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Title: Early Days of Windsor
Author: James Steele
* A Project Gutenberg Australia eBook *
eBook No.: 1302241h.html
Language: English
Date first posted: May 2013
Date most recently May 2013

Produced by: Ned Overton

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Production Notes:

A few typographic errors have been corrected and some of the punctuation modernised.

In a work such as this, there are inevitably disparities in some surnames within the body of the work. Here, these include [surnames in the Index shown thus *, and listed first]:

* Ascough/Ashcough
* Berkleman/Berckelman
* Blackett/Blacket
* Conlan/Conlon
* Dargin/Dargan/Dargon
* Dunstan/Dunston
* Hassall/Hassell
* Macgrath/Magrath/McGrath
* Quaiffe/Quaife
* Riccaby/Rickaby/Rickerby


(Peninsula Observatory, Windsor.)








With Nineteen Illustrations

"Let as consider the past with a lingering gaze."


"This is the place. Stand still, my steed,
    Let me review the scene,
And summon from the shadowy Past
    The forms that once have been."



Copyrighted, 1916, by
Tyrrell's Limited, 99 Castlereagh Street, Sydney,
New South Wales, Australia

Wholly set up and printed in Australia by
Websdale, Shoosmith Ltd., Sydney.



THERE is one disadvantage in being a pioneer—the just appreciation, which is jour due, comes about one hundred years after your death.

Governor Phillip when he explored the Hawkesbury in 1789 was moved to designate it "so noble a river", and, in the years to come, his successors had reason to endorse this opinion, for the banks of the river were the granary of the infant settlement.

It is with the pioneers who opened the way, and with the men who followed and built and tended the pleasant town of Windsor on the noble river's bank that Mr. Steele's book deals. He has expended much time and labour in gathering his material and in disinterring from the somewhat dusty chambers of the past the names and deeds of men who "deserve to live."

For these services Mr. Steele deserves the success which I am sure this book will command.

CHARLES H. BERTIE,          
Australian Historical Society.

     November, 1915.


ALL who would know the early history of Australia must perforce know something of its first granary, the Green Hills, afterwards known as Windsor.

The substance of this volume ran through the columns of the Windsor and Richmond Gazette between August, 1914, end February, 1915.

The Articles have been the subject of considerable correspondence, both in the local paper and direct to the author. By this means valuable revisions and additions have been made.

Errors there may be, but every effort has been made to verify the data.

The authorities consulted will be found at the end of the book, but I cannot close my studies of Old Windsor without again thanking the many correspondents who have assisted me, and especially Mr. John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S., the grand old man of Windsor, and Mr. Henry Selkirk, of the Lands Department, and for several years a kindly neighbour in Killara.


The Manse, Windsor,
     1st September, 1915

"I have read the articles on the 'Early Days of Windsor', by the Rev. James Steele.

"As a native of Windsor, with a clear recollection of the past seventy-five years, I may say that the author has spared no pains to make his statements accurate and reliable.

"His work will supply a felt want, in the literature of Windsor, and it should prove very acceptable to all lovers of the Hawkesbury districts.

"As years roll on it will certainly become an invaluable work of reference on all matters connected with the district."


     Peninsula, Windsor, N.S. Wales.

1915. Sept. 18


     Thompson, Fitzgerald, Arndell, Mileham,
     Bell, Brabyn, Youl, Fulton, Cartwright,
     Cox, Dight.


JOHN TEBBUTT, F.R.A.S., 1915.           Frontispiece














HAWKESBURY RIVER - A 25 feet rise.

HAWKESBURY RIVER - Same view at normal level.







Early Data.

THE history of the Hawkesbury District between the years 1788 and 1794 consists of the discovery, exploration and naming of the river and its tributaries, among them the McDonald and the Colo Rivers, by Governor A. Phillip and Captains Collins, Johnston, Watkin, and Tench. These and others made several successive visits to the Hawkesbury River, reaching as far as Richmond Hill.

In the year 1794 Lieut.-Governor Major Grose placed the first twenty-two settlers along the banks of the Hawkesbury River and South Creek, railed then Ruse's Creek, as James Ruse, the man who first grew wheat at Parramatta, had a grant of land at the junction of that stream with the Hawkesbury. The following year many more families were settled, and as the natives were troublesome, some troops from the N.S.W. Corps were sent up, and the settlement of Windsor, then called Green Hills, was fairly launched.

It is of interest to note that Lieutenant Grose was the son of Captain Grose, concerning whose peregrinations through Scotland the poet Burns wrote:

A chiel's amang you takin' notes,
And faith he'll print it.

The earliest Hawkesbury Crown grants included those to Samuel Wilcox, John Brindley, William Bond, John Ruffler, Alexander Wilson, and Whaelen. These were on the Peninsula. Thomas Westmore and William Anderson, James Ruse, Ann Blady and Joseph Smallwood, in 1797. Thomas Riccaby, Robert Braithwaite and Dr. William Balmain, in the years 1798-99.

The Grants from the year 1800 to 1804 were as follows—Thomas Hobby, William Bates, Lydia Austen, Charles Marsden (900 acres), William Ezzy (130 acres), Henry Cox, and Andrew Thompson. These may be easily located on the map of the Parish of St. Matthew, County of Cumberland.

The grants for the same period made near Pitt Town were:—Messrs. Stogdell, Palmer, Hobbs, Diggers, Jones, Benn, Smallwood, Dr. Arndell (600 acres), McDaniel, and Wilbow.

The present township of Pitt Town stands on portions of these grants, which had to be resumed for township purposes in 1810.

In 1796 Governor Hunter visited the district, and instructions were given to construct a road from Parramatta to the Hawkesbury, and soon after this road was placed under a Trust, Dr. Mileham, S. Lord, and Andrew Thompson being appointed. A Government store was established in 1798, and placed in charge of William Baker, whose name is perpetuated in Baker Street, Windsor and Baker's Lagoon, near Richmond. This early store was situated somewhere near the present Thompson Square. Baker afterwards kept an hotel in Baker Street, known as the Royal Oak.

The old Government House was also built about this time as a residence for Lieutenant Edward Abbott, commander of the troops for the N.S.W. Corps.

Regular masters of all the settlers, both free and bond, were held from time to time, and separate records kept of men, women, and children belonging to each class—military, officers, civil officers, freemen, prisoners and settlers.

On account of distress caused by floods the Governor curtailed the sale of rum during the year 1798.

About the year 1800 there appeared on the Hawkesbury a settler named Andrew Thompson, who played a leading part in the development of the district up to the time of his death in 1810. His history and numerous occupations are fully dealt with in another place.

In the year 1802 the Gist bridge (a floating structure) was built over the South Creek. The same year efforts were made to grow rice, but with little success. Some good cedar trees were growing in the district, and settlers were prohibited from cutting them, as the Government claimed them all.

Dr. Thomas Arndell and Charles Grimes, Deputy Surveyor, were appointed resident magistrates in 1802. Mr. Grimes left the district in 1803, and was succeeded by Surveyor G.W. Evans, who remained here until 1815.

During the years 1804-5 Governor King proclaimed the following Commons in the district:—

Ham Common. Trustees: William Cox, John Bowman, Andrew Thompson, Edward Tutterill, William Minchin.

Nelson Common. Trustees: Andrew Thompson, Thomas Biggars, Thomas Tyler.

Richmond Hill Common. Trustees: John Ryan, John Bowman, Andrew Thompson.

Phillip Common. Trustees: Mathew Lock, Edward Robinson, Henry Baldwin.

Later Trustees for Ham Common were: Abraham Cornwell, Robert Fitzgerald, George Bowman.

As will be seen on reference to the articles on "Schools and Churches" elsewhere, divine service was held at the Hawkesbury by Rev. S. Marsden, and others, at a very early date. A school was also established at an early period, situated near South Creek, just behind the Court House.

A covered waggon began to ply three times a week between Windsor and Sydney, starting on 9th February, 1805. Fares 5s. to Parramatta, and 7s. 6d. to Sydney. The time occupied on the journey was sixteen hours, and William Roberts was the enterprising coachman.

Ship and boat building was parried on at tins time along the banks of the Hawkesbury, to which reference is made in Chapter II.

The residents took an interest in the affairs of the colony in those early days. An address was presented by them to the Senior Chaplain, Rev. S. Marsden, on the occasion of his visiting England in 1807. Another address, signed by eight hundred and thirty-three residents, was presented to Governor Bligh, expressive of their confidence in his administration in the year 1808. Governor Bligh, and his son-in-law, Captain Putland, had farms near Pitt Town, where Bligh's oaks may still be seen.

The first Presbyterian Church was opened at Ebenezer in 1809. It is still used for Divine service, and is now the oldest church building in Australasia.

For the first twenty-five or thirty years of the settlement of New South Wales, the Hawkesbury was looked upon as the granary of the colony. When floods came the greatest anxiety was caused in Sydney and Parramatta, and floods were fairly frequent in those days. It was really the growth of grain, wheat and maize that led Governor Macquarie to lay out, among others, the town of Windsor, in order to preserve the produce being lost by inundations after it had been harvested. We find, therefore, that several large granaries were built at the Green Hills, at first constructed of logs, and afterwards brick buildings of two and three stories. Here the grain was stored under Government supervision. The largest of these granaries stood on the present site of the School of Arts, and was used later as a military hospital. Another object of these grain depots was to better control the price of grain, as in times of scarcity the local farmers charged most exorbitant prices, and also tried to prevent importation.

The first era of the history of Green Hills ends here, and the second stage in its history as Windsor begins.


Extract from Government and General Order, dated 15th December, 1810, issued on the return of his Excellency Governor Macquarie from an extensive tour of inspection through the various districts where agriculture and the breeding of cattle have occupied the attention of settlers. This tour occupied the time from 6th November to 13th December, 1810:—

"The frequent inundations of the rivers Hawkesbury and Nepean having been hitherto attended with the most calamitous effects, with regard to crops growing in their vicinity, and in consequence of most serious injury to the necessary subsistence of the colony, the Governor has deemed it expedient (in order to guard as far as human foresight can extend against the recurrence of such calamities), to erect certain townships in the most contiguous and eligible high grounds in the several districts subjected to those inundations for the purpose of rendering every possible accommodation and security to the settlers whose farms are exposed to the floods. In pursuance of this plan, and with a view to the prosperity of the country, he has already fixed upon the most eligible situations within the several districts bordering on these rivers, and marked out on the several Commons where the townships are to be established, and each settler will be assigned an allotment of ground for a dwelling house, offices, garden, corn-yard, and stock yard, proportioned to the extent of the farm he holds within the influence of the floods; but it is to be clearly understood that the allotments so given, being intended as places of security for the produce of the lands on the banks of the Hawkesbury and Nepean, cannot be sold or alienated in any manner whatever, but with the farms to which they are from the commencement to be annexed, and they are to be always considered as forming an inseparable part of the said farms.

"The Governor has accordingly marked out five separate townships, namely, one for the district of Green Hills, which he has called Windsor; one for Richmond Hill District, to be called Richmond; one for the Nelson District, to be called Pitt Town; one for Phillip District, to be called Wilberforce; and one for the Nepean or Evan District, to be called Castlereagh. Directions are already given to the several constables within those districts immediately to ascertain and make a return of the names of all those settlers whose farms are subject to be flooded, together with the number of their farms and number of their flocks and herds.

"Said report on return is in the first instance to be made to Wm. Cox, Esq., principal magistrate of the Hawkesbury."

The year 1810 thus marks the beginning of the town of Windsor, for in that year Governor Macquarie, having visited all the settlements along the Hawkesbury, issued the above instructions to lay out townships on the high ground. The main streets in Windsor proper were laid out and named. A resident Chaplain, Rev. R. Cartwright, was appointed. Roads were formed, and a new bridge built over the South Creek.

Andrew Thompson was appointed chief magistrate for the district, but he died in the same year, and was succeeded by William Cox. A coroner, Thomas Hobby, was appointed. A burial ground was approved of, and a military hospital established. All these and other appointments and improvements were made in the years 1810-12, and from this date Windsor grew in importance and wealth as the chief inland town in the colony. As late as the year 1858 Windsor was considered the fourth town in the colony. The late Hon. William Walker in that year gave the following list of populations: Parramatta 15,758, Maitland 15,290, Bathurst 12,005, Windsor 8,431, Goulburn 7,028. The same figures will be found in Waugh's Almanac for 1859.

During Governor Macquarie's regime (1810-22) Windsor was really a military settlement. The 73rd Regiment was stationed here in large barracks built about the year 1820, and still standing in Bridge Street. At first the soldiers' and prisoners' barracks were in Thompson Square, near the Windsor wharf. The Colonial Hospital was built, and also St. Matthew's Church and Rectory.

The main history of this period will be found elsewhere, in such articles as "The Hospital", "Churches", "Magistrates", "Early Schools", "Military", and specially in the separate articles dealing with the following pioneers:—Andrew Thompson, Richard Fitzgerald, Dr. Arndell, Dr. Mileham, Rev. Henry Fulton, Rev. J. Youl, Rev. R. Cartwright, William Cox, Captain J. Brabyn, and Lieutenant A. Bell.

The seasons at the period we write of were drier than formerly, the only floods of any consequence being in 1611 and 1817, until the late fifties, when floods again became frequent.

About this period lived Margaret Catchpole, a somewhat mysterious character, who was buried in St. Peter's graveyard, Richmond. For her history we would refer our readers to numerous articles in the local papers, especially during the years 1889, 1893, 1896 and 1897. A large collection of newspaper cuttings has been got together in book form by Mr. J. Padley ("Yeldap"), and can be found in the Sydney Public Library, catalogue number 994 over 7. An older article runs through the Windsor Magazine published in 1857. The Evening News, in August and October, 1897, had a series of articles on Margaret Catchpole.

In the year 1820, a party of explorers left Windsor to examine the Hunter River district. They were all local men, judging by their names: John Howe (leader), and his son-in-law George Loder, Andrew Howe, William Dargan, Philip Thornley, and Benjamin Singleton, after whom a northern town is named. They arrived at Patrick Plains on St. Patrick's Day, hence its name. The party returned via the present site of Maitland, and several of the old Windsor residents became pioneers of that northern district.

It is interesting to notice the rapid development of the town of Windsor and district during the regime of Governor Macquarie. Roads were made, magistrates and clergymen were appointed, churches and schools provided, public buildings erected, such as court house, gaol, military barracks, and hospital. These were well built, for four, if not five, Macquarie buildings are still in use—St. Matthew's Church and rector, and the Court House being the best examples. The hospital has been remodelled, but the old main walls remain. The police barracks is another Macquarie legacy.

A painting of Governor Macquarie was arranged for by the inhabitants of Windsor during his last visit to the town, and this was executed on his return to England, at a cost of £73 10s., and has hung in the Court House for the past ninety years. Governor Macquarie's reply, granting the citizens' request, is dated from Government House, Windsor, 4th January, 1822. The painting has been renovated and revarnished several times. Attempts have been made to have the historic picture hung in Sydney, but the local magistrates have at all times jealously guarded it, and turned a deaf ear to even the request for a loan of it to the big city near by.

At the close of his term of office, Macquarie, in a despatch to Earl Bathurst, dated July, 1822, gives a list of the public buildings and works at the Hawkesbury. The list is as follows: The comments are not, of course, in the original:—

1. Church with spire and space for gallery. This refers to St. Matthew's, which although opened in 1822, was not then quite completed.

2. Burial ground, four acres, fenced.

3. Barracks for fifty soldiers, with stockade.

4. Barracks for one hundred convicts, with high brick wall.

Number three was completed on 28th February, 1820. The high brick wall was lowered many years ago, and the barracks are those still seen in Bridge-Street.

5. Gaol. The present gaol was built on the same site in 1859. The original gaol was, we believe, built before Macquarie's time, but he had it enlarged about the year 1820.

6. House on left bank of South Creek, bought from A. Thompson's executors, and made into a hospital and grounds for fifty patients.

7. Government granary. Two in 1810. One was made into a temporary chapel in 1810; downstairs a church, upstairs a school, and residence for the chaplain.

8. Three-storey provision store and granary, bought from Andrew Thompson's estate.

9. Old granary, new roof and repaired.

We have difficulty in locating the buildings numbered 6, 7, 8, and 9. A large building stood on the site of the present School of Arts, known at the time as the old military hospital, and where soldiers were seen standing on guard. This was originally built of brick for a granary, one hundred and one feet by twenty-five feet, and twenty-three feet high, with three floors, and was completed in August, 1803. This is probably No. 6. Another three-storey building stood behind the present School of Arts, and was the church in use until the opening of St. Matthew's in 1822, part being a school. We can find no trace of this being used for any other purpose than that of a church and school, and we hesitate to name it No. 7. The store and granary, No. 8, stood in Thompson Square. Fifteen hundred pounds was paid for it to Thompson's trustees in 1812. No. 9 we cannot locate.

10. Wooden wharf for one-hundred-ton boats, and a ferry punt. This wharf was on the same spot, close to the present bridge, as that still used.

11. Court House adjourning gaol. Built in 1820-21. In Macquarie's time there was no street between the gaol and the Court House. There had been another Court House previous to 1821, but it was discarded.

12. New parsonage house and ground for garden.

13. Old Government cottage repaired and improved. Six acres of land enclosed, partly with a brick wall.

14. New coach house and stables. This was afterwards the police stables. It is probably the building still standing behind the police barracks.

15. Streets of Windsor repaired. New streets opened up.

On the arrival of Governor Macquarie's successor, Sir Thomas Brisbane, he called for a report on the public buildings of the colony. We have quoted from this report, which was made in 1824, in the articles dealing with the Hospital, St. Matthew's Church, and the old Government House.

This is a fitting place to insert some further particulars as to the expenditure and the condition of certain other Windsor buildings:—

Extracts from report of the value of the improvements which have taken place in the Public Buildings of Sydney, Parramatta, Windsor, Liverpool, and Campbelltown, from December 25th, 1822, to December 24th, 1823, and an expose of the present state of Public Buildings in New South Wales, by order of his Excellency Sir Thomas Brisbane, made by S.L. Harris, Architect, in 1824:—


£ s. d.
The Church 565 4 10
Barrack, converted into an Hospital 668 14 0
(This must refer to the Macquarie Street
Government Cottage 111 17 11
Garden House (Government Cottage) 6 15 4
School Room Jobs 18 13 4
Commissariat Offices 72 17 9
Sheds, etc. 11 10 0
Dr. West's Lodge 12 11 10
Old Hospital (site of School of Arts) 7 5 0
£1,475 10 0

"Commissariat Offices, etc.—The office is a shed adjoining the end of the store, about eighty feet long, with two storeys."

"The School Room, Old Hospital, Store, and Dr. West's House are on a small scale, and the latter in a very dilapidated state."

"Court House (with plan).—The building is so badly executed that tho' it has not been built two years, strong settlements are showing themselves in the walls and ceilings, and the interior accommodations are not at all adapted for the purpose intended, as the plan will show."

"General Observations.—The author of this report, etc., etc., would advert to the expensive and insufficient plan pursued in making and repairing bridges—the one now re-building at Windsor is a proof of this assertion, for instead of throughing over a stout truss'd and framed wooden bridge of one arch (which from the bold situation of the banks might have been done at little more cost than what is now expended) the same principle is still followed as that at first introduced into the colon; by placing piles in the sides and bed of the river, which collect all the rubbish continually floating down, and in the event of a flood must unavoidably destroy every bridge so constructed."

With regard to this report we may say that the Court House stands to-day strong and solid, and in constant use, and likely to last for many years to come. The same report condemned the mortar used in St. Matthew's Church, but it seems as strong and hard to-day as it was ninety years ago. The bridge referred to was in use until 1838.

On 10th August, 1829, the first Circuit Court was opened in Windsor by Judge Stephen. Thomas Bayliss was tried for house-breaking at Mulgrave, and was executed on 31st October, 1829. About this time another prisoner was sentenced to seventy-five lashes for stealing a few oranges at Belmont. Dr. West watched the pulse while the flogging was publicly administered.

Horse racing was carried on in the year 1832, the racecourse being located at Killarney, of which John Howe was secretary. There was another course at Wilberforce, to which visitors came from all parts of the colony.

A local fair was held, regarding which we clip the following advertisement from the Government Gazette;—"Windsor Annual Fair. Gentlemen, Graziers and the public generally are respectfully informed that the Windsor Fair will be held at the Market Place, Windsor, on Tuesday, 10th June, 1834, being the second Tuesday in the month of June, and that no charge is made by way of fee or toll for stock or articles offered for sale at the said Fair. John Howe, Clerk of Market, pro tem."

In 1831, the following were the Windsor contractors for the supply of stores, firewood, and cartage for the local Government survey parties:—Jas. Hale, Jas. McGrath, Jas. Thorn, and Solomon Wiseman. The latter died on 12th January, 1838, aged 61 years.

In 1837 the population of Windsor was 1,145. In 1841 it numbered 1,440. In 1848 it was 1,679, and in 1891 the figures were 2,026. Richmond population was 982 in 1837. The population of Windsor according to the 1911 census was 1,674.

In the thirties a great change came over the street formation of Windsor. About 1836, Glebe Street, afterwards known as Tebbutt Street, was surveyed off the Church Green and the allotments facing the Green sold. The Roman Catholic Church got their grant from this in 1837. A few years after, what was known as Cope's Farm was sold. It consisted of portions of the grants to Joseph Smallwood, and Thomas Riccaby, granted to them in 1797 and 1798. Thomas Riccaby died on the 15th May, 1818, aged 67 years. This farm, part of which was formerly known as Catherine Farm, extended from the eastern boundary of the Presbyterian Church to a point near Fitzgerald Street, and included New Street, Catherine Street, Church Street, and Windsor Terrace. The land was sold by Laban White, on 5th July, 1838.

The Cope family lived in the old cottage next the Presbyterian Church; the name appears in the Post Office Directory at 1835. The family assisted in the entertainment of Governor Fitzroy's family during their visit to the district in the forties. Maria Cope died on 14th May, 1849, aged 57, while her son, Joseph Cope, died on 26th July, 1662, aged 43 years. Another son was drowned in the Hawkesbury River in 1836, at the age of eight years.

A few years later another street was opened, known at first as Brown Street, but now Suffolk Street.

Up to the forties there was no settlement in the Newtown end of Windsor, but with the advent of the railway, in 1864, quite a boom in house building took place in that quarter.

With the forties also came another change. The military were removed, and Windsor ceased to be looked upon as a military settlement.

Building, too, went forward, for in 1835 the old Benevolent Society's Home was built; in 1839 the second Wesleyan Church; in 1840 the Roman Catholic Church; in 1842 the Presbyterian Church and St. Phillip's Church, Clydesdale; and about the same time St. Peter's Church of England, Richmond. Besides these, flour-mills, tanneries, hotels, and other places were built.

In 1843 came the first election, described elsewhere in these articles.. The same year the first local newspaper was started, and in order to give additional sensation to that year, the Windsor to Sydney mail coach was twice "stuck up" by bushrangers—on 1st May, and again on 23rd September.

During these "Roaring Forties" we find there were more than two public houses open in Windsor for every one found to-day. There are lists given of thirteen, fourteen, and sixteen bars in Windsor at the time, while the Hon. Wm. Walker says "there were forty public houses in and around Windsor," but this would include Richmond and several other townships along the river.

Cock-fighting, dog-fighting, and prize-fighting were favourite pastimes. Athletic and pedestrian feats were much in evidence, Windsor supplying several champions, who held their own in Sydney and Parramatta, as well as locally. Among such names were Eather, Bushell, Oxley, Judd, Lindsay, Dalton and Beasley.

Those who want further information on these gay times may find it by looking up Reminiscenses, W. Walker (Windsor), 1890, pp. 11-12; The Good Old Days, J.C. L. Fitzpatrick (Windsor), 1900. pp. 45-59; Australian, G.L.A. Davies, 4th January, 1878; or the files of the Windsor and Richmond Gazette for August, 2nd September, 1893, and 18th September, 1897.

We now come to the fifties, when things were quiet in Windsor owing to the rush to the new goldfields. Amongst the citizens who begin to appear in Windsor public life we might mention William Walker, who built his home on the terrace, and planted a good old oak tree near the back door in 1853. The tree may be seen putting forth its Leaves in this the filet year of its life. Messrs. Faux and Beard appeared in Windsor in 1853, and established a large business, afterwards carried on by Greenwell and Co., and now by M.H. Pulsford and Co.

In the year 1857 there appeared a local magazine run in connection with the Debating Society, which flourished like a green bay tree in those days, and led to the establishment of the School of Arts, as will be seen elsewhere. This paper was called the Windsor Review, and was edited by Jas. Kennedy, York Lodge, where he also kept a school for boys. From its pages we cull a few notes of the doings of 1857, and thereabouts.

