made a Police Magistrate and Goldfields Commissioner in New South Wales, and is now Police Magistrate and Warden of Goldfields at Gulgong, Dubbo, Armidale and Albury, in that colony. Mr. Browne contributed to the Cornhill Magazine as far back as 1865, and many tales and sketches from his pen appeared in the colonial press. In 1888 his "Robbery under Arms," which originally appeared in the Sydney Mail, was republished in London under the pseudonym "Rolf Boldrewood," and proved a remarkable success. Since then Mr. Browne has republished in England "The Squatter's Dream," "A Colonial Reformer," and "A Miner's Right," all issued by Messrs. Macmillan & Co. in 1890. All have had a favourable reception; and the same may be said of "A Sydney-side Saxon" and "Nevermore," published in 1891 and 1892 respectively. Mr. Browne, whose father and brother Sylvester were, like himself, pioneer squatters, was married at Mulgoa, Penrith, N.S.W., on August 1st, 1860, to Miss Margaret Maria Biley.

Browne, Sir Thomas Gore, K.C.M.G., C.B., the son of Robert Browne, of Morton House, Bucks, and brother to the late Bishop of Winchester, was born in 1807. In 1823 he entered the 28th Regiment, and for some time acted as aide-de-camp to Lord Nugent, Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands, of which he was also Colonial Secretary. In 1836 he exchanged into the 41st Regiment, which he commanded as major during the Afghan campaign. He was among those who advanced to the rescue of General Nott after the massacre at Khyber Pass; and was in charge of his regiment also at Hykulzie, Candahar, Ghuznee, and Cabal. He was in command of the rear during the march through the Khyber Pass, and also at the storming of the Nik fort at Issaliff. For his services he was promoted in 1836 to a lieutenant-colonelcy, and was made a C.B. On his return to England he exchanged into the 21st Fusiliers, which he commanded until 1851, when he was made Governor of St. Helena. In 1854 he left St. Helena to become Governor of New Zealand at the critical time when the Home Government had decided to grant the colony responsible government. It was during Colonel Gore Browne's tenure of office that the settlers' difficulties with the Maoris came to a head in New Zealand. A certain party among the natives had met what they considered the encroachments of the English with the establishment of a king, and the refusal to sell their lands. In the Waitara district a native named Teira offered, however, to sell a block; and the Governor, who had determined that a strong front was necessary in dealing with the Maoris, insisted upon buying, despite the opposition of Wiremu Kingi and the King party. This was the origin of the Taranaki war; but it was hardly begun when the Home Government, finding itself on the verge of the precipice, recalled Sir George Grey from the Cape to replace Colonel Browne, who was removed to Tasmania, taking office on Dec. 10th, 1861. On Dec. 30th, 1868, he resigned the Governorship of Tasmania, was created K.C.M.G., and in 1870 was appointed Governor of the Bermudas, retiring on a pension in 1871. He married, in 1851, a daughter of James Campbell, of Craigie. Sir Thomas Gore Browne, who died on April 17th, 1887, was a member of the New Zealand Commission in London for the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886.

Brownless, Anthony Colling, C.M.G., LL.D., M.D., F.R.C.S., Chancellor of the University of Melbourne, is the only son of the late Anthony Brownless, of Paynetts House, and Bockingfold Manor, Goudhurst, Kent. After studying for the medical profession at St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London, and at the University of Liege, he was admitted M.R.C.S. of London in 1841, and M.D. of St. Andrews in 1846. Having practised for some years as a physician in London, Dr. Brownless arrived in Victoria in Dec. 1852, and was soon afterwards elected Physician to the Melbourne Benevolent Asylum, and in 1854 Physician to the Melbourne Hospital—a post which he held for twelve years, being appointed a Life Governor and Consulting Physician on his retirement. In June 1855 the Melbourne University gave him the diploma of M.D., this being the first occasion on which the degree was conferred by that University, in which Dr. Brownless founded the medical school, and of which he was annually elected Vice-Chancellor for twenty-nine years, from 1858 to 1887; when he was elected Chancellor, in succession to Dr. Moorhouse. Dr. Brownless holds the honorary degree of LL.D. of the Universities of St. Andrews and Melbourne, and in 1884 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Dr. Brownless was made, a Knight of St. Gregory the Great by the late Pope in 1870, and a Knight Commander of the Order of Pius, conferring nobility, by Leo. XIII. in 1883. Dr. Brownless, who was created C.M.G. in May 1888, has been twice married: first, in 1842, to Ellen, daughter of the late William Hawker, M.D., of Charing, Kent, and Liége, Belgium, formerly surgeon in the Grenadier Guards, who died in 1846; and secondly, in 1852, to Anne Jane, eldest daughter of the late Captain William Hamilton, of Eden, co. Donegal, Ireland, an officer in the Rifle Brigade, who served with distinction in the Peninsular War.

Brownrigg, Major Henry Studholme, second son of General John Studholme Brownrigg, C.B., by Katherine, second daughter of the Right Hon. Sir H. W. Williams Wynn, G.C.H., was born on March 18th, 1843, and married on April 26th, 1881, Alice, daughter of R. L. Waters, Dublin. He entered the army as ensign in the Rifle Brigade in April 1861, and became lieutenant in 1865, captain in 1873, and major in 1881. Major Brownrigg, who passed the final examination at the Staff College in 1875, distinguished himself in the Afghan campaign of 1878 and 1879, being mentioned in despatches and given brevet rank as major. He was employed with the local forces in Victoria from Sept. 1883 to Sept. 1888, when he succeeded Colonel Disney as commandant, with the local rank of lieutenant-colonel. This position he held till Nov. 1889, when he returned to England, and has since been employed in India.

Bruce, Lieut.-Col. John, sometime Commandant, Western Australia, was born in 1808, and entering the army, was an officer in the 16th and 18th Regiments of Foot. He went to Western Australia with his regiment, and was for twenty years Staff-officer of Pensioners and Commandant of Western Australia. He was Acting Governor of the colony in Feb. 1862, and from Nov. 1868 to Sept. 1869, during the interim between the departure of Governor Hampton and the arrival of Governor Weld. He died on Nov. 5th, 1870, at the age of sixty-two.

Brunker, Hon. James Nixon, M.L.A., late Minister of Lands, New South Wales, has represented East Maitland in the Legislative Assembly of that colony for a number of years; and was Secretary for Lands under Sir Henry Parkes from July to August 1888. When the last Parkes Government was formed in March 1889 Mr. Brunker was reappointed to the Lands Department, and held a seat in the Cabinet until Oct 1891, when he retired with his colleagues.

Brunton, William, M.I.C.E., a highly ingenious inventor, was the third son of William Brunton, also a well-known inventor, and was born at Birmingham on April 3rd, 1817. In 1847 he was appointed Resident Engineer of the West Cornwall Railway, Chief Engineer of the Punjab Railway in 1865, and District Engineer of Railways in Southland, New Zealand, in 1871. Mr. Brunton, who died at Wellington, New Zealand, on June 13th, 1881, invented an apparatus for washing and separating ores from their matrix, known as "Brunton's Endless Cloth," and also a fuse-making machine, the secret of which has never been divulged, but which at once reduced the selling price of fuse by 75 per cent Mr. Brunton became M.I.C.E. in March 1854.

Bryce, Hon. John, is one of the oldest settlers in New Zealand, having been brought to the colony as a child in 1840. He came into prominence during the Maori war, and was lieutenant in a troop of yeomanry cavalry at the time of the Hauhau advance upon Wanganui. It was on this occasion that an incident occurred which was made the foundation of a grave charge against Mr. Bryce by Mr. G. W. Rusden (q.v.) in his History of New Zealand. While Lieutenant Bryce, with his cavalry, was patrolling to the north of Wanganui, a number of Maoris were observed looting farm-buildings, and a sortie was made upon them by the troops. It was asserted by Mr. Rusden, from information alleged to have been communicated through Bishop Hadfield and Sir Arthur Gordon, that Mr. Bryce dashed upon native women and children, "cutting them down gleefully and with ease." Subsequently, Mr. Bryce went to England, and brought an action for libel against Mr. Rusden, when the jury awarded him, £5000 damages, as it was proved in evidence that there were no women present, and that the charge against Mr. Bryce was completely baseless. The late Baron Huddleston presided at the trial, and Sir John Gorst appeared for Mr. Rusden. In 1871 Mr. Bryce entered Parliament as member for Wanganui, and on Oct. 8th, 1879, he accepted office under Sir John Hall as Minister for Native Affairs. About this time a tokunga (priest) named Te Whiti had began to give the Government some trouble by his resistance to settlement and claims to independent and supernatural power. As he had collected in his pa a large number of natives whose attitude was threatening, Mr. Bryce deemed the time had come for energetic action. Not being able to persuade his colleagues to agree with him, he retired from the Ministry, though continuing to give it a general support. Nine months afterwards he rejoined the Hall Government to carry out the native policy he had formerly unsuccessfully urged upon his colleagues. On Nov. 5th, 1881, he occupied Parihaka with a large force consisting of the armed constabulary and volunteers, and arrested Te Whiti and Tohu, one of his chief followers, as well as a notorious murderer named Hiroki, who was afterwards executed. The action was much criticised at the time. Mr. Bryce continued to hold office in the Atkinson and Whitaker Ministries till August 16th, 1884. In 1882 he carried through the House "The West Coast Peace Preservation Bill" by which Te Whiti and Tohu were imprisoned during Her Majesty's pleasure. He also passed the Amnesty Bill, which granted an amnesty to natives who had committed crimes during the war. By the provisions of this bill the notorious Te Kooti obtained a free pardon. Mr. Bryce was re-elected for Wanganui in 1890, and led the opposition to the Ballance Ministry. In Sept. 1891, however, he resigned his seat in the House, owing to a vote of censure having been passed upon certain expressions used by him in debate reflecting on the conduct of the Premier, and which he (Mr. Bryce) regarded as in no sense unparliamentary or objectionable.

Buchanan, Hon. David, M.L.C., fifth son of William Buchanan, of Edinburgh, advocate, was born in that city in 1832, and educated at the High School there. He emigrated to Australia in 1852, and entered the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as member for Morpeth in 1860, and was elected twice for East Macquarie, which he represented from 1863 to 1866. He went to England in 1867, and entered at the Middle Temple in November of that year, being called to the bar in June 1869. He then returned to New South Wales, and practised his profession, being elected to the Legislative Assembly for East Sydney in 1870, and twice returned for the Goldfields. Though outvoted at Mudgee in 1879, he was ultimately declared duly elected. As a politician Mr. Buchanan gained prominence by his sturdy championship of fiscal protection. He revisited England in 1886, and published a selection from his orations and speeches. Having unsuccessfully contested Balmain at the general election in Jan. 1889, he was nominated to the Legislative Council. He died on April 3rd, 1890.

Buckley, William, known as the "Wild White Man," was a native of Macclesfield, England, where he was born about 1780. He was originally a bricklayer, but entered the Cheshire Militia, and subsequently the Fourth or King's Own Regiment of the Line. For some act of mutiny, or, as other authorities state, for receiving stolen goods, he was sentenced to transportation, and was sent to Australia by H.M.S. Calcutta, with the convict party which landed at Port Phillip (afterwards Victoria) under Collins in 1803. Whilst engaged in forming what proved an abortive settlement, Buckley and two convict comrades escaped into the bush, a third being shot in the attempt to do so. The escapees only mustered a trifling supply of rations—a gun, some tin pots and a kettle, and were soon worn out with fatigue and hunger, and the fear of being murdered by the Blacks. From Swan Island they took a view of the Calcutta, and so tired were they of their newly acquired freedom that they signalled their late taskmasters, with a view of returning to bondage rather than endure any longer the isolation and terrors of their lot. They could not, however, make themselves observed, and Buckley's two comrades decided to skirt along the shore with the view of regaining the Calcutta from the spot where they had made their escape. They both, however, perished, whether by hunger or otherwise is not known. Buckley, thus left alone, was, Blair states, preserved by a lucky accident working on the superstitions of the natives. A chief of one of the aboriginal tribes had been buried near Buckley's temporary hut, a piece of a spear being left by his sorrowing subjects to mark the grave. Buckley appropriated the fragment, and meeting some members of the tribe, whilst carrying it in his hand, they joyfully hailed him as their dead chief returned to life in a new guise. He was well cared for, learnt the language of his new associates, and married a black woman. He lived with the natives in all the freedom of bush life till July 12th, 1835, when he was discovered by Batman, the founder of Melbourne. He acted as interpreter and peacemaker between his fellow countrymen and his native associates. A free pardon being subsequently given him, he went to live in Hobart Town, Tasmania, where he married a white woman. When he grew old the Governments of Victoria and Tasmania gave him a modest allowance of a pound a week. He died at Hobart Town on Feb. 2nd, 1856. Buckley was a man of gigantic stature, and proportionately strong. He had nearly forgotten his own language when Batman discovered him, but he gradually recovered its full use after his return to English associations.

Buckland, Rev. John Richard, son of the Rev. John Buckland, Rector of Templeton, Devonshire, and a nephew of Dr. William Buckland, Dean of Westminster, was born on August 3rd, 1819. He received his early education from his father at Laleham, and was then sent to Rugby, of which school his uncle, Dr. Arnold, was at the time head master. At the age of seventeen he went to Oxford, where he held a studentship at Christ Church. After taking his degree he determined to emigrate to the colonies, and sailed for New Zealand, but in consequence of the unsettled state of affairs in that colony he removed to Tasmania, arriving in Hobart in Feb, 1843. He was for a time second master of the Queen's School, of which the Rev. J. P. Gell was head master. On the closing of that school he opened a private school. In 1845 he was ordained. In 1846 the prospectus of a Church of England Grammar School was issued, and on August 3rd in that year the school, named "The Hutchins School" in memory of Archdeacon Hutchins, was opened at Hobart, with Mr. Buckland as head master. It soon became one of the leading schools of the colony, a position which it has ever since maintained, a large number of the most prominent men of Tasmania having received their education at the Hutchins School. Mr. Buckland held the post of head master for twenty-eight years, until his death, which took place at Hobart on Oct. 13th, 1874.

Buckley, Hon. Sir Patrick Alphonsus, K.C.M.G., M.L.C., Attorney-General, New Zealand, is the second son of the late C. Buckley, and was born near Castle Townsend, in county Cork, in 1841. He received his primary education in the well-known Mansion House in the city of Cork, and was afterward at college in Paris till he entered the University of Louvain in Belgium. While in Louvain Count Carlo Macdonell, Private Chamberlain to the Pope, in passing through, selected young Buckley to conduct the recruits for the Irish Papal Brigade from Ostend to Vienna. There he gave them over to the papal authorities, who were waiting to receive them. After the Piedmontese had taken possession of the Papal States, Mr. Buckley returned to his college, and after completing his studies, went home to Ireland. From thence he emigrated to Queensland, where shortly after his arrival he completed his legal studies under the supervision of the present Chief Justice, Sir Charles Lilley. Mr. Buckley was also admitted to the Victorian Bar. After a short residence in Queensland he settled in New Zealand, and commenced practice in Wellington in partnership with Mr. W. S. Reid, the present Solicitor-General; but he is now the head of the well-known legal firm of Buckley, Stafford and Treadwell. Shortly after his arrival in Wellington he entered the Provincial Council. He was Provincial Solicitor for the last administration under that régime until the abolition of the provinces. He was called to the Legislative Council of New Zealand in 1878, and in Sept. 1884 became Colonial Secretary in the Stout-Vogel administration, and leader of the Upper House. He retired with his colleagues in Oct. 1887. In Jan. 1891, on the return of the liberal party to power, Mr. Buckley joined the administration under Mr. Ballance as Attorney-General, and resumed the leadership in the Legislative Council, where he had to confront a decidedly hostile majority. Mr. Buckley has taken a warm interest in the volunteer movement, and was for six years captain of the present D Battery of Wellington (then known as No. 1), which was raised by himself. Mr. Buckley married Alice, the only daughter of the late Hon. Sir William Fitzherbert, K.C.M.G. (q.v.). On May 25th, 1892, he was gazetted K.C.M.G.

Budge, Alexander Campbell, J.P., Clerk of the Executive Council, New South Wales, entered the Civil Service of that colony in Nov. 1858, and was appointed to his present office in Oct. 1863.

Bull, John Wrattall, son of the late Rev. John Bull, M.A., incumbent of St. John's, Walthamstow, England, was born at St. Paul's Cray, Kent, on June 23rd, 1804. He emigrated to South Australia in 1838, and engaged successfully in pastoral pursuits, but was ruined in the crisis caused by the dishonour of Governor Gawler's drafts. He went to the Victorian gold diggings in 1852, but returned to Adelaide the next year, when he became manager of Mr. Osmond Gilles' Glen Osmond property, where he established a vineyard, one of the first in the colony. In 1842 he invented a locomotive steam-threshing machine, and in 1882 was voted £250 by the South Australian Parliament for his improvements in agricultural machinery. He was the author of "Bull's Experiences of Colonial Life." He died on Sept. 21st, 1885.

Buller, Sir Walter Lawry, K.C.M.G., D.Sc., F.R.S., the descendant of an ancient Cornish family and the eldest surviving son of the late Rev. James Buller, was born on Oct. 9th, 1838, at Newark, Bay of Islands, N.Z., and was educated at Wesley College, Auckland. Having early acquired a knowledge of the Maori language, he was appointed Government interpreter at Wellington in 1855, and started and edited a weekly Maori paper called Te Karere o Poneke. In 1859 he was made Native Commissioner for the Southern Provinces, and carried through the partition and individualisation of the Kaiapoi Native Reserve. In 1861 he acted as honorary secretary to the Kohimarama conference of native chiefs, convened by Governor Gore Browne; and in the same year edited the Maori Messenger, a fortnightly paper in English and Maori, being afterwards also promoter and editor of the Maori Intelligencer (both of them Government publications). In April 1862 he was appointed Resident Magistrate of the Manawatu; and in April 1865 Judge of the Native Land Court. In the same year he was present at the taking of Wereroa Pa (Volunteer Staff), for which he received the New Zealand War Medal. On that occasion, declining the protection of a military escort, he carried the Governor's despatches at night through forty miles of the enemy's country, attended only by a Maori orderly, for which gallant service he was mentioned in despatches. In 1866 he became Resident Magistrate and Sheriff of Wanganui, which office he held till 1871, when he went to England as Secretary to the Agent-General. For a continuous period of fifteen years he had held various official appointments, chiefly in connection with native affairs, and had on eight different occasions received the special thanks of the Colonial Government. He entered as a student at the Inner Temple on Nov. 20th, 1871, and was called to the bar on June 6th, 1874. In the same year he returned to New Zealand, and practised as a barrister and solicitor of the Supreme Court with remarkable success till 1886, when he visited England as Commissioner in connection with the Colonial and Indian Exhibition. For his services on this occasion he was created K.C.M.G., having been made a C.M.G. in 1875 in recognition of his researches in New Zealand ornithology. In 1876 he was elected F.R.S. on the same account. Sir Walter remained in England till 1890, and took an active part in all public movements affecting the colonies. He was on the Mansion House Committee for the Paris Exhibition 1889, and was elected a member of the Executive Council. For his services on that occasion he was decorated "Officier" in the Legion of Honour. As early as 1865 he obtained the silver medal of the New Zealand Exhibition for an "Essay on the Ornithology of New Zealand"; and subsequently published a splendidly illustrated "History of the Birds of New Zealand." In 1882 he prepared for the Government a "Manual of the Birds of New Zealand," and in 1888 brought out a second edition of his larger work. Besides enjoying the dignity of a British order, Sir Walter is a Knight (First Class) Austrian Order of Francis Joseph, First Class Order of Frederick of Wurtemburg, Order of Merit (First Class) of Hesse-Darmstadt, and "Officier de l'Instruction Publique" (Gold Palm of the Academy). He has been awarded the Galileian Medal by the Royal University of Florence, and has received the honorary degree of Doctor of Science from the University of Tubingen. In 1881 he received the gold medal of the New Zealand Exhibition for science and literature, and was elected a governor of the New Zealand Institute, of which he was also one of the founders. He married, in 1862, Charlotte, third daughter of Gilbert Mair, J.P., of Auckland, N.Z., who died on Nov. 1st, 1891.

Bundey, Hon. William Henry, Puisne Judge, South Australia, son of the late James Bundey, was born in 1838, and admitted to the South Australian bar in 1865, becoming Q.C. in 1878. He sat in the House of Assembly as member for Onkaparinga from 1872 to 1874, and from 1878 to 1880. He was Minister of Justice and Education in Mr. (now Sir) Arthur Blyth's Government from July 1874 to March 1875, and Attorney-General in that of Mr. (afterwards Sir) W. Morgan from Sept. 1878 to March 1881. In 1882 he received the Queen's permission to bear the title of "Honourable" within the colony, and in 1884 was appointed a judge of the Supreme Court of South Australia. Judge Bundey was for six years captain of volunteers, and was commodore of the South Australian Yacht Club from 1874 to 1884. He married in 1865 Ellen Wardlaw, daughter of the Hon. Sir William Milne, late president of the Legislative Council of South Australia.

Bunny, Brice Frederick, sometime Commissioner of Titles, Victoria, was the second son of Jere Brice of Newbury, Berkshire, and Clara, his wife, daughter of Samuel Slocock. He was born at Newbury in 1820, and was educated at Eton. He entered as a student at Lincoln's Inn in March 1839, and was called to the bar in May 1844. He emigrated to Victoria in 1852, with the object of making a fortune on the goldfields; but by the advice of his friend, Vice-Chancellor Bacon, took his tools with him in the shape of a law library. After some experience on the Forest Creek diggings, he was admitted to the Victorian bar in Oct. 1853, and commenced practice in Melbourne. He acquired a good equity business, and was appointed a County Court Judge in 1873. In October of the next year, however, he exchanged this post for that of Commissioner of Titles, which he held till his death on June 2nd, 1885.

Burgess, William Henry, J.P., was born at Hobart, Tas., in 1847, and was educated at the High School, Hobart, and at Horton College, Ross. He was member for West Hobart from Jan. 1881 to August 1891, and from August 1884 to March 1887 was Treasurer in the Douglas and Agnew Ministries. Mr. Burgess, who was the recognised leader of the opposition to the Fysh Ministry, is a captain unattached in the Tasmanian Defence Force, and was Mayor of Hobart in 1879 and 1880. He was one of the Tasmanian delegates to the Federation Convention held at Sydney in 1891. In August 1891, owing to the stoppage of the Bank of Van Diemen's Land, with the management of which he was identified, Mr. Burgess resigned his seat in the Executive Council and in Parliament and his position as leader of the Opposition.

Burgoyne, Thomas, M.P., represents Newcastle in the Legislative Assembly of South Australia, and was Commissioner of Crown Lands and Immigration in the Cockburn Government from June 1889 to August 1890, when he retired with his colleagues.

Burke, Robert O'Hara, the famous and ill-fated explorer, belonged to a younger branch of the Burkes or de Burghs, and was the second son of John Hardiman Burke of St. Clerans, co. Galway, Ireland, by Anne his wife, daughter of Robert O'Hara of Raheen, co. Galway, and was born at St. Clerans in 1821. He was educated in Belgium. He entered the Austrian army in 1840, and rose to the rank of Captain. In 1848 he joined the Royal Irish Constabulary, and in 1853 emigrated to Tasmania, whence he soon went on to Victoria, where he became an Inspector of Police. In 1854 (in which year his father died) he obtained leave to go to England to settle his family affairs, and seek a Commission in the Crimean War; but the war being over before arrangements were concluded, he returned to Victoria, and resumed his police duties. In 1860 he was appointed to the command of an exploring expedition, organised under the auspices of a Committee of the Royal Society of Victoria, and despatched for the purpose of crossing the Australian continent from sea to sea, north and south. Great enthusiasm was aroused by the project, and Mr. Ambrose Kyte, a Melbourne resident, subscribed £1000 towards the expenses, this amount being handsomely supplemented by private and Government contributions. A novel feature was the employment of camels specially exported from India for the purpose at a cost of £5500, and from which great results were expected. The expedition, consisting of thirteen persons besides the leader, started from Melbourne on August 20th, 1860, amidst the cheers of thousands of spectators. Dissensions soon arose, and several members of the party, including Landells, the second in command, returned. Burke reached Cooper's Creek, which was to be the starting point of the expedition, on Nov. 11th; and after waiting long, with six companions, for the arrival of the rest of the party who had been left behind at Menindie on the Darling, made a dash for the Gulf of Carpentaria on Dec. 16th, leaving the bulk of his stores in charge of an assistant named Brahe and three men, with directions to await his return for three or four months. The enterprise proved successful. Though not actually coming within sight of the sea, Burke and his associate, Wills, reached the tidal waters of the Flinders river, and earned the distinction of being the first white men to traverse the Australian continent. On their return to Cooper's Creek, however, on April 21st, 1861, exhausted with hardships, and after one of their number, Gray, had succumbed to fatigue and starvation, King found that Brahe, interpreting his instructions too literally, had abandoned his post that very day, leaving only a small stock of provisions behind him. Contrary to the advice of Wills, who urged the advisability of following in Brahe's tracks, Burke determined to strike for some of the South Australian stations, which he imagined were much nearer than was actually the case. He was stopped on his course by want of water, and was obliged to return with his two companions to Cooper's Creek. They were too enfeebled to renew the attempt to go southwards, and were obliged to remain on the lower part of Cooper's Creek, some distance from the depot, subsisting mainly on casual supplies obtained from friendly natives. In the meantime Brahe, with the lagging rearguard, had returned to the depot, but not finding Burke and his party, went south once more. The end came on June 28th, 1861, when Burke died of starvation, Wills, whom Burke and King had left to go in search of the blacks, dying about the same time. King, their only surviving comrade, managed to subsist amongst the natives until rescued on Sept. 21st by a relief party, under the command of Mr. Alfred W. Howitt, which had been sent out from Melbourne when Brahe returned with the news of Burke and Wills' non-return to the depot. Mr. Howitt buried the ill-fated explorers, Burke having particularly requested King not to bury him, but to let him lie above ground with a pistol in his hand. Public feeling, however, demanded the rescue of their remains, and they were recovered by a second expedition sent out under Mr. Howitt, and brought back to Melbourne on Dec. 28th, 1862. A public funeral was accorded to these two brave but luckless explorers, on Jan. 21st, 1863, after they had lain in state twenty days, and a monument to their memory, the work of the Australian sculptor, Charles Summers, now occupies a prominent position opposite the Parliament House, Melbourne. The cost of the original expedition, and of the subsequent searches, was estimated at £57,000.

Burnett, Commodore William Farquharson, C.B., entered the Royal Navy in June 1838, and became Captain in Nov. 1854. In July 1855 he was created C.B., and in July 1862 was appointed Commodore on the Australian Station. On Feb. 7th, 1863. he perished in the wreck of H.M.S. Orpheus off Manukau, New Zealand, when out of a crew of 260 only 70 were saved.

Burns, Hon. John Fitzgerald, M.L.A. was born in the north of Ireland, and emigrated to New South Wales at an early age. Having engaged in mercantile pursuits in the Hunter River district, he was returned to the Assembly for the Hunter in 1862, and represented the constituency for many years. He is now one of the members for St. Leonard's. He was Postmaster-General in the Robertson Ministry from Feb. 1875 to March 1877, and in that of Mr. Farnell from Dec. 1877 to Dec. 1878. He introduced postal cards into Australia in 1875, and was the first to give employment to women in the telegraph department. In 1878 he arranged with the Governments of the other Australian colonies and New Zealand for the duplication of the submarine cable to Australia. Mr. Burns was Treasurer in the last Robertson Ministry from Dec. 1885 to Feb. 1886, and in that of Sir Henry Parkes from Jan. 1887 to Jan. 1889. He was gazetted a C.M.G. in the Jubilee year, but declined the honour, and the appointment was cancelled.

Burns, Rev. Thomas, D.D., was born at Mossgiel, Ayrshire, Scotland, on April 10th, 1796. His father, Gilbert Burns, was brother to the Scottish poet, Robert Burns, and was factor to Lord Blantyre. While yet a child his parents removed to the farm of Dinniny, Dumfriesshire. At the parish school he received his primary education, proceeding in course of time for the higher branches to the Grammar Schools of Closeburn and Haddington. At the latter he was a pupil of the famous Edward Irving, from whom he received a prize for proficiency in mathematics. From the Grammar School at Haddington Mr. Burns entered the University at Edinburgh, where he pursued with success the arts curriculum, and attended the classes in theology prescribed for candidates for the ministry of the Established Church of Scotland. He was then taken on trial for licence by the Presbytery of Haddington, and by it was duly licensed to preach as a probationer of the Church of Scotland. He was at that time acting as tutor in the family of Sir Hugh Dalrymple, Berwick House, Haddington, through whose influence he obtained a presentation to the parish of Ballantrae, in the Presbytery of Stranraer, Galloway, where he was ordained by that Presbytery in 1825. From Ballantrae he was translated to the parish of Monkton, Ayrshire, in 1830. where he continued parish minister till the disruption of the Church of Scotland in 1843, when he relinquished his status as a minister of the Church of Scotland, and joined the Free Church of Scotland which was then formed. For a short time he remained in Monkton as Free Church minister, and helped largely to organise other Free Churches In the Presbytery of Ayr. His attention having been drawn to the proposal of the New Zealand Company to found a Scotch colony in Otago, possessing the church and school privileges peculiar to Scotland, and drawn from the membership of the Free Church, and having received the offer of being appointed the first minister of the projected colony, he resigned his charge at Monkton with a view of proceeding to Otago in that capacity. Circumstances having hindered the immediate realisation of the New Zealand Company's scheme of colonisation, Mr. Burns spent a year or two in giving lectures on the Company's plan, visiting for this purpose various parts of Scotland, but receiving no remuneration from the Company for this service. He accepted a call from the Free Church congregation of Portobello, in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, and continued to act as minister there till October 1847. At that date all arrangements for prosecuting the proposed settlement of Otago having been completed, and Mr. Burns adhering to his appointment as first minister of the colony, he demitted his charge, and made ready to proceed with the outgoing emigrants to Otago. With his family, he joined at Greenwich the Philip Laing, under the command of Captain Andrew Elles, which, with the John Wickliff, appointed to sail from London, had been chartered to convey the first emigrants to Otago. These vessels left their respective ports on Nov. 27th, 1847. The John Wickliff reached Port Chalmers on March 23rd, 1848, and the Philip Laing on April 15th following. The day after the arrival of the Philip Laing being the Sabbath, the passengers on both ships assembled on board the Philip Laing for Divine service, which was conducted by Mr. Burns. On the following Sabbath Divine service was held in Dunedin, when Mr. Burns preached. From that time to February 1854 Mr. Burns continued alone to minister to the religious needs of the settlers, the majority of whom had located themselves in Dunedin and neighbourhood, while some had settled at Port Chalmers, and others had taken up land in the Taieri, Tokomairiro, and Clutha districts, all of whom were periodically visited by Mr. Burns. From his ministerial visits southwards Mr. Burns was relieved by the arrival, in February 1854, of the Rev. William Will and the Rev. William Bannerman, with whom he took part in constituting the Presbytery of Otago in June following, and of which he was the first Moderator. Further relief was given him by the settlement of Rev. William Johnstone, at Port Chalmers, in June 1858, and by the subdivision of the Free Church, Dunedin, by the formation of Knox Church, under the pastorate of the Rev. D. M. Stuart, in 1860. In 1861 Mr. Burns received the diploma of Doctor of Divinity from the University of Edinburgh. In 1866, on the formation of the synod as the Supreme Court of the Church, rendered necessary by the increase of ministers throughout Otago and Southland, and the formation of several presbyteries, Dr. Burns presided as first Moderator. Advancing years and failing health led to the appointment of a colleague and successor in the person of the Rev. George Sutherland in 1868. Towards the close of 1870 Dr. Burns retired wholly from public duties, and died on Jan. 23rd, 1871. A monument to his memory has been erected in Dunedin, not far from the spot where one of his illustrious uncle has stood for some years past. Whilst Captain Cargill was the lay organiser and ruler of the Otago settlement, the late Dr. Burns was its spiritual guide and adviser. It was in 1844 that the New Zealand Company, perceiving the wonderful life which animated the free Church, approached her with a view to found a Free Church colony in New Zealand. The offer was entertained, and the Laymen's Association for planting the colony of Otago was organised, with Dr. Alcorn for its secretary in Glasgow and Mr. John McGlashan for its secretary in Edinburgh. The Association, with the utmost unanimity, fixed on Captain Cargill to be the Moses and Dr. Burns to be the Aaron of the enterprise, as Dr. Stuart phrased it. It is well known that Sir William Chambers was one of those who directed attention to Dr. Burns as in all respects suitable for the office of pioneer minister. The doctor devoted much time to the advocacy of the scheme, and in his speeches he gave prominence to its objects—the settlement of the people on their own acres and the planting of church and school within their reach.

Burrowes, Hon. Robert, M.L.A., formerly Minister of Mines, Victoria, was born at Perth, a township near Ottawa, Canada, in 1827. After experience in the lumber trade he left Canada in 1852, and arrived in Melbourne in April 1853. He almost immediately afterwards left for the Bendigo (Sandhurst) diggings, where he took an active part in creating Sandhurst municipality, and was chairman of the local council on the occasion of railway communication being established between Melbourne and Sandhurst in 1862. He was returned to the Victorian Assembly for Sandhurst in Jan. 1866, and held the seat till his defeat in May 1877. In 1880 he was re-elected, and still sits for the same constituency. From August 1881 to March 1883 he was Minister of Mines in the O'Loghlen Government. Mr. Burrowes married in 1858 Sarah Ellen, daughter of P. Vickery.

Burt, Sir Archibald Paull, son of George Henry Burt, was born in 1810, and educated at a private school at Richmond. He was called to the bar at the Middle Temple in 1845, and emigrated to the island of St. Christopher, where he practised his profession, being Attorney-General from 1849 to 1860. He was Speaker of the House of Assembly, a Member of the Executive and Legislative Councils, and for some time Acting Chief Justice. He was also a Member of the Administrative Committee and Chancellor of the Diocese of Antigua and the Leeward Islands, In 1860 he was appointed Civil Commissioner and Chairman of Quarter Sessions in Western Australia, and in the following year Chief Justice of that colony, an office which he held until his death on Nov. 21st, 1879. Sir Archibald married, in 1836, Louisa Emily, daughter of John Bryan, M.D., of St. Christopher, and was knighted in 1873.

Burt, Octavius, son of the late Sir Archibald Paull Burt, Chief Justice of Western Australia (q.v.). He was appointed Clerk in the Governor's office, Western Australia, in May 1872; in Jan. 1874 Clerk to the Executive Council and Private Secretary to the Acting Governor; from April 1874 to Dec. 1874 was Private Secretary to Governor Weld; in May 1875 was appointed Clerk to the Executive Council and Private Secretary to Governor Sir William C. F. Robinson; in Sept. 1887, Chief Clerk and Keeper of records in Survey Office; Resident Magistrate, Newcastle, in April 1880; ditto, York, in April 1887; Assistant Colonial Secretary in April 1887. In 1889 to 1890 Mr. Burt was acting Colonial Secretary and a member of the Executive and Legislative Councils during the absence in England of Sir William Robinson, when Sir Malcolm Fraser, the Colonial Secretary, discharged the functions of Administrator of the Government.

Burt, Hon. Septimus, M.L.A., Q.C., Attorney-General, Western Australia, seventh son of Sir A. P. Burt, was born at St. Kitts on Oct. 25th, 1847, and educated at Shaw House, Melksham, Wilts, and at Bishop's School, Perth, Western Australia. He was called to the Colonial bar in May 1870, and became senior partner in the firm of Stone & Burt. He was nominated a member of the Legislative Council in 1874, but resigned, and was afterwards an elected member, retaining his seat until the dissolution of that body in 1890. At the special request of the Governor Mr. Burt acted as Attorney-General, with a seat in the Executive Council, for six months in 1886, after the retirement of Mr. Hensman, his private practice rendering it impossible for him to hold the position longer. In the same year he was a member of the Western Australian Commission for the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886, and was appointed one of the representatives of Western Australia at the Colonial Conference held in London in 1887. In the same year he was made Q.C. Mr. Burt is Consular Agent for Portugal and Vice-Consul for Denmark. He revisited England in 1890. Mr. Burt married, in July 1872, Juila, daughter of Gustavus Edward Cockburn Hare, formerly of Kircullen, co. Galway, and afterwards Government Resident of Albany, Western Australia, by Anne Wright his wife. Mr. Hare was a half-brother of the well-known Archdeacon (Julius Charles) Hare, of Hurstmonceux. In Dec. 1890 Mr. Burt accepted a seat in the Forrest Ministry, and was appointed first Attorney-General of Western Australia under responsible government, being returned for Ashburton to the Legislative Assembly. In 1891 he visited London in the capacity of first acting Agent-General of Western Australia, but returned to the colony later in the year.

Burton, Sir William Westbrooke, fifth son of Edmund Burton, of Daventry, Northamptonshire, by Eliza, only daughter of Rev. John Mather, of Chorley, Lancashire, was born on Jan. 31st, 1794, and educated at Daventry Grammar School. He entered the navy in 1807, taking part in the attack on New Orleans in 1814. In Nov. 1819 he entered at the Inner Temple, and was called to the bar in Nov. 1824. Having practised with success, he was Recorder of Daventry from 1826 to 1827, and Puisne Judge the Cape of Good Hope from 1828 to 1832, when he was appointed to a similar post in New South Wales, which he held until 1844, when he was transferred to Madras, where he remained till 1857, when he retired from the bench and returned to Sydney. He was nominated to the Legislative Council of New South Wales, and was President of that body from Feb. 1858 to May 1861, when just prior to the expiry of the function of the House by effluxion of time, resigned, with nineteen other members, on the attempt of the Cowper Ministry to carry the Robertson Land Bills through the House by the nomination of twenty-one new members, favourably disposed to the policy of the Government. When the Council was reconstituted under the instructions of the Home Government in that year, Sir William Burton was not again offered a seat, Mr. Wentworth succeeding him in the presidential chair. Consequent thereupon Sir William decided to quit the colony and return to England, where he died in Aug. 1888. Sir William was knighted by patent in Nov. 1844. He married, first, on April 5th, 1827, Margaret, daughter of Leny Smith, of Homerton, who died in Sept. 1846; and secondly, on June 11th, 1849, Maria Alphonsine, daughter of John Beatty West, M.P. for Dublin, who survived him. Sir William was the author of a brochure, entitled "The State of Religion and Education in New South Wales," in which he drew a terrible picture of the state of the convict establishment at Norfolk Island in the year 1834, when he visited it as a judge to try a contingent of mutineers, of whom thirteen were subsequently hanged, though Judge Burton mercifully postponed the executions until he could consult with Sir Richard Bourke, in Sydney, secure that, at any rate, they should be provided with the consolations of religion before being launched into eternity. The pamphlet called forth a reply from Bishop Ullathorne.

Butler, Hon. Edward, Q.C., M.L.C., was born in the county of Kilkenny in 1829, and educated at Kilkenny College. At an early age he was a contributor to the Dublin Nation, and in 1849 he joined Mr. (now Sir) Charles Gavan Duffy in reviving that paper, which had been suppressed during the troubles of 1848. In 1855 he emigrated to New South Wales, and became a contributor to the Empire, being called to the colonial bar, at which he practised with great success, in 1855. Six years later he was nominated to the Legislative Council, but retired from it, and entered the Lower House in 1869 as member for Argyle. He was Attorney-General in the Parkes Government from May 1872 to Nov. 1873, when he resigned in consequence of not receiving the vacant office of Chief Justice which he alleged had been promised to him by Sir Henry Parkes, who passed him over in favour of his junior at the bar, the late Sir James Martin. He was reappointed to the Legislative Council in Oct. 1877, and died suddenly whilst engaged in a case in the Supreme Court in Sydney on June 9th, 1879.

Butler, Hon. Henry, son of Gamaliel Butler, solicitor, was born in Cornhill, London, on November 17th, 1821. In 1823 the family emigrated to Tasmania. Mr. Butler was educated in England, and chose medicine as his profession, becoming a member of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1843, and in 1849 a fellow of that college. After studying at some of the hospitals on the Continent, he returned to Tasmania, and began the practice of his profession in Hobart. He was elected to the old Legislative Council as member for Brighton, and on the introduction of free institutions in 1856 he entered the new House of Assembly as member for the same constituency, holding the seat, with a short interval, until his death. In August 1869 he became a member of the Wilson Ministry without portfolio. In the following October he was appointed Minister of Lands and Works, a position which he held till Nov. 1872, when he resigned with his colleagues. He succeeded Sir Robert Officer as Speaker of the Assembly in April 1877, and having been twice re-elected in the interval, resigned in July 1885. Dr. Butler took a prominent part in educational matters. In 1853 he was appointed a member of the Central Board of Education for the colony. In 1856, when two boards were appointed, he became Chairman of the Southern Board. In 1863, shortly after the amalgamation of the two boards, he was appointed Chairman of the Central Board in succession to Mr. W. E. Nairn. As chairman he administered the educational system of the colony with ability and success until the abolition of the Board of Education in 1884 and the transference of the control of the education department to a Minister directly responsible to Parliament. Dr. Butler married Catherine Smith, daughter of Thomas Smith, of Glen Rock, Sydney. He died at Hobart on August 22nd, 1885.

Butler, Very Rev. Joseph, D.D., O.C.C., Prior and Commissary-General, Port Melbourne, was born in Limerick, Ireland, in Sept. 1844, and educated at the Catholic University, Dublin. He entered the Carmelite Order in Dublin in 1859, was ordained priest in 1868, and was for many years engaged as a professor in colleges attached to houses of his Order in Ireland. He was president of their seminary in Dublin until Feb. 1881, when he and other fathers of the Order left Ireland, on the invitation of Bishop (now Archbishop) Reynolds, of Adelaide, S.A., to found a house of the Carmelite Order in that diocese. In October of the same year Prior Butler commenced giving missions in Victoria, and was persuaded by the late Archbishop of Melbourne to settle down in the archdiocese, the mission of Port Melbourne being accepted by him on behalf of his Order, of which he was the head in Australasia until his return to Ireland in 1891.

Buvelot, Abraham Louis, was born in Switzerland on March 3rd, 1814, and very early displayed artistic leanings, studying his profession at Lausanne and Paris. After fourteen years' residence in Brazil, where he painted some excellent landscapes, he finally came to Melbourne in 1865, where three of his pictures—"A Winter Morning in Heidelberg," "A Summer Afternoon at Templestow," and "Waterpool at Coleraine"—we repurchased by the trustees of the Victorian National Gallery. At the Melbourne Exhibition of 1875 he gained a first prize for "View of Gisborne" and a "Sea Piece." [He died on May 31st, 1888.—(In appended Supplement, p. 530)]

Buzacott, Charles Hardie, was born at Torrington, Devonshire, in 1835, and arrived at Sydney, N.S.W., in 1852, where, desiring to become a journalist, he acquired the art of letter press printing. In 1860 he went to Queensland, where he established the Maryborough Chronicle, and about two years later moved northward to Rockhampton. In 1884 he started the Peak Downs Telegram, at Clermont, where he lived until the great flood of 1870, when he narrowly escaped with his life by climbing a tree at midnight, as the surging waters broke into his printing office, and carried away much of his plant. Disheartened with his prospects after this occurrence, he sold his business for a nominal sum, intending to remove with his family to New Zealand; but in passing through Rockhampton he was induced to buy the Bulletin for his brother, and was obliged to remain for the time being to carry it on. He soon converted the paper into a morning daily, and published the weekly Capricornian. In 1873 he was returned to the Legislative Assembly as member for Rockhampton, and held that position for more than four years, when the pressure of private and public business compelled his resignation. In 1878, his health being unsatisfactory, he removed to Brisbane, where he continued to write for his journals at Rockhampton, and also contributed to the leading columns of the Brisbane Courier. In Jan. 1879 he was induced by Sir Thomas McIlwraith to accept the Postmaster-Generalship, with a seat in the Legislative Council. This position he occupied till Dec 1880. Mr. Buzacott was the author of some of the principal measures introduced by the first McIlwraith Ministry, among others the Divisional Boards Act of 1879, the Local Works Loans Act of 1880, the Postal Card and Note Act and the General Tramways Act of 1882. As Postmaster-General he united the distinct Post and Telegraph departments into one, thus saving much expense, introduced the telephone into the colony, and induced the Cabinet to call for tenders for the Torres Straits mail service by steamers running between Brisbane and London—a project enthusiastically adopted and carried through successfully by Sir Thomas McIlwraith, then on a visit to the mother country. In Dec. 1880, in consequence of the death of his eldest brother, Mr. Buzacott was compelled to retire from public life, and devote his attention to business. He accepted the management of the Brisbane Newspaper Company, in which he acquired one-third interest. Under his auspices the Courier was doubled in size, the Queenslander enlarged, and the Evening Observer purchased and carried on as an eight-page daily. In 1888, yielding to the pressure of friends, he sought election to the Legislative Assembly as member for Oxley, but was defeated, and has not since sought to re-enter public life. He is editor, as well as part proprietor, of the Brisbane Courier.

Byrne, Right Rev. Joseph Patrick, Roman Catholic Bishop of Bathurst, N.S.W., was consecrated to that see in August 1885, in succession to the late Bishop Quinn.

Byrne, Hon. Robert, who for a few months was Treasurer of Victoria, is the eldest son of Michael Byrne, of Dublin, Ireland, and was born there on Nov. 12th, 1822. He left Ireland for New York in 1848, and settled there, carrying on the business of general auctioneer in that city as well as in Boston. Towards the end of 1852 he left America for Victoria, arriving in Melbourne In Feb. 1853, He commenced auctioneering at Sandridge, now called Port Melbourne, and represented the district in the Melbourne Corporation prior to its being constituted a separate municipality. At the general election of 1864 he contested Sandridge for a seat in the Legislative Assembly in the Liberal interest against the Hon. David Moore, but was defeated by three votes, and was unsuccessful on petition. Shortly afterwards he was returned for Crowlands by a very large majority. In 1869, when Sir James McCulloch went outside the House for a Commissioner of Customs, Mr. Byrne carried a motion censuring the Government, which was taken by them as a vote of want of confidence, on which they resigned, a new Ministry being formed on Sept. 20th, 1869, with the Hon. J. A. Macpherson as Chief Secretary and Mr. Byrne as Treasurer. When, however, the latter sought re-election at the hands of his constituents, he was defeated by Mr. Rolfe, the gentleman to whose appointment he had objected, and retired from office on Jan. 21st, 1870, being succeeded by Mr. (now Sir Graham) Berry. Mr. Byrne has not since re-entered public life.

Byrnes, Hon. James, was elected to the first Legislative Assembly of New South Wales in 1856 for the Cumberland (South Riding) district. He was Secretary for Public Works in the second Martin Ministry from Jan. 1866 to Oct. 1868, and in Sir James Martin's third administration from Dec. 1870 to May 1872. Mr. Byrnes died on Sept. 18th, 1886. [This biography appeared in the Supplement at the end of the book.]

Byrnes, Hon. Thomas Joseph, M.L.C., B.A., LL.B., Solicitor-General, Queensland, was born in Brisbane in Nov. 1860, and was educated at the Primary School, Bowen, where he won two State School Scholarships, and entered the Brisbane Grammar School, where he won the Lilley Gold Medal three times. Subsequently he was successful in the Junior Examination at Sydney University, and at the Melbourne University Matriculation Examination passed first on the list, and won an Exhibition to the University. He also won several scholarships and graduated with honours, taking the B.A. and LL.B. degrees. He was called to the bar in Victoria in 1884, and then returned to Queensland, where he read in the chambers of Mr. Real for one year, and commenced practice in 1885, speedily obtaining a leading position at the Supreme Court Bar. In August 1890 he accepted a seat in the Legislative Council, with the post of Solicitor-General in the Griffith-McIlwraith Ministry.

C

Cadell, Francis, the principal explorer of the river Murray, was the son of Hugh Francis Cadell, of Cockenzie, near Preston Pans, Haddingtonshire, and was born in 1822, and educated at Edinburgh and in Germany. He entered as a midshipman on board an East Indiaman, and took part in the first Chinese war, being present at the siege of Canton and the capture of Amoy and Ningpo. At twenty-two he was in command of a vessel, and meanwhile visited the shipbuilding yards of the Tyne and Clyde, gaining a thorough knowledge of naval architecture and the construction of steam engines. He studied the subject of river navigation after a visit to the Amazon; and in 1848, when he arrived in Australia, his attention was drawn to the practicability of navigating the Murray and its tributaries, which had till then only served for watering flocks. Encouraged by the Governor of South Australia (Sir H. F. Young), he put his project into execution. He embarked in a small boat at Swanhill on the Upper Murray, and descended the stream to Lake Victoria at its mouth, a distance of 1300 miles. Having thus proved that the Murray was navigable, he succeeded in crossing the dangerous bar at its mouth in a steamer planned and constructed under his supervision, for the Murray Steam Navigation Company, of which he was the main promoter. This vessel accomplished 1500 miles on her first voyage from Adelaide in 1853, when Captain Cadell had on board Sir H. F. Young and Lady Young and a large party of ladies and gentlemen. Other steamers were procured, and the Murrumbidgee, the Edward, and the Darling rivers in like manner opened to traffic in 1858. Captain Cadell, although he was preceded by Mr. Randell in the navigation of the Murray in a small steamer, was awarded the bonus of £4000 offered by the Government for opening up that river to the junction with the Darling to vessels of 40-horse power and not more than 2 feet draught. He was the object of several valuable presentations, and a gold medal was struck in his honour by order of the South Australian authorities. His subsequent career was chequered and adventurous, and his end tragic and mysterious. The Murray Steam Navigation Company collapsed, and ruined others as well as Captain Cadell. He then engaged in the transport service in the New Zealand war, and, later on, failed in an attempt to establish stores at various depots along the Murray. A like fate attended him in a pastoral venture to the north of Lake Victoria. He was not more successful when he resorted to pearl-fishing on the north-east and north-west coasts of Australia. Ultimately Captain Cadell, who discovered the mouth of the Roper River in 1867, was murdered by his native crew whilst on a voyage from Amboyna to the Kei islands in June 1879. General Robert Cadell, C.B., younger brother of the late Captain Cadell, now owns the family property at Cockenzie, and another brother (Colonel Cadell, V.C.) is Governor of the Andaman Islands, where the late Earl of Mayo was murdered.

Cadman, Hon. Alfred Jerome, M.H.R., Minister for Native Affairs, New Zealand, is a native of that colony. His father was intimately connected with the Cape Colville Peninsula from early in the fifties, and it was to him that the first New Zealand miners' right was issued. Mr. Cadman, sen., was an active politician, and his son early took a part in public life. On the inauguration of the county system, he became first Chairman of the Coromandel County Council, and has continued to act in that capacity ever since. He has sat in the House of Representatives as member for Coromandel since 1881, and being an advanced Liberal, was for several years in close political accord with Sir George Grey. He was appointed to a seat in the Ballance Cabinet in Jan. 1891.

Caffyn, Stephen Mannington, is a medical man in practice at South Yarra, Melbourne, and is well known as the inventor of a raw meat preparation patented as "Liquor Carnis". He is the son of James Caffyn and Martha his wife, and was born at Salehurst, Sussex, on May 15th, 1851. He was married in 1879 at Chobham, Surrey, to Miss Kathleen Hunt, and went to Sydney in 1880, where he was Government medical officer. In 1890 he published "Miss Milne and I," and in 1891 "A Poppy's Tears." Mrs. Caffyn is an authoress of ability.

Cairns, Rev. Adam, D.D., was born at Longforgan, Perthshire, Scotland (of which parish his father was minister) on Jan. 30th, 1802. He was educated at the parish school and by his father, and went to St. Andrews in 1814 and to Edinburgh University in 1818. In 1823 he was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Cupar, and acted as assistant to the Rev. Sir H. W. Moncrieff, in West Church parish, Edinburgh, till the latter's death in 1827. He was ordained minister of Minor in Tweeddale in 1828, and was translated in 1833 to Dunbog, in Fife, where he married Miss Jessie Ballingall, of Ayton. In 1837 he became minister of Cupar. At the disruption in 1843 he sided with the Free Church, and was employed in important parochial work until 1853, when he accepted a commission from the Colonial Committee of the Free Church to proceed to Melbourne, where he arrived in September of that year. There, amidst the excitement of the gold fever, he laid the foundations of Presbyterianism in Victoria, acting as pastor of the Chalmers Church Congregation till 1865, when, his health failing, he became an emeritus minister, retaining his standing in the Church without pastoral charge. He died on Jan. 30th, 1881.

Cairns, Sir William Wellington, K.C.M.G., son of William Cairns, of Cultra, co. Down, by his second wife, Matilda, daughter of Francis Beggs, of The Grange, Malahide, and half-brother of Lord Chancellor Cairns, was born in 1828. From 1852 to 1862 he filled various positions in the Ceylon Civil Service, and was appointed Postmaster-General there in 1864. In 1866 he returned to England, and in 1867 was appointed Lieut.-Governor of Malacca, of St. Kitts in 1868, and of Honduras in 1870. He was appointed Governor of Trinidad in 1874, but in a few weeks was compelled to resign on account of ill-health. From Jan. 1875 to March 1877 he was Governor of Queensland, when he was transferred to South Australia, where he only remained from March to May, then finally retiring from the Colonial Service on the ground of ill-health. Sir William, who was created C.M.G.in 1874 and K.C.M.G. in 1887, died unmarried on July 7th, 1888.

Calder, James Erskine, was born at Great Marlow, Buckinghamshire, on June 18th, 1808, and was educated at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. Having abandoned his intention of entering the army, he emigrated to Tasmania, and in 1829 obtained a Government appointment as Assistant Surveyor. For many years he did good service as a surveyor and explorer, and no man had a larger knowledge of Tasmania. In 1841 he was appointed to accompany Sir John and Lady Franklin on their memorable overland journey through the forest to Macquarie Harbour. He served under Surveyors-General Frankland, Power, and Sprent; and in 1859 was himself promoted to be Surveyor-General of the colony in succession to the last-named gentleman. In 1870 Mr. Calder retired on a pension, and shortly afterwards was appointed Sergeant-at-Arms to the House of Assembly, an office which he held until his death. Mr. Calder contributed many valuable articles to the press on the early history of Tasmania. His papers on the aborigines, containing a large mass of original information on their habits and history, were republished under the title of "The Wars, Extirpation, Habits, etc., of the Native Tribes of Tasmania" (Hobart, 1875). He also wrote "Boat Expeditions around Tasmania, 1815 and 1824" (Hobart, 1881); "Oyster Culture"; "Tasmanian Industries" (1869); "The Woodlands of Tasmania" (London Royal Colonial Institute, 1874). At the time of his death he was preparing a work on "The Pitcairners and Norfolk Island." He married in 1842 a daughter of Mr. Pybus, of Bruny Island. After fifty-three years of service under the Government, he died at Hobart on Feb. 20th, 1882.

Calvert, Caroline Louisa Waring, better known under her maiden name, was the youngest daughter of the late James Atkinson, and was born at Oldbury, near Berrima, N.S.W., on Feb. 25th, 1834. Her mother had in early life written some successful books for children; and when very young Miss Atkinson wrote for the Sydney Morning Herald a series of papers called "A Voice from the Country," which attracted considerable notice at the time. Miss Atkinson also wrote "Gertrude" (1857), "Cowanda" (1859), "Tom Hillicker," and other Australian tales, illustrated by herself. Besides productions published in the Sydney Mail, she was the author of some Kurrajong sketches which appeared in the Town and Country Journal. During her residence at Kurrajong she collected valuable specimens of native plants for Baron F. von Müller, many of which are recorded in "Flora Australiensis" and the "Fragmenta Phytographia Australiæ" The genus Atkinsonia was established in her honour, and the species Epacris Calvertiana was named to indicate her exertions at a later period. In 1870 she married Mr. James Snowden Calvert, who accompanied Dr. Leichardt in his exploring expedition to Port Essington in 1843-5. She died suddenly on April 28th, 1872. Mr. Calvert died in July 1874.

Calvert, Rev. James, the well-known Methodist Missionary, was a native of Pickering, in the North Riding of Yorkshire. He was sent out in 1838, in company with John Hunt, to labour amongst the cannibals in Fiji, where he remained for eighteen years, during which time he witnessed marvellous triumphs of Christianity. In his labours among the Fijians he was ably assisted by his heroic wife, Mary Fowler Calvert, who was in every way a model missionary's wife, and much of the wonderful success of those years was due to her patient, self-denying labours. By Mr. Calvert's ministry the Fijian King Thakombau was converted to Christianity, renounced polygamy, and for many years after lived a consistent life. His last act as a king was to cede Fiji to Great Britain. In 1856 Mr. Calvert returned to England, and during his stay in the country superintended the printing of the entire Scriptures in the Fijian language. In 1872 he was sent out by the Wesleyan Missionary Society to South Africa. He died at Hastings in 1892 at the advanced age of seventy-nine.

Calvert, John Jackson, Clerk of the Parliaments, New South Wales, is the son of the late Very Rev. Thos. Calvert, D.D., Dean of Manchester, and Juliana his wife, daughter of Sir Charles Watson, Bart., was born at Manchester in Aug. 1830, and was educated at Shrewsbury School and at Brasenose College, Oxford. He went to New South Wales in 1853, and joined the Civil Service as a clerk in the Colonial Secretary's office in the same year. He was appointed Clerk of Select Committees of the Legislative Assembly in 1856, First Clerk of the Legislative Council in 1859, Clerk Assistant in 1860, and Clerk of the Parliaments (a position he still holds) in April 1871. Mr. Calvert married in 1869 Mary Murray, daughter of James Barker, of Sydney.

Cameron, General Sir Duncan Alexander, G.C.B., son of the late Lieut.-General Sir John Cameron, K.C.B., was born in 1808, and entered the army in 1825, becoming captain in 1833, major in 1839, and colonel in 1854. At the Battle of the Alma, in the Crimean war, he commanded the 42nd Regiment, or Black Watch, and the Highland Brigade at Balaclava, at Kertch, and at Sebastopol. At the assault on the outworks, on June 18th, 1854, he was also in command, and for his services received a medal with three clasps, besides being made a C.B. and an officer of the Legion of Honour, and receiving the Sardinian and Turkish medal (third class) of the Medjidieh. In 1859 he was made major-general. In 1863 he was despatched to New Zealand to succeed General Pratt in charge of the twelve regiments in that colony at the time of the Maori war, being granted the rank of lieut.-general. Up to this moment there had been no absolute declaration of war between the Waikatos and the colonists; but on July 12th in that year, General Cameron crossed the Maungatawhiri with 380 men, and this was practically the beginning of the Waikato war. He it was who conducted the assaults upon Mere-Mere, Rangiriri, Rangiaohia, and the Gate Pa; and effectually brought to a conclusion the northern war. In Jan. 1864, General Cameron went to Wanganui, whither the war had extended. This was the occasion of an unfortunate quarrel between the Governor (Sir George Grey) and himself. General Cameron with 1100 men refused to attack a pa called Wereroa, the capture of which the Governor considered indispensable to a successful campaign, and alleged that his force was insufficient. In the issue the colonial forces, under Sir George himself, in conjunction with the friendly Maoris, attacked and took the pa; but the incident led, in Feb. 1864, to the retirement of the General, who went to England and laid his complaints before the War Office. His charge against the Governor was that he had encouraged subversion of discipline, and consequently confusion and disorder. Lord de Grey at the War Office espoused the cause of General Cameron, and Sir George Grey was somewhat curtly snubbed by the Colonial Office for his officiousness in taking the field. In 1864 General Cameron was created K.C.B., and in 1873 G.C.B. In 1868 he was promoted to the rank of lieut.-general, and in 1875 to that of general. From 1868 to 1875 he was Governor of the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, and was some time Vice-President of the Council of Army Education, and Hon. Colonel 1st Battalion Royal Highlanders. General Cameron married, in 1873, Flora, fourth daughter of Andrew Maclean, M.D., Deputy Inspector-General of the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, who died in 1875. General Cameron died on June 8th, 1886.

Camidge, Right Rev. Charles Edward, D.D., Bishop of Bathurst, New South Wales, son of the late Rev. Charles Joseph Camidge, M.A., vicar of Wakefield, Yorkshire, was born in 1838, and educated at Wadham College, Oxford, where he matriculated in Oct. 1856, and graduated B.A. in 1860, and M.A. in 1863, being created an honorary D.D. in 1887. He was ordained deacon in 1860, priest in 1861, and was curate at Sheffield from 1860 to 1861, Wakefield, 1861 to 1868; vicar of Hedon, Yorkshire, from 1868 to 1873; rector of Wheldrake from 1873 to 1877; vicar of Thirsk from 1876 to 1887; canon and prebendary of York, from 1882 to 1887; rural dean of Thirsk from 1883 to 1887, when he was appointed Bishop of Bathurst, in succession to Dr. Marsden, being consecrated at Westminster Abbey on Oct. 18th in that year, by the Archbishop (Benson) of Canterbury, and Bishops Thorold, Bardsley, Perry, and Marsden. Dr. Camidge, who married Louisa Carow, daughter of E. F. Sanderson, is author of a "History of Wakefield, and its Industrial and Fine Art Exhibition," published in 1866.

Campbell, John Logan, M.D., M.R.C.S., only son of John Campbell, M.D., of Edinburgh, sixth son of Sir James Campbell, Bart., of Aberuchill and Kilbryde, by Catherine, daughter of John Logan of Knockshinock, co. Ayr, was born in 1817, and educated at Edinburgh University, where he took his medical degree. In 1839 he threw up his commission in the East India Company, whose service he had entered, and migrated to Sydney, but in the following year went to New Zealand, settling on an island in Waitemata Harbour, known to the natives, from whom he purchased it, as Motu Korea, now Brown's Island. This was before the Government had fixed upon the site of the capital—Auckland—to which he removed and established the firm of Brown and Campbell in 1840. In 1848 he visited England, returning to New Zealand in 1850. In 1855-6 he was Superintendent of the Province of Auckland, and on June 2nd, 1856, joined the Stafford Government as member of the Executive Council without portfolio, being at that time M.H.R. for Auckland in the Assembly. On Nov. 24th he resigned his office, as also his superintendent, and returned to England, but went out again in 1859, and was elected member for Parnell. He went once more to England in 1861, and did not return till 1871, when he settled definitely in the colony, but did not again enter public life. Dr. Campbell has been Chairman of the Board of Education in Auckland, and of the New Zealand Board of the Bank of New Zealand, an institution of which he was one of the founders. He founded and maintained at his own expense the Free School of Art in Auckland. He is the author of "Poenamo," a book on early life in Auckland. Dr. Campbell married in 1858 Emma, daughter of Sir John Cracroft Wilson, K.C.S.I. He is now sole partner of the mercantile firm he established on the foundation of Auckland in 1840.

Campbell, Hon. Robert, M.L.A., sometime Colonial Treasurer, New South Wales, was the son of Hon. Robert Campbell, M.L.C., the first merchant who established a firm in Sydney. Mr. Robert Campbell, sen., came of the family of Campbell, of Ashfield, Argyleshire, and was engaged as a merchant in Calcutta until 1796, when he visited Sydney and decided to open business there. He married in 1801 Sophia, sister of John Palmer, Assistant Commissary-General, and had three sons, viz., Hon. John, M.L.C., who gave £10,000 towards establishing the bishopric of Riverina, and died in Jan. 1886; Robert, the subject of this notice; and Hon. Charles, M.L.C., who died in August 1888. Mr. Robert Campbell was born on Oct. 5th, 1804, and was returned to the first Legislative Assembly of New South Wales as member for the city of Sydney in 1856. He was Colonial Treasurer in the first Cowper Government from August to Oct. 1856, and again took that position in the second Cowper Ministry, in succession to Mr. Richard Jones, in Jan. 1858. He broke down under the cares of office, and died on March 30th, 1859, whilst still Colonial Treasurer. Mr. Campbell was the first Provincial Grand Master for the province of Australia of the Scotch Constitution of Freemasons. [This biography appeared in the Supplement at the end of the book.]

Campbell, Hon. Sir Thomas Cockburn, M.L.C., 4th Bart., of Gartsford, Ross-shire, is the second son of the late Sir Alexander Thomas Cockburn Campbell, 2nd Bart. (who in 1825 assumed the name of Campbell in addition to his patronymic Cockburn), by his second wife, Grace, daughter of Joseph Spence, of Birstwith, co. York. He was born at Exeter in 1845. On the death of his brother Sir Alexander, 3rd Bart., on Sept. 6th, 1871, he succeeded as 4th Bart. He was married at Albany, Western Australia (where his father was formerly resident magistrate), in 1870, to Lucy Anne, daughter of Arthur Trimmer and Mary Anne his wife, daughter of Captain Sir Richard Spencer, R.N., C.B., K.H., of Pooteness, Western Australia. He was for a number of years a nominee member of the old Legislative Council of Western Australia, and acted as Chairman of Committees of that body down to its dissolution, on the inauguration of the new Constitution in 1890. In 1889 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the Albany electorate. In the early part of the year 1890 he was one of the delegates appointed to proceed to London, to afford information and assistance in the passing of the Constitution Bill, which had been shelved in the House of Commons the previous session. He took an active part in the efforts which eventuated in the passing of the Constitution Act, giving the local parliament complete control over the whole territorial area of the colony, his evidence before the Select Committee of the House of Commons creating considerable sensation. He was also a witness before the Colonisation Committee of the House of Commons. Sir Thomas was appointed president of the new Legislative Council, to which he had been nominated in Dec. 1890.

Campbell, Rev. Thomas Hewitt, Principal Otago College, New Zealand, was the son of Duncan Campbell, of London, and was born in July 1828. He was educated at Merchant Taylors' School and St. John's College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. in 1851, M.A. in 1853, and was Fellow of his College till 1862. After being an Under-Master at the Charterhouse and Head-Master of Wolverhampton Grammar School, he was appointed Principal of Otago College in 1863, but was drowned off Port Chalmers on July 4th, 1863.

Cani, Right Rev. John, D.D., LL.D., Roman Catholic Bishop of Rockhampton, was born at Cologna, Italy, about 1836, and educated in his native province and at the Roman University at Sapienza, where he graduated D.D. and LL.D. He was ordained a priest in 1859, and accompanied the first Roman Catholic Bishop of Brisbane, Dr. Quinn, to Queensland. He was appointed parish priest at Warwick in the same year, and went to Brisbane in 1868. Ten years later Dr. Cani was made Pro-Vicar Apostolic of Northern Queensland, and when the diocese of Brisbane was divided into two, on the death of Bishop Quinn, Dr. Cani was appointed, by papal brief, Bishop of Rockhampton, and was consecrated in St. Mary's Cathedral, Sydney, by the late Archbishop Vaughan, on May 21st, 1882.

Canterbury, Right Hon. John Henry Thomas Manners Sutton, 3rd Viscount, K.C.B., G.C.M.G., was born on May 27th, 1814. His lordship was the second son of Charles, 1st Viscount Canterbury, Speaker of the House of Commons from 1817 to 1834, by Lucy Maria Charlotte, eldest daughter of John Denison, of Ossington, Nottinghamshire, and married on July 15th, 1838, Georgiana, youngest daughter of Charles Tompson, of Witchingham Hall, Norfolk. Lord Canterbury was Under Secretary for the Home Department from 1841 to 1846, Lieut.-Governor of New Brunswick from 1854 to 1861, and Governor of Trinidad from Sept. 1864 to April 1866, when he was appointed to succeed Sir Charles Darling as Governor of Victoria. He assumed office in August 1866, under circumstances of unusual difficulty. His predecessor's concurrence in the measures taken by the McCulloch Ministry to establish the absolute supremacy of the Legislative Assembly in matters of finance, had endeared him to the people as much as it embroiled him with the imperial authorities. Coming as the representative of the latter, Lord Canterbury's action was certain to be subjected to severe scrutiny; and it is to his credit that, whilst he loyally adhered to his instructions, and was thus placed in opposition to the popular wishes in a period of extreme excitement, he managed to emerge from the crisis to the satisfaction of the Home authorities, and without incurring any marked odium in the colony over which he presided as the representative of the Queen. The Duke of Edinburgh visited Victoria during his term of office, and for the nonce party strife was hushed. He succeeded his brother, the 2nd Viscount, in Nov. 1869, and left Victoria in March 1873 for England, where he died on June 24th, 1877.

Cape, William Timothy, was the eldest son of William Cape, of Ireby, in Cumberland, and was born at Walworth, in Surrey, on Oct. 25th, 1806. He was educated at Merchant Taylors' School, and proceeded to Sydney with his father in 1821. Here he assisted the latter in opening the Sydney Academy. The elder Mr. Cape was afterwards appointed by the Government master of the Sydney Public School in Castlereagh Street, and here Mr. W. T. Cape acted as an assistant master, becoming head-master on the resignation of his father. In this position he remained until July 1829, and in 1830 opened a private school in King Street, Sydney. About this time the idea of establishing Sydney College was mooted; and in 1835, as the result of overtures from the committee of this college, Mr. Cape transferred his private pupils to that institution and was appointed head-master. In 1842 he resigned this post, and again opened a private school, on the Glemore Road, Paddington. In 1856 he finally retired from scholastic work, having during his long career conducted the education of some of the leading publicists of Sydney. In 1859 he was elected to the Legislative Assembly for Wollombi, and did good service in the cause of education. He was also one of the Commissioners of National Education, a Magistrate, and a Fellow of St. Paul's College within the University of Sydney. He died in London on June 14th, 1863, of small-pox.