The wants of Windsor were then stated not as a railway or a bridge, but first, a Bank; second, a public well and pump; third, a public market and commercial exchange; fourth, a fishing company. Of these we may say the Bank came first. The Bank of New South Wales was opened in 1858, and the Savings Bank opened a branch the same year. (See Chapter on Banks.)

In an article on Richmond the leading residents are given as Messrs. Bowman, Selkirk, Whitaker, Cox, Benson, Dight, and Faithful. The country between Windsor and Richmond is described as all scrub.

An inmate of the Windsor Benevolent Society, at the age of 113, having become tired of his surroundings, applied for permission to go elsewhere to reside.

The following marriage notices appear in this 1857 magazine:—Henry Moses—Annie Primrose; John Overmeyer—Susan Moses; William Reid—Mrs. Ann Onus; Rev. Geo. Banks Smith—Elizabeth Walker.

The population of Windsor and district was 8,431. An article on 5th October, 1857, is very optimistic. It rejoices to find social progress in Windsor, as indicated by a Mechanics' Institute, Debating Society, Y.M.C.A. and a Horticultural and Agricultural Society.

This Windsor Magazine for 1857 has also a series of articles on Margaret Catchpole which, written so long ago, nearly sixty years, and so much nearer the time of her activities, should be worth studying by her numerous modern admirers.

The main history of the sixties will be found under the articles of this series dealing with the School of Arts, built in 1860-61; the Volunteer Movement, started in 1860; the agitation for the building, and at last the completion, of the railway in 1864; and the Big Flood, 23rd June, 1867, when the river rose to the extraordinary height of sixty-three feet, and six lives were lost.

In 1860 another attempt was made to start a local newspaper, the fifth flutter of the kind since 1843. It was called the Windsor Advertiser, edited by Wm. Doyle, and ran from July to December, but the literary tastes of the town had to wait ten years longer for a permanent Press, for not till 1870 and 1871 did this enterprise become established in the shape of the Hawkesbury Times and the Australian, as will be seen in the article on "Newspapers".

An effort to incorporate the town of Windsor in 1860 failed, notwithstanding the efforts of James Ascough and Thomas Primrose to get it going.

The Rev. H.T. Stiles, M.A., died in 1867, after a ministry of thirty-four years in St. Matthew's Church.

The great event of the seventies was the big fire which broke out in George Street, near the site of the Gazette office, at 2 p.m. on Wednesday, 23rd December, 1874, and spread over the whole block bounded by George, Fitzgerald, Suffolk and Macquarie Streets, on both sides. The damage was estimated at £100,000. A full account of the catastrophe will be found in the local and Sydney press of the time, so we need not attempt a full description. The Barraba Hotel, which stood on the corner opposite the Post Office, the Methodist Church and parsonage (but strange to say not the school hall, which can be seen in the accompanying view of this big fire), two tanneries, the Oddfellows' Hall, and many shops and houses were destroyed. The Sydney fire brigade was wired for, and arrived by special train about ten p.m. One life was lost. Relief funds rendered some urgent relief. The local hon. secretary of the fund was Mr. Wm. Dean, while Mr. B. Coley acted as hon. treasurer.

A fire brigade was started in 1872. The leading members were H. Coley and William Gosper, who stuck to the brigade for many years, also S. Dick, W. Perry, J. Tout, and A.B. Kirk. The present Fire Brigade building was erected in 1915.

It was in the year 1871 that the first Municipal Council was elected, with Robert Dick as first mayor. Further particulars are found in Chapter XXXIII.

In 1874 the following trustees were appointed:—Pitt Town Common, Wm. Johnston, C.W. May, Thos. Chaseling.

Wilberforce Common.—J.H. Fleming, S.J. Dunston, R. Greentree.

Richmond Hill Common.—John Gow, Ed. Raper, J.B. Johnston, C.W. May, J.M. McQuade.

Ham Common.—Jos. Onus, Jas. Holmes, C.R. Bedwell, W.T. Price, W. Smith.

In 1872 printed rules for Ham Common were issued by the trustees, who at that time were: W.I. Crew, Jos. Onus, C.R. Bedwell, Wm. Gosper, Wm. Smith. In 1880 two of these were replaced by Benjamin Richards and David Cobcroft.

In 1874 the Rev. Dean Hallinan left Windsor, after a ministry of twenty-two years in the Roman Catholic Church. He was presented with a large puree of sovereigns, subscribed by all denominations.

A big flood in Maitland in 1875 called forth the sympathy of the Windsor residents, who subscribed one hundred and ten pounds for the relief fund.

The old denominational school system came to an end by the erection and opening: of the present Public School in 1870.

Among the shopkeepers in the seventies were: W. Dean, S.T. Greenwell, W. Beard, Robinson, W. Moses, Dick Bros., D. Holland, S.E. Dyer, P. O'Hara, J.B. Byram, L. Barnett, J. Lane, W. Primrose, F.J. Mortley, M. Neilson, John Burton.

A very notable event at this time was the opening of the Windsor low-level bridge in 1874. It was raised eight feet to its present height in 1897. Fuller particulars and an illustration will be found in Chapter XXI. on Bridges.

With the advent of the railway, the formation of the Borough Council, opening of Banks, regular local newspaper, and the Public School, the old order of things gradually passed away; and this was further noticed with the decline of the river trade which set in during the eighties, owing to the silting-up of the channel.

We now come to the era of modern times, when, as will be Been in the article on the Municipality, water was laid on to the streets in 1890, and the streets were lit with gas in 1887, streets were attended to, and footpaths kerbed and formed, and better sanitary laws enforced. Socially, too, things moved on apace. In 1882, on 22nd February, a great cricket match was played on the Fairfield ground between an All-England Eleven and twenty-two players from the Hawkesbury clubs. A special train was run from Sydney, and one thousand spectators were present. Hawkesbury made sixty-one runs, W. Read, and W. Hull being top score with ten runs each. Ail England made one hundred and thirty-five runs for the loss of five wickets, Barlow fifty (not out) being top score. Blackham retired hurt. The match was arranged by the late Henry McQuade.

In 1882 a coursing club met regularly at Fairfield. A tennis club was formed in 1888, with W.H.H. Becke as President, and J.G. Neilley, hon. secretary. The ground was in Moses Street, dose to the rectory.

A large and flourishing school, known as the Windsor Grammar School, was started by Mr. B. Keenan, and a fine building erected on the road to Penrith, in 1884. The Salvation Army came along about the year 1887, barracks being built for them by Alderman T. Primrose.

Some excitement was caused in the district, especially about Riverstone, by the advent of "Dr. German Charlie", who is reported to have made some Wonderful cures, and who was visited by hundreds of patients at Riverstone. The railway carriages were regularly disinfected, and numerous coaches and 'buses met the trains to convey the patients out to consult him at his home near Marsden Park. This was during the years 1888-89, after which he moved nearer Parramatta. An article on "German Charlie" will be found in the Windsor and Richmond Gazette, 18th August, 1888.

In 1889 an agitation was made for a tramway from Mulgrave to Pitt Town, and from Windsor to Sackville Reach. In 1891 a brass band started by R.J. Tout, on whose shoulders the mantle of Samuel Egerton, a former popular bandmaster, had fallen.

On 10th July, 1892, Alexander Bowman, M.L.A., died. He had represented the district in Parliament for nearly fifteen years, and was very popular in the electorate.

In 1893 the Labour Farm Settlement was started on the Pitt Town Common.

Although this was the period of the Bank failures, and of the great drought in 1895, we find two fine business premises were erected. Mr. R. A-Pye purchased Boston's Corner, and erected his large shop and dwelling there in 1893-94; and Mr. George Robertson about the same time erected his solid stone premises near the railway station. The artistic carving on the stonework of this building is unique, and worthy of more than a passing glance.

In 1896 the Rev. P. Fitzgerald resigned from the local Presbyterian Church, after a ministry of twenty-four years, during which time he took an active part in everything pertaining to the good and welfare of the town.

We have now reached the last decade of the century, and are getting on to quite too modern ground, for the historian feels more at home in the hoary past than in the region of current events, so we will venture on two more items only.

In 1891 the Hawkesbury Agricultural College was started, 3,195 acres of Ham Common being taken for the purpose. The principals have been: Mr. J.L. Thompson, 1891-97; Mr. George Valder, 1900-1902; Mr. H.W. Potts, 1902-15. The permanent buildings were erected in 1895; the orchard was planted in 1891; the dairy established in 1892; poultry and bees 1893; vegetable garden 1898; irrigation farm 1905. An excellent history of the College has been written by Mr. C.T. Musson, Science Master, to which we are indebted for these notes.

On 24th August, 1892, the Jersey Butter Factory was opened by Lord Jersey with a great procession and demonstration such as had seldom or never before been seen in Windsor. Several Ministers of the Crown and Members of Parliament, and the Lord Mayor of Sydney, were present. There was a banquet in the Church of England Hall, and a big picnic for the children of Windsor and the surrounding districts. (For particulars, see "Industries" in these articles.)

It is of interest to recall here the present business signs or names which have been for the longest period seen in the Windsor Streets. Several of these have descended from father to son. There are other shops which have been longer in existence, perhaps, such as Pulsford's, which goes back to the sixties, but the name has changed. We find amongst the advertisements in the old papers in 1878 the following names which are still familiar: W. Moses, S.E. Dyer, F. Mortley, J.E. Byram; George Robertson, 1882; W. Gosper, 1887; R.A. Pye, 1887; T. Lobb, 1891; Joseph Ward, 1892; J.T. Orr, 1893.



Andrew Thompson.

AMONGST the pioneers of Windsor, none is so familiar to local residents as Andrew Thompson. He was born in Scotland about the year 1773. His parents were of the poorer class, his father being engaged in a small business. When sixteen years of age he was transported to New South Wales for setting fire to a stack of hay, and arrived by the ship Pitt, in the year 1792, at the age of seventeen.

On arrival he was appointed to the stone gang at Parramatta, where he probably remained for a few years.

We first hear of him at the Hawkesbury early in the year 1800, when the population was very small, as a settler and constable.

At a meeting of settlers held to fix the price of stores and labour at the Hawkesbury, in the year 1800, Andrew Thompson was amongst those present, also D. Smallwood, Edward Robinson, and M. Lock.

On 13th November, 1800, Governor King issued a proclamation that in order to prevent litigation, all agreements for the Hawkesbury should be registered with Andrew Thompson, the registration fee to be 6d. each entry. About this time he was also appointed superintendent of labour gangs.

On 1st July, 1803, he obtained a grant of one hundred and twenty acres from Governor King, on the South Creek, opposite the property now occupied by Mr. John Tebbutt, extending out to Magrath's Hill. On 11th August, 1804, he also got another grant of two hundred end seventy acres adjoining Nelson Common, afterwards known as Killarney, where subsequently the Scarvell family resided for many years.

In the year 1802 he built the first bridge over the South Creek. It was a floating bridge, and was situated about one hundred yards further down the creek than the present bridge, behind the Court House. Towards the construction of this bridge be got a Government grant of fifteen pounds, and was also supplied with Government labour. Permission was given him to collect toll, and he was guaranteed against opposition. In 1806 this structure was replaced by a log bridge, for which he got a fourteen years' lease.

He also turned his attention to ship-building, for we find in returns dated 28th February, 1804, and 27th December, 1805, that he was the owner of the following vessels trading to Bass Straits and Sydney: Nancy, twenty tons; Hope, sixteen tons; and Hawkesbury, eighteen tone. They were registered in October, 1802, and March, 1804, and carried crews of three to six men each. From otter sources we learn that these vessels were built on the Hawkesbury. He also built the Governor Bligh, in 1807, which traded to New Zealand.

Andrew Thompson appears to have had some literary taste, for in an advertisement in the Sydney Gazette, 9th December, 1804, he asked that those to whom he had loaned certain books would kindly return them. The bat of missing books is given, which includes such standard works as Milton, Burns, Sterne, Thomson, Hervey and others.

A Government order, dated 8th April, 1804, ordered that all boats trading on the Hawkesbury River should be numbered and registered by Andrew Thompson, head constable, otherwise they would be confiscated.

In the year 1804 Governor King appointed trustees for the several Commons of the Colony. Andrew Thompson being so appointed for both the Ham and Nelson Commons.

He next appears on the scene as a brewer, receiving permission on 11th May, 1806, to sell at a shilling a gallon, and small beer sixpence. His brewery was situated on the bank of the South Creek. In connection with the brewery he also kept a public-house.

Another industry he started was the manufacture of salt. This he carried on at Scotland Island, near Newport, at the mouth of the Hawkesbury.

It is said that he also had an illicit distillery here. However, it is known that Governor King gave him forty gallons of spirits as a reward for some service rendered on May 27th, 1806. A.T. Biggars got a similar reward at the same time, spirits in those days, as was well-known, being a medium of exchange. It is evident that Andrew Thompson did traffic pretty largely in spirits, for he was fined £100 in 1807 for so doing. The fine, however, was remitted by Governor Bligh. Again, we find in 1800 a reference to the profits made on the sale of spirits by Andrew Thompson, the Governor's bailiff. From this it appears that he obtained four hundred gallons of spirits which he retailed at a profit of twelve hundred pounds. (See H.R., Vol. vii., page 225.)

He acquired a number of properties by purchase, including property in Baker Street and in Bridge Street, Windsor. His town residence in Sydney was in Macquarie Place. He had a house, known as the Red House, on his farm near Magrath's Hill (see illustration). He also had a large house and land in Bridge Street, Windsor, still known as Thompson's Square.

In his house were held several meetings of, local residents, one on 20th January, 1807, to petition the Governor aginst the importation of wheat. We might here mention that wheat was selling on 19th January, 1806, at nine shillings and threepence in Windsor, and ten shillings a bushel in Sydney. This petition was signed by one hundred and fifty-six persons, among whom were Messrs. T. Arndell, Thomas Hobby, Andrew Thompson, George Crossley, John Dight, C. and J. Palmer, T.M. Pitt, M. Everingham, and H. Stockfish. At another meeting to consider local grievances, John Bowman, Matthew Gibbons, and William Cummins were also present. Another meeting, probably called by Andrew Thompson, was held at his house in 1807, when it was decided to send a petition of sympathy to Governor Bligh. This was signed by five hundred and forty-six persons. Amongst the signatories were: Messrs. James Cox, Thomas Hobby, G.W. Evans, William Baker, Thomas Arndell, Samuel Solomon and Andrew Thompson.

Andrew Thompson was appointed auctioneer for the Hawkesbury district by the Lieutenant-Governor, on the 21st January, 1809. On 31st March, 1810, he was appointed a trustee and commissioner of the turnpike road from Sydney to Windsor, along with D'Arcy, Wentworth, and Simeon Lord, by Governor Macquarie.

Governor Bligh, who took to farming in 1807, bought several holdings on the river, near Pitt Town, near where the present punt is located. Some oak trees planted at the time are known to-day as Bligh's oaks. His son-in-law, Captain Putland, also had land adjoining.

Captain Putland died in 1808, and was buried first in old St. Philip's, Sydney, the body being removed in 1856 to Sandhills (Devonshire Street Cemetery), and in 1901 again removed to La Perouse, Botany. The inscription on the old tombstone reads:—

"Sacred. To the memory of John Putland, Esq., Captain of H.M. Ship Porpoise, Chief Magistrate throughout the Territory, and Aid de Camp to His Excellency Governor Bligh. Departed this life January 4th, 1808. Aged 27 years."

Governor Bligh appointed Andrew Thompson as his bailiff or agent, and left the entire management of his farm in his hands. In October, 1807, the Governor's stock consisted of forty-nine cows, and a number of sheep and pigs. The milk returns sent by Andrew Thompson to him amounted to £60 0s. 10d. for two months.

During the big floods in 1806 and 1809, he took a very active part in rescuing people and property in danger. In the performance of this heroic work his health was seriously undermined.

Andrew Thompson also had a large store-keeping business at the Green Hills (Windsor), which, according to an advertisement in the Sydney Gazette, was taken over by Mr. John Howe, in December, 1809, he having had on sale "Woollens, drapery, and all sorts of lines."

Governor Macquarie landed in New South Wales 28th December, 1809, and took over the administration of affaire of the colony 1st January, 1810, from Lieutenant Governor Foveaux, and on 12th January, 1810, less than a fortnight after his arrival, Governor Macquarie made Andrew Thompson a Justice of the Peace, and appointed him as Chief Magistrate for the district of the Hawkesbury.

Governor Macquarie reports that on 30th April, 1810, Andrew Thompson was received at the Governor's table, in Sydney, along with Simeon Lord, an opulent Sydney merchant, and Dr. Redfern, the assistant surgeon, and the officers of the 73rd Regiment. This proceeding was greatly resented by the more aristocratic members of the community.

Andrew Thompson, however, did not live long to enjoy the honours which were thus thrust upon him, for he died at his residence, Green Hills, on 22nd October, 1810, and was buried on 26th October, in a vault, in the new cemetery. His was the first interment there, the ground not being fenced nor consecrated until shortly after (11th, May, 1611). His death was specially notified to the Secretary of State, by Governor Macquarie, on 27th October, 1810.

In his will he named as executors, John Howe, Simeon Lord (he was the father of the late George W. Lord, M.L.C.), and Captain H.C. Antill. One-half of his estate was bequeathed to Governor Macquarie and Simeon Lord in equal parts, the remainder being left to his relatives in Britain.




[bottom] WINDSOR FLOOD, 11th SEPTEMBER, 1879.

River rose 43.3 feet.

His effects were sold by auction on 19th January, 1811, by John Howe, his successor in the office of local auctioneer.

The following obituary notice of Andrew Thompson appeared in the Sydney Gazette, 27th October, 1810:—

"Died at Hawkesbury, Green Hills, on Monday, 22nd instant, after a lingering and severe illness, aged 37 years, Andrew Thompson, Esq., Magistrate of that district.

"In retracing the last twenty years of the life of this exemplary and much lamented character, it will not be held uncharitable to glance at the lapse from rectitude, which in an early and inexperienced period of youth destined him to these shores, since it will stamp a more honourable tribute to his memory to have it recorded, that from his first arrival in this country he uniformly conducted himself with that strict regard to integrity and morality as to obtain and enjoy the countenance and protection of several succeeding Governors. Active, intelligent, and industrious of manners, mild and conciliatory, with a heart generous and humane, Mr. Thompson was enabled to accumulate considerable property, and what was more valuable to him, to possess the confidence of some of the most distinguished characters of this country, the consciousness of which surmounted the private solicitude of re-visiting his native country, and led him rather to yield to the wish of passing the evening of his life where his manhood had been meritoriously exerted, than of returning to the land which gave him birth. Mr. Thompson's intrinsic good qualities were appreciated by his Excellency the present Governor (Macquarie), who soon after his arrival here was pleased to appoint him a Magistrate, for which situation Mr. Thompson's natural good sense and a superior knowledge of the laws of his country peculiarly fitted him.

"Nor can we close this tribute to his memory without recurring to the important services Mr. Thompson rendered this colony and many of his fellow creatures during the heavy and public distresses which the floods at the Hawkesbury produced among the settlers in that extensive district. Mr. Thompson's exertions on a late occasion were for two days and two nights unremittingly directed to the assistance of the sufferers, and we lament to add that in those offices of humanity he not only exposed himself to personal danger, but laid the foundation for that illness which has deprived the world of a valuable life.

"During the unfortunate disturbances (the arrest of Governor Bligh) which lately distracted this colony, he, whose death we now lament, held on the 'even tenor of his way,' and acquitted himself with mildness, moderation, and wisdom, and when the ruthless hand of death arrested his earthly career, he yielded with becoming fortitude, and left this world for a better, with humble and devout resignation, and an exemplary confidence in the mercies of his God."

The following account of the funeral appeared in the Sydney Gazette, 3rd November, 1810:—In the mention of the death of A. Thompson, Esq., in the Gazette of last week, we should have added an account of the funeral, which took place on Friday Se'nnight (which means seven night), had we in time received it. Between twelve and one in the afternoon, the remains of this much-lamented gentleman were removed from his house on the Green Hills, which for the hospitality of its owner had been for many years proverbial, and conveyed to the Chapel on the Green Kills, whereat the Rev. Mr. Cartwright attended and delivered a very eloquent and appropriate discourse upon the occasion to one of the most numerous and respectable congregations ever assembled there, after which the ashes of this philanthropist were conveyed to the new burial ground, and these deposited in a vault in the presence of the multitude, who, it may be unexceptionally said, felt the most sensible regret in taking their last farewell of him whose life had been devoted to the service of his fellow-creatures. In the funeral procession the Rev. Mr. Cartwright walked foremost, and was followed by Surgeons Mileham and Redfern, who had attended the deceased through the long and painful illness that brought to a conclusion an existence that had been well applied, Next followed the bier, attended by Captain Antill, A.D.C. to His Excellency the Governor, as chief mourner. The pall bearers were Mr. Cox, Mr. James Cox, Mr. Lord, Mr. Williams, Mr. Arndell, and Mr. Blaxland. A number of gentlemen followed as mourners, and a long train, composed principally of the inhabitants of the settlement, followed in succession."

The following is a copy of the entry of his death in the register of the Parish Church of Hawkesbury:—"Entry No. 5. Andrew Thompson, Esq., of this Parish, came to the colony in the ship Pitt, in the year of our Lord, 1792. Aged 37 years, and was buried October 25th, 1810.—Robert Cartwright."

A memo after this entry says: "A. Thompson, Esq. was the first corpse buried in the new church-yard at Windsor."

The inscription on his tombstone in St. Matthew's church-yard reads as follows:—


to the MEMORY of


Justice of the Peace and Chief Magistrate of the District of the Hawkesbury, a Native of Scotland, who at the age of 17 Years was sent to this Country where from the time of his arrival he distinguished himself by the most persevering industry and diligent attention to the commands of his Superiors. By these means he raised himself to a state of respectability and affluence which enabled him to indulge the generosity of his nature In assisting his fellow Creatures in distress more particularly in the Calamitous Floods of the river Hawkesbury in the Years 1806 and 1809, and [when] at the immediate risque of his life and perminant injury of his health he exerted himself each time during three successive Days and Nights in saving the lives and Properties of numbers who but for him must have Perished.

In consequence of Mr. Thompsons good Conduct, Governor Macquarie appointed him Justice of the Peace. This act, which restored him to that rank in Society which he had lost, made so deep an impression on his grateful heart as to induce him to bequeath to the Governor one-fourth of his Fortune.

This most useful and valuable Man closed his Earthly career on the 22nd Day of October, 1810, at His House at Windsor of which he was the principal Founder in the 37th year of his age, with[in] the Hope of [an] Eternal Life.

From respect and esteem for the Memory of the deceased, this Monument is erected by

New South Wales
[A.D. 1813].

The above inscription, having become weather-worn, was recut by Travis, of Richmond, about 1908, the coat having been collected in Windsor. The words in brackets appear in a copy of the inscription which was made about 1820, and is now in the Public Records' Office, London.

Before closing this sketch of Andrew Thompson we must mention that he had some bitter enemies in Sydney, though none locally, who painted him in a very different colour. John Macarthur, referring to his death, says: "It was an interposition of Providence to save the colony from utter ruin; never was there a more artful or a greater knave."

In Bigge's report on the colony of New South Wales, made in 1822, he describes him as using his wealth so as to gain an influence with the small settlers on the Hawkesbury, and also as a man of loose moral character.

But every fair-minded historian will see that a man who won the esteem of three successive Governors, as well as of all the leading residents of the district in which he lived, including the clergymen, and at whose funeral the whole district followed "their friend and patron" must agree that to call Andrew Thompson a bad citizen is a distortion of plain facts.

Fitzgerald Family.

Richard Fitzgerald arrived in the colony in the ship William and Ann, on the 28th August, 1791, when about nineteen years old. Governor Macquarie, writing in 1820, mentions his faithful service during the course of twenty-eight years. We find from the Historical Records that he had a grant of land as early as 1794, and in 1801 he had four horses, ninety-five sheep, forty pigs, and twenty-six acres under crop.

The next mention of him in the Records is in the year 1802, when he was Government storekeeper at Toongabbie. His name appears as Chief Constable at Port Dalrymple on 18th February, 1809, and in March the same year as holding the same office at the Hawkesbury. The following year he is described as Government Storekeeper and Superintendent of Labour, Cattle, and Public Works in this district at a salary of fifty pounds a year. These offices he appears to have held until the year 1819, when he was removed to Emu, and placed in charge of the Agricultural establishment there. He must have soon returned to Windsor, for all the family interests and the home were here.

He built the cottage, still standing, next the Royal Hotel in George Street, from bricks which were rejected in building St Matthew's Church of England, about the yearn 1817-19. This cottage is, therefore, among the oldest buildings in Windsor.

Richard Fitzgerald appears to have been well liked by all classes of the community, and was on intimate terms with the governors, military officers, and magistrates.

He received a grant of land, one thousand three hundred and fifty acres, from Governor Macquarie, while his son Robert received a grant of one thousand seven hundred acres. In the 1817 flood he lost five hundred sheep by drowning.

In the year 1830 his name appears as a seat-holder—pew No. 20, north side—in St. Matthew's Church.

As in the case of most of the other pioneers, we find his name given to a Windsor cross street—that in which the Post Office is built.

He lost a son, Richard, at the early age of seventeen years, by accident, being thrown from his horse on 25th April, 1822. Another son, John, died 20th April, 1835, at the age of twenty-three years.

In his will he made provision for the annual payment of fifty pounds to the Hawkesbury Benevolent Society, which was continued by his son Robert, and also by his grandson, Robert Marsden Fitzgerald. The latter, in 1875, handed over to the trustees the sum of one thousand two hundred pounds in Government bonds to perpetuate his grandfather's bounty.

Richard Fitzgerald died at the age of sixty-eight years, on 25th May, 1840. The Fitzgerald vault will be found to the north-west of the church in St. Matthew's cemetery, not far from the well-known vault of Andrew Thompson. Mrs. Richard Fitzgerald died 12th May, 1833, at the age of fifty-three years.

Robert Fitzgerald, the only son to reach manhood, was born in Windsor on 1st June, 1807. The family had built, about the thirties, what in those days was considered a fine mansion in George Street, the building being now known as the Royal Hotel. In this building be entertained at times on a lavish scale. The building contains an artistic cedar circular staircase, such as is seldom seen outside the old world mansions. The extensive cool cellar accommodation, with a unique leaden, sloped and drained table for bacon curing, shows us that the pioneers knew how to build for comfort and for the protection of their food in summer. A secret strong room in the thick walls doubtless served as a hiding place for the family valuables in those pre-banking days. There is a rose tree in front of the hotel, facing Thompson's Square, planted by Miss Mary Fitzgerald sixty years ago, and still growing vigorously. In the dining-room there is a drawing of the good old ship Lady Kennoway, done in 1827; also a signed engraving of Governor Fitzroy. These pictures would make a welcome addition to the Mitchell Library. This building was occupied as a mess-room for officers of the regiments stationed in Windsor for some years.

Robert Fitzgerald will long be remembered in connection with the elections of 1843, when he was defeated by William Bowman, of Richmond, by the narrow majority of a single vote. He was well supported in Windsor, Francis Beddek, the well-known solicitor, being his hon. secretary, and James Hale, of "Fairfield", his chairman. Both the candidates were appointed the following year as local magistrates, while Robert Fitzgerald was appointed a member of the Legislative Council in the year 1849.

He acquired large station properties in Queensland, as well as "Dabee", near Rylstone, and "Tongay", near Mudgee.

He was a good supporter of the Hawkesbury Benevolent Society, being president from 1848 to 1853, and a trustee for twenty-four years, up to the time of his death, when he was succeeded in that office by his son, Robert Marsden Fitzgerald, of "Dabee", Rylstone, who also held the office till his death, in 1909. Father and eon thus held office as trustee for sixty-seven years.

The Hon. Robert Fitzgerald took an interest in St. Matthew's Church, There are six tablets on the walls in memory of different members of the family. One in memory of Captain W.H. Blake, R.N., a son-in-law, contains a lengthy historical record of his naval experiences. This interesting tablet is said to contain upwards of three thousand five hundred letters. The plain "M.F., 1857" tablet in the porch is in memory of a daughter, Mary Fitzgerald, who was thrown from her horse and killed in Sydney, at the age of fourteen years. Ho gave the sum of one hundred pounds in 1857 for church improvements.

Robert Fitzgerald married Miss E.H. Rouse, of Rouse Hill. He died, at the age of fifty-eight years, on 9th May, 1865, and is buried in the large family vault in St Matthew's church-yard.

Dr. Thomas Arndell.

Dr. Thomas Arndell came out with Captain Phillip as Assistant Surgeon with the First Fleet in 1788. He had charge of one hundred convicts on the ship Friendship. He was given charge of the hospital at Parramatta from 1790 to 1792 or later, with a local grant of seventy acres of land.

Having applied in July, 1792, for permission to retire, he did so on 30th June, 1795, at the age of forty-three years, with a pension of fifty pounds a year and another grant of sixty acres of land. He also obtained a further grant from Governor Hunter at Dundas Place.

In the year 1796 one of Dr. Arndell's sons was sent to Norfolk Island in the Supply as a medical assistant.

In 1798 Dr. Balmain recommended Dr. Arndell for the position of apothecary, with a small salary in addition to his pension.

Dr. Arndell and the Rev. Samuel Marsden were appointed by Governor Hunter in the year 1798 to enquire into the grievances of the early settlers, and to report on the same. They were also called upon to report as to the morals of the community the same year.

In a return made in 1801, Dr. Arndell appears as owner of two hundred and thirty-one acres of land, being Crown grants from Governor Phillip, Lieut.-Gov. Grose, and Governor Hunter, and three hundred and thirty acres acquired by purchase from settlers; and also having as stock fifty sheep, twenty bogs, six cattle, and four horses. In 1805 he had two hundred and seventy-six sheep.

On June 14th, 1804, Governor King gave him a grant of six hundred acres of land at the junction of Cattai (there were various early spellings of this name, see Chapter V.) Creek and Hawkesbury River, where be made his permanent home, and where some of his descendants live to the present day.

It is strange to find there is no street called after him in Windsor, as nearly all the other pioneers, except clergymen, have streets bearing their names.

As early as 1799 Dr. Arndell had been made a magistrate at Parramatta, and in 1802 we find him appointed to this office at the Hawkesbury, to assist the Rev. S. Marsden and Mr. C. Grimes, the Deputy Surveyor, who also resided in the district.

On 23rd March, 1806, there was a great flood in the Hawkesbury, which rose ten feet higher than the flood of 1801 and reached to within eighteen inches of Dr. Am dell's home at "Catty". The Governor appointed a commission, consisting of Dr. Arndell, Rev. S. Marsden, and Mr. N. Bailey, to visit and report concerning the damage done by this flood, and afford relief where necessary. They reported the loss of wheat, maize, barley, live stock, and buildings valued at £35,248, in addition to the loss of seven lives.

In the year 1806 we find that for some reason Dr. Arndell's pension was stopped, but owing to representations made to the Home Office, it was restored in 1812, and arrears to the amount of three hundred pounds were paid. In making tins application, Governor Macquarie paid a high tribute to the sterling character and worth as a public citizen of Dr. Arndell.

We find Dr. Arndell's name attached to an address of loyalty to Governor Bligh on 20th January, 1807, drawn up at the residence of Andrew Thompson in Windsor—or Green Hills, rather. His name also appears as one of the pall-bearers at Andrew Thompson's funeral on 25th October, 1810.

Dr. Arndell's descendants have been for several generations closely connected with the Ebenezer Presbyterian Church, and although not closely connected with the public affairs of the district, yet the family has always been highly esteemed.

His death is thus reported in the Sydney Gazette of 5th May, 1821:—

"Died on Wednesday night last (2nd May), at his residence at Caddie Creek, on the bank of the Hawkesbury River, Thomas Arndell, Esq., after a painful illness of five weeks. This gentleman came to these shores with the First Fleet in 1788, as a surgeon, and for a number of years held the high and responsible situation of a magistrate in the town of Windsor. He had exceeded his seventieth year, and has died much lamented."

His executors were Thomas Arndell, "Caddie", and Simeon Lord, Sydney.

The funeral service was conducted in St. Matthew's Church, Windsor, by the Rev. S. Marsden, on Sunday, 6th May, 1821. An unfortunate disturbance was made by a settler from Portland Head, named Doyle, during this service in the church, for which he got three months in gaol.

The following is the inscription on the vault containing his remains, which will be found surrounded by those of other pioneers in the south-west portion of the graveyard:—



Who departed this life May 9th [?2nd], 1821.

Aged 69 years.

He was one of the earliest civil officers In the Medical Department, and one of the oldest magistrates of the colony, and was humane and honorable in each station, he was publicly esteemed and privately beloved as an affectionate husband, kind parent and firm friend. He has left few to surpass him. He was simple in his manners and upright in his conduct, but Reader Our life is short, but to extend that span To vast eternity is virtues work.

Mors sola fatetur Quantula sint hominum corpuscula.



Wife of Thomas Arndell,

Who died 31st January, 1843.

Aged 75 years.

Dr. Thomas Arndell had the following family:—Thomas II., James, Mrs. Threlkeld, Mrs. Gunn, Mrs. Lakeland, Mrs. Gordon.

The family of Thomas II. was three sons:—Thomas III., born 4th February, 1821, died 30th October, 1907; ho married Mary Hall ("Macquarie"); George James (died 1913), and five daughters—Mrs. George Loder (deceased), Mrs. P.E. White, Miss Sophia Arndell (died 1914, aged eighty), Miss Louisa Arndell (died 1914), Miss Eliza Arndell.

Dr. Jas. Mileham.

Surgeon James Mileham arrived in the Ganges, 2nd June, 1797, and was employed at Parramatta, Newcastle, and Sydney up till the year 1811. In the year 1807 he was appointed as third Assistant Surgeon in the colony.

In the upheaval of 1808 he was one of the anti-Bligh party.

He came to the Hawkesbury as Government Surgeon about the year 1811, and lived on the river bank near Baker Street.

He received the appointment of Magistrate for Pitt Town on 8th June, 1811, and for Wilberforce 1815-20, and he also formed one of the bench of three magistrates who sat weekly in Windsor to decide cases for all the surrounding districts.

As in the case of other pioneers, a Windsor street is named after him.

He was present at the laying of the foundation stone of St. Matthew's Church in 1817, and also at the inauguration of the Benevolent Society the following year.

Dr. Mileham visited England in 1818-19.

He received a grant of seven hundred acres in Illawarra on 24th January, 1817.

His first wife, Elizabeth Mileham, died in Windsor on 15th July, 1818, aged fifty-seven years. They had a daughter, Lucy, who was married in St. John's, Parramatta, to Mr. S. Hassall in 1819. He married a second time, a daughter of Henry Kable, of Windsor, who came out in the First Fleet, and is buried in St. Matthew's church-yard.

Dr. Mileham retired on a pension on 1st August, 1821. He died in Pitt Street, Sydney, in 1824. Mrs. Mileham survived him for over sixty years.

The following description of his grave is interesting:—



Justice of the Peace, and Senior Assistant
Surgeon of this Territory,

Who died September 28th, 1824.

Aged 60 years.

He arrived in these colonies in the year 1796 [? 1797], From that time so early after the first. . . evincing in the. . . of his important public duties of. . . . life that good sense, authority and justice . . . they attached to him every person who knew him. . . . . honor to him as an individual, and were. . . .to that society of which he so long continued both an efficient and respected Member. This stone la dedicated by his much afflicted widow.

Table tomb, top much weathered in parts (November, 1901) at La Perouse; formerly in Sandhills C.E. ground, Elizabeth Street, Sydney, now site of Central Railway Station.

Lieutenant A. Bell.

Ensign A. Bell arrived in New South Wales in the ship William and Ann with the 103rd Regiment in 1803. He was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant in 1807, and was afterwards attached to the Royal Veteran Company. He took part in the arrest of Governor Bligh in 1808, and was recalled to England as a witness in the Bligh-Johnston case, being absent for three and a half years, returning to New South Wales in 1812.

From an article in the Stock and Station Journal, May, 1895, we learn that Bell had a grant of land fronting the Tank Stream in Sydney, which he exchanged for land nearer the Government House, part of which is now the site of Parliament House, in Macquarie Street. Owing to his absence in England at the time, his title to this site was not made clear, and litigation followed. As late as 1870 Bell's heirs received compensation to the amount of one thousand pounds, but not the unearned increment of this land.

It appears that Lieut. Bell was appointed a magistrate at the Hawkesbury in 1807, but he either resigned or refused to hold office, when Andrew Thompson was appointed in 1810. Governor Macquarie, in giving reasons why Messrs. Bell and Palmer refused to hold such office says that "Bell retired to his estate near Richmond."

Lieut. Bell was appointed a member of the Legislature on 25th September, 1832.

He acted as Barrack Master in Sydney in 1818, but this must have been a temporary appointment, for he was in charge of the military at Windsor from 1813 to 1818. In 1820 he was re-appointed as a magistrate, and held office until 1834. For the greater part of this period he acted as Police Magistrate at Windsor, being the first paid magistrate in the district, and having associated with him on the Bench Captain J. Brabyn and William Cox. He was succeeded as Police Magistrate in 1835 by Samuel North. For a part of this time Lieut. Bell resided in the old Government House at Windsor, as well as at Belmont. Governor Macquarie addressed him on 26th January, 1820, as "Lieut. A. Bell, Magistrate for Cumberland, 'Belmont', District of Richmond."

Lieut. Bell's name appears as one of the founders of the Hawkesbury Benevolent Society in 1818.

Some years after Blaxland, Lawson, and Wentworth discovered the road to the plains over the Blue Mountains (1813), a son of Lieut. Bell discovered another road over the Kurrajong Mountain, known to the present day as Bell's Line, opening out towards Wallerawang. According to Barron Field, the date of the discovery of this new road was after 1822.

Mount Bell, and probably Bell on the western railway line, near Mount Victoria, are named after the family. Bell Street, Newtown (Windsor), is also a reminder of his early connection with the town.

Archd. Bell, junior, also discovered a track to Patrick Plains, in the Hunter River district, and found and relieved Singleton and his party in that district. Tor these discoveries Bell received a grant on the Hunter River, which he named "Corinda".

Although his name does not appear in the list of those present at the laying of the foundation stone or the opening of St. Matthew's Anglican Church, Windsor, yet we find, in reply to certain questions asked of leading colonists in 1820, as to the state of religion in 1810, Lieut. Bell says: "I believe my family were the only ones laying claim to respectability who attended Divine service at this place (Windsor). The attendance seldom exceeded thirty. Now, in 1820," he says, "several churches in the district are well-filled, and almost every respectable family are pretty general in attendance."

In 1830 we find Lieut. Bell still a seat-holder, occupying pew No. 3 on south side of St. Matthew's. His brother officer, Captain Brabyn, occupied No. 2 pew. He was not a narrow-minded man, for we find him presiding at a Wesleyan missionary meeting in 1828.

The fine property known as "Belmont", on the Hawkesbury, opposite to Richmond, originally consisted of a number of small holdings, which ware purchased and consolidated by Lieut. A. Bell. In his time the tide, which now comes up only as far as Windsor, came right up to Belmont.

Lieut. Bell died about the year 1837, and his grave, with that of his wife and a granddaughter, may be seen on the Belmont estate in a clump of old oleander trees, on a hill between the homestead and the main road. His son, James Thomas Bell, continued to reside on the Belmont estate, and was a local magistrate 1839 to 1844. The property afterwards passed into the hands of Henry Newcomen, who was also a district magistrate from 1867 up to his death, at the age of sixty-one, on 10th October, 1884.

The Belmont property was subsequently purchased by Major Philip Charley in 1891, and he has made many valuable improvements, including the erection in 1893 of the fine residence "Belmont House". A portion of the old original fortified home occupied by Lieut. Bell may still be seen in one corner of the ground. When the old house was being demolished in 1892, a letter was found in one of the ceilings, dated 22nd March, 1831, addressed to Lieut. Bell.

According to a census return taken in 1818, we find that Lieut. Bell had a family of nine children, as follow:—Maria, Francis, and Eliza, who came to the colony in 1803 with their parents; those born in New South Wales being Mary Ann, Archibald, Matilda, Sophia Rebecca, and James Thomas. Two other children, infants, died in 1809 and 1817 respectively. One daughter married Captain John Fennell, A.D.C. to Governor Brisbane. He died in Bathurst in July, 1826. Another daughter, Sophia Hume Bell, married H.P. Dutton, on 17th August, 1833. A third daughter, Elizabeth, married George Cox, the fourth son of William Cox, senior.

"To attempt to follow out the ramifications of the Bells and Coxs in Australia would be a herculean task. William Cox, of Clarendon, and Archie Bell, of Belmont, were men of intense physical force. They were strong men physically, and their progeny is all over Australia. One of the Bells of Pickering said that he could ride from the Gulf of Carpentaria to Sydney and hardly sleep one night out of the house of a relative."— Memoirs of William Cox, page 137.

Captain John Brabyn.

Among the pioneers of Windsor a place must be found for Captain John Brabyn, whose name was given at an early date to one of Windsor's cross streets, near the railway station. He arrived, an ensign of the 102nd Regiment, on 12th February, 1796, in the good ship Marquis Cornwallis, after which Cornwallis flats, on the banks of the Hawkesbury River, were probably named.

Ensign Brabyn appears to have gone the same year to Norfolk Island, where he obtained a grant of land, and where he remained four or five years. His military appointments were as follows:—1795, May 6, Ensign 102nd Regiment; 1800, August 15, Lieutenant 102nd Regiment; 1806, Lieutenant New South Wales Corps; 1808, February 11, Captain New South Wales Corps; 1811, February 5, Captain New South Wales Royal Veteran Company.

Lieut. Brabyn's name appears in 1801-1806 as stationed at Parramatta, and also as holding landed estates in 1804 in the Hawkesbury district. In the year 1808 he took part in the arrest and trial of Governor Bligh, and the same year he was made a J.P.

We next find Captain Brabyn, on 26th of December, 1808, in charge of the settlement at Port Dalrymple, Launceston (Tasmania), where he remained about two years. He was then recalled to New South Wales and ordered home to England as a witness in the Bligh case. He remained there about three and a half years, returning to New South Wales about the year 1813.

In the Sydney Gazette of 12th May, 1810, there appears a notice of the sale of his "York Place" farm, at Windsor, extending to the Chain of Ponds; also the house "York Lodge". This, which is one of the historic houses of Windsor appears to have passed into the hands of Charles Clark in 1810, and is described as formerly the property of Captain Brabyn and Captain Moore. In 1821 we find Captain Brabyn's name as a wheat producer in the Windsor district.

From the proceedings of the Committee of the Clergy and School Corporation, dated July, 1828, we find that a cottage, formerly occupied by the Rev. M.D. Meares, was sold to Captain Brabyn for four hundred and fifty pounds. (See Lot 65 on Plan of Windsor, 1835.) The correspondence (see Chapter VII.) concerning the sale was carried on by the Rev. William Cowper, Archdeacon T.H. Scott, and the Rev. Samuel Marsden, and doubtless refers to "York Lodge", for in the Post Office Directory for 1835 his name appears as Captain Brabyn, "York Cottage". The old house still stands in George Street, not far from Brabyn Street. In the forties a relative, Josiah Allan Betts, lived in the cottage, and here Mr. E.M. Betts, of Hunter's Hill, was born.

After his return from the Old Country we find Captain Brabyn first at Parramatta. In the year 1817 he was appointed Magistrate for Wilberforce, in lieu of the Rev. R. Cartwright, who resigned, after holding the position for several years. Captain Brabyn held office at the Wilberforce Court till 1820, and also sat at Windsor, with Lieut. Bell and William Cox, until the year 1829.

Captain Brabyn took an active part in the foundation of the Hawkesbury Benevolent Society, being on the committee in 1819. His name does not appear in connection with the laving of the foundation stone of St. Matthew's Church in 1817, or the opening in 1822, but he was a seat-holder, pew No. 2, south side, in the year 1830.

One of his daughters married Peter Mills, surveyor at Port Dalrymple, about 1810. Another, Mary Louisa, married J. Gaggin, Government storekeeper, on 8th October, 1822, and they resided in the old cottage still standing next the Royal Hotel, in George Street, Windsor. One John Gaggin had charge of the rapidly increasing herd of cattle belonging to the Benevolent Society from 1827 to 1832. A third daughter, Elizabeth Howard Brabyn, married Charles Simeon Marsden, on 18th June, 1828. He died at "Mature", South Creek, on 27th September, 1868. A daughter of this marriage was Mrs. Martha Brabyn Shadlow, who died at Badgery's Creek, near Penrith, in 1913, aged seventy-seven.

Captain Brabyn died, aged seventy-six, in 1835, and was buried in the south-east corner of St. Matthew's church-yard, near the large new Tebbutt vault. The inscription on the vault is still decipherable, as follows:—



Who Departed this Life on the 1st Day of August, 1835.

Aged 76 Years.

His late years were principally devoted to the interests of the poor of the Surrounding Districts, and in whom they have lost a kind Benefactor and his family an affectionate Husband, Parent, & Friend.

Rev. John Youl.

Rev. John Youl sailed from England in December, 1798. He was captured by the French and returned to England via Lisbon, arriving back on 12th October, 1799. He sailed again for the South Seas on 5th May, 1800. He arrived in Sydney in the Royal Admiral in November, 1800. He remained here for some months. In a letter, dated 28th May, 1801, he complains of the depravity of Sydney and Parramatta.

He continued his voyage, arriving in Tahiti on 10th July, 1801, where he remained until 1807, when he left for Port Jackson, and severed his connection with the London Missionary Society. It should be noticed that he was not one of the "Duff" party of missionaries that arrived from Tahiti in the Nautilus on 14th May, 1798, of whom Roland Hassall (who died 20th August, 1820) was one.

In the year 1809 we find that he was connected with the Ebenezer Presbyterian Church at Portland Head, and the same year he applied for the position of schoolmaster at that place, stating he was about to be married—that being one of the conditions necessary for the position. He appears to have obtained the position, and agreed to permit clergymen of other denominations to preach in the church when in the district and available (see Chapter VIII.). He also acted as assistant chaplain at Windsor, and complained to the Rev. William Cowper that the church was being used as a court house in 1810. The same year he urged that something should be done for the aboriginal population of the district.

In 1810 he took part, along with John Bowman, Richard Ridge, John Howe, and others, in arranging a public demonstration in connection with the departure of Governor Bligh, but the public meeting was not held.

Rev. J. Youl was acting-chaplain at Liverpool in 1816, and went to Tasmania before or about the year 1817, and built the first church—St. John's—in Launceston. He returned to New South Wales in 1823, but was back again in Port Dalrymple or Launceston in 1825, and there he died in March, 1827. His wife, Jane Youl, died in 1817.

Dr. Youl, who held the office of coroner in Melbourne for many years, was a son. Sir James Arndell Youl, of Tasmania, was another son. He married, in 1838, Eliza Cox, born 1817, at "Hobartville", Richmond. It was he who first introduced salmon and trout into the Tasmanian rivers, and sent the ova to New Zealand. He also acted as agent for the Tasmanian Government in London.

We note that this Tasmanian peer was doubly connected with Windsor. His name, "Arndell", evidently goes back to the days when his father was at Ebenezer, and again by his marriage into the Cox family, of "Hobartville".

Rev. Henry Fulton.

The Rev. Henry Fulton, of Killahoe, Ireland, arrived in New South Wales 11th January, 1800, in the ship Minerva, as a political exile, having agreed to transport himself to Botany Bay for life owing to being involved in the 1798 uprising in Ireland. He first visited the Hawkesbury in November, 1800, when, according to a Gazette notice, he conducted what was probably his first divine service in the district. An application for a chaplain for Norfolk Island led Governor King to send him there in 1801, and here he received a conditional pardon for exemplary conduct and great propriety, and was directed to perform divine service. His appointment as chaplain was approved, at the full salary of ninety-six pounds a year, and confirmed by Lord Hobart in 1803.

In 1806 he was recalled to Sydney to take the position of acting-chaplain during the absence of Rev. Samuel Marsden in England in 1807-9. The same year he was emancipated and pardoned by Governor King. He arrived back in Sydney with his wife and three children, on 7th May, 1806, and the next year his name appears as having land under cultivation in New South Wales.

He was the friend of Governor Bligh, and took his part in the troubles of 1808. Fulton was suspended (on 26th January, 1808) from office by Major Johnston, for introducing a prayer for the Governor into the liturgy. He was also obliged to remove, with his family, from the barracks into a private house in Sydney. Mr. Crook, a missionary, was appointed to preach and baptise, while marriages were to be performed by Mr. G. Grimes, Captain Kemp, and Ensign A. Bell. Governor Bligh meantime appointed Rev. Henry Fulton as his private chaplain, on 28th January, 1809. The same year he wrote several letters to the Secretary of State with reference to the arrest of Bligh. He was reinstated into his public chaplaincy on 7th January, 1810, a week after Governor Macquarie's arrival, and we find him holding such office the same year, with a salary of two hundred and sixty pounds per annum.

Rev. Henry Fulton was taken to England by Governor Bligh as a witness in his case, sailing 10th August, 1810, in the ship Hindostan.

In 1814 he accepted the office of second chaplain to Hawkesbury District, and in addition was appointed, from 1815 to 1820, or later, Magistrate at Castlereagh.

His name appears amongst those taking part in the laying of the foundation stone of St. Matthew's Anglican Church, Windsor, in 1817.