Carey, Major-General George Jackson, C.B., eldest son of Thomas Carey, of Rozel, Guernsey, by his second wife, Barbara, daughter of Colonel Jackson, M.P., was born in 1828, and entered the army in 1845. Having served with distinction in the Cape Mounted Rifles, of which he became major, he was military secretary to Sir James Jackson, when commanding the forces at the Cape, and was ultimately colonel of the 18th Irish. He was Acting Governor of the Isle of Wight in 1862, and served in New Zealand as colonel on the staff and brigadier-general from August 1863 to August 1865. He distinguished himself at the taking of Orakau (one of the few real successes of the war) in 1864, and in recognition of his services was made C.B. in 1865. Subsequently the Maori "king-maker," Te Waharoa, made his submission to him. Having been appointed to the command of the forces in Australia, he took up his residence in Melbourne, and on the departure of Sir Charles Darling was Acting Governor of Victoria, administering the government from May to August 1866. He returned to England in 1867, and was promoted to the command of the 2nd Brigade at Aldershot. In 1871 he was appointed to command the Northern District, and became major-general. He died at Manchester on Jane 12th, 1872. General Carey married in Feb. 1861 Hester Olivia, only daughter of William Gordon Thompson, of Clifton Gardens, Hyde Park, London.

Cargill, Captain William, the founder of the Otago settlement, New Zealand, was born in August 1784, and entered the army, becoming captain in the 74th Highlanders. The General Assembly of the Free Church of Scotland, having had its attention directed to the openings for colonisation in the province of Otago, New Zealand, an Otago Association was formed at Glasgow in May 1845, to found a special settlement for Scotchmen. Four hundred thousand acres of land were purchased for the purpose from the New Zealand Company, and in Nov. 1847 Captain Cargill, who had been one of the main promoters of the project, sailed in the John Wickliff as the leader of the new pilgrims, pitching his tent in March 1848 on the territory acquired. From this time forth Captain Cargill was virtually ruler of the new settlement until the New Zealand Constitution Act was passed, when he was elected first Superintendent of Otago, and was re-elected in 1856. He was returned to the first House of Representatives of New Zealand as member for Dunedin in 1854. Captain Cargill died in Dunedin on August 6th, 1860, just prior to the arrival of the notification that he had been created C.B. His eldest son, Mr. Wm. Walter Cargill, was member for Berwick in the House of Commons from 1863 to 1865, and was one of the founders and a director of the Oriental Bank Corporation. He was also Chairman of the Board of Directors of the New Oriental Bank Corporation.

Carleton, Hugh Francis, eldest son of Francis Carleton, of Clare, co. Tipperary, and Greenfield, co. Cork, by Charlotte Molyneux, eldest daughter of George Molyneux Montgomerie, of Garboldisham Hall, co. Norfolk, and grandnephew of Viscount Carleton, was born in 1810. He settled in the Bay of Islands, N.Z., in 1842, and married Nov. 30th, 1860, Lydia, daughter of Archdeacon Henry Williams, of Waimate, N.Z. He was for many years Speaker of the Auckland Provincial Council, and in 1854 sat in the first General Assembly at Auckland. He was a member of the House of Representatives for nearly thirty years, and was, up till his retirement from politics, Chairman of Committees. He died in London on July 14th, 1890. Mr. Carleton was the author of "A Page of the History of New Zealand" (Auckland, 1854); "Life of H. Williams, Archdeacon of Waimate" (Auckland, 1874).

Carr, Hon. John, J.P., was born at Conisborough, in Yorkshire, on Sept. 21st, 1819, and educated at Tickhill in that county, and emigrated to South Australia in 1862. Entering the Legislative Assembly in March 1864, he represented Noarlunga for more than fifteen years, and subsequently sat for Onkaparinga. He was Commissioner of Public Works in the Hart Ministry from May 1870 to Nov. 1871; and from the latter date till Jan. 1872 in the Government of Mr. (now Sir) Arthur Blyth. He was Commissioner of Crown Lands under Mr. Colton's Premiership, from June 1876 to Oct. 1877. In the next year he received the Queen's permission to bear the title of "Honourable" within the colony.

Carr, His Grace the Most Rev. Thomas J., D.D., Archbishop of Melbourne, was born in the county of Galway in 1840, and studied at St. Jarlath's College, subsequently going to the Royal College of Maynooth. Dr. Carr was ordained to the priesthood on the Feast of Pentecost, 1866, and spent the first years of his clerical life in missionary labours in his native diocese. In 1870 he was appointed Professor of Rhetoric in St. Jarlath's College, and in 1872 dean in Maynooth College. Two years later he became Professor of Theology by public consensus, and in 1880 was appointed Vice-president of Maynooth College. In August 1883 Dr. Carr was consecrated Bishop of Galway; having been during the previous three years editor of the Irish Ecclesiastical Record, the official organ of the Irish Catholic Church. His principal literary work is "A Commentary on Church Censures." In Aug. 1886 Dr. Carr was appointed to succeed the late Dr. Goold as Archbishop of Melbourne, where he arrived on June 11th of the next year, the anniversary of the death of his predecessor.

Carrington, Right Hon. Charles Robert, Baron, G.C.M.G., F.R.S., sometime Governor of New South Wales, is the eldest son of the second Lord Carrington, by his second wife, Augusta Annabella, younger daughter of Peter Robert, Lord Willoughby de Eresby, joint Hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain of England. Lord Carrington was born on May 16th, 1843, and entering the army, ultimately became Captain in the Royal Horse Guards. He was member for Wycombe in the House of Commons from 1865 to 1868, when he succeeded his father in the peerage. From 1881 to 1885 he was Captain of the Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms, and in right of his mother is joint Hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain of England. It was in 1885 that Lord Carrington, who had previously mainly had a reputation as a man of society and pleasure, first came forward in a prominent capacity as a serious publicist. The Australian Colonies had long been dissatisfied with the official, or "effete aristocratic," type of Governors, and had been demanding that future viceroys should be men of a class not deemed unworthy of the higher prizes of English political life. There were difficulties in the way of a literal compliance with the wish thus expressed; but as a sort of compromise, it was decided to go outside the official class, and to appoint for the future as colonial viceroys men of superior wealth and social status, the position being, in fact, as the Imperial authorities wisely recognised, mainly a social one. Lord Carrington was the Governor selected to inaugurate the new régime, and rendered it a striking success, his term of office as Governor of New South Wales from 1885 to 1890 giving high satisfaction to the Colonists, and constituting him, to quote Lord Onslow, the late Governor of New Zealand, probably "the most popular Governor who ever went to Australia." Even in the political arena Lord Carrington was able to exercise much quiet influence, and in his social duties, which he performed with unfailing tact, he was greatly aided by his wife, the daughter of the fifth Lord Suffield, to whom he was married in July 1878. The departure of Lord and Lady Carrington from New South Wales was marked by expressions of regret and esteem, quite without previous parallel in Australian history. Since his return to England Lord Carrington has taken an active part in English politics as a supporter of Mr. Gladstone's Home Rule policy, and has embraced numerous opportunities of placing his views on Colonial and Imperial topics before the public. He does not look with hope to a formal federation, but believes that the ties of kinship which now bind the Mother country and the Colonies might be indefinitely strengthened by sympathetic action on the part of the former. To the Liberal party he looks as the best exemplars of the imperialism of the future, and the speeches in which he has attacked what in some quarters is regarded as the vested monopoly of the Tory party in an enlightened colonial policy, have excited considerable attention both in England and the Colonies. At the elections in 1892 Lord Carrington was returned to the London County Council as a member of the "progressive" party.

Carrington, Francis Thomas Dean, was born in London on Nov. 17th, 1843, and educated at the City of London School. He received his first lesson in drawing from George Cruickshank, and went through the South Kensington course. He commenced drawing for Clarke & Co., Paternoster Row, a title-page to one of Captain Mayne Reid's novels being his first appearance in print. Mr. Carrington came to Australia, and after some experience on the diggings at Wood's Point, Jericho, Jordan, and Crooked River, he joined Melbourne Punch in 1866, succeeding N. Chevalier and O. R. Campbell. With this paper he was connected for twenty-one years, drawing the principal cartoons and many smaller blocks all through the stirring times of the Darling excitement and the "Berry blight." Mr. Carrington left Punch when it was amalgamated with the Bulletin and joined the Melbourne Australasian.

Carrington, Frederic Alonzo, the "father of the settlement" of Taranaki, N.Z., as he is generally called, when a young man entered the Ordnance Survey Department of England, being appointed in Jan. 1826 by the Duke of Wellington. Showing ability for topographical delineation and survey work, he soon attracted the attention of the eminent engineers of the day, and when the Reform Bill was passed in 1832, he was selected by the Parliamentary Commissioners to describe the boundaries of the boroughs in the districts from Bristol to Manchester. For his services on that occasion he received the special thanks of the Commissioners. Subsequently he was selected by the Plymouth Company as its chief surveyor to go to New Zealand to choose a site for the settlement the company proposed forming there. On Feb. 12th, 1841, Mr. F. A. Carrington and family, together with his brother, Mr. Octavius Carrington (who was his chief assistant), and the survey party, arrived off Taranaki. With great labour lines were cut through the dense vegetation, and a spot cleared; and after much difficulty the site for the town of New Plymouth was laid out and surveyed under Mr. F. A. Carrington's directions. In Sept. 1843 Mr. Carrington returned to England, and on his arrival in London he found that the directors of the New Zealand Company (which had absorbed the Plymouth Company) were thinking of ceasing their functions for a time, and accordingly Mr. Carrington retired from their service, receiving a very complimentary testimonial from the directors. Mr. Carrington was engaged in connection with railways during the time he was in England (1844-51), but he gave a good deal of thought and attention to New Zealand matters, and tried to make Taranaki better known to the British public. Mr. Carrington took with him to England a quantity of the Taranaki ironsand, and after having a very careful analysis made of some of it he had a bar of iron cast. He then entered into a lengthy correspondence with the Colonial Office, endeavouring to obtain a grant of the beach on the Taranaki shore, which resulted in a refusal, though Lord Grey offered to give Mr. Carrington a letter to the Governor of New Zealand, which on his arrival there would ensure a grant of the beach being given to him, provided it had not been leased to any one before. As it would have taken too long in those days to have visited New Zealand and return home again with the desired information, the matter was for the time abandoned; but Mr. Carrington exhibited the bar of iron and some of the Taranaki ironsand at the Exhibition of 1851, when he called the attention of the Master-General of the Ordnance Department (Sir H. de la Beche) to it. After visiting California three different times from London, in connection with mines, water-races, railways, etc., Mr. Carrington again returned to New Zealand, having been absent nearly fourteen years, his object being the utilisation of the ironsand and other matters in connection with the district; and being backed by men of capital and standing, who took great interest in the colony, hoped to start the iron industry in Taranaki. The North Island was in a very unsettled state at the time owing to the natives showing an antagonistic attitude towards the Europeans, which in 1860 ended in hostilities which lasted for ten years. In 1862 Mr. Carrington was appointed Government Engineering Surveyor for Taranaki, and in that capacity carried out in connection with the military authorities the road construction necessary in the district. On peace being restored Mr. Carrington turned his attention to local matters, and consenting to be nominated as Superintendent of the province of Taranaki in 1869, he was returned by the electors, and held that position till the provinces were abolished in 1876. He was also elected to a seat in the House of Representatives, and held the position for several years. He retired from politics in 1880. Seeing the necessity there was for harbour accommodation at New Plymouth, Mr. Carrington for years agitated in the hope of getting protective works built that shipping might visit the port in safety. It was chiefly through his exertions that a fourth of the land revenue of the district was set aside for harbour purposes and a Harbour Board created, which raised the money to carry out the work. On Feb. 7th, 1881, Mr. F. A. Carrington laid the first stone of the present structure, thus crowning his labours as the founder of the settlement of Taranaki.

Carrow, Richard, son of Rev. Harry Carrow and Leah (Cooke) his wife, was born at Loxton Rectory, Somersetshire, England, on March 15th, 1845. He was educated at Blackheath Proprietary School, and having arrived in New Zealand in March 1868, married firstly at Auckland in April 1871 Miss Augusta C. Wilkins, and secondly at Christchurch, in that colony, on August 12th, 1879, Miss Katherine M. Longden. Mr. Carrow was appointed clerk in the Public Works Office at Christchurch in Dec. 1873, railway storekeeper at Wellington, N.Z., in June 1875, and stores manager in Feb. 1877. In May of that year he took a clerkship in the New South Wales Railway Department in Sydney, and returning to New Zealand, was appointed in Dec. of the same year locomotive superintendent at Christchurch, stores manager of the Middle Island Railways in June 1878, and stores manager of the New Zealand Railways in Nov. 1880, a position he still holds.

Carruthers, Joseph Hector McNeil, M.L.A., ex-Minister of Public Instruction, New South Wales, son of John and Charlotte Carruthers, was born at Kiama, N.S.W., on Dec. 21st, 1857. He is a solicitor in Sydney, and has been four times returned to the New South Wales Legislative Assembly for Canterbury at the head of the poll, with the largest number of votes given for any single candidate in Australia. He was Minister of Public Instruction in the Parkes Government from March 1889 to Oct. 1891, and founded the Department of Technical Education (1889), instituted Arbour Day in New South Wales (1890), and formed the public school cadet force (1890). He is also the legislative author of the "Women's College Act" of 1889, and founder of the Training College for Teachers within the University of Sydney. Mr. Carruthers married at Sydney on Dec. 10th, 1879, Louise Marion Roberts, daughter of William Roberts, solicitor, Sydney. He is a trustee of the National Park.

Casey, Hon. James Joseph, C.M.G., County Court Judge and Land Tax Commissioner Victoria, is the son of the late James Casey, of Tromroe, co. Clare, Ireland, and was born there on Dec. 25th, 1831. He was educated at Galway College, and after five years spent in America he arrived in Victoria in 1855, where he joined the late Mr. Angus Mackay in the purchase of the Bendigo Advertiser, and afterwards started the McIvor Times and Riverine Herald. In 1861 he was elected to the Assembly for Sandhurst, but was unseated on petition. Two years later he was returned for Normanby in the Liberal interest, and continued to sit for that constituency until 1880. In Sept. 1865 he was called to the Victorian bar, and practised with success, being from time to time Crown Prosecutor. From July 1868 to Sept. 1869 he was Minister of Justice in the second McCulloch Administration, exchanging this office for that of Solicitor-General about a fortnight before the defeat of the Government. The next year Mr. Casey was appointed Chairman of a Royal Commission on Intercolonial Legislation and a Court of Appeal. In June 1872 he became Minister of Lands and Minister of Agriculture under Mr. Francis, and held office till August 1875—for the last twelve months of the time under Mr. Kerford, who succeeded Mr. Francis as Premier. Whilst at the head of the Lands Office Mr. Casey reorganised the department, and constituted the survey branch on an effective basis. He also checked the system of "dummyism" by instituting inquiries, and subsequently forfeiting the runs and improvements of the incriminated squatters. In 1878 he was appointed Executive Commissioner for Victoria at the Paris Exhibition, and was created C.M.G. for his services, being also nominated an Officer of the Legion of Honour by the French Government. The Victorian Hansard was established on his motion, and, when in office, he introduced the system of appointing magistrates to districts instead of for the whole colony. The jurisdiction of the County Courts was, on his initiation, increased from £50 to £250 at common law, and an equitable jurisdiction was conferred on them up to £500. Though still claiming to be a Liberal, Mr. Casey assumed an independent attitude towards the second Berry Ministry from 1877 to 1880, and was in consequence ejected from his seat at Mandurang at the general election in the latter year. He did not re-enter parliament, though he unsuccessfully contested Sandridge (now Port Melbourne) in 1883. Mr. Casey, who was the first President of the Federal Bank of Australia, was Executive Vice-President of the Melbourne International Exhibition of 1880, and in that capacity, and as Chairman of the Great Britain Committee, contributed much to its success. In April 1884 Mr. Casey, who is the author of "Casey's Justices' Manual," was appointed a County Court Judge; and in July 1885 he assumed the additional functions of a Land Tax Commissioner, being for a short time in that year an Acting Judge of the Supreme Court. Mr. Casey married Mary Teresa, daughter of John Cahill and Mary McNamara his wife.

Castella, Hubert de, a native of Switzerland, visited his brother Paul in Victoria, and finally settled there in 1862, when he purchased three thousand acres of land in the parish of Yering, and commenced planting the now famous St. Hubert vineyard. About 1875 he formed a limited company, under which the vineyard was carried on until 1879, when Mr. A. Rowan joined him as partner in the present firm of De Castella and Rowan. The vineyard produces an average of seventy thousand to eighty thousand gallons of wine annually.

Castella, Paul de, the pioneer of viticulture in Victoria, was born in Switzerland, and emigrated to Melbourne in 1849. In the following year he purchased the Yering cattle station, where in 1856 he planted the first vineyard in Victoria, Mr. Castella in 1859 imported plant necessary for the cellar and ten thousand vines, half of which were Sauvignon and two thousand La Folle (the grape used for making the best Cognac), the latter of which were all failures. The produce of the Yering vineyard is now well known in the Australian wine market.

Catt, Hon. Alfred, M.P., J.P., Chairman of Committees of the Legislative Assembly of South Australia, was born in 1838 at Newington, in Kent. He arrived in South Australia in 1847, and for ten years engaged in agricultural pursuits at Balhannah and Strathalbyn. After a short trial of the Victorian diggings he returned to Strathalbyn, and entered into business. Subsequently he opened a store at the then youthful town of Gladstone, and was elected to the Assembly for the district of Stanley, April 27th, 1881. Three years later, when the constituency was reconstructed, he was returned for Gladstone, which he still represents. Mr. Catt accepted the post of Commissioner of Crown Lands in Mr. (now Sir) John Bray's first administration, on June 24th, 1881, and held it till April 23rd, 1884, under circumstances of special difficulty. Disasters had fallen thickly upon the farmers of the colony, especially in the northern districts lying beyond Goyder's line of rainfall, where thirsty and often heavily timbered country had been taken up at extravagant prices by the competing agriculturists, who in some cases had offered as much as £6 6s. per acre. The attempt to grow wheat in these parts proved that the selectors could not pay the stipulated price, and the Government of the day came to the rescue with a proposal that the farmers should be allowed to surrender their land and compete for it again. The result was that they got their land back at about £1 0s. 6d., thus entailing upon the State a nominal loss of about half a million. The surrender clauses were admittedly difficult to administer, and Mr. Catt was much blamed at the time for allowing farmers holding excellent land in the lower north and south-east to come under these clauses. Mr. Catt, however, claimed that these were exceptional cases. On the fall of the Downer Ministry in 1887, Mr. Catt accepted the portfolio of Commissioner of Public Works under Mr. Playford, and held it from June 11th, 1887, to June 27th, 1889. At the commencement of the session of 1890 Mr. Catt was unanimously elected to the Chairmanship of Committees of the Legislative Assembly. In 1887 he received the royal permission to bear the title of "Honourable" within the colony.

Cavenagh-Mainwaring, Hon. Wentworth, was member for Yatala in the Assembly of South Australia from 1863 to 1881; and was Commissioner of Crown Lands, under Mr. Strangways, from Nov. 1868 to May 1870, and Commissioner of Public Works in the Ayers Government from March 1872 to July 1873. In 1887 he received permission to bear the title of Honourable. Having married Ellen, daughter of George Mainwaring, who, on the death of her brother in 1891, became entitled to the Whitmore Hall estate, in Staffordshire, he assumed the additional name of Mainwaring.

Chaffey, George and William Benjamin, are the leading members of the firm of Chaffey Brothers, who in 1887 entered into contracts with the governments of Victoria and South Australia, for the settlement by means of irrigation of half a million acres of land on the banks of the Murray River. The Messrs. Chaffey are natives of Ontario, Canada, and for a number of years carried on irrigation enterprises with success in Southern California, forming settlements, of which the best known are those at Riverside, Etiwanda, and at Ontario in the San Bernardino County, where they established an agricultural college, endowing it with land valued at £20,000. In 1886 the brothers came to Australia, and secured from the governments of Victoria and South Australia the sites for two irrigation colonies on the banks of the Murray, the combined area totalling 500,000 acres. These settlements are situate at Mildura, in Victoria, and Renmark, 140 miles lower down the river, in South Australia, the former, being the first transferred to them, having made the most headway. The Mildura settlement consists of 250,000 acres, of which 50,000 acres are, in the first instance, being practically dealt with, this area including the site of a town and surrounding residential or suburban villa blocks. A company has been floated to provide the needful capital, and a most satisfactory and superior class of settlers has been attracted. The cultivation intended to be carried on is that of the grape, orange, olive, prune, and any other fruits or vegetables found suitable. The establishment of an agricultural college, similar to that at Ontario, is also provided for in the contracts with the governments, the stipulation having been inserted at the suggestion of the firm.

Challis, John Henry, was a native of England, and emigrated to Sydney, where he became a clerk in the employment of Messrs. Flower & Marsden. In 1842 he was admitted a partner in the firm, but left for England in 1855, revisiting the colony once subsequently. He died in 1880, leaving the greater part of his property to the University of Sydney, subject to his widow's life interest. She died in 1888, when the large fund became available for the endowment of a number of new chairs, named after their founder. [Mrs. Challis died on Sept. 27th, 1884, not in 1888. (In appended Supplement, p. 530.)]

Chalmers, Rev. James, the well-known New Guinea missionary and explorer, was born at Ardrishaig, Argyllshire, on August 4th, 1841, and was brought up in Inverary, where he served articles in a lawyer's office. He was subsequently for some time a city missionary in Glasgow, and then studied for the ministry at Cheshunt College, near London. He left Great Britain as a missionary for Rarotonga, Hervey Group, on Jan. 4th, 1866, in connection with the London Missionary Society, on board the John Williams, and suffered much in the Channel from the severe gale in which the London was lost. Mr. Chalmers arrived at Rarotonga on May 20th, 1867, having been twice wrecked on the way and lost everything. He spent ten years in Rarotonga at the head of an educational establishment, but at the request of the directors of the London Missionary Society left the island in 1877, and joined the New Guinea Mission. During the years that followed Mr. Chalmers explored and opened up many miles of coast line and inland for the purpose of establishing mission stations, and assisted in the proclaiming of the protectorate over British New Guinea. Mr. Chalmers visited the north-east coast of New Guinea three times, and made several important discoveries. In conjunction with Dr. Gill, he wrote "Work and Adventures in New Guinea," and afterwards "Pioneering in New Guinea," both published by the Religious Tract Society.

Chalmers, Right Rev. William, Church of England Bishop of Goulburn, N.S.W., was educated at St. Andrews University and at St. Augustine's College, Canterbury. In 1858 he accepted an appointment from the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel as Missionary to Labuan, where he was ordained Deacon in that year and Priest in 1859. In 1861 he proceeded to Australia, where he was Incumbent of Inglewood in Victoria from 1862 to 1868, Malmesbury from 1868 to 1870, Kyneton 1870 to 1878, and of St Paul's, Geelong, from the latter year (when he was also appointed Canon of Melbourne) till May 1892, when he was elected to succeed the late Dr. Thomas as Bishop of Goulburn.

Chambers, Charles Haddon, the well-known dramatist, was born at Stanmore, Sydney, N.S.W., in 1860. He traces his descent from an old west of Scotland family which had migrated to the north of Ireland, and been incorporated in the famous Ulster plantation. His father's maternal grandfather, John Ritchie, was the first shipbuilder in Ireland. In the middle of the last century, this enterprising Scotsman went over from the Clyde, and founded the yards where the White Star liners are now built. The dramatist's father, John Ritchie Chambers, was born in Ulster. At a comparatively early age he went to Victoria, and, subsequently drifting into New South Wales, he became attached to the Civil Service of that colony, in which he remained, occupying high positions in the Lands Department until he died in 1882. Haddon Chambers himself was educated at Marrickville and Fort Street Public schools, and in 1875 entered the local Civil Service, but resigned after a short time and betook himself with a squatter friend to the "back-blocks." In 1880 he visited Europe, returning to Australia after a nine months' trip. In 1882 he reappeared in London to begin his literary career, which he did by publishing some stories and articles in the society journals; and subsequently he wrote a number of short stories for the Argosy, Belgravia, Truth, Cassel's Saturday Journal, and other periodicals—one of which, a story of murder, entitled "In Cold Blood," drew a leading article from the Daily News. Mr. Chambers next turned his attention to the stage. Feeling his way cautiously at first, he produced a two-act farce at Margate in 1886. Next year a little domestic drama, The Open Gate, was played with success at the Comedy Theatre, London. In conjunction with Mr. Stanley Little, he then dramatised for Mr. Charrington and Miss Janet Achurch, Rider Haggard's novel "Dawn," under the title of Devil Caresfoot, which was first produced at a matinée at the Vaudeville Theatre, London. These artistes have recently reproduced the piece in Australia, with considerable success. Mr. Haddon Chambers, however, made his coup by a four-act original drama, Captain Swift, written for and originally produced by Mr. Beerbohm Tree, the well-known actor-manager of the Haymarket Theatre. This proved an immediate and genuine success, not only in London, but also in the English provinces, in America and in Australia. Since then Mr. Haddon Chambers has written The Idler As there was no immediate prospect of the production of this play in London, he crossed to New York, where he produced it at the Lyceum Theatre. The play scored an immediate and conspicuous success, with the result that, three months later, it appeared under the management of Mr. George Alexander at the St. James' Theatre, London, where it had a good run. The Idler has also been brought out with great success in Australia, with Mr. Charles Cartwright and Miss Olga Nethersole in the leading parts. Mr. Haddon Chambers' comedy, The Honourable Herbert, was produced by Mr. Thomas Thorne, at the Vaudeville Theatre, in 1892. Mr. Chambers republished his admirable short story "The Pipe of Peace," which he has dramatised for Mr. Geo. Alexander, in Mr. Patchett Martin's "Oak-Bough and Wattle-Blossom," and also contributed to Mr. Philip Mennell's collection "In Australian Wilds."

Champ, Colonel Hon. William Thomas Napier, first Premier of Tasmania, is the son of Captain Thomas Champ and Mary Anne Blackaller, his wife. He was born at Maldon, Essex, on April 15th, 1808, and was educated at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. Having obtained a commission in the army, he arrived in Sydney with his regiment in Oct 1828. The following year he was stationed in Tasmania, and in 1830 took part in Governor Arthur's famous attempt to form a cordon across the island so as to secure the hostile blacks on Tasman's Peninsula. He afterwards retired from the army, entered the civil service in Tasmania, and held successively the following appointments, viz., Assistant Police Magistrate, Chairman of the Board for Investigating the Penal Settlement of Tasman's Peninsula, and Comptroller-General of Convicts. In 1852, on the refusal of Mr. H. S. Chapman, the then Colonial Secretary, to support the official transportation policy, he was appointed to succeed him as Acting Colonial Secretary, and on the concession of responsible government was awarded a bonus of £6000 in lieu of a pension for loss of office. He was elected to the first House of Assembly as member for Launceston in 1856, and became the first Premier of the colony under the new Constitution in November of that year, when he was sworn of the Executive Council. He only, however, retained office till the end of Feb. 1857, when he retired rather than assent to the reduction of the Governor's salary. He subsequently went to reside in Victoria, where he succeeded Captain Price, who was murdered in 1857, as head of the Convict Department, and became a lieut.-colonel in the local forces unattached. Colonel Champ held the position of Inspector-General of Penal Establishments in Victoria till Dec. 31st, 1868, when he retired on a pension, and went to reside on his estate (since called Darra), near Meredith. In 1871 he was chosen member, of the Victorian House of Assembly for the East Bourke Boroughs, but his old dislike for politics returned, and he resigned before the end of the Parliament. He was a justice of the peace and a lieutenant-colonel in the Victorian Military Forces, commanding for some years the North Melbourne district, and retired finally with the rank of colonel. He was married at New Norfolk, Tas., in March, 1837, to Helen Abigail, daughter of Major James Gibson, formerly of the 15th Light Dragoons.

Chandler, Alfred Thomas, was born in Geelong, Victoria, in 1852, his father being a native of New South Wales. The latter, after some experience on the diggings, eventually settled at Hamilton, in the western district of Victoria, where his son, the future poet, received the rudiments of education at the State school, afterwards attending night classes and several terms at the Hamilton Academy. Having acquired the typographical art in the office of the Hamilton Spectator, Mr. Chandler removed in 1878 to Adelaide where he joined the staff of the South Australian Register, and subsequently acted for six years as a parliamentary reporter for the Advertiser. In 1889 Mr. Chandler, in conjunction with Mr. H. C. Evans, started a satirical weekly paper called Quiz, which enjoys a considerable popularity in South Australia. In 1887 Mr. Chandler published a "Bush Idyll and other Poems," and in 1889 "Songs of the Sunland."

Chanter, John Moore, M.L.A., son of John and Elizabeth Moore Chanter, was born at Adelaide, S.A., on Feb. 11th, 1845, and has held a number of public appointments at Moama, in New South Wales. Mr. Chanter has represented the Murray electorate in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly since 1885. In Jan. 1889 he accepted office in the Dibbs Ministry, as Secretary for Mines, and retired with his colleagues in the following March. He married at Campbell's Creek, near Castlemaine, Vict., on Nov 16th, 1863, Miss Mary Ann Clark.

Chapman, Hon. Henry Samuel, came of a family which had amassed wealth in commerce with the American colonies, but became impoverished by the War of Independence. His father was a Civil Servant in the Barrack Department, and he was born at Kennington on July 21st, 1803, and educated at a school at Bromley, Kent. He was a clerk in Esdaile's Bank, and subsequently with a bill broker. In 1823 he went to Canada, and became a merchant in Quebec, and in 1833 started The Daily Advertiser in Montreal, the first daily newspaper in Canada. He returned to England early in 1835 as the delegate of the popular party in Canada, who instructed him to confer with Hume, O'Connell, and Roebuck, whom he had known in Canada. Along with the last named he took a prominent part in the agitation for securing representative government for Canada, and was the friend of John Stuart Mill and Richard Cobden. During his residence in England, which lasted till 1843, he contributed many political and economical articles to magazines and newspapers, edited the works of Jeremy Bentham, in conjunction with Dr., afterwards Sir John, Bowring, and wrote the articles on "Weaving" and "Wool, and its Manufacture" for the Encyclopædia Britannica in 1842. Having acted as an assistant commissioner for inquiring into the grievances of the handloom weavers in 1838, and having in 1840 been called to the English bar, he joined Edward Gibbon Wakefield in his plans for the colonisation of New Zealand. On Feb. 8th, 1840, he started The New Zealand Journal, which lasted for some years, and in 1843 he was appointed Judge of the Supreme Court of New Zealand, and sailed for Auckland. For the following nine years he lived in Wellington. In 1852 he was appointed to the Colonial Secretaryship of Tasmania, but lost his office owing to his sympathy with the Anti-transportation party. Returning to England, he rejected an offer of a West Indian governorship, and went out in 1854 to Victoria, where he entered the Legislative Council in 1855. On March 11th, 1857, he was appointed Attorney-General in the O'Shanassy Government, but went out of office on April 29th in the same year. The O'Shanassy Government came into power again on March 10th, 1858, when Mr. Chapman resumed his office, holding it till Oct. 27th, 1859. He was also Law Lecturer at the Melbourne University, and acted from 1862 to 1863 for Sir Redmond Barry, as Judge of the Supreme Court. He formulated and introduced the Ballot Bill into the Victorian Parliament, from which it has spread into use all over the British Empire. In 1864 he was reappointed Judge of the Supreme Court of New Zealand, and lived in Dunedin till his death, on Dec. 27th, 1881. In 1875 he retired from the Bench, and was subsequently Chancellor of the University of Otago. Mr. Chapman was the author of many pamphlets and papers, including "The New Zealand Portfolio" (1843)and "Parliamentary Government or Responsible Ministries of the Australian Colonies" (1854). In regard to his connection with the ballot, it may be stated that he drafted for Mr. Nicholson in 1855 the clauses which created the special form of the device known as the "Australian ballot," which simply leaves the voter to strike out the names of those candidates for whom he does not intend to vote. This form has been very generally adopted in America. Mr. Chapman married first, in 1840, Caroline, daughter of Mr. J. G. Brewer, barrister-at-law; and, secondly, Miss Carr, a sister of the wife of Mr. R. D. Ireland (q.v.).

Chapman, Hon. Thomas Daniel, M.L.C., was born at Bedford, England, and came to Tasmania about 1844, becoming a leading merchant in Hobart. Entering on politics, he was returned for the City as a member of the first semi-elective Legislative Council which met in 1851. He became the leader of the Liberal party; having much to do with the cessation of transportation and the concession of responsible government, on lines which he largely shaped, in 1850. He joined the Champ Ministry—the first formed under the new régime—and held office as Colonial Treasurer from Nov. 1st, 1856, to Feb. 26th, 1857. After four years and a half in Opposition he himself became Premier on August 2nd, 1861. At first he held no portfolio, but on Nov. 1st in the next year assumed that of Colonial Treasurer. He resigned, with his colleagues, on Jan. 20th, 1863, and, after four years spent in opposition to the Whyte Ministry, reassumed office as Colonial Treasurer, under Sir Richard Dry, on Nov. 24th, 1866. On the reconstruction of the Ministry under Mr. (afterwards Sir) James Milne-Wilson, on August 4th, 1869, Mr. Chapman continued to hold the Treasurership till the retirement of the Ministry, on Nov. 4th, 1872. His six years' tenure of the post was the longest since responsible government was inaugurated. Mr. Chapman left the Assembly for the Legislative Council in 1873, when he was returned for Buckingham, a constituency which he represented till his death. He took office for the last time on August 4th, 1873, becoming Colonial Secretary in Mr. Kennerley's Government, but resigned on April 1st, 1876. On July 11th, 1882, he succeeded Mr. Innes as President of the Legislative Council, a position which he held till his demise on Feb. 17th, 1884.

Cheeke, Hon. Alfred, sometime Supreme Court Judge, New South Wales, was born at Evesham, Worcestershire, in 1811, and is stated to have been a lineal descendant of the celebrated Sir John Cheke. He was called to the English bar in 1835, and joined the Oxford Circuit. Having emigrated to Sydney in 1837, he was appointed a magistrate in 1838, and practised as a barrister. In 1841 he was appointed Commissioner of the Court of Claims, and in June of the same year Crown Prosecutor, Chairman of Quarter Sessions in 1844, and Commissioner of the Court of Requests in 1845. From 1851 to 1857 he again acted as Chairman of Quarter Sessions, and from 1858 to 1865 was a District Court Judge. From the latter date till his death, on March 14th, 1876, he officiated as a Judge of the Supreme Court.

Chester, Henry Majoribanks, P.M., has been in the Queensland Government service since 1876, and in 1877 was sent on an exploring expedition to New Guinea. In July of the next year Mr. Chester was appointed by Sir Arthur Gordon to represent him in New Guinea in his capacity as High Commissioner of the Western Pacific. In 1883, when Sir Thomas McIlwraith decided on annexing the island on behalf of the Queensland Government, Mr. Chester was employed to proclaim the Queen's sovereignty, which he carried into effect on April 4th. Mr. Chester has been police magistrate at Croydon since Nov. 1887.

Chetham-Strode, Alfred Rowland, son of Admiral Sir Edward Chetham-Strode, K.C.B., K.C.H., of Southill, Somersetshire, was born on May 10th, 1823. In 1841 he went to New Zealand, when he settled at Wellington. Entering the Government service in 1846, Mr. Chetham-Strode was appointed Inspector of Armed Constabulary, of which body he had command. He also received a war medal for services rendered during encounters with natives at Horokiwi, Porirua, Wanganui, and other places. In 1849 he was appointed Resident Magistrate in Otago, and occupied the position from 1860 to 1862 of Sub-Treasurer of Otago; was Curator of Intestate Estates for some six years, and Sheriff and Commissioner of Native Reserves. He was also the first Returning Officer and Registration Officer after the Constitution Act was granted to New Zealand. Elected by the trustees, he was Vice-President of the Savings Bank from its formation. In 1865 Mr. Chetham-Strode was called to the Legislative Council, but resigned in 1868. In conjunction with the Hon. (now Sir) Julius Vogel, he was the means of establishing the Benevolent Asylum. Mr. Chetham-Strode was a member of Council of the University of Otago in 1869, and represented the Council at the tercentenary of the Edinburgh University in 1884. In 1873 Mr. Chetham-Strode resigned the duties of Resident Magistrate in Dunedin, and in 1882 he returned to England, and settled at Norwood, where he engaged in philanthropic works. He married, in 1851, Miss Emily Borton, and died on May 13th, 1890.

Childers, Right Hon. Hugh Culling Eardley, M.P., F.R.S., formerly a Minister of the Crown in Victoria, is the son of the late Rev. Eardley Childers, of Cantley, Yorkshire, by his marriage with Maria Charlotte, eldest daughter of Sir Culling Smith, Bart. He was born on June 25th, 1827, and educated at Cheam School and at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1850 (14th Senior Optime), and M.A. in 1857. He married in 1850, Emily, third daughter of G. J. A. Walker, of Norton, Worcestershire, and in the same year emigrated to Victoria, where he was for a short time a tally clerk on Cole's Wharf, Melbourne. Having introductions from the Colonial Office, and being well connected, he was soon looked after by the Government, and was appointed successively Secretary to a Denominational School Board, a member of the National Board of Education instituted in 1852, and subsequently Immigration Agent. On Oct. 26th, 1852, he succeeded Mr. C. H. Ebden in the far more important post of Auditor-General of Victoria. Under the inflation of the gold régime, extravagance was universal, and the Government had not escaped the contagion, if indeed it had not promoted it. It is charged against Mr. Childers by the historian of Australia, Mr. Rusden, that by his device of an imprest system he removed the salutary checks on the extravagance of the public service, which it was the raison d'être of his office to supply. The effect was, at any rate, that unauthorised expenditure flourished apace, with the result that within eighteen months there was found to be a sum of £1,682,328 of unadjusted imprests, of which £283,745 were reported by an Expert Committee to be "wholly unaccounted for." In Dec. 1853 Mr. Childers first entered the Administration, being appointed Collector of Customs in Victoria, in succession to Mr. Cassells, and taking his seat in the Executive Council (Dec. 5th). In his official capacity he conducted the bill for the establishment of the Melbourne University through the Legislative Council, and ultimately aided in obtaining for it in 1859 a Royal Charter. It is a curious circumstance, that in 1855 he opposed the introduction of vote by ballot in parliamentary elections, but probably on grounds that were in a great measure local. After responsible government was conceded to Victoria, Mr. Childers was returned to the first Legislative Assembly in the district of Portland, and was a member of the first Ministry constituted under the new autonomous conditions. Mr. Haines was Premier, and Mr. Childers held the office of Commissioner of Trade and Customs from Nov. 1855 to Feb. 1857, when he left Victoria, and returned to England as the first Agent-General of the Colony in London. He was also in the enjoyment of a colonist pension of £866 per annum, which he has drawn ever since, with the exception of the intervals during which he has had office in England. At the present time he has an ex-Cabinet Minister's pension in England, but the amount of his Victorian pension is first deducted, so that the Colonial Treasury obtains no relief. Mr. Childers' first wife died in 1875, and he married secondly, in 1879, Katharine Ann, daughter of the late Bishop (Gilbert) of Chichester, and widow of the Hon. Gilbert Eliot Mr. Childers was member for Pontefract (which he unsuccessfully contested in 1859) in the House of Commons from 1860 to 1885, when he was defeated; but in Jan. 1886 was returned for South Edinburgh. He was a Lord of the Admiralty from April 1864 to Aug. 1865; Secretary to the Treasury from the latter date till July 1866; First Lord of the Admiralty from Dec. 1868 to March 1871, when the strain of work in connection with the reorganisation of his department compelled his retirement. Mr. Childers was Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from Aug. 1872 to Oct. 1873; Secretary of State for War from April 1880 to Dec. 1882; Chancellor of the Exchequer from the latter date to June 1885; and Secretary of State for the Home Department in Mr. Gladstone's short-lived Home Rule Ministry in 1886. Throughout his political career in England Mr. Childers has been one of Mr. Gladstone's staunchest supporters.

Chisholm, Caroline, was the daughter of William Jones, and was born at Wootton, in Northamptonshire, where her father, the well-known yeoman philanthropist, resided, in May 1810. She married, in 1830, Captain Archibald Chisholm, of the Indian army, who being granted sick leave, went to Sydney with his family in 1839. When compelled to return to India he left his wife and family behind; the former thereupon devoting herself to assisting the friendless female immigrants who were coming to the colony in shiploads. With this view she raised funds, opened a central depôt, and made arrangements for the dispersion of the new arrivals in the country districts. So great was her success that up to 1845 she had provided homes for over 11,000 immigrants, including many men. In that year Captain Chisholm rejoined his family, and they returned to England in 1846; but this in no way induced Mrs. Chisholm to abandon the good work which she bad taken in hand, and for seven years she was actively employed in promoting suitable emigration, founding, amongst other similar agencies, "The Family Colonisation Loan Society," by which passage money was advanced and repaid by weekly instalments. Meantime she lectured throughout England in favour of emigration, improved accommodation for females being provided by her efforts on board emigrant ships. In 1854 she revisited Australia, and carried on her good work till 1866, when she finally returned to England, dying at Fulham, on March 25th, 1877. Mrs. Chisholm, who was the author of several works on emigration, was buried at Northampton, the obsequies being performed by the Roman Catholic bishop. In 1867 Mrs. Chisholm was granted a Civil List pension of £100 per annum. Her husband, who supported her in all her philanthropic undertakings, attained the honorary rank of major, and died at Rugby on August 17th, 1877, aged eighty-two.

Christie, Major William Harvey, sometime Postmaster-General, New South Wales, was the son of Thomas Christie, M.D., of Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, and was born at Ceylon in 1808. He was educated at Rugby and the Military Academy, Woolwich, where he qualified for the artillery. Joining the 80th Regiment as an ensign, he became lieutenant in 1827, captain in 1833, and major in 1838, when he went to New South Wales with his regiment. He retired from the army in 1840, and acted as police magistrate till 1842, when he was appointed Agent for the Church and School Estates. From 1852 to 1865 he held the then non-political office of Postmaster-General of New South Wales. Major Christie died at Pyrmont on March 19th, 1873.

Chubb, Hon. Charles Edward, Puisne Judge, Queensland, is the son of the late Charles Frederick Chubb, solicitor, of Ipswich in that colony. He was born in London on May 17th, 1845, and educated at the Grammar School at Calne, Wiltshire, the City of London School, and, after his arrival in Queensland (in 1861) at the Collegiate School at Ipswich, where he was articled to his father. Mr. Justice Chubb was admitted an attorney of the Supreme Court in Sept. 1867, and in May 1878 was called to the bar, and in 1883 appointed Q.C. In the same year he was elected a member of the Legislative Assembly for Bowen, and was Attorney-General in the latter days of the first McIlwraith Administration, from Jan. 6th to Nov. 13th, 1883, but did not seek re-election at the dissolution which resulted in the defeat of his party. He on several occasions acted as Crown Prosecutor and Deputy Judge of the District Courts, and in August 1889 he was appointed Acting Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court, being appointed Puisne Judge in December of the same year, and attached to the Northern Division.

Chute, General Sir Trevor, K.C.B., formerly Commander of the Forces in Australia and New Zealand, third son of the late Francis Chute, of Chute Hall, co. Kerry, by Mary Anne, daughter of Trevor Bomford, of Dublin, was born at Tralee, in 1816. He entered the army in 1831, became lieutenant in 1836, captain in 1839, major in 1847, lieut.-colonel in 1849, colonel in 1854, major-general in 1864, lieut.-general in 1872, and brevet-general in 1877. He served with the 70th Regiment in India for twelve years, and went through the Mutiny, being on May 24th, 1857, in charge of the force which occupied the fort of Hote Murdaw. From August 1858 to Jan. 1860 he commanded a brigade at Lucknow, and in Feb. 1861 embarked in command of the 70th Regiment for New Zealand. He served with his regiment during the Maori war, and in March 1863 was appointed brigadier in command of the Australian colonies. In 1865 he succeeded General Cameron in command of the forces in New Zealand, with the local rank of Brigadier-General. In the following year he conducted a campaign in the Wanganui district, capturing many pas, including Okatuku (Jan. 4th, 1866), Putahi (Jan. 7th), Otapawa (Jan. 13th), and Waikoko (Feb. 1st). The effect of this campaign was successfully to open up the road between Wanganui and Taranaki. It was during these operations that the shooting of a Maori prisoner of war by order of General Chute led to subsequent complications between the Governor (Sir George Grey) and the Colonial Office. Sir Trevor Chute, who was created K.C.B. in 1867, administered the government of New South Wales from the departure of Sir John Young (afterwards Lord Lisgar) to the arrival of the Earl of Belmore, Dec. 24th, 1867, to Jan. 7th, 1868, and left for England in 1870. General Chute was placed on the retired list in 1881. In 1868 he married Ellen, eldest daughter of Samuel Browning, of Epsom, Auckland, New Zealand. He died at Egmont, Bracknell, Berks, on March 12th, 1886.

Clark, Hon. Andrew Inglis, M.H.A., Attorney-General, Tasmania, son of Andrew Clark and Ann Inglis, his wife, was born at Hobart Town, on Feb. 24th, 1848. Mr. Clark was called to the Tasmanian bar on Jan. 30th, 1877. He represented Norfolk Plains in the House of Assembly from July 1878 to May 1882, and has sat for South Hobart from March 1887 down to the present time. Mr. Clark, who was married at Melbourne in Jan. 1878 to Miss Grace Ross, was appointed Attorney-General on March 29th, 1887. He was one of the representatives of Tasmania at the Federal Council of Australasia in 1888 and 1889. In 1890 he was one of the delegates of the colony to the Federation Conference in Melbourne, and in 1891 attended the Federation Convention at Sydney in the same capacity. In 1890 Mr. Clark visited England, with the intention of appearing before the Privy Council on behalf of the Government, in the litigation with the Main Line Railway; but the compromise arrived at in connection with the State purchase of the line having terminated the proceedings before the hearing, his further stay was rendered unnecessary. In appended Supplement, p. 530: In August 1892 Mr. Clark resigned with his colleagues in the Fysh Ministry.

Clark, Rev. Charles, the well-known lecturer, was born in London on April 19th, 1838, and entered the Baptist College at Nottingham as a student for the ministry. After filling several charges in London and the provinces, he accepted the pastorate of the Baptist Church in Albert Park, Melbourne, where he arrived in April 1869. Having been very successful as an amateur lecturer on secular subjects, he resigned his pastoral charge in 1874, and lectured professionally throughout the Australian colonies with extraordinary success. After a tour in America in 1876, where he attracted large audiences, he returned to Australia, but shortly afterwards left for England, where he remained till 1889, when he revisited Australia, and achieved a considerable measure of his former success.

Clark, John Howard, son of Francis Clark, of Birmingham, by his marriage with the sister of Sir Rowland Hill, was born at Birmingham on Jan. 15th, 1830. He emigrated to Adelaide with his father and mother in 1850, and joined the former in the firm of Francis Clark & Son, accountants and merchants. He assisted in the formation of the Adelaide Philosophical Society and the South Australian Institute, and was secretary of the former for seven years. In 1865 he joined the proprietary of the South Australia Register, and acted as commercial manager, and in 1870 became editor. Mr. Clark (who was well known as a press contributor under the nom de plume of "Geoffrey Crabthorn") died at Port Willunga, on May 20th, 1878.

Clarke, Lieut.-General Hon. Sir Andrew, R.E., G.C.M.G., C.B., C.I.E., eldest son of the late Colonel Andrew Clarke, K.H., of Belmont, co. Donegal, Governor of Western Australia from 1846 to 1847, and Frances his wife, was born on July 27th, 1824, at Southsea, Hants, and after a successful career at the Woolwich Academy entered the Royal Engineers in 1844, as second lieutenant. In 1846 he was appointed aide-de-camp to the late Sir William Denison, who was then about to assume the Governorship of Van Diemen's Land, and acted in that capacity till 1848, when he served in New Zealand until the close of the war, when he was sent on a mission to Heke. In 1849 he returned to Van Diemen's Land, now Tasmania, and acted as Sir William Denison's private secretary till 1853, when he was appointed Surveyor-General and Chief Commissioner of Crown Lands of Victoria, with a seat in the Legislative Council. On responsible government being inaugurated in Nov. 1855, Captain Clarke (as he then was) was included in the Haines Ministry, and being; sworn of the Executive Council, continued to act as Surveyor-General. In his address to the electors of South Melbourne, in Sept. 1856, he advocated an energetic railway policy, a reform in the constitution, the abolition of the property qualification for members of Parliament, a readjustment of the electoral districts on the basis of population, the extension of the municipal system, and the abolition of the technical difficulties which encumbered the transfer of real estate. The working men of the colony took great interest in Captain Clarke's candidature, and drew up an address to the electors of South Melbourne, urging them to return him. After his election to the first Legislative Assembly of Victoria, and while a member of the Haines Administration, he carried several railway bills through Parliament, and took an active part in the policy of his colleagues. In March 1857 the Government was defeated by a motion brought forward by Mr. (afterwards Sir John) O'Shanassy, and resigned office. But the new Government only lasted six weeks, and on April 29th Mr. Haines returned to power. But Captain Clarke did not go into office with him, as he dissented from his new policy, and less than twelve months afterwards defeated his former colleagues on the bill for the representation of minorities, and was requested by the Governor, Sir Henry Barkly, to form an Administration. Be made the attempt, and obtained the co-operation of Mr. O'Shanassy, while Sir William Stawell, who was then Chief Justice, volunteered to resign his seat on the bench and take office as Attorney-General. But one of the conditions demanded by Captain Clarke was a dissolution, and as Sir Henry Barkly did not see his way to grant that request, Captain Clarke gave up the attempt to form an Administration, and Mr. O'Shanassy took office with Mr. Duffy, Mr. Chapman, Mr. Ireland, and others as his colleagues, in March 1858. This was the last occasion on which Captain Clarke took a personal part in Victorian politics, and he left Victoria towards the end of the year on a confidential mission with which he was entrusted by Mr. O'Shanassy to assist, with his advice, the six associated banks who were entrusted with the flotation of the first Victorian loan. In 1859 he was suggested for the position of the first Governor of Queensland, and his name was sent for the approval of the Cabinet, but the appointment was not made; and after being offered one or two colonial offices, he resumed his military duties in 1858. He has, however, always continued to take a keen interest in Australian affairs, and especially in those of Victoria, for which colony he was on several occasions Acting Agent-General in London down to 1892. Sir Andrew, who was made C.B. in 1869, K.C.M.G. in 1873, C.I.E. in 1878, and G.C.M.G. in 1885, may be regarded as the founder of municipal institutions in Victoria, the official bill which he brought in for their establishment in 1855 having laid the foundation of the system, which has since been so widely and successfully extended. Through his exertions the public reserves and the National Museum were established on a permanent basis, and the first Melbourne Industrial Exhibition was initiated by him. Sir Andrew Clarke, who became captain in 1854, major and lieut.-colonel in 1867, colonel in 1872, major-general in 1884, and who was placed on the retired list with the honorary rank of lieut.-general in 1886, was employed in various important official positions after leaving Victoria, from which colony he draws a pension of £800 per annum, under the 50th clause of the Imperial Act establishing the constitution of the colony. He was Commanding Royal Engineer of the Eastern and Midlands districts till 1863, when he went to inspect the establishments on the west coast of Africa, and was engaged in operations against the Ashantees when they invaded the Gold Coast Colony. Sir Andrew was Director of Works of the Navy from 1864 to 1873, and in this capacity designed and executed the great extension of National dockyards. From 1873 to 1875 he was Governor of the Straits Settlements, and initiated and conducted the operations which stamped out piracy and established the permanent authority of the Crown. In 1875 Sir Andrew was employed on a special mission to Siam, and from that year till 1880, was director of Indian Public Works, and a member of the Council of the Viceroy. From 1881 to 1882 he was Commandant of the School of Military Engineering at Chatham, and from the latter year until 1886 Inspector General of Fortifications. Sir Andrew, who was a member of the Royal Commission for the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, and a member of the Commissions in London for the Melbourne Exhibitions of 1880 and 1888, unsuccessfully contested Chatham against Sir John Gorst, in 1886, as a Gladstonian Liberal. As acting Agent-General and otherwise he has warmly vindicated the right of Australia to dominate the Western Pacific, and to prevent the intrusion of France and Germany. He married, in 1867, Mary Margaret Ellen, eldest daughter of Charles W. Mackillop, formerly of the Indian Civil Service.

Clarke, Hon. Fielding, LL.B., fourth son of the late Henry Booth Clarke, of London, was educated at London University, where he graduated LL.B. in 1877. He entered at the Middle Temple in Nov. 1872, was called to the bar in May 1876, and went the North-eastern Circuit. Mr. Clarke was Attorney-General of Fiji from 1881 to 1882; Acting Chief Justice and Chief Judicial Commissioner for the Western Pacific, from 1882 to 1883, and from 1884 to 1885, when he was permanently confirmed in the office. Mr. Clarke was appointed to his present position as Chief Justice, at Hong Kong, in 1892.

Clarke, Rev. George, son of George Clarke, of Wyndham, Norfolk, England, and Martha his wife (née Blomfield), was born at Parramatta, N.S.W., in the year 1823. His father was one of the first missionaries sent out to New Zealand by the Church Missionary Society; and in 1824 the family proceeded to the Bay of Islands and took up their residence at Waimate, the principal missionary station. At an early age Mr. Clarke was sent to Tasmania for his education, which he received at the school of Mr. R. W. Giblin at New Town, near Hobart. In 1838 he returned to New Zealand. His proficiency as a Maori scholar, his intimate knowledge of Maori customs, and his great influence with the natives procured him an appointment as one of the protectors of the aborigines. He was one of the witnesses to the celebrated Treaty of Waitangi, whereby the Maori chiefs ceded the North Island of New Zealand to the Queen. He was prominent in native matters during the administrations of Governors Hobson, Fitzroy, and Grey. He accompanied the surveying party of the New Zealand Company to the South Island, and he drew up the document whereby the Otago block, on which the city of Dunedin now stands, was conveyed to the Company by the Maori chiefs. On the outbreak of the Honi Heki war in 1844, he was employed by the Governor to negotiate with the friendly natives, and accomplished his mission with great tact and success. He accompanied Sir George Grey through the Heki war as interpreter, and saw a large amount of active service. In 1846 Mr. Clarke proceeded to England, and entered Highbury College (afterwards New College), London, to study for the ministry of the Congregational Church. In 1851 he returned once more to Hobart, and accepted the pastorate of a Congregational Church, of which he has now been the minister for forty years. For some years he edited a monthly paper entitled The Tasmanian Independent, and took a prominent part in the movement for the separation of Church and State in the colony, which ended in the abolition of State aid to religion in the year 1868. Mr. Clarke was a member of the Tasmanian Council of Education for nearly thirty years, and was several times elected its President. On the establishment of the University of Tasmania in 1890, he was elected a member of the Council and first Vice-Chancellor of the University. Besides a large amount of literary work, he is the author of "Sunday Lectures on the Epistle to the Hebrews" (Hobart, 1884). He married Martha, daughter of Henry Hopkins, J.P.

Clarke, James Langton, M.A., second son of the late Andrew Clarke, of Belmont, Donegal, Ireland, and uncle of Lieut.-General Sir Andrew Clarke, G.C.M.G. (q.v.), was born in 1801, and educated at the Military College at Sandhurst, obtaining a commission in the army, out of which he sold, and after graduating at Queens' College, Cambridge, was called to the bar at the Middle Temple in Jan. 1835. In 1855 he went to Victoria, and was appointed a County Court Judge, and Judge of the Court of Mines in 1871. He married on Sept. 2nd, 1852, Miss A. Maria Harrison, of London; retired on a pension in 1871, and died at Mentone on Feb. 16th, 1886.

Clarke, Joseph, J. P., third and youngest son of the late Hon. William John Turner Clarke, M.L.C. (q.v.), was born at Newtown, near Hobart, Tas., on Jan. 1st, 1835. He managed his father's Tasmanian estates for some years prior to the latter's decease in 1874, when he succeeded to large estates in that colony, and in South Australia and New Zealand. Since that time Mr. Clarke has resided at Toorak, near Melbourne. He married, in 1860, Caroline, daughter of his uncle, Lewis Clarke, who settled in Australia. Mr. Clarke has given many liberal donations to public institutions and charities—notably £5000 to Trinity College, Melbourne, and £5000 to the Anglican Cathedral of that city.

Clarke, Marcus (Andrew Hislop), the distinguished Australian author, was the only son of the late William Hislop Clarke, a London barrister, and nephew of Col. Andrew Clarke, K.H., sometime Governor of Western Australia. The family were of Anglo-Irish origin. Marcus Clarke was born at Kensington, London, on April 24th, 1846, his mother dying a few months after his birth. He was educated at Chomley School, Highgate, under the late Rev. Dr. Dyne. His father dying when he was only seventeen years of age, and leaving him nothing beyond a few hundred pounds by way of patrimony, it was decided by his friends that he should try his fortunes in Australia. He accordingly went out in Green's old "liner" the Wellesley in 1864. On arriving in Melbourne he was taken in hand by his uncle, the late James Langton Clarke, then a County Court Judge in Victoria, who obtained for him a junior position in the Bank of Australia in Melbourne. Figures were not, however, to his taste, and after a brief and eccentric clerkly career, of which many amusing stories are told, he relinquished banking and took to the "bush," being sent in Jan. 1865 to acquire "colonial experience" on Swinton station, near Glenorchy, in Victoria. The owner of the station was Mr. John Holt, but his uncle had a pecuniary interest in it; and young Clarke was thus permitted to lead a desultory, half lazy, half literary life for a period of about two years, during which he acquired "experiences" which, if not exactly those designed, were of high value to him in his future career as a writer, into which latter groove he now drifted. Amongst the visitors to the station was a "materialistic philosopher" named Dr. Lewins, who, struck with the youth's mental calibre and literary capacities, mentioned his discovery of the bush genius to the late Mr. Lachlan Mackinnon, of the Melbourne Argus, who at once offered him an engagement on that paper, in the minor capacity of theatrical reporter. This was gladly accepted, and all went smoothly until one of young Clarke's criticisms unfortunately antedated the appearance of a piece the first production of which it presumably described. He was promptly removed from the regular Argus staff, and became henceforth merely an occasional, though most copious and capable, contributor to that paper and to the well-known weekly journal the Australasian, issued from the same office. In the latter his most brilliant effusions appeared under the title of "The Peripatetic Philosopher." He also contributed special articles, principally of theatrical criticism, to the Argus, in whose columns they formed a striking and favourite feature. Mr. Clarke purchased the Australian Magazine, which he rechristened the Colonial Monthly, and which he conducted. In its pages his first attempt at novel-writing, "Long Odds," appeared in serial form. He, however, wrote the first few chapters, the tale being finished by others, Mr. Clarke, in taking a jump which his horse failed to negotiate, being thrown with great violence and fracturing his skull. This was in 1868. Narrowly escaping with life after a protracted illness, Marcus Clarke resumed his literary activities, and about this time took the principal part in founding the Yorick Club, of which he was the first secretary, and which still flourishes as the leading literary and Bohemian club of the Victorian metropolis. It was at the Yorick that Marcus Clarke first made the acquaintance of Adam Lindsay Gordon, the equally dashing poet and gentleman steeplechase rider, for whom he formed a warm affection, and whose mournful end he deeply deplored, as is evidenced by the sympathetic preface which he wrote for the posthumous edition of Gordon's poems. At this time Marcus Clarke both edited and contributed to Humbug, a brilliant weekly comic journal published in Melbourne, but which, like the Colonial Monthly, was destined to be short-lived. Mr. Clarke stopped writing for the Melbourne Punch when he took the editorship of Humbug in 1869. In the former, however, some of his most sparkling work appeared. Amongst Mr. Clarke's contributory staff on Humbug were Dr. Neild, Mr. A. L. Windsor, Mr. Charles Bright, and Mr. Henry Kendall. Altogether it was a formidable rival to Mr. James Smith's Touchstone, a contemporary weekly of similar character. On July 22nd, 1869, Mr. Clarke was married at St. Peter's Church, Melbourne, to Miss Marian Dunn, daughter of John Dunn, the well-known burlesque actor, and herself an actress of much cleverness. Mr. Clarke now ventured on dramatic work, and wrote Foul Play, a dramatisation of Reade and Boucicault's novel of that name. It was produced at the Melbourne Theatre Royal, but was only a partial success. Various succeeding adaptations were more favourably received. Mr. Clarke now produced the great literary work with which his name will always be associated in both hemispheres, and which placed him at the head of Australian authors. "His Natural Life" is a story based on the tragic experiences of the old convict days, and is equally realistic and repulsive in the horrors it reveals. It was written as the result of a trip to Tasmania undertaken with the view of recruiting the author's health. He not only attained the latter object, but procured from the old convict records of the island the materials for a most powerful narrative, "His Natural Life" at first appeared serially in the Australian Magazine. It was, however, revised almost beyond recognition prior to publication in England, where it was issued by the Messrs. Bentley, and at once attracted the favourable attention of the press and public. In the work of revision and excision Mr. Clarke was assisted by Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, to whom the work was dedicated on its appearance in book form. Mr. Clarke also published a selection from stories contributed to the Australasian under the title of "Old Tales of a New Country." In Jan. 1870 he was appointed Secretary to the Trustees of the Melbourne Public Library, organised by the late Sir Redmond Barry, who recommended him to the position and always remained his staunch friend. He became Sub-Librarian in 1876. Mr. Clarke now published "Holiday Peak" and "Four Stories High"; and his drama Plot, written in 1872 and produced at the Princess's Theatre, Melbourne, also proved an undoubted success. Mr. Clarke, having quarrelled with the Argus and Australasian proprietary, became a contributor to the Evening Herald and Daily Telegraph, both published in Melbourne. He subsequently became connected with the Age and Leader, and contributed much brilliant matter to the latter above the signature "Atticus." The connection with both these journals lasted till his death. In 1878 Mr. Clarke refused the librarianship of the Victorian Parliamentary Library, offered him by Mr. (now Sir Graham) Berry. He did this in the certainty of obtaining the chief position in the Melbourne Public Library, which, however, was, much to his disappointment, conferred on Dr. Bride. His fame as a writer had in the meantime become widely diffused, and he was offered a permanent position on the staff of the London Daily Telegraph by its enterprising proprietor, Mr. E. L. Lawson. This he was compelled to decline through inability to leave Australia. He died in Melbourne on August 2nd, 1881, of congestion of the liver and erysipelas supervening on pleurisy. Mr. Clarke left behind him an unfinished novel entitled "Felix and Felicitas," which displayed remarkable promise. In 1884 a selection from his writings was published by subscription by Messrs. Cameron, Laing & Co., of Melbourne. It is entitled "The Marcus Clarke Memorial Volume," and was edited by Mr. Hamilton Mackinnon, who prefaced it by a detailed Life of his friend and a complete list of his works, which is of much interest to the student of Australian literature.

Clarke, William, J.P., son of William Joseph Sayers Clarke by his marriage with Miss Mary Ann Welsford, was born in Melbourne on June 26th, 1843, and married there on June 25th, 1862, to Miss Mary Ann Mortimer. He is a Justice of the Peace for the colonies of New South Wales and Victoria, and was M.L.A. for Orange in the former colony, but was defeated at the general election in 1889. Mr. Clarke was Minister of Justice in the administration of Sir Henry Parkes, from Jan. 20th, 1887, to Jan. 10th, 1889. He has held important positions in connection with financial institutions in the colonies, and is now Managing Director in London of the Standard Bank of Australia, Limited. Mr. Clarke was a member of the New South Wales Commission in London for the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886.

Clarke, Rev. William Branwhite, M.A., F.R.S., was born at East Bergholt, in Suffolk, on June 2nd, 1798, and educated at Dedham Grammar School and at Jesus College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1821, and M.A. in 1824. He was ordained deacon in 1821, and priest in 1824. In 1822 he published three poems: "Lays of Leisure," "Pompeii," and "The River Derwent," and in 1839 "Recollections of a Visit to Mont Blanc" and several religious poems. Whilst at Cambridge he attended the geological lectures of Professor Sedgwick and Dr. E. Clarke, and visited various parts of England in search of geological information during his vacations. After holding one or two small preferments he emigrated to New South Wales in 1839, partly for his health. He took charge of the King's School at Parramatta, and did clerical duty in that district, and subsequently at Campbell Town. From 1846 to 1870 he was incumbent of St. Thomas's, Willoughby. Mr. Clarke was the author of numerous treatises on scientific, and especially geological, subjects. In 1841 he demonstrated the existence of gold in New South Wales from geological and mineralogical evidences, and verified his contentions by finding specimens in the Macquarie valleys, and near the Vale of Clydd. In 1844 he described the existence of a goldfield in the Bathurst district without any personal exploration, and without any knowledge of Strzelecki's previous discovery, which exactly coincided with his predictions. The then Governor of New South Wales, Sir George Gipps, dreading the effect of exciting the cupidity of the convicts and labourers, requested Mr. Clarke, as he had done the Count previously, to keep his discoveries secret. With this injunction Mr. Clarke was well inclined to comply, as, according to his opinion declared in 1849, gold washing was more suitable for slaves than British freemen. In comparing the geology of Russia with that of Australia, in 1847, Mr. Clarke asserted that New South Wales "would be found wonderfully rich in metals"—a prophecy which has since been amply verified. For his services to science he was in 1876 elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and died on June 17th, 1878, at North Shore, Sydney For his geological reports to the Government of New South Wales in 1853 Mr. Clarke was awarded £1000, and, subsequently, £5000 was paid him. The Government of Victoria awarded him £1000 in 1861. In July 1860 the governors of the Australian colonies signed a certificate stating that the discovery of gold was made by Mr. Clarke in 1841. He also aided in developing the coalfields of New South Wales, and in 1877 was awarded the Murchison medal of the Geological Society of London for his services in determining the age of the carboniferous deposits in that colony. His labours also resulted in the discovery of tin. When the Sydney University was founded, he declined a seat in the Senate and the position of Professor of Geology.

Clarke, Hon. Sir William John, Bart. M.L.C., LL.D., J.P., is the eldest son of the late Hon. W. J. T. Clarke, M.L.C. (q.v.), and was born in 1831 in Tasmania. Sir William first arrived in Victoria in 1850, when he spent a couple of years in the study of sheep farming on his father's Dowling Forest station, and afterwards in the management of the Woodlands station on the Wimmera. For the next ten years he resided in Tasmania, working the Norton-Mandeville estate in conjunction with his brother, Mr. Joseph Clarke. In 1862 he assumed the management of his father's concerns in Victoria, and on the latter's death in 1874 succeeded to his estates in that colony. Sir William early evinced a very strong interest in farming pursuits, and introduced a scientific instructor in the person of Mr. R. W. E. McIvor, who lectured on agricultural chemistry for the benefit of the colony generally. Amongst Sir William Clarke's donations to public objects may be mentioned the gift of £2000 to the Indian Famine Relief Fund, of £10,000 towards building the Anglican Cathedral at Melbourne, of £7000 to Trinity College, Melbourne University, and many others. In the domain of sport Sir William has figured prominently as a patron of coursing and yachting. He is the recognised head of the three Masonic constitutions in Victoria—a unique position not held by any other individual in the craft. On the death of Mr. John Thomas Smith, Sir William became Prov. Grand Master of the Irish Constitution; he followed the late Mr. A. K. Smith in the office of District Grand Master of the Scotch Constitution; and on the demise of Captain Standish in 1883, Sir W. J. Clarke was offered the position of District Grand Master of the English Constitution, the Prince of Wales signifying his warm approbation. The foundation stone of the Freemasons Hall in Melbourne was laid by him in March 1885, the finished building being consecrated by him to Masonic purposes in March 1887. Sir William founded, by a gift of 3000 guineas in the year 1882, the "Southern Province (Victoria) Scholarship," in the Royal College of Music, England, the distinction being first won in 1883 by Miss Ada Beatrice Bloxham, and in 1887 by Miss Isabella Webster. To the Melbourne Public Library he has presented some admirable statuary by Mr. Charles Summers and a full-length portrait by Mr. Dowling of Lord Melbourne, the minister after whom the Victorian metropolis is named. In 1886 Mr. Chevalier painted to Sir William's order, "The Renunciation of Prince Gautama," a work considered the painter's masterpiece. The defence movement has been encouraged by Sir W. J. Clarke's offer of valuable prizes for competition among the military and naval forces; and in addition a battery of three Nordenfeldt guns, commanded by Lieutenant Rupert Clarke—Sir William's eldest son—is horsed and maintained at his expense. Sir William has represented the Southern province in the Legislative Council since 1878, and in the following year he was President of the Melbourne International Exhibition; for his services in connection with which, he was raised to the baronetcy in Dec. 1882. Sir William was a member of the Victorian Commission to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886, and had the honorary degree of LL.D. conferred on him by the University of Cambridge during the same year. Sir William Clarke married, firstly, on Nov. 23rd, 1860, Mary, second daughter of the Hon. John Walker, M.L.C, of Tasmania, who died in 1871; and secondly, on Jan. 21st, 1873, Janet Marian, eldest daughter of the late Hon. Peter Snodgrass, M.L.C. and granddaughter of the late Colonel Kenneth Snodgrass, C.B.