The Hawkesbury parish was divided about this time, and we find him in charge of the parish of Castlereagh and Penrith during the years 1825-40. He had a school in Castlereagh in 1826.

He obtained a grant of four hundred acres of land in the Evan district on 31st August, 1819, in addition to a former grant of sis hundred acres on 16th October, 1816.

His family in 1816 consisted of three daughters—Sarah, Lydia, and Ann—and two sons—John and Henry. He died on 16th November, 1840, in the Penrith district, where several of his descendants still live.

In a paper read before the Historical Society by Mr. W. Freame, on 26th November, 1907, on "Historical Burial Places", he mentioned that Chaplain Fulton was supposed to be buried in the McHenry vault in the Castlereagh Anglican cemetery, his daughter having married into that family.

At the recent centenary of the town of Penrith a tablet to the memory of Rev. Henry Fulton was placed in St. Stephen's Church, inscribed as follows:—

To the glory of God, and in memory of


First Incumbent of this Church,

Who died November 16th, 1840.

Erected by his descendants on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the Church, 1914.

Rev. Robert Cartwright.

As a result of the visit to England of the Senior Chaplain (Rev. S. Marsden), two clergymen were induced to come out to New South Wales in the ship Indispensable, which arrived on the 18th August, 1809; and the Ann, which arrived 27th February, 1810. These were the Rev. William Cowper, and the Rev. Robert Cartwright. They were therefore among the earliest regular clergy in New South Wales, following the Rev. R. Johnson and S. Marsden. The Revs. II. Fulton and J. Youl were also then in the colony, but were not chaplains.

Soon after his arrival, with his wife and six children and two servants, Rev. R. Cartwright was appointed to Windsor, on 15th September, 1810, at a salary of two hundred and forty pounds per annum, where he remained until December, 1819, his next appointment being to Liverpool, 1820-36, and then to St. James's, Sydney, to succeed Rev. Richard Hill, where he remained till 1838, finally moving to Collector (Gunning), where he remained until his death, in 1856. Mrs. Cartwright predeceased him in 1837.

A glance at the period of his residence in Windsor shows that he can truly be called one of its founders, and the builder of the Church of England, for he was present at the meeting (1811) to build the original church in Bridge Street, and also took part in laying the second foundation stone of the present St. Matthew's, on 13th October, 1817, and was also at the opening ceremony on 18th December, 1822. He was, therefore, the first settled incumbent of that church, and it is of interest to notice that it was he who officiated at the funeral of Andrew Thompson, in October, 1810, and also preached his "In Memoriam" sermon.

On 8th June, 1811, Rev. R. Cartwright was appointed a magistrate for Wilberforce, which position he held till 1817. The same year he was also appointed, along with Dr. Mileham and William Cox, to sit in Windsor as one of the weekly bench of magistrates to hear cases from the whole district.

He was also one of the founders of the Hawkesbury Benevolent Society, in 1818, taking an active interest in it during his residence in Windsor. His name appears as a life member in every report from 1841 till the year of his death, in December, 1856, long after he left the district He was the last survivor of the originators of the Society.

In a census taken in Windsor in 1818 we notice that Rev. R. Cartwright had eight children—Ann, Elizabeth, Richard, Thomas, John, Mary, Robert and Jane. The younger ones were born in New South Wales. Another child, William, died aged three months, on 5th January, 1812, and in a letter dated 1830 he mentions, in addition to the above, a son, Charles.

Elizabeth Cartwright was married by her father to T. W. Fulton, a son of the Rev. Henry Fulton, on 2nd December, 1823, at Liverpool.

From an old letter in the Mitchell Library, dated Liverpool, 20th September, 1830, we find that Mr. Cartwright was of the opinion that a better site might have been procured for St. Matthew's Church, and for which a legal title might have been obtained. Writing of the Glebe land, evidently that at Clarendon, he says it was part of a common to which he had an equal right with his neighbours, as he had land adjoining. He complains that this land was neither fenced nor cleared, and that he should not be expected to do this work out of his private income, as it was for the benefit of his successors as much as for himself. As there was no parsonage house at Glebe available for him, he mentions that he had to purchase a farm of one hundred acres at Richmond in 1813, which was his principal establishment till he left Windsor in 1820. The above letter was addressed to Bishop Broughton in support of a claim for arrears of money due to the writer.

He received two grants of five hundred and six hundred acres respectively in the Evan district, near Castlereagh, on 25th August, 1812, which he appears to have used to some advantage, and in connection with which the following correspondence is interesting:—

Letter from Rev. Robert Cartwright to Rev. Thomas Hassall:—

Windsor, February 15th, 1815.

Dear Sir,

I am much obliged to you for the trouble you have taken about the wool, etc., etc. I must request you will likewise tee the present load weighed and entered in my account with Mr. Burnie. I have now, according to promise, sent the whole of this year's produce. I think you will find the present quantity to be superior to the first. I thought to have been at Sydney before now, but have been prevented. I shall be much obliged to you if you will procure for me a bag of sugar, a bar or two of iron, a small quantity of rope, 4 pieces of Nankeen, 4 pieces of good com. calico, and 36 panes of window glass 8 x 10. If Mr. Burnie should not have these things perhaps you may get them at Marr's. Be good enough to send me an account of them.

The reply is as follows:—

Sydney, 17th February, 1815.

Dear Sir,

The wool weighed 193lbs. It was a good sample of lamb's wool. As Mr. B. has not seen it the price cannot be stated. He does not allow near so much for lamb's as for fleece wool. I have got some of the things per list enclosed, which I expect to settle for in the course of the day. There is no iron to be purchased in Sydney, neither window glass of the size you want. There are some 7 x 9 at 3s. sterling a pane. As I am coming up on Saturday next I will, if possible, bring up an account of what Mr. B. allows for the wool. With best respects to Mrs. C., etc., etc.


Sent from Marr's.—

Bag sugar, 222lbs., at 10d. 9 5 0
4 pieces calico 5 0 0
4 pieces Nankeen 2 4 0
From William's—Rope 0 10 0
£16 19 0

The above correspondence is from Rev. J.S. Hassall's book In Old Australia (1902). He quaintly adds the following note:—"It is to be hoped that the price Mr. Cartwright got for his wool was in due proportion to the price he had to pay for his sugar."

From the same book we learn that about the year 1860 two of the Rev. R. Cartwright's boos were settled on a property, "Windellema", in the Bungonia parish, near Goulburn.

The Rev. E. Cartwright died in 1856, and was buried in St. Luke's cemetery, Liverpool. The following is the inscription on his tombstone:—


Many years minister of St. Luke's Church.

Born 1771. Died 1856.

Also his Wife, MARY.

Born 1771. Died 1837.

Daughter, PENELOPE, died 1822.

(Children of Richard and Ann Sadleir.)


Born 6th May, 1794. Died 6th March, 1889.

And by it he being dead, yet speaketh.—Heb. xi., 4.

The following notice of his death is taken from the files of the Sydney Morning Herald, December, 1856:—

"Died from the effects of bronchitis in his 86th year, on Sunday, the 14th instant, at his residence, Goulburn, the Rev. Robert Cartwright, for forty six years a chaplain of the Colony. His friends and the clergy of the Church of England are informed that his remains will be interred in the family vault at Liverpool on Saturday, the 20th instant."

William Cox.

William Cox was born at Devizes (Wilts, Eng.), in December, 1764. He joined the British Army, and served in the French wars. He was appointed an Ensign, in the 68th Durham Regiment on 17th January, 1796, and Lieutenant of the New South Wales Corps on 28th September, 1797, and Paymaster 28th September, 1798.

The date of his first visit to the colony has been the subject of some debate, but it appears he came out about the year 1797, with his regiment in charge of some prisoners, and returned again with the ship. He subsequently came out in the ship Minerva, the same voyage as she brought the Irish rebel party, arriving on 11th January, 1800.

He was appointed a magistrate at Parramatta in 1801, but the appointment was cancelled the following year by Governor King, as Cox was engaged in farming, which was not permitted by the magistracy at that time.

During the year 1801 he had acquired by purchase one thousand three hundred acres of land, four hundred of which were cleared, and two hundred and forty-five acres under crop. At the same time he was the owner of twenty-five horses, twenty cattle, one thousand sheep, and two hundred pigs, and had twenty convicts assigned to him as labourers. His property was known as "Brush Farm", situated near Ryde, a portion of which he had bought from the Rev. R. Johnson, including some fine orange trees and one hundred and fifty sheep.

His connection with the Hawkesbury district dates from 1804, when he became a settler, having purchased the same year some sheep from Captain Water house, of H.M.S. Reliance. The same year he was appointed one of the trustees of Ham Common.

During the year 1809-10 he visited England, and whilst there bought a commission as ensign in the army for his son William. He was appointed Chief Magistrate for the Hawkesbury in December, 1810, in succession to Andrew Thompson (deceased), and at whose funeral both he and his son acted as pall-bearers. His appointment appears to have given great satisfaction to the local residents, who, in an address of welcome to Governor Macquarie on his visit to the district, took occasion to specially thank him for appointing William Cox, Esq., as magistrate, referring to him as "a gentleman who for many years has resided amongst us, possessing our esteem and confidence, who from his local knowledge of this settlement, combined with his many other good qualities, will, we are convinced, promote your Excellency's benign intention of distributing justice and happiness to all." This address was signed by Dr. Arndell, Thomas Hobby, and about one hundred other leading settlers.

In the year 1811 William Cox was appointed, along with Rev. B. Cartwright and Dr. James Mileham, to form a special weekly bench of magistrates to decide cases from the whole district. About this time he built "Clarendon House" on his estate between Windsor and Richmond, a portion of which is still standing in 1915.

In the year 1814 Governor Macquarie asked William Cox to undertake the construction of the newly-surveyed road across the Blue Mountains, which he did, starting work at Emu Plains on 18th July, 1814, completing it on the 21st January, 1815. The complete diary of this work was published many years ago, entitled Narrative of Proceedings, 1814-15, by William Cox. The well-known mountain stream, Cox's River, was named after him by Governor Macquarie on 29th April, 1815.

He was present at the inaugural meeting of the Hawkesbury Benevolent Society in 1818-19. He was a seat-holder in St. Matthew's Anglican Church in 1830, occupying pew No. 1, south side, while his son, William Cox, junior, had pew No. 1, north side. The Cox servants occupied pew No. 5 on the north side. A street in Windsor and Newtown, parallel to George Street, is named Cox Street. This street adjoins the grant of sixty acres to Henry Cox in 1804.

The Hon. William Walker wrote an account of this old family, which appeared in the Windsor and Richmond Gazette, 28th January, 1896. Mr. Alfred Cox also published his Recollections in 1886. See also Burke's Colonial Gentry, vol. II., for full particulars of the family.

The Cox family are now widely scattered, branches being known in or associated with Tasmania, Mudgee, Mulgoa, and Muswellbrook. None of the family reside here now, but at one time there was quite a number of the Cox family in the Hawkesbury. They occupied "Hobartville", which passed to Andrew Town in the seventies; "Fairfield", to James Hale in the forties; "Clarendon", to Arthur Dight, 1862; "Claremont", to Francis Beddek in the twenties.

The following members of the family were appointed magistrates in this district:—William Cox, 1810-36; William Cox, junior, "Hobartville", 1830-47; George Cox, Mulgoa (married Miss E. Bell), 1830-52; Edward Cox, "Fern Hill", Mulgoa, 1834-52 (married Miss J.M. Brooke); Henry Cox, "Glenmore", Penrith, 1835-44 (married Miss F. Mackenzie); Alfred Cox, 1851-52; William Cox, junior, II., "Wybong", Muswellbrook, 1844-52; Sloper Cox, Richmond, 1865-74. We mid that Sloper Cox was baptised in St. Matthew's Church of England by Rev. John Cross, on 24th August, 1824. After this registration Mr. Joseph Harpur, the parish clerk, makes the following entry:—"Captain Robert Sloper Piper, Royal Engineers; Captain John Fennell, 48th Regiment; Miss Fanny Bell and Miss Mary Ann Bell were sponsors for Sloper Cox. Born at 'Hobart Villa,' 13th December, 1823."

The following members of the family were life members of the Hawkesbury Benevolent Society in 1841:—Edward, George, Henry and William Cox.

William Cox was married first to Miss R. Upjohn, of London, on 1st February, 1789, she died in 1819; family—William, of "Hobartville;" James, of Tasmania; Charles, killed in New Zealand by natives; George Henry, of "Glenmore;" Frederick Edward, of Mulgoa, afterwards an M.L.C. The second wife was Miss Anna Blachford (a sister of Mrs. Francis Beddek), to whom Mr. Cox was married in 1821. Family:—Edgar, Thomas, Alfred, and Anna Clarendon.

The subject of this sketch died on 15th March, 1837, at "Fairfield", Windsor, to which property he had removed from "Clarendon" in 1833. He was buried in St. Matthew's cemetery, in the south-east corner, close to several other pioneers. The inscription on the vault reads as follows:—

Here lieth entombed the remains of

Wife of William Cox, Esq., of Clarendon,
Who departed this life the 3d [? 5th] March, 1819.

Aged 56 years.

In testimony of the exalted virtues that adorn her character not only as a Wife and a Mother but in all the other relative duties of life this tomb is erected to perpetuate her memory by her affectionate Husband.

Here also lie the Remains of


Who departed this life the 15th day of March, 1837, Aged 72 years.

Not by Works of Righteousness Which We have done but according to his own mercy he saved US.

Reader, Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ and thou shalt be saved.

There is another and a larger Cox vault in St. Peter's church-yard, Richmond, where many of the oldest members of the family are interred.

John Dight.

Amongst the pioneers of the district we must find a place for John Dight, who was born in the year 1772, and came to New South Wales with his wife, Hannah Dight, in 1801, and settled in the Hawkesbury district. His name appears in December, 1810, in an address of welcome to Governor Macquarie from this district. He was appointed coroner for the district by Governor Darling in 1828, and held that office up to the time of his death, at the age of sixty-five years, in the year 1837. Mrs. Dight died in 1862, at the age of eighty-one. The family were:—George (who died in 1851, aged 41); Mary (died 1819); Sarah (died 1832); Arthur, the youngest son, was born on the 6th June, 1819. He purchased the Clarendon property from Charles Clarendon Cox in 1862, and made a comfortable home there for many years till the death of his wife, at the age of forty-seven years, on 25th September, 1888. Mr. Arthur Dight was interested in the station properties, "Yendah" and "Windah", in Queensland.

He entered Parliament in 1869 as the representative of Windsor. The Municipal Council named a new street alongside the Public School as Dight Street, in his honour. He died at. Darling Point, Sydney, on 31st July, 1895, leaving a large family. Three of his sisters survived him—Mrs. Watson (England), Mrs. Sharp and Miss Sophie Dight, of Yass; and Mrs. Hamilton Hume, of Yass, was another sister.

There are several other pioneer families we would like to have mentioned at length, such as the Bowman, Pitt, Faithfull, Rouse, Hassall, and other families, but although connected with the Hawkesbury, they were not in Windsor.



FROM an old well-preserved Windsor Muster Book, dated 1813-1818, giving a half-yearly census of the military officers, soldiers, civil officers, free people, settlers, and prisoners—male, female, and children being shown in each division—we find the following well-known names of pioneers. (This muster book is now in the Mitchell Library.) It will be noted that only the names of children born before 1818 are given:—

In the Military: Lieutenant and Mm. A. Bell and nine children.

Lieutenant and Mrs. Purcell and two children, Charles, and E.

Sergeant Geo. Kay and three children, George, Mary Ann, and William.

Lieut, and Mrs. W. Cox (1817-18) and three children, Edward, Ann, and William.

The Civil officers were:—

Mr. and Mrs. Richard Fitzgerald and three children, Richard, Robert, and John.

Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Cox (1813), three children, Edward, Ann, and William.

Mr. James Mileham and one child, Lucy.

Mr. G.W. and Mrs. Evans, 1813, arrived in the Buffalo, four children, Ann, Harriet, William and Elizabeth. This family returned to Sydney in 1814.

Mr. Thomas and Mrs. A.E. Hobby, who arrived in the Buffalo. He was Coroner for many years in Windsor.

Rev. Robt. and Mrs. Cartwright and six children, Ann, Elizabeth, Richard, Thomas, John, and Mary.

Rev. Hy. and Mrs. Fulton and five children, Sarah, John, Henry, Lydia, and Ann.

Among the soldiers, freemen, and settlers who were in the district with their families, we give a selection of such names as are still familiar or that may be seen on the tombstones of our church yards. The names are those of Windsor only, and do not include such other places as Wilberforce and Richmond, and the families are only as recorded during the period 1813 to 1818.

Children born at a later date cannot therefore be given:—

George and Mary Cupid, or Cupit, arrived in the Ganges, seven children, William, Mary, Elizabeth, Eleanor, Hannah, George, and Elsie.

Benjamin and Phoebe Cushley, arrived in the Friendship and Mary Ann, one daughter, Maria.

Benjamin and Sarah Carver, arrived in the Royal Admiral, two daughters, Ann and Elizabeth.

Michael and Ann Carroll, arrived in the ships Fortune and Indispensible.

John and Mrs. Cross and six children.

William and Ann Bladdy, or Bladdey, arrived in the Britannia and Lady Penryn, and one son, Thomas.

James and Mrs. Blackman, and two children.

Joseph and Ann Baylis came in the Surprise, four children, Sarah, William, John, and Mary Ann.

Robert and Mrs. Fitz arrived in the Sinclair, three children, William, Walker, and Anna.

Thomas and Sarah Dillon arrived in the Neptune, five children, William, Thomas, Ann, James, and Susan.

Matthew and Mrs. Everingham arrived in the Scarborough, two children.

Mrs. Gaudry and four children, William, Charles, George, and Emeline.

Robert and Bridget Hobbs arrived in the Active and Sugar Cane, two sons, Joseph and Edward.

John and Jane Howe arrived in the Corromandel, two daughters, Mary and Elizabeth.

Joseph and Sarah Harpur arrived in the Royal Admiral and Alexandra, four children, Elizabeth, Joseph, Charles (the poet), and John Mileham.

Matthew and Mary Hughes; he arrived in the Britannia, Mrs. Hughes was born in the colony. He was one of the first school teachers in New South Wales, and taught first at Kissing Point, near Ryde, then at Windsor, and afterwards at Richmond. One daughter, Susanah.

Richard and Eliza Hayman and two sons, John and Richard.

John and Ann Izzard.

Andrew and Mary Johnson arrived in the Corromandel, two sons, John and William.

George and Charlotte Loder arrived in the Barrington and Kitty, three children, Andrew, Sarah, and Sophia.

James and Grace May arrived in the Corromandel and Experiment, two daughters, Ann and Elizabeth.

G.T. and Mrs. Palmer and two sons, G.T., and William.

Richard and Mary Ridge. He arrived in the Atlantic, and his wife was born in the colony. Two sons, Richard, and James. (There was a younger son, John, who was killed by a fall from a horse.)

Benjamin and Mrs. Singleton. He arrived in the Pitt, and his wife was born in the colony. Three children, Eliza, Hannah, and Benjamin.

George and Mary Tilley arrived in the Scarborough.

Thomas and Sarah Upton arrived in the Neptune. Five children, James, Jessie, Ann, Jane, and Sophia.

We believe that all the children mentioned in the above, with very few exceptions, were born in New South Wales.





THERE are about thirty streets in Windsor, and it is of interest to trace, as far as possible, the probable source from which they derive their names. Many of the streets are named after the early pioneers, particulars of whom are found elsewhere in these articles:—

Mileham Street: Dr. Jas. Mileham, a pioneer.

Macquarie Street: Governor Lachlan Macquarie.

George Street: King George III.

Church Street: R.C. Church, built 1836.

The Terrace: Overlooks the river.

Moses Street: A new street. By. Moses, M.L.A.

Cox's Street: Henry Cox, the boundary of whose grant of sixty acres (on 11th August, 1804) was here—now known as "Fairfield".

The cross streets, beginning at the far end of Newtown, are:—

Ham Street: Ham Common, which adjoins, was so named by Governor King in 1804.

Drummond Street:

James Street: An old map in 1827 calls it Jarvis Street.

Campbell Street: Mrs. Macquarie's maiden name was Campbell.

Argyle Street: Governor Macquarie was a native of Argyleshire, in Scotland.

Bell Street: Lieutenant A Bell, a pioneer.

Brabyn Street: Captain John Brabyn, a pioneer.

Day Street: Dr. Day, a pioneer.

Forbes Street: This street once extended through to the Church of England.

Dight Street: A new street—Arthur Dight, M.L.A.

Tebbutt Street: In 1845 it was called Glebe Street, as it runs into the Church of England Glebe Laud. When the municipality was formed in 1871, it was re-named in honour of John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S.

Christie Street: William Christie's house stood here in George Street, in 1821, and the street led to his farm on South Creek.

Catherine Street: A new street, cut out of Cope's subdivision of Catherine Farm, probably so-called after Mrs. Thomas Rickaby, to whom the land was first granted on 6th February, 1798. The name is sometimes spelled Riccaby.

New Street. A new street formed from the same subdivision in the year 1838.

Suffolk Street: A new street. Suffolk's house stood here in the forties; called Brown Street on an early plan.

Fitzgerald Street: Richard Fitzgerald, a pioneer. Known also in the early days as Hangman's Row.

Kable Street: Henry Kable, who ran a coach to Parramatta as early as 1803, and had a public-house and brewery in Windsor in 1811. He came in the first fleet. He died 16th March, 1846, aged 84, and is buried in St. Matthew's Churchyard, to N.E. of the Church.

Johnston Street: Andrew Johnston, an early Court House official, who built the Macquarie Arms Hotel in Bridge Street, in which a banquet was held in 1817 at the laying of the foundation stone of St Matthew's Church.

Union Street: Once known as Cat Alley—connects Kable and Fitzgerald Streets.

Baker Street: Wm. Baker's grant, made before 1812, ran near this street. Wm. Baker was the Government storekeeper at the Green Hills (Windsor) in the year 1800. He had an hotel (The Royal Oak) in this street, which was afterwards used as the business premises of Betts and Panton, in the forties, and later by Bedwell and Coley. It was demolished in May, 1892. Baker's Lagoon, down on the Cornwallis flats, is also called after Wm. Baker. He came out in the First Fleet as Sergeant in the Marines.

Bridge Street: Runs into South Creek bridge.

Thomson Square: Andrew Thomson, pioneer. This was once known as the Bell Post.

Palmer Street: G.T. Palmer, who bought up S. Wilcox's and other early grants in the Peninsula.

North Street: Samuel North, an early magistrate.

Catherine Street: Peninsula—a duplicate name.

Court Street: Leads to the Court House.

The Peninsula streets were opened up and named in 1842.



WINDSOR: Formerly Green Hills. Governor Macquarie considered the place resembled the site of the Royal town of Windsor in England.

Newtown was built on much later than the Windsor part.

Hawkesbury: Baron Hawkesbury, Earl Liverpool, 1770-1828.

Wilberforce: William Wilberforce, English statesman, 1759-1833.

Pitt Town: William Pitt, English Statesman, 1759-1806.

Castlereagh: Viscount Castlereagh, Secretary of State, 1769-1822.

Sackville: Viscount Sackville, Secretary of State, 1776.

Portland Head: The early Scotch settlers earns from Portland Street in London. Other authorities state it was so named after the Duke of Portland, 1774-1839.

Ebenezer: The name given to the early Portland Head Presbyterian Church, taken from I. Samuel, 7.12.

Grose Vale, Grose Wold, and Grose River: Lieutenant Grose, who first visited this district in 1792 (see Chapter I.).

Kurrajong: Early spellings were—Curryjong, in 1824; Korijong, in 1857; Kerri Jong in C. Harper's poems, and Kurry Jung.

Riverstone: The name appears in an advertisement in 1810 as Riverton—also spelled Riverston.

Rouse Hill: Originally Vinegar Hill—re-named by Governor Macquarie after Richard Rouse, who arrived in 1801, and died 10th May, 1852; aged 78.

Wiseman's Ferry: Called after Solomon Wiseman, who died in 1838; aged 61.

Cattai: A native name. Other, spellings were—Caddie, Caddai, Catta, and Catye.

Freeman's Reach: A district along the river (settled by free men) in the early times. Some say it was called after two brothers of that name who settled there.

Cornwallis: The ship Marquis Cornwallis, arrived 1796. Captain Brabyn came out in her.

Rickaby's Creek: Thos. Riccaby got a grant of land near here in 1798 (see also Chapter XVI.).

Tizzana: An Italian name, given by Dr. Fiaschi (see Chapter XXVI.).

Magrath's Hill: Mentioned as early as 1832—called after this early settler.

Mulgrave: Mentioned in the very earliest grants. Baron Mulgrave, statesman, 1774-1792.