Clarke, Hon. William John Turner, M.L.C., was the second son of William Clarke, of St. Botolph, Aldgate, London, by Sarah Turner, of Weston Zoyland, in Somersetshire. He settled in Tasmania in 1840, and subsequently acquired extensive pastoral property in that colony, and in Victoria, South Australia, and New Zealand. He married Eliza, daughter of Rev. George Pyke Dowling, of Puckington, Somerset, by Anne Biggs his wife, of an old and wealthy family of Bristol merchants, and had issue three sons—William John (now Sir W. J.) Clarke (q.v.); Thomas Biggs, who was endowed with his father's Quorn Hall and Brambletye properties in Tasmania; and Joseph (q.v.), who inherited the paternal estates in South Australia, New Zealand, and Tasmania. Mr. Clarke was member for the Southern Province in the Legislative Council, and again in 1874.

Clayden, Arthur, was born in Berkshire, and early identified himself with the agricultural labourers' movement, becoming a member of the consultative committee of the National Agricultural Labourers' Union, under the presidency of Mr. Joseph Arch. In 1873 he accompanied Mr. Arch to Canada for the purpose of investigating that colony as a field of emigration, contributing letters to the Daily News on the subject. In 1879 he went out to New Zealand, and while there acted as correspondent for the Daily News. He returned to England in 1890. Mr. Clayden has delivered lectures on "New Zealand as an Emigration Field"; and in 1885 read a paper before the Royal Colonial Institute on "New Zealand in 1884." Some of his letters and lectures have been published in pamphlet form.

Clifford, Sir Charles, Bart., formerly Speaker of the House of Representatives, New Zealand, the eldest son of George Lambert Clifford (fifth son of the Hon. Thomas Clifford, second son of the third Lord Clifford of Chudleigh), by Mary, daughter of Walter Hill Coyney, of Weston Coyney, co. Stafford, was born at Mount Vernon, Liverpool, on Jan. 1st, 1813, and educated at Stonyhurst. He was one of the first settlers in Wellington, N.Z., under the New Zealand Company, arriving in 1843. While in England in 1850 he took a prominent part in the agitation for the grant of a constitutional government to New Zealand; and in 1854, upon the passing of the Constitution Act, returned to the colony, and was elected to the first parliament, of which he was appointed Speaker, an office he held until 1860. He was made a knight bachelor in 1858. Sir Charles was for long engaged in pastoral pursuits in the colony; but finally returned to England, where he has since lived. On July 16th, 1887, he was created a baronet of Flaxbourne, province of Marlborough. Sir Charles married, on Jan. 13th, 1847, Mary Anne, daughter of John Hercy, of Cruchfield House, D.L. for co. Bucks.

Clifton, Leonard Worsley, J.P., ex-Collector of Customs, Western Australia, sixth son of Marshal Waller Clifton, F.R.S. (successively Secretary to the Commissioners for Victualling the Navy and Chief Commissioner for Australind, an abortive settlement in West Australia), by Eleanor, daughter of Daniel Bend, of Wandle House, Surrey, and younger brother of Sir Francis Clifton, 11th Bart., of Clifton, co. Notts, was born in 1830, and married, in 1858, Elizabeth, daughter of J. Ferguson, M.D., J.P., formerly Colonial Surgeon, Western Australia. The following are the details of his official career: Landing Waiter and Postmaster, Bunbury, Western Australia, June 1849; Convict Clerk, Colonial Secretary's office, Jan. 1851, resigned Feb. 1852; reappointed Clerk in Colonial Secretary's office, and served from 1857 to 1859, when he was removed to the Customs Department as first clerk; Acting Collector of Customs, 1862; Collector, 1863; and also officiates as Registrar of Shipping, Shipping Master, and Receiver of Wreck. Mr. Clifton, who retired from the public service in Jan. 1891, is a J.P. for the colony.

Cockburn, Hon. John Alexander, M.P., M.D., son of the late Thomas Cockburn, of Berwickshire, and Isabella Wright his wife, was born at Corsbie, near Duns, in Scotland, on August 23rd, 1850, and was educated at Cholmeley School, Highgate. He studied medicine at King's College, London, and graduated M.D. Lond. (gold medal) in 1874. He emigrated to South Australia in 1875, and practised medicine in Jamestown, where in 1877 he was appointed first mayor of the town, which office he held for three and a half years. In 1884 Dr. Cockburn was returned as a member of the House of Assembly for the district of Burra, and was Minister of Education in Sir J. W. Downer's Government from June 16th, 1885, to June 7th, 1857. At the general elections in 1887 he was defeated for the Burra, but was immediately afterwards returned for the district of Mount Barker. On June 27th, 1889, Dr. Cockburn formed a ministry, and held office till August 1890 as Premier and Chief Secretary. His administration was characterised by the introduction of bills providing for Progressive Succession Duties, a Progressive Tax on Unimproved Land Values, and other advanced Liberal measures. Dr. Cockburn was one of the representatives of South Australia at the Australasian Federation Conference held in Melbourne in Feb. 1890, and was one of the delegates to the Federal Convention held in Sydney in March 1891. Dr. Cockburn was chairman of a board appointed to inquire into the subject of technical education, and was first chairman of the School of Mines and Industries of South Australia, which was established as the result of that inquiry. He also carried a resolution in the House of Assembly in favour of the introduction of drawing, science, and manual training into the state schools. In 1886, while Minister of Education, he instituted Arbor Day in South Australia. Dr. Cockburn married, in May 1875, Sarah Holdway, fourth daughter of the late Forbes Scott Brown, of Berwickshire.

Cockle, Sir James, F.R.S., first Chief Justice of Queensland, second son of James Cockle, of Great Oakley, near Harwich, in Essex, was born on Jan. 14th, 1819, and educated at Stormont House, Bayswater, the Charterhouse, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1841 and M.A. in 1845. He entered at the Middle Temple in April 1838, and was called to the bar in Nov. 1846, practising as a special pleader and going the Midland Circuit. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1854, and of the Cambridge Philosophical Society in 1856. In Nov. 1862 he was appointed first Chief Justice of Queensland, and gained a high repute for judicial learning and impartiality. He was knighted in July 1869, and visited Europe in 1878. Sir James resigned in 1879, and has since resided in London. Whilst in Australia he was President of the Queensland Philosophical Society, and has been a member of the Royal Society since June 1865, and of the Royal Astronomical Society since March 1854. Sir James, who has published a work on mathematics, was for several years Honorary Treasurer of the London Savage Club, and was one of the Commissioners for Queensland at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in 1886. He married on August 22nd, 1855, Adelaide Catherine, eldest surviving daughter of the late Henry Wilkin, of Walton, near Ipswich, in Suffolk.

Coghlan, T. A., A.M.I.C.E., Government Statistician, New South Wales, is the author of "The Wealth and Progress of New South Wales," 1887-8, successive editions of which have been published under the auspices of the Government of that colony down to the present time.

Cohen, Hon. Edward, was born in London in 1822, and landed with his parents in Sydney, N.S.W., in 1833. In 1842 he came to Melbourne, and, after a successful career as an auctioneer, was elected a member of the city corporation in Nov. 1860, and an alderman in 1865, He was Mayor of Melbourne in 1862-3, and in the following year was elected to the Assembly for East Melbourne, which he continued to represent until his death. Mr. Cohen was Commissioner of Trade and Customs in the Macpherson Government from Sept. 1869 to April 1870; and again in the Francis Administration from June 1872 to July 1874. Mr. Cohen, who was regarded as the head of the Jewish community, married, in 1847, the eldest daughter of the late Moses Benjamin, J.P., and died in March 1877.

Cohen, Hon. Henry Emanuel, sometime Treasurer of New South Wales, is the second son of Abraham Cohen of Sydney N.S.W., and entered as a student at the Middle Temple in Oct. 1868. In June 1871 he was called to the English bar, and returned to Sydney, where he was admitted to the local bar, and became member for West Maitland in the Legislative Assembly. He was Colonial Treasurer in the Farnell Ministry from Dec. 1877 to Dec 1878. In May 1881 he was appointed Judge of the Sydney Metropolitan Court, but resigned the position, and re-entered politics, being Minister of Justice in the Stuart Cabinet from Jan. 1883 to Oct. 1885. Mr. Cohen is not now in Parliament.

Cole, Edward William, was born in Jan. 1832, at Woodchurch, Kent, and in 1850 went to the Cape of Good Hope, from whence he arrived in Victoria in Nov. 1852. After leading a wandering life on the diggings, he came to Melbourne in 1862, and from small beginnings ultimately established the well-known Book Arcade in Bourke Street. Mr. Cole has also been successful in his literary efforts. He was married, on August 9th, 1875, to Eliza Frances, youngest daughter of the late C. J. Jordan, of Hobart, Tasmania.

Cole, Hon. George Ward, M.L.C., F.R.G.S., Commander R.N., was the fourth son of John Cole, of Durham, and was born at Lumley Castle, in that county, on Nov. 15th, 1793. He entered the Royal Navy in Oct. 1807, and served with distinction in various parts of the world, being on several occasions severely wounded. Having been placed on half-pay in Oct. 1817, Captain Cole went into the merchant service, and commanded several vessels of which he was part owner. After numerous adventurous voyages, and engaging in various speculations, Captain Cole in 1839 decided to settle in Sydney, and purchased land there; but, after a visit to England, he changed his intention, and made his home in Victoria, where he arrived in July 1840, and started business in Melbourne. In the following year he purchased land on the Yarra, and constructed the well-known Cole's Wharf in Flinders Street West, where Mr. Childers acted as a tally-clerk on his first arrival in the colony. In 1851 Captain Cole built the City of Melbourne, the first screw steamer seen south of the line. Captain Cole represented Gippsland in the old Legislative Council from 1853 to 1855, when he resigned with the object of revisiting England. Four years later he was returned to the Council for the Central Province, and was re-elected for ten years in 1860 and 1870 respectively. Captain Cole, who was a Protectionist, represented the McCulloch Government in the Upper House during the long and embittered struggle with the Assembly over the tacks to the Appropriation Bill from June 1863 to May 1868; and in Nov. 1867 was sworn of the Executive Council. Captain Cole died on April 26th, 1879.

Colenso, Rev. William, F.R.S., F.L.S., the representative of an old Cornish family, was born at Penzance in 1811. He is a first cousin to the late Bishop of Natal, John William Colenso, celebrated as a mathematician and Biblical critic. In his youth he learned the arts of printing and bookbinding and worked in the office of Watts & Son, 2, Temple Bar, Crown Court, where he was for a time engaged on work for the British and Foreign Bible Society. In 1833, the Church Missionary Society having decided to send out a press and outfit to New Zealand, Mr. Colenso was engaged in the double capacity of missionary and printer. After many difficulties and delays the press and plant were landed at the Bay of Islands on Jan. 3rd, 1835. On opening his boxes, however, New Zealand's pioneer printer found that he had no cases, leads, rules, ink-table, roller stocks, nor frames, lye-brush nor potash, and, worst of all, no paper! Fortunately he had provided himself with a composing stick, the resident missionaries had a little writing paper among their stores, the expert's ingenuity enabled him to supply other requirements after a fashion, and on Feb. 17th, 1835, was worked off, in the presence of admiring spectators, the first copy of the first book printed in New Zealand—the Epistles to the Ephesians and Philippians, in the Maori language. Surmounting all difficulties, Mr. Colenso, in Dec. 1837, completed his great work, the entire New Testament, in octavo, small pica type. Out of the large edition of six thousand copies only one is now known to exist, the volume being in Mr. Colenso's own possession. A full account of the difficulties attending this publication, which reads like a romance, will be found in Mr. Colenso's little book, published in 1888, "Fifty Years Ago in New Zealand." The year 1840 saw the birth of the newspaper press, and thenceforward Mr. Colenso chiefly devoted himself to missionary work, in the course of which he traversed nearly the whole of the North Island on foot, and twice over crossed the great snowy range of the Ruahine. For two years he resided with Bishop Selwyn at St. John's College, Waimate. In 1844 he took orders and settled down in Hawke's Bay, where he has since remained. As a man of science Mr. Colenso has a good reputation, ranking high as a botanist, and being an acknowledged authority on Maori arts, antiquities, myths, and legendary lore. He has also paid much attention to the natural history of the islands, and has been for the last twenty years or more an active contributor to "The Transactions of the New Zealand Institute." Since his retirement from active missionary work he has filled important public offices. In 1861 he was elected to represent Napier in the first General Assembly and retained the seat for many years. Under the old provincial system he was one of the town representatives in the Provincial Council, and at various times filled the offices of Provincial Treasurer and Inspector of Schools. A few years since he was elected F.R.S. He was the first to recognise the fossil remains of the Moa, and has in manuscript a copious lexicon of the Polynesian language.

Coles, Hon. Jenkin, ALP., J. P., Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of South Australia, son of Jenkin Coles and Caroline his wife, was born in Sydney on Jan. 19th, 1842. At the age of seven he went with his parents to England, where he was educated at the Blue Coat School (Christ's Hospital). In his sixteenth year he returned to Australia, and eventually settled in South Australia. He was in the mounted police for a short time, and subsequently started an auctioneering firm at Kapunda, where he has since resided. He was M.P. for the district of Light from May 17th, 1876, till the dissolution in March 1878, when he did not again offer himself. He re-entered political life, and was re-elected for Light on April 25th, 1881, and has ever since sat for the constituency. He was Commissioner of Crown Lands and Immigration in Mr. Colton's second Administration from June 16th, 1884, to Feb. 4th, 1885, when he succeeded Mr. Playford as Commissioner of Public Works, a position which he held till June 16th, 1885, when he resigned office with the rest of his colleagues. He remained in opposition for two sessions, being generally recognised as Mr. Colton's successor in the leadership. Mr. Playford, however, took the Premiership on the defeat of Sir John Downer's administration, Mr. Coles accepting office under him in his old post of Commissioner of Crown Lands and Immigration on June 11th, 1887, resigning with his colleagues on June 27th, 1889. He acted as Opposition Whip during the ensuing session, and received Her Majesty's permission to bear the title of "Honourable" within the colony in recognition of his Ministerial services. At the opening of the present Parliament he was unanimously elected Speaker of the House of Assembly in succession to Sir J. C. Bray. Mr. Coles married at Adelaide in 1865 Miss Ellen Henrietta Briggs.

Colton, Hon. Sir John, K.C.M.G., formerly Premier, South Australia, was born in Devonshire, on Sept. 20th, 1823, and emigrated to South Australia in 1839. He is the senior partner in the firm of Colton & Co., and a prominent member of the Wesleyan body. He entered public life as an Alderman of the city of Adelaide in 1860, and was elected to the Legislative Assembly for Noarlunga in 1865. He was Commissioner of Public Works in the Strangways Ministry from Nov. 1868 to May 1870, when he retired from office and from Parliament. He was re-elected for Noarlunga in 1872, and was Treasurer in Mr. Boucaut's Government from June 1875 to March 1876, when the Ministry was reconstructed, and Mr. Colton left it. On Mr. Boucaut's defeat in June 1876, Mr. Colton became Premier, with the portfolio of Commissioner of Public Works. In Oct. 1877 he was displaced by Mr. Boucaut. Mr. Colton, who was Mayor of Adelaide in 1874, received Her Majesty's permission to bear the title of "Honourable" within the colony in 1878. In June 1884 he formed his second Administration, and was Premier and Chief Secretary till June 1885. He subsequently retired from public life and paid a lengthened visit to England. In Jan. 1891 he was gazetted K.C.M.G.

Combes, Hon. Edward, C.M.G., M.L.C., son of the late Wm. Combes, was born in 1830, and entered the Government service of New South Wales in 1858. Four years later he was appointed Government Mining Engineer, and was returned to the Assembly for Bathurst in 1872, for Orange in 1875, and at a later period for East Macquarie. Mr. Combes was Secretary for Public Works in the Robertson Ministry from August to Dec. 1877, and in the following year was appointed Executive Commissioner for New South Wales at the Paris International Exhibition, his seat in Parliament being declared vacant by reason of his acceptance of an office of emolument under the Crown. For his services at Paris and his successful management of the New South Wales Court he was created C.M.G. and an officer of the Legion of Honour. Mr. Combes, who married a daughter of the late Wm. C. Hare, is a member of the Institution of French Civil Engineers, and an associate of the Institution of Civil Engineers of London. He is also an artist of considerable merit, and has exhibited with success at some of the leading London picture galleries. Mr. Combes was nominated to the Legislative Council of New South Wales in 1891.

Conigrave, John Fairfax, J.P., is the son of Benjamin Conigrave and Martha his wife, and was born in Adelaide, S.A., on Nov. 23rd, 1843. He served his articles in the South Australian Register office, and was also for some years on the literary staff of the Advertiser. Mr. Conigrave, who has been secretary and shorthand writer to many royal commissions and select committees in South Australia, was for a number of years secretary to the South Australian Chamber of Manufactures. He was secretary to the South Australian Commission for the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886, secretary to the Adelaide Jubilee International Exhibition of 1887, and representative of South Australia at the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition of 1888. Mr. Conigrave married in 1868 Sarah, daughter of Charles Price, of Hindmarsh Island, S.A.

Conolly, His Honour Edward Tennyson, Puisne Judge, New Zealand, the son of Dr. John Conolly, of Hanwell, Middlesex, the eminent authority on insanity, who divided with William Tuke and one or two more the credit of introducing the non-restraint system into England, was born on August 31st, 1822. He entered as a student of the Inner Temple on Jan. 18th, 1849, was called to the bar on Jan. 30th, 1852, and for thirteen years practised in England on the Home Circuit. In 1865 he went out to New Zealand, and took up his residence at Picton, in the south island. He represented Picton in the Marlborough Provincial Council from Jan. 1867 to 1876, when the provinces were abolished. In Dec. 1881 he was elected to the House of Representatives for Picton, and again in July 1884. In 1882 he accepted the office of Minister of Justice under Sir Frederick Whitaker. Under Major Atkinson, in Sept. 1883, he retained his portfolio, becoming also Attorney-General, but retired when the Government went out of office in August 1884. He was appointed a Supreme Court Judge in August 1889.

Cooke, Ebenezer, J. P., Commissioner of Audit, South Australia, was accountant and subsequently manager of the English and Australian Copper Company in South Australia from 1862 to 1882. From 1875 (in which year he was made J.P.) to 1882 he represented Flinders in the Legislative Assembly of South Australia. Mr. Cooke was Chairman of the Royal Commission on Finance from 1880 to 1882, and a member of the Royal Commission on Education from 1882 to 1883. In February of the latter year he was appointed First Commissioner of Audit.

Cooper, Sir Charles, first Chief Justice of South Australia, was the third son of the late Thomas Cooper, of Henley-on-Thames, Oxon, where he was born in March 1795. He entered at the Inner Temple in Jan. 1822, and was called to the bar in Feb. 1827, and went the Oxford Circuit until 1838, when he was appointed sole Judge of the Supreme Court of South Australia. He arrived in the colony in Dec. 1839, and for ten years exercised unaided jurisdiction in civil, criminal, and insolvency cases. In 1849 he was appointed first Chief Justice of the colony, and held that office until 1862, when he returned to England, and resided at Bath and Cheltenham. Sir Charles, who married, on July 7th, 1853, Emily Grace, eldest daughter of Charles Burton Newenham, Sheriff of South Australia, was knighted in June 1857, and died at Bath on May 24th, 1887. Cooper's Creek, in the centre of Australia, was named after him by the explorer Captain Sturt.

Cooper, Sir Daniel, Bart., G.C.M.G., second son of Thomas Cooper, of Richmond Cottage, Double Bay, near Sydney, N.S.W., who emigrated to Australia from Bolton-le-Moors, Lancashire, was born on July 1st, 1821. In 1843 he went to New South Wales, and was elected a member of the Legislative Council in 1849. In 1856 he was returned to the first Legislative Assembly of that colony for Sydney Hamlets, and was chosen the first Speaker of the Lower House. This position he held till 1860, when he resigned, and was asked to form a Ministry in succession to that of the late Mr. Forster. He, however, declined, and returned to reside in England in 1861. He married in 1846 Elizabeth, third daughter of William Hill, of Sydney, and was knighted in 1857, created a baronet in 1863, K.C.M.G. in 1880, and G.C.M.G. in 1888. Sir Daniel has on several occasions been Acting Agent-General for New South Wales, and was a member of the Royal Commission for the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in 1886. The primary honours conferred on Sir Daniel Cooper were due to his spirited action in subscribing to the relief of the sufferers during the Crimean war and the Lancashire cotton famine. Sir Daniel is a member of the Senate of Sydney University and President of the Bank of New South Wales.

Cooper, George Sisson, ex-Under Secretary, New Zealand, is the son of the late George Cooper, Colonial Treasurer of New Zealand in 1841-2. He entered the New Zealand public service in 1841 as a junior clerk in the Colonial Secretary's office. In 1847 he was appointed Assistant Private Secretary to Governor, Sir George Grey; in 1852 Native Land Purchase officer and J.P.; in 1861 Resident Magistrate and Native officer; in 1868 Under Secretary for Native Affairs and Defence, and Under Secretary for the Colony in 1870. This position he resigned in 1892.

Cooper, Hon. Pope Alexander, M.A., Puisne Judge, Queensland, fifth son of Francis Cooper, of Sydney, N.S.W., was educated at Sydney University, where he took the Gilchrist and several other scholarships, and graduated B.A. and M.A. He matriculated at London University, and entered as a student of the Middle Temple in Oct. 1868, being called to the bar in June 1872, when he returned to Queensland, and commenced practice in June 1874. Mr. Cooper was returned to the Assembly for Bowen, and was appointed Attorney-General and a member of the Executive Council in the McIlwraith Ministry in Dec. 1880. He resigned office in Jan. 1883 on being appointed to his present position of Judge of the Supreme Court, Northern division. Mr. Justice Cooper married, on August 19th, 1873, Alice Frener, daughter of James Cooper, of London.

Cope, His Honour Thomas Spencer, LL.B., third son of the late Thomas Cope, of West End, Hampstead, was born on April 19th, 1821, and in 1841 took the degree of LL.B. at the London University. He entered at the Middle Temple in April 1842, and studied law in the chambers of Mr. Thomas Chitty, being called to the bar in Nov. 1845. He practised in the Courts at Westminster, and was for some time reporter for the Law Times in the Court of Exchequer, and at Nisi Prius for the Times and Daily News. He emigrated to Natal in 1851, but, attracted by the gold discoveries, proceeded to Victoria, where he arrived in April 1853, and was admitted to the local bar. In 1854 Mr. Cope was appointed Deputy Judge and Chairman of General Sessions for the Ballarat district, in place of the late Mr. Wrixon, and in 1858 was appointed Judge of the Court of Mines and of the County Court, and Chairman of General Sessions for the district of Beechworth, where he remained for ten years, when he became County Court Judge of Melbourne. Mr. Cope, who acted as a Judge of the Supreme Court for nearly a year in 1885 to 1886, during the absence of the late Chief Justice Stawell, resigned his seat on the bench in April 1888, and retired on a pension. He was one of the counsel for the Ballarat rioters in 1855, and was an advanced Liberal in politics, holding that the State should resume all sold lands and administer the same for the public benefit. He died on Nov. 11th, 1891.

Copeland, Hon. Henry, M.L.A., Minister of Lands, New South Wales, represents New England in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, and was Secretary for Lands in the Jennings Ministry from Feb. 1886 to Jan. 1887. In Oct. 1891, when the second Dibbs Government was formed, he was again appointed Minister of Lands.

Copley, Hon. William, M.L.C., ex-Minister of Agriculture, South Australia, was born in 1845, at the village of Highgreen, near Sheffield, and left Yorkshire for South Australia with his parents when four years of age. For two years his parents lived in the neighbourhood of the Burra Burra mines, and in 1851 they made a brief visit to the Victorian goldfields. On their return they settled at York, in the West Torrens district, and Mr. Copley was educated at the Hindmarsh Public School and Mr. Bath's school at North Adelaide. At an early age he entered upon agricultural pursuits. For some years he was engaged on the Murray Flats, but for the last fifteen years he has held a farm on the Black Rock Plains, near Orroroo. In 1883-4 he was President of the Farmers Association; and in April 1884 he was returned with Mr. E. Ward as member for the newly constituted district of Frome. He sat for this constituency for three years, but was defeated at the general election in 1887. He was returned for the northern district of the Legislative Council in July 1887. When Mr. Playford came into office in August 1890 Mr. Copley consented to serve as Commissioner of Crown Lands, a post which in January 1892 he exchanged for that of Minister of Agriculture and Education. Mr. Copley was a member of the South Australian Commission in Adelaide for the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886.

Coppin, Hon. George Selth, M.L.C., son of a Norwich surgeon, who took to the stage, was born on April 8th, 1819, at Steyning, Sussex. Adopting the stage as his profession, when thrown on his own resources as a mere boy, he played in various provincial towns and villages in England, and emigrated to Sydney, arriving on March 10th, 1843. For some time Mr. Coppin led a wandering life between Sydney and the two chief towns of Tasmania. It was in Launceston that he first organised his own theatrical company, which included the names of artistes destined to gain almost world-wide fame. Among these were Mr. Charles Young, for many years the leading comedian of Australia, and his wife, a most powerful actress, better known in later life in England as Mrs. Hermann Vezin; several members of the gifted Howson family; and that prince of character-actors, the late Mr. G. H. Rogers. With this capable band of performers Mr. Coppin crossed Bass's Straits in the schooner Swan, and, undertaking the management of the Queen's Theatre, Melbourne, practically laid the foundations of the drama in Port Phillip (1845). In 1852 he became manager of the Geelong theatre, and in 1854 visited England, where he entered into his historic engagement with the famous tragedian, G. V. Brooke. With the energy that has always characterised him, Mr. Coppin returned to Australia, taking out with him not only G. V. Brooke and a company, but also an iron theatre, which he erected in Lonsdale Street, Melbourne, and named the Olympic. Mr. Coppin returned to Melbourne on Dec. 18th, 1854, and from that year to 1859 he and Brooke were in partnership. Through over-speculation in the purchase of the Theatre Royal, and the laying-out of Cremorne Gardens, the partnership ended in financial ruin; but it was during those five years that the successful and unsuccessful diggers, and all that early class of restless and eager pioneer colonists of Victoria, saw in the tragedy and high comedy of Brooke, and the irresistible broad humour of Coppin, perhaps the most memorable performances in the annals of the Australian stage. Mr. Coppin next visited America with the late Mr. and Mrs. Charles Kean. Before this, in 1858, he had been elected to the Legislative Council for the South-Western Province; but resigned his seat on leaving the colony. On his return to Melbourne he again assumed the management of the Theatre Royal; but the building, which was uninsured, was almost immediately burnt down. He, however, rebuilt it in 1872, and from that time his career has been one of ever-increasing prosperity. Mr. Coppin claims to have built no less than six theatres in the Australian colonies, and to have introduced two hundred artistes, some, like Brooke and Mr. and Mrs. Charles Kean, of the highest dramatic excellence. His own name is a household word in Australia as the representative of certain characters in broad comedy, of which Tony Lumpkin and Bob Acres are types. But he is hardly less well known as a man of business and a politician. In 1874 he was returned for the important metropolitan constituency of East Melbourne; and he has left his mark on the statute-book as the founder of the Post Office Savings Bank. Mr. Coppin is also the founder of the Old Colonists' Association, the Victorian Humane Society, the Dramatic and Musical Association, and has been for years a Director of the Commercial Bank, as well as of innumerable financial companies. In conjunction with Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, he practically made the fashionable watering-place of Sorrento; and Mr. Coppin further claims to have introduced the camel and the English thrush into the colonies. He sat for East Melbourne until 1889, when he was defeated, and in August of that year entered the Upper House for Melbourne province.

Corbett, Right Rev. Dr. James Francis, Roman Catholic Bishop of Sale, Vict., was formerly stationed at St. Kilda in that colony, and was appointed first bishop of Sale in May 1887. He was consecrated at St. Mary's, St. Kilda, on August 25th. He held for a considerable period the post of Private Secretary to the late Archbishop Goold. He is a native of Limerick, and the freedom of that city was conferred upon him during a visit to Ireland in 1890.

Corney, Hon. Bolton Glanvill, M.L.C., M.R.C.S., Chief Medical Officer, Fiji, son of Bolton Corney, an author of repute, who wrote a famous attack on Isaac Disraeli's "Curiosities of Literature," was educated at Fontainebleau, in London, and at Schwerin. After studying at St. Thomas's Hospital, he was admitted M.R.C.S., England, in 1874. Three years later he entered the Colonial Service as Government medical officer in Fiji, and was also appointed health officer at Suva in that island. In 1881 he became medical officer to the Immigration Department, and was acting chief medical officer in 1882, 1883, 1884 and 1885. The latter post he has held continuously since June 1887, when he was permanently appointed. Dr. Corney was Acting Agent-General of Immigration from Jan. 1885 to March 1887, and was nominated a member of the Legislative Council and of the Native Regulation Board in the former year. He married, in 1874, Evelyn, daughter of Roland Hill, of Nibley, co. Gloucester.

Costley, Edward, claims a place among the notable colonists of New Zealand, not through any remarkable act which distinguished his long life, but because of his deathbed philanthropy. He was known among the "old identities" of Auckland as a man of rather penurious and retiring habits, who had acquired property in the early days, which, with the growth of the city, had become of great value. On his deathbed he summoned his lawyer, and directed him to divide his wealth among the city charities, seven of these being named. The estate realised £93,000, which was divided between the Auckland Hospital, Old Men's Home, Sailors' Home, Auckland Institute, Costley Training Institute, Auckland Public Library, and the Parnell Orphan Home, each of which received £12,500. Since Mr. Costley's death an unsigned draft will has come to light which showed that he had long contemplated the application of his wealth to charitable purposes. He died on April 17th, 1883.

Cottar, Thomas Young, L.S.A., was the son of Richard Cotter, a purser in the navy, and was born at Bantry, Ireland, in 1805. He served in the West Indies as a naval cadet, and was for some time in charge of the Government store depot at Bermuda. Subsequently he returned to London, and qualified for the medical profession in 1832. In Dec. 1835 he was appointed surgeon to the inchoate settlement of South Australia by the Board of Commissioners of that colony. He arrived in South Australia in the Coromandel in August of the next year, and acted as colonial surgeon. Subsequently he went into private practice, and died at Port Augusta, where he latterly resided, on Jan. 9th, 1882. He was one of the editors of the South Australian Magazine, and founder of the Adelaide Institute.

Couchman, Lieut.-Col. Thomas, was appointed a foreman in the Survey Department of Victoria in 1853; Assistant Surveyor in 1854; District Surveyor in 1854; Chief Mining Surveyor of Victoria in Jan. 1867; Secretary for Mines in Jan. 1877; a member of the Public Service Board in Feb. 1884, and Chairman of the Board in 1889, which position he still occupies. He served in the Volunteers from 1860 to 1883, and retired as Lieutenant-Colonel.

Counsel, Edward Albert, was born at Piper's River, Northern Tasmania, in 1849. Was appointed Government District Surveyor of the Oatlands district in 1880. In 1889 he was placed at the head of the Survey Department of Tasmania, with the title of Deputy Surveyor-General, in succession to the late Charles P. Sprent.

Courthope, Edward L., Auditor-General, Western Australia, entered the Civil Service of Western Australia as clerk in the Audit Office in 1847, and was appointed secretary to the Board of Education in 1854, and Acting Auditor-General in 1863. He resumed his duties as clerk in the Audit Office in 1805, and was appointed Registrar-General in 1871, being promoted to the Auditor-Generalship in 1872.

Couvreur, Jessie Catherine ("Tasma"), the well-known writer, is the daughter of Alfred James Huybers, J.P., of Hobart, Tas., and was born at Highgate, near London, being brought out as an infant by her parents to Tasmania in the early half of the fifties. Her father originally came from Antwerp to reside in England, and thence proceeded to Hobart, where the future novelist remained until her first marriage, when she went to live in Victoria, where her first story, "Barren Love" (recently republished by her in London in the collection "A Sydney Sovereign"), appeared in Mr. Garnet Walsh's Annual of 1877. She also contributed original tales, sketches, and essays to the Australasian and the Melbourne Review. In 1879 she went to reside permanently in Europe, which she had visited a few years previously. From 1880 to 1882 she lectured in French on Australia in France and Belgium for the Geographical Society of Paris. She also wrote for Madame Adam's Nouvelle Revue, and received from the French Government the decoration of Officier d'Académie. In 1883-4 she revisited Australia. On her return to Europe she was married in 1885 to M. Auguste Couvreur, the well-known Belgian publicist, and has resided since in Brussels. M. Couvreur, who is the senior foreign member of the Cobden Club, and has been connected with the Independence Belge both as contributor and editor, was for twenty years one of the Liberal representatives of Brussels, and for four years Vice-President of the Chamber. In 1889, under her nom-de-plume "Tasma," Madame Couvreur published in London her first complete novel, entitled "Uncle Piper of Piper's Hill"—a story of Australian life and manners, which was most highly commended by the leading literary critics in England and on the Continent. Her second novel, "In her Earliest Youth," published in 1890, is likewise Australian, and was equally well received by the press. About the same time "Tasma" also brought out the collection of short tales called "A Sydney Sovereign." She has now a new one-volume novel in the press entitled "A White Feather," and from time to time she has contributed an occasional story to Mr. Edmund Yates's society journal, the World. Since her residence in Europe, Madame Couvreur has sent various contributions to the Melbourne Australasian, and is generally recognised, particularly in Victoria and Tasmania, as one of the leading writers, who, if not actually born, have been entirely educated in the colonies. "Tasma" contributed to Mr. Mennell's "In Australian Wilds" (published by Hutchinson & Co.), and in Christmas 1890 a story to "Over the Sea," a collection of stories for English and Australian children, one to the collection "Under the Gum-Tree," and also the opening tale, "An Old Time Episode in Tasmania," to Mrs. Patchett Martin's "Cooëe."

Cowie, Right Rev. William Garden, D.D., Bishop of Auckland, N.Z., the second son of Alexander Cowie, of Auchterless, Aberdeenshire, was born in London in 1881, and educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, of which college he was scholar in 1852. In 1852-4 he took the Latin and English Essay Prizes, and graduated First Class in Law 1854, being admitted to the B.A. in 1855, to M.A. in 1865, and having the degree of D.D. conferred upon him in 1869. Bishop Cowie was ordained deacon in 1854, and priest in 1855 by the Bishop of Ely. In 1854 he was curate of St. Clement's, Cambridge, of Moulton, Suffolk, 1855-7, and was chaplain to Lord Clyde's army at Lucknow in 1858, and to Sir Neville Chamberlain's column against the Afghans in 1863-4. He has the medal and clasps for Lucknow, and for the frontier campaign of 1863. In 1863 he was appointed chaplain to the Viceroy of India, and in 1864 to the Bishop (Cotton) of Calcutta. In 1865 he was Chaplain of Cashmere, and in 1867 was appointed rector of Stafford. In 1869 he was consecrated Bishop of Auckland in Westminster Abbey by the Archbishop (Tait) of Canterbury and Bishops (Selwyn) of Lichfield and (Browne) of Ely. Bishop Cowie is a governor of St. John's College, Auckland, and on the Senate of the New Zealand University (1880). He is the author of "Notes on the Temples of Cashmere," "A Visit to Norfolk Island," and "Our Last Year in New Zealand," published in 1888.

Cowley, Hon. Alfred Sandlings, M.L.A., J.P., Minister of Public Lands and Agriculture, Queensland, is the son of Isaac Cowley and Charlotte his wife, was born at Fairford, Gloucestershire, on April 24th, 1848, and when quite a boy accompanied his parents to Natal, South Africa. He served an apprenticeship to the building and engineering trade, making the erection of sugar machinery a speciality; but he subsequently became an agriculturist, and was for three years engaged in cultivating sugar and coffee. Early in 1871 Mr. Cowley left Natal for the Australian colonies, and was a resident of New South Wales for over two years, part of which time he was in charge of a central sugar-mill on the M?Leay river. Subsequently he resided in the Maryborough district of Queensland for three years, during which time he was engaged in the cultivation and manufacture of sugar. After that Mr. Cowley settled in the Lower Herbert district, and was actively employed in the sugar industry. He was elected to the Queensland Legislative Assembly for Herbert in 1888, and on the formation of the Griffith-McIlwraith Government in August 1890 was appointed Secretary for Public Lands and Agriculture, and sworn of the Executive Council. Mr. Cowley was married at Pietermaritzburg, Natal, on July 24th, 1880, to Miss Marie Campbell.

Cowlishaw, Hon. James, M.L.C., was born in Dec. 1834 in Sydney, where he was educated at St. James's Grammar School, and went to Queensland in 1861 to practise as an architect. In 1878 he was appointed to a seat in the Legislative Council, which he still retains. Mr. Cowlishaw was part proprietor and managing director for some years of the Brisbane Evening Telegraph, but sold his interest in the newspaper in 1885.

Cowper, Hon. Sir Charles, K.C.M.G., sometime Premier of New South Wales, son of the late Ven. Archdeacon William Cowper, D.D. (q.v.), was born at Drypool, Yorkshire, on April 26th, 1807, and when two years old was brought to Sydney by his father. He was educated privately, and entered the Commissariat department under Commissary-General Wemyss, being appointed secretary to the Church and School Lands Corporation in 1826 by Governor Sir Charles Darling. In 1831 he married Eliza, second daughter of Daniel Sutton, of Wivenhoe, near Colchester, Essex. When the Church and School Lands Corporation was dissolved in 1833 Mr. Cowper went to reside in the county of Argyle, and held some sheep stations on the Murray. He was made a magistrate of the territory in 1839, and in 1843 he contested Camden with Mr. Roger Therry, Attorney-General, and was only defeated by ten votes. Being immediately invited to stand for the county of Cumberland, he was returned to the Legislative Council by a large majority, defeating even so popular a man as the late Sir James Macarthur. He was chairman of a company formed in 1846 for railway construction, and in 1851 he contested Sydney against Dr. Lang, Captain Lamb, and Mr. Wentworth, but was defeated. He was then returned for Durham. He introduced the Act for incorporating the Sydney Grammar School, and that for establishing colleges affiliated to the university. He was offered the position of Chief Commissioner of the city of Sydney, with a salary of £1000 a year, by Sir Charles Fitzroy; but declined it. At the general election in 1856 he was returned for Sydney to the first Legislative Assembly. On the resignation of the Donaldson Ministry, the first which held office under responsible government, in August 1856, Mr. Cowper was sent for by Sir W. Denison, and requested to form a Ministry. He was successful in that object, and himself held the post of Colonial Secretary, having for his colleagues the late Mr. Robert Campbell, Mr. (afterwards Sir) Terence A. Murray, Mr. (afterwards Sir) James Martin, and Mr. (afterwards Judge) Lutwyche. Objection was taken by the Opposition to the personal composition of the Ministry, and they were defeated and resigned in October, after holding office for six weeks. In Sept. 1857 Mr. Cowper became Premier and Colonial Secretary for the second time, and held office till Oct. 1859, passing the Electoral Act in 1858. His administration were defeated on their education policy, and Mr. Forster succeeded, but was ejected in less than five months, when Mr. (afterwards Sir) John Robertson's first Ministry was formed, with Mr. Cowper as Colonial Secretary. Under their ægis the famous Land Bill of 1861 was carried, and also a measure prohibiting future grants in aid of the religious bodies. In Jan. 1861 Mr. Robertson, whilst continuing to hold office as Secretary for Lands, surrendered the Premiership to Mr. Cowper, who held it till Oct. 1863, when the Martin Ministry came in, but was in turn defeated in Feb. 1865, when Mr. Cowper became Premier and Colonial Secretary for the third time in a period of great financial difficulty, and he resorted to ad valorem duties to tide the colony over the crisis. In Jan. 1866 Mr. Martin again came into power; and the Robertson Ministry having intervened, Mr. Cowper became Premier and Colonial Secretary for the fifth time in Jan. 1870. He, however, resigned in December following, to become Agent-General for New South Wales in London. As a mark of appreciation of his public services the estate of Wivenhoe was purchased by public subscription, and settled on Lady Cowper. Mr. Cowper was created K.C.M.G., and died on Oct. 19th, 1875, in London, having resigned the AgentGeneralship some time previously.

Cowper, Charles, Sheriff of New South Wales, is the son of the late Sir Charles Cowper, K.C.M.G. (q.v.); and having been appointed clerk of the Executive Council of New South Wales, was a member of his father's Ministry, without a seat in the Cabinet, from Jan. 1861 to Oct. 1863. He is now sheriff of that colony.

Cowper, Ven. Archdeacon William, D.D., was born at Whittington, in Lancashire, on Dec. 28th, 1780, and ordained in 1808, when he was for a short time curate of Bawdon, near Leeds. He commenced his career in Sydney in August of the following year as assistant colonial chaplain, and was incumbent of St. Philip's. He was made Archdeacon of Cumberland and Camden in 1848, and was Commissary during Bishop Broughton's absence in 1852. Archdeacon Cowper died in Sydney on July 6th, 1858.

Cowper, Very Rev. and Ven. William Macquarie, M.A., Dean of Sydney, is the son of the late Ven. Archdeacon William Cowper (q.v.) and was born in Sydney on July 3rd, 1810. Dean Cowper was educated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. in 1833 and M.A. in 1835. He was ordained deacon in 1833 and priest in the following year, and was curate of St. Petrox, Dartmouth, from 1833 to 1836, when he was appointed chaplain to the Australian Agricultural Company at Port Stephens, a post which he held for twenty years, when he became Principal of Moore College. In 1858 he was appointed Dean and Archdeacon of Sydney, and Vicar-General in 1866.

Cox, Alfred, youngest son of William Cox, of the 102nd Regiment, was born in Sydney in 1825, where his father, who had accompanied his regiment thither, had settled. He was educated at King's School, Parramatta, and in 1844 visited England, but returned to the colonies two years later. In 1854 he paid a visit to Canterbury, N.Z., and after another trip to England in the following year settled finally in the south of Canterbury, in 1857. In 1861 he represented Geraldine in the Provincial Council. After an attempt to establish himself in the Waikato, which was frustrated by the Te Kooti raid, Mr. Cox returned to Canterbury, where, for the most part, he has since lived. Mr. Cox is the author of "Recollections," 1884, and "Men of Mark of New Zealand," 1886.

Cracknell, Edward Charles, Superintendent of Electric Telegraphs, N.S.W., was born at Rochester, England, in 1831, and educated at Oxford. He came to Adelaide as Assistant Superintendent of Telegraphs in Nov. 1855, and became Assistant Superintendent of Telegraphs, N.S.W., in Jan. 1858, opening the first telegraph line to Liverpool on the 26th of that month. In 1861 he became Superintendent of Telegraphs. In 1876 he studied torpedo warfare, and is lieut.-colonel commanding the N.S.W. Torpedo and Signalling Corps. His younger brother, Mr. William John Cracknell, was for many years Superintendent of Telegraphs in Queensland.

Crane, Right Rev. Martin, D.D., O.S.A., Roman Catholic Bishop of Sandhurst, Victoria, was born in the county of Wexford, Ireland, in 1818. After spending his novitiate as an Augustinian at Grantstown, Wexford, and studying at Perugia, in Italy, he returned to Ireland in 1849, and was twice Provincial of the Augustinian Order. On Sept. 21st, 1874, he was consecrated first Bishop of Sandhurst in the Pro-Cathedral, Dublin, by Cardinal Cullen. In 1882 Dr. Crane visited Rome, and his sight having become impaired, he did not return to his diocese till Feb. 1886, Dr. Reville having in the meantime acted as administrator of the diocese, and subsequently as coadjutor, a position he still holds.

Crawford, James Coutts, F.G.S., only son of Captain J. C. Crawford, R.N., by his second wife Jane, daughter of Admiral John Inglis, of Redhall, N.B., was born on Jan. 19th, 1817, and was educated at the Royal Naval College, Portsmouth, and joined H.M.S. Prince Regent in the Channel Fleet. He was engaged on the east and west coasts of South Africa and elsewhere, and received the medal of the Royal Humane Society for saving life. In 1837, when sub-lieutenant, he left the navy and went to Sydney. He visited New Zealand in 1838, and after some squatting experiences in Queensland, settled in New Zealand in 1846. In 1860 he was appointed to the Legislative Council, and in 1862 made a geological survey of the province of Wellington. In order to drain the Hataitai peninsula, he excavated the first tunnel in New Zealand. Mr. Crawford is the author of "Recollections of Travel in New Zealand and Australia" (1880); "The Reform of English Spelling" (London, 1883). He retired from the Legislative Council in 1867, and was fifteen years Resident Magistrate and Sheriff at Wellington, besides being a Captain in the New Zealand and 1st Lanark Militia. Mr. Coutts Crawford married first, on Nov. 28th, 1843, Sophia, youngest daughter of Sir James Whitley Deans Dundas, G.C.B., of Barton Court, co. Berks, and Aston Hall, co. Flint, who died 1852; and, secondly, in Aug. 1857, Jessie, only daughter of Alexander McBarnet, of Torridon and Attadale, Ross-shire, Scotland, who died in 1880. He died in London on April 8th, 1889.

Croke, The Most Rev. Thomas William, D.D., Archbishop of Cashel, Ireland, formerly Bishop of Auckland, N.Z., was born in Mallow, Cork, on May 19th, 1824. His career at the Irish College in Rome was remarkably distinguished. He carried off the gold and silver medals in 1846, and next year was ordained to the priesthood and awarded the degree of Doctor of Divinity. After holding professional appointments in Carlow and Paris, Dr. Croke engaged in missionary work in his native county. In 1858 he became President of St Colman's College, Fermoy, and seven years later received the dual appointment of parish priest of Doneraile and Chancellor of the Diocese of Cloyne. He was discharging the duties of this twofold office, when in 1870 he was nominated by Pius IX. to the bishopric of Auckland. On arriving in New Zealand Dr. Croke found himself confronted by a very heavy uphill task. He found his diocese exceedingly depressed and disorganised, the bitter legacy of recent wars between the British and the Maoris, but he went to work with characteristic energy and perseverance. He laboured zealously in building churches and founding missions all over the North Island of New Zealand. He devoted himself in a very special manner to the evangelising of the Maoris, with whom he became exceedingly popular, not only as an ecclesiastic, but as an athlete. A bishop who never inquired about gates, but took at a jump every fence or obstacle that came in his way, was just the type of prelate to captivate these brave and high-spirited children of nature. In 1874 Dr. Croke revisited Europe with the object of securing a further supply of missionaries for his Maori people, but it so happened that the archiepiscopal see of Cashel became vacant while he was in the Northern hemisphere, and Pius IX. insisted on his filling the position. The leading part that Dr. Croke has played in Irish politics since his elevation to the see of Cashel is too well known to need any detailed reference in this place.

Cross, Ada, is the daughter of Henry Cambridge, of Runcton, Norfolk, by his marriage with Thomasine, daughter of Charles Emerson, M.D., of Shipdham, in the same county. She was born at St. Germains, Norfolk, on Nov. 21st, 1844, and was married at Ely, Cambs, on April 25th. 1870, to the Rev. George Frederick Cross, of Beechworth, Victoria, with whom she arrived in that colony in August of the same year. She has written a number of serial tales in the Australasian and other Australian papers, under the pseudonym "A. C.," as well as essays and poems in the Melbourne Review. In a careful summary of Australian literature in the Sydney Daily Telegraph of April 11th, 1891, Mrs. Cross's poem "Unspoken Thoughts" was classed among the one or two really genuine poems produced in Australia, and her novels also received high commendation. Her first Australian novel, "Up the Murray," appeared in the Australasian in March 1875; "In Two Years' Time" (afterwards published by Messrs. Bentley & Son) followed in 1879; and "Dinah" was began in December of the same year. "A Mere Chance" (1880) was also published by Messrs. Bentley later; "Missed in the Crowd" appeared in 1881, and "Across the Grain" in 1882. Mrs. Cross has since published "A Marked Man" and "The Three Miss Kings."

Crossman, Major-General Sir William, R.E., K.C.M.G., A.M.I.C.E., F.R.G.S., J.P., eldest son of the late Robert Crossman, of Cheswick, Northumberland, by Sarah, his wife, daughter of Edmund Douglas, of Kingston-on-Thames, was born at Isleworth, Middlesex, on June 30th, 1830. He was educated at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, and entered the army as lieutenant R.E. in Dec 1848. He was appointed captain in 1858, major in 1872, lieut.-colonel in 1873, colonel in 1878, and retired with the rank of major-general in Jan. 1886. Sir William has held a large number of civil appointments, and was in charge of various public works in Western Australia from 1852 to 1856. He was also a visiting magistrate of the colony. Sir William married in 1855 Catherine Josephine, daughter of John Lawrence Morley, of Albany, W.A. He was created C.M.G. on May 1st, 1877, and K.C.M.G. on May 24th, 1884. He was returned at the head of the poll as M.P. for Portsmouth, in the Liberal interest, in Nov. 1885, and again in 1886 as a Liberal Unionist.

Crowther, Hon. William Lodewyk, M.L.C., M.D., is the son of William Crowther, M.R.C.S. (who emigrated to Tasmania), and grandson of Philip Wyatt Crowther, Comptroller of the City of London. He married Victoire Marie Louise, daughter of General Muller, Equerry-in-waiting to the Duke of Kent, who was Mrs. Crowther's godfather. Dr. Crowther sat in the Legislative Council of Tasmania, and was a member of the Reibey Ministry without portfolio from July 1876 to August 1877. In Dec. 1878 he formed an Administration, in which he was Premier without office until Oct. 1879. Dr. Crowther died on April 12th, 1885.

Cullen, Edward Boyd, eldest son of the Rev. J. G. Cullen. was born on March 19th, 1827, and educated in his father's parish of Balmaclellan, Kirkcudbright. He emigrated to New South Wales about 1849, and after some of the usual vicissitudes of colonial life became a clerk in the Bank of New South Wales. In this capacity he opened a branch at Ipswich, Queensland, but retired from the bank, and engaged in pastoral pursuits. On the establishment of the Ipswich Municipal Council, he became the first town clerk, and acted as secretary to the old North Australian Club in that town. Mr. Cullen in 1861 entered the Queensland Civil Service, being appointed Chief Clerk in the Treasury in 1862, and Under-Secretary to that department in Oct. 1877. He is also a Commissioner of Stamp Duties, and in Oct. 1880 was appointed Accountant-General of the Supreme Court of Queensland.

Cuninghame, Archibald, was a barrister in Melbourne "in the early days," and attained to prominence in the public affairs of the inchoate community. In 1845, prior to the separation of Port Phillip (Victoria) from New South Wales, it was proposed by the authorities of the latter colony to float an immigration loan in London, as security for which the lands of Port Phillip would be pledged, as well as those of the Mother colony. Under these circumstances a public meeting was held of the leading residents of Port Phillip, under the presidency of the Mayor of Melbourne, on Sept. 28th, 1845, for the purpose of taking into consideration the necessity of petitioning the Queen against the proposed scheme for pledging the lands of Port Phillip jointly with those of New South Wales proper, and to consider the propriety of appointing an agent to proceed to England to protest against the course proposed, and also to further the great cause of separation. The meeting passed resolutions against any further alienation of the land fund to afford labour to the middle district, and the scheme was also objected, to as creating a new and almost insurmountable barrier to separation. The assemblage appointed Mr. Cuninghame as their delegate to proceed to England to represent the views of the colonists at the centre of the Empire, and he was thus the first somewhat informally selected Agent-General of Victoria in London. A committee was also nominated to frame instructions for the guidance of the delegate, and to draw up a petition, requesting the Colonial Secretary to hold his hand until Mr. Cuninghame's arrival in London. On the committee were such well-known names as those of Curr, Westgarth, Niel Black, Stephen Henty, William Campbell, Verner, Stawell (afterwards Sir William), Pohlman, McCombie, Dalgety, and O'Shanassy. Mr. Cuninghame continued to represent the colony in England for some years, and died at the family residence, Thornton House, Kilmarnock, Ayrshire, in October 1856, without having revisited Australia. He was the eldest son of Lieut.-Col. John Cuninghame of Caddall and Thornton, and Sarah his wife, only child of Major John Peebles.

Curnow, Francis, J.P., was appointed District Clerk and Paymaster in the Roads Department at Ipswich, Qd., in March 1864; organiser of the Railway Store Department in Nov. 1865; Railway Storekeeper in June 1866; Administrator of the Locomotive Branch of the Railway Department, in addition, in June 1876, and Chief Clerk of Railways in Jan. 1877. In Jan. 1884 Mr. Curnow became Acting Commissioner of Railways, was permanently appointed in March 1885, and retired on a pension in July 1889.

Curnow, William, the present editor of the Sydney Morning Herald, was born in Cornwall, and emigrated to Australia in the year 1854. He had been in England a student for the ministry of the Wesleyan Church, and on arriving in Australia became an assistant minister in Queensland, being for some period in the Warwick district. He afterwards went to New South Wales, and resided for a number of years at Goulburn. He finally became the minister of the chief Wesleyan Church in Sydney, and remained in this position till about 1877, when, his health railing, he made a voyage to England. For some years Mr. Curnow had been editor of a religious newspaper in connection with the Wesleyan communion, and had also been an occasional contributor to the Sydney Morning Herald. On his return from England, with the throat affection from which he suffered still uncured, he resigned his charge, and became a member of the staff of the Sydney Morning Herald. When Dr. Garran retired from the editorship in 1885, after many years of service, Mr. Curnow became editor.

Curr, Edward Micklethwaite, the eldest son of the late Edward Curr, was born in Hobart, Tasmania, in 1820, educated in England and France, and in 1841 and subsequent years was a stockowner in Victoria, Queensland and New South Wales. In 1862 he was appointed an Inspector of Sheep in Victoria, and later on Chief Inspector of Stock. At that date there were five millions of sheep suffering from scab in the colony, the annual loss on which was computed at over half a million sterling. Parliament offered a prize of £150 for the best essay on scab. The prize was given to Mr. Curr, and eventually the steps recommended therein were adopted, and the disease got rid of entirely. His essay was reprinted by the Government of Tasmania, and has been in demand in various parts of the world. In 1863 Mr. Curr published a work entitled "Pure Saddle Horses," in 1883 "Recollections of Squatting in Victoria," and in 1886 "The Australian Race" was published for him by the Government of Victoria. Mr. Curr's father, the late Edward Curr, of St. Heliers, was styled in Victoria " the Father of Separation," from the efforts which he exerted to secure severance from New South Wales. This gentleman had been manager for the Van Diemen's Land Company. Between 1827 and 1830 he induced the company to lay out £30,000 in the importation from Europe of prime sheep, chiefly merinos, and further sums on pure cattle and high-bred horses. From the merinos thus imported, which were from the very best flocks of Germany, the leading flocks of Australia are principally descended. Mr. Curr resigned his position as Chief Inspector of Stock on July 30th, 1889, and died on August 3rd, 1889.

Curtis, Oswald, formerly Superintendent of the province of Nelson, N.Z., son of Stephen Curtis and Eleanora (Llewellyn) his wife, was born in London on Jan. 20th, 1821, and landed at Nelson, N.Z., on June 18th, 1853. He was for many years a member of the Nelson Provincial Council, and was Superintendent of the province from 1867 to 1876, when the provinces were abolished. Mr. Curtis was a member of the New Zealand House of Representatives from 1867 to 1878, and was Postmaster-General and Commissioner of Customs, Stamp Duties, and Telegraphs in the short-lived Stafford administration from Sept. 10th to Oct. 11th, 1872. Mr. Curtis was for many years resident magistrate, warden, and coroner of the Nelson district and a governor of Nelson College. He was a Fellow of the University of New Zealand, and a member of the Senate from 1870 to 1888.

Cuthbert, Hon. Henry, M.L.C., the eldest son of John Cuthbert, of Roscommon, Ireland, was born at that place on July 29th, 1829. In 1854 he was admitted a solicitor in Ireland, and the same year left for Victoria, where he was at once admitted to practice. In 1855 he went to Ballarat, and, besides being successful in his profession, became largely interested in mining. He was the original promoter of the well-known Buninyong Gold Mining Company. In 1874 Mr. Cuthbert was returned to the Legislative Council, unopposed, for the South-Western Province, and is now one of the representatives of the Wellington Province in that body. Mr. Cuthbert held the office of Postmaster-General in the second Berry Administration from July 1877 to July 1878, when he resigned in consequence of inability to support the Government scheme for Reform of the Council. In March 1880 he joined Mr. Service's Ministry as Commissioner of Customs and Postmaster-General, and held office till the defeat of the Government in the following August. Mr. Cuthbert was Minister of Justice under Mr. Gillies from Feb. 1886 to Nov. 1890. He married in May 1863 the second daughter of Mr. Kirby, of Melbourne, and was one of the representatives of Victoria at the Federation Convention of 1891.

D

Daintree, Richard, C.M.G., sometime Agent-General for Queensland, was born at Hemingford Abbotts, Huntingdonshire, in Dec. 1851, and was educated at Bedford Grammar School and Christ's College, Cambridge. Being in delicate health, he was recommended a voyage to Australia, and arrived in Victoria in 1852, where he was employed as assistant to Mr. Selwyn, the Government Geologist, from 1854 to 1856, when Mr. Daintree returned to England, and was for six months a student in Dr. Percy's laboratory in the Royal School of Mines. In August 1857 Mr. Daintree returned to Melbourne, and in 1858 was appointed Field Geologist on the Geological Survey of Victoria, on which he worked for seven years, paying special attention to the Cape Patterson coal formation and the exploration of the Bass river. Having resigned his post in Victoria and engaged in squatting pursuits in North Queensland, he was appointed Government Geologist for North Queensland in 1868, and in March 1872 Agent-General for the colony in London. He held this position till 1876, when he was compelled to resign through ill-health. He had been created C.M.G. in 1875, and died on June 25th, 1878.

Daldy, Captain William Crush, was born at Rainham, Essex, in 1816. He arrived in New Zealand in 1841, having brought out the schooner Shamrock, eighty-five tons. On the voyage to Launceston he touched at Tahiti. The trouble with the French was then going on, and Captain Daldy was arrested as a political prisoner, and tried on the beach by a black judge and jury. This caused considerable correspondence between the Governments of the day. Captain Daldy arrived in Auckland on July 1st, 1841, on which day the first Custom House was opened. He traded for some time with the schooner between Sydney and Auckland. In 1845 he returned to England in charge of the barque Bellina, the first vessel loaded at Auckland with merchandise for export to England. The cargo was somewhat mixed, including copper ore from Kawau, kauri gum, manganese from Waiheki, and the first export of wool, consisting of two bales. During the voyage home Dr. Martin and Mr. William Brown, who were passengers, both wrote their books on New Zealand. Captain Daldy returned to Auckland in 1847, and two years later commenced business as a general merchant and shipping agent in the firm of Coombes and Daldy. He was elected to the House of Representatives, and from May to June 1856 was a member of the Fox Ministry. Captain Daldy participated actively in provincial politics, holding various offices, and during the Maori disturbances he commanded a company of volunteers. In 1865 he again visited England, and for twelve months acted as agent for the Government, during which period he sent out a thousand emigrants. He has held many offices in connection with the municipal government of Auckland, was at one time captain of a volunteer fire brigade, and officiated for seven years as Chairman of the Harbour Board.

Dalley, Right Hon. William Bede, P.C., Q.C., was born in Sydney in 1831, of Irish Roman Catholic parentage, and was admitted to the New South Wales bar in 1856. Having early displayed great oratorical ability, he was returned to the Assembly for the city of Sydney in the first Parliament elected under responsible government, and was Solicitor-General in the Cowper Ministry from Nov. 1858 to Feb. 1859. Subsequently he retired from political life, and devoted himself to the practice of his profession, with the exception of a short interval, during which he visited England, in conjunction with Mr. (now Sir) Henry Parkes, on an official mission for the promotion of emigration to New South Wales. They delivered addresses at most of the main centres of population in the United Kingdom: but little or no success attended their efforts, owing to the anti-democratic feeling aroused by the outbreak of the American war. Having been nominated to the Legislative Council in 1875, he accepted office under Mr. (now Sir) John Robertson, and was Attorney-General from February of that year to March 1877, when he resigned with his colleagues, resuming office in the same capacity in Sir John Robertson's fourth Administration in August 1877. This Government only lasted till December of the same year, and Mr. Dalley remained out of office till Jan. 1883, when he became Attorney-General in the Ministry of Mr. (afterwards Sir) Alexander Stuart. It was whilst filling the post of acting Premier in this Administration, during the absence through illness of Sir Alexander Stuart, that Mr. Dalley took on himself the responsibility of despatching the New South Wales contingent to the aid of the Imperial troops operating in the Soudan. The Ministry resigned in Oct. 1885, and Mr. Dalley (who had refused knighthood, and also the succession to the Chief Justiceship vacated by the death of Sir James Martin in 1886) was in the latter year appointed a member of the English Privy Council, being the first Australian statesman upon whom that honour was conferred. He retired from the Legislative Council in 1887 on the ground of ill-health, and died on Oct. 30th, 1888. Mr. Dalley, who was not only an accomplished orator, but a man of remarkable artistic culture and great literary ability, was looked upon as the foremost representative of the Roman Catholic party in Australia. He had been a widower for some years, and left two sons. A medallion tablet, executed by Sir Edgar Boehm, was erected to his memory in St. Paul's Cathedral by public subscription in 1890, the ceremony of unveiling it being performed by Lord Rosebery, who delivered an impressive address on the occasion.

Dalrymple, George Augustus Frederick Elphinstone, First Speaker Legislative Assembly, Queensland, was the tenth son of Sir Robert Dalrymple Horn Elphinstone, Bart., by his marriage with Graeme, daughter of Colonel David Hepburn, and was born on May 6th, 1826. He went to Australia as aide-de-camp to the late Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales, and became a partner with Mr. (now Sir Arthur) Hodgson in squatting ventures in the Moreton Bay district. He was one of the early explorers of what is now the colony of Queensland. In 1859 he explored the country between the parallels of 19° and 20° S., and greatly extended the knowledge of the country which Leichardt, Mitchell, Kennedy, and Gregory had primarily, opened up. In 1862 he made a second journey, and traced an opening from the Valley of Lagoons to Rockingham Bay in Queensland. Mr. Dalrymple, after whom the town of Dalrymple was named, sat in the Legislative Assembly of New South Wales before Queensland was severed from New South Wales, and soon after separation was effected entered the Legislative Assembly of Queensland, and became Colonial Secretary in Mr. (now Sir Robert) Herbert's second ministry in July 1866; but did not remain in the Government when it was reconstructed under Mr. Macalister (who took the portfolio of Colonial Secretary) in the following month. He died on Jan. 22nd, 1876.

Daly, Sir Dominic, sometime Governor of South Australia, was the third son of Dominic Daly by his wife Joanna Harriet, eldest daughter of Joseph Blake, of Ardfry, co. Galway, and sister of the 1st Lord Wallscourt. He was born at Ardfry on August 11th, 1798, and was educated at Oscott Roman Catholic College, near Birmingham. He went to Canada in 1822 as private secretary to Sir Francis Burton, and in 1825 was appointed Assistant-Secretary to the Government of Lower Canada. Two years later he was appointed Provincial Secretary for Lower Canada; and upon the union of the Canadas, in 1840, became Provincial Secretary for the united provinces and member of the Board of Works with a seat in the Council. He retired from the latter post in 1846, and from the former in 1848, but continued to represent the county of Megantic in the Canadian parliament. Subsequently returning to England, he was, in Oct. 1849, placed on the Commission of Inquiry into the the New and Waltham Forest rights. Sir Dominic was Lieut.-Governor of Tobago from 1852 to 1854, when he was appointed Lieut.-Governor of Prince Edward Island, and was knighted by patent in 1856. He left Prince Edward Island in 1859, and assumed office as Governor-in-Chief of South Australia in March 1862. His administration, which only terminated with his death on Feb. 19th, 1868, was highly popular with all classes, and though a Roman Catholic, with the representatives of all the religious bodies. During his régime H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh visited the colony, and the Northern Territory was included within its limits. Sir Dominic married, on May 20th, 1826, Caroline Maria, second daughter of Ralph Gore, of Barrowmount, co. Kilkenny, who survived her husband, and died at Glenelg, South Australia, on July 16th, 1872, aged seventy-one years.

Daly, Dominick Daniel, nephew of Sir Dominic Daly (q.v.), went to South Australia in 1865 as aide-de-camp to his uncle, who was then Governor of the colony. He was appointed Surveyor under the South Australian Government in 1866, and took part in the Northern Territory Expedition from 1868 to 1870. From Feb. 1874 to March 1875 he was employed in the Engineer-in-Chief's Department, and was then appointed Surveyor for the Native States in the Malayan Peninsula. He died on July 15th, 1889, in Borneo. Mr. Daly married Harriett, daughter of Benjamin Douglas, formerly Collector of Customs in South Australia, and afterwards Government Resident of the Northern Territory. She has written several works.

Dampier, Alfred, was born in London in 1847, and educated at the Charterhouse[1]. He began his professional career at Stratford-on-Avon, and subsequently travelled with a company through the chief provincial towns of England and Scotland. In 1872, while playing in Manchester, he was engaged by Mr. H. R. Harwood, then one of the managers of the Theatre Royal, Melbourne, whither he proceeded; and in the following year made his début in Australia as Mephistopheles in his own version of Goethe's Faust. After a three years' engagement in Melbourne, during which period he appeared successfully in Hamlet, Othello, Iago, Richard III., Jaques, and other leading parts, Mr. Dampier visited Sydney, Adelaide, and New Zealand, and thence proceeded to America and London, where, at the Surrey Theatre, he produced, among other pieces, the drama All for Gold, by Mr. F. R. Hopkins, the Australian dramatist. During his various engagements in Australia, America, and England, Mr. Dampier's daughters, Rose and Lily, came into great prominence by their acting in a dramatic version of Helen's Babie's written by Mr. Garnet Walch, of Melbourne. Mr. Dampier returned to Australia, and became lessee of the Alexandra Theatre, which he rechristened the Australian, and there produced with great success a drama founded on Rolf Boldrewood's "Robbery under Arms," written by Mr. Garnet Walch and himself, and in which he appeared as the hero, Captain Starlight. In 1868 Mr. Dampier married Katherine Alice, daughter of T. H. Russell, of Birmingham.

Dangar, Hon. Henry Cary, M.L.C., M.A., second son of Henry Dangar, of Neotsfield, N.S.W., was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. in 1857. He entered at the Inner Temple in August 1849, and was called to the bar in June 1854. He was nominated to the Legislative Council of New South Wales in 1883. Mr. Dangar married Lucy, daughter of Hon. John Lamb, M.L.C., of New South Wales, formerly Commander R.N., and Emma, his wife, daughter of John Robinson, of London.

Darley, Hon. Sir Frederick Matthew, Chief Justice of New South Wales, son of the late Henry Darley of county Wicklow, Ireland, was born on Sept. 18th, 1830, and educated at Dungannon College, and at Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated B.A. in 1851. He was called to the Irish bar in Jan. 1853, and went the Munster Circuit. Having determined to try his fortunes in Australia, he went to New South Wales, and was admitted to the bar there in June 1862. In Sept. 1868 he was called to the Legislative Council Having practised at the bar with success, he was made Q.C. in 1878. From Nov. 1881 to Jan. 1883 Sir Frederick was Vice-President of the Executive Council, and represented the Parkes Government in the Legislative Council. Upon the death of Sir James Martin in Nov. 1886 he was offered the position of Chief Justice; this he refused, whereupon Sir Julian Salomons was appointed to that office. On his resignation, however, before he was sworn in, the position was again pressed upon Sir Frederick, who finally accepted the office, and was knighted in April 1887. Sir Frederick was married at Hunsdon, Hertfordshire, England, on Dec. 13th, 1860, to Miss Lucy Forest Browne.