South Creek (also called Ruse's Creek in the early times); Rose was the noted settler who grew the first wheat in Parramatta.

Killarney: This name appears in 1833. Currency Creek: Currency Lad and Currency Lass were early names given to colonials.

McDonald River, Leet's Vale, Forrester: Were probably named after early settlers.

Vineyard: The early settlers here grew vines.

Clarendon: So called after William Cox's homestead. Clarendon being an English statesman, and a town.

Richmond: An English town, and statesman.

Nepean: Sir Evan Nepean, a statesman.

Peninsula: So named as being nearly surrounded by the waters of the South Creek and Hawkesbury River near their confluence.



TWO of the first questions asked by visiting tourists and motorists to Windsor are:—"Where is the old Government House?" "When was it built?" We shall therefore give some account of this very old and historical, and, alas, very dilapidated building.

There was another Government House earlier still, erected at the time of the first settlement in the district. This was reported to have been swept away by flood waters in 1799.

The present old structure is, we believe, the third oldest existing building in Australasia. Elizabeth Farm House and Experiment Cottage, near Parramatta, being built in 1793 and 1794 by Captain Macarthur and Surgeon Harris.

The oldest Church in Australia is Ebenezer Church, built and opened in 1809; but this old house was built at least ten years earlier than Ebenezer Church, for Governor Hunter, in 1798, mentions it in a list of public buildings erected since 1796. He refers to it as "a cottage erected for the commanding officer at Green Hills."

In Collins' History of N.S.W., vol. II., page 310, we find the following: "Built a framed and weatherboard house on the Green Hills at the Hawkesbury for the residence of the commanding officer of that district. This house was shingled and furnished with a cellar, a stalling kitchen and other accommodation, and surrounded with palings."

It is interesting to Bee this old cellar in the present ruin, and to note the twelve wine bins with stone shelves, so rarely found in a modern villa; also to notice that all the fittings, doors, windows, and weatherboards are cedar.

The building is of wood and plastered inside and partly outside also. There is a good deal of brickwork in the cellar, chimneys, steps, foundations, and in paving the back verandahs. It is curious to note the number of different sizes in these bricks. They are all smaller than the modern bricks. Two which were measured go 7¾ x 3¼ x 2¼, weight when dry 3¾lbs.; 8½ x 4 x 2½, weight when dry 5lbs.

A modern brick, it may be said, measures 9½ x 4½ x 2¾, and weighs 8 lbs.

In 1806 Charles Grimes, surveyor, reported that "the Government House is decayed and untenantable." This sounds rather odd, as the house was then only about nine or ten years old, and it was in tenantable order till within the last ten years.

Another later report mentions that the old Government cottage had been repaired and improved, and the land, six acres, enclosed with a fence, part of which was brick. This may refer to the very old brick wall still seen opposite to Thompson Square, and near to the approach to the Windsor wharf. There was a dwarf brick wall along the end of the ground facing Thompson's Square, with a carriage entrance in the present centre of the street, which led up to the house.

On 10th November, 1815, Judge Advocate Ellis Bent, after whom Bent Street, Sydney, is called, while on duty in Windsor, was taken ill, and died in the old Government House. His remains were taken to Sydney, and buried first in the old cemetery in George Street, now the site of the Sydney Town Hall. In Macquarie's time removed to Garden Island. Finally, in the eighties, the tomb, in which also rested the remains of his friend, Major Ovens, who died 1825, was transferred to St. Thomas' cemetery in North Sydney, where the following inscription may be seen:—

"Underneath are placed the remains of Ellis Bent, Esq., Judge Advocate of this Territory from the first of January, 1810, to the tenth of November, 1815, when he departed this life in his 32nd year. His upright and impartial conduct caused him to be respected by all classes of persons, and in private life no man possessed more than he did those qualifications which adorn the gentleman, and by which he endeared himself to all who had the happiness of his acquaintance."

In the year 1824 a report was made to Governor Sir Thomas Brisbane regarding the expenditure made on the public buildings of Windsor and other towns during the previous year, from which we learn that the sum of one hundred and eighteen pounds, thirteen shillings and threepence was expended on the "Government House" and the "Garden House", which was probably some such adjunct as a green-house.

Amongst the improvements included in the above sum are two sewers (one of brick), costing five pounds and six pounds five shillings respectively, and draining the kitchen and lavatory to the river, also repairs to the "dressing room" five pounds.

The following description accompanies the above report:—

"Government Cottage:—This is on a small scale, situated on a rising ground commanding a beautiful view from the rear of the Hawkesbury River, and it is a desirable site for a good public building were it not so near the town, yet from its contiguity to the banks of this fine river, with the diversity of richness of the soil, it might be made an enviable residence either as a villa or a mansion."

In Governor Macquarie's report of the buildings made by him in 1822 he mentions a new coach house and stables connected with Government House, Windsor. These improvements are said to have stood on the site of the large balconied house in Thompson's Square, near the School of Arts, and were afterwards converted into police stables and barracks for police and prisoners. They appear so on the plan of Windsor dated 1835.

The next reference we find to the old residence is that Mr. Samuel North, the local Police Magistrate from 1829 to 1843, lived here, and also at "Northfield", Kurrajong Heights.

The historical old Government House was sold at public auction by the Crown on the 8th March, 1854, the purchaser being John McCall, junior. The land measured two roods twelve and-a-half perches, having a frontage of two hundred and twelve links to George Street, and two hundred and twenty-nine links to the river.

The old stable and coach house site at the corner was sold the same date to Mr. J.J. Kettle, except the allotment at the corner next the Windsor wharf in Thompson Square, which had been granted for a Manse site to the Presbyterian Church in 1851.

On this corner site, which was originally a portion of Andrew Thompson's estate, Dr. Dowe built the present large balconied house, probably in the late fifties. It was afterwards in use as a school by the Rev. C.F. Garnsey, in the sixties, before his appointment as Rector of St Matthew's, in 1867. Mrs. C.J. Nealds had a ladies' school here in the seventies. It was then occupied as a. school by Mr. B. Keenan until he built the Grammar School in-1884, on the Penrith road. The place was afterwards occupied by the Hall family pere et fils.



THE first divine services held at the Hawkesbury were conducted by the Rev. Samuel Marsden, who arrived in 1794.

In the year 1805 a two-storied school-church, measuring one hundred feet by twenty-four feet, was built by the residents on the north bank of South Creek, near the site of the first bridge, which stood at the back of the Court House in a line with Catherine Street. In this building several missionaries preached, including Messrs. Harris, Crook, and Rowland Hassall; also the Rev. John Youl and the Senior Chaplain, the Rev. Samuel Marsden, on his periodical visits to the Green Hills, and the Rev. Henry Fulton, who took the Rev. Samuel Marsden's place during his visit to England in 1808-9.

We might here state that although the Rev. S. Marsden did not reside permanently in Windsor, he was a property owner there. He had a grant of fifty acres on the South Creek to which he apparently added by purchase other lands, now portion of the town. About the year 1817 he presented to the local Wesleyan Church the site of their property in Macquarie Street, then a part of his farm. On the occasion of his visit to England in 1807 the inhabitants of the Hawkesbury presented him with a testimonial. He it was who preached at the opening of St Matthew's in 1822, and he also preached here in 1833, and doubtless visited the district very frequently. It was also in the local rectory whilst on a visit to his friend, the Rev. H.T. Stiles, M.A., that he died, on 12th May. 1833, at the age of seventy-three years. The burial took place in the old cemetery of St. John's, Parramatta, of which he was then the incumbent on 15th May.

This original church building will be seen on an old plan of Windsor, dated 1827, and marked as Government stables, formerly school-house, and particulars as to its erection and maintenance will be found in the Historical Records, vol. V., p.p. 412-13, 425 (see also Chapter XIII.).

Owing perhaps to the big flood in 1806, the church and school, which had formerly been conducted in the same room, were removed to an old granary, which was fitted up, one floor as a temporary church, and another as a school.

The site of this temporary second church was probably that of the School of Arts in Bridge Street. In the examination of Andrew Thompson, on January 27th, 1808, in the Bligh case, he mentions having used a quantity of Government cedar for making pews for the church at Hawkesbury. Pew No. 1 was built for the Governor, No. 2 was for Andrew Thompson, while No. 14 was the Magistrate's pew. (See Historical Records, vol. VI., page 451.) These pews were evidently placed in this temporary church, and it would be interesting to know what eventually became of them.

The Rev. J. Youl, who was probably chaplain pro tem., complained to the Rev. W. Cowper in 1810 that the church was being used as a court-house, and it was probably this temporary church he referred to. (See Historical Records, vol. VII., p. 285.)

An application was made in 1807 for a resident clergyman or chaplain, as he was called in those early days. No appointment was made until about the 12th March, 1810, when the Rev. Robert Cartwright was appointed at a salary of two hundred and forty pounds per annum. He arrived in the colony in August, 1809, as the result of the visit to England of the Rev. S. Marsden. Like the other early chaplains, he also acted as a magistrate, being appointed as such for Wilberforce, and holding the office from 1811 to 1817. He lived at Richmond on his own property, as the Glebe at Clarendon was neither cleared nor fenced. He also had two large grants of land at Castlereagh of over one thousand acres. He took part in the founding of the Hawkesbury Benevolent Society in 1818.

The Rev. R. Cartwright left Windsor for Liverpool in 1820. He died in 1856, at the age of eighty-five years, at Collector, near Gunning, and was buried in St. Luke's Church-yard, Liverpool, where Mrs. Cartwright had been buried in 1837. Further particulars of his life and family will be found in the article on "Pioneers" (see Chapter II.).

On 18th April, 1811, a meeting was held to take steps for the erection of a new church and school-house. Doubtless the complaint of the Rev. J. Youl about the church being used as a court-house, and the appointment of the Rev. Robert Cartwright, expedited matters. Among those present at this meeting were: Rev. S. Marsden, Rev. R. Cartwright, and Messrs. A. Forrest, G.W. Evans, M. Pitt, J. Griffiths, J. Dight (hon. sec.), and William Cox (hon. treas.). These, with the exception of the Raw S. Marsden, formed the building committee. Mr. Cox produced a plan for a building forty feet by sixteen feet, which, according to a rough estimate, would cost two hundred pounds, and require forty thousand bricks, and four thousand feet of timber. Subscriptions amounting to one hundred and thirteen pounds, nineteen shillings were received, including twenty-five pounds from Governor Macquarie.

The Historical Records are not yet available after 1811, and we are, therefore, not able to give further particulars of the building.

This third church was, however, we believe, a three-storey building, and it must have greatly exceeded the original estimate. It stood behind the present School of Arts. The ground floor was used as a school, and the first floor was the parish church up to the opening of the present church of St Matthew, in 1822. The second floor was the teacher's residence (see Chapter XIII.).

The clergy who officiated in this old church were: The Rev. Robert Cartwright, from the time it was opened, probably about 1812, till 1819; and the Rev. John Cross, from December, 1819, up to the opening of St. Matthew's, in 1822.

The site of the present church, which was the fourth Church of England site and building used in Windsor, was intended at first for a public burial ground, and was so used as early as 1810. It was consecrated as such on 14th May, 1811, by the Rev. S. Marsden.

In 1817, on 4th April, Governor Macquarie reports that he proposed to at once build a new church at Windsor; also at Liverpool, and in Sydney (St. James'). The Liverpool Church, St. Luke's, was completed on 28th February, 1820. At the same time the new church in Windsor is reported as being in progress. St. Thomas' Church, Port Macquarie, also dates from this time.

It appears from later correspondence that the Rev. Robert Cartwright would have preferred a more central site for the church.

Tenders for building St. Matthew's Church were advertised in the Sydney Gazette, 17th August, 1816, by Captain John Gill, Acting-engineer, of the 46th Regiment. The first designs were for a two-storied building on smaller foundations than at present. This is the building that Governor Macquarie had pulled down in 1819, and the present church built on more extended foundations.

The foundation stone was laid by Governor Macquarie on 11th October, 1817. Some most valuable information about the building of St. Matthew's is found in the pariah records. These records were started by the Rev. R. Cartwright in 1810, and have been continued by the succeeding incumbents up to the present time. They are at present preserved in the rectory. In the early days of the church, the chaplain had the assistance of a parish clerk, and it is to this official, Joseph Harpur, parish clerk and school-master from 1813 to 1826, that we are indebted for the interesting data about the building of the church, which he inserted in the pariah register. A sketch of his life and family will be found in the articles on schools (see Chapter XIII.).

The Rev. A.R. Blacket, during his incumbency of St Matthew's, 1885-90, copied out the records of this interesting parish clerk. They were published in the Windsor and Richmond Gazette, 20th January, 1894, and we take the liberty of repeating them here:—

"Among the registers of this Parish are to be found the records of some events connected with the early history of the Hawkesbury district, which I feel sure will be read with pleasure by many of your readers. The incidents described may not be very remarkable in themselves, but their history has gathered importance by the lapse of years. It is to the Parish Clerk that we are evidently indebted for these interesting memoranda, which are to be found at the end of the book that served for the years 1813 to 1825, as a Parish Register of Births, Marriages and Burials. The first entry refers to a disastrous flood, and reads as follows:—

"The rivers Hawkesbury and Nepean, having inundated the various settlements on their banks three times within nine months, and swept away great quantities of wheat and stock of all kinds, as well as totally destroying the growing crop of maize, which was nearly ripe, a most lamentable scarcity of grain prevailed, and hundreds in the districts of the Hawkesbury were reduced to a state of starvation: and to alleviate these distresses the Magistrates and other gentlemen at Windsor and the surrounding districts raised the sum of five hundred pounds by voluntary subscription, on the 28th June, 1817, which was lain out in the purchase of provisions, chiefly rice, and issued weekly to upwards of five hundred distressed persons, by Mr. Harpur, at the Public Schoolhouse at Windsor, until the harvest commenced, November 23rd, 1817."

It is worth noticing that exactly fifty years after the disaster recorded in this entry, a similar inundation swept over the district, still known among old residents as "the great flood". Drift wood was left on the ridge pole of the Church at Clydesdale. St. Matthew's, Windsor, was occupied by homeless families for weeks; and in the midst of the calamity, the incumbent, Rev. H.T. Stiles, passed away to his reward. The next memorandum is intensely interesting, and is highly valuable as a record of the times:—

"A little after sunset on Saturday, the 11th day of October, 1817, the corner-stone of St. Matthew's Church was laid by Governor Macquarie, and after depositing the rim of a Spanish dollar, with the circular bit struck out of its middle (the currency of the colony), which pass for six shillings and threepence sterling, His Excellency, in a very impressive tone of voice, said—'God prosper St. Matthew's Church,' gently striking the stone three times with a mason's mallet; the same ceremony was performed severally by the whole of the gentlemen which accompanied His Excellency from the Government House to the spot. Through indisposition, owing, it was said, to the unusual heat of the weather at this time of the year, the resident chaplain—Rev. Robert Cartwright—was not present."

The good work thus auspiciously begun met with impediments in its progress, which the pen of the parish clerk has, with charming simplicity, duly recorded:—

"The corner-stone having been removed, and the money stolen early in the evening in which it was deposited by the Governor, this evening, about the same time, the corner-stone was re-laid by His Excellency, and a dollar deposited underneath it by the Rev. Robert Cartwright. Monday, 13th October, 1817. This transaction was witnessed by His Honour Lieut.-Governor Erskine, of the 43rd Regiment, Major Antill, D. Allan, Esq., Commissary-General, Rev. Henry Fulton, William Cox, Esq., Chief Magistrate at the Hawkesbury, Mr. Surgeon Mileham, J.P., several gentlemen, and the most respectable inhabitants of Windsor. His Excellency addressed the spectators in a very pathetic manner, passing very high and deserved encomiums on the Resident Chaplain. returned to compliment the Magistrates and Officers at the Macquarie Arms Inn, where the whole party (except Mr. Cartwright) sapped together."

"November, 1817.—The dollar deposited under the corner-stone of St. Matthew's Church by the Rev. Mr. Cartwright, was again stolen a few nights afterwards. This infamous species of theft could not have been practiced only through the neglect of the contracting builder not having prepared materials to immediately work over the stone. It is supposed that the corner-stone was thrown down each time and the money stolen by some of the indigent convicts employed at the Public Works in the town of Windsor.

"(Signed) JOSEPH HARPUR."   

Nearly two years passed away before the Parish Clerk resumed his entries. Then he writes:—

"The walls of the church, to which the above memoranda refer, have been taken down to the very foundation, through some defect in the building, and another is now in building on its site by Government, of much larger dimensions, and of the very best materials; it is, I believe, to retain the name of St. Matthew given to the first building.


"June 4th, 1819."

With regard to the name of the church, it is worth mentioning that the vessels belonging to the Communion Service, now used for private celebrations in this parish, bear the inscription, "St. Andrew, Windsor." Can this be explained by supposing that the name of the church was for some time unsettled, that the Communion Service was procured when there was some idea of dedicating the new place of worship to St. Andrew, but that afterwards, as hinted by Mr. Harpur, it was decided to retain the old name? Another interval of two years occurs, and then we read:—

"September, 1821.—In the beginning of this month, some sheet lead was blown off the dome of the new church (St. Matthew's) by a violent gust of wind; a large sheet was lodged on the scaffolding, and another fell to the ground torn into holes, the lead having been nailed down only and not soldered. "J.H."

What a succession of reverses? Robbery, bad workmanship, and destructive gales! One trouble that church-builders meet with nowadays was not experienced, however. They never ran short of money or got into debt. At last the work was completed, and five years after the first foundation-stone had been laid, the consecration ceremony took place.

"December 18th, 1822.—This day the new church of St. Matthew's was consecrated and opened for Divine worship by the Rev. Samuel Marsden, Principal Chaplain of the Territory, assisted by the Rev. Messrs. Cross, Resident Chaplain, Cartwright, and Hassall. After the sermon the Holy Sacrament was administered to a goodly company from various parts of the colony. Scarcely an individual was observed but what appeared deeply attentive during the whole service, and the church was nearly filled before the consecration commenced.


"Windsor, Wednesday,
     "18th December, 1822."

This is the last, unfortunately, of the records left by the Parish Clerk.

With regard to the name of "St. Andrew's", proposed to be given to the church, instead of St. Matthew's, referred to in the above notes, we notice in a paper read by Mr. J.P. McGuanne, on "The Early Schools of New South Wales," and published by the Australian Historical Society in the records (vol. II., p. 87), that he refers to "John" (Joseph?) Harpur at the Windsor Chapel, St. Andrew's. And again in the Sydney Gazette, 25th December, 1823, there is a Government Proclamation, signed by Governor T. Brisbane, with reference to the letting of the pews in the various churches in the territory of New South Wales. In this Proclamation, issued just twelve months after the consecration of the local church of England as St. Matthew's, we read that the following were appointed a committee to attend to the letting of the pews: "The Rev. John Cross, and William Cox and John Brabyn, Esquires, for the Church of St. Andrew's, Windsor."

The church at Castlereagh, built before 1836, was called St. Andrew's, and it may be on this account that the name St. Matthew's was chosen for Windsor in 1819. See Wells' Gazetteer, 1848, p. 394.

With reference to another entry by J.H., dated September 21, telling about the lead on the tower being blown off, we find further trouble with this lead only five years later. Thus the Sydney Gazette of 21st October, 1826:—"Yesterday se'nnight, between three and four o'clock, the town of Windsor was visited by one of the heaviest squalls of wind which has been remembered for some years. It proceeded from the north-west, and in the course left nothing removable remaining. Trees were blown up from the roots, and many of the heavy limbs were broken off. The Windsor Church had the lead blown from the tower, two heavy sheets of considerable weight; the saddle boards were actually blown from the roof to a great distance from the building."

The Rev. G.E.C. Stiles, B.A., son of the Rev. H.T. Stiles, M.A., who was incumbent of Windsor, 1833-67, informs us that when St. Matthew's was opened in 1822, King George IV. presented the tower clock and bell-(the same tone as the tenor bell in St. James', Sydney), and the communion service, with chalice and paten, but no flagon.

The building of the rectory was started about the year 1822, and finished in 1823. It contains some good woodwork, has large rooms, and is of the Georgian period of architecture. It was considered a very fine building when erected, and much superior to the rectories of other parishes even of a much later date.

The Sydney Gazettes of this period give from time to time the prices paid locally for bricks, lime, shingles, sawing timber, cartage, and such like items, for the Church at Windsor.

The church is built of red bricks, in the Norman style of architecture, with a semi-circular chancel, and a large square tower about seventy feet high, surrounded with a dome and cross, the top of the cross being ninety-four feet six inches above the ground level. The church measures ninety-nine by forty-eight feet, or, including the tower and the chancel, the entire length is one hundred and thirty-four feet.

The architect of St. James', Sydney, and St. Luke's, Liverpool, was Francis Howard Greenway, and we believe he was also the architect of St. Matthew's, Windsor. His son was Archdeacon C.C. Greenway, of Grafton.

We take the following advertisement from the Sydney Gazette, 15th January, 1824.

"St. Matthew's Church, Windsor.—Persons desirous of renting pews or seats in this church are desired to make applications to the Chaplain in writing, stating the quantity of accommodation that may be required and where situated, that the same may be delivered to the committee for their inspection."

The following report was made in 1824 by S.L. Harris, architect, under instructions from the Governor, Sir Thomas Brisbane, regarding the expenditure of £565 4s. 10d. on the "Windsor Church" during the year 1823—that is, the year after the church was opened. The report is accompanied by a plan showing no porch:—

"Windsor Church.—This church is situated a mile from the town on an eminence, built of brick, and executed in a good and workmanship manner, but the mortar that has been used is of a similar description to that so often described in this report, and therefore its permanency cannot be depended on. The cornices and plastering (though comparatively well done) are already showing cracks and sound hollow, and will shortly give way. The timber used for the pews is cedar, of very good quality, but miserably executed. The fence in front of the Burial Ground is a strong pallisading on a base stone coping, well painted, and in good preservation, but the opposite fence is in a very bad state, 'and requires to be made new. The ornaments on the tower (as will appear by the plan) have been put up at a great expense, and are very ill adapted for a place of worship, being much more suitable for a theatre or fancy dwelling. There is a very good clock in the tower, and well preserved."

Note.—Among the repairs specified, or what may have been additions, were seventeen pews, costing eighty-five pounds, and one large pew at ten pounds; also circular stairs to descend pulpit, twelve pounds.

The second incumbent of St. Matthew's, and also the resident chaplain, was the Rev. John Cross, who arrived in the ship Barling, about the year 1813, the Rev. II. Hill, of St. James's, Sydney, being a fellow passenger. He held the office from December, 1819, to January, 1828, being in charge during the greater part of the building of St. Matthew's, and he was the first clergyman to occupy the pulpit. He removed to St. Thomas's Church, Port Macquarie, in 1828, and was there until his death, in 1858, at the age of seventy-seven. There is a memorial tablet in the church to his memory. He had a son, who died in 1894, who had been a lay reader in the Manning River district for some thirty-five years.

It is of interest to observe here that in the year 1824 there were but seven settled parishes in New South Wales—St. Phillip's and St. James's, in Sydney; St. John's, Parramatta; St. Luke's, Liverpool; St. Peter's, Campbelltown; Christ Church, Newcastle; and St. Matthew's, Windsor. (? Port Macquarie also.)

The third incumbent of St. Matthew's Church was the Rev. Elijah Smith, who came in February, 1828, and remained only a short time, leaving in December of the same year. He was in St. Mary's in 1842, and incumbent of St. Stephen's, Penrith, 1853-68.

The Rev. Matthew Devenish Meares, M.A., lived in Windsor, in "York Lodge", which was the property of the trustees of the clergy and school lands, for some years, and he frequently assisted in the parish work of St. Matthew's. He was the incumbent of Pitt Town from 1824 to 1833, and was afterwards placed at Wollongong (1839), then at Enfield and Burwood (1859-61). Mr. Meares was a life member of the Hawkesbury Benevolent Society, and he died about the year 1861.

The following correspondence and extracts refer to various church matters at this period:—

Sydney, 28th June, 1826.

Revd, Sir,

I am directed by the Committee of the Trustees of the Clergy and School lands to request that you will be pleased to forward me the Deeds of the house lately purchased from Deputy Assistant Commissary General Howard, stated by him to have been left with you.

I have the honour, etc., etc.,

(Charles Cowper.)   

Rev. M.D. Meares, Windsor.

Extracts from proceedings of Committees of Clergy and School Corporation:—

"3rd March, 1828.

"A memorandum containing some suggestions and the general outline of the plan of a Grammar School proposed to be established at Windsor, under the Revd. Elijah Smith, was requested by the Archdeacon to be submitted to the consideration of the General Court.


"28th March, 1828.

"The Revd. Elijah Smith's account for contingent expenses incurred from his disembarkation until his arrival in Windsor was submitted and approved, amounting to £4 0s. 7d., as also the purchase of three surplices for Windsor and Richmond.