Darling, Sir Charles Henry, K.C.B., third Governor of Victoria, was the eldest son of Major-General Henry Charles Darling, Lieut.-Governor of Tobago from 1833 to 1845, by his marriage with the eldest daughter of Charles Cameron, Governor of the Bahamas. He was the nephew of Sir Ralph Darling, Governor of New South Wales from 1825 to 1831, and was born in Nova Scotia in 1809. He was educated at Sandhurst Military College, whence he obtained an ensign's commission without purchase in the 57th Regiment of Foot in Dec. 1825. In 1827 he was appointed assistant private secretary to his uncle, the then Governor of New South Wales, and in 1830 became his military secretary. When Sir Ralph Darling retired in 1831, his nephew re-entered the senior department of the Sandhurst Military College, and in 1833 was appointed on the staff of Sir Lionel Smith, whom he served as military secretary in the West Indies from 1833 to 1836, and in Jamaica from 1836 to 1839. Sir Charles Darling was made captain in 1839, and retired from the army in 1841. Two years later he was appointed by Lord Elgin, then Governor of Jamaica, Agent-General for Immigration and Adjutant-General of Militia on that island. Subsequently he was the Governor's secretary till 1847, when he was appointed Lieut.-Governor of St. Lucia, and in 1851 Lieut.-Governor of the Cape Colony during the temporary absence of Sir George Cathcart, on whose permanent departure he acted as administrator from May to Dec. 1854, during which period parliamentary government was established in the colony. Sir Charles Darling was then appointed Governor of Antigua and the Leeward Islands, but never took up the appointment, as on his return home he was sent to administer the government of Newfoundland, where he inaugurated responsible government, and acted as Governor until Feb. 1857, when he was appointed Governor of Jamaica. In 1863 he was nominated successor to Sir Henry Barkly as Governor of Victoria, and assumed office on Sept. 11th of that year. He unfortunately arrived on the eve of the most embittered crisis which ever disturbed the politics of the colony. The facts of "the deadlock," as it was called, will be found fully narrated in the notice of Sir James McCulloch, and need not be recapitulated here. Suffice it to say that Sir Charles Darling went heart and soul with his Ministry and the majority in the lower house in their contest with the upper chamber over the rejection of the Protectionist tariff both in its separate form, and as a "tack" to the Appropriation Bill of the year. A protest was sent home by the Legislative Council, and at the end of 1865 a petition was sent to the Queen protesting against the Governor's conduct, signed by twenty-two out of the forty-five executive councillors of the colony. In commenting on this petition in a despatch to Mr. Cardwell, the then Colonial Secretary, Sir Charles Darling made a fierce attack on the signatories, accusing them of "a treacherous conspiracy against the Governor" and intimating that but for liability to misapprehension he would "have suspended them all from office until her Majesty's pleasure was known." He then incautiously declared it " impossible that the relations between the petitioners and myself can, in the face of this conspiracy, be such as ought to subsist between the Governor and gentlemen holding the commission of an executive councillor, whether occupying or not responsible office; and it is at least to be hoped that the future course of political events may never designate any of them for the position of a confidential adviser of the Crown, since it is impossible their advice could be received with any other feelings than those of doubt and distrust." A little later, and a despatch was received from Mr. Cardwell plainly intimating that the Governor's conduct in assenting to the devices of his Ministry for obtaining money without the assent of Parliament had been inconsistent with the policy announced by himself of rigid adherence to the law. The despatch did not, however, go beyond censure. A second, received in April 1866, in reply to that of Sir Charles Darling above quoted, however, contained the mandate of dismissal, Mr. Cardwell pointing out with a cogency which it was impossible to dispute that Sir Charles Darling had precluded himself by his conduct from acting freely with those whom the course of parliamentary proceedings might present to him as confidential advisers. "It is your own act now," Mr. Cardwell insisted with merciless logic, "which leaves me no alternative. You force me to decide between yourself and the petitioners. It must be evident to yourself that you occupy a position of personal antagonism...It is impossible after this that you can with advantage continue to conduct the government of the colony." On the other hand, the Legislative Assembly passed a resolution asserting that the country was "greatly beholden to him for his steady adhesion to the principles" of responsible government. They further decided to vote a solatium of £20,000 to Lady Darling by way of compensation to the Governor for his forfeiture of the pension which he would lose by his recall. Sir Charles Darling declined to permit any member of his family to receive a gift pending the signification of the Queen's pleasure. In the meantime, on May 5th, 1866, Sir Charles Darling left Victoria, a demonstration of his sympathisers being made on his departure. A vast crowd turned out to bid him farewell with every mark of respectful regret. On his arrival in England, Lord Carnarvon, who had replaced Mr. Cardwell, declined to allow him to accept the proffered gift, intimating that if he did so, he must not look for anything further at the hands of her Majesty's Government. Sir Charles took the hint, and resigned, and a series of rejections and "tacks" now ensued on the proposed vote of £20,000 more insurmountable and irritating, if possible, than those which had arisen in reference to the tariff. Later on Sir Charles Darling made his peace with the Colonial Office, and withdrew his resignation, withdrawing also his acceptance of the much-debated gift The cause of contention between the Houses was thus removed, and almost immediately after came the news of Sir Charles Darling's death, whereupon the grant was "untacked," and an annuity for life of £1,000 a year conferred on Lady Darling, together with a lump sum of £5,000 for the education of her children. Sir Charles Darling, who was created K.C.B. in 1865, died at Cheltenham on Jan. 25th, 1870. He was thrice married, his third wife, who is still in receipt of the £1,000 a year pension from Victoria, being Elizabeth Isabella Caroline, the only daughter of Christopher Salter, of Stoke Poges, Bucks, to whom he was married in 1851.

Darling, Hon. John, M.L.C., was member for West Adelaide in the Legislative Assembly of South Australia in 1870-1 and 1875-6, and for Yatala in 1878-81; and was Commissioner of Public Works in the Downer Ministry from June to Oct 1885. In May 1888 he was elected to the Legislative Council.

Darling, Lieut.-General Sir Ralph, G.C.B., seventh Governor of New South Wales, was the son of Christopher Darling, who was promoted from Sergeant-Major to the adjutancy of the 45th Foot in 1778, and was afterwards Quarter-Master of that regiment. Sir Ralph, who was born in 1775, was employed in the Custom House at Grenada. In May 1793 he was appointed Ensign in the 45th Foot, and was engaged in suppressing the negro insurrection in Grenada. In 1795 he became Lieutenant, and was Adjutant of the 15th Foot at Martinique, where, in August 1796, he was appointed Military Secretary to Sir Ralph Abercromby. After seeing a variety of service, he commanded a regiment at the battle of Gorunna, and was Deputy-Adjutant-General in the Walcheren expedition. He became brevet-Colonel in 1810, Major-General in 1813, and in 1815, when on the Horse Guards' staff, took the extraordinary step of writing to the Duke of Wellington, asking for a command in the army in Belgium. This elicited a characteristic reply from the Duke. He commanded the troops in Mauritius from 1818 to 1823, and in May 1825 was gazetted Lieut.-General. In the same year he was appointed to succeed Sir Thomas Brisbane as Governor-in-Chief of New South Wales and its dependencies. He was sworn in at Sydney on Dec. 19th, 1825. On his way out from England he called at Van Diemen's Land, which until then had been a dependency of New South Wales, and on Dec. 3rd proclaimed its independence as a separate colony. His first task on his arrival in Sydney was to re-organise the Civil Service, and he thus commenced by creating ill-feeling and discontent. According to Blair, he was precise and methodical, his habits being painfully careful, and exhibiting that sort of diligence which takes infinite trouble and anxiety over details to the neglect of larger and more important matters. He had not been long in the colony before he embroiled himself with the press, and became involved in mostly bootless prosecutions for libel. The Joint Stock Company mania came on the top of other troubles. A drought of three years ensued; a financial crash followed, the value of cattle falling from pounds to shillings. The Governor reduced the compulsory scale of rations issued to assigned servants in consequence of the scarcity, and of course became still more unpopular. The feeling against him was intensified by his conduct towards Sudds and Thompson, two soldiers who committed a theft in order, as they thought, to better their condition, which they regarded as worse than that of convicts. Darling subjected them to rigorous military punishment, and Sudds died in confinement whilst cruelly fettered. These circumstances produced immense excitement. Wentworth, the leader of the popular party, drew up an impeachment, which he caused to be formally delivered at Government House, and openly threatened never to lose sight of so great a criminal until he had brought him to justice. The case was repeatedly brought before the House of Commons; but it was not until 1835, four years after Darling's return to England, that a Committee of Inquiry was granted. When at length it was obtained (Mr. Gladstone being one of the members), the evidence for the prosecution fell through, and Darling was honourably acquitted. He was knighted soon afterwards, and in England public sympathy was entirely with him, though he was never again officially employed. After a prolonged struggle with Darling's military despotism, the colonists succeeded, in 1829, in securing the boon of trial by jury. Previously, military juries were the only tribunals before which all penal offences were tried. The Executive Council of New South Wales was enlarged, under Darling's rule, into a Legislative Council of fifteen members, but with secret proceedings. This body it was that granted trial by jury. A period of extreme depression, and almost universal bankruptcy, was succeeded by a period of prosperity, and during the last three or four year of Darling's rule the colony made rapid progress. The differences between the Governor and the principal colonists became so acrimonious, that in Dec 1827 he resigned his patronage of the Turf Club in consequence of some speeches which were made at a dinner given by the Club. In these, severe remarks were uttered in reference to the Governor's administration; and to crown the insult, when the Governor's health was drunk the musicians played the air, "Over the hills and far away." Darling was recalled from his administration of the colony, and embarked for England on Oct 21st, 1831, no demonstration, either of regret or joy, being made at his departure. Darling did not re-enter the Colonial service, but continued his military career, and became successively Colonel of the 90th, 41st, and 49th Regiments of Foot. He died at Brighton, England, on April 2nd, 1858. Sir Ralph Darling married Elizabeth, second daughter of Colonel John Dumaresque, and sister of Lieut.-Colonel Henry Dumaresque, Chief Commissioner of the Australian Agricultural Company in New South Wales.

Darrel, George, Australian actor, dramatist and manager, began his professional career with Simonson's Opera Company in New Zealand; but, on migrating to Melbourne, took to the regular dramatic profession, earning some distinction as a juvenile supporter of the once idolised Walter Montgomery. He married Mrs. Robert Hair (née Fanny Cathcart), the admirable tragédienne, and subsequently visited professionally America and England, where, at the Grand Theatre, Islington, he produced his play The Sunny South. Mr. Darrel is the author of a number of Australian melodramas, including The Struggle for Freedom, Transported for Life, Book from the Grave, The Forlorn Hope, The Sunny South, The Squatter, The Soggarth, etc., and at least half a dozen dramatisations of popular novels. Mr. Darrel's first wife died some years ago at Melbourne, where she was held in great esteem; and he has since married a young actress belonging to one of his New Zealand companies, who has appeared in many of his more recent productions.

Darvall, Hon. Sir John Bayley, K.C.M.G., Q.C., M.A., was the second son of Captain E. Darvall of the 9th Dragoons, and was born at Nunnington Hall, Yorkshire, and educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1833, and was admitted to the degree of M.A. in 1837. He was called to the bar at the Middle Temple in 1838, and a year later went to New South Wales, where he practised at the bar till 1867, being made Q.C. in 1853. He was appointed a nominee member of the Legislative Council of New South Wales in 1844, and in 1848 was elected for Bathurst. He joined in the opposition to the measure conferring responsible government on New South Wales, owing to disapproval of Wentworth's scheme for a non-elective Upper House. In 1861 he was appointed a life member of the Legislative Council, but resigned his seat, and subsequently represented the electoral districts of West Maitland and Sydney in the Legislative Assembly. In April 1856 he was appointed a member of the Executive Council as one of the first responsible ministry, but did not assume office as Solicitor-General till the following June, and resigned with his colleagues in August. He was Solicitor-General in the Parker Ministry from Oct. 1856 to May 1857, and Attorney-General from May to Sept. 1857. He held the same post under Mr. (afterwards Sir) Charles Cowper from August to Oct. 1863, and from Feb. to June 1865. In 1850 Sir John Darvall was appointed a member of the first Senate of the University of Sydney, and in the next year refused a judgeship in Victoria. He was a strenuous opponent of the separation of Queensland from New South Wales in 1859-60. In 1867 he returned to England, and was created C.M.G. in 1869 and K.C.M.G. in 1877. He died in London on Dec. 28th, 1883.

Davenport, Sir Samuel, K.C.M.G., LL.D., J.P., fourth son of George Davenport, banker, Oxford, and of Great Wigston, co. Leicester, by Jane Devereux, his wife, daughter of Joseph Davies, of Mineweare, co. Pembroke, was born at Shirburn, Oxfordshire, on March 5th, 1818, and came to South Australia in 1842, whither his elder brother, George Francis Davenport, had preceded him. He was appointed one of the four nominee members of the Legislative Council on May 5th, 1846, and was a nominated non-official member of the enlarged Legislative Council when the Constitution Act was passed (Jan. 2nd, 1856), but resigned on August 19th, 1856. He was an elected member of the new Council from March 9th, 1857, to August 30th, 1866, when he resigned. Sir Samuel was Commissioner of Public Works in the first ministry formed after the concession of responsible government, and acted as its representative in the Legislative Council from March 20th, 1857, to August 21st in the same year. He resumed office as Commissioner of Public Works in Mr. (afterwards Sir) R. Torrens' Ministry, Sept. 1st to Sept. 30th, 1857. He was Executive Commissioner for South Australia at the International Exhibitions held in London in 1851, Philadelphia in 1876, Sydney in 1879, Melbourne in 1880. He was knighted in 1884, and was President of the South Australian Commission to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition held at South Kensington in 1886. For his services at the latter he was created K.C.M.G., and received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Cambridge University. He was Executive Commissioner and Trustee of the Adelaide Jubilee Exhibition in 1887, and a member of the South Australian Commission for the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition in 1888. He married, on June 1st, 1842, Margaret Frazer, only daughter of William Lennox Cleland, barrister, Calcutta, and his wife Harriett Erekine Fullerton. Sir Samuel is President of the South Australian branch of the Royal Geographical Society of Australasia. In June 1891 he was an unsuccessful candidate for a seat in the Legislative Council.

Davidson, Rev. John, was born at Burntisland, Scotland, in 1834, and educated for the ministry. Having gained a considerable repute as a preacher, he was invited to assume the pastorate of Chalmers Church, Adelaide. Accepting the call, he arrived in South Australia in June 1870, and was connected with Chalmers Church till 1877, when he associated himself with the Adelaide Union College. When Sir W. W. Hughes agreed to endow the Adelaide University with £20,000 for two professorships, he stipulated that Mr. Davidson should fill the first chair of English Language and Literature and Mental and Moral Philosophy. Accordingly, when the University was constituted, in 1874, Mr. Davidson assumed the duties of the position. He died on July 22nd, 1881, leaving a widow, the daughter of the late Hugh Miller the famous Scotch geologist and writer. Mrs. Davidson, who died at Adelaide in Dec. 1883, was the author of "Isabel Jardine's History" (1867), "Christian Osborn's Friends" (1869), and contributed to the Adelaide newspapers and Chambers's Journal.

Davidson, William Montgomery Davenport, J.P., Surveyor-General, Queensland, was born at Richmond, Surrey, in 1830. He was educated at the Moravian School in Yorkshire, and afterwards at the Stockwell Grammar School, which is connected with King's College, London. Mr. Davidson then went to the College of Civil Engineers, where he took his diploma. He left England for Tasmania in 1852, going over to Victoria the same year. He returned to Tasmania in 1854, and was appointed Inspecting Surveyor for the southern part of the island. In response to an invitation from Mr. A. C. Gregory, who was then Surveyor-General, he went to Queensland in 1861, and was appointed Staff Surveyor. In 1868 he became District Surveyor, a position he held until June 1st, 1875, when he accepted the post of Deputy-Surveyor-General. In Dec. 1889, on the resignation of Mr. Tully, Mr. Davidson exchanged this position for that of Surveyor-General. He is a J.P. for Queensland.

Davies, Hon. David Mortimer, M.L.A., was born at Blains, Monmouthshire, Wales, and was educated for the ministry at the Brecon Independent College, in that principality, but, his views having undergone a change in regard to some important religious doctrines, he resigned his charge, and entered on agricultural pursuits. He emigrated to South Australia, arriving at Adelaide in 1866, and removed thence to Ballarat, in Victoria, the next year, where he engaged in agricultural pursuits, in the Buninyong district. Mr. Davies was elected a member of the Legislative Assembly for Grenville in 1877, and still represents the constituency. He is a strong Liberal and Protectionist, and was Government whip during the Berry régime. In Oct. 1887 he joined the Gillies-Deakin Cabinet, but held no portfolio till June 1889, when he became Commissioner of Public Works and Vice-President of the Board of Land and Works. From June to Nov. 1890 he was Minister of Mines in the same Government, resigning with his colleagues at the latter date.

Davies, Hon. John, C.M.G., M.L.C., J.P., son of the late John Davies, of New South Wales, was born in Sydney on March 2nd, 1839. Starting in business as an ironmonger and general blacksmith, he commenced to take an active part in politics on the Liberal side as soon as he was of age, and in Dec. 1874 he was returned to the Assembly for East Sydney, which constituency he continued to represent until his appointment to the Legislative Council in Dec. 1887. He was Postmaster-General in the John Robertson Government from August to Dec. 1877. Mr. Davies was acting British Commissioner at the Sydney International Exhibition in 1879, and was created C.M.G. in the following year, when he was a Commissioner for New South Wales to the Melbourne International Exhibition; as also for the Amsterdam Exhibition in 1882, and the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in 1886. Mr. Davies, who was President of the Royal Commission on Friendly Societies, married, in 1861, Miss Elizabeth Eaton.

Davies, Hon. John Mark, M.L.C., ex-Minister of Justice, Victoria, is the son of the late Ebenezer Davies by his marriage with Ruth, daughter of Mark Bartlett, of Bracknell, Berks, and elder brother of the Hon. Sir Matthew H. Davies (q.v.). He has been in practice in Melbourne as a solicitor since 1863, and was elected to the Legislative Council for the South Yarra Province in 1889. On the formation of the Munro Government in Nov. 1890, Mr. Davies accepted the position of Minister of Justice, and was sworn of the Executive Council. Twelve months later he resigned, owing to inability to support the one man one vote policy of the Cabinet. He, however, resumed office when the measure was dropped, but finally retired in Feb. 1892, when the Ministry was reconstructed under Mr. Shiels.

Davies, Hon. Sir Matthew Henry, M.L.A., ex-Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, Victoria, is the son of Ebenezer Davies and Ruth his wife, daughter of Mark Bartlett, of Bracknell, Berks, England, and grandson of the Rev. John Davies, of Trevecca College, South Wales. He was born at Geelong in 1850, and educated at the Geelong College, and matriculated at the Melbourne University in 1869. He was admitted a solicitor of the Supreme Court of Victoria in 1875, and married Elizabeth Locke, eldest daughter of the Rev. Peter Mercer, D.D., of Melbourne, Presbyterian minister. For five years he was hon. secretary to the Council of the Law Institute of Victoria, and is a J.P. for the central bailiwick. He was mayor of the city of Prahran in 1881-2; represented the electoral district of St. Kilda in the Legislative Assembly from 1883 to 1888; was a member of the Royal Commission on Transfer of Land and Titles to Land in 1885; was sworn of the Executive Council in Feb. 1886, and held a portfolio in the Gillies-Deakin Government as a Minister without responsible office from that date till Oct. 1887. Sir Matthew visited England in connection with the Colonial and Indian Exhibition while a member of the Victorian Government, 1886-7. He was Chairman of the Royal Commission on Banking in 1887, and was elected Speaker of the Legislative Assembly in Oct. 1887. He was Chairman of the Royal Commission on the Electric Lighting and Ventilation of the Parliament Houses in 1888; Executive Commissioner and a Vice-President of the Centennial International Exhibition, held in Melbourne in 1888; was returned unopposed for the electoral district of Toorak in 1889, and unanimously re-elected Speaker in the same year. He was knighted in 1890, and he gave the munificent sum of £10,000 to the Imperial Institute and other public objects in the Jubilee year of the Queen's reign. Sir Matthew Davies held the Speakership up to the General Election in April 1892, when he retired from Parliament.

Davies, Rowland Lyttleton Archer, son of Ven. Rowland Robert Davies, at one time Colonial Chaplain of Tasmania, and subsequently Archdeacon of Hobart (who came of a Mallow family, and died in 1880), was born at Longford, Tas., on March 28th, 1837. He was sent to England for his education, and returned to Tasmania in 1859. Mr. Davies, who at a very early period cultivated the belles lettres, married in Jan. 1875, and died on July 11th, 1881. After his death a selection from his literary productions was published, under the editorship of his English tutor: "Poems and other Literary Remains," edited, with biographical sketch, by Charles Tomlinson, F.R.S. (Stanford, 1884).

Davis, Hon. George, M.L.C., Minister of Defence, Victoria, emigrated to that colony at an early age, and took a prominent part in municipal affairs in Emerald Hill, one of the suburbs of Melbourne. Subsequently he removed to Gippsland and embraced pastoral pursuits, taking a keen interest in horse-breeding and racing. Having unsuccessfully contested the North Gippsland electorate, he was returned to the Upper House for the Gippsland province in Sept. 1888. When the Munro Government was reconstructed under Mr. Shiels, Mr. Davis, who is looked on as one of the leaders of the country party in Parliament, accepted a position in the Cabinet, and was sworn in as Minister of Defence in March 1892.

Davis, James Davidson, is deserving of mention as the author of the first "Bibliography of New Zealand" (Lyon & Blair, Wellington, N.Z.). It is admirably compiled and annotated, affording evidence of painstaking research and scholarly tastes. Mr. Davis was a native of Hastings, England, and emigrated for the benefit of his health. He obtained an appointment on the staff of the Auckland Star and entered as a student of the University College of that city. Consumption, however, cut off a promising career in 1887. Mr. Davis was author of a brochure upon "Social Life in England in the Sixteenth Century."

Davy, Edward, son of Thomas Davy, a surgeon practising at Ottery St. Mary, Devonshire, and Elizabeth (Boutflower) his wife, was born at Ottery on June 16th, 1806, and was brought up to the medical profession, becoming M.R.C.S. in 1829. Having been deceived into buying a chemist's business in the Strand, London, under the idea that he was purchasing a medical practice, he made the best of his disappointment, and traded as an operative chemist under the style of "Davy & Co.," dealing mostly in scientific apparatus of his own invention, such as "Davy's blowpipe" and "improved mercurial trough." He also patented "Davy's diamond cement," for mending glass and china. In 1836 he published "An Experimental Guide to Chemistry". He also commenced experiments in electric telegraphy, which entitle him to be regarded as one of the pioneers of the science, inventing the "relay," or, as he called it, the "electric renewer." In 1836 he issued "Outline of a New Plan of Telegraphic Communication." The next year he laid down a mile of copper wire around the inner circle of Regent's Park, by means of which many successful results were developed. In May of this year he opposed the grant of a patent to his rivals, Cooke and Wheatstone, but failed in the attempt. In 1837, too, a working model of his improved apparatus was shown at the Belgrave Institution and at Exeter Hall, where his invention of the needle telegraph excited much attention. In 1838, despite much opposition, he succeeded in patenting his "electro-chemical recording telegraph." Fortune and fame seemed now to await him, but he chose this very juncture to go to Australia as medical superintendent of an emigrant ship, sailing on April 15th, 1839. During his absence his schemes collapsed, and his invention being bought up by the old Electric Telegraph Company, was quietly allowed to drop. In Australia Mr. Davy started farming and then turned to journalism, contributing to the Melbourne Argus from 1843 to 1845, and was then engaged as editor of the Adelaide Examiner. From 1848 to 1851 he managed some smelting works at Yatala, in South Australia. He took charge of the Government Assay Office in Adelaide in 1852, and was then tempted away to Melbourne to take charge of a similar establishment, where he was paid £1,500 a year. The latter engagement only lasted from July 1853 to Dec. 1854, when the post was abolished in a fit of Government economy. He again tried farming, but could not make it pay. He then reverted to his original calling, and practised as a surgeon at Malmesbury, in Victoria. At the close of his career the Society of Telegraph Engineers and Electricians made him an honorary member (Nov. 1884). He died on Jan. 27th, 1885, at Malmesbury. Justice was done to him in his lifetime by Mr. Fahie; and since his death his nephew, H. Davy, M.D., has published a memoir of him.

Dawes, Right Rev. Nathaniel, M.A., Coadjutor Bishop of Brisbane, was born on July 24th, 1843. He was educated at Montpelier College, Brighton, and St. Alban Hall, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. (3rd class in theology) in 1872, and M.A. in 1875. He was ordained deacon in 1871 and priest in 1872, and was curate of St. Peter's, Vauxhall, from 1871 to 1877; evening lecturer at St. Leonard's, Streatham, from 1874 to 1877; vicar of St Mary's, Charterhouse, from 1877 to 1886, in which year he went to Australia, and acted as rector of St Andrew's, in South Brisbane, and Archdeacon of that city. He was consecrated Coadjutor Bishop of Brisbane in Sydney on May 1st, 1889, by the Primate, Dr. Barry, being the first bishop consecrated in Australia.

Dawson, James, was born at Bonnytown, Linlithgow, Scotland, and arrived in Melbourne, Vict., in May 1840. He took up a station on the Yarra, but after three or four years removed to the Port Fairy district, where he continued squatting. He is author of "Australian Aborigines," published in 1881 (Robertson, Melbourne).

Day, William Henry, is the son of the late Captain John Day, 49th Regiment, by Emily, only daughter of Jan Caspar Hartsinck. Mr. Day, who is a brother of Mr. Justice Day, was born on May 13th, 1828, and educated at St. Gregory's College, Downside, Bath. In Dec. 1854 he arrived in Melbourne, and went to Queensland in the following year. From 1859 to 1862 he was a clerk in the Colonial Secretary's office, and afterwards clerk of Petty Sessions until 1874, when he was appointed Acting Police Magistrate. In 1883 he received the appointment of Water Police Magistrate, and also became Second Police Magistrate in 1884. He was a member of the Education Board when it was first established, and has been Police Magistrate of South Brisbane since 1888. He married Margaret Ellen, only daughter of the late Captain Tom Buttanshaaw, R.N., a pioneer colonist; and Mrs. Henry Day has contributed in prose and verse to various Queensland papers.

Deakin, Hon. Alfred, M.L.A., J.P., ex-Chief Secretary of Victoria, is the son of William Deakin, a well-known coach proprietor in the early days of the colony, and an emigrant from England, his mother being the daughter of a farmer in Monmouthshire. He was born at Fitzroy, Melbourne, on August 3rd, 1856, and educated at the Church of England Grammar School, under Dr. Bromby, and at the Melbourne University, but did not graduate. He was called to the Victorian bar in 1877, and adopted the profession of journalism, being connected with the editorial department of the Melbourne Age and Leader from 1878. He was elected to the Assembly for West Bourke in Feb. 1879, as a supporter of the second Berry Ministry, defeating Mr. R. Harper by fifty-six votes. There was one drawback to this gratifying success, that at Newham, an inconsiderable polling place, a complete poll was not taken. The result could not in any case have been altered, as if all the votes bad gone to his adversary they would not have exceeded at the outside thirty. Still, Mr. Deakin felt it a matter of principle, as a Liberal, that a full ballot should be taken; and so, after taking his seat and moving the address in reply to the Vice-regal speech when the House met in July, he, without any consultation with supporters or opponents, resigned his seat, much to the chagrin of a good many of the former, who thought his conduct Quixotic. At the election which ensued he again had Mr. Harper as an opponent, and after one of the severest contests on record was defeated by fifteen votes on a total poll of 4000. The strain had been so severe that, in order to recruit his health, Mr. Deakin went on a trip of some months to Fiji and the South Sea Islands. On his return he recurred to politics, and at the general election in Feb. 1880 again stood for West Bourke; but although he polled a larger vote he was thirteen behind Messrs. Harper and Stoughton. Five months later, Mr. Service, who had succeeded Mr. Berry, was beaten on his Reform Bill, and appealed to the country, when Mr. Deakin once more wooed the suffrages of West Bourke; this being the fourth time within eighteen months. On this occasion he was returned at the head of the poll along with Sir Bryan O'Loghlen, and continued to represent the district until 1889, when he was returned for Essendon and Flemington. Mr. Deakin married Pattie, eldest daughter of Hugh Junor Browne of Melbourne, on April 3rd, 1882. He was Commissioner of Public Works from March 8th to Nov. 13th, 1883; Commissioner of Water Supply from March 8th, 1883, to Feb. 18th, 1886, and Solicitor-General from Nov. 13th, 1883, to April 23rd, 1884, in the Service-Berry Coalition Government. In 1883 he carried an amending Water Conservation Act, which was the first measure passed in Australia providing for public irrigation on a large scale, and became President of the Royal Commission on Irrigation and Water Supply. In the latter capacity be visited America, with the view of investigating the various systems of irrigation in force in that country, and on his return prepared a report, of which 10,000 copies were, at the request of agricultural societies, distributed throughout the colony, and the recommendations of which have been endorsed by some of the highest authorities in England and elsewhere. In the same year Mr. Deakin became sponsor for another ameliorative measure, which, though mainly based upon the provisions of the English Factory Acts, is in some respects greatly ahead of them in providing for the effective protection of women and children. Towards the end of 1885 the Coalition Government was dissolved by the resignations of Messrs. Service, Berry, and Kerferd. Mr. Deakin was then, by a unanimous choice, elected to succeed Mr. (now Sir) Graham Berry, who went home as Agent-General, in the leadership of the Liberal Party. In this capacity he formed a junction with Mr. Gillies' following, assuming (Feb. 18th, 1886) the post of Chief Secretary and Commissioner of Water Supply in that gentleman's cabinet. The new Government, in the absence of contentious topics, went to the country on Mr. Deakin's irrigation policy, which was endorsed by a decisive majority. In view of this result, Mr. Deakin, in June 1886, submitted to the Assembly a measure which, in addition to an alteration of the law of riparian rights, provided for the carrying out of a national system of irrigation, under which the Government were to construct head works, the task of distribution being allotted to the local bodies, who were ultimately to be reimbursed by the private beneficiaries, and in their turn to reimburse the central Government. The measure was adopted in its main features, and a loan floated to effectuate its provisions, which have been largely availed of in various parts of the colony. Perhaps the most important outcome of the irrigation policy launched under Mr. Deakin's auspices was the arrangement entered into with Messrs. Chaffey Brothers for the sale to them of 250,000 acres on the Murray frontage at Mildura for the formation of an irrigation settlement. Mr. Deakin was senior delegate for Victoria to the Colonial Conference held in London in 1887, and took a prominent and successful part in its proceedings; he, however, declined the honour of knighthood (K.C.M.G.) which was offered him during its sittings. Mr. Deakin visited Egypt and Italy, and wrote a second report on irrigation. He was Victorian delegate to the Chinese Conference in 1888, member of the Federal Council, session 1889, and was one of the two delegates of Victoria to the Federation Conference in Melbourne in 1890; being also one of the seven delegates of the colony to the Federation Convention of 1891. Mr. Deakin was appointed First Minister of Health in 1890 and Solicitor-General, taking the place of the Hon. H. J. Wrixon, Attorney-General, during his absence in England in that year. Mr. Deakin resigned office in Oct. 1890 along with the rest of his colleagues, and was joint leader of the Opposition until the dissolution in April 1892, prior to which he had intimated his intention to take up an independent rôle, apart from any party trammels. Mr. Deakin is now devoting the major part of his attention to the practice of his profession, and was leading counsel for the defence in the Deeming murder trial in April 1892. He visited India to study its irrigation systems in 1891.

De Boos, Charles, was born in London on May 24th, 1819, and educated at Addiscombe. He served in the British Legion during the Carlist war in Spain from 1835 to 1837, and emigrated to Australia in 1839. Having been Government shorthand writer in Victoria from 1851 to 1856, he became connected with the press, and removed to Sydney. Mr. De Boos was the author of numerous works, and was appointed Warden of the New South Wales Goldfields in Dec. 1874. He afterwards retired on a pension.

Deering, Samuel, J. P., Assistant Agent-General for South Australia, son of the late William Deering, of Gravesend, Kent, was born at Andover, Hants, on Oct. 11th, 1835. He was clerk in the Census Office, London, in 1851, and emigrated to South Australia, arriving at Adelaide on Sept. 1st, 1853. He has held the following appointments under the South Australian Government: clerk in the Audit Office, 1855; chief clerk, 1859; clerk of Executive Council, 1863; aide-de-camp to Sir D. Daly, Governor-in-Chief, 1867; captain Volunteer Military Staff, 1867; aide-de-camp to the Right Hon. Sir James Fergusson, Bart., Governor of South Australia, 1869; also clerk to the Court of Appeals, Jan. 1869; resigned the foregoing appointments on being made Secretary to the Attorney-General, July 1869; secretary to the Commissioner of Crown Lands, Nov. 1870; a magistrate of the Province, Feb. 1874; a commissioner in London for taking affidavits in the Supreme Court of South Australia, August 1874 ; and was appointed Assistant Agent-General and Assistant Emigration Agent in London in August 1874. Mr. Deering acted as Secretary to the Adelaide Commission for the Melbourne Exhibition of 1866-7, and for the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1867. He was a member of the Commission in London for the Adelaide Jubilee Exhibition of 1887, and was acting Agent-General for South Australia from June 1891 to Feb. 1892, whilst Sir Arthur Blyth was disabled by illness and pending the arrival of Sir John Bray, after the former's death.

Deffell, George Hibbert, M.A., third son of John Henry Deffell, of London, was educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took his M.A. degree. He entered at the Inner Temple in Jan. 1839, and was called to the bar in Nov. 1846. He was appointed Commissioner of the Court of Claims in New South Wales in 1856, Master in Equity of the Supreme Court of that colony in 1857, and Chief Commissioner of Insolvent Estates in July 1865. In 1888 he was appointed Judge in Bankruptcy, and Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of New South Wales. He retired from the bench in the following year.

Deighton, Edward, J. P., was appointed Under Secretary of the Works and Mines Department of Queensland in Jan. 1877, and held the post till Dec. 1888, when he retired on a pension.

de Labilliere, Francis Peter, is of Huguenot origin, his family having occupied a prominent position amongst the nobility of Languedoc as far back as the thirteenth century. Capt. Peter de Labilliere, who was naturalised by Act of Parliament in 1701, served under William III. in Ireland and the Netherlands, and in the British army in Spain. His grandson, Peter de Labilliere, emigrated to Port Phillip in 1839, taking with him his son, Charles Edgar, the father of the subject of the present notice, by his marriage with Miss Hannah Balle, which was solemnised at St. Mark's, Dublin, July 4th, 1839. They made the voyage by the Westminster, the second ship which sailed from England direct for Port Phillip, and landed in Melbourne in Dec. 1839. Mr. Charles Edgar de Labilliere engaged in pastoral pursuits at Tallook Yale, near Bacchus Marsh, and died in London on Nov. 2nd, 1870. The subject of this notice, who was his only son, was born in Melbourne on August 13th, 1840, went to England with his father in 1859; entered at the Middle Temple on Nov. 7th, 1860; called to the bar on June 6th, 1863; married at St. Saviour's, Paddington, on Oct. 9th, 1867, Adelaide, eldest daughter of the late Rev. Edward Ravenshaw, rector of West Rington, Wilts. He has always taken a deep interest in the relations of the mother country and the colonies, and was one of the very earliest advocates of Imperial Federation, developing his views on the question in a succession of papers, the first at the Social Science Congress at Bristol, in 1869, on "The Future Relations of England and her Colonies"; the second at the Colonial Conference, Westminster Palace Hotel, in 1871, of which he was hon. secretary, on "Imperial and Colonial Federalism"; the two next before the Royal Colonial Institute, in 1875 on "The Permanent Unity of the Empire"; and in 1881 on "The Political Organisation of the Empire." He again opened the question before the Social Science Congress at Birmingham, in 1884, and before the conference arranged by the Royal Colonial Institute at the Colonial Exhibition of 1886. He also combated the views of Mr. Goldwin Smith and other advocates of disintegration, in an article on "The Contraction of England, and its Advocates," in the National Review, in 1884. In that year also, on his suggestion, the first steps were taken to found the Imperial Federation League, he being hon. secretary to the provisional committee, and afterwards, jointly with Mr. Arnold Forster, to the League, on its establishment. From 1874 to 1881, as a member of the council of the Royal Colonial Institute, he assisted Sir Fred. Young in the honorary secretarial work of the society before it was in a position to maintain a paid staff. As appears by the correspondence laid before Parliament in 1876, he was the first to suggest the annexation of Eastern New Guinea, in a long letter addressed in 1874 to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, a copy of which was sent, with a covering despatch, by the late Earl of Carnarvon to each of the governors of the Australian colonies. In 1878 his "Early History of the Colony of Victoria" appeared, in two volumes. It corrected the previously received date of the discovery of Port Phillip Bay, and brought to light many facts and documents which had been forgotten, or never before made public. Mr. de Labilliere resides at Harrow.

Deniehy, Daniel Henry, a brilliant but eccentric littérateur and publicist, was the son of Daniel Henry Deniehy, and was born in Kent Street, Sydney, N.S.W., in 1828. Having been educated at a private school and at the old Sydney College, he continued his reading in French and Italian literature. In his fifteenth year his parents took him to England with the intention of placing him at college at Oxford; but his age and diminutive appearance prevented his immediate reception, and he was left in charge of a tutor, with whom he read classics for some months. Weary of his isolation, he visited his relatives in Ireland, and became acquainted with some of the leading members of the Young Ireland party, in whose enthusiasm he participated. On his return to Sydney he became articled clerk to Mr. N. D. Stenhouse, a man of great literary acquirements and generosity of disposition. During the time of his clerkship Deniehy contributed sketches, verses, and criticisms to various newspapers, all of which were received with favour on account of their freshness and vigour of style. At this period he was an unwearied student of the best authors both English and foreign, and in 1853 he delivered a series of lectures on modern literature at the Sydney School of Arts. He also met with popular acceptance as a speaker on the great political topic of the day, the Constitution Bill. In 1856 he was returned to the Legislative Assembly of New South Wales for Argyle, and soon gained a reputation for debating power. He was returned by the electors of East Macquarie in 1858, and kept his seat till after the passing of the Reform Bill in the following year, when he voluntarily withdrew from public life. During his Parliamentary career he invariably took the Liberal side, and was one of the authors of the selection clauses of the Robertson Land Bill, which is regarded as the Magna Charta of agricultural settlement in New South Wales. Meantime he practised at Goulburn as an attorney, but the time he devoted to his Parliamentary duties seriously interfered with his business. In 1858 he returned to Sydney and devoted himself to literature, contributing essays, critical and aesthetical, to the newspapers. In 1860 he became one of the founders of the Southern Cross, to which he contributed brilliant papers on some of the most distinguished writers of the century. On the invitation of Sir Charles Gavan Duffy and others in Victoria, he went in 1862 to Melbourne, where for nearly two years he edited the Victorian newspaper, a Roman Catholic organ, which has been asserted to be one of the most vigorously written political journals ever published in Australia. It succumbed, however, to bad management, and Deniehy returned to Sydney broken in health and hopes. He contributed admirable critical essays to the Sydney Morning Herald at this time (1864-65). In the latter year, acting on the advice of his friends, he removed to Bathurst, N.S.W., where he renewed the practice of his profession, but under depressing circumstances. He died in the hospital of that city on Oct. 22nd, 1865. Deniehy married in 1855 Adelaide Eliza, only daughter of John Cassima Hoalls, of Kellsthorpe, Notts, England, and grand-niece of Lord Gough. This lady, who survived him, was disinherited by her father for what he regarded as an unsuitable alliance, contracted without his consent. In 1884 the "Life and Speeches of Deniehy" were edited by E. A. Martin and published by George Robertson, of Melbourne and Sydney.

Denison, Major-General Sir William Thomas, R.E., K.C.B., successively Governor of Tasmania and of New South Wales, was the son of John Denison (formerly Wilkinson), of Ossington, Notts, who succeeded to the fortune made by his uncles as manufacturers in Leeds, and was for nine years a member of the House of Commons. Three of Sir William Denison's brothers rose to eminence, viz., John Evelyn, who, after being Speaker of the House of Commons, was created Viscount Ossington; Edward, who became Bishop of Salisbury; and George Anthony, the well-known Archdeacon of Taunton. Sir William, who was born in 1804, and was educated at Eton and Woolwich, entered the Royal Engineers, of which he ultimately became colonel, in 1826. In Oct. 1846 he was appointed to succeed Sir J. Eardley Wilmot as Governor of Van Diemen's Land, where he arrived in Jan. 1847. He entered on his administration under many difficulties, the bequest of his predecessor, and his reception by the colonists was not enthusiastic. Sir William Denison had had much experience of public works in England, and the object of Mr. Gladstone, the then Colonial Secretary, in sending him to Van Diemen's Land was the better disposal of the labour and the more effectual control of the prisoners; and throughout his whole period of rule he held to his instructions on these points as the sole obligation binding on him. He attempted an amicable adjustment of the claims of the Legislative Councillors, including both those appointed by his predecessor, and also the "Patriotic Six" whom Sir J. Eardley Wilmot had dismissed. Out of the whole body it was left to his discretion to select six for his own council, which was then a purely nominated body. The whole number of the existing councillors were summoned to Government House to hear the English Minister's decision, and were requested to decide among themselves who should be the half-dozen to be retained. Mutual recriminations, however, arose, and knotty points of law were raised; so that in the end Sir William Denison adjourned the Council to await special instructions from Downing Street or a royal warrant making a fresh and final nomination. The latter was only despatched from England in July. Thus during 1847 there was no Legislature sitting; but at length the Gazette announced that the Queen had reinstated the "Patriotic Six," which was regarded as a great popular triumph. Sir William Denison's next trouble was a quarrel with the judges of the Supreme Court respecting the differential duties on which a revenue of £20,000 depended, and which the judges declared to be illegal There was also a dispute over the "Dog Act," which they declared void. The Governor, determined to resist their flat, removed a judge (Montagu) against whom there were charges of personal misconduct. The Governor also recommended the Chief Justice (Pedder) to take leave of absence; but this he firmly refused to do, and was strongly backed by public opinion in this course. The next step of the Governor was to carry through the Council a Doubts Bill which set aside the ruling of the judges, and bound them to accept as law any ordinance which they did not declare to be repugnant to the Constitution or British law within fourteen days. For his conduct in these matters Sir William Denison was censured by the Home Government; but the removal of Judge Montagu from the Bench was confirmed. The struggle for constitutional government was earnestly carried on for years by the colonists, and at length the boon was gained and was cordially welcomed. It curtailed considerably the power of the Governor. The great anti-transportation struggle succeeded, and Denison took strongly the side opposed to the popular sentiment of the Australian colonies. This imprudent step involved him in years of trouble and angry contention, in the course of which his reputation for justice and fair dealing suffered severely. "His opposition to the colonial will on the subject," says West, "his injustice to the judges, and his sarcastic delineations of colonial character narrowed the circle of his friends." In 1855, after the battle of the League had been fought and won, Denison was transferred to New South Wales, with the title of Governor-General of Australia. His rule in the mother colony was free from any serious political complications, and he personally promoted many public works of a useful character, as indeed he had done in Tasmania. The fortifications of Sydney were planned by him, and bear his name. He was appointed Governor of Madras in 1861. On the death of Lord Elgin he acted as Governor-General of India pending the arrival of Sir John (afterwards Lord) Lawrence. In 1866, his term of rule having expired, he retired into private life, and died in England on Jan. 19th, 1871. He gave to the world his experiences as a governor in two volumes, bearing the title of "Varieties of Viceregal Life." Sir William married in 1838 Caroline Lucy, daughter of the late Admiral Sir Phipps Hornby, K.C.B. He was promoted to be major-general, and was created K.C.B. in 1856. Despite the personal opprobrium under which Sir William Denison laboured during the major portion of his rule in Van Diemen's Land, the colonists on his leaving presented him with £2000 for the purchase of plate, which, after a long correspondence with Downing Street, the Colonial Office authorities ultimately permitted him to accept, contrary to the usual precedent. Sir William deserves credit for the care which characterised his initiation of responsible government in New South Wales and for the conscientiousness which marked his nominations to the Upper Chamber when the bicameral system was instituted. In 1857, when the administration of Norfolk Island was vested in the Governor of New South Wales, he drew up an excellent code of government for the descendants of the mutineers of the Bounty. He also gave good advice to Governor Gore Browne, of New Zealand, which, had it been followed, might have prevented the war commenced at Waitara. Writing on the subject to Sir Roderick Murchison in 1860, he gave it as his opinion that the "treatment of the natives by the whites had been such as would naturally induce the conduct which was designated rebellion," and added, "To tell you the truth, I believe it was intended that such should be the result." In New South Wales, even after the inauguration of responsible government, he allowed himself no inconsiderable discretion in dealing with the advice tendered to him by his Ministers. In 1858 he would not allow the Upper House to be "swamped". When urged by Mr. Cowper, as Mr. Rusden narrates, to dissolve the Legislative Assembly in 1860 and to allow the public payments to be met by payments unwarranted by law, he declared that after a certain date he would sanction no disbursements unauthorised by regular Appropriation Acts. When, after correspondence about the issue of a Crown grant (promised long before by a previous Governor), he received instructions to issue it, and Mr. Cowper (then Colonial Secretary in the Robertson Ministry) refused to affix the public seal, the resolute Governor desired the Secretary to hand the seal to him, and with his own hand sealed the grant The Ministry resigned in consequence, but immediately reconstructed themselves under Cowper; and a vote of censure on the Governor mooted in the Assembly after his departure to Madras was shelved by the passing of the previous question. Sir William Denison's "Varieties of Viceregal Life" was published in London in 1870.

Denniston, His Honour John Edward, Puisne Judge, New Zealand, is the eldest son of Thomas Denniston, of Invercargill, N.Z., by his marriage with Helen French, daughter of the late Gabriel Walker, of Glasgow. He was born in 1845 and educated at Greenock Academy, Blair Lodge, and at Glasgow University Returning to New Zealand, he was admitted to the Bar there in 1874, and appointed a Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of that colony in Feb. 1889. He married in 1877 Mary Helen, daughter of the late Hon. John Bathgate, M.L.C.

De Quincey, Lieut.-Col. Paul Frederick, son of Thomas de Quincey, the great English writer, was born at Grasmere, Westmoreland, on Nov. 26th, 1828, and was educated at the High School, Edinburgh, and at the Lasswade School, near that city. He entered the army in 1845 as ensign in the 70th Regiment, and served with distinction in India from 1846 to 1860, when, having become successively captain and major of brigade on the permanent staff of the Bengal Presidency, he was ordered with his old regiment, which he had rejoined after serving with several others, for active service in New Zealand. Colonel de Quincey arrived in that colony in May 1861, served there for a time, commanded the 1st Company Transport Corps, and then rejoined his regiment; but seeing no prospect of returning to India without sacrificing his position, sold out, and turned his attention to farming, with the unsatisfactory results usually experienced by military men. In 1863, the war breaking out, and the Auckland Militia being called out for active service, he was appointed to the command of the left wing of the 3rd Battalion Artillery, with a captain's commission and without pay, and embodied it on those terms. Major-General Galloway, under whom he had served in India, on being appointed to the command of the colonial forces selected Captain de Quincey as his military secretary, to which appointment he was gazetted with the rank of major, and soon afterwards he was gazetted to a lieutenant-colonelcy. On General Galloway leaving the colony in 1864, he was succeeded in the command by Colonel Haultain, Lieut.-Col. de Quincey continuing as military secretary. Subsequent to the termination of the war in the Auckland province, he lived principally in the country till the year 1889, when, the office of Serjeant-at-Arms of the House of Representatives having become vacant, the appointment was conferred on him by the Speaker.

Derham, Hon. Frederick Thomas, ex-Postmaster-General, Victoria, son of Thomas Plumley Derham and Sarah his wife, is a native of Bristol, England, was born on Jan. 8th, 1844, and arrived in Victoria in 1856. He is a member of the well-known firm of Swallow & Derham, formerly Swallow & Ariell, biscuit manufacturers, and was elected a member of the Legislative Assembly for Sandridge, now Port Melbourne, in Feb. 1883, being re-elected at the general elections in Feb. 1886 and March 1889. He was sworn of the Executive Council on Feb. 20th, 1886, on his accepting the office of Postmaster-General in the Gillies-Deakin Government—a post which he held till August 1890, when he resigned. Whilst at the head of the Victorian Post Office he was instrumental in introducing a number of valuable reforms. Mr. Derham married Miss Frances D. Swallow. At the general election in April 1892 Mr. Derham was defeated at Port Melbourne, and is now out of Parliament.

Derrington, Edwin Henry, was member for Victoria in the Legislative Assembly of South Australia in 1872-3, and unsuccessfully contested Gumeracha in 1887. He was Commissioner of Crown Lands in the Ayers Ministry from Jan. to March 1872. Mr. Derrington was born in Birmingham, England, and for many years was connected with journalism in Victoria and South Australia. He resides at Kensington, S.A.

Deshon, Edward, Auditor-General, Queensland, was born at Belgaum, Bombay Presidency, in 1836, and educated at Bath Grammar School He became ensign in the 68th Light Infantry in June 1854, and was afterwards promoted to a lieutenancy, serving with his regiment at the siege and fall of Sebastopol from Nov. 1st, 1854, to the end of the war. Mr. Deshon was Instructor of Musketry to the 68th Light Infantry from Nov. 1857 to Oct. 1861, and passed the competitive examination for admission to the Staff College in 1861. In that year he sold his commission, and went to Queensland in 1862, where he became manager of the Caboolture Cotton Company, and the following year was accountant to the Moreton Bay Savings Bank. From 1865 to 1872 Mr. Deshon served as Pay and Revenue Clerk in the Treasury, being appointed in the latter year travelling inspector in the Audit Office—a post which he filled until Jan. 1st, 1879, when he became chief clerk of the Public Lands Department, and Under Secretary on Dec. 1st, 1882. On Jan. 1st, 1885, he received the appointment of member of the Land Board, under the provisions of the new Land Act, and was appointed to his present office in Dec. 1889.

Des Voeux, Major Charles Hamilton, formerly a Major in the Bengal Staff Corps, was appointed Deputy Assistant Adjutant General of the Queensland Defence Force in Feb. 1884. In May 1889 he received the additional appointment of Extra Aide-de-Camp to his Excellency Sir Henry Norman, Governor of Queensland. He is now in India.

Des Voeux, Sir George William, K.C.M.G., third son of the late Rev. Henry Des Voeux, and brother of Sir Henry Dalrymple Des Voeux, 5th Bart., of Indiaville, Queen's County, was born in 1834, and educated at the Charterhouse and Balliol College, Oxford. He was called to the bar of Upper Canada in 1861; was Stipendiary Magistrate at British Guiana from 1863 to 1869; Administrator of the Government and Colonial Secretary of Lucia 1869-77; Lieut.-Governor of Trinidad in 1877; Lieut.-Governor of Fiji from June 1878 to Sept. 1879, during the absence of Sir Arthur Gordon; Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Bahamas from May to August 1880; of Fiji from Jan. 1880 to Dec. 1886; of Newfoundland from 1886 to 1887; and of Hong Kong from 1887 to 1891, when he retired. In 1880, whilst Governor of Fiji, Sir William was Assistant-High Commissioner for the Western Pacific, and from 1882 to 1885 acting High Commissioner. He was created C.M.G. in 1877 and K.C.M.G. in 1883. Sir William married, in 1877, Marion Denison, daughter of Sir John Pender, K.C.M.G. In 1883, whilst Governor of Fiji, Sir William attended the Intercolonial Conference held in Sydney, out of which the Federal Council of Australasia sprang.

de Winton, Major George Jean, F.R.G.S., son of Captain George de Winton, of Heywood Hall, D.L. for Somerset, by Emma Juliana, daughter of the late George Robinson, of Bath, and Rose Hill, Tonbridge, Kent, entered the army in the year 1841, at the age of seventeen, as an ensign in the 99th Regiment; and in 1843, with Lieutenant Elliot of the same regiment, embarked for Hobart Town in the barque Constant, in command of a convict guard. The surgeon superintendent was Dr. Stephen Hampton, R.N., afterwards Governor of Western Australia. Landing the prisoners at Hobart Town, the vessel proceeded to Sydney, and the detachment joined the headquarters of the regiment at Parramatta. After serving on detachment at Windsor, Newcastle, and Port Macquarie, he was, on promotion, on the occasion of the projection of a new penal settlement in North Australia, selected to command a detachment embarked in the Thomas Lowry, the civil staff and another detachment having before left in the ship Lord Auckland. The Lord Auckland went ashore in Port Curtis, her passengers encamped on Facing Island, and thus it came about that Lieutenant de Winton was the first to land and encamp on the mainland on the spot which is now Port Gladstone. On the first night the natives, by a shower of spears, signified their disapproval of the invasion of their territory. While taking precautions for repelling attacks, Lieutenant de Winton would not permit reprisals, being anxious to establish friendly relations with the natives; and in this, after a time, he succeeded, though on occasion at considerable personal risk. The Home Government, yielding to the strong opposition of the colonists of New South Wales to the formation of the projected penal settlement, it was abandoned, and the expedition returned to Sydney. Lieutenant de Winton was then sent in command of a detachment to Brisbane, being at the same time nominated on the commission of the peace. Brisbane was then little more than a collection of weatherboard huts, its commerce represented by three or four general storekeepers, a fortnightly steamer from Sydney, with an occasional small sailing-vessel, sufficing to supply its wants and those of the district. Its government was represented by the police magistrate, Captain Wickham, R.N., who had been a brother officer of Darwin in the Beagle, and the officer commanding the military detachment. Visiting the settlers and squatters on the Logan and the Darling Downs, Lieutenant de Winton was so impressed with the capabilities of the country to support a large population, that he, in letters to friends at home and to the London press, strongly advocated emigration to Moreton Bay. One of the letters, drawing a comparison between the wages of artificers and agricultural labourers in the Moreton Bay district and those ruling at home, was widely published, and drew the attention of many to the growing importance of the rising colony. In 1848 the detachment was withdrawn from Brisbane, and after a short period of service with the headquarters in Sydney, Lieutenant de Winton proceeded with a detachment of the regiment to Norfolk Island, remaining there for eighteen months, returning to the island for another two years, after an interval of service at Hobart Town. In 1853 Lieutenant de Winton was invalided from the island, and granted two years' sick leave. A sea voyage to England having much restored his health, he applied for employment, and was selected to form a recruiting subdivision at Preston. In 1854 Lieutenant de Winton was promoted, and went to command the depôt of his regiment at Chatham, and subsequently to command a detachment at Harwich. The Crimean war being then raging, Captain de Winton volunteered for active service, and was appointed Brigade-Major of the British Swiss Legion. After the peace Major de Winton returned to England, and shortly afterwards retired from the army. Major de Winton was one of the secretaries to the National Society for Aid to Sick and Wounded in War in 1870-71, was Deputy Foreign Commissioner of the South Kensington Exhibitions in 1871-2, and was connected with other exhibitions abroad. His name is not unknown in the literary world, he having for some time edited Colburn's United Service Magazine, and being still an occasional contributor to the press. Major de Winton married at Brisbane, in 1848, a daughter of Mr. Thomas White Melville Winder, of Windermere, Hunter River, New South Wales.

Dibbs, Sir George Richard, K.C.M.G., M.L.A., Premier of New South Wales, is the son of the late Captain John Dibbs of the East India Company's service, and has represented the Murrumbidgee in the Legislative Assembly for some years past. He was Colonial Treasurer in the Ministry of the late Sir Alexander Stuart from Jan. 1883 to Oct. 1885, when he succeeded that gentleman, and was Premier till December following. From Feb. 1886 to Jan. 1887 he was Colonial Secretary in the Jennings Ministry, and formed another short-lived Administration in Jan. 1889, in which he was Premier and Colonial Secretary until March in the same year. Mr. Dibbs is a strong Protectionist. He was appointed one of the representatives of New South Wales to the Federation Convention held in Sydney in March 1891, although considerable objection was made to his appointment by Sir Henry Parkes, on the ground that he had expressed himself opposed to Federation under the Crown. In Oct. 1891, on the defeat of the Parkes Ministry, Mr. Dibbs once more became Premier of the colony, and succeeded in carrying a Protectionist tariff. In June 1892 he visited England on an important financial mission, in which he appeared as the representative not only of New South Wales, but of Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. He was created K.C.M.G. in July.

Dick, Hon. Thomas, is a native of Edinburgh, and was born there in 1823. Having gained commercial experience in London, he left that city for St. Helena, but after seven years' residence there resolved on removing to New Zealand, arriving in Otago, accompanied by his wife and family, on Nov. 26th, 1857. After some mercantile experience, Mr. Dick entered the political arena. Mr. Harris having resigned his seat as a member of the Provincial Council for Dunedin at the end of 1858, Mr. Dick was unanimously elected to succeed him in Feb. 1859. During the ensuing session of the Council an adverse vote caused the Executive to resign office, and a new one was formed by Mr. Reynolds, of which Mr. Dick was a member. A Bill having been passed considerably increasing the number of members of the Council, early in 1860 a general election took place, and Mr. Dick was returned at the head of the poll for Dunedin, eleven candidates having been proposed, five to be elected. On the assembling of the new Council Mr. Dick occupied a seat on the Ministerial benches, which he, however, quickly resigned. It was not till 1862 that he again held an official position in the Council. At the opening of the session that year he proposed an amendment on the address in reply, carrying it by a small majority, and thereby relegating the Cutten-Walker administration to the Opposition benches, when he himself assumed office as Provincial Secretary. Another general election took place in May, 1863, when Mr. Dick was again returned at the top of the poll for Dunedin, retaining the position of Secretary at the opening of the new Council. He was however, shortly compelled to resign, but was again reinstated for a few months. He succeeded Mr. Harris as superintendent of the Otago province, in August 1865, but was displaced by Mr. Macandrew in Feb. 1867, when his first term expired. Mr. Dick sat in the New Zealand House of Representatives in 1861 and 1862, but he was not a member of Parliament in 1863-4 and 5. In 1866 he was elected for Port Chalmers. After the first session he resigned his seat, and it was not till 1879, on the general election for the seventh Parliament of New Zealand, that he again appeared on the scene as a Dunedin representative, in conjunction with Messrs. Oliver and Stewart. The result of the election of 1879 placing the Hall Ministry in power, Mr. Dick joined the administration in 1880, holding the portfolios of Colonial Secretary, Minister for Education, and Minister for Justice. Sir John Hall having resigned on account of ill-health in 1882, Sir F. Whittaker became the Premier, Mr. Dick occupying his old position, with the added responsibilities of Postmaster-General and Commissioner of Telegraphs. In 1883 Sir F. Whittaker retired, being followed by Major Atkinson as Premier, but the Government continued, with one or two alterations, the same as that formed by Sir John Hall in 1879. Mr. Dick consequently remained in office, confined, however, on this occasion to the responsibilities of Colonial Secretary and Minister for Education. A dissolution by effluxion of time occurring at the close of this session, and a rearrangement of electorates having been decided on, Mr. Dick offered himself as a candidate for the new district of Dunedin West, having for his opponent his old colleague in the united electorate, Mr. W. D. Stewart, who after a severe contest won the seat by a small majority. At the general election in 1887, the contest for the representation of the district between the two gentlemen was renewed, ending with a similar result; so that Mr. Dick has since been excluded from public life.

Dicken, Charles Shortt, C.M.G., F.R.G.S., second surviving son of late William Stephens Dicken, M.D., Deputy Inspector-General of Hospitals, Bengal, and Catherine Lamb, his wife, youngest daughter of Captain Joseph Lamb Popham, R.N., and niece of Admiral Sir Home Popham, was born Sept. 18th, 1841, at Balasore, India, and educated at the Charterhouse. Entered the army as ensign 87th Royal Irish Fusiliers, July 1859; lieutenant 1861; first-class certificate School of Musketry, Hythe, Nov. 1861; retired in 1864, by the sale of commission, for the purpose of settling in Queensland. Arrived in Brisbane in August of that year, and at once proceeded north to Port Denison, and thence to the Suttor River, where he was engaged on a cattle station till shortly before he entered the native mounted police, in June 1866. In Oct. 1867 he was appointed clerk of petty sessions at Springsure; police magistrate, Springsure, July 1872; Gold Commissioner and police magistrate, Ravenswood, July 1874; police magistrate and Gold Fields Warden, Charters Towers, May 1875; police magistrate, Townsville, Dec. 1878 to May 1880, when he was appointed secretary in the office of the Agent-General for Queensland, in London, which position he still holds. Student Middle Temple, Nov. 20th, 1880. Called to the bar June 6th, 1883. Hon. Secretary to the Queensland Commission in London, Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 1866; is a magistrate of Queensland, and Captain (unattached) in the Defence Force. Married, August 25th, 1875, in Sydney, Emily Augusta, eldest daughter of the late Charles William Sheridan, of Becauba Station, Castlereagh River, New South Wales. In May 1891 he was created C.M.G.

Dickinson, Sir John Nodes, M.A., son of Nodes Dickinson, F.R.C.S., of London, Staff-Surgeon to Her Majesty's Forces, was born on the island of Grenada, West Indies, in 1806, and educated at Caius College, Cambridge, where he took his B.A. degree in 1829, and graduated M.A. in 1832. He was called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1840, and four years later went to Sydney with the appointment of Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of New South Wales. He was knighted in 1860, and retired in Feb. 1861 on a pension of £1050 per annum. He married, in 1844, Helen, daughter of Captain Henry Jauncey. He died at Rome on March 16th, 1882.

Dickson, Hon. James Robert, M.L. A., was born at Plymouth in 1832, and educated at Glasgow, and emigrated to Australia, where he engaged in mercantile pursuits in Victoria, and subsequently in Queensland, of which colony he is now a resident. He entered the Legislative Assembly of Queensland in 1873, and for a number of years represented Ennogera. He was Secretary for Public Works and Mines in the Macalister Ministry from May to June 1876, when the Government resigned. He was a member of the Douglas Cabinet as Colonial Treasurer from June 1876 to Jan. 1879, and filled the same post in the first Griffith Administration from Dec. 1883 to August 1887, when he resigned, owing to a difference of opinion with his colleagues on the subject of the land tax, of the incidence of which he disapproved. He also resigned his seat for Ennogera, in order to test the opinion of the electors, and was again returned, after a severe contest with Mr. Drake, who now holds the seat. At the general election in 1888 Mr. Dickson contested Toombul as an independent candidate, but was defeated by Mr. Gannon. Mr. Dickson, who in 1887 received the Queens permission to bear the title of Honourable within the colony, revisited England in 1890. He is a director of several of the leading banking and financial institutions of Queensland. In April 1892 he was returned to the Assembly for Bulimba at a bye-election.

Disney, Colonel Thomas Robert, R.A., formerly Commandant Victorian Forces, was born on Oct. 16th, 1842. He became lieutenant R.A. in 1861, captain in 1875, and major in 1882; was adjutant R.A. from July 1st, 1877, to Sept. 10th, 1880, and served throughout the Abyssinian campaign in 1868, being present at the fall of Magdala, for which he received a medal. On Sept. 1st, 1883, he became commandant of the military forces of Victoria, with the local rank of Colonel. This post he held till Sept. 28th, 1888, when he returned to England.

Dobson, Hon. Alfred, Solicitor-General, Tasmania, sixth son of the late John Dobson, of Hobart Town, Tasmania, solicitor and public notary, and previously of Gateshead, co. Durham, by his marriage with Kate, daughter of the late Richard Willis, member of the old Legislative Council of Tasmania, was born in 1849, and became a student of the Inner Temple on April 20th, 1872, being called to the English bar on Jan. 26th, 1875. Returning to Tasmania, he was called to the bar there on Sept. 10th, 1875, and was a member of the House of Assembly from 1877 to 1887. Mr. Dobson was Attorney-General in the Fysh Ministry from August 13th, 1877 (when he was sworn of the Executive Council), to Dec. 20th, 1878, and was Speaker of the House of Assembly from July 1st, 1885, to May 29th, 1887, when he resigned his seat for Glenorchy on accepting the appointment of Solicitor-General.

Dobson, Edward, M.Inst.C.E., arrived in Canterbury, N.Z., in 1850, and was for many years Provincial Engineer. In 1854 he was a member of the commission to report on the Moorhouse Tunnel, between Christchurch and Lyttelton. Mr. Dobson—who was awarded, in 1870, the Telford gold medal of the Institute of Civil Engineers for "A Memoir on the Public Works of the Province of Canterbury, New Zealand"—is the author of numerous works on engineering.

Dobson, Hon. Frank Stanley, M.L.C., M A., LL.D., F.L.S., second son of John Dobson, of Hobart, by Mary Anne, daughter of Matthew Atkinson, of Carr Hill, near Gateshead, and of Temple Sowerby, was born in Tasmania in 1835, and educated at Hutchins School, Hobart, and St. John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1861 and LL.D. in 1870. Mr. Dobson entered at the Middle Temple in Jan. 1856, and was called to the English bar in April 1860, and to the Tasmanian bar on August 28th, 1861. Having taken up his residence in Australia, he was called to the Victorian bar on Sept. 26th, 1861. He was Law Lecturer at Melbourne University, of which he was made M.A. In 1865 he entered the Legislative Council of Victoria as member for the southern province, and held office as Solicitor-General in the O'Loghlen Ministry from July 9th, 1881, to March 7th, 1883. Mr. Dobson now represents the south-eastern province, and has for some years past been Chairman of Committees of the Legislative Council. He married, on June 8th, 1871, Edith Mary, younger daughter of John Carter, Q.C., who died; and he then married his present wife, Henrietta Louisa, daughter of the late W. S. Sharland, of New Norfolk, Tasmania.

Dobson, Hon. Henry, M.H.A., Premier of Tasmania, is the fourth son of the late John Dobson and his second wife, Kate, daughter of Richard Willis, of Wanstead, Tasmania. He was born at Hobart on Dec. 24th, 1841, and embracing the legal profession, was admitted to practice in Dec. 1864. He married at Ratho on Feb. 4th, 1868, Emily, daughter of the late Assistant Commissary-General Thomas James Lempriere. In August 1891 Mr. Dobson was returned to the House of Assembly for the Brighton district, and in August 1892 moved an amendment to the financial proposals of the Fysh Government, which was accepted by them as a vote of want of confidence. It was carried by four votes, and Mr. Dobson took office as Premier a few days later. [This biography appeared in the Supplement at the end of the book.]

Dobson, Hon. Sir William Lambert, F.L.S., Chief Justice, Tasmania, brother of the preceding, eldest son of John Dobson, of Hobart Town, by Mary Anne, daughter of Matthew Atkinson, was born in 1833. He entered at the Middle Temple on Nov. 7th, 1853, received a certificate of honour in May 1856, and was called to the English bar on June 6th, 1856. He was called to the Tasmanian bar on Jan. 22nd, 1857, and married, in 1858, Fanny Louisa, daughter of Ven. William Henry Browne, LL.D., of Ballinvoher, co. Cork, Archdeacon of Launceston. He was appointed Crown Solicitor in 1859, and entered the House of Assembly in 1861, retaining his seat till 1870. He was Attorney-General in the Weston Administration from Feb. 5th to August 2nd, 1861, and in the Chapman Ministry from the latter date till Jan. 20th, 1863. He filled the same post in the Dry Ministry from Nov. 24th, 1866, to August 4th, 1869, and in the Wilson Ministry from that date till Feb. 5th, 1870, when he was appointed Puisne Judge of Tasmania, becoming Chief Justice on the retirement of Sir Francis Smith (q.v.), on Feb. 7th, 1885. Sir Lambert, who is Chancellor of the University of Tasmania, was sworn of the Executive Council on June 6th, 1861, and was created K.B. on August 16th, 1886. He administered the government from Nov. 18th, 1886, till March 11th, 1887.

Docker, Hon. Joseph, M.L.C., second son of Robert Docker, of London, and Eliza (Perry) his wife, was born in 1802, and became a surgeon in the East India Company's service. He was married in April 1839 to Matilda, daughter of Major Thomas Brougham, H.E.I.C.S., of Penrith, Cumberland; and emigrating to Australia, was appointed a member of the Upper House in New South Wales, after being defeated as a candidate for the Legislative Assembly. He was Postmaster-General in the first Martin Administration, from Jan. 1866 to Sept. 1868, when he became Colonial Secretary, and retired with his colleagues in the following month. He was again Postmaster-General in Sir James Martin's second Ministry, from Dec. 1870 to May 1872. Whilst holding office on the first occasion he introduced and carried through the Upper House Mr. (now Sir) Henry Parkes' Public School Bill in 1866. He was Minister of Justice and Public Instruction in the Robertson Ministry, from Feb. 1875 to March 1877; and again, under the same Premier, from August to Dec. 1877. He died on Dec. 9th, 1884.

Dodds, Hon. John Stokell, C.M.G., Puisne Judge, Tasmania, was born in Durham, England, in 1848, and having emigrated to Tasmania, was admitted to the bar there in 1872. Having unsuccessfully contested South and North Hobart, Mr. Dodds succeeded Mr. Fysh as the representative of East Hobart in, 1878, and held the seat till 1887, when he assumed his present judicial position. Immediately after his election he accepted the post of Attorney-General in the Crowther Administration, which took office in Dec. 1878. On their defeat in Oct. 1879, Mr. Giblin undertook the formation of a Coalition Government, Mr. Dodds and Mr. O'Reilly being selected as representatives of their party. The office of Treasurer was offered to and declined by Mr. Dodds, who was unwilling to take any portfolio other than that of Attorney-General. Mr. Giblin then waived his own personal wishes, and consented to Mr. Dodds retaining the Attorney-Generalship, he taking the Treasury. Ultimately, however, Mr. Dodds changed places with him, and held the office of Treasurer until the Coalition Government oeased to exist on Mr. Giblin resigning, in August 1884, to become a Judge of the Supreme Court. The Administration was then reconstructed, and Mr. Dodds resigned the Treasurership and became Attorney-General again. In 1886, when Mr. Douglas proceeded to England as Agent-General, it was thought that Mr. Dodds would become Premier; but the Governor, Sir George Strahan, was advised by Mr. Dodds to send for Dr. Agnew^who assumed that position. But the real work of guiding the administration, and of leading the House of Assembly, fell upon Mr. Dodds, who safely steered his party through a general election and a stormy session of Parliament. When still Attorney-General, and whilst en route to England to represent the colony at the Colonial Conference held in London in 1887, he was appointed to the senior puisne judgeship, rendered vacant by the death of his old chief, Mr. Giblin. After attending the Conference, Mr. Dodds returned to Tasmania to assume the seat upon the bench to which he had been appointed in the previous February. In 1890, during the absence of Governor Hamilton, Mr. Dodds exercised for a short time the functions of Deputy Governor.

Dodery, Hon. William, M.L.C., Chairman of Committees, Legislative Council, Tasmania, was returned to the House of Assembly for Norfolk Plains in 1861, and was re-elected in Nov. 1862 and in Oct. 1866. In 1875 he resigned his seat in the Assembly, and in March 1877 was elected to the Council for Longford, now Westmoreland, and was re-elected in April 1883 and in May 1889.

Domett, Alfred, C.M.G., formerly Premier of New Zealand, was the fourth son of Nathaniel Domett, and was born at Camberwell Grove, Surrey, on May 20th, 1811. He was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, where he matriculated in 1829, but left the University without graduating. He then spent a couple of years in America and travelled extensively on the Continent, occupying his time in literary pursuits, and contributing verse to the magazines. He entered at the Middle Temple, Nov. 7th, 1835, and was called to the bar Nov. 19th, 1841. In May of the following year he went out to New Zealand, and settled in the Nelson district, becoming, in 1848, Colonial Secretary for the province of New Munster. In 1851 he was made Civil Secretary for the whole of New Zealand, but resigning the conjoint offices in 1853, he became Commissioner of Crown Lands and Resident Magistrate of Hawke's Bay. He was elected to a seat in the House of Representatives for Nelson in 1855, and was re-elected in 1860. On August 6th, 1862, Mr. Domett became Premier in succession to Mr. (afterwards Sir) William Fox. It was then the eve of the Waikato war, and the difficulties encountered in the House led to his resignation on Oct. 29th, 1863, when the Whitaker-Fox Ministry (commonly regarded as the "War Ministry") came into office. Mr. Domett was then appointed Secretary for Crown Lands, and was allotted a seat in the Legislative Council, afterwards becoming Commissioner of Old Land Claims. He was appointed Registrar-General of Land in 1865, and in 1870 Commissioner for Confiscated Lands. In 1871 he retired from his offices, and returned to England, where he lived till his death, which took place in London on Nov. 2nd, 1887. In 1880 he was created C.M.G. Mr. Domett was the author of several volumes of poetry, and enjoyed the friendship of Browning. He it is who was referred to by the latter in his poem beginning, "What's become of Waring, Since he gave us all the slip." Mr. Domett published "Venice: a poem," 1839; "Narrative of the Wairau Massacre," 1843; "Ordinances of New Zealand, Classified," 1850; "Ranolf and Amohia; a South Sea Day Dream," 1872, being an epic poem on a Maori subject; "Flotsam and Jetsam: Rhymes Old and New," 1877. Mr. Domett was for some years a contributor to, and for a portion of the time editor of, the Nelson Examiner, the best of the early New Zealand newspapers.

Don, Charles Jardine, was born at Cupar, Scotland, in June 1820, and apprenticed to a hand-loom weaver. He took part in the Chartist movement in 1842, and in 1853 emigrated to Victoria, where he worked as a stonemason. He was returned to the Assembly for Collingwood in 1859 and 1861. Mr. Don, who was regarded as a working-class champion, and who was a strenuous advocate of the liberalisation of the land laws, died in 1867.

Donaldson, Hon. John, M.L.A., was born at Terang, Victoria, and engaged in squatting pursuits, proceeding to New South Wales in 1876, and to Queensland in 1881. He was returned to the Assembly for Warrego in 1883, but now represents Bulloo. He was appointed Postmaster-General and Secretary for Public Instruction in the McIlwraith Ministry on June 13th, 1888; and when the ministry was reconstructed under Mr. Morehead, on Nov. 30th in that year, continued to hold the same posts until Nov. 19th, 1889, when he succeeded Mr. Pattison as Colonial Treasurer. He resigned with his colleagues in August 1890, owing to the opposition of the Assembly to his financial proposals. He was one of the Queensland delegates to the Federation Convention held at Sydney in March 1891.

Donaldson, Sir Stuart Alexander, was the son of Stuart Donaldson, and was born in London on Dec. 26th, 1815. He emigrated to Sydney in 1840, and became a clerk in the firm of Dawes & Co., of which he was afterwards the head. In Sept. 1851 he fought a duel with Sir Thomas Mitchell, Surveyor-General of New South Wales (q.v.). He was elected to the Assembly for Cumberland in 1856, and formed the first Constitutional Ministry in New South Wales in June 1856, but resigned his position as Premier and Chief Secretary in August in consequence of a vote of want of confidence. He accepted office again as Colonial Treasurer under Mr. (afterwards Sir Henry Watson) Parker in Oct. 1856, but on seeking re-election he was defeated for Sydney Hamlets. However, the member for South Cumberland retired to make way for him, and he was elected on Nov. 4th, but retired with his colleagues in Sept. 1857, after their defeat on the Electoral Bill. In 1860 he was knighted, and left the colony, which he twice revisited. Sir Stuart married in Feb. 1854, Amelia, seventh daughter of Frederick Cowper, of Carlton Hall and Unthank, Cumberland (who survived him), and died at Carlton Hall on Jan. 11th, 1867.

Douglas, Hon. Adye, M.L.C., is of Scotch descent. His grandfather, a naval officer of distinction, was Port Admiral at Yarmouth, and subsequently at Chatham. Mr. Douglas's father was an officer in the British army, and married a Norfolk lady, the late Agent-General for Tasmania being born at Thorpe, near Norwich, on May 30th, 1815. Sprung of a naval stock, five of his uncles being post captains in the royal navy, Mr. Douglas was intended for the sea, but entered the legal profession, and was articled to a firm of solicitors at Southampton, where, when admitted, he himself subsequently practised. When only twenty-three, however, Mr. Douglas emigrated to Tasmania, then and until 1857 known as Van Diemen's Land. Arriving in the colony early in 1839, he was admitted to the local bar, but having a few months later visited Victoria (then the Port Phillip district of N.S.W.), Mr. Douglas decided to embrace pastoral pursuits in the young settlement. Taking a number of sheep with him he settled near the Saltwater ranges; close to what is now the flourishing town of Kilmore, but ultimately abandoned squatting and returned to Tasmania. In 1842 Mr. Douglas re-commenced the practice of the law at Launceston, and quickly achieved a leading position. He also turned his attention to public affairs, becoming a prominent member of the Anti-Transportation Association, and in 1856 member for Launceston in the old Legislative Council. In that capacity he assisted materially in the formation of the new constitution of Tasmania, his efforts being mainly devoted to liberalising its basis. Mr. Douglas revisited England in 1857, and made a tour of the country in company with his friend, Sir Richard Dry. He was so much impressed with the advantages secured by what he saw of the extension of the railway system that on his return to Tasmania, where he was elected to the Assembly for Westbury in 1862, he vigorously championed the advent of the iron horse into his adopted country; being the foremost, in spite of strenuous opposition, in securing the formation of the first Tasmanian railway, from Launceston to Deloraine, the first sod of which was turned by the Duke of Edinburgh in 1868. In August 1884 Mr. Douglas somewhat reluctantly became Premier and Chief Secretary of the colony, and resigning his seat in the Lower House, was elected to the Legislative Council for South Esk. Mr. Douglas represented his colony at the Sydney Convention, and was responsible for the policy which led to the inclusion of Tasmania in the Federal Council of Australasia. The official representation of Tasmania in London having, after a good deal of irresolution, been decided on, Mr. Douglas resigned the Premiership in March 1880, and became the first Agent-General of the colony. At the London Colonial Conference of 1887 Mr. Douglas was associated with the present Judge Dodds in the representation of the colony. At the close of the year Mr. Douglas resigned his position in London and returned to Tasmania. In July 1800 he was elected a member of the Legislative Council for Launceston. He was one of the delegates of Tasmania to the Sydney Federation Convention in March 1891.

Douglas, Hon. John, C.M.G., son of Henry Alexander Douglas and Elizabeth (Dalziel) his wife, was born in London on March 6th, 1828, and after receiving his education at Rugby School and Durham University, he emigrated to New South Wales in 1851, and received the appointment of a goldfields' commissioner, a post he gave up in order to follow pastoral pursuits. He sat as member for Darling Downs, and afterwards for Camden, in the New South Wales Parliament; but in 1863 he settled in Queensland, and entered the Legislative Assembly for Port Curtis. Mr. Douglas joined the Macalister Ministry in Feb. 1866, and was Postmaster-General from March to July of that year. He was called to the Legislative Council in the same year; but when, some months after Mr. Macalister's return to power, he was appointed Treasurer, he re-entered the Assembly as member for the Eastern Downs, afterwards resigning to take the leadership in the Council. He resigned the treasurership in May 1867, and was Secretary for Public Works till the August following. In the Lilley Ministry Mr. Douglas was Postmaster-General from Dec. 1868 to Nov. 1869, when he resigned on accepting the post of Agent-General, which he held till 1871, when he returned to Queensland, and was elected in 1875 for Maryborough. In June of the following year he accepted office as Secretary for Public Lands in the Thorn Ministry, and became Premier upon the resignation of Mr. Thorn in March 1877. In the following year he exchanged the portfolio of Lands for the Colonial Secretaryship, and remained in power until Jan. 1879, when his Government was defeated, and he resigned. Subsequent to the assumption of a protectorate over a portion of New Guinea by the British Government, he was a candidate for the poet of High Commissioner, but Sir Peter Scratchley's claims were preferred by the Imperial authorities. Mr. Douglas became Resident at Thursday Island in April 1885, and on the death of Sir Peter Scratchley he was appointed Special Commissioner for British New Guinea, which post he held for nearly three years, until the sovereignty of England was proclaimed. In 1889 he returned to Thursday Island, where he acts as Government Resident and police magistrate.

Dow, Hon. John Lamont, M.L.A., ex-Minister of Lands and Agriculture, Victoria, son of the late David Hill Dow, was born at Kilmarnock, Ayr, Scotland, on Dec. 8th, 1837. He came to Victoria with his father and the other members of his family, landing at Geelong in 1848. Mr. Dow having learnt farming in the Barrabool district, took up pastoral country, in 1861, at the Gulf of Carpentaria, in Northern Queensland, and had a chequered experience, through the depression in wool and the unhealthiness of the climate. In 1867 he returned to Victoria, and, having adopted journalism, became agricultural editor of the Leader, the weekly journal published by the Age proprietary. Having had intimate opportunities of studying the anomalies of the land question, Mr. Dow lectured on the subject throughout Victoria, and the agitation which he initiated had very much to do with the subsequent imposition of a land tax, with the view of limiting the aggregation of large landed estates. In May 1877 Mr. Dow was returned to the Assembly as member for Kara Kara, and has ever since enjoyed the confidence of the same constituency. Having remained loyal to the democratic and protectionist policy which he avowed on entering politics, Mr. Dow was included, as one of the Liberal representatives, in the Coalition Government formed by Messrs. Gillies and Deakin in Feb. 1886. He then resigned his press appointments. Previous to this, in 1883, he visited America as the special correspondent of the Age and Leader, and embodied the result of his investigations into the agricultural condition of the country in a series of letters, which were ultimately republished in book form, under the title of "The Australian in America." In 1885, having been appointed a member of the Victorian Irrigation Commission, he accompanied the president, Mr. Deakin, in his official mission to America to collect statistics on the subject; and on this occasion contributed a series of letters to the Age and Leader, which had much to do with smoothing the path of the Coalition Government when the results of Mr. Deakin's investigations were in the following year embodied in practical legislation. Mr. Dow during his term of office elevated the portfolio of agriculture to the position of an independent department, establishing a scheme of technical agricultural education by means of experts travelling through the colony, forming also a Forest Department and sections dealing with viticulture and pests inimical to vegetation, while a successful export trade in dairy produce and fruit was initiated under his administration. In the summer of 1890 Mr. Dow, as a director of the Premier Permanent Building Society, became involved in the legal proceedings taken against the officers of the institution after its disastrous suspension of payment, and insisted, contrary to the unanimous desire of his colleagues, who felt entire confidence in his integrity, on resigning his position in the Cabinet pending the result of the action taken. At the initiatory stage of the proceedings the prosecution were compelled to admit that there was no case against Mr. Dow, and to withdraw the indictment against him. He was at once invited to resume office, and did so, resigning with the rest of his colleagues in Nov. 1890. Mr. Dow married, in 1869, Marion Jane, second daughter of William A. Orr, of Toorak. Mr. Dow's younger brother, Mr. T. K. Dow, is also an eminent authority on agricultural matters.

Dowling, Henry, son of the Rev. Henry Dowling, Baptist minister at Gloucester, England, in which city Mr. Dowling was born in the year 1810, was educated at the Free Grammar School, Colchester, and was afterwards apprenticed to the printing business. In 1830 he emigrated to Tasmania, and was for some time on the staff of the Hobart Town Courier, but in the following year he purchased from the late Mr. J. P. Fawkner the Launceston Independent, and changing its name to the Launceston Advertiser, conducted it for some years with much success. In 1839 Mr. Dowling proceeded to England, having received the appointment of Immigration Agent for Tasmania, in which capacity he was the means of introducing into the colony many settlers whose names are now well known in Northern Tasmania. In 1842 he returned to Launceston, and was for some years engaged in the printing and drapery business. He was one of the founders of the Launceston Savings Bank, and in 1844 was appointed manager of that institution. Mr. Dowling was always active in public affairs, and was specially prominent in the anti-transportation movement, and in the agitation for railways. He was Mayor of Launceston from 1857 to 1861, and in the latter year was elected to the House of Assembly as Member for Launceston, but only held the seat for two years. In 1868 he accepted the secretaryship of the Launceston and Western Railway Company, and held that position until the year 1872, when this, the first of Tasmanian railways, was taken over by the Government. Amongst the works issued from Mr. Dowling's press may be mentioned an illustrated edition of the "Pickwick Papers" and West's "History of Tasmania." He died at Launceston, Sept. 17th, 1885.

Dowling, His Honour James Sheen, L.L.B., District Court Judge, New South Wales, is the eldest son of the late Sir James Dowling, sometime Chief Justice of New South Wales, by his first wife. Sir James Dowling's brother, Vincent George Dowling, was for many years editor of Bell's Life in London, and was the first to seize the miscreant Bellingham after he had assassinated Mr. Spencer Perceval, the Prime Minister of England, in the lobby of the House of Commons on May 11th, 1812. Judge Dowling was born in London on Dec. 2nd, 1819, and was taken to Australia by his father in 1828. Returning to London in 1836, he entered at King's College, and graduated LL.B. in 1841. In Nov. 1836 he became a student at the Middle Temple, and was called to the Bar in Nov. 1843. He was appointed Attorney-General at Port Curtis in 1849, and subsequently went to Sydney, where he was appointed a police magistrate in 1851, Crown Prosecutor in 1857, and in 1861 District Court Judge, a position he still holds. Judge Dowling married on June 20th, 1849, Katherine Marion, fourth daughter of the late James Laidley, of Sydney, sometime Deputy Commissary-General.

Downer, Henry Edward, M.P., J.P., brother of Sir John Downer (q.v.),is a native of Adelaide, S.A., and for fifteen years held the position of stipendiary magistrate and Commissioner of Insolvency. He is now in partnership with his brother Sir John as a legal practitioner in Adelaide. Mr. Downer has been M.P. for Encounter Bay in the South Australian Legislature since 1881. He was Attorney-General in the Cockburn Government from May to August 1890.

Downer, Hon. Sir John William, K.C.M.G., M.P. Q.C., formerly Premier of South Australia, was born in Adelaide on July 5th, 1844, and educated at St Peter's College in that city. He was admitted to the South Australian bar in 1868, and belongs to one of the most prominent legal firms in the capital. Mr. Downer, who was made Q.C. in 1878, entered the Assembly in the same year as member for Barossa, and still represents that constituency. He was Attorney-General under Mr. (now Sir) John Bray from June 1881 to June 1884. In this capacity he introduced and carried through the House a measure to allow persons charged with criminal offences to give evidence upon oath, and a Married Woman's Property Bill. In 1883 he was one of the representatives of South Australia at the Sydney Convention, which gave birth to the abortive Federal Council of Australasia. Mr. Downer took the leadership of the opposition during Mr. Bray's absence in Europe in 1885; and having carried a motion of want of confidence in the Cotton Ministry, assumed office in June 1885 as Premier and Attorney-General. The accession of Mr. Bray, later in the same year, strengthened the Ministry, which carried a tariff, going a considerable way in a protective direction. In Jan. 1887 Mr. Downer left for England to attend the Colonial Conference as one of the delegates of South Australia. He attended all the sittings, and was entrusted by his Australian colleagues with the duty of presenting the case for an assimilation of the law of England with that of the colonies. in regard to marriage with a deceased wife's sister. During his stay in England he was offered and accepted the distinction of K.C.M.G. Sir John Downer only returned to Adelaide to learn of the defeat of his Government, and the resignation of his colleagues in June 1887 during his absence. He has not since taken office, but was appointed one of the delegates of South Australia to the Federation Convention held in Sydney in March 1891. Sir John, who was elected a member of the Council of the University of Adelaide in Nov. 1887, married Elizabeth, daughter of J. Henderson.

Downes, Major-General Major Francis, C.M.G., Commandant South Australian Forces, is the son of the late William Downes, of Dedham, Essex, and was born on Feb. 10th, 1834. He was educated at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich; entered the Royal Artillery in 1852, became lieut.-colonel in 1877, colonel in 1882, and major-general (retired) in 1884. He served in the Crimean Campaign 1855 (medal with clasps and Turkish medal); was Instructor in Fortifications at the Royal Military College in 1858-9; commanded Royal Artillery at Mauritius in 1863-5, and at St. Helena in 1869-71; was for five years Instructor to the Artillery School for Militia and Volunteer Officers; and subsequently held the position of Commandant of the South Australian Military Forces from 1877 to 1885, being a Member of the Royal Commission on Defences in 1881, and Secretary of Defence for Victoria from 1885 to 1888. In March of the latter year, he was reappointed Commandant of the South Australian Military Forces. He married, in 1858, Helen, daughter of the late B. Chamberlin, of Catton, Norwich. Major-General Downes was created C.M.G. in 1885.

Doyle, Right Rev. Jeremiah Joseph, D.D., first Roman Catholic Bishop of Grafton, N.S.W. This was one of the new dioceses created in 1887, and Dr. Doyle was consecrated the first Bishop on August 28th of that year.

Drake, Sir William Henry, K.C.B., son of John Drake, Deputy Commissary-General, by Maria, daughter of George Story, of Silksworth Hall, county Durham, was born in 1812, and entered the War Office in 1831. He was Colonial Treasurer of Western Australia from 1838 to 1848, and Commissary-General and Director of Supplies and Transports from 1871 to 1877. He died on Jan. 28th, 1882.

Draper, Rev. Daniel James, was born in the parish of Wickham, Hampshire, England, in August 1810, and apprenticed to a carpenter. At the age of twenty he became a local preacher amongst the Methodists. Becoming a regular minister in 1834, he married Miss Webb, a farmer's daughter, and emigrated to Tasmania in 1836, subsequently devoting himself to missionary work in Sydney. Leaving New South Wales, he settled in Adelaide in 1846, and during his nine years' residence accomplished marvels in the way of chapel building, besides otherwise greatly promoting the extension of the body with which he was associated. In 1855 he became head of the Wesleyan denomination in Victoria, and discharged the onerous duties of the position till March 1865, when he took a trip to England to recruit his health. He secured his return passage in the ill-fated London, which sailed from Plymouth on Jan. 5th, 1866, and foundered on the 11th in the Bay of Biscay, when out of 239 souls on board 220 perished. Mr. and Mrs. Draper were amongst the victims, the former bravely encouraging and exhorting his fellow-passengers to the last. The Draper Memorial Church in Adelaide commemorates the esteem in which he was held by the citizens.

Drew, William Leworthy Goode, C.M.G., son of Captain George Drew, R.N., was born at Broadstairs, Kent, on Oct. 14th, 1826, and received his education at the Blue Coat School. After fourteen years in H.M.'s navy, five years as paymaster of H.M.S. Fantome on the Australian station, he settled in New South Wales in June 1856, and was appointed secretary to the Railway Commissioners, and afterwards secretary to the Marine Board of that colony. He then entered the Union Bank, Sydney; but his health failing he engaged in country pursuits. In Feb. 1862, however, he accepted the Under-Secretaryship of the Treasury of Queensland. In Oct. 1877 he was appointed Auditor-General of that colony—a post which he held till Dec. 1889, when he became Chairman of the Civil Service Board and of the Civil Service Investment. Board. Mr. Drew, who has been Chairman of the Immigration Board, Brisbane, since July 1883, was in 1855 made "Fleet Paymaster" by Queen's warrant. In 1891 he was created C.M.G.

Driver, Richard, M.L.A., was born at Coolah, near Liverpool, N.S.W., on Sept. 16th, 1829, and was admitted as attorney and solicitor of the Supreme Court of that colony in 1856, being subsequently appointed solicitor to the Corporation of Sydney. He was elected to the Assembly for West Macquarie in 1860, and afterwards successively represented Carcoar and Windsor. He carried the Game Act, and was Minister for Lands in the Parkes Government from March to August 1877. He died in Sydney on July 7th, 1880.

Drury, Albert Victor, son of the late Rev. William Drury, and brother of Lieut.-Colonel Edward Robert Drury, C.M.G. (q.v.), entered the Civil Service of Queensland in March 1862, and was appointed clerk of the Executive Council in Jan. 1867. He acted as private secretary to Sir Arthur R. Palmer, K.C.M.G., when Administrator of the Government from Oct. 1888 to May 1889.

Drury, Lieut.-Colonel Edward Robert, C.M.G., J.P., is a son of the late Rev. William Drury, M.A., sometime a master at Harrow School, and tutor to the late Prince Consort and his brother and to the sons of the King of the Belgians, by his wife Anne, daughter of Robert Nicholas, M.P., of Ashton Keynes, Wilts. He was born and educated at Brussels, and in 1852 emigrated to Australia, entering the service of the Bank of Australasia in the following year. In 1860 he was appointed manager of that Bank in Brisbane; and in 1872 he became general manager of the Queensland National Bank, which appointment he still holds. Mr. Drury served in the first volunteer corps raised in Queensland in 1854, and holds the rank of lieut.-colonel commanding the Field Artillery of the Queensland Defence Force, and has several times filled the position of Acting Commandant. His services in connection with the force were favourably noticed by H.R.H. the Commander-in-Chief in 1883, and he was deputed by the Queensland Government to give evidence before the Royal Commission on the defence of British possessions, being created C.M.G. in 1885. Mr. Drury is consul for Belgium, and a J.P. of Queensland. He married, in 1869, Barbara, daughter of the late John Grahame, of Sydney, N.S.W.

Dry, Hon. Sir Richard, formerly Speaker and Premier of Tasmania, was the son of an Irishman who was exiled to Van Diemen's Land in the early part of the century in connection with the United Ireland troubles. He was born at Elphin, near Launceston, Tasmania, on August 15th, 1815, and at an early age succeeded to his father's estate at Quamby. Having been appointed a member of the old Legislative Council, he became the leader of the party which sought to compel the Imperial Government to relieve the local Treasury of the expenses of the police and gaol system rendered necessary by the existence of convictism. This and the agitation for responsible government brought the non-official members of the council into collision with Governor Wilmot, who forced his financial measures through the Council with a high hand. The dispute came to a head in 1845, and after much unavailing opposition, Sir Richard Dry and five of his colleagues in the first instance absented themselves from the Legislative Council, so as to prevent the forming of a quorum, and ultimately resigned their seats in that body. Henceforward they were known as "the Patriotic Six," Sir Richard becoming the idol of the hour, and securing a popularity which his exceptional qualities enabled him to retain to the last hour of his life. In 1848 the Patriotic Six were reappointed to the Council by the Queen's mandate. As the first native politician to take the leading part in championing the rights of his native land, Sir Richard Dry will always be an interesting figure in Tasmanian history. When the first instalment of representative institutions was granted, in 1851, he was elected to the new Legislative Council for Launceston, and was chosen Speaker, a post which he retained till 1855, when he retired from ill-health, the Council complimenting him by a request that he should sit for his portrait to be placed on the walls of the chamber in which he had played so high-minded a part. Sir Richard subsequently visited England, and was knighted in 1858. After his return to the colony he re- entered Parliament, and took office as Premier and Colonial Secretary in Nov. 1866, his term of power being ended by his death on August 1st, 1869. The "Dry Scholarship" was founded in his honour in connection with the Tasmanian Scholarships by public subscription. Sir Richard married a daughter of George Meredith, of Cambria, Great Swan Port, who still survives.

Du Cane, Sir Charles, K.C.M.G., formerly Governor of Tasmania, son of Captain Charles Du Cane, R.N., of Braxted Park, Witham, Essex, by his marriage with Frances, second daughter of Rev. Charles Prideaux Brune, of Prideaux Place, Padstow, Cornwall, was born at Ryde, Isle of Wight, in 1825, and educated at the Charterhouse, and at Exeter College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. (fourth class in classics and mathematics) in 1847 and M.A. in 1864. Sir Charles represented Maldon in the House of Commons from 1852 to 1853, when he was unseated on petition, and North Essex from March 1857 until Dec. 1868, and was a Civil Lord of the Admiralty from 1866 to Dec. 1868, when he was appointed Governor of Tasmania, a post which he held from Jan. 1869 to March 1874, when he returned to England and was created K.C.M.G. in 1875, and appointed Chairman of the Board of Customs, a position which he filled from 1878 till his death on Feb. 25th, 1889. Sir Charles married, in June 1863, Hon. Georgiana Susan Copley, youngest daughter of Lord Lyndhurst.

Duffield, Walter, sometime Treasurer of South Australia, was member for Encounter Bay in the Legislative Assembly of that colony from 1857 to 1868 and from 1870 to 1871, and was Treasurer in the Hart Government from Oct. 1865 to March 1866, and in the Ministry of Mr. (now Judge) Boucaut, which succeeded it, from the latter date till May 1867. Mr. Duffield subsequently sat in the Legislative Council from 1873 to 1879, and died on Nov. 5th, 1882.

Duffy, Hon. Sir Charles Gavan, K.C.M.G., sometime Premier of Victoria, was born in Monaghan, Ireland, where his father was a farmer, in 1816. In his twentieth year Mr. Duffy became sub-editor of the Dublin Morning Register, and entered as a law student at King's Inn. In 1839 he became editor and proprietor of the Belfast Vindicator. He returned to Dublin in 1842, and, in conjunction with John Dillon and Thomas Davis, established the Nation. In 1844 Mr. Duffy was tried and convicted of sedition along with O'Connell; the conviction, however, was set aside on appeal by the House of Lords. In 1846 O'Connell quarrelled with the Young Ireland party, of which the Nation was the organ, and they established the Irish Confederation, of which Mr. Duffy was one of the leaders. The famine in Ireland in 1848 and the example of the Continental revolutions of that period constrained Young Ireland to the advocacy of extreme courses. An Act was passed to control the Irish press, and under its provisions Mr. Duffy, John Martin, John Mitchell, and Dr. O'Doherty, now of Queensland, were indicted for treason felony. In Mr. Duffy's case, after he had been four times successively arraigned, it was found impossible to procure a conviction, the juries disagreeing at each trial. Subsequently, in 1852, he revived the Nation, which had been suppressed, conducting it on constitutional and anti-physical force lines. He also joined in starting the Tenant League, in which the Protestants of Ulster co-operated with the Catholics of the south, and which succeeded in sending fifty members to the Parliament elected in 1852. Amongst the latter was Mr. Duffy, who was returned for New Ross, after a notable contest with Sir Thomas Redington, Under-Secretary for Ireland in the Government that had prosecuted him. He now worked in the House of Commons in association with Frederic Lucas and George Henry Moore, the founder of the independent Irish party in the House of Commons which sprang out of the Tenant League. After four trying sessions, the defection of a large section of that party induced him to resign his seat in Parliament; and in Nov. 1855 he emigrated to Australia. Mr. Duffy was received with extraordinary enthusiasm by his fellow-countrymen at the Antipodes. At a banquet in Melbourne, presided over by his subsequent opponent Mr. (afterwards Sir John) O'Shanassy, he made his famous declaration that he was still an Irish rebel to the backbone and spinal marrow. Mr. Lang, the veteran Sydney publicist, pressed him warmly to take up his abode in New South Wales, but he adhered to his decision in favour of Victoria, where property valued at £5000 was purchased and presented to him by his admirers in order to give him a qualification either for the Upper or Lower House of the Legislature. So great was the popular enthusiasm that the diggers at Ballarat pledged themselves to contribute an ounce of gold apiece to the presentation fund. He was elected to the first Parliament of Victoria for Villiers and Heytesbury, his experience of the House of Commons enabling him to aid materially in introducing the practice of that body into the new Assembly. In the first session he was chairman of a select committee on a federal union of the colonies, whose labours gave the original impulse to Mr. Darcy M?Gee in Canada some years later in founding the new Dominion; and he passed, against the determined resistance of the Government, the first Act of Parliament of Victoria, being one abolishing the property qualification for the popular branch of the Legislature. In the same session (March, 1857) he became Commissioner of Public Works and chairman of the Central Road Board in the second responsible Government, Mr. (afterwards Sir John) O'Shanassy being Chief Secretary and Premier. This administration only lasted till April 29th, but in March 1858 Mr. O'Shanassy resumed office, with Mr. Duffy as Minister of Lands. In about a year a dispute arose with Mr. O'Shanassy and some of his colleagues on the policy and management of the public estate, and Mr. Duffy resigned office in March 1859. On the defeat of the O'Shanassy Government in October of the same year, Mr. Nicholson, who succeeded him, offered Mr. Duffy and any one political friend he thought proper to select places in the new administration, but he declined to accept these terms unless a majority of the Cabinet were of his own way of thinking on the question of land law reform. In 1860, on the defeat of the Nicholson Government, a new administration was proposed by a coalition between Mr. Heales and Mr. Verdon with Mr. Brooke and Mr. Aspinall, of which Mr. Duffy was designed to be Premier; but as the Governor, Sir Henry Barkly, refused to promise a dissolution in certain contingencies, Mr. Duffy declined to proceed, and the former Government were recalled. He returned to office, however, in Nov. 1861, as Minister of Lands in a coalition Ministry of which Mr. O'Shanassy, Mr. Haines, and Mr. Nicholson, each of whom had been Premier, were members, and next year he passed the well-known Land Act of 1862. He wrote a pamphlet illustrating the new Act, entitled "Guide to the Land Law," of which three publishers issued separate editions in the colony, and three others published separate editions in London. But the industrious classes whom the new law was intended to benefit hired themselves to the pastoral tenants to defeat it, and it was widely evaded, with the result of still further assisting the aggregation of large estates. On an attempt to amend the Act the Government were defeated, and Sir James McCulloch came into office in June 1863, but Mr. Duffy, though displaced, supported all the land reforms proposed by the new administration. In 1864 he visited Europe for two years, and on his return speedily re-entered Parliament (in 1867) as member for Dalhousie. The Darling grant controversy was then commencing, and he took at the hustings the grounds which were finally adopted by nearly all parties—that the grant ought never to have been made, but that having been made, it ought to be sanctioned if sent in a separate Bill to the Council, on which it had been attempted to be forced in the shape of a tack to the Appropriation Bill. While a private member, Mr. Duffy was chairman of a Royal Commission which brought up a report that led to the experiment of payment of members being tried in Victoria, and chairman of a Royal Commission on the subject of federation of the Australian colonies, which recommended a permissive Act (which would enable two or more of the colonies to join together at their discretion), a principle which was applied to the Cape of Good Hope and the South African colonies by the Imperial Government. In 1869, the McCulloch Government having been defeated on the motion of Mr. Robert Byrne, that gentleman invited Mr. Duffy to become Premier and form the new administration; but the state of parties at the moment made the time inopportune, and, after a lengthy consultation with political associates, he declined to proceed. In 1870 Mr. Duffy ventilated a project for the neutralisation of the colonies in case of the mother country being involved in war, but it met with no very definite encouragement from any contemporary Australian statesman. In June of the next year, on the defeat of the fourth McCulloch Government, Mr. Duffy at length became Premier. During his administration the whole country was for the first time thrown open for selection by the abolition of the reserves made in favour of the pastoral tenants, and the tariff was made more protective. In 1872 Mr. Duffy was chairman of a conference of Cabinet Ministers from all the Australian colonies to press on the Imperial Government the repeal of the law limiting inter-colonial legislation on fiscal subjects, an object which has since been effected in pursuance of that remonstrance. After a year the Government were defeated by a narrow majority nominally on an amendment moved by Mr. Ramsay, but really in consequence of certain alleged abuses of patronage, including the appointment of Mr. Cashel Hoey to the position of Secretary to the Agent-General's office in London. Lord Canterbury having refused him an appeal to the country, Mr. Duffy resigned in June 1872. A few months afterwards he was offered a companionship of St. Michael and St. George, which he respectfully declined. In May 1873 he was knighted by patent, and in 1874 he made a second visit to Europe, his eldest son being elected for Dalhousie in his father's place. On his visit to Ireland he was invited to re-enter the House of Commons, a county member making way for him; but he declined on the ground that he disapproved of the programme which had been substituted for the policy of the repeal party. On his return to Australia in 1875 Sir Charles was elected for North Gippsland, one of the largest constituencies in Victoria, without his presence at the election being required. In returning thanks he stated the remarkable fact that during the twenty-four years since he first entered Parliament he had never lost an election. On the assembling of Parliament in May, he was unanimously chosen Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, and discharged the duties of the post till Feb. 1880. In the meantime it was suggested that Sir Charles Duffy should accompany the embassy to England on the subject of reform of the Upper House in 1879. In the end, however, the project was abandoned, as it met with little popular favour, and Messrs. Berry and Pearson went alone. In 1880 Sir Charles Duffy, who had been created K.C.M.G. in 1877, returned to Europe, and has since resided in the south of France. He is in receipt of a pension of £1000 a year from the colony of Victoria under an early act for the benefit of ex-Ministers which was quickly repealed. It is understood that Mr. Parnell was not favourable to the return of Sir Charles Duffy to public life as a member of the House of Commons and of the Irish Parliamentary party. It is to be doubted also whether Sir Charles Duffy could have rendered that unquestioning obedience to his leadership which he desired in his subordinate colleagues. Sir Charles Duffy was chairman of the Trustees of the National Gallery of Victoria, and took an active share in projects for encouraging art, literature, and industrial enterprise in that colony. Since his return to Europe in 1880, he has published "Young Ireland: a Fragment of Irish History, 1840-50" (London, 1880); "Four Years of Irish History, 1845-49" (London, 1883), being a sequel to "Young Ireland": the "League of the North and South" (London, 1886), which contains a trenchant refutation of John Mitchell's personal charges against him; and written on colonial and Irish questions in the Contemporary Review, Nineteenth Century, National Review, Freeman's Journal, and other periodicals. Sir Charles Duffy married first, in 1842, Emily, daughter of Francis McLaughlin, of Belfast (who died in 1845); secondly, in 1846, Susan, daughter of Philip Hughes, of Newry, who died in 1878; and thirdly, in 1881, Louise, eldest daughter of George Hall, of Rockferry, Cheshire, who died in 1890.

Duffy, Hon. John Gavan, M.L.A., eldest son of the above, was born in Dublin in 1844, and was educated at Stonyhurst. In 1859 he went to Victoria, where he took the Vice-Chancellor's prize for the best English essay at the Melbourne University. He is in practice as a solicitor in Melbourne, and has represented Dalhousie in the Legislative Assembly since 1874. He is a moderate Liberal and Freetrader, and was Minister of Agriculture in Mr. Service's first Government from March to August 1880. He was Postmaster-General in the Munro Government from Nov. 1890 to Feb. 1892, when he took office as Attorney-General under Mr. Shiels. In April 1892, however, he resigned with a view of becoming a candidate for the Speakership of the Legislative Assembly. He was, however, defeated without a division, and was readmitted to the Shiels Cabinet as a Minister without portfolio in May 1892.

Duncan, William Augustine, C.M.G., was born in Aberdeenshire in 1811, and educated for the ministry of the Scotch Church, but became a Roman Catholic, and was a student at the Scots Benedictine College, Ratisbon, and then at Blairs, Kincardineshire, where he renounced the intention he had formed of joining the priesthood. He married, and was a bookseller and publisher at Aberdeen. He emigrated to Sydney in 1888, and the next year was appointed editor and trustee of a new paper, the Australasian Chronicle, which was to be the organ of the Roman Catholic party. In 1843 Mr. Duncan started Duncan's Weekly Register. He was appointed Sub-collector of Customs at Moreton Bay in 1856, and after his settlement at Brisbane was appointed Water Police Magistrate, Guardian of Minors, and Local Immigration Commissioner. In May 1859 he returned to Sydney, and was made a member of the National Board of Education and Collector of Customs. He was created C.M.G. in 1881, when he resigned the position of Collector of Customs of New South Wales, and died on June 26th, 1885.

Dunne, Right Rev. John, D.D., first Roman Catholic Bishop of Wilcannia, N.S.W. This was one of the new dioceses created in 1887, Dr. Dunne being consecrated the first Bishop on August 14th, 1887.

Dunne, the Most Rev. Robert, D.D., Roman Catholic Archbishop of Brisbane, was born near Clonmel, co. Tipperary, Ireland, in 1833. He received his preliminary education at the Grammar School at Lismore, and went thence to Rome, to pursue his ecclesiastical studies. He entered the Irish College in that city, and attended lectures at the Roman University. After a brilliant course he was ordained, in 1855, a priest for the Archdiocese of Dublin. Returning to Ireland, he was appointed a professor in the Seminary of St. Lawrence O'Toole, one of the colleges of the Catholic University of Dublin. The President of this Seminary, the late Bishop O'Quinn, was appointed, in 1859, the first Bishop of Brisbane, and soon afterwards, in 1863, Dr. Dunne went out to Queensland as a priest of the diocese of Brisbane. He officiated in Brisbane until 1868, when he was appointed parish priest of Toowoomba, which office he held until 1881, when he left on a visit to Europe. In 1869 he was created a Doctor of Divinity by a brief of Rome. He returned from Europe at the close of the year 1881, and found letters from Rome appointing him Bishop of the Roman Catholic see of Brisbane, then vacant by the death of Dr. O'Quinn. Dr. Dunne was consecrated Bishop of Brisbane, by the late Archbishop Vaughan, in St. Stephen's Cathedral, Brisbane, on June 18th, 1882, and was created Archbishop of Brisbane in 1887, by papal brief.

Dutton, Hon. Charles Boydell, J. P., was a member of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland and Secretary for Lands from Nov. 1883 to August 1887; Secretary for Works and Mines from the latter date till Dec. 1887; and from that date till June 1888 Secretary for Railways in the first Griffith Government. At the general election in 1888 Mr. Dutton was an unsuccessful candidate for the Leichardt district. Mr. Dutton, who embraced Henry George's land nationalisation theories, and endeavoured as Secretary for Lands to give some approximate effect to them in legislation, is now a squatter in New South Wales.

Dutton, Francis Stacker, C.M.G., F.R.G.S., sometime Agent-General for South Australia, was the son of Henry Hampden Dutton, British consul at Cuxhaven, on the Elbe, and was born at Cuxhaven in 1816, and educated at Hofwyl, near Berne, Switzerland. From his seventeenth to his twenty-second year he was employed as a mercantile clerk in Brazil and Rio Janeiro. In 1839 he joined his elder brothers, William Pelham and Frederick Hansborough, in New South Wales. The former temporarily resided in Portland Bay, when engaged in sealing, from 1828 to 1838; and thus disputed with the Hentys the honour of having formed the first permanent settlement in the Port Phillip district. The other brother, Mr. F. H. Dutton, went largely into squatting pursuits in South Australia, and died in London in 1890, possessed of the famous Anlaby estate in that colony, and of personalty amounting to several hundred thousand pounds. The subject of this notice engaged in commercial pursuits in Victoria for two years; and in 1841 settled in South Australia, where his brother Frederick had preceded him. In 1843, when acting as overseer to the late Captain Bagot, he discovered the Kapunda Copper Mine, and in 1845 visited England, when he sold his interest in the mine to the East India firm of Cockerall, Larpert & Co., who made arrangements for working it. Mr. Dutton was a member of the mixed Legislative Council from 1851 to 1857, and of the Legislative Assembly from 1857 to 1865. He was Commissioner of Crown Lands and Immigration in the Hanson Ministry, from Sept. 1857 to June 1859, and in the Ministry of which he himself was Premier in July 1863. He formed his second Administration in March 1865, and remained in office till the following September, when he became Agent-General for South Australia in the United Kingdom. Mr. Dutton, who was an Associate of the Institute of Civil Engineers, and was created C.M.G. in Nov. 1872, died in London on Jan. 25th, 1877, whilst still occupying the position of Agent-General. He was the author of "South Australia and its Mines" (1846).

E

Eager, Hon. Geoffrey, J. P., the son of Richard Eager, who came of a good Irish stock, was born in Sydney in 1818, and educated at Cape's school. He was appointed to the Legislative Council in 1859, and was Secretary for Public Works in Mr. Forster's Ministry, from Oct. 1859 to March 1860. After resigning his seat in the Council he was elected for West Sydney in July 1863; and was Treasurer in Mr. (afterwards Sir) James Martin's first Ministry, from Oct. 1863 to Feb. 1865. In 1865 he was re-elected for West Sydney, and was Treasurer in the second Martin Ministry, from Jan. 1866 to Oct. 1868. He was appointed permanent Under Secretary to the Treasury in Feb. 1872, and retained the post till his death on Sept. 12th, 1891.

Eaton, Henry Francis, J.P., Under-Treasurer, Victoria, son of William Eaton and Esther (Haseldine) his wife, was born at East Bridgeford, Nottingham-shire, on Sept. 16th, 1831. He emigrated to Victoria with a view of going to the gold diggings, but sixteen days after his arrival in Jan. 1853, was appointed clerk in the office of the Colonial Storekeeper, Melbourne. Mr. Eaton was transferred to the Civil Commissariat in Feb. 1854, and inspected the accounts of the department at all the principal goldfields. He was appointed Accountant of the Government Stores in Feb. 1855, transferred to the Treasury in March 1865, appointed Accountant to the Treasury on Feb. 1st, 1887, and Under-Treasurer of Victoria (permanent head of the Treasury) on Sept. 10th, 1889, which office he still holds. Mr. Eaton is Chairman of the Police Superannuation Board, a Justice of the Peace, and a captain (retired) Victorian Volunteer Artillery. He married at St. Paul's Church, Kyneton, Victoria, on Jan. 17th, 1860, Miss Elizabeth Davy.

Ebden, Hon. Charles Hotson, sometime Auditor-General and Treasurer of Victoria, was born in London in 1811, and when little more than twenty emigrated to New South Wales, where he took up pastoral country on the Murray and invested a large sum of money in stock and improvements. In 1836 he decided to explore the Port Phillip district in search of suitable sheep country. In the result he formed a station south of the Goulburn, in what is now Victoria, and later on at Carlsruhe. He formed the first crossing-place over the Murray at Albury, and the nine thousand sheep which he sent to Carlsruhe from his New South Wales station in March 1837 were the first sheep which came into Victoria overland. In July 1843 Mr. Ebden was returned at the head of the poll as one of the first four members sent by Port Phillip to the New South Wales Legislative Council, which was then the sole chamber, this election being the first for members of Parliament which ever took place in Australia. Mr. Ebden sat in the New South Wales Legislative Council for the full term of five years, but declined to offer himself for re-election in 1848, on the ground that the representation of Port Phillip at Sydney was a farce. Mr. Ebden was an active worker for separation from New South Wales, and having been in the meantime re-elected to the Legislative Council of New South Wales, he seconded the address in reply to the Governor's speech when, in March 1851, the Council was convened to arrange the preliminaries for conferring a distinct constitution on Victoria. After that was achieved later in the year, he was appointed Auditor-General of Victoria by Governor Latrobe in July. This post he held, together with a seat in the Legislative and Executive Councils, till Oct. 1852, when he resigned, and was succeeded by Mr. Childers, afterward Chancellor of the Exchequer of the United Kingdom. Mr. Ebden then revisited England, but returned to Victoria in 1855; and entering the Assembly, was Treasurer in the second Haines Ministry from April 1857 to March 1858. Mr. Ebden was chairman of the St. Kilda and Brighton Railway, but went back to England in 1860. There he resided for six years, when he again visited Victoria, and died at the Melbourne Club in Oct 1867.

Edwards, Major-General Sir James Bevan, R.E., K.C.M.G., C.B., is the son of Samuel Price Edwards and Jane his wife, and was born on Nov. 5th, 1834, at Wimburn, Staffordshire. He married, in 1868, Alice Anne, only daughter of Ralph Brocklebank, of Childwall Hall, Lancashire. Sir Bevan, who entered the army in Dec. 1852, as second lieutenant in the Royal Engineers, and became lieutenant in Feb. 1854, was ordered to the Crimea in the following year, and for his services in the demolition of Sebastopol docks received the British and Turkish medals. He served in India during the Mutiny, becoming captain in April 1859. For services at the siege and capture of Chandairee and Jhansi, the capture of Calpee, and actions at Betwa Koouch, Gowlowlee, and before Gwalior, he was mentioned in despatches, received the medal with clasp, and was appointed brevet-major in 1860. He served in China in 1864-5 with the late General Gordon, and received a gold medal from the Imperial Chinese Government. Sir Bevan became major in the Royal Engineers in 1872 brevet lieut.-colonel in 1871, lieut.-colonel in the Royal Engineers, brevet colonel and C.B. in 1877. He was employed in 1877, when war was imminent with Russia, on a confidential mission to the east end of the Mediterranean, on behalf of the War Office and Admiralty. In 1882 he was placed on half-pay, but was employed as colonel on the staff commanding the Royal Engineers in the Northern district from 1884 to 1885 in February of which year he went in the same capacity with the expeditionary force to the Soudan, where, for services at the actions at Hasheen and Tamai he was mentioned in despatches and received a medal with clasp. From 1885 to 1888 he was commandant of the School of Military Engineering; and having been promoted to major-general in 1887, commanded the troops in China from 1889 to 1890. It was whilst stationed at Hong Kong that General Edwards received instructions to proceed to Australia and inspect the military forces of the several Australian colonies. Arriving in July 1889, he visited each colony, and recommended a general federation of the local forces for defence purposes, his suggestions forming the basis of Sir Henry Parkes' subsequent action in favour of the political federation of the Australasian group. In addition General Edwards furnished separate reports on the defences of each colony and received the special thanks of the Secretary of State for the Colonies for his valuable services. General Edward returned to England in 1890, and was created K.C.M.G. on New Year's Day 1891.

Edwards, Worley Basset, son of Charles Scatcherd Wilson Edwards and Cornelia Allen (Waller), his wife, was born in London on Sept 5th, 1850, and went to Otago, N.Z., with his parents in 1856. Having embraced the practice of the law he gained a leading position in the profession, and was appointed a judge of the native land court, with the position of a puisne judge of the Supreme Court of New Zealand, in 1890 by the Atkinson Government. When the Ballance Cabinet came into power in 1891, they disputed the appointment as ultra vires, but the New Zealand Court of Appeal decided that the nomination was valid. The case was carried to the Privy Council, and in May 1892 the Judicial Committee gave a decision adverse to the legality of the appointment, on the ground that Parliament had not previously been asked to provide Judge Edwards's salary. Mr. Edwards married at Wellington in June 1886 Miss Mary A. Cutten.

Egan, Hon. Daniel, M.L.A., was born at Windsor, New South Wales, in 1803, and was foreman of the dockyards of Sydney until the establishment was broken up, when he engaged in mercantile pursuits, He was an alderman of the city of Sydney, and Mayor in 1853. Mr. Egan was elected to the Legislative Council in 1854, and in 1856 was returned to the first Legislative Assembly elected under responsible government, as member for Monaro. In 1861 he was elected for Eden, but was rejected by this constituency in 1869, and again returned for Monaro in the same year. He was Postmaster-General in the Robertson and Cowper Ministries from Oct. 1868 until his death on Oct. 16th, 1870.

Eggers, William, was born in 1815 at Brunswick, Hanover, where his father was a medical man. After a university training he went to London, and entered the employment of the eminent printing firm of Clowes, Gilbert & Rivington. In 1848 he emigrated to Adelaide, where he was employed in the mechanical department of the South Australian Register. Subsequently he started the Australische Deutsche Zeitung, the first German newspaper published in the colony. He died on Jan. 20th, 1882.

Elder, Alexander Lang, second son of George Elder of Kirkcaldy, Scotland, by Joanna Haddo, his wife, daughter of Alexander Lang, of Leith, N.B., and brother of Sir Thomas Elder (q.v.), was born at Kirkcaldy in April 1815, and emigrated to South Australia in 1839, where he founded the well-known mercantile firm of Elder & Co., now Elder, Smith & Co., of Adelaide. In 1853 he went to reside in England, and was head of the firm of A. L. Elder & Co., of London, until his death. Prior to his leaving South Australia, he was member for West Adelaide in the mixed Legislative Council inaugurated in 1851, but resigned his seat on March 30th, 1853. He married a daughter of the late Rev. John Baptist Austin, of South Australia. He died in London on Sept. 5th, 1885.

Elder, David, J.P., son of Douglas Elder, by his wife Euphemia Adam, was born at Dundee on June 19th, 1850, and arrived in Melbourne on August 10th, 1855. He was educated at the Scotch college, and entered the office of Mr. Andrew Lyell, public accountant, in 1865, becoming a partner in the firm in 1874. In 1880 Mr. Elder left the firm to assume the Melbourne managership of the New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Agency Company, Limited, and in 1890 he was made general manager of the Company in Australia. Mr. Elder is a justice of the peace for the colonies of Victoria and New South Wales, and returning officer for the district of Essendon and Flemington, in the former colony. He was Commissioner of Savings Banks, but resigned the position on visiting England in 1890. Mr. Elder married, on May 23rd, 1873, Miss Emma Turner.

Elder, Sir Thomas, G.C.M.G., is the fourth son of the late George Elder, of Kirkcaldy, Scotland, by his marriage with Joanna Haddo, daughter of Alexander Lang, of Leith, N.B., and was born at Kirkcaldy in 1818. He emigrated to South Australia in 1854, and joined the firm of Elder & Co., founded by his brother, Mr. A. L. Elder, and on the retirement of the latter became its head, as he now is of the present firm of Elder, Smith & Co., of Adelaide. Sir Thomas Elder was mainly instrumental in forming the company to work the famous Moonta copper mines. He also introduced camels into the colony for exploratory purposes in 1861, and allowed of their use by the expeditions under Mr. Giles, Major Warburton, and Mr. Gosse. Sir Thomas contributed £20,000 towards the endowment of Adelaide University in 1874, and, in addition to other benefactions, endowed a scholarship in connection with the Royal College of Music of London, and offered £5000 towards the exploration of the interior of Australia, and a similar amount towards the expenses of the proposed Antarctic expedition, conditionally, in both cases, on a certain amount of public subscriptions being obtained. Ultimately he undertook the sole cost of the exploring expedition under Mr. Lindsay in 1891-2. He has taken an active interest in the breeding of first-class stock, and has imported some of the finest horses brought to Australia. He was a member of the Legislative Council from 1863 to 1868 and from 1871 till 1878, when he resigned his seat, and in the latter year went to Europe as Honorary Commissioner for South Australia at the Paris International Exhibition. In 1887 he offered to contribute £10,000 towards the establishment of a Medical School in connection with the University of Adelaide. He was knighted in May 1878, and created K.C.M.G. in 1887 and G.C.M.G. in 1888.

Elder, William, was the eldest son of George Elder, of Kirkcaldy, Scotland, and Joanna Haddo, his wife, and brother of Sir Thomas Elder (q.v.), and of Mr. A. L. Elder (q.v.). He was in the merchant service, and first came to South Australia in command of the ship Malcolm. He subsequently became a member of the eminent firm of Elder & Co., of Adelaide, but retired in 1854, and returned to reside in Scotland. He died at Cannes in April 1882, at the age of seventy-eight.

Eliott, Gilbert, C.M.G., sometime Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, Queensland, was third son of Sir William Eliott, the 6th Bart. of that name, of Stobs, Roxburghshire. He was born in 1796, and married, in 1830, Isabella Lucy, daughter of the Rev. Robert Eliott, vicar of Askham (who died in 1871). He emigrated to Queensland, and was elected to the first Legislative Assembly of that colony in April 1860, as member for Wide Bay. On the meeting of the House in May he was elected the first Speaker, and, having been thrice successively re-elected in the next three Parliaments, voluntarily retired in Nov. 1870, when he was created C.M.G. He died on June 30th, 1871. Mr. Eliott's eldest son, Gilbert William, was a police magistrate in Queensland from 1865 to 1878; and, by his marriage with Jane Penelope, daughter of Thomas Thomson, of Tasmania, had a son, Gilbert Francis Eliott, born in 1859, who is Engineer of Harbours and Rivers for Northern Queensland, and has been resident at Townsville since 1880.

Ellery, Robert Lewis John, C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. (Government Astronomer of Victoria), is the son of the late John Ellery, of Cranleigh, Surrey, where he was born in July 1827. He was educated at the local grammar school, and subsequently adopted the medical profession. Astronomical researches, however, mainly occupied his attention; and after his arrival in Victoria, in 1851, he was employed by Mr. La Trobe to establish an observatory at Williamstown, near Melbourne. He assumed office on July 13th, 1853, and has since, under various titles, discharged the functions of Government astronomer. In 1858 he initiated a geodetic and trigonometrical survey of the colony. Five years later the observatory was removed from Williamstown to its present site in the Domain, Melbourne, and the meteorological and physical observatory, previously conducted by Professor Neumayer, was amalgamated with it under the control of Mr. Ellery. He was President of the Royal Society of Victoria for twenty years, and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1873. He has been a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society since 1855, and is an honorary member of numerous foreign scientific societies. Mr. Ellery is also a member of the Council of the University of Melbourne, and one of the trustees of the Public Library. In 1873 Mr. Ellery assisted in organising the Torpedo and Signal Corps (now the Submarine Mining Engineers), and held the rank of lieutenant-colonel in connection therewith. In 1889 he was created C.M.G. His first wife died in 1856, three years after their marriage; and Mr. Ellery married secondly, in 1858, Margaret, daughter of John Shields, of Launceston, Tasmania.

Emberson, Hon. Horace G. C., Receiver-General and Agent-General of Immigration, Fiji, is an Associate of Arts of Oxford University, and a notary public. He was appointed a stipendiary magistrate in Fiji in Oct. 1874, a member of the Lands Commission in Oct. 1875, Registrar-General, Chief Police Magistrate, and Commissioner of the Supreme Court in 1876, Registrar of Titles in 1877, Acting Commissioner of Crown Lands and Acting Member of the Executive Council in 1880, Acting M.L.C. in June 1881 Acting Receiver-General and Comptroller of Stamps, and a Member of the Executive Council in 1877, and, along with other duties, Acting Agent-General of Immigration in 1888. To the latter post he was permanently appointed in 1889, and holds it in conjunction with that of Receiver-General and Commissioner of Stamps. He is also a member of the Legislative Council.

Embling, Thomas, M.R.C.S., L.S.A., is a native of Oxford, and was born in 1814. After embracing the medical profession, and becoming M.R.C.S. England, and L.S.A. London, he left for Australia in Oct. 1850, and after spending "Black Thursday" in Adelaide, S.A., reached Melbourne in Feb. 1851. Shortly after his arrival he was commissioned to overhaul the management of the Yarra Bend Lunatic Asylum; and having done this successfully, commenced the practice of his profession in Fitzroy, Melbourne, in 1853. In the following year he took a prominent part in the agitation for the redress of the gold-diggers' grievances, which culminated in the regrettable outbreaks at Ballarat and elsewhere. In 1855 Dr. Embling entered the Legislative Council as member for North Bourke, and represented Collingwood in the Assembly from 1856 to 1869, when he retired from political life. Dr. Embling aided in the start of the eight hours movement, and endeavoured to pass the Torrens (Land Transfer) Act through Parliament; but the measure was for the time rejected, though subsequently adopted on the initiative of Mr. Service. Dr. Embling was successful in obtaining a committee to inquire into the industries of the colony, which reported in favour of Protection; but it was several years before the present fiscal policy was adopted. Dr. Embling has long since retired from the practice of his profession.

English, Hon. Thomas, M.L.C., sometime Minister of Works, South Australia, was a member of the Legislative Council of that colony from 1865 to 1878 and from 1882 till his death, and was Commissioner of Public Works in the Hart Government from Oct. 1865 to March 1866, and in the Boucaut Ministry from the latter date till May 1867. He died on Dec. 17th, 1884.

Erskine, Vice-Admiral James Elphinstone, sometime commodore on the Australian station, is the second son of the late James Erskine, of Cardross, Perthshire, and was born on Dec. 2nd, 1838. He entered the royal navy as a cadet in 1852, became sub-lieutenant in 1859, lieutenant in 1859, commander in 1862, captain in 1868, rear-admiral in 1886, and vice-admiral in 1891. In May 1880 he was appointed private secretary to Lord Northbrook on the latter's becoming First Lord of the Admiralty. He was commodore on the Australian station from June 1881 to 1884, and on Nov. 6th in the latter year hoisted the British flag at Port Moresby, and proclaimed the British protectorate over the south coast of New Guinea and the adjacent islands. Admiral Erskine was naval aide-de-camp to the Queen from Dec. 1882 to Jan. 1886, and was a Lord of the Admiralty from Feb. to August 1886. From Dec. 1888 to Dec. 1891 he was senior officer commanding on the coast of Ireland. In May 1892 Admiral Erskine wrote to the Times expressing his doubts as to whether under any circumstances the recruiting of Kanaka labour for the Queensland sugar plantations could be conducted with freedom from abuse and without depopulating the islands whence the supply was drawn. He married in 1885 Margaret Eliza, daughter of Rev. John Constable, of Marston Biggott, Somersetshire.

Evans, Hon. George Samuel, LL.D., one of the earliest English settlers in New Zealand and for some time a Minister of the Crown in Victoria, was admitted to the English Bar, and early became associated with the Wakefield colonisation schemes. He decided to go out with the first party of settlers to Wellington (Port Nicholson), N.Z., under the auspices of Colonel William Wakefield, who had selected the site on Cook Straits in the previous year. He sailed from London in the Adelaide on Sept. 18th, 1839, and arrived at Port Nicholson with his family early in 1840, another eminent jurist, the late Sir Richard Davis Hanson (q.v.), who however, held a secondary position to Dr. Evans, having previously landed from the Cuba. Colonel Wakefield had selected Petone as the site of the future capital of New Zealand, but there was a strong feeling amongst the emigrants that the site of the present city of Wellington was the preferable one. Colonel Wakefield was, however, obstinate until the arrival of Dr. Evans, who called a public meeting of the pioneer settlers, and used his oratorical powers with such effect that the popular feeling aroused compelled Colonel Wakefield to give way. Dr. Evans was thus in a sense the "father" of Wellington (then called Thorndon). It must be borne in mind that when the foundation of the Port Nicholson settlement was projected in London England had not yet annexed New Zealand. A self-governing constitution was therefore drawn up under date Sept. 14th, 1839, which all the settlers were expected to sign. Under this constitution a committee or council of colonists was appointed, of which Colonel Wakefield was president, and Dr. Evans the next most important member. Though only given the curious title of "umpire," the latter was virtually the chief judicial authority of the settlement, both in civil and criminal cases. The first meeting of the committee was held on March 2nd, 1840, and in the meantime Captain Hobson had landed further north with a commission as first Lieutenant-Governor. He was furious when he heard of the proceedings at Port Nicholson, characterising the actions of the council of colonists as high treason. He at once proclaimed the Queen's sovereignty over both the North and South Islands, a proceeding which might otherwise have been long delayed, and in hot haste despatched the acting Colonial Secretary, Willoughby Shortland, to Port Nicholson to dissolve the council, displace their officers, and cancel their acts. Instead, however, of meeting with opposition, Shortland was cordially welcomed by the supposed rebellious settlers when he arrived at Port Nicholson on June 2nd, 1840. He was at once waited on by Dr. Evans and two others, who assured him of the loyalty of the community. Two days later the provisional government was declared illegal, and the Queen's authority formally proclaimed. On July 1st following a great public meeting was held, at which Dr. Evans moved the adoption of a loyal address to Captain Hobson in a long speech, in which, whilst vindicating the legality of the proceedings of the council, he advised the settlers to sacrifice their feelings and submit to its dissolution with a good grace. He strongly advocated the claims of Wellington to be regarded as the seat of government, and the address was then adopted. On August 19th Dr. Evans presided over another meeting at which the reply of Governor Hobson to the address was received. Subsequently the meeting deputed Dr. Evans, Mr. Hanson, and Mr. Moreing to proceed to Sydney to lay before the Governor of New South Wales (Sir George Gipps), who then had superior jurisdiction over New Zealand, the views of the settlers on the land question, a Bill being then before the Legislative Council of New South Wales having for its object to cancel all rights acquired of the Maoris except such as her Majesty might allow. The Bill was passed, but it was really more particularly aimed at the exorbitant claims of- New South Wales residents like Mr. Wentworth, who professed to have acquired twenty million acres from the Maoris, than at the requirements of genuine settlers such as those at Port Nicholson. Dr. Evans and his colleagues were therefore successful in their mission, a fact which they reported to a public meeting on Dec. 11th. In the meantime the Government did not give satisfaction, and in July 1841, when Governor Hobson proposed revisiting Port Nicholson, Dr. Evans took an active part in opposing the presentation of a congratulatory address to him pending the disclosure of the Government policy on various matters affecting the welfare of the settlers. He carried an amendment to this effect, despite the support given to the motion for the address by Mr. Hanson. On August 30th Dr. Evans was one of a deputation which presented a petition to the Governor requesting the immediate grant of a charter of incorporation to the town. In 1843 Dr. Evans took a prominent part in representing the views of the settlers in relation to the melancholy Wairau massacre. He did so as the champion of those whose injudicious conduct caused the affray, and was sent as a delegate to Auckland to put their view of the matter before the Governor. He was also hotly opposed to the policy of Governor Fitzroy in cancelling the award of Mr. Spain (q.v.) in relation to the Wellington land claims. Dr. Evans was no believer in the treaty of Waitangi, that Magna Charta of the Maoris, and when in England in 1845 acted as the representative of the discontented colonists who demanded the recall of Fitzroy. On this subject he had interviews with the Under-Secretary for the Colonies (Mr. Hope), and corresponded with the late Lord Derby, then, as Lord Stanley, head of the department. Dr. Evans subsequently went to the colony of Victoria, and took a prominent part in the discussion of the various questions which agitated the early stages of its development under representative institutions. When responsible government was conceded he was returned to the first Legislative Assembly in 1856 for Richmond. He was Postmaster-General in the second O'Shanassy Ministry throughout the whole term of its existence, from March 1858 to Oct. 1859. When Sir Charles Gavan Duffy left the Government in March 1859, Dr. Evans took the additional portfolio of Minister of Lands, which he held till the dissolution of the Cabinet. In the third O'Shanassy Government Dr. Evans was Postmaster-General from Dec. 1861 to June 1863. He was for a considerable period editor of the Melbourne Herald. Dr. Evans died on Sept. 23rd, 1868.

Evans, Gowen Edward, M.A., only son of the late Rev. Gowen Evans, M.A., of Potterspury, Northamptonshire, was born in 1826, and educated at Lincoln College, Oxford, where he matriculated in May 1845, and graduated B.A. in 1849 and M.A. in 1852. He entered at the Inner Temple in November of the latter year, and was called to the bar in Jan. 1864. His tastes tending in the direction of literature, he became a writer for the Spectator, and having become acquainted with Mr. Edward Wilson, one of the proprietors of the Melbourne Argus, he was selected by that gentleman, when he came to reside in England, to represent the Wilson interest in the management of the Argus. Mr. Gowen Evans went to Melbourne in that capacity in 1867, and has ever since taken a prominent part in the direction of the paper. Mr. Evans was admitted to the Victorian bar in 1867, and in the following year he received the honorary degree of M.A. from Melbourne University.

Everard, William, was one of the early pioneers of South Australia, having been present at the proclamation of the colony by Governor Hindmarsh in Dec. 1836. He did not enter political life till 1868, when he was returned to the Legislative Assembly for Encounter Bay, and subsequently sat in the Legislative Council from 1873 to 1878. Mr. Everard was Commissioner of Public Works in the Hart Ministry, from Sept. to Oct. 1868; Commissioner of Crown Lands in the Blyth Ministry, from July 1873 to June 1875; and Minister of Education in that of Mr. Boucaut from March to June 1876. He was a member of the council of Adelaide University and of the governing boards of the Art Gallery, Museum, Public Library, and Botanic Gardens of Adelaide. He died, at the age of seventy, on August 25th, 1889.

Eyre, Edward John, son of the late Rev. Anthony Eyre, vicar of Hornsea and Long Riston, Yorks, was born on August 15th, 1815, and educated at Louth and Sedbergh Grammar Schools. In 1833 he emigrated to Sydney, and entered upon pastoral pursuits, with some success, in the Lower Murray district, where he was subsequently appointed Resident Magistrate and Protector of the Aborigines. Mr. Eyre early began to interest himself in exploration, and in 1836 conducted an expedition across the Australian continent from Sydney to Swan River, W.A. He was afterwards a settler in South Australia, and in 1840 started on a journey for the South Australian Government into the interior. His object was to explore Lake Torrens and penetrate to the heart of the continent. After visiting Lake Torrens, he struck into the Flinders Range; but, owing to the scarcity of food and water, found himself unable to proceed northwards through the impenetrable bush. At last he succeeded in rounding the Great Bight, whence he pushed on to King George's Sound, in the company of one Englishman (Baxter) and three aborigines. The party endured great privations, and after two months of hardship two of the natives murdered Baxter and decamped with the provisions. Mr. Eyre, left alone with a solitary aboriginal, pushed on, and was eventually rescued by a French whaling ship, the Mississippi, and reached Adelaide in July 1841. In 1845 he returned to England, and in 1847, when Earl Grey separated the colony of New Zealand into two provinces and appointed lieut.-governors, Mr. Eyre was nominated to this office for the South Island, Sir George Grey being then Governor-in-Chief. During his term of office he lived mostly at Wellington; but his powers as lieut.-governor were inconsiderable, owing to the overshadowing authority of the Governor-in-Chief. In 1853 he retired and went to England, and in December of the following year was appointed Governor of the island of St. Vincent, and subsequently Lieut.-Governor of the Leeward Islands. On July 13th, 1864, he was made Captain-General and Governor-General-in-Chief and Vice-Admiral of Jamaica. It was during his tenure of office that the insurrection broke out in Oct. 1865, but owing to his energetic measures it was completely crushed. His action, especially in relation to the execution under sentence of court martial of George William Gordon, a mulatto of property, was, however, much canvassed in England, and he was recalled, and a commission of inquiry appointed to investigate the charges against him. The result was to exonerate him from blame; but his accusers, not content with the issue, instituted proceedings against him, which lasted for four years, but came to nothing. A "Jamaica committee" was formed to carry on the prosecution, which led to a defence fund being started. Mr. Eyre was then prosecuted for murder before the magistrates of Market Drayton, in Shropshire, but they declined to commit him for trial. Subsequent proceedings before the Court of Queen's Bench also proved abortive. Mr. Eyre is the author of "Discoveries in Central Australia," 1845; "Journals of Expeditions and Discovery into Central Australia, and Overland from Adelaide to King George's Sound," 1846. He resides at Steeple Aston, in Oxfordshire.