"17th June, 1828.

Letter from Revd. E. Smith, dated 14th April, 1828, representing the want of a person to take charge of the late residence of Mr. Meares:—

"It was resolved that Mr. Smith do place a man in charge, the expense to be defrayed by the Corporation, and should any respectable individual be willing to take it the rent will be £50 per annum.


"Resolved that a recommendation be made to the Quarterly General Court to dispose of the house and premises in Windsor, late the residence of Revd. M.D. Meares, the committee having been informed that it is in a dilapidated state, and requires considerable repairs before it can be let to a good tenant.

"WM. COWPER."   

"4th July, 1828.

"Resolved that the offer of Captain Brabyn to purchase the house at Windsor, lately the residence of Mr. Meares, for £450, payable within four years and a half at the rate of £100 per ann. without interest, be recommended to the General Court for acceptance, and that Captain Brabyn be authorised to take immediate possession, provided he will do so under the abovementioned conditions.

"T.H. SCOTT (Archdeacon)."  

"16th July, 1828.

"Read Captain Brabyn's letter (10th July, 1828) declining "to take the premises belonging to the Corporation in Windsor, subject to the approval of the General Court, unless the Committee engage to secure him in possession of them.


"23rd July, 1828.

"The Committee resolved to secure Captain Brabyn possession."

"28th Aug., 1828.

"Read Captain Brabyn's letter reporting his taking possession of the late residence of Mr. Meares."

An entry in the Government Gazette for 1832 says that the house and premises belonging to the church and school lands in Windsor was sold for £300 in the year 1831.

"28th Nov., 1828.

"Read the Colonial Secretary's letter (11th Nov., 1828) reporting that the Colonial Agent in England had advanced £150 to the Revd. Joseph Docker for his passage to the colony."

"The Revd. John Cross having reported favourably upon a claim made by John Newsome for arrears due to him for teaching the children at the Windsor Church to sing for two and a half years at £5 per annum, under an agreement made with Messrs. Cox and Brabyn, the Revd. E. Smith was authorised to charge the amount in his account, and pay Newcomen the £12 10s. 0d. claimed.

"T.H. SCOTT."   

"29th Dec., 1828.

"The sum of £7 10s. 0d. was voted for the conveyance of Mr. Docker's baggage to Windsor, being the same amount as was granted to Mr. Smith.

"The Clerk was directed to write to the Revd. E. Smith to ascertain whether the horse appropriated to his use on public duty had suffered any depreciation while in his service, and if so that the value be charged to him."

"27th Feb., 1829.

"The Revd. J. Docker's account of travelling expenses from Sydney to Windsor, and rent of rooms in Sydney, to the amount of £15 4s. 2d., was examined and the amount allowed."

"13th May, 1829.

"The Revd. J. Docker's letter of 11th May, 1829, recommending Mr. Hughes, the schoolmaster at Richmond for a salary as Parish Clerk, and requesting to know whether any salary would be given for the sexton, was read, and he was informed that £15 per annum would be allowed to Mr. Hughes as salary as Clerk commencing from 1st of January last."

Minutes of the Committee of the Clergy and School Corporation:—

"12th August, 1829.

"Present: The Venerable Archdeacon T.H. Scott, the Hon. Alexander McLeay, the Revd. Samuel Marsden, the Revd. William Cowper, the Revd. Richard Hill.

"The Archdeacon submitted the Revd. J. Docker's request to have a well sunk at the Windsor Parsonage, and the Clerk was desired to inform him that prior to the Committee sanctioning the expense, they requested he should consult with some person conversant with the situation and ascertain as nearly as possible the probable depth required or probable cost of the undertaking.

"T.H. SCOTT."   

"22nd October, 1829.

"Present: Venerable Archdeacon Broughton (chairman), Hon. Alexander McLeay, Robert Campbell, Esq., Alexander Berry, Esq., Revd. Samuel Marsden, Revd. Richard Hill. Archdeacon Scott, having omitted to notify to the Committee the appointment of Mrs. Summers, Mistress of the Infant School, Windsor, at £5 per annum, and 3d. per week upon the average attendance, the Committee authorised the sum charged by the Revd. Joseph Docker in his account for the 30th Sep. for this salary to be passed.


The Rev. Joseph Docker, who arrived in the colony on 11th November, 1828, in the ship Adam, took charge of St. Matthew's on 1st January, 1829, and he resigned in March, 1833, but continued to live in the district, his name appearing in the Directory of 1835 as a resident of Windsor. He is said to have lived at "Clifton", near Clarendon, for some years. He afterwards lived in Victoria, where he was engaged in pastoral pursuits in the fifties and sixties.

For some months after his resignation the parish appears to have been somewhat disorganised. The following clergymen did duty on Sundays:—Rev. S. Marsden, Rev. R. Forrest, Rev. W. Yates, Rev. W. Simpson, and Rev. R. Cartwright, while the general work of the parish was attended to by Rev. M.D. Meares, M.A., of Pitt Town.

The following further information about the Rev. Joseph Docker is from the records of the Diocesan Registry, Sydney:—

"Rev. Joseph Docker ordained by Samuel Bishop, of Carlisle, 19th July, 1818. Date of warrant of appointment, 30th January, 1828. Stationed at Windsor."

Note against his name—Resigned, no further information.

The following is a letter addressed to the Clergy and School Corporation:—

20th Dec., 1830.

Dear Sir,

I have directed John Wood, on whom I can depend, to take charge of the Register Books for Windsor and Richmond.

I am dear sir,
         Yours truly,


The following old statement has recently been brought to light:—

Account of Ground Monies received for the burial of the undermentioned persons in St. Matthew's churchyard up to 31st December, 1830:—

£ s. d.
1830— July 1st, Joanna Webb 0 2 6
      30th Joseph Reese 0 2 6
August 7th, Julia Sommers 0 2 6
Nov. 20th, Jno. Dunstan 0 2 6
    Jno. Holliss, 54ft. space for a vault 2 14 0
£3 4 0

JOSEPH DOCKER, Chaplain.   


Account of monies received for rent of pews, and arrears due, for the half-yearly period ending 31st Dec., 1830:—

South Side.
By Whom Rented. Rate 
per annum.  
£ s. d. s. d. 
1 Wm. Cox, sen., Esq. 1 10 0 15
2 Jno. Brabyn, Esq. 1 10 0 15
3 Archd. Bell, Esq. 1 10 0 15
4 Mr. James Hale 15 0 15
17 Messrs. Marsden and Seymour 1 5 0 9
18 Messrs. Tebbutt and Bullock 1 10 0 15
19 Mr. John Howe 1 10 0 15
North Side.
1 Wm. Cox, jun., Esq. 1 10 0
2 Mr. Robt. Fitz
Mr. Chas. Thompson 1 10 0
3 Mr. Chas. Beazley 15
Miss Dargon 1 10 0 7
5 Wm. Cox, Esq. (servants) 1 10 0 15
6 Mr. Abraham Elias 15 0 7
19 Mr. Pimrose 5 0 2
Mrs. Heather 5 0
Mr. Suffolk 5 0
20 Mr. Richard Fitzgerald 1 10 0 15
21 Mr. Jno. Newsome
Mr. Phillips
Currency or Dollars at 5/- each £8 1 10½
Sterling £6 9
Ground money as per account given above    £3 4
£9 13

JOSEPH DOCKER, Chaplain.   

The following are the particulars of the lands granted to the Church of England in Windsor. The site of the church and burial ground, consisting of three acres twenty-three perches, was appropriated in 1833, but first marked out as a burial ground for the use of the settlers in 1811 (? 1810):—

Church of England school site in Bridge Street—Two roods thirty-five perches (more or less) appropriated in 1833. dedicated 16th July, 1863, and sold in 1902. In use from 1809. Church of England, Glebe—Eight acres two roods eighteen perches, fronting Moses Street and Windsor Terrace, and thirty-one acres one rood thirty-four perches near Clarendon railway station. Both sites appropriated in 1836, but so used at a much easier date. The Glebe land at Clarendon now forms portion of the Hawkesbury Agricultural College lands, from which the parish derives an income of ten pounds per annum.

The site of the school-hall in New Street is not a grant. It was purchased about 1878, and contains an area of one rood six perches, having a frontage of sixty-six feet by a depth of one hundred and ninety feet.

The following memorandum from the Lands Office relating to the old historical school site in Bridge Street is of interest:—

"In 1831 there was a measurement made of a portion of land of two roods thirty-two perches for school purposes, upon which were shown some buildings, then in a ruinous state (partly upon the school lands). In 1857 the church authorities made application for a deed of this land, representing it as having been appropriated in either 1809 or 1819 (evidently the doubt due to some indistinct writing)."

It was decided to amend the form of allotment, giving the church approximately the same area, and allowing an allotment on the west for sale by auction. Also decided to allow the Bishop to sell the material of the ruinous building, or buildings, and devote proceeds towards improvement of the school. It was represented in the application for deed that the "Approved Trustees" were Rev. H.T. Stiles, Robt. Fitzgerald, Laban White, and Wm. Kemp. Survey was made by Mr. Licensed Surveyor Whitaker, in 1858, of the amended allotment (25th January, 1858). Papers show that at some period Joseph Cope was also a Trustee.

In 1871 John Johnson and Francis Hole were appointed in lien of Stiles and Cope, deceased (Sydney Gazette, 19th September, 1871). By Gazette, 22nd September, 1874, Rev. C.F. Garnsey was appointed Trustee, and the deed was finally prepared in the name of the three Trustees (above), 1st December, 1874.

On 8th October, 1902, the land was formally transferred by the Church of England Property Trust to Sarah Ann Boyd, under authority of an Ordinance of Synod, which gave authority to sell by public auction or private contract.

A new and long chapter in the history of St. Matthew's begins with the appointment of the Rev. Henry Tarlton Stiles, M.A., to the parish. He was born in Bristol, England, on 24th June, 1808. After completing his studies he was ordained by the Bishop of London, in 1833, and the same year came out to New South Wales as one of the Colonial Chaplains, and was appointed to St. Matthew's on 2nd September, 1833. At that time he was a young man about twenty-five years of age, and he remained here up to the time of his death, in 1867, a period of thirty-four years.

Amongst the duties the Rev. Mr. Stiles had to perform as chaplain was a visit to Norfolk Island to minister to a number of prisoners who had been condemned to death for mutiny on the island. The following is a copy of the letter sent him by the Governor, Sir Richard Bourke, on 21st August, 1834:—

My Dear Sir,

I know well your disposition to do good whenever an opportunity offers, and conferring this morning with Mr. Justice Burton, who is just returned from Norfolk Island, it occurred to us both that your exertions at that place in preparing some of the unhappy men for meeting that sentence which Mr. Burton passed upon them might be productive of the beet effects, both with regard to those who must suffer capitally and those who will be witnesses of their fate. The schooner Isabella will be despatched for the Island early in the next week, and if you have no insuperable objection, I would propose to Mr. Marsden to request you to go there. Your passage will be provided and your quarters on the Island, from which the Isabella will remain to remove you. As some of the wretched men are Roman Catholic, a priest of that religion will be sent to Norfolk Island also. . . . .

I am, my dear sir,                 

Very faithfully yours,         


The Rev. Dr. Ullathorne represented the Roman Catholic Church, and they had a rather rough passage in the Isabella, Their ministrations were very acceptable to the thirteen condemned men, whose execution they were also obliged to witness. A full account of this painful duty will be found in the Church Standard, 3rd April, 1914.

We might here state that the schooner Isabella left Leith, in Scotland, on 12th December, 1833, and arrived in Sydney, via Hobart, on 22nd June, 1834. Among the passengers was the late David Lindsay Waugh (of Kiama), father of Mrs. Steele. His diary giving an account of the voyage out from Scotland will be found in the Mitchell Library.

The first confirmation service held in St. Matthew's was conducted by Bishop Broughton on 11th October, 1836.

Up to the year 1842 Richmond formed part of the Windsor pariah. It was then erected into a separate parish, St. Peter's Church having been built in 1841. The first resident clergyman at Richmond was the Rev. A.W. Wallis, 1842; followed by the Rev. J.K. Walpole, 1843; Rev. John Elder, 1845; and the Rev. Dr. Woolls, in 1873.

In the year 1842 a neat brick church was built at Clydesdale and named St. Phillip's, the parish being from then known as "Windsor and Clydesdale". Unfortunately, this church was built on the flood area, the big flood in 1867 leaving drift wood on the roof. This church is now closed. The site was given by Charles Thompson.

From the year 1810, when the parish records start, to December, 1845, there had been fourteen hundred and seventy-nine burials in the church-yard. For the same period seven hundred and forty-six marriages are recorded, while the baptisms up to December, 1841, numbered fourteen hundred and ninety-four. These average forty-eight baptisms, twenty-one marriages, and forty-two burials per annum. Later figures are not available, as the method of numbering was altered at this time.

During the incumbency of the Rev. Mr. Stiles, a pipe organ was placed in the gallery at the back of the church, which was built for this purpose in 1840. The organ was built by Messrs. Johnson and Kimlock, of Princes Street, Sydney, and was the first organ built in Australia. Five hundred pounds were subscribed for these improvements, the organ costing three hundred and twenty pounds. It was opened by Mr. Wm. Johnson, the organist of St. James's Church, Sydney, on the 8th November, 1840. Prior to this, the military band, conducted by Captain Edgerton, used to occupy the three back centre pews, and lead the singing. The marks, and also portion of the old music stands, may still be seen.

The ball, surmounted by the cross, which is a fac-simile of that on the dome of St. Paul's, London (but of much smaller size), was not on the church originally, but was erected by a builder named Atkinson during the earlier part of Mr. Stiles's incumbency, in the forties. This cross is a conspicuous object, and is used as the Government trigonometrical survey mark for the district.

In the sixties some friction arose between Mr. Stiles and a considerable number of the parishioners over the introduction into the praise service of the church of "Chope's Hymnal", on 2nd October, 1864, in place of the Metrical Psalms of Tate and Brady, formerly in use. A meeting of the parishioners was held in the School of Arts on 31st May, 1865, at which it was agreed to petition Bishop Barker to have the bode withdrawn. This petition was signed by forty-one male parishioners. After much correspondence and heart-burning, the book was withdrawn on 24th December, 1865. Amongst those who took a leading part in this discussion were Messrs. Jas. Ascough, J.A. Dawson, S. Edgerton, J.B. Lavarack, Henry Moses, and John Tebbutt, junior.

St. Matthew's Parochial Association was formed in 1856, Mr. John Tebbutt being the honorary secretary and treasurer for many years. During the first ten years of its existence the sum of nine hundred and thirty-five pounds, five shillings and ninepence was raised and remitted to Sydney for assisting various forms of church activities. The local committee of this Parochial Association, which was in connection with the Sydney Church Society, were Messrs. Richard Dunstan, Samuel Edgerton, John A. Dawson, Jas. Ascough, and John Tebbutt. Owing to some friction with the Rector and the Rev. C. F. Garnsey, the Association's receipts greatly declined during the later sixties.

The architects who designed and carried out most of the improvements in Mr. Stiles's time were Mr. F.H. Greenway, Government Architect, and Mr. Edmund T. Blacket.

The present side porch of St. Matthew's was built in the year 1857. It was part of the original design, for the foundations of the porch were in position, and had been there for thirty years before it was built. The different courses of bricks can easily be seen in the old and newer work. The Hon. Robert Fitzgerald contributed one hundred pounds towards the cost of this and other improvements made about the same time.

There are two tablets in the porch, one with only the letters M.F., 1857. This is in memory of Miss Mary Fitzgerald, another tablet to her memory being included among the group of Fitzgerald tablets inside the church, behind the pulpit. The other porch tablet, to Catherine S. Roxburgh, who died in October, 1853, is in memory of a visitor to the district in search of health. Her grave will be seen near that of the Rev. H.T. Stiles, in the church-yard. Miss Roxburgh contributed fifty pounds towards the erection of the porch before her death.

About the same time that the porch was built, the church got a loan of four hundred pounds for repairs; the Church Society, of the Sydney Diocese, paid the interest on this loan. This money was, we believe, used for re-roofing the church with slates, as at present, in place of the old shingles, and for substituting the present wooden ceiling for the original open one; also for cutting down the quaint old three-decker pulpit, which then stood near the centre of the church on the north Bide, and removing it to the south-east corner, where the organ now stands, and for cutting down the old high-back pews, and removing the doors from the same. Some of the old binge marks may still be seen on many of the pews. The pews, at the same time, were re-arranged so as to face the altered position of the pulpit. The baptismal stone font, which now occupies a central position in the church. replaced a wooden one which stood in one of the pews. The rectory was also re-shingled at the same time.

The year 1857 appears to have been one of progress in church affairs in the district, for two new churches were then built in the neighbouring parish—St. John's, Wilberforce; and St. James's, Pitt Town.

The clergyman's vestry of St. Matthew's Church originally stood in the north-east corner, where the pulpit is now placed. When the old pulpit was moved from the centre of the church to the south-east corner, and the seats re-arranged, the vestry was moved to the room from which the stairs to the tower begin. Finally, in the early eighties, the Rev. F.W. Stretton had the vestry placed as at present, under the gallery.





A further idea of the work of the parish will be found in the following extract from a report on the state of religion and education in New South Wales, by W.W. Burton, one of the judges of the Supreme Court, published in 1840:—

Page 189: "The duties of the Rev. Mr. Stiles extended at the commencement of the year 1839, not only over the town and hundred of Windsor, but also over the adjoining town and hundred of Richmond; the Curryjong, which is in the County of Cook, and the Cornwallis, which is on the banks of the Hawkesbury, between the towns of Windsor and Richmond. For neither of these districts was any separate provision made for the ordinances of religion.

"The Church of St. Matthew at Windsor is capable of containing about four hundred and fifty persons, and the chapel at Richmond about one hundred. The number usually attending at the former is about three hundred and twenty, and at the latter sixty. The population of the Curryjong, which is in the County of Cook, consists of about eight hundred persons, comprised in the population of that county, scattered up and down in the gullies of the Blue Mountain Range; it is a very wild and mountainous country. That part called the Cornwallis contains about two hundred or three hundred inhabitants, who are placed very thickly on the rich alluvial farms on the banks of the River Hawkesbury.

"The regular duties of the clergyman at Windsor are two full services, one at each town on Sundays, with a good deal of occasional duty at each place in the way of marriages, churchings, baptisms, and burials. This, with visiting the sick at their own houses, superintending a. Sunday-school at Richmond, and riding from one place to another (the towns being five miles apart) is as much as his time and strength will admit.

"His week-day duties are—a full service at the schoolhouse, in the Curryjong, fifteen miles from home, every alternate Wednesday, where he has succeeded in collecting a little congregation of about thirty adult persons, with the children attending the school. From this place, as the headquarters, he makes pastoral visits to the people round, to facilitate which he used to sleep in the school and proceed on horseback the next day, but this he has not found it necessary to continue.

"In Windsor he has a service every fortnight at the Public Hospital, and another at a like interval in the Town Gaol, in both of which places he converses with the men individually when requisite, and distributes books and tracts among them. "The superintendence of the public schools forms another very important part of his duties; there are three of these under his care, namely, at Windsor, Richmond, and Curryjong, where he regularly visits and examines the children.

"The roads over which the clergyman has to travel in the performance of his duties are very bad. . . . . There is no bridge across the Hawkesbury, and though there is a punt, it scarcely ever is used, so that the river must always be forded, which is just practicable, though far from agreeable. These things, together with the scattered character of the mountain population, make travelling and pastoral visitation by the minister a work of great fatigue."

The Rev. H.T. Stiles died on the 22nd June, 1867, within two days of his sixtieth birthday. His death occurred while the big flood was at about its greatest height, the water having entered the Presbyterian Church in George Street, where large numbers of refugees had slept the previous night. The last duty performed by the dying minister was to order that the church doors of St. Matthew's be opened in order to let the homeless people find a shelter from the rising flood.

The Rev. H.T. Stiles left a legacy of two hundred pounds to the church, which forms part of the present endowment. His family consisted of four sons—Henry, George, Charles, and Clement—and one daughter, Mary, who married the Rev. C.F. Garnsey in 1860. The second hob, the Rev. George Edward Carter Stiles, B.A., was born in St. Matthew's rectory in 1835, and is at present living in retirement at Lindfield, Sydney. Mrs. Stiles died at her son's rectory in Sofala about eight months after her husband's death, and is buried with him in St. Matthew's cemetery. The grave will be seen close to the chancel at the east end. Mrs. Stiles was closely related to the Hole family, well known in connection with the scholastic and banking affairs of the town.

The following is the inscription on the tombstone:—


Born June 24th, 1808, Died June 22nd, 1867.

Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and
he shall go no more out.—Rev. iii., ver. 12.
Lovely and pleasant in their lives. In their deaths they are not divided.


Wife of the Rev. Henry Tarlton Stiles, M.A.,

Born April 10th, 1803. Died March 24th, 1868.

For If we believe that Jesus died and rose again even so them also which
sleep in Jesus will God bring with him.
Their children arise up and call them blessed.

The Rev. H.T. Stiles, M.A., was succeeded by the Rev. Charles F. Garnsey in 1867. He had been teaching a private school in Windsor for some years, and was a son-in-law of the former incumbent, being married on the 27th December, 1860, at St. Matthew's, to Mary Emma, the only daughter of the Rev. H.T. Stiles. The Rev. C.F. Garnsey assisted in the rescue work during the big flood of 1867, and also the great fire of 1874. During his pastorate improvements were made to the organ. He also arranged a big evangelistic mission, conducted by the Rev. H.A. Langley, the church being crowded nightly, and additional seats were brought over from the public school. Mr. Garnsey left in December, 1876, for St. James's Church, Sydney, as assistant. In April, 1878, he was appointed incumbent of the important parish of Christ Church, Sydney. On leaving Windsor he was presented with a valuable gold watch by the parishioners, who also presented him with a silver salver on 20th May, 1873. He died on 3rd December, 1894, aged sixty-seven years.

The Rev. Henry A. Langley was the next incumbent, from 1877 to August, 1878, when he was removed to Prahran, Victoria, and was afterwards Bishop of Bendigo, Victoria, 1902-1906. It was he who secured the land and set in motion the scheme for building the school-hall in New Street.

The Rev. Frederick William Stretton, from Mudgee, followed in 1878. Although he was in rather delicate health, he did much useful work-in the way of church building and the extension of the parish. He had a nice brick church built at Riverstone, and it was in this church he preached his last sermon. He also had St. John's Church built at Colo, and also the church at Vineyard. The pulpit in this church is made from a portion of the old original St. Matthew's pulpit. He also had the school hall erected in New Street in the year 1880, the debt on which stood at five hundred pounds in 1882.

During his pastorate, and with the aid of a curate, services were held at Clydesdale, Riverstone, Vineyard, Wiseman's Terry, Freeman's Reach, North Rocks (now Forrester), and at three places along the Colo River.

He died on the 31st July, 1886, at the early age of thirty-nine years, his wife having predeceased him by only a few months. Their grave may be seen on the west side of the church, near the window next the pulpit. The following inscription is on the tombstone:—



Died 8th February, 1884. Aged 30 Years.

I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come.

Also Her Husband,


Incumbent of St. Matthew's, Windsor, Rural Dean.
Born 13th December, 1845. Died 31st July, 1885.
Good Friday services at Windsor and Riverstone closed
the scene of his labours.

It is finished.—St. John 20th ch., 30th verse.

About the year 1882 the large marble monument was erected in the church grounds near the porch, in memory of Ann Amelia McQuade, who died on the 21st August 1875, aged forty-six years; and her parents, Mr. and Mrs. James Hale, who died in 1857 and 1866 respectively. This costly monument, of Carrara marble, was designed for erection under cover, where it would be protected from wind, dust, and rain. The result of exposure to the weather is seen in the serious discolouration of the white-veined marble, and the falling of several of the beautiful finials, while it is only a matter of time when this thing of beauty will be a ruin. The cost must have been well over two thousand pounds, and it is amongst the finest examples of monumental marble carving and artistic designing to be found in the State. Lovers of the artistic will observe the symbolic cinerary urns, the upturned torches and the laurel wreaths; also the rare clustered columns supporting the large dome stone adorned with some exquisite carving. This work was executed by Antonio Caniparoli, of Carrara, Italy, and was erected by Mr. George Robertson, of Windsor, there being over forty tons of stone put into the foundations.

There are at present seven beautiful stained-glass windows in St. Matthew's Church. The two earliest, on the north side, were put there in 1864, in memory of John Terry, died 1842 ("The call of Matthew"), and Edwin Rouse, died 1862 ("The Raising of Lazarus"). The next pair, on the south side, are in memory of Rev. H.T. Stiles, M.A., died 1867 ("The Preaching of John the Baptist"), and Thomas Wingate, died 1869 ("Gethsemane"). The later windows are—One in memory of Harriet Hordern, died 1872 ("The Stone Rolled Away from the Sepulchre"), and one to Harriett Elias, died 1874 ("Abraham's Faith Tested"). The latest window is in memory of L.N. Wood, died 1888 ("Christ and the Woman of Samaria").