F

Fairfax, Rear-Admiral Henry, C.B., second son of Colonel Sir Henry Fairfax, Bart., was born in 1837, and entered the Royal Navy in 1850, becoming commander in 1862, captain in 1868, and rear-admiral in 1885. He was naval attaché to Sir Bartle Frere's mission to Zanzibar in 1872-3; private secretary to the First Lord of the Admiralty in 1873-4; and was created C.B. (Civil Division) in 1879, and Military Division in 1882. He commanded H.M.S. Monarch at the bombardment of Alexandria in 1882, for which he received a medal, the Khedive's bronze star and the 3rd class Osmanlieh. He was naval aide-de-camp to the Queen from 1879 to 1885 and Commander-in-Chief on the Australian station from 1887 to 1889, assuming the command on the 17th of April in the former year. In 1889 Admiral Fairfax became Second Naval Lord of the Admiralty. Admiral Fairfax married, in 1872, Harriet, daughter of Sir David Kinloch, 9th Bart.

Fairfax, Hon. John, M.L.C., whose reputation is inseparably identified with the pioneer days of Australian journalism, was born at Warwick in 1804. Trained as a compositor, he obtained employment on the Morning Chronicle of London at the completion of his apprenticeship; but, after a time, returned to his native county and commenced business as a printer and bookseller at Leamington, where he started the Leamington Spa Chronicle. The venture was successful; but an outspoken criticism upon the conduct of public officials resulted in a prosecution for libel. Mr. Fairfax successfully defended his position; but was overwhelmed with the heavy costs of litigation, and this circumstance caused him to emigrate to Sydney in 1838. He obtained employment on the Sydney Herald, which had begun its career in 1831, and was then issued bi-weekly by Mr. F. M. Stokes, and as a daily in 1840. Mr. Fairfax also obtained the position of librarian to the Australian Subscription Library in Sydney, Sept. 13th, 1838. His energy, prudence, and enterprise secured him powerful friends. The proprietor of the Herald wishing to retire from business, the paper was purchased in 1841 by Mr. Fairfax and Mr. C. Kemp, a reporter, for the sum of £10,000, which was partly advanced by friends of the new proprietors. The partnership prospered, and the foundation of the great future success of the Herald was securely laid. The paper has always jealously asserted its independence, and has never been considered a party journal. It has been conducted with rare moderation and unusual literary ability, and has secured an amount of commercial support which is unprecedented even in the colonies. In 1851 Mr. Fairfax revisited Leamington, and honourably defrayed all the liabilities which he had left when he emigrated thirteen years before. His old townsmen recognised his sterling qualities, and gave him a most cordial reception. Returning to Sydney in 1853, Mr. Fairfax purchased the share of his partner, Mr. Kemp, and became the sole owner of his paper, which since August 1st, 1842, had assumed the name of the Sydney Morning Herald. In 1867 Mr. Charles Fairfax was taken into partnership, and on the accidental death of his eldest son, Mr. John Fairfax admitted his younger sons—Mr. James Reading Fairfax and Mr. Edward Ross Fairfax. Under their management the paper acquired an undisputed precedence in New South Wales. Mr. John Fairfax again visited England in 1863, and utilised his leisure to familiarise himself with all the latest phases of newspaper management, with the result that his own journals were always in possession of the most modern machinery and equipments. In the political struggles of his day Mr. Fairfax took little personal part. He once sought election to the Legislative Assembly, and was defeated; but in 1874 he was nominated to a seat in the Legislative Council. He was a devoutly religious man, and throughout his career was a prominent member and a most generous supporter of the Congregational body. In 1840 he was chosen as a deacon of the Pitt Street Congregational Church, in Sydney, and took a deep interest in its welfare until his death, which took place at his residence, Ginahgulla, Bose Bay, Port Jackson, June 16th, 1877. His two sons conducted the Herald, and its powerful adjuncts, the Mail and Echo, until 1888, when Mr. E. R. Fairfax withdrew from the partnership. Mr. J. R. Fairfax then admitted his sons—Messrs. Charles Geoffrey and James Fairfax, jun.—into the partnership, and as he only exercises a supervising influence himself, the control of the journals is virtually vested in them.

Farjeon, Benjamin Leopold, the well-known writer, went to Australia in early life, and, after some experience on the gold diggings of Victoria, migrated to New Zealand, where he assisted Mr. (now Sir Julius) Vogel in starting the Otago Daily Times at Dunedin in 1861, the former being editor, and the latter business manager. Subsequently Mr. Farjeon took to literature, and married a daughter of Joseph Jefferson, the celebrated American actor. His successful career as a story-writer since his return to England is well known.

Farnell, Hon. James Squire, was born in 1827 at Parramatta, N.S.W. In 1859 he was elected to the Assembly for St. Leonard's, and in the following year for Parramatta. Subsequently he again sat for St. Leonard's. Having acted for some time as Chairman of Committees, he was Secretary for Lands in the Parkes Government from May 1872 to Feb. 1875. In Dec 1877, on the defeat of Sir John Robertson, he became Premier of the colony of New South Wales, with the portfolio of Minister of Lands. Failing, however, to carry his Land Bill, he resigned in Dec. 1878. He was again Secretary for Lands in the Stuart Government from Jan. 1883 to Oct. 1885, and was appointed Minister of Justice in the Dibbs Ministry which followed, but he almost immediately resigned. Mr. Farnell, who was first Grand Master of the New South Wales Constitution of Freemasons, died on August 21st, 1888.

Farr, Ven. Archdeacon George Henry, M.A., LL.D., son of George Farr and Eleanora his wife, was born on July 2nd, 1819, at Tottenham, England, and educated at Christ's Hospital, where he was "Grecian," and at Pembroke College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1843 and M.A. in 1853. He entered at the Middle Temple in 1841, but was ordained deacon in 1844 and priest in 1845, and was Diocesan Inspector of Schools in West Cornwall. He emigrated in 1854 to South Australia, where he was head master of St. Peter's Collegiate School, Adelaide, from that year till 1879. He was appointed Canon of the Cathedral Church of Adelaide in 1857, and Archdeacon of Missionary Districts in the Diocese of Adelaide in 1880. He took the degree of LL.D. at Cambridge University in 1882; and in connection with the University of Adelaide was made M.A. in 1877, Warden of the Senate in 1880, LL.D. in 1883, and was twice elected Vice-Chancellor—viz., in 1888 and 1889. Archdeacon Farr, who was captain and stroke of his college eight when at Cambridge and winner of a silver medal at the Thames Regatta in 1843, was married at Woolwich on Feb. 5th, 1846, to Miss Julia Warren Ord. He is chairman of the Public Library, Museum, and Art Gallery of South Australia.

Farrell, Very Rev. James, M.A., first Dean of Adelaide, was born in Ireland on Nov. 26th, 1803, and educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated M.A. Having taken orders in the Church of England, he emigrated to South Australia, and arrived in Sept. 1840, when he acted as assistant to Rev. C. B. Howard, the first Colonial Chaplain. He had sole charge of the Anglican communion in Adelaide from 1843 to 1846, when he was relieved by the arrival of Archdeacon Woodcock and the Rev. James Pollitt. On Dr. Short (the first bishop's) arrival, in Dec. 1847, Mr. Farrell was created Dean of Trinity Church, which at first served as the cathedral of the diocese. Prior to this, in Nov. 1845, Mr. Farrell married the widow of the Rev. C. B. Howard, whom he succeeded as Colonial Chaplain, an office which expired with him. He died at Malvern, whilst on a visit to England, on April 26th, 1869. He left four scholarships of £50 each to St. Peter's Collegiate School, Adelaide; and a window was erected to his memory in Trinity Church, which he had been incumbent of as well as dean.

Farrell, John, was born in Buenos Ayres, La Plata, South America, on Dec. 18th, 1851, of Irish parentage. He came with his parents to Victoria in the following year, and up to the age of twenty was engaged in farming in that colony. He afterwards learned the trade of a brewer in Sandhurst, and followed this business for several years in New South Wales. He contributed during this period a number of poems on Australia and other subjects to various periodicals, notably the Bulletin, which attracted a good deal of notice; and in 1887 published a volume, "How He Died, and other Poems." On the publication of "Progress and Poverty," Mr. Farrell became convinced that Henry George had found the solution to the problems of social want and misery, and has since largely devoted himself to the work of spreading abroad a knowledge of the single tax principle. In 1888 he established a newspaper at Lithgow, N.S.W., with this object, which had a considerable influence on public thought. In 1889 he joined with several others in bringing Henry George through the colonies on a lecturing tour, and in June 1890 became editor of the Sydney Daily Telegraph. Some months afterwards he resigned this position, but remains on the editorial staff of that journal. Mr, Farrell was married in Melbourne in 1876, and is regarded as one of the most uncompromising leaders of the Single Tax Movement in Australia.

Faucett, Hon. Peter, M.L.C., formerly Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court, New South Wales, was born in Dublin, and educated at Trinity College, where he graduated B.A. in 1842, and was called to the bar in 1845. He emigrated to Sydney In 1852, and was admitted to the colonial bar. He was returned to the first Legislative Assembly as member for King and Georgiana in 1856, and was elected for East Sydney in 1860. He was Solicitor-General in the Martin Ministry from Oct. 1863 to Feb. 1865, and in October of the latter year was appointed Judge of the Supreme Court of New South Wales. In 1889 he retired on a pension, having been called to the Legislative Council in the previous year.

Favenc, Ernest, the explorer and historian of exploration, was born in London and educated in Berlin, arriving in New South Wales in 1863. After residing in Sydney a year he relinquished his commercial employment and went on to a station in the frontier squatting districts of Northern Queensland, where he was actively engaged during the early pioneering times. Subsequently he gave his attention to "overlanding" (i.e. taking cattle across country) and wrote for the press under the nom de plume of "Dramingo." In 1878 the proprietor of the Queenslander newspaper employed him to explore the line of country extending from Blackall, on the west boundary line of Queensland, to Port Darwin, with the view of solving the question then being debated as to whether a railway could be constructed across the continent along that route. The task was successfully performed by Mr. Favenc at the head of a small and well-equipped party. In 1888 Messrs. Favenc and Crawford explored the McArthur from the Queensland boundary, In 1888 Mr. Favenc published a "History of Australian Exploration" (London and Sydney). Mr. Favenc has the advantage of being a good artist as well as a facile writer. His magnum opus, the "History of Australian Exploration," was dedicated to Sir Henry Parkes, and was published in one large volume at the expense of the New South Wales Government. Prior to the issue of the work on Exploration, Mr. Favenc had published two other brochures, entitled respectively, "The Great Australian Plain," and "Western Australia."

Fawkner, Hon. John Pascoe, M.L.C., who has sometimes been styled "the father of the colony of Victoria," was the son of John Fawkner and Hannah his wife, and was born in London on Oct. 20th, 1792. On Feb. 10th, 1803, he, with his parents, sailed in the Calcutta with the expedition sent out under Collins to found a penal settlement at Port Phillip, where they arrived on Oct. 9th, 1803, and landed on the site of what is now Sorrento. Shortly afterwards the attempt to found a penal settlement was abandoned, and he went with the rest of the party in the Ocean to the Derwent, in Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania), where he arrived on Feb. 10th, 1804. Living with his father about eight miles from Hobart Town, he first assisted the latter in farming, and then turned sawyer. In 1814 he mixed himself up in a plot for the escape of a party of convicts, two of whom betrayed his complicity. In consequence he was flogged, and had to leave for Sydney, whence he returned to Tasmania in March 1817. He then engaged in business at Hobart Town, removing in 1819 to Launceston, where he engaged in the timber trade, which he relinquished in 1826, and started a public-house at Launceston called the Cornwall Hotel. In 1829 he started the Launceston Advertiser, which he sold in 1831, acting in the meantime as a sort of amateur solicitor or "agent" for litigants in the local police courts. In 1835 Fawkner concocted a plan for the settlement of Port Phillip and brought five associates into his scheme, for the effectuation of which he bought the schooner Enterprise, of fifty-five tons burden. The expedition sailed from George Town, Tasmania, on July 27th, but was obliged to beat about for three days, during which Fawkner suffered so much from sea sickness that he had himself put ashore again, the Enterprise, with his coadjutors, proceeding to Western Port, in what is now Victoria, where they arrived on August 8th. Not liking the look of the adjacent country, the party made for what is now Hobson's Bay, and undeterred by warnings that "John Batman, King of Port Phillip, had bought all the lands and desired all trespassers to keep aloof," explored the Yarra Yarra river, with which and the surrounding district they were much delighted. They put the first plough into the earth on Sept. 8th, 1835, and sowed the first crop of five acres of wheat. Fawkner himself, cheered by the accounts which the advance party brought back, landed in Hobson's Bay in Oct. 1835, and may be justly regarded as the real founder of Melbourne, leaving Messrs. Batman (who reached Hobson's Bay in May 1835) and Henty to dispute the glory of being the founders of the colony. In Jan. 1838 Fawkner started the first newspaper, which was written on four pages of foolscap. In March some type arrived from Tasmania, and the journal was printed weekly. In 1839 he commenced the Port Phillip Patriot, which he afterwards made into a daily paper, and which is now, after many mutations, the daily Argus. In 1842 he was elected one of the Market Commissioners, and in 1843 a town councillor, an office which he held for many years. In 1851 he was elected a member of the first Legislative Council for Dalhousie, and on the introduction of a free Parliament in Victoria in 1856 was returned to the Legislative Council for the central province. Though Batman must have the credit of originally selecting the site of Melbourne, Fawkner not only followed closely on his heels, but in his uncouth way contributed materially to promoting the infant interests of what is now the magnificent Victorian metropolis. He was also to the fore in all the public affairs of the colony, generally on the Liberal side. He took a leading part in the movement for declining to elect members for Port Phillip to the New South Wales Legislative Council before its separation from the mother colony. A public meeting in Melbourne selected him as one of the delegates to negotiate a compromise between the Government and the malcontents during the riots regarding the diggers' licences in 1854. In Nov. of that year the Governor, Sir Charles Hotham, nominated him as one of the members of a special commission which he appointed to inquire into the grievances or the goldfields; and he was a party to the voluminous report which they sent in. He died on Sept. 4th, 1869.

Featherston, Isaac Earl, M.D., sometime Agent-General, New Zealand, fourth son of Thomas Featherston, of Cotfield House, Durham, was born in Durham on March 21st, 1813, and took his M.D. degree at Edinburgh in 1836. He was one of the earliest settlers in Wellington, N.Z., under the New Zealand Company. He took a prominent part in the agitation for self-government in and about 1850. In 1852, when the province of Wellington was constituted, he was elected first superintendent, and represented Wanganui in Parliament from 1853 to 1871, when he resigned the superintendency. From July 12th to August 2nd, 1861, he was Colonial Secretary under Mr. Fox, and held office without portfolio under the same gentleman from Nov. 16th, 1869, to March 31st, 1871. In Jan. 1866 he persuaded the friendly Maoris about Wanganui to join General Chute in his campaign on the west coast, and his march toward Mount Egmont; and he himself accompanied and led the Maori contingent in the various actions at Otapawa and elsewhere. For his gallantry on these occasions he received the New Zealand Cross, on the recommendation of General Chute. In 1869 Dr. Featherston was sent home to England, in company with Mr. Dillon Bell, as commissioner to treat with the Imperial Government for a force to put down rebellion and to raise another force for colonial service. When the Vogel Government started the Public Works policy, the Commissioners were instructed to arrange with the Home Government to guarantee a loan for £1,000,000 for public works and immigration, to be spent at a rate not exceeding £200,000 a year. This they succeeded in doing. By the Public Works and Immigration Act of 1870, the office of Agent-General in London was created, and Dr. Featherston became first Agent-General. This post he held from the year 1871 till his death at Brighton on June 19th, 1876. Dr. Featherston married, in 1839, a daughter of Mr. A. Scott, of Edinburgh.

Fehon, William Meeke, Commissioner of Railways, New South Wales, was born on March 5th, 1834, in London. He was employed on some of the leading railway companies in England and Canada, prior to emigrating to Victoria, where he arrived in April 1858, and was appointed traffic manager of the Victoria railways. Mr. Fehon subsequently engaged in pastoral and commercial pursuits, but in 1888 accepted a position as one of the Commissioners of Railways in New South Wales.

Fellows, Hon. Thomas Howard, formerly Puisne Judge, Victoria, son of Thomas Fellows, of Moneyhill, Herts, solicitor, was born in England in 1823, and, after being educated at Eton and studying under Chitty in London, was called to the bar in 1852, and soon afterwards emigrated to Victoria. In that colony he gained a high repute in his profession, and, having become a member of the old Legislative Council in 1855, was appointed Solicitor-General in the Haines Ministry in June 1856, in succession to Mr. (afterwards Sir) Robert Molesworth, who was raised to the bench. This post he held till Feb. 1857, when he succeeded Sir William Stawell (appointed Chief Justice) as Attorney-General. In the meantime responsible government had been inaugurated, and Mr. Fellows had been returned to the first Legislative Assembly for St. Kilda as the colleague of Mr. (now Sir) F. T. Sargood. In March 1857 Mr. Fellows retired from office on the defeat of the Haines Ministry. They came back to power again a month later, and Mr. Fellows was their Solicitor-General till March 1858, when he quitted the Assembly, and was elected to the Legislative Council, in opposition to Mr. T. T. à-Beckett. He represented the Nicholson Ministry in the Upper House, without portfolio, from Oct. to Nov. 1860. In Oct. 1863 Mr. Fellows joined that powerful combination, the first McCulloch Ministry, as Postmaster-General, but quitted the Cabinet in March 1864, as soon as the drift of their policy was made apparent. He now appeared as the determined opponent of his former colleagues, and led the Council in their resistance to the Tariff and Darling grant "tacks." The better to champion the cause of the Conservative party, he resigned his seat in the Council, and was returned in 1867 to the Legislative Assembly for St. Kilda. The McCullochites commanded an overwhelming majority in the Lower House, but Mr. Fellows discharged the difficult task of marshalling his meagre minority with conspicuous tact and ability. In 1868 Sir James McCulloch resigned, owing to a difference with the Governor over the procedure to be pursued in relation to the Darling grant; and after prolonged negotiations, during the course of which Mr. Fellows was frequently suggested as Premier, Sir Charles Sladen agreed to champion the forlorn hope of the Council in their constitutional battle with the Assembly, Mr. Fellows agreeing to take the leadership of the latter body, with the portfolio of Minister of Justice. In spite of several hostile votes carried against them in the popular Chamber, the Sladen Ministry held on from May 6th to July 11th, 1868, when the crisis was terminated by a request from Sir Charles Darling that the grant should be withdrawn, as he had made his peace with the Colonial Office. Mr. Fellows did not again take office, though he remained in the Assembly till 1872, when, it having been decided to nominate a fifth Puisne Judge, he was appointed to that position by the Francis Ministry, and remained on the bench till his death, on April 8th, 1878.

Fenton, Francis Dart, a native of Yorkshire, went out to Auckland, N.Z., in 1850, and cultivated land on the Waikato River. In 1851 he was appointed by Sir George Grey (then Governor) to a position in the Deeds Office at Auckland, and subsequently became Resident Magistrate and Collector of Customs at Kaipara. In March 1856 he was made Native Secretary by Governor Browne; but his policy clashing with that of Mr. (afterwards Sir) Donald McLean, Chief Native Land Commissioner, he was compelled to resign, and was appointed Resident Magistrate at Whaingaroa. On May 9th, 1857, as the result of a paper of suggestions which he had addressed to the Governor, he was summoned to act as magistrate at Waikato at a critical time in the difficulties preceding the Waikato war. His appointment, "at the earnest request of the natives," was the promise of a new departure on the part of the Government, who had resolved that the Maoris should be governed by laws "enacted with their own consent," and instructed Mr. Fenton to prepare a code upon this understanding. Mr. Fenton proceeded to Waikato, but on July 14th, 1857, Potatau accepted the kingship offered him by the malcontent tribes, and he was shortly afterwards withdrawn. From 1858 to 1864 Mr. Fenton acted as assistant law officer of the Crown. In 1861 he prepared the Domain Act, and in 1863 was charged with the working of the New Zealand Settlement Act. Mr. Fenton was admitted as a barrister and solicitor in New Zealand in Jan. 1857. In 1865 Mr. Fenton was employed to draw up the Native Lands Act, and became Chief Judge of the Native Land Court, a post which he held for seventeen years. In 1869 he was called to the Legislative Council, and introduced a bill to amend the Native Lands Act, which was passed, but he failed to pass the Native Reserves Bill. He assisted in the successful opposition to the importation of Ghoorka regiments for the purposes of the war, but was ultimately disqualified as an official from sitting in the Council. He was for two years district judge of Auckland, in addition to his other appointments, and retired from public service in 1882. Mr. Fenton is singularly well acquainted with the Maori language, and the history and customs of the people. In addition to various pamphlets, he is the author of "Observations on the State of the Aboriginal Inhabitants of New Zealand" (Auckland, 1859), and "Suggestions for a History of the Origin and Migrations of the Maori People" (1885).

Fenton, James, son of James Fenton, was born at Dunlavia, County Wicklow, Nov. 20th, 1820. His father was a landholder in the county, but in consequence of religious and political disturbances in Ireland, emigrated with his family to Tasmania in 1833. Mr. Fenton was educated at Elton School, Arklow, and afterwards at the schools of Mr. James Thomson and Mr. R. W. Giblin at Hobart. In 1839 he took up land in West Devon, Northern Tasmania, where he was the first settler. He was an active pioneer of the district, was appointed a J.P. in 1856, and was for years Chairman of the Devon Road Trust. After seeing Devon grow into a populous district he fixed his residence in Launceston. Mr. Fenton has for half a century been a constant contributor to colonial newspapers and magazines. His "History of Tasmania" was published at Hobart in 1884. He is also author of the "Life of Rev. Charles Price" (Melbourne, 1886), and "Bush Life in Tasmania Fifty Years Ago" (London, 1891).

Fenton, Hon. Michael, formerly captain in the 12th Regiment, after service in India, sold out and emigrated to Tasmania in 1829, settling on a grant of land at Fenton Forest, near Glenora, on the river Derwent. He was appointed a member of the nominee Legislative Council by Sir John Franklin in 1840, and was one of the "Patriotic Six," who resigned their seats in the Council, in order to frustrate the financial policy of Governor Wilmot, in 1846, but was reappointed by royal warrant in March 1847. In 1851 he became one of the first elected members of the Legislative Council, representing New Norfolk. In 1855 he was elected Speaker in succession to Sir R. Dry. When responsible government was conceded he entered the House of Assembly for the same district, and was elected the first Speaker in Dec. 1856. Mr. Fenton continued to fill the chair of the House till May 1861, when he resigned, and was succeeded by Sir Robert Officer. He died at Fenton Forest on April 6th, 1874, aged eighty-five years.

Fenwick, George, J.P., editor of the Otago Daily Times, was born at Sunderland, England, on Feb. 2nd, 1847. He arrived with his parents in Melbourne on Jan. 1st, 1853, and subsequently came to New Zealand, landing in Dunedin in 1856. He entered the office of the Otago Witness in 1859, and there remained until 1866, when he visited Australia. Returning to Otago, he became part proprietor of one or two provincial newspapers, and in 1875 was appointed manager of the Otago Guardian, a daily paper of considerable merit, at that time published in opposition to the Otago Daily Times. The Guardian subsequently became the property of Mr. G. M. Reed, whom Mr. Fenwick joined in partnership. In 1877 the subject of our sketch conceived the project of purchasing the Otago Daily Times, and, after much negotiation, Messrs. Reed and Fenwick became proprietors of the Times and of the Otago Witness. Subsequently Mr. Fenwick was appointed managing director of a company which purchased the property. This position he still holds, and in conduction therewith he was appointed editor of the Times in August 1890. Mr. Fenwick is chairman of the Dunedin City and Suburban Tramways Company and a Justice of the Peace.

Fergus, Hon. Thomas, M.H.R., was born at Ayr, Scotland, on April 6th, 1851, went with his parents to Melbourne, Australia, as a boy, and arrived in Otago, N.Z., in the beginning of 1870. Shortly after landing in Otago he decided to enter the engineering profession, and to that end studied at the Otago University under Professor Shand, who was one of Mr. Fergus's tutors when at Ayr Academy. In 1872 he was appointed by the Provincial Government as district engineer for the goldfields, with his headquarters at Cromwell, and held that position until 1876, when he left the service of the Government in order to enter into partnership with Mr. D. Henderson. The firm of Henderson & Fergus carried out several important undertakings, including the construction of the Mosgiel-Outram Railway, the Patea Bailway, the waterworks at New Plymouth, and the railway wharf at the Bluff. In partnership with Mr. J. B. Blair, he was instrumental in building the Deloraine-Mersey Railway in Tasmania and the Heidelberg-Alphington Railway in Victoria. At the general election of 1881 he was returned to the New Zealand House of Representatives for the Wakatipu district, after a severe contest, and in 1884 he was re-elected, having had again to encounter strong opposition. In 1887 and in 1890 he was returned unopposed. On the formation of the Atkinson administration in 1887, Mr. Fergus attained Cabinet rank, being entrusted with the portfolios of Justice and Defence, which he retained until Oct. 15th, 1889, when, consequent on the re-election of the Hon. T. W. Hislop, a rearrangement of portfolios took place, Captain W. R. Russell joining the Ministry and relieving Mr. Fergus of the departments of Justice and Defence, while the latter took over the more important portfolios of Public Works and Mines. He administered these departments until Jan. 1891, when, the Atkinson Government having been defeated at the polls in the previous December, he resigned with his colleagues. He married a daughter of Mr. Donald Reid (q.v.).

Fergusson, Right Hon. Sir James, Bart., G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., C.I.E., M.P., is the eldest son of the late Sir Charles Dalrymple Fergusson, of Kilkerran, Ayrshire, on whose death, in 1849, he succeeded as 6th baronet. His mother was Helen, second daughter of the Right Hon. David Boyle, Lord Justice-General of Scotland. He was born on March 14th, 1832, and was educated at Rugby and University College, Oxford. Having entered the army in 1850, he became successively lieutenant and captain in the Grenadier Guards. Serving in the Crimea in 1854-5, he was wounded at Inkerman, and received a medal with three clasps and a Turkish medal. He was M.P. for Ayrshire from 1854 to 1857, when he was defeated, but was again returned in 1859, and sat till 1868. He was Under- Secretary for India from 1866 to 1867 in the third Derby Government, and Under-Secretary for the Home Department in the first Disraeli Ministry from the latter year till 1868, when, having been sworn of the Privy Council, he was appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief of South Australia, and held office from Feb. 1869 to Feb. 1873. Responsible government leaves but little to the initiative of the governors of the self-governing colonies; but Sir James Fergusson is entitled to considerable credit in connection with the establishment of cable communication between Australia and England, the construction of the overland telegraph line from Port Darwin to Adelaide resulting from the encouragement which he gave to Mr. Strangways when the latter was Premier of South Australia. Sir James married, in 1859, Lady Edith Christian Ramsay, daughter of the Marquis of Dalhousie; and this lady died in 1871, during his tenure of the government of South Australia. Two years later he married a second time, the object of his choice being a South Australian lady—Olive, daughter of the late John Henry Richman, of Wambanga, in that colony, and previously of Adelaide, solicitor. From June 1873 to Dec. 1874 Sir James was Governor of New Zealand, when he resigned and returned to England, being created K.C.M.G. in the same year. In 1875 he unsuccessfully contested Frome, and in 1878 Greenock with a like fate. He was Governor of Bombay from March 1880 to March 1885. In Jan. 1882 his second wife, who in the previous December had received from the Queen the decoration of the Imperial Order of the Crown of India, died suddenly in Bombay, of English cholera, during her husband's absence at Baroda. Sir James, who was created G.C.S.I. in 1885, was elected for one of the divisions of Manchester at the general election in that year, and again in 1886. In August of the latter year he was appointed Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, and in Sept. 1891 Postmaster-General, in succession to the late Mr. Raikes. He has been for some years past a director of the Bank of New Zealand.

Fergusson, Major John Adam, is the third son of the late Sir Charles Dalrymple Fergusson, Bart., and younger brother of Sir James Fergusson (q.v.). He was born on May 7th, 1845, and educated at the Edinburgh Academy and the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. He passed first on the list for a direct commission in the army in 1865, and was appointed to the Rifle Brigade. After serving in India, he was private secretary to Sir James Fergusson, and Clerk of the Executive Council South Australia from 1870 to 1873. He passed the Staff College in 1878, served on the staff of the Intelligence branch of the Horse Guards in 1879, and was Garrison Instructor in North Britain from 1879 to 1880; when, having in the meantime become Captain of the Prince Consort's Own Regiment of the Rifle Brigade, he was appointed Deputy-Assistant Adjutant-General of the South Australian military forces, with the local rank of major. In 1881 he was commissioned by the South Australian Government to proceed to India and arrange for the introduction of Coolie labour into the Northern Territory. Subsequently returning to England, he unsuccessfully contested Peterborough in 1883, and, having been promoted to major, was Deputy-Assistant Adjutant-General in Ceylon from 1887 to 1889. Major Fergusson, who is now serving with the Rifle Brigade in India, married, in 1871, Sarah, daughter of Joseph Gilbert, of Pewsey Vale, S.A.

Finch-Hatton, Hon. Harold, is the son of the 9th Earl of Winchelsea and Nottingham, by Fanny Margaretta, eldest daughter of Edward Royd Rice, of Dane Court, Kent. He is the younger brother of the 11th and present Earl, and was born at Eastwell Park, Kent, in 1856, and educated at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford. When nineteen, Mr. Finch-Hatton went out to Queensland, where he remained until 1883, engaging, in the first instance, in pastoral pursuits in the Mackay district, and subsequently going in for hard work as a practical miner on the Nebo goldfields. A pleasant record of his colonial experience is to be found in "Advance, Australia!" a book from his pen, which has gone through two editions. Mr. Finch-Hatton is a warm upholder of the integrity of the empire, and was one of the founders of the Imperial Federation League, of which he has been treasurer since its start. In politics he is a staunch Conservative, and at the general election in 1885 contested Nottingham in this interest against Mr. Arnold Morley, the Liberal whip. The contest was in the nature of a forlorn hope, and Mr. Finch-Hatton was defeated by a majority of 991. In 1886 and 1892 he again stood but was beaten by his former opponent. Mr. Finch-Hatton is an ardent advocate of the development of the Pacific route to Australia and the East, and has been secretary of the Pacific Telegraph Company, formed for the purpose of laying a line from Vancouver Island to Australia, since its establishment. When the North Queensland Separation League extended its organisation to the Metropolis, Mr. Finch-Hatton was appointed permanent delegate and chairman of the London committee. These offices he still holds, and it is in a great degree owing to his energy in the cause that it has arrived at its present prominence in the eyes of the Colonial Office, and of English public men.

Fincham, James, Engineer-in-Chief for Tasmania, was born in London in 1838. He was for a number of years employed as Assistant and Resident Engineer' on various railway works in England, in surveys for railways and architectural work in connection with railway stations. In 1872 he went to Tasmania as District Engineer for the Tasmanian Main Line Railway, then in process of construction, and subsequently had charge of the whole line as Engineer. He returned to England in 1876, and was shortly afterwards selected by the Government of Tasmania for the appointment of Engineer-in-Chief for the colony. His appointment dates from April 1877.

Finlayson, John Harvey, J. P., is the son of William Finlayson by his marriage with Helen Harvey. His parents arrived in South Australia in Feb. 1837, and he was born at Helenholme, Mitcham, near Adelaide, on Feb. 3rd, 1843. He joined the staff of the South Australian Register and Adelaide Observer in 1861, became one of the proprietors in 1877 and editor of the Register in 1878, which latter position he still holds. Mr. Finlayson, who is a Justice of the Peace, married at Adelaide on March 20th, 1878, Alice, daughter of Thomas Shoobridge. He was a member of the commission for the Adelaide Jubilee Exhibition of 1887 and of the South Australian Commission for the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition of 1888. He is also a member of the North Adelaide School Board of Advice and of the Council of the South Australian Acclimatisation Society.

Finn, Edmund, was born in Tipperary, Ireland, on Jan. 13th, 1819, and arrived in Melbourne in July 1841. Up to June 1858, when he became Clerk of the papers in the Legislative Council, he was connected with the Port Phillip Herald. He retired from the Civil Service in 1886, and is the author of "The Chronicles of Early Melbourne," published under the nom de plume of "Garryowen."

Finniss, Lieut.-Colonel Hon. Boyle Travers, was born at sea on August 18th, 1817, and educated under Dr. Burney at Greenwich, and at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. He joined the 56th Regiment as ensign in 1825, and became lieutenant in 1827, being shortly afterwards transferred to the 82nd Regiment. He sold his commission in 1835 with the view of emigrating to New South Wales as a military settler; but having been appointed Assistant Surveyor under Colonel Light, Surveyor-General of South Australia, he arrived in that colony in Sept. 1836, and four years later became Deputy Surveyor-General. In 1843 he was appointed Commissioner of Police and Police Magistrate, becoming Registrar-General, with a seat in the Executive and Legislative Councils, in succession to Captain Sturt, in 1847. This post he held till 1852, when he was appointed Colonial Secretary, a position which he had temporarily held in 1849, during the absence of Captain Sturt. In his official capacity Mr. Finniss carried the Constitution Act through the Legislative Council, and from Dec. 1854 to June 1855 was Acting Governor, during the interval between the departure of Governor Young and the arrival of his successor, Sir R. G. MacDonnell. Mr. Finniss continued to act as Colonial Secretary till Oct. 24th, 1856, when he was gazetted Chief Secretary, and became first Premier of the colony under the present constitutional régime. He was also one of the first members for the city of Adelaide in the first South Australian Legislative Assembly, and represented Mount Barker in the second parliament from 1860 to 1862. Mr. Finniss, who resigned the premiership in August 1857, was Treasurer in the Hanson Ministry from June 1858 to May 1860. He was appointed Lieut.-Colonel commanding' the Adelaide Volunteer Regiment, having raised a company of Volunteers called the Adelaide Marksmen, and organised a Volunteer force of 2000 men under the Act of 1853. In 1864 he was appointed Government Resident of the Northern territory, where it had been decided to form a settlement. On arrival with his party he selected a site for the capital at Adam Bay, which caused much opposition, and the break-up of the expedition. This ill-judged act and the indiscipline which prevailed in his party led to his recall in 1865, when an official inquiry took place as to the selection of the site and the general management of the expedition, the result of the report being that Mr. Finniss resigned. Having held ministerial office for three years, he received the Queen's permission in 1866 to bear the title of Honourable within the colony of South Australia. He was appointed a member of the Forest Board in 1875, and was Acting Auditor-General during the next year in the absence, on leave, of Mr. Hitchin, the Auditor-General. He resigned his position in the Civil Service in 1881.

Firth, Josiah Clifton, was born in Yorkshire in 1826. In 1854 he settled in Auckland, N.Z., and was formerly a member of the House of Representatives. In 1869, at the height of the Te Kooti trouble, Mr. Firth, who had been a great friend of Wiremu Tamehana, the "king-maker," and was acknowledged by the Maoris as a friend, negotiated with Tawhiao, the Maori king, for a cessation of hostilities, and subsequently had an interview with the notorious Te Kooti himself, in order to try and arrange a general amnesty. Te Kooti was willing, but the Government, being confident of his capture, refused the terms, and the war went on. On the occasion of Tawhiao's visit to Auckland, early in 1882, Mr. Firth entertained him and his chiefs. Mr. Firth was the owner of a model farm of fifty thousand acres at Matamata, in the Auckland Provincial District. He is the author of "Our Kin across the Sea," with a preface by Mr. Froude (Longmans), and "Nation-making" (Longmans, 1890).

Fisher, George, M.H.R., sometime Minister of Education and Customs, New Zealand, is the son of James Fisher and Elizabeth (McLeod) his wife, and though of Scotch descent, was born at Dublin in Dec. 1843. At nine years of age he was engaged in a printing office in Gough Square, London, and arrived in Melbourne, Vict., with his parents in Sept. 1857, where he was employed as reading boy on the Age newspaper, and subsequently on the Herald, his father being a small proprietor in the former journal. He was next employed as a compositor by Messrs. Ferguson & Moore, of Melbourne, but left that firm in 1863 to go to the Otago gold diggings in New Zealand. After working at his trade in Invercargill, Dunedin, and Christchurch, Mr. Fisher settled in Wellington, and was employed in the Government printing office till 1872, when he became a reporter on the Independent, and having learnt shorthand, obtained a footing on the New Zealand Hansard staff, which he held for eleven years, being in the meantime returned to the Wellington City Council, and holding the mayoralty of the capital for four consecutive years. In 1884 he was elected to the House of Representatives for South Wellington, and has represented East Wellington since 1887. He was Minister of Education and Commissioner of Trade and Customs in the last Atkinson Government from Oct. 1887 to April 1889, when he resigned, the vacant portfolios being taken over by the Premier. Mr. Fisher was married at Christchurch, N.Z., on March 1st, 1866, to Miss Laura Emma Tompkins.

Fisher, Sir James Hurtle, son of the late James Fisher, a London architect, was born in 1790, and educated for the legal profession, practising as a solicitor in Cavendish Square from 1811 to 1832. When the colony of South Australia was founded, in 1836, he was appointed by the Imperial Government, Resident Commissioner for Crown Lands, and arrived in Adelaide with the first Governor, Captain Hindmarsh, in December, being present at the proclamation of the colony in that month. The pair quickly quarrelled over the selection of a site for the capital, and possessing virtually concurrent powers, and neither being inclined to give way, a deadlock ensued, which was only broken by the interference of the Home Government, who after their representatives had spent fourteen months in wrangling, dismissed the Commissioner and recalled the Governor. This occurred in Oct. 1838, Sir James Fisher thenceforward throwing in his lot with the colony, as a much- respected private citizen. The same year he became President of the School Society, and was elected first Mayor of Adelaide in 1840; being re-chosen five times subsequently, the last occasion being in 1853, in July of which year he was nominated to the Legislative Council, and held a seat till 1855, when he became a nominated non-official member and Speaker of the united Council which passed the Constitution Act. At the first election under the Constitution Act in 1857, Sir James was returned to the Legislative Council, and was chosen Speaker in April of that year, a position which he held until he retired from the Council in Feb. 1865. Sir James, who was an active patron of the turf, was created Knight Bachelor in May 1860, up to which year he successfully practised his profession, and was for some time leader of the South Australian bar. He died in Adelaide on Jan. 28th, 1875.

Fitzgerald, Captain Charles, R.N., C.B., formerly Governor of Western Australia, was the son of Robert Fitzgerald, of Kilkee, county Clare, and entered the royal navy in 1809. He was Governor of the Gambia from 1844 to 1847, and of Western Australia from August 1848 to June 1855. During an exploring expedition, undertaken in Dec. 1848, with a view of confirming Mr. A. C. Gregory's reported discovery of a lead mine on the Murchison, the Governor was speared by blacks, and narrowly escaped with his life. He was created C.B. in 1857, and died on Dec. 29th, 1887, in his ninety-sixth year, at Geraldine House, Kilkee.

Fitzgerald, Hon. George Parker, M.H.A., has been the representative of Hobart in the House of Assembly since 1886, and was appointed a member of the Fysh Ministry, with a seat in the Executive Council, without office, in Oct. 1888. He is Chairman of the Board of Technical Education, and of the Chamber of Commerce, Hobart.

FitzGerald, James Edward, C.M.G., B.A., J.P., son of the late Gerald FitzGerald, of Queen's County, was born in 1818 at Bath, and educated at Christ's College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1842. He was assistant in the Department of Antiquities, British Museum, 1844-8, and Under-Secretary to the British Museum 1849-50. When the Canterbury Association was founded, to settle the province of Canterbury, N.Z., he became an active member, and in 1850 arrived in one of the first four ships at Lyttleton, N.Z., where he started and edited for two years the Lyttleton Times, acting at the same time as Police Inspector and Immigration Agent. In 1853 he was chosen first superintendent of Canterbury, and held the office till 1857, when he went to England as agent for the province. He was one of the members for Lyttleton returned to the first Parliament in 1854, and was appointed to the Executive Council on June 14th. This was the first step taken towards responsible government, Mr. FitzGerald becoming virtually the first Premier of New Zealand. The newly appointed members were anxious to secure genuine power for themselves as representatives of constituencies, and they urged the Acting Governor (Colonel Wynyard) to get rid of the permanent office holders and re-constitute the Government upon "the ordinary responsible basis." This request being put before the office holders, including Mr. William Swainson (Attorney-General), Mr. Alexander Shepherd (Colonial Treasurer), and Mr. Andrew Sinclair (Colonial Secretary), they declined to advise on the subject, and on August 2nd Mr. FitzGerald and his colleagues resigned from the Executive Council. In 1857-60 he was agent in England for the province of Canterbury. In 1862 Mr. FitzGerald re-entered Parliament as member for Akaroa, and on August 12th, 1865, became Minister for Native Affairs, in succession to Mr. W. B. D. Mantell, in the Weld Administration, which office he held till Oct. 16th, when the Cabinet resigned upon a practical failure to carry stamp duties. In 1866, after his retirement from public life, Mr. FitzGerald was appointed Comptroller-General, and in 1872 Commissioner of Audit, and Comptroller and Auditor-General in 1878, which office he still holds. In 1870 he was created C.M.G. Mr. FitzGerald married in 1850 Fanny Erskine, daughter of the late George Draper, of London.

Fitzgerald, Hon. John Foster Vesey (formerly John Fitzgerald Leslie Foster), is the second son of the late Hon. John Leslie Foster, Baron of the Irish Court of Exchequer, and sometime M.P. for the county of Louth and the University of Dublin, by his marriage with the Hon. Letitia Vesey Fitzgerald, sister of Lord Fitzgerald and Vesci. The families of Foster and Fitzgerald have been for generations distinguished in the Church and politics of Ireland, as well as at the bar and in the judicial arena; Mr. Fitzgerald's grandfather having been Bishop of Clogher, and his great-grandfather the Right Hon. Anthony Foster, Lord Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer. Mr. Fitzgerald, who was born in Dublin on August 19th, 1818, was educated at Dublin University, where he graduated B.A. in 1839 with honours, and became a student for the bar, but abandoned the legal profession in favour of a colonial career. The colony of Victoria, then only the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, was his choice, and he landed there on March 28th, 1841. At first he devoted himself to pastoral and agricultural pursuits, but in 1847 he was elected as representative of Port Phillip, and in July 1848 again came forward for election as one of the six members allotted to Port Phillip in the Legislative Council of of New South Wales. The feeling was, however, so strong that this so-called representation was a mere farce, that the majority were desirous not to elect any more members until separation was secured. In deference to the protests of this party Mr. Foster's nomination was withdrawn, but a few days later he was put up as a candidate for the borough of Melbourne, when the non-election party nominated Earl Grey, the Secretary of State for the Colonies, in opposition to him, in the hope that his election would call public attention in England to the grievances of which the colonists complained. In the result Earl Grey was returned by a large majority, and Mr. Foster on a subsequent occasion declined to stand. Ultimately, however, he was elected, to sit in the Sydney Parliament till he left for England on a visit in 1849. In 1853 Mr. Foster returned, with the appointment of Colonial Secretary of the colony of Victoria, which had in the meantime been constituted. He was thus virtually Premier during the difficulties caused by the discovery of gold and the rigid enforcement (which he deprecated) of the unpopular diggers' licences. The troubles culminated in the Ballarat riots, of which Mr. Foster was made the scapegoat. Aware of the hostile feeling against him, he tendered his resignation to Sir Charles Hotham, by whom it was accepted on the ground that the Queen's government of the colony was endangered, and with the implied pledge that compensation should be given Mr. Foster for the pecuniary loss which he would sustain by his retirement from the public service. Mr. Foster, however, failed in all attempts to obtain any recognition of his claims to compensation. During his tenure of office he introduced and passed the measure which embodied the new constitution of Victoria, and which for the first time included the principle of an elective Upper House. In 1854 he turned the first sod at Williamstown of the great system of railways which has since been developed, and was also instrumental in introducing telegraphs into the colony. Considerable difference of opinion existed as to some of the measures proposed by him; but it is remarkable that every one of them has since been adopted by subsequent legislative action under the new constitution—as, for instance, the abolition of the gold diggers' licence, and the appropriation of the Land Tax to purposes of general utility instead of expending it on immigration. The contracting of loans for public works, which he proposed as the necessary complement of his policy, has since been largely developed. When his conciliatory policy with reference to the diggers' licences was reversed by the Governor, Sir Charles Hotham, and unfortunate results ensued at Ballarat, he retired from office. Subsequent legislative inquiry proved that for such results he was in no way responsible. After the concession of responsible government he sat in the first Legislative Assembly as member for Williamstown, and acted as Treasurer in the first Administration of Sir John O'Shanassy from March to April 1857 soon after which he returned to England, where he has since resided. In accordance with the will of his uncle, the last Lord Fitzgerald and Vesci, he assumed the name of Vesey and Fitzgerald in addition to his own name of Foster, by which latter he was known in Australia. Mr. Fitzgerald married in 1851 Emily, daughter of Rev. J. J. Fletcher, D.D., and administered the government of Victoria from May to June 1854, during the interval between the departure of Mr. Latrobe and the arrival of Sir Charles Hotham. Several of his relatives achieved distinction in Australia. Of these it is only necessary to mention his three first cousins—the late Sir William Foster Stawell, Mr. Justice Foster of New South Wales, and the late Mr. Charles Griffith of Victoria, notices of each of whom will be found elsewhere.

Fitzgerald, Hon. Nicholas, M.L.C., eighth son of the late Francis Fitzgerald, a well-known brewer in the west of Ireland, and brother of Sir Gerald Fitzgerald, K.C.M.G., Accountant-General of the Navy, was born at Galway in 1829. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where he took honours, and also won a scholarship at the Queen's College, Galway, in 1849. After spending some time in legal studies, he embraced commercial pursuits, and in 1859 arrived in Victoria, where he started the Castlemaine brewery, and did an extensive business throughout the Australian colonies. Mr. Fitzgerald, who is also largely enraged in squatting, has been a member of the Upper House for the past five-and-twenty years, and is regarded as one of the most prominent representatives of the Catholic body in Victoria. He married in Sept. 1863 Marianne, eldest daughter of the late Sir John O'Shanassy, K.C.M.G. He was one of the representatives of Victoria at the Federation Convention held in Sydney in March 1891.

Fitzgerald, Thomas Henry, a Queensland politician, joined the Lilley Ministry as Colonial Treasurer in Nov. 1868, but resigned in Jan. of the following year. He died on Nov. 10th, 1888. [This biography appeared in the Supplement at the end of the book.]

FitzGibbon, Edmond Gerald, C.M.G., Chairman of Metropolitan Board of Works, Melbourne, Vict., is a native of Cork, Ireland, and was employed under the Committee of the Privy Council on of Education in England. Having decided to emigrate, he arrived in Melbourne in Sept. 1852, and went to the Mount Alexander gold diggings, where he remained until the next year, when he was appointed Reader to the Legislative Council of Victoria by Governor Latrobe. Mr. FitzGibbon was appointed to assist Mr. Kerr, the Town Clerk of Melbourne, in 1854, and on Mr. Kerr's resignation in 1856 he succeeded him in that position, which he held till 1891, when he was appointed first Chairman of the newly constituted Metropolitan Board of Works of the city of Melbourne. Mr. FitzGibbon was called to the Victorian Bar in 1860, and in 1861 unsuccessfully contested South Bourke in the Free Trade interest. Two years later he was appointed secretary of the Victorian branch of the league formed to prevent the transportation of criminals to Australia. He married a daughter of the late Mr. Michael Dawson, one of the early colonists of Victoria, and was created C.M.G. in 1892.

Fitzherbert, Hon. Sir William, K.C.M.G., ex-Speaker of the Legislative Council, New Zealand, third son of the Rev. Samuel Fitzherbert, of Buckshaw House, Dorsetshire, was born in 1810, and educated at Queen's College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1832, M.A. in 1836, becoming Fellow of his college. He then took up the study of medicine, and became a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, practising for a time in Hanover Square, London. In 1842 he migrated to New Zealand, and in the following year was placed by Captain Hobson, the first Governor of New Zealand, at the head of the list of the colonial magistracy. He was also offered a seat in the first Legislative Council Mr. Fitzherbert at this time was engaged in commercial pursuits. Subsequently he threw himself into the agitation for constitutional government, which was granted by the Home Government in 1853. Immediately afterwards Mr. Fitzherbert entered the Provincial Council of Wellington, of which he was elected Superintendent in 1871. He was also elected in 1856 to the House of Representatives for Wellington, and subsequently for Hutt. On Nov. 24th, 1864, he became Colonial Treasurer and Commissioner of Customs in the Weld administration, in which Major Atkinson was Minister of Defence. On Oct. 16th, 1865, the Cabinet retired, owing to the increasing opposition in the House and upon a nominal failure to carry stamp duties. Mr. Stafford succeeded, but in a short time made common cause with a section of the Weld party, and on August 24th, 1866, Mr. Fitzherbert resumed his office of Colonial Treasurer in succession to Mr. Jollie. Subsequently, on May 6th, 1867, he added thereto the Commissionership of Stamp Duties. During his term of office the Imperial authorities put in large claims against the colony for expenses incurred in the suppression of the native rebellion. Of this Sir William Fitzherbert, as Treasurer, remitted to England a sum of £500,000, which he admitted to be justly due; but with regard to a balance of £750,000 he absolutely declined, on behalf of the Government of which he was a member, to pay a farthing. Negotiations and commissions were resorted to; the parleying extending over a protracted period and proving wholly futile, until at last the Stafford Government decided to avail themselves of the remarkable financial and diplomatic abilities of their colleague, and sent him to England on a special mission, with plenipotentiary powers, to come to a final settlement with the British Government. Sir William's idea of a settlement was the entire abandonment of the Imperial demand. And from this standpoint he never wavered during his numerous interviews and communications with the Duke of Buckingham, the then Colonial Secretary, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Mr. Ward Hunt. At last, after months of negotiation, the Treasury agreed to accept £200,000, this being announced as the ultimatum; and Sir William was, at the same time, privately informed that in case he did not accept these terms his further stay in England was useless. Nothing daunted, Sir William requested another interview with the Duke of Buckingham, and as a result obtained a complete triumph and an entire surrender. During his stay in England he also consolidated the various colonial and provincial loans, and was successful in persuading Lord Granville to retain the one English regiment in the North Island. On June 28th, 1869, the Stafford Government went out of office and was succeeded by that of Mr. Fox; but on Sept. 10th, 1872, Mr. Stafford again came into power, and Mr. Fitzherbert was Secretary for Crown Lands and Immigration. The Cabinet, however, only lasted till Oct 11th. In 1876 he was appointed Speaker of the House of Representatives, and in 1879 Sir George Grey made him Speaker of the Legislative Council. This latter position he held till his death, in Jan. 1891. He was created C.M.G. in 1872 and K.C.M.G. in 1877. In 1887 Sir William Fitzherbert visited England as one of the representatives of New Zealand at the Colonial Conference, and in 1890 he was elected one of the delegates of the colony to the Federation Convention at Sydney, but died before it met, on Feb. 9th, 1891.

Fitzpatrick, Michael, M.L.A., was born at Parramatta, N.S.W., on Dec. 16th, 1816, and educated at a Roman Catholic school and at the Australian College, where he entered in Jan. 1832, and carried off the highest prizes. After acting as tutor at the Normal Institution, he became a clerk in the Lands Department of New South Wales in Oct. 1837, first-class clerk in 1846, and clerk of the Executive Council in 1851. Mr. Fitzpatrick was selected as the first Under Secretary for Lands and Works in 1856, on the introduction of responsible government. When these departments were divided, he held the office of Under Secretary for Lands until 1869, when he retired on a pension. In December of that year he was returned for the district of Yass Plains, and represented the constituency in several parliaments. He first supported the Cowper-Robertson party, and afterwards voted with Sir Henry Parkes. He was Colonial Secretary in Mr. Farnell's Administration from Dec. 1877 to Dec. 1878. Mr. Fitzpatrick married, in August 1846, Theresa Anastasia, third daughter of Captain Small, Superintendent of Hyde Park Barracks. He died on Dec. 10th, 1881. Owing, as it was supposed, to his attitude on the education question, he was refused the rites of Christian burial by the Roman Catholic authorities. A great sensation was created, and ultimately on Dec. 22nd it was officially notified that the contretemps had arisen through a mistake, and a funeral service was performed over the grave.

Fitzroy, Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Charles Augustus, K.C.B., K.C.M., ninth Governor of New South Wales and first Governor-General of her Majesty's Australian possessions, was the only son of Lord Charles Fitzroy by his first wife, Frances, daughter of Edward Miller-Mundy, of Shipley, Derby, and was born in 1796. Sir Charles Fitzroy's grandfather, the third Duke of Grafton, sometime Prime Minister of England, was the object of the envenomed attacks of Junius. His half-brother, Admiral Fitzroy, famous for his storm warnings, was Governor of New Zealand from 1843 to 1845. Having entered the army, Captain Fitzroy, as he was then called, was for some time Governor of Prince Edward Island, and. from 1842 to 1845 of Antigua. In 1846 he was appointed to succeed Sir George Gipps as Governor of New South Wales, and arriving in Sydney on August 2nd of that year, was sworn in on the following day. The year after his arrival in the colony a distressing accident occurred. On Dec. 7th, 1847, whilst he was driving his wife, Lady Mary Fitzroy, in the neighbourhood of Parramatta, the horses took fright, and one of the wheels struck against a tree, causing the occupants to be thrown out, Lady Mary being killed on the spot. The deceased, to whom Sir Charles Fitzroy was married on March 11th, 1820, was the eldest daughter of Charles, fourth Duke of Richmond. Shortly after his arrival Sir Charles Fitzroy avowed his entire neutrality in regard to all matters of local concern, and it was well that he did so, as the public mind was then greatly agitated on some of the most momentous questions affecting the welfare of Australia as a whole. Mr. Gladstone, when Secretary for the Colonies in the Peel Government, from 1845 to 1846, roused great bitterness by suddenly mooting the renewal, of transportation and actually constituting a new colony in the Port Curtis district of what is now Northern Queensland by the name of Northern Australia, with at view of making it a receptacle of British convictism on a large scale. The scheme, however, collapsed on Mr. Gladstone's retirement from office, and Northern Australia reverted to the jurisdiction of New South Wales in 1849. In 1847 a long-standing difficulty was settled by the concession of some sort of fixity of tenure to the squatters, In 1848 the New South Wales Legislative Council, acting in a manner quite contrary to the public sentiment, passed a resolution of Wentworth's approving the importation of a certain number of selected convicts, provided they were accompanied by an equal number of free emigrants sent out at the imperial expense. Earl Grey (the then Colonial Secretary) revoked the Order in Council of 1840 by which the colony had been declared to be a place to which criminals could not be deported, and started transportation on the old unsatisfactory lines, much to the indignation even of the Legislative Council. Sir Charles Fitzroy encouraged Earl Grey in his action all through, and thus appropriated a good deal of the unpopularity which the temporary renewal of transportation involved. As the result, however, of a vehement agitation, it very quickly ceased, and was formally terminated in 1853. In 1851 the gold discoveries were made, and it was a good deal owing to Sir Charles Fitzroy's prudent management that the results of the "fever" evolved were not so disastrous in New South Wales as in Victoria, where expenditure and extravagance ran riot. In the same year Victoria won the long-sought boon of severance from the mother colony, and in May the old purely official Legislative Council of New South Wales was transmuted into an assemblage in which the elective principle was partially recognised, the new chamber being opened by Governor Fitzroy on Oct 16th, 1851. This popularisation of the Constitution only whetted the appetite for a further instalment of constitutional government, and before Sir Charles Fitzroy left the colony the boon of responsible government in connection with a bicameral Legislature was conceded to New South Wales. The first sod of the Sydney and Goulburn Railway was turned by Governor Fitzroy's daughter on July 3rd, 1851. In Oct. 1852 the Sydney University was inaugurated, and in the next year a branch of the Royal Mint was opened in Sydney. The progress made in New South Wales and throughout Australia during Sir Charles Fitzroy's unprecedentedly long term as Governor was enormous, and predisposed the colonists to short memories of former grievances, so that before he left Sydney on Jan. 28th, 1855, Sir Charles Fitzroy was presented with a public testimonial of £2,000. On the motion of Mr. James Macarthur, the Legislative Council also passed resolutions acknowledging the practical ability, sound judgment, and eminent success, which had characterised his rule; a condemnatory amendment, proposed by the redoubtable Dr. Lang, being rejected by twenty-eight votes to six. Sir Charles Fitzroy died on Feb. 16th, 1858. In connection with the Constitution Act of 1850, which authorised the separation of Victoria from New South Wales, and otherwise liberalised government in Australia, the Governor of the mother colony was constituted Governor-General of all her Majesty's Australian possessions, including Western Australia. Under the new régime Sir Charles Fitzroy held four separate commissions as Governor of New South Wales, Van Diemen's Land, South Australia, and Victoria. He was not, under his commission as Governor-General, to interfere with the internal interests of Van Diemen's Land, South Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia, whose lieutenant-governors would correspond directly with the Colonial Office; but he had "general authority to superintend the initiation and foster the completion of such measures as those communities may deem calculated to promote their common welfare and prosperity." In case of necessity he would repair to another colony and assume and retain the government during his residence there, the functions of the Lieutenant-Governor being meanwhile completely suspended. Remote Western Australia alone was exempt from such a contingency. The title of Governor-General was continued to Sir Charles Fitzroy's successor, Sir W. Denison, and then dropped. Sir Charles Fitzroy formally proclaimed his new dignities on June 12th, 1851.

Fitzroy, Vice-Admiral Robert, R.N., F.R.S., late Governor of New Zealand, second son of General Lord Charles Fitzroy, brother of the 4th Duke of Grafton, by Frances Anne, eldest daughter of Robert, 1st Marquess of Londonderry, was born in June, 1805, and entered the navy in 1819, becoming lieutenant in 1824. In 1828-36 he was in command of the Beagle in important hydrographical operations in South America and elsewhere (Darwin him on one of these voyages). Captain Fitzroy was Conservative M.P. for Durham, 1841-3, when he was appointed Governor of New Zealand in succession to Captain William Hobson, and arrived in the colony in Dec. 1843. At this time the colony was not possessed of responsible government, and Captain Fitzroy was called upon to adjudicate upon the Wairau affray of 1839, in which Captain Wakefield and others were killed in a skirmish with Rauparaha and his natives over a disputed section of land in the Nelson district. The Governor arrived at the decision to pardon Rauparaha, being of the opinion that the colonists had been in the wrong, the Maoris having been "hurried into crime by their misconduct." Subsequently Captain Fitzroy, with the view of allowing greater freedom in land transfer, practically rescinded a clause in the Treaty of Waitangi, by which the Maoris could sell only to the Government, by a proclamation permitting the colonists to buy on payment of a ten shilling fee per acre to the Government. This having been regarded as a heavy tax on the sales, in Oct. 1884 he reduced it to the nominal fee of one penny per acre. About the same time the Waitara difficulty came before him. Colonel Wakefield claimed to have bought certain lands in the Taranaki district, and the Ngatiawas disputed the sale. A commission under Mr. Spain reported in favour of Colonel Wakefield, but the Governor decided to have further investigations made. This course, among other things, led to a memorial, signed by many leading, public men, praying for the censure of the Governor by the Queen. Captain Fitzroy struggled with his difficulties, which included a lack of money and of troops, but the rising of a chief called Honi Heke, and his attack on Kororarika, induced the Home Government to recall him, and, on Nov. 18th, 1845, Sir George Grey assumed the reins of Government In 1857 he became Rear-Admiral, and Vice-Admiral in 1863. In 1854, when the meteorological department of the Board of Trade was established, he was placed at its head, and for many years devoted himself to the duties of his office. His assiduity has identified his name to a large degree with the science of meteorology; but it would seem that his mind gave way under the strain, for he committed suicide on April 29th, 1865. He was the author of "Narrative of Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle and the Beagle's Circumnavigation of the Globe" (3 vols.), 1839; "Remarks on New Zealand," 1846; and "Sailing Directions for South America," 1858. Admiral Fitzroy married, first, in 1836, Mary Henrietta, second daughter of Major-General B. J. O'Brien (who died 1852); second, in 1854, Maria Isabella, third daughter of John Henry Smyth, of Heath Hall, co. Yorks.

Flanagan, Roderick, historian of New South Wales, was born at Elphin, Roscommon, Ireland, in April 1828, and went with his family to New South Wales in 1840. He was apprenticed to a printer, but soon took to journalism and literature. Mr. Flanagan contributed to the Empire when edited by Mr. (now Sir) Henry Parkes, and in 1854 joined the staff of the Sydney Morning Herald. He commenced a history of New South Wales, and after four years' labour took the MS. to England to be published by Messrs. Sampson Low & Marston. He was seized with a fatal illness whilst revising the sheets of the first volume, and died suddenly in 1861 in London. The history was subsequently published in two volumes, and is a work of great interest and reliability.

Fleming, Sir Valentine, formerly Chief Justice of Tasmania, was the son of Valentine Fleming (captain 9th Foot), of Tuam, Galway, by his wife, Catherine, daughter of John Hunter Green, of Mount Nebo, Wexford, and was born in 1809. He was educated at Bangor and at Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated B.A. in honours in 1834. He was called to the bar at Gray's Inn in 1838, and was Commissioner of the Insolvent Debtors Court at Hobart, Tasmania, from 1841 to 1844; Solicitor-General for Tasmania from 1844 to 1848; Attorney-General from 1848 to 1854; when he was appointed Chief Justice. This post he held till May 1870, when he retired, but was Acting Chief Justice from 1872 to 1874, in which year he administered the government of Tasmania, after the resignation of Sir Charles Du Cane, from March to June. Sir Valentine married, first, in 1852, Elizabeth Oke, daughter of Charles Buckland, of Hobart, who died in 1870; and secondly, in 1872, Fanny Maria, daughter of William Seccombe, sen., Medical Officer of Tasmania, who survives him. Sir Valentine, who was knighted in 1856, died on Oct. 25th, 1884.

Fletcher, James, M.L.A., was for some years the representative of Newcastle in the Legislative Assembly of New South Wales, and was Secretary for Mines in the Jennings Ministry from Feb. to Dec. 1886, when he resigned. He was Secretary for Public Works in the Dibbs Ministry from Jan. to March, 1889. Mr. Fletcher died on March 22nd, 1891.

Fletcher, Rev. William Roby, M.A., is the son of the late Rev. Richard Fletcher, a well-known Congregational minister, who officiated in Manchester, and subsequently in Melbourne, Vict., where he died in 1861. He was born in Manchester on April 6th, 1833, and was educated at Silcoats School in Yorkshire, at the University of Bonn, the Lancashire Independent College, and at Owens College (now the Victoria University), Manchester. Mr. Fletcher graduated B.A. at London University in 1853, and in the following year took the London University prize for the Scripture examination. In 1856 he graduated M.A., and won the gold medal. He soon afterwards sailed for Sydney, and ultimately proceeded to Victoria, where he acted as his father's assistant at St. Kilda and Sandhurst. In 1866 he removed to Richmond, near Melbourne, and was appointed a professor at the Congregational College of Victoria. After a tour round the world he became pastor of the Stow Memorial Church, Adelaide, in March 1876. Since 1878 he has been a member of the Council of Adelaide University, of which he was made an honorary M.A. in 1877. During the last illness, and subsequent to the death of the late Professor Davidson, he was acting Hughes Professor of English Language and Literature and Mental and Moral Philosophy. In 1890 he was elected Vice-Chancellor of the University.

Flood, Hon. Edward, M.L.C., a New South Wales politician, was returned to the first Legislative Assembly of that colony elected under responsible government in 1856 for the North-eastern Boroughs. He was Secretary of Public Works in the second Cowper Ministry from Oct. 1st to the 25th, 1859. Mr. Flood died on Sept. 9th, 1888. [This biography appeared in the Supplement at the end of the book.]

Folingsby, George Frederick, was born in Ireland in 1830, but went, when young, to America, where he commenced his artistic career by contributing illustrations to Harper's Magazine. Subsequently he studied for six years at the Munich Academy, and after a varied artistic experience on the continent of Europe, settled at Munich, where he remained for twenty-five years, painting pictures which were exhibited in the principal galleries of Europe. In 1880 he visited Victoria at the request of the trustees of the National Gallery in Melbourne, of which he was subsequently appointed director, a post which he held till his death. The collection contains his painting of Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn; but his work in Australia was mainly confined to portraiture. He died in Melbourne on Jan. 4th, 1891.

Forbes, Frederic Augustus, was born in Sydney in 1818, and educated at Cape's School, Sydney, and at the King's School, Parramatta. After engaging in business at Liverpool, in New South Wales, he removed to the Moreton Bay district in 1848, and resided at Ipswich. Having entered the Legislative Assembly of Queensland after the formation of that colony, he was appointed Chairman of Committee in 1870, and was Speaker from Nov. 1871 to Sept. 1873. Mr. Forbes died in 1877.

Forbes, Henry Ogg, A.L.S., F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., ex-Director of Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, N.Z., is the son of Rev. Alexander Forbes, M.A., and Mary (Ogg) his wife. He was born at Drumblade, Huntly, Aberdeenshire, and was married in Java on April 5th, 1882, to Annabella, daughter of William Keith, of Aberdeen. From Oct. 1878 to the end of 1883 he was engaged in exploring the islands of the Dutch East Indies, travelling in Java and Sumatra; and after April 1882, accompanied by his wife, he visited the Moluccas and Timorlaut (where, in daily peril of their lives, they were forced to spend three months), Bouru, and Timor. The results of these years have been published in "A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago" (Sampson Low) and by Mrs. Forbes in a volume, "Insulinde: Experiences of a Naturalist's Wife in the Eastern Archipelago" (Blackwood). On the publication of the "Wanderings" Mr. Forbes started for New Guinea to attempt the exploration of Mount Owen Stanley. This expedition was under the auspices of the Royal Geographical Society and of the Royal Scientific Geographical Society, and under the recognition of the Government, by whom it was recommended to Sir Peter Scratchley, K.C.M.G., then appointed first Special Commissioner over British New Guinea. With twenty-five Malays and Amboinese carriers, he reached Port Moresby in Sir Peter's yacht, the Governor Blackall. Arriving too late for the dry season of that year, he established a camp to the east of the Astrolabe mountains, in the Sogeri country, whence explorations were conducted for many miles round the camp, and surveys made of the region. Toward the end of the year, he accompanied Sir Peter as a scientific expert on his journey along the north-eastern coast to Nutre rock and the Boundary Cape, on the 8th parallel of south latitude, the line of separation between the German and English spheres of influence. On this journey Sir Peter contracted the illness which so suddenly and unexpectedly proved fatal. His illness and death prevented the signing of the papers to authorise the payment of the contribution which was largely to support the expedition. Mr. Forbes maintained the expedition at Sogeri as long as the public and his own private resources could afford, in the hope that Sir Peter's successor, the Hon. J. Douglas, would contribute the sum well known to have been promised by Sir Peter Scratchley to the expedition, but not seeing his way to do this, he appointed Mr. Forbes Resident at Dinner Island, and subsequently Government Meteorologist at Port Moresby, whence he was in 1887 instructed to conduct an exploration towards Mount Owen Stanley via the Goldie Valley. This expedition reached the very base of the mountain, and would have without doubt attained the summit but for the unexpected attack on the main camp by the natives of Ebe, during Mr. Forbes' absence, in which everything was looted. This calamity necessitated a withdrawal from the region back to the coast, which was effected without loss of life, though after many hardships. Returning to England in March 1888, Mr. Forbes was appointed in July to succeed the late Sir Julius von Haast as Director of the Canterbury Museum at Christchurch, N.Z., a position he held till 1892. He has contributed to the transactions of various learned societies.

Forbes, Sir William Stuart, Bart., son of Charles Hay Forbes, second son of the 7th baronet of that name, of Pitsligo and Monymusk, Aberdeenshire, by his marriage with Jemima Rebecca, daughter of the late Alexander Donaldson Macdonell, of Glengarry, was born on June 16th, 1835, and emigrated to New Zealand, where he resides at Carterton, near Wellington. In 1865 he married Marion, daughter of J. Watts, of Bridgend, Nelson, N.Z., and in the following year succeeded as 9th baronet on the death of of his uncle, Sir John Stuart Hepburn Forbes, when the family estates descended to the latter's daughter, who married the 20th Baron Clinton.

Forrest, Alexander, M.L.A. younger brother of the Hon. John Forrest, Premier of Western Australia (q.v.), was born in that colony in 1849, and is one of the most eminent of the explorers of Western Australia. He accompanied his brother's expeditions in 1870 and 1874. On Jan. 18th, 1879, with a party of five and two natives, with twenty-six horses and six months' provisions, he started from Perth to explore the north-west portion of Australia, Port Darwin being their ultimate destination, which was reached on Oct 6th. The chief results of this expedition were the discovery of the source and course of the Fitzroy and other large streams, together with an estimated area of 20,000,000 acres of good well-watered country now known as the Kimberley district, which, in addition to its vast pastoral possibilities, is well suited for tropical cultures, and has been proved to be auriferous. He was returned to the first Legislative Assembly of Western Australia as member for West Kimberley in 1890, and was one of the delegates to the Federation Convention held in Sydney in March 1891. Mr. Forrest married in 1880 Amy, eldest daughter of Edward Barrett Lennard, of Annandale, W.A.