The Rev. A.R. Blacket, B.A., who had been at Bathurst and Blayney, took charge of the parish in 1885. He remained for about three years, when he was removed to Prahran, Victoria, in January, 1890, and went as a missionary to Persia in 1895. During his incumbency the church at Riverstone was placed in the Castle Hill parish, one of the conditions being that the clergyman at Windsor should preach once a month at Riverstone.

In the year 1889 there died a worthy parishioner in the person of Mr. Richard Coley, a legal practitioner of over forty years standing in Windsor. In his will he left the sum of four hundred pounds to St. Matthew's Church. This sum, together with Rev, H.T. Stile's legacy of two hundred pounds, and the rent from the Glebe land at Clarendon, produces an annual endowment of about forty pounds a year to the church.

The Rev. G.A. D'Arcy Irvine, from Parramatta, was settled on 17th February, 1890, remaining until April, 1893, when he removed to Bowral, and afterwards to Wollongong, and then to Sydney. During his pastorate the Rev. H.A. Langley conducted a mission in October, 1892, in St. Matthew's Church.

The out-stations then were:—St. Phillip's, Clydesdale, which was cleaned and renovated after a big Hood that entered the church in 1890, but, owing to a decline in the population, this old church had to be closed up soon afterwards, and portion of the congregation united with Riverstone. Services were also held at Clarendon and Vineyard, with the assistance of lay readers.

Permission was obtained to sell the old school site in Bridge Street, and in March, 1892, the St. Matthew's property was valued for insurance purposes at five thousand pounds, and the parsonage at one thousand pounds.

A very fine pulpit was designed by Mr. John Sulman, F.R.I.A., and constructed of American oak, with some excellent carving, the cost being about one hundred pounds. It was placed where the organ now stands, that instrument being then (1892) in the gallery. This pulpit took the place of a remodelled old pulpit, which once stood in the centre of the church, opposite the present side entrance, but when the church was first opened this structure stood opposite the chancel, where it obstructed the view of the communion table. A portion of this old pulpit is now in use in the Vineyard Church. A new roof was put on the parsonage, and the stabling re-roofed and renovated, and a new line of fence erected along the eastern boundary. The cupola of the tower of the church was repaired, and as none of the church-wardens would venture up to inspect the work, the worthy clergyman himself had to undertake that precarious duty. It was during this incumbency that most of the trees which are growing beside the church were planted.

The Rev. Sydney Glanville Fielding, of Parramatta, was the next incumbent, taking charge in May, 1893. He remained for ten years, until 1903, when he removed to Sydney. This term of office in Windsor was the longest, with the exception of the Rev. H.T. Stiles, who was incumbent for thirty-four years.

In October, 1893, a piano was purchased for the school-hall, at a cost of forty-five pounds. Considerable repairs and improvements were effected to the roof of the chancel and the tower dome of the church. The interior was also improved and decorated, and the organ removed from the gallery and greatly improved, this work being carried out as a memorial of two former deceased clergymen, whose names appear thus on brass tablets on the organ:—"Rev. Charles F. Garnsey, died 3rd December, 1894;" and "Rev. Frederick William Stretton, died 31st July, 1885." The pulpit was at the same time removed to its present location, and the choir seats re-arranged. The Rev. S.G. Fielding also had the old bible re-bound. This Bible was presented to St Matthew's Church in 1822 by the S.P.C.K., of London. The Cambridge crest on the title page of the Bible is backed with a view of King's College on the left, and the Senate House on the right, the publishing date being 1821. Mrs. Eather succeeded Mr. F.J. Mortley as organist in February, 1895. In 1896 the brass alms dish was presented by Mr. G.D. Wood.

The Rev. Philip William Dowe, B.A., whose previous parishes were Blackheath and Holy Trinity (Sydney), took charge in 1904, and remained until 1906, when he removed to Bulli. The Rev. Norman Louis James Jenkyn, the present incumbent, came in 1906, from Bulli.

The later improvements include some new windows, in 1910, and chancel tiling, 1912, costing about four hundred pounds.

The laymen taking an active interest in St. Matthew's Church, and holding office for a considerable period as trustees, wardens, sidesmen, Sunday-School teachers, and in other ways, are very many, but the earliest records are not available, so that the list is not as complete as desirable. We give a short list, with the earliest date of service which extended from five to ten years on to much longer periods; but our readers will understand that the list given is only suggestive, and we cannot claim that it is in any sense complete. In the thirties William Cox and Captain Brabyn, and later Samuel North. In 1857 the names of Robert Fitzgerald, Laban White, William Kemp, and Joseph Cope appear; then R. Dunston, Francis Hole, Richard Coley, Thomas Tebbutt, John Tebbutt, Jas. Ascough, J.A. Dawson, and S. Edgerton in the sixties. Thomas Primrose, Charles Hole, 1876; Stephen Gow, William Primrose, Francis Howard, 1882; Adolphus Tuckerman, 1886; W.H.B. Piddington, W.H. H. Becke, Joseph W. Ward, 1888; L. Barnett, 1889; Thomas Lobb, Thomas Wall, 1890; J.J. Paine, 1891; Francis Simon, Robert A. Pye, Arthur J. Berckelman, 1895; George C. Kirwan, 1896; and later J.G. Beazley.



THE first Presbyterian Church built in Australasia was the Ebenezer Church at Portland Head, on the Hawkesbury River. It was erected in 1809, is still in use, and is the oldest church in the Commonwealth of any denomination. It was built by a number of free immigrants who settled on the banks of the Hawkesbury, and who were desirous of worshipping according to the faith of their fathers, although there was then no Presbyterian clergyman in the colony, Dr. Lang, in 1824, being the first of such to occupy the pulpit. James Mein, an elder, and one of themselves, discharged the duty of leader, assisted by visiting clergymen of other denominations, such as the Rev. S. Leigh, Wesleyan, in 1815-17, and the Rev. J. Youl, who had charge of the day-school in the same building. James Mean died on 3rd July, 1827, at the age of sixty-six years. His grave will be seen in the lower corner of the grave-yard at Ebenezer. Governor Bligh, writing in 1807, says: "Jas. Mein's is the only congregation in New South Wales not under Government chaplains."

The first settled minister was the Rev. John Cleland, M.A., and he lived in Court Street, Windsor, in the thirties, in a house near the tannery and the gaol. Mr. Cleland died llth March, 1839, and was buried at Ebenezer.

For many years the members of the Presbyterian Church in Windsor journeyed out to Ebenezer at the sacrament season, as is indicated by the inscription in the pulpit Bible at Ebenezer, which was a gift from the Windsor friends at the time of the Rev. Geo. Macfie, 1843-67.

The Windsor Presbyterian Register is dated 1836, but the first entries were made on 21st February, 1838, by the Rev. James Fullerton, the father of Dr. A.Y. Fullerton, late of Windsor. The first services were held in the court-house, where the Rev, J. Fullerton, and at times, the Rev. John Cleland, of Ebenezer, used to hold service. The church attendance in 1839 numbered from thirty to seventy.

The Rev. Mathew Adam began duty in 1839. The exact date is not available, but we note that the first entry made by Mr. Adam in the church register is a marriage on 15th July, 1839. From that year till his death, on 15th January, 1863, a period of nearly twenty-four years, he was the minister of this parish. The Rev. M. Adam came from Glasgow In 1837.

The present church was built in 1842 on a grant of two roods twenty-four perches appropriated for this purpose in 1833. The following extract from the Sydney Morning Herald of September 27, 1842, regarding the building is of interest:—

"News from the Interior.—Windsor—Scots Church:—It is much to be regretted that this neat and beautiful new building has not yet been opened. The whole of the edifice is complete, except the pews and other inside work; but for the want of funds, operations are at a standstill. An appeal ought, without delay, to be made to the public, and several individuals make personal application, which frequently have a greater effect than vague and general announcements. If this were done there is little doubt but the result would be successful, and there is no lack of persons who are at all times ready and willing to come forward in such a cause, and to help their Christian brethren in so laudable an undertaking."

The church was opened on 8th January, 1843. The following is a copy of the advertisement relating to the opening services, taken from the S.M. Herald, January, 1843:—

"Scotch Church, Windsor.—This Church will be opened on Sabbath next, 8th January, 1843. Rev. K.D. Smythe, of Bathurst, and the Rev. H.R. Gilchrist, of Camp bell town, will officiate. Services, eleven a.m. and three p.m. Collection to assist in defraying expenses of the building."

Of those present at these opening services the last survivors were Mr. Robert Dick, the Hon. W. Walker, Mrs. Neilson, and Mrs. Adam.

The Rev. M. Adam was married in 1859 to Mrs. Agnes Hutchinson. He was Moderator of the Synod of Australia in the year 1857. He took a keen interest in the Hawkesbury Benevolent Society, being a member of the committee for twenty-two years, and was the vice-president at the time of his death. Mr. Adam also taught a private school, first in Mileham Street, and afterwards, from 1845, at "Fairfield", where he resided. A mural tablet in the Windsor Church records the gratitude of those whom he assisted with their education. It is inscribed:—

To the Memory of the


First Minister of this Church, in which he laboured as a faithful servant of Christ for twenty [? 23] years.

This Tablet is erected in grateful remembrance of his merits as a Teacher, a Pastor and a Friend, by a number of young men who were indebted to him for their education.

He arrived in the Colony from Glasgow in 1837, and died 15th January, 1868, aged 52 years.

Blessed an the dead which die in the Lord.—Rev. 14-13.

The next minister was the Rev. David Moore, B.A., who took charge on the 31st March, 1863, continuing till 7th September, 1869, when he removed to Pitt Town, remaining there for about fourteen years. He died 21st February, 1010, aged ninety years, and was buried in the Pitt Town Presbyterian Church grounds. Mr. Moore only gave afternoon services to Windsor after his removal, which did not please the congregation, so they joined with the Congregational Church for a few years.

In 1871-2, the pulpit was supplied by the Rev. J. Dymock. A fresh impetus was given to the church by the settlement of the Rev. Patrick Fitzgerald, who began work in Windsor in August, 1872, and after a time was duly called and settled, remaining for some twenty-four years, when he retired in 1896, on account of advancing years. He afterwards went to live with his relatives in New Zealand, where he died, at the age of seventy-nine years, in December, 1902. Mrs. Fitzgerald died in June, 1897, at the age of seventy-five years. She and her husband were greatly beloved. During his pastorate Mr. Fitzgerald started services, in 1882, at Riverstone, where he did good work, and laid well the foundation of that branch of the charge. He helped and encouraged the noble little band in the building of a church, which gave permanence to the cause.

Rev. C.A. White, B.A., fresh from St. Andrew's College, was next called and settled, in 1896, and he worked with great energy, having the church thoroughly renovated and repaired at considerable expense in 1897. Mr. White was called to Wollongong in 1900.

He was followed by the Rev. Alexander Dandie, who retired on account of advancing years, in 1912, but he only lived a few months after his retirement, as he died on 17th December, 1912, aged seventy-two years.

The Rev. James Steele succeeded Mr. Dandie on 16th October, 1912.

Amongst the leading laymen in the church in the past years, we find:—Mr. George Walker and his son, the Hon. William Walker, M.L.C., Mr. Thomas Cadell and his son, Mr. Geo. R. Cadell, Mr. Robert Dick and his brother, Mr. James A. Dick, Dr. J. Gibson, Mr. D. Scotland, and Mr. William S. Hall.

A site for a manse was dedicated on 14th March, 1851, in Thompson Square, near the Windsor Bridge, containing one rood seven perches. A portion of this (six perches) was resumed for public road purposes on 25th January, 1899. The rest of the land was disposed of when the present manse was purchased, in 1902, as it was not suitable for manse purposes.



THE Methodist Church, formerly known as the Wesley an Church, has a very long and interesting history in Windsor. The first Wesleyan class-meeting was held in 1812, when six members were enrolled, and the number soon increased to nineteen.

A small Wesleyan school was also taught by Edward Eagar (an emancipist lawyer), who also conducted divine service, and the same year, 1812, efforts were started to raise funds to build a chapel. An appeal was made in 1816 to the Missionary Society in London for assistance to have this building erected.

The Rev. S. Leigh arrived in the colony in the Hebe on 15th August, 1815. Ha was a personal friend of the Rev. Samuel Marsden, Church of England Senior Chaplain, and they travelled to and from New Zealand together. Mr. Marsden had a large farm, portion of which extended right into the town of Windsor, and, knowing the desire for the erection of a chapel in Windsor, he presented Mr. Leigh with the site on which the church now stands. The foundation stone of a brick chapel, thirty-two feet by sixteen feet, was laid by the Rev. S. Leigh, on 13th September, 1818, the Rev. Walter Lawry, of Parramatta, who arrived in New South Wales the same year, assisting. This chapel was opened by the Rev. B. Carvosso in 1820, and a house was bought for him, at a cost of two hundred and seventy pounds, known as the Mission House.

The Rev. B. Carvosso arrived in New South Wales in 1820, and was settled at Windsor the same year. He was in Sydney and Parramatta about the years 1822-5, and went to Hobart Town in May, 1825. He returned to England in 1830. A son, William, who was born in the Mission House, Windsor, died in England, in 1842. His father wrote a small biography of him, entitled, Attractive Piety, published in 1847. The Rev. B. Carvosso died 2nd October, 1854.

The Wesleyan Church took a keen interest in missionary affairs, especially from 1820 to 1830, and some large missionary meetings were held. At one, on 20th August, 1828, Lieut. A. Bell presided, and the speakers were Rev. S. Leigh, Rev. W. Horton, Rev. R. Mansfield, and Messrs. Tebbutt, A. Still, and R. Fitz. In the year 1826 the members of the Windsor chapel raised the large sum of three hundred and fifty-six pounds, nineteen shillings for missionary work.

The leading Wesleyan laymen in these early days were:—Messrs. H.C. Stockfish, M. Hughes (who was the schoolmaster at Richmond, and formerly at Windsor), R. and P. Martin, W. Price, M. and G. Everingham (a Matthew James Everingham died on 25th December, 1817, aged forty-eight years, and was buried in St. John's cemetery, Wilberforce), D.B. Kirwan, J.J. Walker (the ancestor of many Methodist ministers), J. Cotton, and Robert Fitz. The latter was the local C.P.S. from 1817 to 1835, and he arrived in the colony in the Pitt on 11th April, 1806.

So rapid was the church's growth that it was decided to build a larger church, the foundation stone being laid on 17th October, 1838, by the Rev. W. Schofield, and the church, measuring fifty by thirty feet, capable of seating one hundred and fifty people, and costing one thousand and twenty pounds, was opened on 4th December, 1839, during the pastorate of Rev. S. Wilkinson and Rev. F. Lewis. This is the church that was burnt down in the big fire of 1874 (see Chapter I.).

The Rev. F. Lewis was a great temperance enthusiast. He was also a keen politician, and a Bowmanite in 1843, the result being that the windows of tho, church were smashed in the election riots (see Chapter XXVIII.).

The Richmond Church was built in 1841, and in the fifties there were six chapels and seven preaching places in the Windsor circuit.

In 1856, the Rev. Peter Turner, who was a missionary in Samoa from 1831 to 1853, came to reside in Windsor, remaining till his death on 2nd November, 1873, at the age of seventy-two years. A tablet in the church commemorates his name and work.

In 1861 the present school-house was built, and opened with a bazaar on 16-18th July, 1861. Strange to say, it escaped the fire in 1874, when the church and all the surrounding buildings were laid low. This hall was built to accommodate the Wesleyan day-school.

The foundation stone of the present church was laid on 8th December, 1875. Among those present, as circuit minister for a second term, was the Rev. S. Wilkinson, who was also present when the foundation stone of the burnt church was laid, in 1838. The foundation stones of this church were laid by Rev. J.H. Fletcher and Messrs. John Dawson and John Ducker. The church, which measures fifty-two feet by thirty-two feet, and cost two thousand and eighty pounds, was opened on 30th August, 1876, when a collection of four hundred pounds was taken, leaving a debt of six hundred and forty pounds on the building, which had been reduced to one hundred and sixty-four pounds in the year 1882, and has long since been cleared off.

The chief laymen during the seventies throughout the whole circuit were:—William Dean, J.S. Bushby, W.I. Crew, John Galloway, William C. Gambrill, John Lane, J. Alderson, J. Dawson, Robert Smith, W. Paul, G. Yeates, W.F. Linsley, and William Chandler. It is notable the large number of the above who were engaged in the leather trade—in tanning, harness and boot lines. From thirty to forty years of active service were given by J.S. Busby and John Lane.

The church was free of debt in 1892. In 1895 the organ and choir were removed to the front of the church, on the left side of the pulpit. In 1895 the parsonage was renovated, and a new roof put on the school-room.

A tablet was placed in the church to the memory of a worth; citizen, William Dean, who died 3rd December, 1882, aged fifty-one years. He was the father of Mr. William H. Dean, the present Mayor of Windsor, and came to Windsor about the year 1861. He was honorary secretary to the Flood Relief Committee in 1864. To him we owe much of the tree-planting and the improvement of the park. He was a member of the School Board, and honorary secretary of the Benevolent Society for eight years. He was also one of the prime movers in the erection of the Methodist Church and parsonage, in the seventies.

The Methodist Church itinerant system calls for many changes in the ministry of their various circuits. We venture on a list of those who have from the earliest time been settled in Windsor, giving the year of settlement and the dates of the decease as far as we have been able to glean such. Rev. S. Leigh, who travelled round the whole of the early settlements from his arrival, in 1815, was the first Wesleyan clergyman to visit Windsor. He died 2nd May, 1852:—

Rev. B. Carvosso, 1820, died 2nd October, 1854.

Rev. R. Mansfield, 1822.

Rev. G. Erskine, 1828, died 30th April, 1834.

Rev. J. Hutchinson, 1832.

Rev. W. Simpson, 1833, died 20th July, 1878.

Rev. W. Schofield, 1835 (first time), died 9th June, 1878. He arrived in N.S.W. in 1835.

Rev. S. Wilkinson, 1838 (first time), died 26th December, 1899, aged 82.

Rev. F. Lewis, 1839, died 12th March, 1863. Arrived 1836.

Rev. Jonathan Innes, 1843, died 6th May, 1864, aged 55.

Rev. W. Schofield, 1847 (second time), died 9th June, 1878.

Rev. Jas. Somerville, 1860 (first time), died 22nd January, 1899.

Rev. Jos. Oram, 1851, died 21st April, 1898.

Rev. Jos. Fillingham, 1852, died 25th February, 1869.

Rev. J.G. Turner, 1855.

Rev. Peter Turner, 1855, died 2nd November, 1873. (A retired missionary resident in Windsor.)

Rev. Nathaniel Turner, 1855, died 6th December, 1861.

Rev. Jas. Watkins, 1855, died 14th May, 1886.

Rev. W. Davis, 1858.

Rev. George Woolnough, 1859.

Rev. Chas. Creed, 1862, died 18th February, 1879.

Rev. J.W. Dowson, 1863 (deceased).

Rev. J.A. Nolan, 1865 (deceased).

Rev. W. Fidler, 1867, died 7th October, 1874.

Rev. R. Sellors, 1870.

Rev. F.J. Brentnall, 1871.

Rev. S. Wilkinson, 1874 (second time), died 26th December, 1899.

Rev. J. Somerville, 1874 (second time), died 21st January, 1899.

Rev. J. Monahan, 1876.

Rev. R. Caldwell, 1879.

Rev. Wm. Moore, 1882, died September, 1893.

Rev. J.S. Austin, 1886.

Rev. Wm. Hill, 1888 (deceased).

Rev. J.W. Moore, 1889.

Rev. H. Woodhouse, 1891 (deceased).

Rev. B. Dinning, 1892.

Rev. W.H. Rogers, 1895.

Rev. Wm. Glasson, 1896.

Rev. Alfred Swift, 1899 (deceased).

Rev. J.W. Winspear, 1903 (deceased).

Rev. Henry Jones, 1904 (deceased).

Rev. James Colwell, 1906.

Rev. Gustavus Thompson, 1909.

Rev. D.A. Gilsenan, 1911.

Rev. G.A. Reeve, 1915.



THE first Congregational services held in Windsor were conducted by Mr. J.D. Brown, in the year 1866, the meetings being held in the School of Arts until 1867. Services were also held at Freeman's Reach. Mr. J. D. Brown was afterwards in charge of the Baptist Church, St. Mary's, for over sixteen years, resigning in 1897 and settling at Ebenezer, where, surrounded by his many relatives and friends, he is still able to conduct services, although in his 89th year.

Mr. F.H. Brown, a student from Camden College, took charge of the Windsor Congregational Church on 28th October, 1868, and remained till he was called to Petersham in October, 1871. The Rev. F.H. Brown afterwards laboured in Queensland, and then in Richmond (Victoria), where he was greatly esteemed. During his residence in Windsor the present church was erected. The foundation stone was laid by Mr. James Tab-fax, of Sydney, on Good Friday, the 26th of March, 1869, and the church was opened by the Rev. Thomas Johnson on 24th August, 1869, Mr. F.H. Brown being ordained at the same time. A special train, bringing two hundred passengers, was run from Sydney in connection with the opening services on 29th August, 1869.

About this time the Presbyterian Church was in difficulties, and without a minister, and the congregation joined with the Congregationalists, which necessitated the erection of a gallery in the year 1871. The Rev. P. Fitzgerald, however, re-opened the Presbyterian Church in 1872, and sounded the recall of the Scottish clans to the "auld kirk".

On the 26th January, 1872, Rev. J.F. Cullen took charge of the Congregational Church and remained until 14th July, 1874. The debt on the church was at this time reduced to fifty-seven pounds. Mr. Cullen afterwards entered Parliament, and was a brother of the present Chief Justice of New South Wales.

The Rev. W. Webster was the next minister, from 1874 till 1st September, 1875. He also started a day-school in Windsor, but it was not long in evidence. He was at Geeveston, Tasmania, in later years, and went to the Old Country in 1897.

Mr. E. Leach had charge from 4th October, 1876, to 4th July, 1877. He also kept a day-school.

After a vacancy of two years, Mr. F.C.B. Fairey was settled in November, 1879, remaining until November, 1881. It was during his term that the minister's residence was built, a very successful bazaar being held in aid of the same on 24th to 26th November, 1881, netting seventy pounds. Mr. Fairey was an oarsman of considerable skill, and traversed the Hawkesbury in his Rob Roy canoe. He visited the Old Land in 1882, and was accustomed to give lectures on his canoe experiences. The famous canoe was burnt in Adelaide some years ago.

The next minister was the Rev. W. Mathieson, who came in December, 1881, remaining for four years, a longer period than any of his predecessors. He left in 1885, and was for a long time settled in Croydon.

Mr. Morgan Williams came next, in January, 1886, and remained till March, 1889. He afterwards visited England, but died shortly after his return on 21st September, 1891.

The Rev. B. Rhodes was minister of the charge from January, 1890, up to August, 1892. He entered with great zeal into the work of the church, his special sermons being frequently reported in the local press. He also took an active part in the School of Arts, and other local interests. Mr. Rhodes worked up the Freeman's Reach portion of the charge, raising funds for enlarging the church. He went from Windsor to Rookwood, then to New Zealand, and afterwards to Milton, N.S.W. He has retired from active work, and resides at Mosman.

The Rev. Thomas Moore, an ex-Methodist minister, from Bundaberg, Queensland, came next, in April, 1893, holding the record for length of pastorate by remaining till 1898, six years in all. During his pastorate the church suffered a great loss in the death of Mr. William Beard, on 27th July, 1897. About this time the Congregational Union subsidised the local church to the extent of fifty pounds a year.

After Mr. Moore left there was a prolonged vacancy of some four years, when Mr. H. Hughes and Mr. J. Henderson kept the flag flying for two or three years. After another long vacancy of over six years without a settled pastor, the Rev. F.C.B. Fairey returned in 1910 to the work of the charge, remaining for about two years, since when there has been no settled pastor.

The leading laymen in the Congregational Church have been: Messrs. J.D. Brown and William Beard, who were the first deacons appointed in 1866; Messrs. G. Bonamey, C. Westall, of Freeman's Reach, John Mills, U.F. Robinson, all of whom were among the original members; and later on, Messrs. Faux, William Slaughter, S.T. Greenwell, and G.S. Greenwell. Among these laymen were some of the leading business men in Windsor, and men of real sterling character they were.



THE Rev. Jas. Dixon, who was sent out, in 1800 for taking part in the Irish insurrection, was given permission to perform Divine Service, and in this capacity he visited the Hawkesbury in 1803. He, however, left the colony in 1808.