Forrest, Hon. Edward Barrow, M.L.C., was born in England in Feb. 1838, and educated at the King's School, Parramatta, N.S.W., in which colony he arrived in 1852. He is managing partner in Queensland of the firm of Parbury, Lamb & Co., and was sworn on August 15th, 1882, of the Queensland Legislative Council. Subsequently he was appointed one of the commissioners to inquire into the working of the Colonial Stores Office.

Forrest, Hon. Sir John, K.C.M.G., F.L.S., F.R.G.S., F.G.S., Premier of Western Australia, the third son of William Forrest, of Leschenault, near Bunbury, W. A., was born in that colony on August 22nd, 1847, and educated at the Bishop's School, Perth. In 1865 he entered the Survey Department of Western Australia, and in 1869 was selected to command an exploring expedition into the interior in search of the remains of Dr. Leichardt. In 1870 he commanded an exploring expedition from Perth to Adelaide along the south coast, and proved the practicability of the route for the telegraph line, which was afterwards erected. In 1874 he commanded an exploring expedition from Champion Bay, on the west coast, to the overland telegraph between Adelaide and Port Darwin, a journey of nearly 2000 miles, without the aid of camels, and with horses only. For these services he received the thanks of the Governor and Legislative Council, and was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, May 22nd, 1876, and was also presented by the Imperial Government with a grant in fee of 5000 acres of land. In 1876 he was appointed Deputy Surveyor-General of Western Australia. In 1878 and 1882 he conducted the trigonometrical surveys of the Nickol Bay District, and the Gascoyne and Lyons District, in North-Western Australia. From Sept. 1878 to Jan. 1879 Mr. Forrest was Acting Commissioner of Crown Lands and Surveyor-General. He is a justice of the peace for Western Australia, and acted as Comptroller of Convicts from May 1880 to July 1881. In Jan. 1883 he was appointed Commissioner of Crown Lands and Surveyor-General of Western Australia, with a seat in the Executive and Legislative Councils. In March 1883 and April 1886 he proceeded to the Kimberley district, North-Western Australia, on behalf of the Government, to specially report on its character and capabilities. Mr. Forrest is the author of "Explorations in Australia, 1876," and of "Notes on Western Australia, 1884-7." In 1874, such was his repute as an explorer, that the Governor of Western Australia, Sir Frederick Weld, in writing to Lord Carnarvon, said: "Mr. Forrest's expedition has bridged the gap that separated Western Australia from the other colonies, has led to settlement on the shores of the Great Bight, and to the connection of this colony with the rest of the world by electric telegraph. I never doubted of the future of Western Australia from the day when the news of Mr. Forrest's success reached Perth." In 1876 Mr. Forrest married Margaret Elvire, eldest daughter of Mr. Edward Hamersley, of Pyrton, near Guilford, W.A., and in the same year was created a Chevalier of the Order of the Crown of Italy by Victor Emmanuel. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Italian Geographical Society and of the Imperial Geographical Societies of Vienna and St. Petersburg. He was created C.M.G. in 1882; proceeded to Cambridge Gulf, in the extreme north, in 1886, and selected the site of the town of Wyndham. In the same year he was mainly responsible for the Land Act passed by the Legislative Council, rendering alienation conditional on improvements. He was a member of the local commission for the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886, and was one of the delegates of Western Australia to the Colonial Conference held in London in 1887. In Dec. 1890 Mr. Forrest was returned unopposed to the first Legislative Assembly for Bunbury, and became first Premier and Treasurer of Western Australia under responsible government. In March 1891 he represented the colony at the Sydney Federation Convention, and in June 1891 he was created K.C.M.G.

Forrest, Hon. William, M.L.C., is a member of the well-known Queensland firm of B. D. Morehead & Co., and was appointed to the Legislative Council on March 15th, 1883. He has been long and extensively engaged in pastoral pursuits in Queensland and the neighbouring colonies.

Forsaith, Rev. Thomas Spencer, who was for two days Premier of New Zealand, was born in 1814, and emigrated to New Zealand in 1840. He settled at Mangawhare, on the North Wairoa river, in the province of Auckland, a hundred and eighteen miles north-east of the city of Auckland. In Nov. 1841 a skull which had been washed down the river was found on Mr. Forsaith's property by a party of Maoris, who believed that it had been taken from one of their sacred places. They accordingly "raided" Mr. Forsaith's premises in the absence of himself and Mrs. Forsaith, carrying off everything movable and wrecking the interior of the house. An inquiry into this outrage was held in the following March before the Chief Protector of Aborigines, when the natives reluctantly acknowledged their error and surrendered a tract of land in payment. The Government also gave Mr. Forsaith compensation, and he removed to Auckland, where he opened a store. He was subsequently appointed a sub-protector of Aborigines, and accompanied the late Admiral Fitzroy, then Governor of New Zealand, to Waikanae in Feb. 1844, when the latter held a conference with the Maori chiefs concerned in the Wairu massacre. Mr. Forsaith interpreted for Rauparaha his address to the Governor on the occasion. He was elected a member of the first House of Representatives in 1854; and when subsequently the acting Governor, Colonel Wynyard, was pressed to initiate responsible, government under the new Constitution, and made a second attempt to carry on with a hybrid Government, including the old imperial administrative officials, he was one of the four members of the General Assembly who were appointed to the Executive Council in August 1854, on condition of their resigning in case they failed to carry with them the support and confidence of the Houses of Parliament. This they failed to do, for on Sept. 2nd, 1854, two days after they had taken office, they were defeated in the House of Representatives on an amendment to the Address by 22 votes to 11. Of this short-lived Government of responsible and irresponsible Ministers Mr. Forsaith was Premier, so far as such an office was then recognised. His two days' taste of the sweets of office was his only one. His Ministry is famous in the annals of New Zealand, besides its brevity, for the soubriquet which it obtained of "the Clean Shirt Ministry." The popular tradition concerning the phrase is that Mr. Forsaith, when making his Ministerial statement in the House, explained that while pursuing his avocation in his shop in Queen Street, Auckland, he received a communication from the Governor requesting his presence, whereupon he went home and put on a clean shirt and repaired to Government House. What really happened, according to Mr. Forsaith's own account, was that he had been assisting his employés to unpack some drapery cases recently landed, whereby his clothing became very dusty. On receiving his Excellency's command to come and see him respecting the formation of a new Ministry, he naturally went home first and changed his dusty garments. Later on, when making his Ministerial statement, he narrated the simple incident, and this so tickled one of the southern members as to wring from him the chaffing declaration that he gathered little more from the Premier's "statement" than that the hon. gentleman had gone home and put on a clean shirt. In due time Mr. Forsaith had his revenge by retorting that, though clothed with but "little brief authority," his Ministry had come and gone in clean garments, which was the happiest condition he could hope for the hon. member when his time came. Mr. Forsaith subsequently settled in Sydney, N.S.W., and was ordained a minister of the Congregational Church in 1865. Recently he retired, and has resided at Parramatta. [This biography appeared in the Supplement at the end of the book.]

Forster, Anthony, was for some time editor of the South Australian Register. In 1855 he was elected to the Mixed Legislative Council for West Adelaide, in opposition to Mr. (afterwards Sir James) Hurtle Fisher. The seat was, however, declared vacant by the Court of Disputed Returns in November, Mr. Forster being re-elected in Jan. 1856. When the present Constitution Act came into force, Mr. Forster was elected to the Legislative Council in March 1857, and sat till Feb. 1861, when he retired by rotation, but was immediately re-elected, and sat till Dec. 1864, when he resigned. He has published "South Australia: its Progress and Prosperity" (London, 1866).

Forster, Hon. William, was born at Madras in 1818, and came to Australia at eleven years of age. He was educated at Cape's School, in Sydney, and became a squatter early in life. Mr. Forster soon attained prominence as a politician, but in his early career was better known as a satirical versifier and an incisive contributor to the press. He was elected at different times to the Lower House for East Sydney, St. Leonards, the Hastings, Queanbeyan, Illawarra, and Murrumbidgee. In his place in parliament he was a severe critic of the education policy of the Cowper Administration formed in 1857, and on their defeat on this question in Oct. 1859 he himself formed an administration, which, however, only lasted till the following March. Mr. Forster was Colonial Secretary in Mr. (afterwards Sir) James Martin's first Ministry from Oct. 1863 to Feb. 1865, and Secretary for Lands in Mr. (now Sir) John Robertson's second Ministry and the succeeding Cowper Ministry from Oct. 1868 to April 1870. In Feb. 1875 he again took office under Sir John Robertson, this time as Colonial Treasurer—a post which he held till the following February, when he resigned to become Agent-General of the Colony of New South Wales in London. This post he held for three years, when he was recalled by the Parkes Ministry, and returned to New South Wales, where he died on Oct. 30th, 1882. Mr. Forster whilst resident in London, published The Weir-Wolf, a Tragedy. He also published "Political Presentments" in 1879, and was the author of two other poetical works, "The Brothers" and "Midas"— the latter issued posthumously.

Fosbery, Edmund Walcott, J.P., Inspector-General of Police, New South Wales, was born at Wotton, in Gloucestershire, in 1833, and educated at the Royal Naval School, New Cross. He went to Melbourne in 1852, and was employed in the police department. Ten years later, when the New South Wales Constabulary was reorganised, he was appointed Secretary to the Force, and Superintendent and Deputy Inspector-General. In Oct 1874 he succeeded the late Captain McLerie as Inspector-General.

Foster, Hon. William John, Puisne Judge, New South Wales, son of, the Rev. W. H. Foster, of Lough Gilly, co. Armagh, by Catherine, daughter of James Hamilton, of Brown Hall, Donegal, and niece of the first Duchess of Wellington, was born on Jan. 13th, 1831, at Rathescar, co. Louth, the residence of his uncle, John Leslie Foster, Baron of the Irish Court of Exchequer. He was educated at Cheltenham College, and at Trinity College, Dublin, where he took the Vice-Chancellor's prize for Greek in 1850, also the composition prize in the same year, as well as honours in classics and mathematics. He left the University in 1851, and arrived in Sydney in August 1854, and for the first three years of his residence in New South Wales devoted himself to agricultural pursuits. He then studied law, and was called to the colonial bar in 1858, when he entered on the practice of his profession. In 1859 he published a work on the District Courts Act, which was the standard work on the subject until 1870, when a revised edition was issued. In 1877 be published a supplement to the same work. He acted as a Crown prosecutor from 1859 to 1862 and from 1864 to 1870, when he was appointed Crown Prosecutor for Sydney, in succession to Mr. Butler, who had accepted the Attorney-Generalship. In Dec. 1877 he resigned this post, and became Attorney-General in the Farnell Administration, with a seat in the Legislative Council. Retiring with his colleagues in Dec. 1878, he again took office in Oct. 1881, being Minister of Justice in the Parkes Administration from that date till Jan. 1883, when the Government resigned. He retired from the Legislative Council in 1880, and was returned to the Lower House for Newtown. In 1882 he was defeated, but was re-elected in 1885, and sat in the Assembly till he retired from political life in 1888. Judge Foster was made Q.C. in 1886, and in the following January he again took office as Attorney-General under Sir Henry Parkes, but resigned in Feb. 1888, on the ground that his prior claim to the vacant Puisne Judgship had been slighted. Later in the same year he was raised to the Supreme Court Bench. Mr. Justice Foster married in 1854 Matilda Sophia, daughter of John Williams, of Landigige, Pembrokeshire. He on several occasions refused District Court Judgeships, and declined the Speakership of the Assembly in 1887.

Fowler, David, was born near Anstruther, in Scotland, in 1826, and emigrated to South Australia in 1852. He founded the mercantile firm of D. & J. Fowler of Adelaide, which city he quitted in 1873 to assume the direction of the London branch. He died at Norwood, in Surrey, on Nov. 11th, 1881.

Fowler, George Swan, a partner in the firm of D. & J. Fowler, of Adelaide and London, was member for East Adelaide from 1878 to 1881 in the Legislative Assembly of South Australia. He accepted office in the last Morgan Ministry as Treasurer, in March 1881, but in the following May he resigned. Early in 1892 he contested the seat for East Adelaide, left vacant by the retirement of Sir John Bray, but was defeated by the labour candidate.

Fox, Sir William, K.C.M.G., M.A., formerly Premier of New Zealand, third son of George Townshend Fox, J.P. and D.L. for co. Durham, was born on June 9th, 1812, and educated at Wadham College, Oxford, graduating B.A. in 1832, M.A. in 1839. He entered at the Inner Temple on Nov. 15th, 1838, and was called to the bar on April 29th, 1842. In the latter year he emigrated to Wellington, N.Z., and in 1843 succeeded Captain Wakefield as the Resident Agent of the New Zealand Company at Nelson. Early in 1848 he became Attorney-General of the Southern Province, but resigned when it appeared that no steps were to be taken to grant self-government to the colony. In Sept. 1848 he succeeded Colonel Wakefield as principal agent of the New Zealand Company. In 1850 he returned to England as honorary political agent of the Wellington settlement to assist in getting the Constitution Act through the Imperial Parliament, and travelled for a year in the United States. On May 7th Mr. Sewell formed the first responsible ministry; but on May 20th he resigned upon a want of confidence motion carried by Mr. Fox in connection with the powers of the provincial governments, which Mr. Sewell desired curtailed. But his tenure of office was as brief as that of his predecessor, as on June 2nd he also was defeated, Mr. Stafford assuming office with Mr. Sewell as treasurer. On July 3rd, 1861, Mr. Fox carried a vote of want of confidence in the ministry by 24 votes against 23, and formed a cabinet on July 12th. In 1862 Mr. Fox brought before the House a resolution affirming exclusive Ministerial responsibility for Maori affairs, and, the votes being equally divided, resigned the same year. On Nov. 2nd, 1863, Mr. Fox came into office as Colonial Secretary, Mr. Whitaker being Premier and Attorney-General. The Waikato war had now begun, and the burden of responsibility fell jointly upon the Governor (Sir George Grey) and the Fox-Whitaker cabinet. Mr. Fox carried through the Suppression of Rebellion Bill by a large majority; also the Defence Bill and the New Zealand Settlements Bill; and it was owing to difficulties with Sir G. Grey during the progress of the war (notably concerning confiscation) that the ministry resigned on Nov. 24th, 1864. Mr. Fox was not in office again till June 28th, 1869, when he once more became Premier and a member of the Executive Council, after the defeat of the Stafford Government. During his term of office in 1870 a bill was passed founding the University of New Zealand, and the Public Works scheme was inaugurated by Mr. Vogel. The Land Transfer Registration Act was also passed. On Sept. 10th, 1872, he resigned, and Mr. Stafford came in again; but on March 3rd, 1873, Mr. Fox once more returned to office, though he resigned on April 8th, leaving his colleague, Mr. (afterwards Sir) Julius Vogel, to take his place as Premier. On July 29th, 1879, Sir George Grey's Government was defeated on an amendment moved by Sir William Fox (as he was now), but he failed to secure a seat at the general election in the same year. In 1880 he was appointed, with Sir F. D. Bell, upon the Commission for the West Coast to inquire into the question of native titles and report upon the confiscated lands, and subsequently became sole commissioner. He was created K.C.M.G. in 1879, and since his retirement from public life has devoted himself to lectures and addresses upon the temperance question. He married May 3rd, 1842, Sarah, eldest daughter of William Halcombe, of Poulton House, Wilts, who died in June, 1892. Sir William Fox is the author of "The Six Colonies of New Zealand" (1851), and "The War in New Zealand" (1866).

Francis, George W., the first director of the Adelaide Botanic Garden, was born in England in 1799, and emigrated to South Australia in 1849. Soon after his arrival he leased the old Botanic Garden, north of the Torrens, and was ultimately appointed director under Government. This post he held till his death on August 9th, 1865. Mr. Francis was the author of several works.

Francis, Hon. James Goodall, sometime Premier of Victoria, was born in London in 1819, and emigrated to Tasmania in 1834. Here he entered the mercantile firm of Boys & Painter, whose business he took over in 1847, in conjunction with his partner, Mr. Macpherson. A branch establishment was opened in Melbourne in 1853, under the management of Mr. Francis, and he henceforward resided in Victoria, going largely into squatting and viticulture, in addition to his mercantile concerns, which proved highly successful. In 1855 he was elected a director of the Bank of New South Wales, and was President of the Melbourne Chamber of Commerce as far back as 1857. In Oct. 1859 he was returned to the Legislative Assembly for Richmond, which he represented till he resigned in 1874. Mr. Francis was Minister of Public Works in the Nicholson Administration from Nov. of that year to Sept. 1860, when he resigned with Mr. Service in connection with the dispute with the Upper House over the Land Bill. He was Minister of Trade and Customs in the first McCulloch Government from June 1863 to May 1868, supporting and in a great measure initiating the partially protective tariff introduced by the Treasurer, Mr. Verdon, and also the Darling Grant; the tacking of both which measures to the Appropriation Bill he cordially approved. He was himself Treasurer in the third McCulloch Government from April 1870 to June 1871. During the latter part of the Duffy Administration which succeeded, he led the opposition, and after the former were defeated, in June 1872, he formed a government which lasted until July 1874, when he retired, partly on political grounds and partly with a view to recruiting his health by a visit to the old country. Parliament under the auspices of his administration sanctioned a railway expenditure of £2,250,000; but the chief event of his tenure of power was the passing of the Education Act, introduced by Mr. Stephen, the Attorney-General, and which established the present highly popular, though expensive system of free education. Mr. Francis was by no means a skilled parliamentary orator or an eminently adroit manager of men, but his downright manners and bluff honesty rendered him, apart from mere politics, one of the most popular premiers Victoria has possessed. As a means of reforming the Upper House and averting deadlocks, Mr. Francis introduced into the Assembly a scheme embodying the Norwegian system, but it met with but cold support, and Mr. Francis in consequence resigned, and was succeeded by Mr. Kerferd. He on three occasions refused the honour of knighthood—a fact which no doubt contributed to establish his popularity. On his return from England Mr. Francis, though always previously looked on as a Liberal, avowed himself as strongly opposed to what he regarded as the extreme policy of the Berry Government, and was induced to enter the lists against Sir Bryan O'Loghlen, when that gentleman contested West Melbourne in 1878. Despite Mr. Francis' personal popularity, he was, however, defeated, and the same result accrued when he again opposed Sir Bryan on his seeking re-election after accepting the office of Attorney-General in the Berry Government. Shortly afterwards Mr. Francis was returned to the Assembly for Warrnambool, and was re-elected in 1880 and again in 1883. Meanwhile he acted with Mr. Murray Smith as joint leader of the Constitutional party, as the combined Conservatives and old Liberals now called themselves. Mr. Francis, whose health had been for some time failing, died on Jan. 25th, 1884. His widow, Mrs. Mary Grant Francis, died in England on May 13th, 1887, at the age of sixty-three.

Frankland, Frederick William, F.I.A., son of Professor Edward Frankland, D.C.L., and his wife Sophie Fick, was born on April 18th, 1854, in Manchester, and landed in Lyttleton, N.Z., in May 1875. In September of the same year he entered the New Zealand civil service, and in March 1884 became Actuary of the New Zealand Government Insurance Department, and also Registrar of Friendly Societies. Subsequently, in 1886 he was appointed Government Actuary and statist, and in 1889 Government Insurance Commissioner. Mr. Frankland returned to England early in 1890, and is now Assistant Actuary of the Atlas Assurance Company. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Actuaries (1884), and has contributed to various journals on actuarial and mathematical topics. Mr. Frankland married, on April 30th, 1879, Miss Miriam Simmons.

Franklin, Lady, the wife of the ill-fated Arctic explorer, Sir John Franklin, was the daughter of John Griffin, and was born in 1792. She married Sir John as his second wife at Liverpool in Nov. 1828, and accompanied him to Van Diemen's Land when he was appointed Governor there in 1836. They arrived in the island in Jan. 1837 and remained till August 1843. She was a great traveller, and was the first lady to cross overland from Sydney to Port Phillip, a feat she accomplished in May 1839, two years only after the latter settlement was founded. Though a most intrepid explorer, Sir John was only a weak administrator, and his term of office was embittered by perpetual contentions between Lady Franklin and Montagu, the Colonial Secretary, nephew of the previous Governor, Arthur, as to which should dictate the policy of the Government, the matter being ultimately the subject of amusing references to the Colonial Office, who when Sir John Franklin dismissed Montagu practically reversed his decision. In 1845 Sir John Franklin proceeded on his ill-fated expedition to the Arctic seas, and perished in 1847. His wife's heroic efforts in organising search expeditions are well known. In 1860 she was awarded the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society, being the first woman on whom that distinction was conferred. She died in London on July 18th, 1875, aged eighty-three years.

Franklyn, Henry Mortimer, started the Victorian Review, a monthly magazine for some time published in Melbourne, and devoted to Australasian politics, commerce and pastoral pursuits. He also started and edited the Federal Australian, a weekly newspaper, published in Melbourne, and based on the idea of intercolonial unity. Both these enterprises have now, for some years, ceased publication. Mr. Franklyn has published "Australia in 1880" (issued in Melbourne), and "The Unit of Imperial Federation" in London in 1887.

Fraser, Hon. Alexander, M.L.C., sometime Minister of Public Works, Victoria, was the son of a Scotch farmer, and was born at Aldoura, near Inverness. In 1827 he went to London and five years later sailed for Sydney, N.S.W., in the Rubicon. The ship, however, put in at Hobart Town, Tas., and he decided to stay there, which he did till 1852, when he visited Victoria and decided to settle there. He had been interested in pastoral properties in the colony as far back as 1836, and he now started as an auctioneer in Bendigo, removing the business to Melbourne in 1853. In 1858 he was elected to the Legislative Council for the western province, and was Commissioner of Public Works in the Francis Ministry from June 1872 to May 1874, representing the Government in the Upper House. He was principally known as the plaintiff in an action which he brought against the Melbourne Age in 1878 for damages for a libel contained in an article reflecting on his conduct towards a deceased brother who had died in England in indigent circumstances. He recovered £250. Mr. Fraser died on August 21st, 1888, aged eighty-seven years.

Fraser, Sir Malcolm, K.C.M.G., C.E., Agent-General, Western Australia, was employed in various departments of the government of New Zealand in 1857-70, was appointed Surveyor-General of Western Australia, with a seat in the Executive and Legislative Councils, in Dec. 1870, and Colonial Secretary of Western Australia Jan. 1883. He represented the latter colony at the Intercolonial Conference on Cable Duplication held at Sydney in 1874, the Australasian Convention at Sydney in 1883, and at the Intercolonial Conference at Sydney in 1888. He was Executive Commissioner for Western Australia to the Melbourne International Exhibition of 1880, and to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition at South Kensington in 1886. He was created C.M.G. in 1881 and K.C.M.G. on June 21st, 1887. Sir Malcolm administered the Government in the absence of Sir F. Napier Broome from Jan. 1st to Feb. 21st, 1888, and from Dec. 21st, 1889, until the return of Sir W. Robinson in Oct. 1890. His duties as Colonial Secretary ceased with the inauguration of responsible government in Western Australia, towards the end of 1890, and he arrived in England in Jan. 1891. In April 1892 he was appointed first Agent-General for Western Australia.

Fraser, Hon. Simon, M.L.C., Victoria, youngest son of William Fraser, mill-owner and farmer, of Nova Scotia, to which colony that gentleman emigrated from Inverness, Scotland, soon after it was taken from, the French by the English. Mr. Fraser was born at Pictou, Nova Scotia, August 21st, 1834. On his arrival in Victoria, in 1853, Mr. Fraser spent some time at the diggings, but in a year or two turned his attention to contracting—at first in road works and bridge building, and later in railway construction,—being at various times a member of firms who carried out contracts in Victoria, New South Wales, and South Australia. In the last-named colony he was one of the constructors of the Port Augusta and Government Gums Railway. While engaged in these works he also entered into squatting pursuits, first in Queensland, where he resided from 1867 to 1869, and afterwards in Victoria and New South Wales. He is still considerably interested in pastoral properties in the northern colony. At the general election of 1874 he stood for Rodney, in the interest of the Francis Ministry, and was opposed by Mr. J. J. Walsh, whom he beat by a large majority, and at the general election of May 1877 was again elected to the Legislative Assembly for the same district as a supporter of the McCulloch Ministry. After representing that constituency nine years, he retired in 1883, and visited Europe and America, being absent about two years. In 1885 he unsuccessfully contested West Melbourne with Mr. Carter, the Mayor of Melbourne. He was also an unsuccessful candidate for a seat in the Legislative Council for the Northern province, in April 1886, but was returned as member for South Yarra province in August of the same year. In politics Mr. Fraser is a man of moderate views, and took an active interest in promoting the Service-Berry coalition of 1883. He is a J.P. for Victoria, and was for a lengthened period chairman of the Australian Widows' Fund Life Insurance Society, and a director of the City of Melbourne Bank and the private railway line between Deniliquin and Moama. Mr. Fraser has been twice married. In Nov. 1890 he became a member without portfolio of Mr. Munro's Cabinet. Twelve months later he voted against his colleagues' measure for establishing the principle of "one man one vote," and it was rejected by the Council, Mr. Fraser tendering his resignation in consequence. It was not, however, accepted, and the Bill was withdrawn. In Feb., however, when Mr. Shiels reconstructed the Cabinet, Mr. Fraser finally withdrew from office.

Freeling, Major-General Sir Arthur Henry, Bart., sometime Surveyor-General, South Australia, son of John Clayton Freeling and grandson of Sir Francis Freeling, Bart., for thirty years Secretary to the General Post Office, entered the Royal Engineers, and ultimately took service under the South Australian Government as Surveyor-General. In this capacity he did some valuable exploring work, and was a member of the Executive and Legislative Councils prior to the concession of responsible government. He was elected to the new Legislative Council in March 1857, and sat till August 1876, when he resigned. In the meantime he was a member of the Finnis Ministry as Commissioner of Public Works from Oct. 1856 to March 1857, when he retired rather than relinquish the permanent post of Surveyor-General, which he resigned in 1861, and returned to England. He was then lieut.-colonel in the Royal Engineers, but became major-general on retiring, and succeeded in 1871 as 5th baronet of Ford and Hatchings, Sussex. Sir Arthur (who was the elder brother of Sir Sanford Freeling, K.C.M.G.) married, in 1848, Charlotte Augusta, daughter of Sir Henry Rivers, 9th baronet, who still survives. Sir Arthur died on March 26th, 1885, when he was succeeded by his son Harry, the 6th and present baronet.

French, Colonel George Arthur, R.A., C.M.G., ex-Commandant of Defence Force, Queensland, son of the late John French, of Mornington Park, co. Dublin, was born at Roscommon on June 19th, 1841, and educated at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, and the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. He was commissioned as lieutenant of the Royal Artillery, on June 19th, 1860, and became captain in 1872, major in 1881, and lieut.-colonel in 1887. He was adjutant of the Royal Artillery at Kingston from 1862 to 1866; Inspector of Artillery in the Dominion of Canada from 1870 to 1878, being appointed Lieut.-Colonel of Canadian Militia in the former year. He was Commissioner of the North-West Mounted Police in Canada from 1873 to 1876; and Inspector of Warlike Stores at Devonport from 1878 to 1888. He organised the Permanent Artillery and Mounted Police of Canada, and commanded the expeditionary force of 300 mounted men and two guns, sent from the Red River to the Rocky Mountains, in 1874. He was made a Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George on May 30th, 1877. In Sept. 1883 he was appointed Commandant of the Queensland Local Forces with the local rank of colonel, and arrived in the colony on Jan. 4th, 1884. Colonel French married, in 1862, Janet Clarke, daughter of the late Robert Long Innes, formerly of the 37th Regiment. Colonel French retired in 1891, and returned to England.

Frome, General Edward Charles, was a lieutenant in the Royal Engineers, and arrived in South Australia with a surveying party of sappers and miners in 1836. He succeeded Captain Sturt as Surveyor-General in Oct. 1839, and was also Engineer-in-Chief till 1843. Returning to England, he became Colonel Commandant R.E., and rose to the rank of General in 1877. He died on Feb. 12th, 1890, at the age of eighty-eight. He was formerly Governor of Guernsey.

Furner, Luke Lydiard, M.P., represents Wallaroo in the Legislative Assembly of South Australia, and was Commissioner of Public Works in the Downer Ministry from June 1886 to June 1887. He was first returned for Wallaroo in 1878.

Fysh, Hon. Philip Oakley, M.L.C., was born at Highbury, London, in 1835. In 1859 he emigrated to Tasmania. After a successful commercial career he went into politics and became Premier of Tasmania, was member for Hobart in the Legislative Council from 1866 to 1869, and for Buckingham from Nov. 1870 to July 1873, when he left the Upper House for the House of Assembly, in which he represented East Hobart from August 1873 to Nov. 1878. In March 1884 he was re-elected to the Legislative Council for Buckingham, for which constituency he still sits. Mr. Fysh was in the Kennerley Government from August 1873 to March 1875 as Treasurer, and from that date till July 1876 as a minister without portfolio. He became the recognised leader of the Opposition in July 1877, and the next month formed an Administration, in which he took the position of Premier without office. In March 1879 Mr. Giblin became Premier, Mr. Fysh remaining a member of the Ministry without portfolio till its retirement in the following December. In March 1887 Mr. Fysh, who is President of the Central Board of Health, and was major commanding the Tasmanian Volunteer Rifle Regiment from 1880 to 1884, formed his second Government, of which he is still Premier and Chief Secretary. He was one of the delegates from Tasmania to the Sydney Federation Convention in 1891. [Supplement: In August 1892 Mr. Fysh resigned the office of Premier and Chief Secretary of Tasmania, owing to the defeat of the Government in the House of Assembly on their financial proposals.]

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Gahan, Charles Frederick, F.R.G.S., sometime Postmaster-General, Western Australia, entered the Royal Navy in June 1862, and served for about eleven and a half years, principally at the Cape of Good Hope and on the east coast of Africa. He was specially employed under the India Office from 1875 to 1878, and under the Admiralty from June of the latter year till Nov. 1881. For four years subsequently he was Head Accountant and Acting Secretary of the Executive and Legislative Councils of Mauritius. In 1885 he was despatched on special service to the Bahamas, and in 1887 was appointed to succeed Mr. Helmich as Postmaster-General and Superintendent of Telegraphs in Western Australia, both which posts he held till his death on April 27th, 1889, at the age of forty-three years.

Galloway, Frederic William, was born at Delhi, India, in 1856, and entered the 85th Regiment (King's Light Infantry) as sub-lieutenant in 1875. After serving with credit in India and South Africa, he retired from the service, and went, in 1880, to Australia, where he entered the Queensland Civil Service as Clerk of Petty Sessions at Port Douglas in 1883, being promoted to Ipswich in 1885, and becoming Immigration Agent at Brisbane in July 1889.

Galloway, John James, was nominated to the Legislative Council of Queensland immediately on its being constituted a separate colony, and was in the first responsible ministry of the colony, as a member of the Executive Council, without portfolio, from August to Nov. 1860.

Garner, Arthur, was born on Feb. 8th, 1851, at Bath, England, where his father, Dr. Jonathan Garner (M.D. of Edinburgh) practised his profession, his mother being a Miss Cobden. Arthur Garner was articled to Mr. C. J. Phipps, the architect, whose connection was largely theatrical, he having erected no less than forty English theatres; from which circumstance may perhaps be traced the young pupil's gravitation to the stage, where he became a protégé of Mr. George Gordon, the scenic artist. From the paint-room Mr. Garner soon found his way to the footlights, and for some time appeared in various provincial companies. In 1873 he arrived in Melbourne, returning to London in 1876. In 1879 Mr. Garner began his career as an Australian entrepreneur by taking out "The London Comedy Company" (1879), of which the late Fred Marshall was the bright particular comic star and Mr. George Gordon the hardly less indispensable scenic artist. In 1881 he joined Mr. J. C. Williamson, the eminent Australian-American actor, and Mr. Musgrove in establishing the leading firm of Australasian managers, generally known as the "Trio," which has controlled a greater number of theatres and entered into engagements, dramatic and operatic, on a larger scale than has ever been attempted south of the Line. Their operations practically commenced at the Theatre Royal, Melbourne, on July 1st, 1882, with the production of Gilbert and Sullivan's Patience. Many eminent London artistes were introduced to the colonies under their régime; but the most substantial undertaking of Messrs. Williamson, Garner & Musgrove was the building of the new Princess's Theatre, Melbourne, in 1886, by universal consensus one of the finest dramatic temples in the world. Mr. Garner has been twice married: first, to the excellent English actress, Miss Blanche Stammers, who died in Melbourne in 1883; and, secondly, to Miss Letitia Hill Martin, sister of Mr. Patchett Martin, herself an accomplished littérateur, and formerly a contributor to the Australian press.

Garran, Hon. Andrew, M.L.C., LL.D., was born in London on Nov. 19th, 1825, and educated at a proprietary grammar school in Hackney, and afterwards at Spring Hill College, Birmingham. He subsequently graduated at London University, taking the M.A. degree in the philosophical branch in 1848. Falling ill with what was pronounced to be consumption, he went to Madeira for eighteen months, and then resolved to emigrate to Australia. Shortly after arriving in Adelaide in 1851, Dr. Garran was engaged to write for a short-lived weekly newspaper called the Austral Examiner. On the outbreak of the gold diggings he went to Victoria, and was engaged there as private tutor to Mr. C. E. Labillière on a station near Ballan. Returning to Adelaide, he was engaged as editor on the South Australian Register in 1854 and 1855, when he removed to Sydney, on the invitation of the proprietor of the Sydney Morning Herald, to be assistant editor to the Rev. John West. On the latter gentleman's death in 1873 Dr. Garran became editor-in-chief, and held that post till he was forced to retire from failing health at the beginning of 1886. In Feb. of the following year he was appointed by Sir H. Parkes to the Legislative Council of New South Wales. Dr. Garran has been a member of the Parliamentary Committee on Public Works, of the Board of Technical Instruction, and of the Board of the Sydney Grammar School He was for many years Sydney correspondent for the Melbourne Argus, and also for the London Times. Dr. Garran, edited "The Picturesque Atlas of Australia," the most comprehensive descriptive work on Australia hitherto published, He married at Adelaide on Dec. 1st, 1854, Miss Mary Isham Sabine. From 1890 to 1891 he presided over the deliberations of the Royal Commission on labour questions.

Garrard, Jacob, M.L.A., represented Balmain in the Legislative Assembly of New South Wales for a number of years, and was returned at the head of the poll at the general election in 1889. He was Secretary for Public Works in the last John Robertson Ministry from Dec. 1885 to Feb. 1886. At the general election in June—July 1891 he was elected for Central Cumberland.

Garrett, Thomas, M.L.A., represented Camden in the Legislative Assembly of New South Wales for a number of years. He was born in Liverpool, England, on July 16th, 1830, and went to New South Wales with his parents when nine years of age. A year later he was bound to the printing business, but during his apprenticeship he ran away, and became a cabin-boy on H.M.S. Fly, then employed in resurveying the coast between Port Jackson and Hobson's Bay. The youth was soon sent back, and having finished his apprenticeship, he was engaged on a number of newspapers, subsequently being employed in the Government printing office, where he worked for three years. Mr. Garrett then turned his attention to journalism, and in 1855 established the Illawarra Mercury, and afterwards also the Alpine Pioneer and the Cooma Mercury. In 1860 he first entered Parliament, sitting for the Monaro constituency. He retired four years later in favour of Mr. Alexander Montague, but was elected for Shoalhaven, for which electorate he sat as member until 1872. Afterwards he acted for a short period as police magistrate for Berrima, but not caring for official life, he again entered Parliament, this time for Camden, for which electorate he sat until the general election in June 1892, when, on account of ill-health, he decided not to again contest the seat, and bade farewell to political life. He was Secretary for Lands in the third John Robertson Ministry from Feb. 1875 to Feb. 1877, when he resigned. In the fourth Robertson Government he filled the same post from August to Nov. 1877, when he again resigned, and was succeeded, as on the former occasion, by Mr. E. A. Baker. He was Minister of Lands in the Parkes Government from Jan. 1887 to July 1888. Mr. Garrett died on Nov. 25th, 1891.

Garrick, Hon. Sir James Francis, K.C.M.G., M.L.C., Q.C., Agent-General for Queensland, is the second son of the late James Francis Garrick, of Sydney, New South Wales, in which city he was born in 1836. After practising as a solicitor in Brisbane, Queensland, where he was a partner of the present Chief Justice, Sir Charles Lilley, and for several years City Solicitor for Brisbane, he was elected to the Assembly for East Moreton, and subsequently visited England, entering as a student at the Middle Temple in Nov. 1870. He was called to the bar in June 1873, and, returning to Brisbane, practised at the local bar with great success, and also took a leading position in politics. Mr. Garrick was Crown Prosecutor from 1874 to 1877; and having been returned for Moreton, in that year entered the Douglas Ministry as Secretary for Lands and Mines, a post which he held from Feb. to Dec. 1878, when he was appointed Attorney-General. Mr. Garrick retired with his colleagues in Jan. 1879, and became Q.C. in 1882, when he was again returned for Moreton. On the formation of the first Griffith Ministry, in Nov. 1883, Mr. Garrick was nominated to the Legislative Council, and was appointed Colonial Treasurer, but exchanged this post for that of Postmaster-General in the following December. In June of the next year he was appointed Agent-General for Queensland, and for the first time in the history of the colony held that post in conjunction with a seat in the Government, of which he was a member without portfolio till Sir Samuel Griffith's resignation in June 1888. During his first tenure of office as Agent-General in London, he was a Royal Commissioner and Executive Commissioner for Queensland at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in 1886, and was one of the representatives of the colony at the Colonial Conference in the next year. In 1885 he was created C.M.G., and K.C.M.G. in 1886. Sir James, who married in 1865 Kate, daughter of the late J. J. Cadell, M.D., was reappointed Agent-General in Dec. 1890. He is a member of the governing body of the Imperial Institute.

Garvan, Hon. James Patrick, M.L.A., has represented Eden in the Legislative Assembly of New South Wales for some years past. He was Minister of Justice in the Jennings Government from Feb. 1886 to Jan. 1887, and Colonial Treasurer in that of Mr. Dibbs from Jan. to March 1889.

Gaunson, David, M.L.A., the fourth son of the late Francis Gaunson and Elizabeth his wife, was born in Sydney, N.S.W., on Jan. 19th, 1846, and educated in Sydney, and at Brighton, Victoria. Having served his articles to his brother-in-law, the late Hon. J. M. Grant, he was admitted an attorney of Victoria in 1869, and continues to practise his profession in Melbourne. After fighting two unsuccessful contests in 1871, and in 1872 unsuccessfully opposing the Hon. J. G. Francis, the then premier, at Richmond, he was returned to the Legislative Assembly in 1875 for Ararat, which constituency he continued to represent till July 1881. Mr. Gaunson was a prominent member of the "Stonewall" party, which, under Mr. (now Sir) Graham Berry, after an unparalleled agitation in Parliament and in the country, ultimately annihilated the followers of Sir James McCulloch at the general election in 1877. Subsequently, however, he acted in opposition to Mr. Berry, and also opposed the Service Government formed in 1880. In the following year, on the formation of the O'Loghlen Ministry, Mr. Gaunson accepted a portfolio as President of the Board of Lands and Works and Commissioner of Crown Lands and Survey. He was, however, defeated at Ararat by the Hon. Wm. Wilson on presenting himself for re-election after his acceptance of office, and at once resigned his position in the Ministry which he only held from July 9th to August 2nd. Mr. Gaunson was returned to the Assembly at the general election in March 1886; but on his contesting South Melbourne at the ensuing general election in March 1889 he was defeated by Mr. Mountain.

Gawler, Colonel George, K.H., second Governor of South Australia, was the only son of the late Captain Samuel Gawler of the 73rd Regiment, who led one of the storming parties at the siege of Seringapatam. He was born in 1796, and educated at the Military College, Great Marlow. Colonel Gawler joined the 52nd Light Infantry in Nov. 1811, and served to the end of the Peninsular War in 1814. During the course of the latter he led the forlorn hope at the storming of Badajoz, and was struck by a grape shot in the right knee, and fell from the parapet into the ditch below, where he lay all night, but was rescued by a private of his regiment, who had his own head shot off whilst in the act of saving his superior. When still under twenty he commanded the right company of the 52nd at Waterloo, and took part in the attack upon the Imperial Guards, for which he received the war medal, with clasps. He was appointed Governor of South Australia in 1838, and, arriving in the colony on the 12th, assumed office on the 17th of October in that year. The reaction from the over-speculation and extravagance which prevailed at the initiation of the colony set in during his term of office in full force, and resulted in an appalling state of depression, which Colonel Gawler sought to relieve by encouraging settlement on the country lands, which his predecessor had obstructed, and undertaking extensive public works with a view of giving employment to the urban population, whom he also assisted out of his private purse. With a view of meeting the Government outlay incurred, Colonel Gawler, despite the fact that it had been expressly stipulated that the colony should be self-supporting, drew upon the British Treasury for about £155,000, the authorities of which dishonoured his drafts; thus, by public repudiation, intensifying the prevailing financial stringency into almost universal private bankruptcy. The Governor, too, whose policy the equity of time has largely justified, was deposed by Lord John Russell in a manner which has not often been paralleled in the annals of official curtness and harshness—the first intimation which Colonel Gawler got of his recall being afforded when Captain (now Sir) George Grey, whose father, curiously enough, had fallen at the assault on Badajoz where Governor Gawler himself had won his spurs, walked into Government House, Adelaide, on May 10th, 1841, and displayed his own commission to become Colonel Gawler's successor. The Colonel, after whom the town of Gawler in South Australia is named, relinquished office on May 15th, and immediately left the colony. He died at Southsea on May 8th, 1869.

Gawler, Henry, eldest son of Lieut.-Colonel George Gawler, K.H., formerly Governor of South Australia (q.v.), was born at Quorn, near Derby, in 1827, and went to that colony with his father in 1838, but was sent to England to be educated. He was at Rugby under Dr. Tait, and afterwards studied at King's College, London. He entered at the Middle Temple in Nov. 1849, and was called to the bar in Nov. 1852. Mr. Gawler married on June 25th, 1857, Caroline Augusta, third daughter of the Rev. B. Philpot, sometime Archdeacon of the Isle of Man, and returned to South Australia early in 1858, when he was appointed solicitor to the Lands Titles Office under the "Torrens Act," which then came into force. Mr. Gawler was Attorney-General without a seat in Parliament for a few days in Oct. 1861 and March 1876, under Messrs. Waterhouse and Boucaut. In 1870, at the request of the Government of New Zealand, Mr. Gawler performed valuable service in the inauguration of the Torrens system of land transfer in that colony.

Gellibrand, Hon. Walter Angus Bethune, M.L.C., J.P., son of the late Joseph Tice Gellibrand, has sat in the Legislative Council of Tasmania for Derwent since Dec. 1871, and was President of that body from July 1884 to Feb. 1889. He is a member of the Fisheries Board.

Geoghegan, Right Rev. Patrick Bonaventure, D.D., second Roman Catholic Bishop of Adelaide, was born at Dublin in 1811, and was primarily educated at Edgworthstown. At the age of sixteen he entered the Irish College at Lisbon, and afterwards joined the Franciscan Order at Coimbra, where he was ordained a priest. After officiating for a few years at St. Francis' Church, Dublin, he volunteered for the mission of New Holland, and was appointed first resident priest of Port Phillip, where he arrived in 1839. The spot where he celebrated the first mass on Victorian soil is marked by a cross in the grounds of St. Francis' Church, Melbourne. When the late Dr. Goold was made first Bishop of Melbourne, he appointed Dr. Geoghegan Vicar-General. On the death of Bishop Murphy, of Adelaide, he was appointed to succeed that prelate in the see, and was consecrated in Sept. 1859. He took possession of the see in the following November, but only held it for about five years, when he returned to Ireland, where he died at Kingstown, on May 5th, 1865.

Gibbes, Sir Edward Osborne, Bart., is the eldest son of the late Sir Samuel Osborne Gibbes, the 2nd baronet, who emigrated to New Zealand, by his second wife, Anne, daughter of Richard Penny, who still survives and resides at Whangarei, N.Z. He was born in Nov. 1850, succeeded as 3rd baronet on the death of his father in 1874, and married in 1879 Sara, daughter of John Mitchell, a captain in the New Zealand Militia. He resides at Wellington, and is chief clerk in the Education Department of New Zealand. His son Philip Arthur, born in 1884, is heir to the baronetcy, which was created in 1774.

Giblin, Hon. William Robert, sometime Premier and Puisne Judge of Tasmania, was the eldest son of William Giblin, Registrar of Deeds for the colony, and was born at Hobart on Nov. 4th, 1840. He was educated at the school of his uncle, Mr. Robert Giblin, and at the High School, Hobart. In 1864 he was admitted as a barrister and solicitor of the Supreme Court. He entered the House of Assembly as member for Hobart in 1869, and soon secured a prominent place in the House. He succeeded Mr. Dobson as Attorney-General in the Wilson Ministry on Feb. 5th, 1870, and remained in office until Nov. 4th, 1872. He distinguished himself as an ardent supporter of a railway policy, and when Parliament re fused to sanction the construction by Government of a main line of railway from Hobart to Launceston, Mr. Giblin as a last resource, introduced, and carried by a narrow majority, a Bill authorising its construction by an English company. He was again Attorney-General in the Kennerley Ministry from August 4th, 1873, to July 20th, 1876. During his term of office he carried several important legal reforms, amongst others measures amending the law of real property and abolishing primogeniture. The most useful work of the Ministry, however, was an extensive scheme for the construction of roads, bridges, and public works, which was carried in spite of determined opposition in the Legislative Council In 1877 he was defeated in a contest for Central Hobart, but shortly afterwards was elected for the northern district of Wellington, which constituency he represented until his elevation to the Bench. He was Treasurer in Mr. Fysh's first Ministry from August 1877 to March 1878, when he became Premier, but only held office for nine months. As Treasurer he was successful in placing on the London market on advantageous terms the first 4 per cent. loan issued by the colony. On the defeat of the Crowther Ministry Mr. Giblin was sent for, and formed from both sides of the House a Coalition Ministry, which held office for five years, viz., from Oct. 30th, 1879, to August 15th, 1884. In this administration he acted as Treasurer, and his first task was to meet a large deficit, which he accomplished with great ability, carrying a large scheme of new taxation, including a tax on the annual value of land and invested personal property, an excise on beer, and a revised Customs' tariff. The measure passed both Houses almost without opposition, and met with general approbation. In Dec. 1881 he exchanged the post of Treasurer for that of Attorney-General, and remained at the head of the Government until August 1884, when he finally resigned office in consequence of failing health. In politics Mr. Giblin was a staunch Liberal. He represented Tasmania at the Intercolonial Tariff Conference at Sydney in 1881, and also at the Sydney Federal Conference in 1883. At the latter Conference he took a prominent part in the debates and in shaping the Bill which resulted in the establishment of the present Federal Council of Australasia. He was one of the earliest and most earnest advocates of the federation of the Australian. On the promotion of Mr. (now Sir W. L.) Dobson to the post of Chief Justice in succession to Sir Francis Smith, Mr. Giblin was offered and accepted a puisne judgeship. During the absence of Mr. Dobson in England he was acting Chief Justice, and for a short time Administrator of the Government. He died at Hobart on Jan. 17th, 1887, in his forty-seventh year. Mr. Giblin married in 1865 Emmely Jean, eldest daughter of John Perkins, of Hobart.

Gibney, Right Rev. Matthew, D.D., Roman Catholic Bishop of Perth, W.A., was formerly Vicar-General of that diocese, and was consecrated bishop by Cardinal Moran on Jan. 23rd, 1887. Dr. Gibney's name is best known in connection with a gallant feat which he performed on the occasion of the destruction of the Kelly gang of bushrangers at Glenrowan, in Victoria, where Bishop Gibney happened to be on a collecting tour, which he had undertaken on behalf of a Western Australian orphanage. The outlaws, who, to quote from Mr. Hogan's well-known work, "The Irish in Australia," "had long defied capture, and had carried on a career of murder and robbery, descended from their haunts in the mountain ranges and took possession of the village, making all the inhabitants prisoners. They cut the telegraph wires and tore up the railway; nevertheless, the authorities in Melbourne were apprised of this daring outrage, and despatched a large force to the locality. The bushrangers, taken by surprise, threw themselves into the village hotel, which they defended against the besiegers for the greater part of the day. Father Gibney, who happened to be in the neighbourhood at the time, hastened to the scene of strife, so that the services of a priest might not be wanting, if required. At an early stage of the conflict he endeavoured to advance through the open, and exert his influence with the besieged bushrangers to induce them to surrender, and thereby avert further bloodshed. He was confident that even such desperadoes would not fire on a priest; but the officers in command thought differently, and declined to allow him to place his life in jeopardy. When, however, late in the afternoon, the hotel was seen to be in flames, the brave priest refused to be kept back any longer, and rushed to the burning building, in the hope of being able to administer the last sacraments of the Church to any of the surviving bushrangers within. He was watched with eager and breathless attention as he crossed the open space in front of the outlaws' citadel, the general fear being that he would be shot down before he reached the house. A cheer went up from the excited spectators, as they saw him rush through the flames into the interior of the hotel, and a number of them were emboldened to follow in his footsteps. When Father Gibney got within the blazing building, he saw the bodies of the bushrangers lying on the floor, having apparently preferred to shoot themselves or each other rather than fall into the hands of the authorities. He had just time to touch their bodies, and ascertain that they were lifeless, before the advancing flames compelled him to beat a hasty retreat in order to save his own life. The courage and intrepidity displayed by Father Gibney on this occasion won universal admiration, and the news of his elevation to the mitre was received with cordial approval by the press and the public of all the colonies."

Gifford, Right Hon. Edric Frederick, 3rd Baron, V.C., sometime Colonial Secretary, Western Australia, is the eldest son of Robert Francis, 2nd Baron, by Charlotte, eldest daughter of Maurice, Lord Fitzhardinge. He was born on July 5th, 1849, educated at Harrow, and entered the 83rd Foot in 1869. He exchanged to 24th Foot in 1873; served in the Ashantee war with that regiment as lieutenant, and received the Victoria Cross on March 28th, 1874, for distinguished gallantry at the taking of Bequeh. His lordship exchanged into the 57th Foot in 1876, and retired with the rank of major on July 24th, 1880. He served on the staff of Sir Garnet Wolseley in 1875, when on a special mission to Natal, and in Cyprus in 1878-9; served in Zulu war in 1879 as A.D.C. to Sir G. Wolseley; took a leading part in the capture of Cetewayo; he was colonial secretary and senior member of the Executive Council of Western Australia from 1880 to 1882; colonial secretary at Gibraltar from Dec. 1882 to 1887, and became a director of the chartered British South Africa Company in 1889. He succeeded his father on May 13th, 1872, and married on April 22nd, 1880, Sophia Catherine, daughter of Lieut.-General John Alfred Street, C.B.

Giles, Ernest, F.R.G.S., the well-known explorer, son of William Giles and Jane Elizabeth his wife, was born at Bristol, educated at Christ's Hospital, London, and after leaving school joined his father and family in South Australia, to which colony they had preceded him. In 1852 he went to the Victorian goldfields, and subsequently became a clerk in the Post-office, Melbourne, and afterwards in the county court. Resigning his clerkship, he joined an exploring party in Queensland, and after several expeditions made his first memorable journey on his own account in the year 1872. In August of that year, with the assistance of his steadfast friend Baron von Mueller and his own slender resources, he managed to equip a light party, and penetrated into some fine country about 250 miles west of the great overland telegraph line between Adelaide and Port Darwin. The qualities shown on this expedition brought him friends. On a second appeal by Baron von Mueller a fund was raised by the liberality of some wealthy Victorians and some assistance from the South Australian Government, and Mr. Giles again set out with a party of four white men and twenty-four horses. He remained in the field constantly endeavouring to reach the western coast for one year, when, his provisions having given out and the party reduced to living on their horses, he made his way back to the settled districts of South Australia through great hardships, having added some 700 miles to previous knowledge of the interior. In 1875 he was fitted out by that munificent patron of exploration Sir Thomas Elder, of Adelaide, with nineteen camels and provisions for eighteen months. Through desert after desert for a distance of nearly 1500 miles he made his way. For one fearful stretch of 325 miles the party found no water for seventeen days. After a struggle of six months, during which they had traversed some 2400 miles, they made the outlying settlements of Western Australia. Mr. Giles departed on his return journey several hundred miles to the north of his former route in Jan. 1876, and arrived at the telegraph line in August. In 1889 Mr. Giles, who is a gold medallist of the Royal Geographical Society, published a narrative of his explorations in two volumes entitled "Australia Twice Traversed."

Giles, William, was born at Great Staughton, in Huntingdonshire, on Dec. 27th, 1791. Having obtained an appointment under the South Australian Company at the start of its operations in 1836, he arrived at Kangaroo Island, where its headquarters were at first fixed, in the following year. He was appointed a Stipendiary Magistrate shortly after his arrival, and in 1840 succeeded Mr. McLaren as manager of the South Australian Company. In 1851 he was returned to the mixed Legislative Council in Yatala, and took part in framing the present Constitution Act. He belonged to the Congregationalist body, and was a strong opponent of State Aid to religion, which was finally abolished in 1851. He died in Adelaide in 1861.

Gill, Rev. William Wyatt, B. A., LL.D., was born in December, 1828, at Bristol. He became a student of Highbury College in 1847, and graduated B.A. at London University in 1850. The perusal in early life of the martyr Williams' missionary enterprises interested him in the conversion of the heathen world. In 1851 he was introduced to the late Rev. A. Buzacott, who was about to return to the Pacific in the mission barque John Williams, along with five other missionaries. Finding the young man sympathetic, Mr. Buzacott asked him to take the place of one of the young men, who at the last moment was obliged to stay behind on account of ill-health. Dr. Gill offered himself, was at once accepted by the directors of the London Missionary Society, and was set apart for the work at old Spafields Chapel, London. In fourteen days from the offer of service he was sailing for the Pacific. For upwards of twenty years Dr. Gill laboured on the island of Mangaia (peace) in the Hervey group. In 1872, accompanied by the Rev. A. W. Murray, he located teachers for the first time on the mainland of New Guinea, Loyalty Island teachers in the neighbourhood of the Fly river, and Rarotongan teachers in the south-east peninsula of that vast island. Some account of this appeared on his return to England, in a volume published by the Religious Tract Society, entitled "Life in the Southern Isles." About the same time was published his "Myths and Songs from the South Pacific," with an introduction by the well-known Professor Max Müller, of Oxford. In 1876 Dr. Gill again left England for the Pacific, this time for the island of Rarotonga, with a printing press, and contemplating the education of a native Gospel ministry. His hands were full, as he had largely the care of the outlying islands, where no European missionary had ever been stationed. His residence at Rarotonga enabled his friend the Rev. James Chalmers to join the New Guinea Mission, where, in conjunction with the Revs. W. G. Lawes and Dr. McFarlane, he has done such excellent work. Whilst Dr. Gill was at Rarotonga the New Zealand Government published his "Historical Sketches of Savage Life, with Illustrative Clan Songs." This was intended as a sequel to "Myths and Songs." At Rarotonga overwork began to tell very seriously upon the missionary's health. Some nine years ago therefore he bade farewell to the Hervey Islanders, and was succeeded by the Rev. J. J. K. Hutchin. A band of thirty-three native pioneer teachers and their wives, destined for New Guinea, was entrusted to Dr. Gill's care. These he had the satisfaction of landing in good health in Port Moresby in Feb. 1884. A pleasant stay of seven weeks in New Guinea enabled him to see the marvellous progress made during the eleven years which had elapsed since his first visit to that vast country. Soon after his return to Sydney was published "Life and Adventures in New Guinea," by Messrs. Chalmers and Gill. In 1885 appeared the last volume from the pen of the veteran missionary, entitled "Jottings from the Pacific." On leaving active mission service, the revision of the Rarotongan Scriptures was entrusted to Dr. Gill by the British and Foreign Bible Society. This work took three years of incessant labour in Sydney. To print it he was, with Mrs. Gill, invited to visit England by the society. The printing and stereotyping of the Rarotongan Bible occupied fifteen months. The correction the press was a matter of great anxiety, as there was no second proof-reader in Europe. The book contains twelve hundred and fifty-one pages, is beautifully printed, and along with the text are given references and maps. The original translation was made by Williams, Pitman, and Buzacott. Dr. and Mrs. Gill returned to Sydney in July 1888, and soon after Great Britain assumed the protectorate of the Hervey group, so that there could be no hindrance to the circulation of the Scriptures which had just been printed in the Rarotongan language. The article on the Rarotongan Bible in "The Bible in the Pacific," by the Rev. A. W. Murray (published in 1888), is from Dr. Gill's pen. To the Melbourne volume of the Australasian Society for the Advancement of Science for 1890 he contributed three papers, and still writes occasionally for the press. He was created an honorary LL.D. by the university of St. Andrews.

Gillen, Hon. Peter Paul, M.P., Commissioner of Crown Lands and Immigration, South Australia, was returned to the Legislative Assembly of that colony for Stanley in 1887. In June 1892 he accepted a portfolio in the Holder Ministry. [in Supplement: Mr. Gillen is the son of the late Thomas Gillen, of Clare, S.A., and was born at Golden Grove, in that colony, in 1858. He carries on business as a storekeeper at Clare.]

Gilles, Lewis W., commenced life as a naval officer, but after seeing considerable service embraced commercial pursuits. Subsequently he emigrated to Tasmania, and, as a pastoralist, was prominent as a breeder of first-class sheep. He established the Tamar Bank, which was merged into the Union Bank of Australia, and was afterwards Assistant Colonial Secretary of Victoria, going ultimately to South Australia, where he opened up the Glen Osmond silver mines, near Adelaide, on the property of his relative, the late Mr. Osmond Gilles (q.v.). He died at Glen Osmond on Jan. 2nd, 1884, at the age of eighty-eight.

Gilles, Osmond, was born in England in 1797, and was engaged in mercantile pursuits at Hamburg for fourteen years. He took a great Interest in the preliminary arrangements for the formation of the colony of South Australia, to which he emigrated in 1836, being amongst those who were present on Dec. 28th, when Captain Hindmarsh read the official document proclaiming the colony. He was the first Colonial Treasurer of South Australia, but only held office for two years. He was a large purchaser of town and country lands; and the Glen Osmond silver lead mines, worked by an English Company, were situated on his property. He introduced Saxony and Merino sheep into South Australia, and was a considerable benefactor to the Church of England and to German charities. He died at Glen Osmond on Sept. 24th, 1876.

Gillies, Hon. Duncan, M.L.A., sometime Premier of Victoria, the son of the late Duncan Gillies and Margaret his wife, was born at Glasgow in Jan. 1834, and went to Victoria in Dec. 1852, when he proceeded to the Ballarat goldfields, where he engaged as a working miner, and where he first took part in public affairs as a member of the local mining court, which granted the first mining lease, and thus paved the way for the introduction of company, as opposed to individual, working in mining ventures. He was a working partner in the Great Republic Company, and was elected, as the miners' candidate, to the Legislative Assembly for Ballarat West in 1859, being four times re-elected prior to his acceptance of office in the unpopular Sladen Ministry in May 1868, when he was rejected. In June 1872 Mr. Gillies was included in the Francis Ministry as Commissioner of Railways and Roads, and held office till July 1874, when he accepted the same post under the late Mr. Kerferd, retiring with his colleagues in August 1875. Mr. Gillies, who had meantime been returned for Maryborough, was Minister of Lands in the last McCulloch Government, from Oct. 1875 to May 1877. At the general election in the latter year he was returned for Rodney, but was unseated on petition, on the ground of undue influence having been used by the Lands Department, by the issue of leases to selectors and electors during the contest, the committee finding that such influence had been used without Mr. Gillies' knowledge. Later on he once more took his seat in the Assembly, and, as a Conservative and free-trader, strongly opposed the Berry party. He, however, entered the Service-Berry Coalition Ministry in March 1883 as Minister of Railways and Public Instruction, and held office until, in Feb. 1886, on the retirement of Messrs. Service, Berry and Kerferd, he himself was nominated Premier under a fresh coalition arrangement with Mr. Deakin, the new Liberal leader, taking in addition the offices of Treasurer, Minister of Railways, and subsequently Minister of Mines. Mr. Gillies, having been defeated on a want of confidence motion, retired in November 1890. In 1887 Mr. Gillies refused the offer of knighthood (K.C.M.G.). He has represented Victoria on numerous occasions at Intercolonial Conferences, as well as at the three first sessions of the Federal Council of Australasia. He presided at the Federation Conference held in Melbourne in Feb. 1890, and was selected as one of the representatives of Victoria to the Federation Convention in Sydney in 1891. Mr. Gillies, who is leader of the opposition to the Shiels Ministry, now represents the Eastern Suburbs.

Gillies, Hon. Thomas Bannatyne, formerly Puisne Judge, New Zealand, arrived in Otago in 1852, and after a time practised as a lawyer. In 1860 he was elected to the House of Representatives, and became Attorney-General in Mr. Domett's Administration on August 6th, 1862, retiring fifteen days later, when he was succeeded by Mr. Sewell. In the Whitaker-Fox Ministry which followed on Oct 30th, 1863, Mr. Gillies had the portfolios of Postmaster-General and Secretory of Crown Lands, which he held till Nov. 24th and Jan. 13th, 1864, respectively. Under Mr. Stafford, from Sept. 10th to Oct. 11th, 1872, Mr. Gillies was Colonial Treasurer. In 1865 he removed to Auckland, and was Superintendent of the province of Auckland from 1869 to 1873. In 1875 he was appointed Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court. Mr. Gillies, who died in August 1889, founded two science scholarships in connection with Auckland University College.

Gillon, Edward Thomas, was born in Douglas, Isle of Man, in Jan. 1842. He arrived in New Zealand with his parents in 1851 and settled in Otago, where for several years he endured the rough experiences of settlement in a new country. While quite a youth he became a contributor to the Otago Witness, and was engaged reporting the Provincial Council proceedings for that paper, when, in 1861, the Otago goldfields were discovered. Mr. Gillon was at once sent to Gabriel's Gully as special correspondent for the Witness, and was the first press representative on the diggings. He remained there until recalled to Dunedin to again report in the Provincial Council, and he was so engaged when Mr. (now Sir Julius) Vogel arrived from Australia and, entering into partnership with Mr. Cutten, the proprietor of the Witness, established the Otago Daily Times, the first daily paper published in New Zealand. Mr. Gillon joined the Times staff as chief reporter, and remained on it until early the following year, when severe illness compelled him to relinquish newspaper work for a time. He accepted a Government appointment which, after two or three years, he resigned to resume journalistic work. In 1867 he went to Wellington as a member of the first Hansard staff, and was subsequently appointed Clerk of Private Bills to the New Zealand Parliament. He resigned this office after a brief tenure in order to devote himself exclusively to literary work, and became connected with the Wellington Evening Post as well as acting as special correspondent for the Otago Daily Times, Lyttelton Times, and other leading journals. In 1872, when cable communication between Europe and Australia was first established, Sir Julius Vogel brought about a combination of New Zealand papers for obtaining supplies of telegraphic news, and Mr. Gillon was selected as manager. After a time this association handed its business over to a private firm, and Mr. Gillon rejoined the Post as editor. In 1878 another press association was formed, and Mr. Gillon was again appointed manager. In less than two years this association absorbed all opposition, and developed into the present United Press Association, which Mr. Gillon continued to manage with great success until 1884, when he resigned in order to resume his former position of editor of the Post, which he still retains. Mr. Gillon is recognised as the doyen of New Zealand journalists, and when the Institute of Journalists was formed recently he was unanimously chosen as Chairman of the Council. At the time of the abolition of the provinces he was one of the city representatives in the Provincial Council of Wellington. Some years ago one of the prizes offered by the New Zealand Parliament for the best essays on the settlement of the people on the land was awarded to Mr. Gillon. He is a Justice of the Peace for the colony, and occupies a prominent position in the Masonic body. As chairman of the central executive committee, he was the leading spirit in the movement which recently resulted successfully in the establishment of an independent Grand Lodge of New Zealand. As he declined to accept active office, the rank of Past Deputy Grand Master was conferred upon him, in recognition of his services to the craft.

Gilmore, George, went to New South Wales in 1839, in command of the barque Uretta. He took a prominent part in the establishment of the intercolonial coasting trade, starting a line between Sydney and the Hunter River, and later on between Melbourne, Tasmania, and Sydney. He was one of the founders of the Hunter River Steam Navigation Company, which was formed in Sept. 1841, and became merged in the Australian Steam Navigation Company, the latter in its turn having recently become absorbed in the Australasian United Steam Navigation Company. In the year 1842 Captain Gilmore ran the first steamer into Moreton Bay, now known as Brisbane, and brought away the first cargo of wool from that now prominent emporium. He subsequently resided in Launceston, Tasmania, and was Colonial Secretary in the Kennerley Ministry from April 10th to July 20th, 1876. He died at Launceston on Jan. 2nd, 1884.

Gisborne, Hon. William, who comes of an old Derbyshire family, and emigrated to New Zealand, was Commissioner of Crown Lands in that colony from 1848 to 1853, and from 1853 to 1869 Under-Secretary. On July 5th in the latter year, while holding a seat in the Legislative Council, he became Colonial Secretary, which office he retained till Sept. 10th, 1872, and acted also till Dec. 6th, 1871, as Minister of Public Works. During his term of office he resigned from the Legislative Council and was elected to the House of Representatives. From 1870 to 1875 he was New Zealand Government Insurance Commissioner; in 1877 he once more entered the House of Representatives, and in July 1879 joined the Grey Cabinet in which he held office till October of the same year: from July 5th to 19th as Minister of Lands and from July 5th to Oct. 8th as Minister of Mines and Immigration. Mr. Gisborne, who has lived in England of late, was a member of the New Zealand Commission in London for the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886, and is the author of "New Zealand Rulers and Statesmen" (Sampson Low, 1886), and, more recently, of "The Colony of New Zealand" (E. A. Petherick & Co., 1888).

Glasgow, His Excellency the Right Hon. David (Boyle), Earl of, G.C.M.G., Governor of New Zealand, is the eldest son of the late Patrick Boyle, of Shewalton, Ayrshire, by his marriage with Mary Frances, daughter of Sir Robert Dalrymple Horn Elphinstone, Bart. He was born on May 31st, 1833; and entering the royal navy, served through the Crimean war, during which he was wounded. Later on he retired with the rank of captain. He married on July 23rd, 1873, Dorothea Elizabeth Thomasina, eldest daughter of Sir Edward Hunter Blair, Bart., and Elizabeth his wife, daughter of George Wauchope. In 1892 Lord Onslow, the late Governor of New Zealand, having decided to retire, the appointment was offered to Lord Glasgow and accepted by him. The Ballance Government immediately on the occurrence of the vacancy conveyed to the Colonial Office the wish that they should be consulted prior to a final appointment being made. As this was disregarded, something in the nature of a protest was made against Lord Glasgow s appointment, but it was in no way dictated by personal disapproval, and merely related to the principles regulating the method of such appointments. Lord Glasgow left for New Zealand, viâ Sydney, in April 1892, and was received with much effusion on his landing in June. His family had already formed a connection with the colony, his cousin, Alexander Boyle, having married in 1883 Fannie, daughter of Michael Studholme, of the Waimate, Canterbury, N.Z. His aunt having become the wife of the late Sir Charles Dalrymple Fergusson, of Kilkerran, Lord Glasgow is first cousin to Sir James Fergusson, formerly Governor of New Zealand (q.v.). He was also cousin to the late George Elphinstone Dalrymple, first Speaker of the Queensland Legislative Assembly. Lord Glasgow was for many years convener of the county of Ayr, but was not prominent in English politics, though professing moderate Conservative views. He succeeded his cousin as sixth earl in 1889.

Glass, Hugh, was born at Portferry, county Down, Ireland, in 1817, and was brought up to farming. He emigrated to Port Phillip, Vict., in 1840, and setting up in the squatting agency business in Melbourne, became himself one of the most extensive run-holders in Australia. He was a member of the Legislative Assembly, and died in 1870.

Glyde, Hon. Lavington, sometime Treasurer of South Australia, was born at Exeter, in England, in 1825, and emigrated to South Australia in 1847. Ten years later he entered the Assembly, in which he sat in every parliament from the first to the tenth inclusive. From 1857 to 1860 he represented East Torrens, from the latter year to 1875 Yatala, and from 1877 to 1884 Victoria. He was Treasurer in the Dutton Ministry in July 1863, and Minister of Lands on four occasions—viz., from July 1863, to July 1864, Oct. to Nov. 1865, May 1867 to Sept. 1868, and Oct. to Nov. 1868, in the first Ayers, the first Hart, and the fourth and fifth Ayers Ministries respectively. Mr. Glyde was Treasurer in Mr. (now Sir) Arthur Blyth's Government from July 1873 to May 1875, and again in Mr. (now Sir) John Bray's Government from June 1881 to April 1884. He subsequently retired from public life, and in Oct. 1885 accepted the Accountancy to the Court of Insolvency, a position he held till his death, which took place at Kensington, Adelaide, on July 31st, 1889. With the one exception of Sir Arthur Blyth, Mr. Glyde had been a Minister of the Crown for a longer term of years than any other South Australian politician. He was a singularly able debater, and his Budget speeches and financial addresses generally were models of clearness.

Godley, John Robert, B.A., eldest son of John Godley of Killigar, co. Leitrim, J.P. and D.L., by Catherine, daughter of Right Hon. Denis Daly, of Dunsandle, co. Galway, was born in 1814 and educated at Iver and Harrow, and subsequently at Christ Church, Oxford, where he obtained the Fell Exhibition in 1835 and graduated second class in classics. After being called to the bar he travelled extensively. At the time of the great Irish famine he urged the Government to inaugurate a large scheme of emigration, by which over a million of the poorer Irish might be removed to Canada. Failing in this, he devoted himself to county duties, and in 1847 stood for Leitrim, but was defeated. About this time he came in contact with Edward Gibbon Wakefield, who was busy arranging for the settlement of Canterbury, N.Z. Mr. Godley threw himself with vigour into the scheme, and joined the Canterbury Association, promoting in many newspaper articles, notably in the Morning Chronicle, the cause he had at heart. Captain Thomas, the agent of the Association in New Zealand, had secured a vast tract of land, and in 1849 Mr. Godley set sail to New Zealand to prepare the way for the immigrants. On the eve of his departure he wrote a public letter to Mr. Gladstone, assailing in strong terms the policy of the Colonial Office. After attending to the business of the Association in Port Lyttelton, he proceeded to Wellington and threw himself into the agitation then in progress for constitutional government. In Dec. 1850 he returned to Lyttelton to meet the first four ships of immigrants, and from that time till Dec. 1852 he was the practical controller and ruler of the new settlement, having mapped out the town of Christchurch and being the arbiter and chief of all the colonists. In 1852, feeling his work was done and the new colony inaugurated, he returned to England, where Mr. Gladstone appointed him a commissioner of income tax in Ireland. He was subsequently removed to England, and became head of the stores department of the War Office. At a later period he was made Assistant Under-Secretary for War, which office he held till his death on Nov. 6th, 1861. In 1854 he was appointed first agent in England for the province of Canterbury, but resigned in 1856. After his death, the Provincial Council erected his statue in Christchurch, and the work was executed by Mr. Woolner. Mr. Godley married in 1846 Charlotte, daughter of Charles Griffith Wynne, of Voelas, Carnarvonshire.

Goe, Right Rev. Field Flowers, D.D., Bishop of Melbourne, is the son of the late Field Goe, and was born at Louth in 1832. He was educated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. (third class Lit. Hum.) in 1857, and M.A. in 1860, being given the honorary degree of D.D. in 1886. He was ordained deacon and priest in 1858, and was curate of Christchurch, Kingston-on-Hull, in 1858, and perpetual curate from 1858 to 1873. In the latter year he was appointed rector of Sunderland, and held the post until 1877, when he became rector of St. George's, Bloomsbury, London, a preferment which he resigned in 1887 to accept the bishopric of Melbourne. He was consecrated to that see in Westminster Abbey on Feb. 24th by Archbishop Benson, and Bishops Temple, Thorold, Moorhouse, Parry (of Perth, West Australia), Perry (formerly of Melbourne), Alford, and Marsden (formerly of Bathurst).

Goldsbrough, Richard, was born at Shipley, near Bradford, in Yorkshire, in 1821. He was employed by a wool-stapler at Bradford, and subsequently went into business there on his own account. Struck with the superiority of the Australian wools, he went out to Melbourne in 1847, and after visiting Adelaide and other places established a wool business in Melbourne in 1848. In 1853 he joined with Messrs. Edward Bow and George Kirk in starting the stock and station business of Bow, Kirk & Co. Mr. Goldsbrough acquired large station property, principally in Riverina, but ultimately devoted himself solely to wool-broking. In 1852 his brother-in-law, Mr. Hugh Parker, came out from England and became a partner with him in 1857, when the firm was known as Richard Goldsbrough & Co. In 1873 Mr. John Sutcliffe Horsfall was admitted a partner in the firm, into which the son and nephew of Mr. Hugh Parker, Messrs. Arthur and David Parker, were admitted in 1876. Five years later Messrs. Goldsbrough & Co. amalgamated with the Australasian Agency & Banking Corporation, Limited, the whole of the immense combined business being formed into a company with a capital of £3,000,000 in 300,000 shares of £10 each, under the style of R. Goldsbrough & Co., Limited Mr. Goldsbrough did not live to see the further development of the business of the Company, which resulted from its amalgamation with the great Sydney firm of Mort & Co. in 1888. He died on April 8th, 1886

Goldsworthy, Sir Roger Tuckfield, K.C.M.G., sometime Colonial Secretary, Western Australians the younger son of the late Thomas Goldsworthy, of Calcutta, by Sophia, daughter of Wm. Tuckfield, R.N. He was born in 1839, and educated at Sandhurst College. He served during the Indian mutiny in the volunteer cavalry of Havelock's forces; and was present in the actions of Oonao, Busserutgunj, and at the re-capture of Busserutgunj. For these services he was twice mentioned in despatches and received two medals and a commission in the 17th Lancers. He assisted in the relief and defence of Lucknow, and saw much other service in India and Africa. In May 1876 he was appointed President of Nevis, and was Colonial Secretary of Western Australia and senior member of the Legislative Council from 1877 to 1880. He was administrator of the Government, and Colonial Secretary of St. Lucia from 1881 to 1884, when he was appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief of British Honduras. In 1891 he became Governor of the Falkland Islands. He married, in 1869, Eliza, daughter of John Gawler Prior, of Sunderland and widow of Captain Egan, R.A.; was created C.M.G. in 1874 and K.C.M.G. on Jan. 2nd, 1889.

Goodchap, Hon. Charles Augustus, M.L.C., was born in Kent, England, on April 2nd, 1837, and educated at Huntingdon Grammar School. He went to New South Wales in 1853, and obtained a clerkship in the Colonial Secretary's office, from which he was transferred to the Lands and Works Department in 1856, and in 1859 to the Department of Public Works. He became Chief Clerk for Railways in 1870, Secretary for Railways in 1875, and Commissioner for Railways in 1878. Mr. Goodchap retired from the Civil Service of New South Wales in 1888, and was returned to the Assembly for Redfern at the general election in 1889 in the Protectionist interest. At the election in June-July 1891 he was defeated, and was nominated to the Legislative Council by the Dibbs Government in May 1892.

Goodenough, Commodore James Graham, C.B., C.M.G., son of Very Rev. Edmund Goodenough, Dean of Wells, was born on Dec. 3rd, 1830, and entered the navy in May 1844. He went to China in the Raleigh in 1857, and having become post-captain was appointed to the Pearl in 1873, as Commodore of the Australian Station. In August of that year he was commissioned by the Earl of Kimberley to proceed to Fiji, and in conjunction with Mr. Layard, the British consul, to inquire into the expediency of annexing that island to the Imperial Crown. In March 1874 they sent in their report, which contained an offer of cession from the principal chiefs; but the terms not proving acceptable, they were subsequently modified through the exertions of Sir Hercules Robinson, who negotiated the conditions of annexation subsequently adopted. On August 12th following, during a cruise amongst the Polynesian Islands, Commodore Goodenough was shot by arrows at Santa Cruz, and tetanus supervening, he died on the 20th of the same month on board the Pearl, about five hundred miles from Sydney. This distinguished officer, whose professional capacities and philanthropic character rendered him an ornament to the navy, married Victoria, daughter of William Hamilton. The "Goodenough Royal Naval Home" in Sydney was founded to commemorate his virtues and premature death. He worked for the Daily News French Peasant Relief Fund in 1870, and was created C.M.G. in May 1875 and C.B. in May 1879.

Goold, Most Rev. James Alipius, D.D., O.S.A., first Archbishop of Melbourne, was born at Cork, Ireland, on Nov. 4th, 1812, and joined the Order of St. Augustine. Pursuing his ecclesiastical studies abroad, he met the late Bishop Ullathorne in Rome, and was induced by him to enter on the Australian Mission, and arrived in Sydney on Feb. 24th, 1838, by the Upton Castle, the same vessel which conveyed Sir George Gipps to the scene of his eventful governorship. Dr. Goold was one of the most energetic assistants of Archbishop Polding in consolidating the Catholic Church in the parent colony, and became Dean of Campbell Town in New South Wales. In 1847 it was determined at the Vatican to constitute a separate diocese in the Port Phillip district of the colony, and Dr. Goold was selected as the first Bishop of Melbourne, being consecrated in St. Mary's Cathedral, Sydney, in August 1848, by Archbishop Polding, assisted by Bishop Murphy of Adelaide. He arrived in Melbourne on Oct. 4th following, and accomplished a great work in the organisation of his new diocese. In 1850 he laid the foundation-stone of the still incomplete St. Patrick's Cathedral of Melbourne, which in its inchoate state is still the finest ecclesiastical edifice in the Australasian colonies. In 1872 Dr. Goold fulminated against the free, secular and compulsory education policy of the Francis Government, and in 1880 bad much to do in turning the tide against the Berry Ministry at the general election. A few months later the Catholic vote was thrown into the scale against Mr. Service, and in favour of Mr. Berry, who, however, did not succeed in coming to terms with Sir John O'Shanassy, who acted as the representative of the Catholic party. Dr. Goold was a member of the last (Ecumenical Council, and voted with the majority in favour of the dogma of Papal Infallibility. In 1874 the Pope, on his recommendation, created Sandhurst and Ballarat into separate bishoprics, and in the same year he was appointed Archbishop of Melbourne and Metropolitan of the province of Victoria, comprising the sees of Ballarat, Sandhurst, Adelaide, Perth, and Hobart. Dr. Goold, who was a member of the first Provincial Council of the Roman Catholic Church in Australia held at Sydney in 1844, and of the second Council of the Prelates of the Colonies held in Melbourne in 1869, was the object of an attempt at assassination by his former solicitor, Mr. O'Farrell, in 1883, but fortunately escaped without serious injury. Dr. Goold died on June 11th, 1886.

Gordon, Adam Lindsay, the favourite Australian poet, was the son of Captain Adam Gordon, and was born in 1833 at Fayal, in the Azores. He was educated at Cheltenham College, where his father was for some time Professor of Hindustani, and after passing on to another school was for a time at Woolwich, and, it is stated, kept some terms at Merton College, Oxford. After a somewhat stormy youth, he left England on August 7th, 1853, for South Australia, where he joined the mounted police as a trooper. Leaving the police, he became a horse-breaker, and married a Miss Park. In 1864 he received some £7,000 on his father's death, and on March 1st, 1865, was elected to the South Australian Legislative Assembly for the Victoria district. He was an occasional speaker in the House until his resignation on Nov. 10th, 1866. In 1867 he migrated to Victoria, and opened a livery stable at Ballarat. At this time he acquired a wide reputation as a daring steeplechase rider. In 1869 he removed to Melbourne, and settled in the suburban district of New Brighton. Prior to this he had published a collection of his poems at Mount Gambier, in South Australia. His second volume, "Sea Spray and Smoke Drift," published in 1867, gave him a reputation throughout Australia, and he was cordially welcomed in literary circles in Melbourne. But this bright outlook was only temporary, owing to the depression induced by the failure of his attempt to secure the reversion of the estate of Esselmont in Scotland. His "Bush Ballads and Galloping Rhymes," published in 1870, enhanced his fame, but he yielded to feelings of morbid discouragement and committed suicide by shooting himself on June 24th in that year. Another of his productions was "Ashtaroth, a Dramatic Lyric." A collected edition of his poems was published in 1880, edited by his friend Marcus Clarke, the novelist, who was associated with him as one of the early members of the Melbourne Yorick Club. Some additional poems, prose sketches, and his political speeches are printed in a memoir, by Mr. J. Howlett Ross, entitled "The Laureate of the Centaurs," issued in 1888.

Gordon, Hon. Sir Arthur Hamilton, G.C.M.G., D.C.L., formerly Governor of New Zealand, the fourth son of George, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, by Harriet, daughter of Hon. John Douglas, and relict of James, Viscount Hamilton, was born on Nov. 26th, 1829. He acted as private secretary to his father when First Lord of the Treasury, 1852-5. In July 1854 he was elected as a Liberal for Beverley, but lost his seat at the general election of 1857. In Nov. 1858 he accompanied Mr. Gladstone on his special mission as Lord High Commissioner Extraordinary to the Ionian Islands, and on Feb. 25th, 1860, became captain-commandant of the 1st Aberdeenshire Rifle Volunteers. In Oct. 1861 he was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick; in Nov. 1866 Governor of Trinidad; and in Sept. 1871 assumed the Governorship of Mauritius. In 1874 he retired from the latter post, but in Sept. 1875 became Governor of Fiji, to which office was added two years later that of Consul-General and High Commissioner for the Western Pacific. At the end of 1880 he succeeded Sir Hercules Robinson as Governor of New Zealand. The new governor found the Government busy with the troubles in connection with the native land question, and the "prophet" Te Whiti; and in 1881, while Sir Arthur was absent in Fiji upon his duties as High Commissioner, and during the acting governorship of Sir James Prendergast, the Ministry carried out the well-known raid on Parihaka, which culminated in the arrest of Te Whiti. Sir Arthur Gordon, while publicly notifying his opinion that a governor was bound to act upon the advice of his ministers, whether he regarded them as right or wrong, was understood to reserve to himself the right of moral disapproval; and it is believed that his dislike to native policy of the Government led to his resignation of the Governorship in 1882. In the following year he was transferred to Ceylon, and in 1890 returned to England upon the expiration of his term of office. He was created C.M.G. in 1859, K.C.M.G. in 1871, and G.C.M.G. in 1878. Sir Arthur married, on Sept. 20th, 1865, Rachel Emily, eldest daughter of the late Sir John G. Shaw-Lefevre, K.C.B., who died in 1890. In June 1892 he took part in the Queensland Kanaka labour controversy in a sense adverse to the Government policy.

Gordon, Hon. John Hannah, M.L.C., Minister of Education, South Australia, has only recently taken a prominent part in political life, and having been returned to the Legislative Council for the Southern district in May 1888, was Minister of Education and of the Northern Territory in Dr. Cockburn's Ministry from June 1889 to August 1890. He was appointed one of the representatives of South Australia to the Federation Convention held in Sydney in March 1891. Mr. Gordon is the eldest son of the Rev. James Gordon, Presbyterian minister of Gawler, S.A., and was born in Scotland in 1850. He went to South Australia with his parents in 1859. His early education was obtained in Adelaide. After studying for two years in the theological classes for the Presbyterian Church he turned his attention to the law, and in 1876 he was called to the bar. For eleven years he practised his profession at Strathalbyn, of which town he was at one time mayor. He then entered into practice in Adelaide, and turned his attention to politics. In March 1890 Mr. Gordon presided over the Intercolonial Postal and Telegraphic Conference held in Adelaide, when proposals were made which resulted in important reductions in the cable and postal rates between England and the colonies. When the Playford Government was defeated on Mr. Holder's want of confidence motion in June 1892, Mr. Gordon resumed his former post as Minister of Education in the Government formed by Mr. Holder.

Gordon, Major James Miller, son of Carlos Pedro Gordon, of Aberdeenshire, was formerly in the Royal Artillery, and became connected with the South Australian military forces in Jan. 1882. In September of that year, when a permanent force of garrison artillery was formed under the provisions of an Act passed in 1878, and amended in 1880, Major Gordon was appointed major-commanding. In Feb. and March 1888, during Brigadier-General Owen's absence on leave, prior to his final retirement, Major Gordon was acting-commandant, with the temporary rank of colonel. He still commands the South Australian Artillery, and is aide-de-camp to the Earl of Kintore. Major Gordon was married in Melbourne to Eily, daughter of the late Edward Fitzgerald, of Castlemaine, Vict., on Feb. 29th, 1892.

Gordon, William Montgomerie, was appointed clerk to the Consul-General of the Western Pacific in August 1879; clerk of the Executive Council and chief clerk of Crown Lands in the colony of Fiji in May 1880, and also acted as secretary to the Lands Commission; Resident Commissioner and Stipendiary Magistrate for the island of Rotumah in May 1882; Commissioner to inquire into the claims of Europeans to land in Nov. 1882; Stipendiary Magistrate in Fiji in April 1886; and private secretary to the Governor of Ceylon in June 1887.

Gore, Sir Ralph St. George Claude, Bart., eldest son of the late Sir St. George Ralph Gore (q.v.), whom he succeeded as 10th baronet in 1887, was born in Queensland on May 10th, 1877, and resides with his mother at Dunrobin, Albion, Brisbane, Queensland.

Gore, Sir St. George Ralph, Bart., was the son of the late Hon. St. George Richard Gore, M.L.C. (q.v.) and Frances his wife. He was born in 1841; and, having gone to Queensland with his parents, married in 1876 Eugenia Marion, daughter of the late Hon. Eyles Irwin Caulfield Browne, M.L.C., of Queensland. In 1878 he succeeded his cousin as 9th baronet of Manor Gore, Donegal. He was the immigration agent at Brisbane for a number of years, but retired in 1886, when he was succeeded by Mr. Okeden. He died on Oct. 17th, 1887.

Gore, Hon. St. George Richard, M.L.C., of the same family as the Earls of Arran, and brother of the 7th baronet, of Manor Gore, Donegal, emigrated to Moreton Bay (now Queensland); and, settling in the Warwick district, was returned to the first Legislative Assembly of Queensland for the Warwick Electorate. He was Secretary for Lands and Works in the first Ministry formed under responsible government by Mr. (now Sir) Robert Herbert from Jan. to March 1862. Having been in the meantime nominated to the Legislative Council, he took office in the first Macalister Government as Postmaster-General, and represented them in the Upper House from Sept. 1866 to August 1867. He was again Postmaster-General and leader of the Legislative Council in the Lilley Ministry from Jan. to May 1870. Mr. Gore, who married in 1840 Francis, daughter of the late Edward Coldwell, of Lyndhurst, Southampton, England (who still survives), died in 1871.

Gorrie, Sir John, formerly Chief Justice of Fiji, was the son of the Rev. Daniel Gorrie, of Kettle, co. Fife. He was born in 1829 and educated at Edinburgh University. In 1856 he was admitted as an advocate, and in 1860 was appointed one of the honorary advocates-depute for Scotland. From 1862 to 1869 he practised in London, becoming in 1868 a candidate for the Border Burghs, but he did not ultimately go to the poll. Mr. Gorrie's name was first brought prominently to the front in 1865, when he was selected by the Jamaica Committee, consisting of Mr. John Bright, Mr. Samuel Morley, and Mr. Charles Buxton, to proceed to Jamaica to inquire into the alleged excesses of martial law. Mr. Gorrie, who was assisted by Mr. Horne Payne, Q.C., and Mr. Phillippo, succeeded in laying bare many acts of cruelty and injustice. Struck with the ability and energy displayed by Mr. Gorrie, the Colonial Office, shortly after his return to England, offered him the post of substitute Procureur-Général of Mauritius. Within less than a week after his arrival at Port Louis he proved to his own satisfaction that the labouring class of Mauritius were subjected to abuses, and a report to the Colonial Office to this effect resulted in the despatch of Sir Arthur Gordon to Mauritius, with instructions to appoint a local committee to investigate the charges. The report of this committee, of which Mr. Justice Gorrie was the most prominent member, led to the appointment of a royal commission. It was found that abuses did exist, and Mr. Gorrie had the satisfaction of altering the whole labour law of the colony in consonance with his own views and those of the royal commission. Mr. Gorrie held office in Mauritius as Advocate-General from August 1869 to Sept. 1870, and was a puisne judge in the island till 1875. When Sir Arthur Gordon was promoted to Fiji, Mr. Gorrie was a few months later requested to proceed to the Pacific to take up the poet of Chief Justice of Fiji (March 1876). As a member of the Legislative Council of the island, it fell to the lot of the Chief Justice to frame all the important legal measures deemed to be necessary. When the Crown assumed jurisdiction over the South Seas, the Chief Justice of Fiji was also made Judicial Commissioner of the Western Pacific, and, in the absence of Sir Arthur Gordon, was called upon to discharge the duties of the High Commissioner. In 1882, in which year he was knighted, he became Chief Justice of the Leeward Islands, and in 1885 Chief Justice of Trinidad and Tobago. Sir John Gorrie married in 1855 Marion, daughter of Michael Graham, of Edinburgh, who died in 1884. In 1892 a commission was sent out from the Colonial Office, at the request of the Legislative Council of Trinidad, to inquire into the conduct of the senior puisne judge and the administration of justice generally. This led to the suspension of Sir John Gorrie, who returned to England to make an appeal to the Privy Council. Soon after his arrival he died at Exeter on August 4th, 1892. [This biography appeared in the Supplement at the end of the book.]

Gorst, Right Hon. Sir John Eldon, M.P., Q.C., M.A., second son of the late Edward Chaddock Lowndes (formerly Gorst), of Preston, co. Lancaster, by Elizabeth, daughter of J. D. Nesham of Houghton-le-Spring, Durham, was born on May 24th, 1835, at Preston, and was educated at Preston Grammar School, and St. John's College, Cambridge, of which he was sometime Fellow. He graduated B.A. as third wrangler in 1857, and in 1860 he proceeded to the M.A. degree. He entered at the Inner Temple in April 1857, and in 1860, upon the death of his father, he emigrated to New Zealand, with the idea of becoming a lay helper to Bishop Selwyn. In 1861, having acquainted himself with the Maori language, he was despatched into the Upper Waikato district as Civil Commissioner. Here he lived at Te Awamutu, occupied in endeavouring to wean the Maoris from their allegiance to the "king" movement. For this purpose, at his request, the Government set up an industrial school, and established a newspaper called Pihoihoi Mokemoke in the native tongue, to counteract the influence of the Hokioi, which was the organ of the kingites. The Maoris, however, incensed by an article in the former, seized the plant, and after a stubborn resistance on his part, expelled Mr. Gorst from the Waikato. He returned to Auckland in April 1863. Subsequently he accompanied Mr. (afterwards Sir) F. Dillon Bell to Australia to recruit 5000 military settlers for the Waikato. Mr. Gorst then returned to England, and on May 1st, 1865, was called to the bar, and practised on the Northern Circuit. From 1866 to 1868 he sat as Conservative member for Cambridge, but in the latter year lost his seat. Mr. Gorst was appointed Q.C. on June 25th, 1875, and in the same year was elected to Parliament for Chatham. From 1870 to 1877 he was hon. sec. of the National Union of Conservative and Constitutional Associations, and in Nov. 1884 was a member of the Royal Commission on merchant shipping. In June 1885 he became Solicitor-General in Lord Salisbury's Administration, which office he held till Jan. 1886, when the Conservatives went out of office. In July of the same year, when Lord Salisbury came in again, he became Under-Secretary for India, which office he exchanged for that of Financial Secretary to the Treasury in 1891. In 1890 he was British plenipotentiary to the Labour Conference in Berlin. He was created knight bachelor in 1885, and privy councillor in 1890, Sir John Gorst married at Geelong, Victoria, on August 18th, 1860, Mary Elizabeth, only daughter of Rev. Lorenzo Moore, of Christchurch, N.Z., sometime incumbent of St. Peter's, Hull. In July 1892 he was elected for Cambridge University. Sir John is the author of "The Maori King" (1864). He is chairman of the London Board of the New Zealand Steam Shipping Company, Limited.

Gosman, Rev. Alexander, was born in Crail, Fifeshire, on Feb. 21st, 1829, and received his education at the parish school. After some commercial and tutorial experience, he studied for the ministry at the University of Glasgow, and at the Theological Hall of the Scottish Congregational Union. His first charge was in Haddington, East Lothian, where he was ordained to the ministry in 1855. In 1860 he left Scotland for Victoria, under the auspices of the London Colonial Missionary Society, and arrived in Melbourne in September. His first colonial charge was in Ballarat, where he remained for three years. In 1863 he became pastor of the Alma Street Congregational Church, St. Kilda, which position he filled until the end of 1877, when he removed to his present charge as pastor of the Augustine Church, Burwood Road, Hawthorn. Mr. Gosman, in 1868 and subsequently, did valuable professorial work in connection with the Congregational College, and on the death of Rev. A. M. Henderson, in 1876, became principal of the institution. Mr. Gosman has been twice elected to fill the chair of the Congregational Union of Victoria, and in 1885 the council of the University of Melbourne placed him on the board of examiners in logic and philosophy, to which position he has been elected every year since. Mr. Gosman has contributed to the colonial press, and has published a number of pamphlets, principally of a controversial character.

Gosse, William Christie, sometime Deputy Surveyor-General, South Australia, was the son of Dr. Gosse, and was born in 1842 at Hoddesdon in Hertfordshire. He went to South Australia with his father in 1850, and, entering the Government service in 1859, was engaged on a trigonometrical survey at the far north. After holding various positions in the Survey Department, he was sent to explore new country lying 800 miles southward of central Mount Stuart, with the ultimate object of pushing over to Western Australia. He started on April 23rd, 1873, from Alice Springs, on the Port Darwin telegraph line, with five whites, three Afghans (with camels), and a native boy. On July 19th he discovered the "Ayers Rock"—a mass of granite two miles long and one wide—which he named after Sir Henry Ayers. He returned to his starting point in December, having failed, through the arid nature of the country, in pushing through to Western Australia. He, however, acquired an accurate geographical knowledge of 60,000 square miles of new country. In 1875 he was appointed Deputy Surveyor-General in recognition of his valuable services, and died prematurely on August 12th, 1881.

Gould, Albert John, M.L.A., is the representative of Patrick's Plains in the Legislative Assembly of New South Wales; and held the post of Minister of Justice in the Parkes Ministry from March 1889 to Oct. 1891, when he resigned with his colleagues.

Gould, John, F.R.S., was born at Lyme in Dorsetshire, on Sept. 14th, 1804. He was employed under Mr. Aiton at the Royal Gardens, Windsor, from 1818 to 1824. In 1830 he became possessed of a fine collection of birds from the hill countries of India, and the next year published a work descriptive of them, entitled "A Century of Birds from the Himalaya Mountains." Other important ornithological works followed, and in 1837 he issued the great work on the "Birds of Europe." The following year he visited Australia, for the purpose of studying the natural productions of that country. The result of this visit was the "Birds of Australia," a work in seven folio volumes, containing figures and descriptions of upwards of six hundred species. He also published a "Handbook to the Birds of Australia" in 1865. Other great works were "The Birds of Great Britain," and the "Mammals of Australia," those on the "Birds of Asia" and the "Birds of New Guinea" being still unfinished at the time of his death. Mr. Gould devoted much attention to humming-birds, and formed an unrivalled collection, which he exhibited in 1851 at the Zoological Society's Gardens. These, with various other specimens, stuffed with extraordinary skill by Mr. Gould, were in 1882 purchased by the British Museum. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in Jan. 1843, and contributed largely to its proceedings and to other scientific journals. He died in London on Feb. 3rd, 1881.

Goyder, George Woodroffe, C.M.G., Surveyor-General, South Australia, son of the Rev. David George Goyder, of the New Jerusalem Church of London and Ipswich, was born in 1824, and emigrated to Australia in 1848. Three years later, having gone to South Australia, he entered the office of the Colonial Engineer, Colonel (afterwards Sir A. H.) Freeling, and became Chief Clerk in the Lands and Survey Department in 1853, Deputy Surveyor-General in 1858, and Surveyor-General, in succession to Colonel Freeling, in 1861. He has undertaken several exploring expeditions, and in 1869 to 1870 fixed the site of the capital of the Northern Territory at Palmerston, and laid out in sections 500,000 acres in its vicinity. For the despatch and skill with which he accomplished this difficult work he was complimented by Parliament. Mr. Goyder was created C.M.G. in 1889.

Grace, Hon. Morgan Stanislaus, C.M.G., M.L.C., Count of the Holy Roman Empire, is the son of James Grace, of Sheffield House, Queen's County, Ireland, and Ellen Mary (Russell) his wife, and was born at Clonmel, county Tipperary, on Feb. 28th, 1837. He arrived in Auckland, N.Z., on June 20th, 1860, and having been staff assistant surgeon in the Army Medical Department, was appointed, surgeon, and subsequently surgeon-general, in the colonial military forces. In addition to being a member of the Legislative Council of New Zealand since May 1870, Dr. Grace is a Count of the Holy Roman Empire and a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St. George. He married at Wellington, N.Z., on Jan. 26th, 1866, Agnes Mary, daughter of the late Hon. John Johnstone, M.L.C.

Graham, Hon. George, M.L.A., Minister of Water Supply, Victoria, was returned to the Legislative Assembly for Moira in March 1886, and for Numurkah and Nathalia in 1889 and 1892. In Nov. 1890 he accepted office in Mr. Munro's Government as Minister of Water Supply, and was sworn of the Executive Council. When the Ministry was reconstructed under Mr. Shiels in Feb. 1892, Mr. Graham still retained office, and is now Minister of Public Works and Agriculture in addition.

Grant, Hon. Charles Henry, M.L.C., A.M. Inst. C.E., was formerly engineer-in-chief and general manager of the Tasmanian Main Line Railway. In June 1892 he was elected to the Legislative Council of Tasmania for the Hobart district, in succession to the late Mr. George Salier. In August following he accepted office without portfolio in the Dobson Ministry. [This biography appeared in the Supplement at the end of the book.]

Grant, Hon. James Macpherson, a Victorian statesman, and one of the most prominent land law reformers in Australia, was born at Alvie, Inverness, Scotland, in 1822. He obtained some schooling at Kingdenie, and at the age of fourteen emigrated with his parents to Australia. They took up their residence in Sydney, and, with the view of becoming a solicitor, Mr. Grant was articled to Messrs. Chambers & Thurlow, who were in practice there. In 1842, while still an articled clerk, he was attracted to New Zealand by the outbreak of the Maori war, and served as a volunteer in several engagements against Heki. In 1847 he returned to Sydney, and becoming a solicitor, he practised his profession in partnership with Mr. Thurlow for some years. In 1850, however, he sailed for California, but returned from San Francisco on receiving news of the discovery of gold in Victoria. He and his brothers went to Bendigo, in that colony, and were successful diggers there. He determined to settle in Victoria, and commenced practice in Melbourne, where he soon came to the front as the defender of the Ballarat miners, who participated in the Eureka stockade affair in 1854. He served them without fee, as did the counsel engaged in the case, which resulted in their acquittal. The next year he entered the Victorian Parliament as the representative of the Sandhurst Boroughs (Bendigo), and identified himself in the Assembly, as he had already done outside, with the movement for throwing open the public lands to the people. He also advocated vote by ballot, and other Liberal measures. He first took office in the Heales Ministry, serving as Vice-President of the Board of Land and "Works and Commissioner of Public Works from Feb. 1861 until the following Nov., when the Government were thrown out. Whilst in this Ministry he concurred with Messrs. Brooke and Ireland in the issue of the occupation licences which threw open the lands of Victoria to agricultural till age. In 1863, when the last O'Shanassy was replaced by the first McCulloch Ministry, Mr. Richard Heales became Commissioner of Lands. On his death in the following year, Mr. Grant succeeded him, and was in office from Sept. 1864 till May 1868. His administration of his department was highly successful, and his name is still held in veneration by many thousands of well-to-do selectors who settled on the land under the celebrated forty-second clause of the Land Act of 1865, which he carried through Parliament. When the second McCulloch Government was constituted, in July 1868, Mr. Grant again undertook the administration of the Lands Department, and remained in office till Sept. 20th, 1869. He joined Sir Charles Gavan Duffy in June 1871, and continued at the Lands Department until June 1872. He was Minister of Justice in Mr. Berry's first administration, from August to Oct. 1875, and in his second Cabinet, from May 1877 to March 1880. Whilst in office on the latter occasion he participated in the wholesale dismissal of civil servants in Dec. 1878, the services of many of the legal functionaries and magistracy being dispensed with by his department. From July 1881 to March 1883 Mr. Grant was Chief Secretary in the O'Loghlen Government. Throughout his whole Parliamentary career he represented Avoca in the Legislative Assembly. He died on April 1st, 1885.

Graves, Hon. James Howlin, M.L.A., J.P., second son of the late Captain J. Baker Graves, 14th Light Dragoons, who was a special police magistrate for the disturbed districts of Ireland in 1848, and subsequently a judge in Ceylon, was born at Maryborough, Queen's County, on Dec. 14th, 1827, and educated at Boulogne-sur-Mer. Matriculating at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1847, he studied for the law, which he abandoned for theology; graduated, and completed his professional course in 1852. He married Julia Maria, second daughter of the late Captain J. W. Harvey, Coldstream Guards, a distinguished Waterloo officer. Mr. Graves for some time farmed his own property in Wexford, but on its being sold in the Irish Landed Estates Court to pay off family encumbrances, he emigrated to Australia, arriving in Melbourne in 1864. He at once embarked in pastoral pursuits at Teremia station, near Corowa, N.S.W., and after further commercial and pastoral experience in New South Wales and Victoria was elected to the Assembly for Delatite as a Liberal and moderate Protectionist, and still represents that constituency. He is a J.P. for the colonies of New South Wales and Victoria. Having seconded the vote of want of confidence in the Berry Government in 1881, he was, on Sir Bryan O'Loghlen's accession to power in July of that year, appointed Commissioner of Trade and Customs, and held office till March 1883.

Graves, John Woodcock, son of Joseph Graves, a plumber at Wigton, Cumberland, was born at that place on Feb. 9th, 1795, and worked with his uncle, George Graves, a sign-painter at Cockermouth. He was subsequently connected with woollen mills at Caldbeck, and emigrated to Van Diemen's Land in 1833. He invented a machine for dressing New Zealand flax, and was the author of the hunting song, "D'ye ken John Peel with his coat so gray?" (1824) and other poems. He died in Hobart, Tasmania, on August 17th, 1886. [This biography appeared in the Supplement at the end of the book.]

Gray, His Honour Moses Wilson, was the son of the late John Gray, of Claremorris, county Mayo, Ireland, and Elizabeth his wife, only child of George Wilson, and was brother of the late Sir John Gray, one of the proprietors of the Dublin Freeman's Journal. He was a barrister, and emigrated to Victoria in 1856, where he took an active part in the solution of the land question on liberal lines, and was one of the founders of the Victoria Land League, under whose auspices was summoned a great assemblage of delegates from all parts of Victoria to discuss the land question with a view to promoting the settlement of a farming population on the public estate. The Land Convention, as it was called, met in Melbourne in 1857, and condemned the abortive Haines Land Bill then passing through the Lower House. Mr. Wilson Gray was elected the president of the Convention, which also passed resolutions in favour of manhood suffrage, equal electoral districts, abolition of property qualification, and payment of representatives. He was M.L.A. for Rodney 1860 to 1862, when he went to Otago, New Zealand, where he died a district court judge April 4th, 1875.

Gray, Robert John, Railway Commissioner, Queensland, was born at Port Macquarie, N.S.W., in 1840, and was appointed chief clerk in the office of the Colonial Secretary of Queensland in 1866, and in 1870 Immigration Agent. He became Under Colonial Secretary on the retirement of Mr. F. C. Rawlins in 1880, a position he retained until July 1889, when he was appointed one of the Commissioners of Management of Queensland Railways.

Greeves, Hon. Augustus Frederick Adolphus, was one of the first medical men who arrived in Melbourne, of which city he was Mayor in 1849-50. He for some time edited the Port Phillip Gazette, the first regular newspaper published in Melbourne, and was subsequently editor of the Melbourne Morning Herald. He sat in the old single chamber Parliament, and was one of the Select Committee which in 1853-4 drafted the present Constitution of Victoria. He was returned to the first Legislative Assembly of Victoria in 1856 for East Bourke. When the first O'Shanassy Ministry was formed, in April 1857, Dr. Greeves accepted office as Commissioner of Trade and Customs, but failed to secure re-election. The Ministry retired the next month. Dr. Greeves died in Melbourne on May 23rd, 1874.

Gregory, Hon. Augustus Charles, C.M.G., M.L.C., J.P., son of the late J. Gregory, lieutenant 78th Highlanders, who emigrated to Western Australia, was born in Nottinghamshire in 1819, and educated privately in England and Australia. He arrived in Western Australia in 1829, entered the Civil Service of that colony in 1841, and from 1846 to 1859 was actively engaged in exploration work on the Australian continent. In the first-mentioned year Mr. Gregory, with his brothers Charles and Frank (q.v.), started into the interior from Bolgart Spring; but were stopped in their progress eastward by an immense salt lake, which compelled them to turn north-west, where they discovered some fine seams of coal, in the limestone country at the mouth of the Arrowsmith. They were forty-seven days absent, and traversed a thousand miles. In 1848 Mr. Gregory was despatched northwards to explore the Gascoyne River, and succeeded in reaching a point three hundred and fifty miles north of Perth, the result of the expedition being to disclose the pastoral wealth of the Murchison and Champion Bay districts. In 1855 Mr. Gregory undertook a third exploring expedition under the auspices of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Baron von Mueller being one of the party. The object was the dual one of exploring the interior and of searching for traces of the lost explorer Leichhardt, who had been missing for seven years. The party started in July, and did not return to Brisbane till November in the following year, having discovered much rich country and new watersheds, but no certain traces of Leichhardt. In 1858 the New South Wales Government sent Mr. Gregory to renew his search for Leichhardt. The expedition left Sydney on Jan. 12th, 1858, and it reached the Barcoo in April, returning to Adelaide on July 31st; the only traces of Leichhardt which this expedition disclosed being a tree marked L., in lat. 24° 25', long. 145° 6'. Mr. Gregory, who takes a place in the front rank of Australian explorers, and had the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society conferred on him in 1858, did not take part in any further expeditions, being appointed Surveyor-General of Queensland in 1859, a post which he held till Sept. 1st, 1879. He was created C.M.G. in 1874, a trustee of the Queensland Museum in 1876, and was nominated to the Legislative Council in Nov. 1882; but did not take his seat till June 1883. Mr. Gregory has been District Grand Master of Freemasonry in Queensland under the English constitution since 1863. He is a J.P. of the colony, and was a member of the Queensland Commission in Brisbane for the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886.

Gregory, Hon. Francis Thomas, M.L.C., brother of the above, was born at Farnsfield, Notts, in Oct. 1821, and having gone to West Australia in 1829, where he was in the Survey Office, he accompanied his brother Augustus in his first exploring expedition in 1846. In 1858 he organised au expedition to examine the country between the Gascoyne and Mount Murchison, in West Australia. A million acres of good land was discovered, and the party returned to Adelaide in July 1861. In the same year he tried to explore the interior from the north-west coast; but the sand ridges barred his way, and he and his party narrowly escaped destruction. As it was, they discovered good country and new rivers. Mr. Gregory went to reside in Queensland in 1862, and was nominated to the Legislative Council in 1874. He acted for some time as Surveyor-General in Western Australia, was awarded the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society in 1863, and was joint-author with his brother of "Journals of Australian Explorations" (Brisbane, 1884). He married at Ipswich, Queensland, on May 11th, 1865, Marion Scott, daughter of the late Alexander Hume. On Sept. 25th, 1883, he succeeded Mr. Morehead as Postmaster-General in the first McIlwraith Ministry. The latter were, however, thrown out of power on Nov. 13th following, and he retired with them. Mr. Gregory died at Toowomba, Queensland, on Oct. 24th, 1888.

Gregson, Hon. John Compton, son of the Hon. Thomas George Gregson (q.v.) was Chairman of Quarter Sessions at Launceston; but having been returned to the first Tasmanian House of Assembly for New Norfolk in 1856, he resigned the former appointment to become Attorney-General in his father's Administration, which only lasted from Feb. to April 1857. He died on Dec. 16th, 1867.

Gregson, Hon. Thomas George, was born in Northumberland about 1799, and emigrated to Tasmania in 1821. He was a member of the old Legislative Council of Tasmania, and one of the "Patriotic Six" who resigned from that body in order to frustrate the arbitrary proceedings of Governor Wilmot in 1845. He was presented with a purse of £2000 in recognition of his services on this occasion. In 1850 he was returned for Richmond as one of the first elected members of the Legislative Council, and six years later, on the inauguration of free institutions, was returned for the same district to the first Tasmanian House of Assembly. Having carried a motion for the reduction of the Governor's salary, in spite of the opposition of the Champ Ministry, he was sent for by the Governor in Feb. 1857, and became Premier and Colonial Secretary of the colony. He only, however, held office till the following April, when he was ejected on a vote of censure. Mr. Gregson continued to take an active part in politics, sitting as member for Richmond in the Assembly until his death, which took place at Risdon, near Hobart, on Jan. 4th, 1874, at the age of seventy-five.

Gresson, Henry Barnes, late Judge of the Supreme Court, New Zealand, son of George Leslie Gresson and Clarissa (Reynell) his wife, was born in 1809 in co. Meath, Ireland, and educated at Westmeath and Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated. In 1833 he was called to the Irish bar, and practised in Dublin. In 1854 he emigrated to Auckland, New Zealand, but soon took up his residence in Christchurch, where he was shortly afterwards appointed Provincial Solicitor for the Canterbury province. In Dec. 1854 he was appointed Acting Judge of the Southern Districts, including Wellington, Nelson, Westland, Canterbury, and Otago. He retired from the Supreme Court bench in 1875. Mr. Gresson was also President of the Philosophical Institute, Christchurch, Chairman of the Board of Governors of Canterbury College, and Chancellor of the Diocese of Christchurch. He was in addition a Fellow of Christ's College, Canterbury, and married in county Donegal, Ireland, in August 1845, Miss Anne Beatty.

Greville, Hon. Edward, M.L.C., was for ten years member for Braidwood in the Legislative Assembly of New South Wales. He was subsequently appointed Commissioner of Land Titles for that colony, and still holds the position. He originated and is the editor of the "Yearbook of Australia," a standard work of reference on all matters relating to Australia. In May 1892 he was summoned to the Legislative Council of New South Wales by the Dibbs Government.

Greville, John Roger, the popular Australian comedian, was born in Dublin on June 15th, 1834, in which city he began his theatrical career. Arriving during the "gold fever" in Victoria in 1852, he soon left the pick and shovel for the sock and buskin,—a phrase which is used literally, for, strange as it may appear, Mr. Greville in those days essayed Othello. His real career began, however, when he joined Mr. George Coppin as stage manager at Cremorne. After this Mr. Greville was an established favourite, and for the last thirty years has been constantly before the public. His wife (née Marshall) was at one time a popular actress.

Grey, Sir George, K.C.B., M.H.R., D.C.L., LL.D., sometime Governor and Premier of New Zealand, is descended from a branch of the Greys of Groby, Marquises and subsequently Dukes of Dorset, and now represented in the peerage by the Earl of Stamford. He is the son of the late Lieut.-Colonel Grey of the 30th Foot, who was killed at the storming of Badajos, in the Peninsular War, was born on April 14th, 1812, at Lisbon, and educated at Sandhurst for the army. In 1829 he was made ensign in the 83rd Foot, becoming lieutenant in 1833 and captain in 1839, when he sold his commission. In 1837, in company with Lieut. Lushington, he was employed on an exploring expedition to the north-west of Australia, the object being to survey the country between Swan River and the Gulf of Carpentaria. They sailed from Plymouth in H.M.S. Beagle, and landed at the Cape of Good Hope, where they hired the schooner Lynher to convey them to Western Australia, landing in Port George on Dec. 2nd, 1837. There, after severe hardships, in the midst of which Grey showed great gallantry and endurance, they were rescued just in the nick of time by the Lynher. Ultimately a sheltered cove was discovered, and named Hanover Bay, from which point a fresh start inland was made on Jan. 17th, 1838. Hostile natives were encountered, and Grey received three spear-wounds (from the effects of which he still suffers), and was compelled to abandon the exploration of the Swan River. Making a détour inland, they discovered beautiful tropical country, and traced the course of the Glenelg River for seventy miles. On April 16th the party returned to Hanover Bay, and subsequently embarked on board of the Lynher for Mauritius, where Grey spent some time in recruiting his health. In 1839 he returned, and again started on an exploring expedition into the interior with thirteen men, the object being to survey the coast between Sharks Bay and Freemantle. A storm, however, arose, and washed away their provisions, and there was nothing for it but to put back to Perth, a distance of six hundred miles. The men, however, when they had got half way, refused to proceed in the leaky craft, and landing, gave themselves up for lost. And lost they would have been but for the pluck of their leader, who left them at a well, and pushed on to Perth, from whence he sent succour, which arrived just in time. The rescued remnant reached Perth on April 21st, 1839, in a wretched plight, and Grey departed for Adelaide en route for England, where his admirable "Journals of Discovery" were published. On April 15th, 1841, he returned to Adelaide with a commission (given him in the previous December) to replace Colonel Gawler in the government of the settlement, the latter having "outrun the constable" in promoting the development of the colony, and had his bills dishonoured by the Home Government, when he drew upon them to defray the cost of the works which he had started. By a rigid system of economy, not very pleasant for those whose position was affected by it, Captain Grey restored the balance of the finances and gained the good opinion of the Colonial Office to such a degree, that in 1845 he was appointed Governor of New Zealand, where even greater difficulties awaited him—difficulties which the imperial authorities relied (not in vain) upon his courage and statesmanship to surmount. Lord Stanley (afterwards Earl of Derby) showed his acumen in selecting him to succeed Governor Fitzroy (q.v.). Sir George arrived at Auckland on Nov. 14th. A short time previously Kororarika had been sacked by the chiefs Heke and Kawiti, who were at open war with the Government; but, by his judicious treatment of the neutral chiefs, and his vigorous operations against the rebels, Captain Grey succeeded in quelling the revolt. During the remainder of his term of office he had continual difficulties with the Maoris to settle, and was also involved in difficulty in regard to the grants of land to missionaries. On Nov. 29th, 1848, he issued an "Ordinance to provide for the establishment of Provincial Legislative Councils" as a preliminary to the granting of representative government to the colony. He desired to establish a Legislative Council, elected by the provincial councils, and an Assembly elected by the people: unicameral Provincial Councils, of which one-third should be nominated by the Crown and two-thirds elected; municipal corporations, with a £10 burgess and £5 rural suffrage for Europeans who could write and read and a suffrage for Maoris owning property worth £200. On Dec. 19th he appointed six members of the Legislative Council of New Munster. But this action roused the hostility of the colonists, who decried it as a piece of "absolutism," and in 1849 a "Settlers' Constitutional Association" was formed, including amongst its members Mr. (afterwards Sir) William Fitzherbert, Mr. (now Sir) William Fox, Dr. Featherston, and Mr. (afterwards Sir) Frederick Weld. Earl Grey, however, supported the Governor's action, and on Dec. 22nd, 1849, the royal approval of the Ordinance was given. The discontent in the colony increased; Mr. Godley joined the agitation; and Mr. Fox sought an interview with the Colonial Secretary to protest. In Feb. 1852 Lord John Russell's Government went out of office; and Sir John Pakington, who succeeded Lord Grey at the Colonial Office, brought in a bill in May by which six provinces were created in New Zealand—namely, Auckland, Wellington, Nelson, Canterbury, Otago, and New Plymouth. On Jan. 17th, 1853, Sir George Grey proclaimed this Constitution Act, and on Feb. 28th he defined the limits of the provinces which had been left to his discretion, and made other regulations as to Crown lands, superintending registration of elections, etc. In 1849 he had persuaded the Home Government not to deport convicts to New Zealand. In Dec 1853 he left the colony, at first merely on leave of absence, but was appointed Governor of the Cape in 1854. There he exhibited extraordinary administrative and military capacity, breaking the back of a threatened Kaffir uprising of very dangerous proportions by his diplomatic skill, and on his own responsibility sending troops and money to India during the mutiny. The latter incident is thus described by an evidently well-informed writer: "In 1857, while Governor of Cape Colony, he was called upon by Lord Elphinstone, then Governor of Bombay, to assist in the defence of the British Empire in India; and it so happened that just at this time a part of Lord Elgin's army, on their way to Canton to punish the Chinese, touched at Cape Town. These Sir George Grey, on his own authority, directed to Calcutta, two days only after receiving Lord Elphinstone's letters, together with a part of the artillery stationed there, fully horsed, and transmitted from the Cape Treasury £60,000 in specie, continuing to forward both men and horses. Knowing the cavalry and artillery must be supplied, he dismounted his own cavalry and artillery, even taking the horses from his own carriage to keep up the supply. Vast stores of food for men and horses he also provided, and sent on a quantity of ammunition. All this Sir George Grey did without any authority from the Imperial Government, and so quickly that the troops which enabled Lord Elphinstone to hold the mutineers in check at Bombay, and Sir Colin Campbell to relieve Lucknow on Nov. 17th, 1857, were largely drawn from the forces sent by Sir George from the Cape." Colonel Gore Browne had succeeded him in New Zealand, but the native troubles developing, in May 1861 Sir George Grey was recalled to his old colony to settle the difficulty. He resumed the Government of New Zealand for the second time on Oct. 3rd, 1861, and at once set about his task of reorganising native affairs. A system of administration by runangas (or native councils) was to be introduced throughout the Maori country. The new plan was welcomed by the loyal natives and many others, but despite all the Governor's efforts, the Waikato chiefs stood aloof. Moreover, his endeavours to settle the Waitara block dispute were unsuccessful. At this time (1862) the Duke of Newcastle consented to the devolution of the control of native affairs from the Governor upon his responsible ministry, and Sir George Grey declared his intention of acting in these matters upon the advice of his ministers. On April 22nd, 1864, Sir George recommended the abandonment of the Waitara block, and on May 11th this was officially proclaimed. Unhappily, however, owing to the delay caused by the reluctance of the Ministry, the concession came too late, and war was inevitable. A party of English were murdered at Oakura, and on July 12th General Cameron crossed the Maungatawhiri, and the Waikato war began. During the whole of this campaign the Governor was involved in disputes with his Ministry, at one time in regard to the Waitara blocks, at another as to the treatment of prisoners and the confiscation of rebel lands. After the close of the Waikato war, in Dec. 1864, the Governor issued a confiscation proclamation. The war had now spread to the Wanganui region, and Sir George Grey instructed General Cameron to attack Wereroa Pa, but the latter declined, alleging that he would require 2000 extra soldiers. Sir George then assembled a force of 500 men, friendly natives and forest rangers, and personally conducted an assault upon the pa, which was taken on July 20th, 1865. This incident was the occasion of a quarrel between the Governor and General Cameron, in which the Home Government espoused the cause of the latter, who had accused the Governor of countenancing subversion of discipline. Subsequently, in General Chute's famous Taranaki campaign, an unfortunate dispute arose in connection with the shooting of a prisoner of war. Colonel Weare, an officer under General Chute, had charged the Governor and his Government with urging Chute to take no prisoners alive. Sir George indignantly denied this, and Lord Carnarvon, at the Colonial Office, while accepting his denial, rebuked him for the tone of his despatches, and requested him to withdraw them. This Sir George refused to do. At this juncture Mr. Disraeli's Government went out of office, and the Duke of Buckingham succeeded Lord Carnarvon. But this change made no difference to the position of Sir George Grey, who would seem to have become obnoxious to the Colonial Office. On August 27th, 1867, he was recalled, and Parliament immediately adjourned as a mark of respect for the Governor and regret at his recall. On Sept. 6th an address from the Houses was presented to him, in which the hope was expressed that the Queen would reward him for his services by some signal mark of honour. On Sept. 16th the Ministry drew up a formal protest against the treatment to which Sir George Grey had been subjected, and regretting the discourteous recall of the Governor, expressed their sympathy with him. In reply to the Duke of Buckingham's comments on this document, Sir George Grey wrote: "I request your Grace to be pleased to state to the Queen that I present my duty to Her Majesty, and in receiving this notification of my Sovereign's pleasure, I beg to be permitted humbly to represent to Her Majesty that in the year 1845, a rebellion prevailing in New Zealand, I was, by Her Majesty's commands, especially sent to this country, and that when I relinquished the post in the year 1854 it was my happiness to leave it in a state of tranquillity and prosperity; that in the year 1861, a rebellion having again broken out in New Zealand, I was once more especially sent here; and that it is again my happiness, upon being removed, by your Grace's advice, from this Government, to leave New Zealand in a state of tranquillity and returning prosperity; and that I humbly represent to Her Majesty that I desire to claim no merit for these circumstances, but rather to attribute them to the blessing of Divine Providence, and to the abilities and exertions of Her Majesty's subjects who have advised me and aided me in my duties; and further, that I humbly trust that the almost unanimous voice of Her Majesty's subjects in New Zealand, amongst whom I have laboured In Her Majesty's service, will satisfy Her Majesty that I have done my utmost to promote the welfare and happiness of the inhabitants of this part of Her Majesty's possessions." Sir George Bowen assumed office as Governor on Feb. 5th, 1868, and at the end of the year Sir George Grey left New Zealand to put himself right at the Colonial Office in respect of the Weare charges. Lord Granville, however, who had become Colonial Secretary, refused to reopen the subject, and he was retired on a pension in 1872. In the interim Sir George Grey delivered addresses at the leading centres of population in the United Kingdom, in opposition to the policy then advocated by several prominent statesmen of getting rid of the colonies, and became a candidate for West Worcestershire and Newark, retiring in each case before the poll. Having returned to New Zealand, and taken up his residence in the island of Kawau, Sir George, in 1875, was elected member of the House of Representatives for Auckland City West, and also in the same year superintendent of the Province of Auckland. At this time he came forward as an ardent upholder of provincialism when the Houses had decided to abolish the provinces. He also brought forward a Manhood Suffrage Bill and a Triennial Parliaments Bill, both of which were rejected. In Oct. 1877 the Atkinson Ministry was defeated, and on the 13th Sir George Grey formed a cabinet, thus ruling as Premier a country which, ten years before, he had ruled as Governor. The beginning of the ministry's term of office was marked by a dispute with the Governor (Lord Normanby) on a question of privilege. On July 29th, 1879, on a motion by Sir W. Fox, the Government was defeated, and after the election which followed was again put in a minority, on a motion by Mr. (afterwards Sir) John Hall. Sir George Grey, who resigned office in Oct 1879, sat in Parliament continuously up to the election in Nov. 1890, when he did not offer himself. The degree of D.C.L. was conferred upon him by the University of Oxford in 1854, and he was created K.C.B. in 1848. He married, in 1889, Harriet, daughter of the late Admiral Sir R. W. Spencer, K.H., formerly Government Resident of Albany, West Australia. Sir George Grey has lately given his valuable library as a free gift to the town of Auckland. He was one of the three delegates of New Zealand to the Federation Convention held in Sydney in March 1891, having been in the meantime re-elected to the House of Representatives for Newton. At the Convention he stood almost alone in his advocacy of the "one man one vote" principle as the condition precedent of federation. He also argued in favour of the Governor-in-Chief of the projected commonwealth being chosen by popular election. After the sittings of the Convention closed Sir George Grey revisited South Australia, where the fiftieth anniversary of his assumption of the government of that colony was celebrated with extraordinary demonstrations of regard and respect. At all the leading centres in South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales Sir George addressed gatherings in favour of the "one man one vote" principle, gaining an overwhelming preponderance of popular support. His Life by Mr. W. L. Rees, M.H.R., has lately been published by Messrs. Hutchinson, London; and Mr. Brett, Auckland.

Griffith, Charles James, M.A., was the fifth son of Richard Griffith, of Millicent, Kildare, Ireland (sometime member for the borough of Askeaton in the Irish Parliament), by his second wife, Mary, daughter of Right Hon. Walter Hussey Burgh, Lord Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer; and was half-brother of Sir Richard John Griffith, Bart., the author of the famous "valuation" of Ireland. He was educated at Dublin University, and was called to the Irish bar. He emigrated to Victoria in 1840, and was appointed, by Governor Latrobe, chairman of the Board of Commissioners of Sewers and Water Supply, and in this capacity took a prominent part in the construction of the works for bringing the water supply of the City of Melbourne from Yan Yean, a distance of nineteen miles. Mr. Griffith also took an active part in the erection and establishment of the Melbourne Church of England Grammar School, the foundation-stone of which was laid in 1856. He was also a prominent member of the Church Synod. He married Miss Jane Magee. Mr. Griffith was engaged in pastoral pursuits, and was appointed a nominee non-official member of the first Legislative Council of Victoria on Nov. 3rd, 1851. After the concession of responsible government he was returned to the first Legislative Assembly for the district of Dundas and Follett. At the meeting of parliament he was a candidate for the Speakership, but was beaten by Mr. (afterwards Sir) Francis Murphy. Mr. Griffith was the author of a work published in Dublin in 1845, entitled "Position and Prospects of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales." He died in Melbourne in 1863.

Griffith, Hon. Sir Samuel Walker, K.C.M.G., M.A., Premier of Queensland, is the son of the late Rev. Edward Griffith, formerly Congregational minister at Merthyr Tydvil in South Wales, but for many years residing in Brisbane, and was born at Merthyr on June 21st, 1845. In 1854 Sir Samuel Griffith's family emigrated to the colony of which he is now Premier, but which was then only the Moreton Bay district of New South Wales; settling first at Ipswich, then at Maitland, and finally at Brisbane. Sir Samuel was educated in the first instance under Mr. Horniman at Sydney, and subsequently at the High School, West Maitland, of which the Rev. W. McIntyre was head master. In 1860 he proceeded to Sydney University, graduating B.A. in 1863 and M.A. in 1870. He early selected a legal career as his future rôle, and was called to the bar at Brisbane in 1867. In 1870 he married Julia Janet, daughter of Mr. James Thomson, for some time Commissioner of Crown Lands at Maitland. Sir Samuel Griffith soon obtained a considerable legal practice, and in 1872 entered Parliament as member for East Moreton. The district being subdivided in 1873, Sir Samuel was returned for the Oxley portion, which he continued to represent till 1878, when he was elected for the metropolitan constituency of Brisbane, which he has since represented. In August 1874 Sir Samuel was appointed Attorney-General in the Macalister Ministry [becoming Q.C. in 1876], and continued to hold office under the subsequent Administrations of Messrs. Thorn and Douglas, with the additional portfolio of Minister of Education, and subsequently as Minister of Public Works, until Jan. 1879. In his first session he originated the Telegraphic Messages Bill, a measure which provided for the transmission by of all legal processes and other documentary matter requiring authentication. This was successfully carried, and in 1874, whilst still outside the charmed circle of the Cabinet, he introduced and carried an Insolvency Bill. The latter measure was based in its general principles upon the English Act of 1869, but included a great many provisions since embodied in Mr. Chamberlain's recent Act. It also contained clauses against fraudulent preference, which are asserted to be the most stringent in force in any part of the world. In 1875, whilst Attorney-General, Sir Samuel Griffith introduced a ministerial measure for the adoption of a free, secular and compulsory system of State education. This was successfully carried, and he assumed charge of the department formed under the statute. At this period, too, he participated in carrying Judicature and Local Government Acts. In 1879 the McIlwraith Government came into power, and continued to hold sway till 1883, when, mainly through the exertions of Sir Samuel Griffith, they were ejected from office, and a large majority returned in opposition to their policy regarding the importation of coolie labour for the purpose of working the northern sugar plantations, and their proposals for the construction of the Queensland transcontinental railway on the land grant system. In Nov. 1883 Sir Samuel became Premier, and in the following years carried a Land Act and measures for the regulation of the Polynesian labour trade, which largely mitigated the evils of a system which nearly approached the horrors of the African slave traffic. The Defence Act passed by the first Griffith Ministry contributed to the national security; and they also succeeded in carrying a Licensing Act, which embodied the principle of local option without compensation. Sir Samuel followed the policy of his predecessor in reference to Australian Federation, and was a prominent member of the Convention which met at Sydney in 1883; the drafting of the Federal Council Bill, which ultimately passed the Imperial Parliament, being confided to his hands. When the Federal Council held its first sitting at Hobart, Sir Samuel was appointed first Chairman of the Standing Committee, and was subsequently elected President. During the Queensland parliamentary session of 1886 Sir Samuel passed an Act which codified the entire body of law relating to the duties and powers of justices of the peace. His Offenders' Probation Act was also a piece of advanced legislation. In 1887 Sir Samuel was associated with Sir James Garrick in the representation of Queensland at the Colonial Conference held in London in that year, and took a prominent and successful part in its proceedings. At the Conference he proposed a resolution, which was carried, affirming the desirableness of preferential treatment of British products throughout the British dominions. At the general election in the spring of 1888 the supporters of the Griffith Government were placed in a minority, and they accordingly resigned in June. After leading the Opposition to the McIlwraith and Morehead Ministries until August 1890, the latter resigned, and the Governor invited Sir Samuel Griffith to form a second Administration, which he succeeded in doing in combination with his former opponent, Sir Thomas McIlwraith, and still holds office as Premier. Sir Samuel was one of the representatives of Queensland at the Intercolonial Federation Conference held in Melbourne in 1890, and at the Sydney Convention of 1891. Of the latter body he was unanimously appointed Vice-Chairman. He has occupied for a number of years the leading position at the bar in Queensland. In 1889, while in opposition, he introduced, and succeeded in passing, a codification of the law of defamation, and also passed through the Assembly an Eight Hours Bill, which, however, was defeated in the Legislative Council. In the following year, being still in opposition, he introduced a Bill to declare the natural law relating to the acquisition and ownership of private property, the fundamental principle of which is that the products of labour (whether of mind or body) belong of right to the persons who have contributed to their production (including the possession of the property to which the labour is applied) and belong to them in proportion to the value of their respective contributions. He maintains that this principle is the only alternative to the rule that each man shall get and keep as much as he can from neighbour. This Bill, which was intended to be followed by another to define the procedure for assessing the value of the contributions of the several contributors to production, attracted some attention, but has not yet become law. On the whole Sir Samuel Griffith must be regarded as having occupied the premier position at the Federation Convention of 1891, the Commonwealth Bill being virtually drafted by him, though he received valuable assistance from Messrs. Barton, Deakin, Clark, and Kingston, and the measure was somewhat modified by the Convention sitting as a whole. Early in 1892 Sir Samuel Griffith astonished the world by announcing his conversion to the necessity of renewing the importation of Kanaka labour for the cultivation of the sugar plantations of Northern Queensland for a further period of ten years. He also announced the intention of the Government to encourage the construction of railways on the land grant system. In the former case his plea was that he could not allow the sugar interest to be ruined at the bidding of labour combinations which, whilst opposed to the importation of coloured labour, would not permit of the plantation work being done by white hands. As regarded the land grant railways, he justified his change of opinion on the ground that it was now impossible to borrow money on the English market for the construction of lines necessary for the development of the country. Measures for the effectuation of the policy thus announced were carried in the session of 1892, and though there has been a huge outcry alike from pseudo-philanthropists and genuine enthusiasts against the renewal of the Kanaka labour traffic, Sir Samuel Griffith relies on the strict enforcement of the more stringent regulations now enacted for the prevention of the evils which were prevalent prior to the revision of the system in 1884.

Griffiths, George Samuel, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., is the son of Samuel Griffiths, the first white settler in the Elwood or Port Ormond district of Port Phillip. He was born on August 16th, 1847, in Demerara, and arrived in Victoria with his parents in 1851. Mr. Griffiths, who has been a member of the managing committee of the Melbourne Stock Exchange, and of the Council of the Royal Society of Victoria, has taken a very active interest in the proposal to explore the Antarctic, and when the Royal Society of Victoria and the Geographical Society of Australasia decided to appoint a joint committee to promote the project, he was, with Professor Kernot and Mr. Ellery, chosen to represent the former Society. In 1878 Mr. Griffiths was married to the daughter of the late Mr. Atkinson, of the Western district.

Grimes, Right Rev. John Joseph, D.D., first Roman Catholic Bishop of Christchurch, N.Z., is the son of Richard Grimes and Elizabeth his wife, and was born at Bromley, Kent, on Feb. 11th, 1842. Having been ordained to the priesthood, Bishop Grimes was Professor of Belles Lettres and Rhetoric in St. Mary's College, Ireland, till 1873, and from that year till 1880 was Professor, Director, and President of Jefferson College, Louisiana, U.S. A., where he narrowly escaped death in the great yellow fever epidemic of 1878. From 1880 to 1887 Dr. Grimes was Rector of St. Mary's, Paignton, Devonshire, and President of the missionary training college there. At Paignton Dr. Grimes built the first Catholic church erected there since the Reformation. In May 1887 he was appointed by Pope Leo XIII. the first Catholic Bishop of Christchurch, being consecrated on July 26th of the same year. Bishop Grimes, whose diocese comprises the whole of the provinces of Canterbury and Westland, a portion of the province of Nelson, and the Chatham Islands, arrived in New Zealand to assume his episcopal functions at the end of 1887.

Groom, William Henry, M.L.A., was born on March 9th, 1833, at Plymouth, and received his education at St. Andrew's schools. In 1857 he emigrated to Queensland, and settled at Toowoomba, where he became a storekeeper in 1858, and in 1860 first mayor of the newly made municipality, an office he held for three consecutive years. Mr. Groom was elected to represent Toowoomba in the Assembly in 1862, being re-elected the following year. In 1866, in consequence of the Bank of Queensland failure, he assigned his estate and retired from the Assembly, but was re-elected without opposition, banquetted, and presented with a purse of sovereigns, and has ever since continued to represent the constituency, being what is popularly known as "Father of the House." On Nov. 7th, 1883, Mr. Groom, who had previously refused the chairmanship of committees offered him by Sir T. McIlwraith, was elected Speaker of the Assembly, and held the position till the dissolution on April 4th, 1888.

Gudgeon, Lieutenant Thomas Wayth, was for seven years employed in the Income and Property Tax Department of Somerset House. Having resigned his appointment, he came to New Zealand on Jan. 10th, 1850, settling in Taranaki, and afterwards in Wanganui. At the outbreak of the Wanganui war he entered the Wanganui militia, and subsequently became lieutenant Mr. Gudgeon is the author of "Reminiscences of the War in New Zealand"; "The History and Doings of the Maoris from 1820 to the Signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840" (Brett, Auckland); "The Defenders of New Zealand" (Brett, Auckland, 1887). He died in Melbourne, Vict., in 1890.

Guenett, Thomas Harbottle, is the son of Rev. John F. Guenett by his marriage with Elizabeth Harbottle, and was born at Fleetwood, Lancashire, on June 22nd, 1850. Mr. Guenett was a pupil of Sir Charles Halle and Mr. Ebenezer Prout, and went to Australia for his health in 1872, settling in Melbourne, where he was for several years President of the Musical Association of Victoria and one of the examiners for diplomas and certificates. He was also the founder of the Melbourne popular concerts (string quartette music), and, in addition to acting as musical critic of the Melbourne Argus and Australasian, is one of the examiners for licences and certificates to teach music in the State schools of Victoria. Mr. Guenett married at Balmain, Sydney, on July 18th, 1874, Miss Ellen Geard.

Guérard, Jean Eugene von, son of the Court Painter to the Emperor Francis I. of Austria, went to Italy with his father at an early age, and under his supervision studied the old Italian masters. After a period of residence at Dusseldorf, he came to Australia in 1853, and painted numerous Australian and New Zealand landscapes. In 1866 his picture of Mount Kosciusko was purchased for the Public Gallery of Victoria, of which, in June 1870, he was appointed master and curator.

Guilfoyle, William Robert, son of M. Guilfoyle, a botanist of repute, was born at Chelsea, London, in 1843, and went to New South Wales with his parents in 1853. In 1868 he accompanied the Challenger Expedition to the South Seas, and subsequently cultivated a sugar and tobacco estate In Queensland. In 1873 he accented the appointment of Director of the Melbourne Botanic Gardens, a position he still holds. Mr. Guilfoyle has written several works on botanical subjects, and has contributed copiously to the scientific journals.

Gullett, Henry, the well-known Australian journalist, is the son of an old colonist in the Lancefield district of Victoria, and early embraced journalism as a profession. He is best known as the editor for many years of the Melbourne Australasian, a high-class weekly journal, published in connection with the daily Argus, in the conduct of which he succeeded Mr. James Smith. Mr. Gullett, who is an admirable writer, imparted a high literary and critical tone to the paper, and placed it in the front rank of its class as a family political and sporting newspaper for the intelligent classes. In 1885 he severed his connection with the Australasian and removed to Sydney, where he became a proprietor of the Daily Telegraph, editor of the weekly journal, the Tribune, published in connection therewith, and a constant contributor to the leading columns of the former. In 1890 he resigned his literary connection with the Daily Telegraph, and is now engaged as a leader-writer and assistant editor on the Sydney Morning Herald. Mrs. Gullett has contributed largely to the journals with which her husband has been connected, mainly on topics of feminine interest.

Gunn, Robert Campbell, F.R.S., F.L.S., son of William Gunn, of Caithness, Scotland, lieutenant in the 93rd Highlanders, and Margaret his wife (nee Wilson), was born at the Ca