The Rev. J.J. Therry, who arrived in 1820, was the first duly authorised clergyman of this church to visit the district. His parish included Sydney, Wollongong, Parramatta, Penrith, and Liverpool, as well as Windsor. We believe be visited this part of the parish as early as 1821, but his periodical visits were "like those of angels, short and far between," for there is left on record a letter, dated Windsor, 4th August, 1827, from one Patrick Sulivan to the Rev. J.J. Therry, in which he complained that the R.C. prisoners were locked up for two hours each Sunday while the Protestant prisoners went to service.

Next we find that the Rev. C.V. Dowling was appointed a chaplain in 1835 for the Hawkesbury. Occasional visits were also made by the Rev. J.J. Therry and Dr. W.B. Ullathorne, and others, when services were held in private houses and in a temporary chapel in Macquarie Street—perhaps on the vacant land near the cemetery.

The first permanent appointment was the Rev. J.V. Cocoran, in 1835, but unfortunately he was thrown from his vehicle and killed whilst driving from Windsor to Sydney on 4th August, 1837. He was followed by Rev. John Brady.

A grant of land, three acres one rood thirty-nine and a half perches, was appropriated in 1833 for a Roman Catholic Church and cemetery. The cemetery has been in use since 1822, and probably earlier. Subsequently one acre one rood thirty-five perches of this land was set aside for R.C. school purposes.

In 1836 Judge Burton reports that there was a congregation of two hundred and fifty, and a larger church was being built, and a day-school with sixty-seven boys and thirty-seven girls in attendance. This is probably the school taught by James Cassidy, 1836-44.

In the year 1837 an appropriation of two roods one perch at the corner of Church and Tebbutt Streets was made for a church and school, and the deeds were finally issued as for a church and presbytery. We might here mention that as late as the year 1834 the plan of Windsor shows the present Tebbutt and Church Streets as being part of the Church Green and an adjacent farm known as "Catherine Farm".

The foundation stone of the present church was laid by Rev. Dr. Polding on 28th December, 1836. The church, which is of Gothic design, was opened on 21st October, 1840, by Dr. Polding, assisted by Rev. Dr. Ullathorne. The band of the 80th Regiment took part in the opening ceremonies. The pipe organ was presented by Mr. William McQuade.

In the year 1840 there were three chapels under the care of the Rev. J. Brady, who remained in the parish for about four years, when he was succeeded by the Rev. T.F. McCarthy in the year 1843; Rev. John Grant, 1848; Rev. M.J. Coffey, 1851. The latter died in Parramatta in 1857. In the year 1852 the Rev. Dean Hallinan was appointed, and remained for twenty-two years, being highly esteemed by all classes of the community. On his leaving in 1874 he was presented with a purse of one hundred and fifteen pounds, and an address from all the denominations. He went to Manly, and afterwards to Ryde in 1896, or earlier.

The Rev. S.J.A. Sheehy took charge in 1874, and remained for twelve years. The presbytery, next the church, was built in his time, in 1878, the former presbytery standing where the present convent is.

In 1877 Richmond was made into a separate parish. Other services were held at Kurrajong, Caddai, and Nelson.

The convent, which had hitherto been in Macquarie Street, near the hospital, was removed to the present location, extensive alterations being made to the old presbytery building. The foundation stone of St. Joseph's Convent Chapel was laid on 20th August, 1882, by Archbishop Vaughan. The collection taken on the occasion amounted to one hundred and twenty-nine pounds. The church was renovated about the same time. St. John's Church, at Riverstone, was opened on 2nd July, 1882.

The next priest in charge was Rev. John Hayes, who came from Wollongong in 1886, and was in charge for twelve years, up to the time of his death in 1897. He appears to have been in very poor health for the last year or two, and took frequent changes. He died at the age of fifty-three years, on 3rd December, 1897, and was buried in the local R.C. cemetery on 6th December, fifty priests being present from Sydney and the surrounding parishes.

In 1895 the church was re-roofed and handsomely, decorated internally.

The present occupant of the parish, the Rev. B. McDonnell took charge in 1898, and has already been longer in the parish than any of his predecessors, with the exception of Dean Hallinan.

The clergy in charge of the church in the adjoining town of Richmond have been: Rev. P. Cassidy, 1877-78; Rev. D.M. O'Connell, 1878-89; Rev. J. Grace, 1890-92; Rev. E. Hanahan, 1893-96; Rev. M.E. O'Brien, who took charge in 1896, and died September, 1915.



THE historian finds much of interest amidst the silence of "God's Acre." In the earliest days of the Hawkesbury it was usual to inter the dead within the precincts of private farms and grounds. The land between the Fitzroy Bridge and Carrington Hotel, we understand, was a cemetery prior to October, 1810. It is so shown on an old plan of Windsor, in the Mitchell Library, describing a big flood on 2nd June, 1816. The present site of St. Matthew's Anglican Church was set apart as a public burying ground, Andrew Thompson being the first person buried there, in October, 1810, where his tomb may still be seen. This church yard and burial ground contains three acres twenty-three perches, and was appropriated in 1833, but was first marked out for the use of settlers in 1810. The following extract is from Government and General Order, dated 11th May, 1811, by his Excellency Governor Macquarie:

"Country Burial Grounds:—The respective burial grounds which were sometimes since marked out for the accommodation of the settlers in the several townships of Liverpool, Windsor, Richmond, Pitt Town, Castlereagh, and Wilberforce having been lately consecrated by the Principal Chaplain, his Excellency the Governor is pleased to give this public notice thereof, and at the same time directs and commands that in future all settlers and other residents within those townships, or in their respective vicinities, shall cease to bury their dead as heretofore within their several farms, and shall in a decent and becoming manner inter them in the consecrated grounds now assigned for that purpose in their respective townships.

"It is further ordered that when a death shall happen, notice of the event shall be immediately given to the constable of the district wherein it has occurred; and the constable receiving such information is hereby directed to communicate the same to the nearest resident Chaplain in order that he may attend and perform the funeral service. Any neglect of these orders will be severely punished. It is a sacred duty incumbent on all to guard and protect the remains of their deceased friends from every unnecessary exposure, it hence becomes necessary that the several consecrated burial grounds should be speedily enclosed in a decent manner; and his Excellency the Governor trusts and expects that the settlers themselves will feel the propriety of immediately entering into a subscription for the enclosure of them, either by a good wall or strong pallisadoes. In order to the carrying this measure into the more immediate effect, his Excellency is pleased to say that he will contribute on the part of the Government ten pounds sterling towards the enclosure of each of the aforesaid consecrated burial grounds."

Amongst the more historical and interesting graves in St. Matthew's churchyard are:

The oldest: Andrew Thompson, 1810; Jemima Forrest, 1811; John Merritt, 1812.

Military Men: John Brabyn, 1838; William Cox, 1837; Samuel Edgerton, 1878.

Medical Men: Dr. T. Arndell, 1821; Dr. W.F. Stewart, 1868.

Lawyers: Francis Beddek, 1852; Richard Coley, 1889.

Clergymen: Rev. H.T. Stiles, 1867: Rev. F.W. Stretton, 1885.

Public Officers: Richard Fitzgerald, 1840; Robert Fitzgerald, 1865; George A. Gordon, 1909; William H. H. Becke, 1910.

The greatest age recorded is that of Simon Freebody, who died on 27th December, 1856, at the age of one hundred and three years. This record will be seen on a flat stone to the east of the church.

The Roman Catholic Cemetery

was appropriated in 1833, containing three acres one rood, thirty-nine and a half perches in all. The oldest vault is apparently that of Patrick Cullen, 1822. Numbers of well-known public men are buried here, including the McQuades, J.A. Cuneen, M.L.A., 1889; Rev. Joseph Butler, M.A., 1889; Rev. J. Hayes. 1897; the Eather family, drowned in the 1867 flood; J.J. Fitzpatrick, 1899; Edward J. Raper, B.A.

The Presbyterian Cemetery

contains two acres, three roods, twenty-one perches, and was appropriated in 1833. The earliest decipherable date on a tombstone is that of Mary Smith, 1838. Amongst the leading citizens buried here are: Thomas Cadell, 1857; George Walker, 1883; Hon. William Walker, 1908; Rev. Mathew Adam, 1863; Mrs. Adam, 1911; Robert Dick, 1898; James A. Dick, 1900; and members of the Neilson family.

The Methodist and Congregational Cemetery,

at Magrath's Hill, dates only from about the year 1850. These churches formerly used the Presbyterian burial ground. Among other well-known business men buried there are: William Beard, senior, 1880; John Crew, 1862; William Alderson, 1865; William Dean, 1882; John Galloway, 1894; William F. Linsley, 1903; and the Rev. Peter Turner, 1873.

General Cemetery.

Several efforts have been made from time to time to establish a general cemetery with a view to closing those now in use in the town, but so far without success. Three sites have been suggested, one in Newtown, between Macquarie, George, James, and Drummond Streets. Another was gazetted, fenced and cleared in 1895, on the Penrith road, opposite the old Grammar School. This site of nineteen acres, three roods, thirty-nine perches was dedicated on 2nd December, 1887, but objection was taken to its proximity to the Grammar School. The latest site is on the south of the road forming the easterly continuation of Ham Street, containing eighteen acres, three roods, sixteen perches, and was dedicated on 24th July, 1897, but it has not been either cleared or fenced, and no burials have been made.

The following general cemetery trustees were appointed in 1897: Church of England: Messrs. J.J. Paine, T. Lobb, W.H.H. Becke, J.W. Ward, J. Boss, T. Primrose, and A.J. Berckelman. Presbyterian Church: Messrs. William Walker, J.A. Dick, J. Dick, Smith, Brinsley Hall, and George Robertson. Methodist Church: Messrs. J.S. Busby, John Lane, W.H. Dean, Edgar Board, G.B. Maisey, and P.T. Douglass. Roman Catholic Church: Messrs. D. Holland and G. McCauley.



First School and Church.

AS early as the year 1802 the Hawkesbury settlers first attempted by subscriptions to raise funds to build a school.

On 30th October, 1802, Governor King, writing to Lord Hobart, says: "There are two hundred and sixteen children in the Hawkesbury district, and the settlers are getting up a subscription to build a school." (See Historical Records, vol. 4, page 876.) This effort, however, failed, but two years later a more successful movement was made with Government assistance. In his despatches, dated 10th and 14th August, 1804, Governor King reports that he had caused bricks to be burned, and a spacious brick building of two stories, and measuring one hundred feet by twenty-four feet, was then being roofed over, and would be completed about October. A missionary named—Harris, from Otaheite was available as a teacher.

The settlers agreed to pay at the rate of twopence per acre held by them for a period of fourteen years to maintain a school teacher who would also perform Divine service. (See Historical Records, vol. 5, pages 412-13, 425.)

The following extract is from a General Order issued on 10th August, 1804:—

"A school-room and chapel has been erected at the Hawkesbury by the Government for the benefit of settlers in that district.

"All for whom the benefit is designed are invited 60 become subscribers for supporting the institution and maintaining the chaplain and preceptor by the payment of twopence for each acre of land they possess. All regulations to be determined by sis subscribers and two magistrates, one of whom is to be the principal chaplain."

The site of this school building was behind the Courthouse, which was not then built, and close to the site of Thompson's original bridge, which was in a line with Catherine Street, Peninsula, below the tannery, just where the South Creek makes a sharp bend to the south. The building is marked on two old plans of Windsor, dated 1827 and 1834, as Government stables, formerly school-house.

The school was opened in August, 1805, the first teacher being probably one of the missionaries from Otaheite.

It was only in use as a school and church for a very short time. Probably the big flood in 1806 drove them on to higher ground, for in 1810 we find a large three-story granary was in use as a temporary church and school. This was situated on the site of the present School of Arts.

On 18th April, 1811, a public meeting was held to lake steps for the erection of a school and church (see Chapter VII.).

The outcome of this meeting was the erection of a three-story church and school on a site just behind the present School of Arts, where a school was conducted by various teachers for about thirty years.

It would be interesting to know more of the early teachers, but all we can trace is the appointment of Matthew Hughes, who arrived in the Britannia, and taught first at Kissing Point, near Sydney (1800 to 1810), then in Windsor from 1810-13. Two interesting letters from Matthew Hughes appear in the Historical Records, vol. 7, pages 277, 284. He had a large family, the eldest daughter being Susanah, born before the year 1818. Some of the younger members of the family are still living in the district, at an advanced age. Matthew Hughes was transferred to the Richmond school in 1813, where he remained till 1833. He died on December 25th, 1845.

The next teacher of this school, which was under the auspices of and property of the Church of England, was Joseph Harpur, who, with his wife, Sarah Harpur, arrived in the colony by the ships Royal Admiral and Alexander. They had a family of four children. The eldest, Elizabeth Harpur, died at Surry Hills, Sydney, in October, 1895. Joseph, the second, became a journalist in the Hunter River district about the forties. Charles was the well-known Australian poet. He was born in Windsor, 23rd January, 1813. He was baptised in St. Matthew's Church, 23rd May, 1813, by the Rev. Robt. Cartwright, his name being number one hundred and sixty-seven in the old Baptism Register. He studied for a lawyer, but was in the Government service at Araluen in the late fifties. He died at his farm, near Eurobodalla, on the South Coast, on 10th June, 1868, and was buried on his farm. He married, in 1850, Mary Doyle, who published a number of his poems after his death. The youngest of Joseph Harpur's sons was John Mileham, whose second christian name is that of a well-known medico at Windsor (1813-23).

Joseph Harpur taught the school, and also held the office of parish clerk, from 1813 to 1826. He retired on a pension about the year 1843, and after trying to establish a business in Windsor, he retired to Sydney.

Other teachers were: Mr. Gregory, 1826-27; William Edney, 1827-29; Charles and Mrs. Sommers, 1829-37; and James Daley, 1840-41.

About the year 1841 another school was built a little to the south-east, between the former school and church and the police barracks, on the site of Mr. George Boyd's cottage in Bridge Street. Mr. Ed. Quaife was the first, teacher. Mr. John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S., was among the first scholars. Mr. Quaife taught here for about twenty-five years, 1841-1865.

Later teachers were: William Jordan (1868) and William Henry Bailey (1869-75). Mr. Bailey afterwards kept a store at Castle Hill. He died on 6th January, 1896, aged fifty-five years.

The last teacher on this historic site, or sites, was 8. Russell, who had been in charge of the Wilberforce school for a couple of years, and removed to Windsor in 1875, and remained till about 1882, when he retired, and was presented with a gold watch. The school was then closed up.

Further reference to the history and disposal of the site of the school will be found under the beading of St. Matthew's Church in Chapter VII.

There were other Church of England schools in the early days in the district, besides Windsor and Richmond.

At Wilberforce a school was taught by Mr. P. Thompson (1815-20), then by William Gow (1822-42). The descendants of the last-named are well represented in the district to-day. Of his eons we find that William went to Goulburn, James to St. Mary's, Thomas died in Penrith in March, 1897, aged sixty-seven years; while Stephen Gow died in Windsor, 13th May, 1914, aged ninety-one years.

Later teachers at Wilberforce were: John Wenban, 1844; E.E. Hinder, 1863-71; J.F. Nash, 1872-74; and S. Russell, 1874-75.

At Pitt Town there was a school taught from 1822-42 by T.D. Wood; then by G. Baker, 1843-44; J.F. Hughes, 1863-64; G. Hughes, 1865; W. Bass, 1868; W.J. Quick, 1869-70; G. Lambert, 1871-73; G.W. Webb, 1873-74; and A.M. Wellwood, 1874-75.

There was also a national school at Pitt Town, taught by M. Willis, 1861-72.

At Sackville Reach the first teacher was J. Cotton, 1827-37.

Presbyterian Schools.

Of other denominational schools in the district, the earliest was the Presbyterian at Portland Head, or Ebenezer, where a school was taught in 1809, and for some years later by the Rev. J. Youl (see Chapter II., Pioneers). This school was taught for thirty-four years by John Anderson, 1823-58. Mr. Anderson arrived from Stirling, in Scotland, in 1821, and died on 16th July, 1858, aged sixty-five years. His tomb in Ebenezer churchyard is visited by many of his old pupils on each Anniversary Day, during the annual fete held there.

A later teacher was E. Chatterton, 1863-64. He afterwards taught the National School at Sackville Beach in 1871-74.

Matthew Long McFetridge taught the school from 1865 to 1875. He died on 10th September, 1890, aged eighty-two years. His eon, aged nineteen, was killed by blacks in Queensland, in March, 1876.

In Windsor the first Presbyterian school was taught by George Walker, the father of the Hon. William Walker, M.L.C., for many years, from about the year 1837. He died on 22nd September, 1883, aged eighty-seven years. He had sixty-five scholars in 1839.

Mr. McDonald taught this school in 1864, and Mr. McClelland, 1865-68, in the old Oddfellows' Hall, and Mr. McCord, 1869-70, when it was merged into the Public School.

Wesleyan Schools.

The Wesleyans probably had a day-school in Windsor away back in the twenties, but we have no record until 1839, when a girls' school was established, with fifty names on the roll. Wesleyan teachers were: A. Ross, 1843-44; Sarah Orton, 1847-48, and Mr. Travis, 1853-60. The school was at this time held in the old church vestry. Later teachers were: J.W. Steward, 1860; William Piddock and Miss Sansom, 1863-65, and Locrin Tiddy, 1868-70, when the school merged into the Public School. Mr. Tiddy then went to Manly school. He died 30th August, 1914, aged seventy-eight years, at Hurstville. Mrs. Tiddy died on 4th July, 1914, aged seventy-six years.

Roman Catholic Schools.

The first Roman Catholic school in Windsor was conducted by James and Esther Cassidy, from 1835-44. There were one hundred and four scholars on the roll in 1838, and the school was somewhere in George Street, perhaps next the cemetery. Other teachers were: C.A. McCann, 1847-48; M. Hynes, 1857, and finally William B. Langton, 1863-82, when he was transferred to Riverstone as the first Public School teacher located there. He opened with sixty scholars, on the 15th January, 1883. In Windsor his school was held in the hall still so used, next the church. Mr. Langton was in Windsor in 1897 at the funeral of the Rev. J. Hayes. Several very worthy pupils were turned oat by Mr. Langton in Windsor. The school was amalgamated with the local Convent school, and the local public school in 1882.

Public Schools.

In the late sixties a movement was started with the object of abolishing denominational schools and inaugurating a national school for the town. All the schools were closed in 1870, with the exception of the Church of England and Roman Catholic, and they closed up in 1882. On 12th March, 1869, an acre of ground, originally reserved for market purposes, was secured. This was added to in 1872 and 1891, till now the grounds comprise two acres, one rood, thirty-nine perches. The foundation stone of the school was laid by Mr. (afterwards Sir Henry) Parkes, on 7th September, 1869: and on 22nd February, 1870, Mr. Parkes again visited Windsor to officially open the school. About that period the Hon. William Walker was Member for Windsor in the New South Wales Parliament, and he and Mr. William Dean, father of the present Mayor of Windsor, were the principal members of the School Board. To build the new school the inhabitants subscribed one-third of the money required, the Government giving the other two-thirds of the amount.

Mr. Charles A. Boult was the first head-master of the Windsor Public School (1870-1). Then came Mr. James Anderson, who was head-master from 1871 to 1892, a period of twenty-one years. The parents of many of the children at present attending the school were taught by Mr. Anderson. His son, Mr. Robert Anderson, B.A., was recently assistant teacher at Windsor. In July, 1890, the Windsor school became a Superior Public School, and in 1892 Mr. James Anderson was promoted to Waterloo, and then to Blackfriars, where he finished his time as a teacher. Prior to coming to Windsor he was head-master at Freeman's Reach Public School (1869-71), and before that at Castlereagh (1864-9). For nineteen years Mr. Anderson was an active member of the Volunteer Force, and a lieutenant of the Windsor Company. In 1892 there were four hundred and fifty names on the roll of the Windsor Superior Public School.

Mr. A.H.B. Studdy next took charge of Windsor school, in 1892, but remained only one year. He was a delicate man, and most of the work of the head-master was done by Mr. W. Black, the assistant. Mr. Studdy died in Sydney, in September, 1894, aged fifty-four years. His son was a doctor at Riverstone, and afterwards at North Sydney, and a daughter has a private school at Lindfield.

In September, 1893, Mr. Charles E. Broome came from Dungog to Windsor as head-master, and remained for seven years. In 1897 there was a big demonstration in Windsor to commemorate the Record Reign of Queen Victoria. When everything was finished up, there remained over a sum of fourteen pounds, and it was proposed to devote the money towards the erection of a pavilion in the park. When Mr. Broome was headmaster, as many as four hundred children were at school on one day in June, 1894, while three hundred and seventy was the average attendance for the month of August. In 1894 a very sad accident happened in the school ground. Nina II ay ward was burnt to death through her clothes catching fire while papers were being burnt in the playground.

From 1901 to 1904 Mr. T.J. Davis was head-master, then, in 1904, followed by Mr. S.A. Long (five years). Mr. J. Jacobs, B.A., who succeeded Mr. Long in 1909, will be remembered by most of the present school children. After being here for four years, he was promoted to Mudgee District School, in 1913, and was succeeded by Mr. A. Uren, who came from Gunnedah. The present teacher, Mr. Wright-Smith, came from Temora in 1915.

Amongst others who were for a long time on the teaching staff of the Windsor school are: Miss Macintosh, an excellent teacher; and Mrs. O'Kelly, who, as Miss Collins, had a lot to do with the training of the parents of many of the children now attending the school. Miss Le Glaze will still be remembered by many of the parents of to-day, as well as Miss Fitzgerald, now Mrs. A. Tuckerman, of Windsor.

It might be well to mention here that there is another public school site reserved in Newtown, fronting James and Church Streets, containing one acre, three roods, twenty-eight perches, as notified on 13th February, 1882, being allotments one to seven of Section one.



WINDSOR, in England, has its famous Eton College, and our Windsor has also made several brave attempts to set up famous seats of learning. At times there must have been a choice of from six to eight different schools offering to ambitious parents for the education of their boys and girls.

We dealt elsewhere with the four rival denominational schools, so here we give a list, alas, fragmentary and incomplete, of other schools, some of which, like Jonah's gourd, flourished for a very short time, whilst others were long and favourably known as most excellent educational establishments, which drew students from other parts of the State, so that to-day many men high up in the professional and mercantile world look back with pride to their school days in Windsor. However, with the opening of the twentieth century, Windsor appears to have come within the sphere of the tentacles of Sydney and Parramatta, and her more ambitious youth have been drawn there.

The private schools of which we find a record include the following:—

In 1827-34, T.W. Fenton had a private school known as the Hawkesbury School.

In 1836 Mr. and Mrs. John Brown kept a school in "York Lodge", Captain Brabyn's old home, in George Street, near Brabyn Street. The cottage is still standing. It is interesting to note its numerous chimneys. The original entrance was on the east side.

Mrs. Hadley had a school or academy in the same place in 1836. She removed her school to Sydney soon after.

Mrs. Lambton had a ladies' school in the Peninsula about the forties.

In 1842 a school was started on the Convent Bite in Mileham Street, by the Rev. Mathew Adam, assisted by Mr. Jas Cosgrove. The school was afterwards removed to "Fairfleld". Amongst the scholars attending this school were: Mr. John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S., Mr. Wm. Walker, M.L.C., Mr. Henry Moses, M.L.C., Rev. R.W. Orton, Mr. Stephen Brown (solicitor), Mr. S.H. Lambton, Deputy Post-master, Sydney, Mr. Stanley Lambton, Mr. R. Ridge, J.P., and Mr. J. Black, a successful land owner. A mural tablet to the memory of the Rev. Mathew Adam was erected in the local Presbyterian Church, of which he was the Minister, by a number of his scholars, a copy of which will be found under the article dealing with the Presbyterian Church, Chapter VIII.

In 1845 a school was taught in Windsor by Messrs. Cassidy and McCann in a brick building in Bridge Street, which they rented from the executors of Wm. Cross for thirty pounds a year.

In 1850 Rev. Hy. Carey kept a school in the present Police Barracks, after the departure of the military regiments. Some of the Bowman family were educated there. Mr. Carey afterwards rose in the legal profession, and became one of the District Court Judges. Judge Carey died in July, 1870.

Mrs. and Miss Black kept a school in 1849-57 in the building next to the Royal Hotel in George Street.

Away back in the fifties, a school was taught in Catherine Street by Mr. James Dawberry Brown, who is still hale and hearty, living out at Ebenezer. He arrived in N.S.W. in the ship Clifton, 1850 (see also Chapter X.).

In 1857 Miss Everset had a school opposite the Court House. Mr. John Kennedy, the editor of the Windsor Review, and one of the founders of the School of Arts, kept a boys' school in "York Lodge", known as the "Windsor Commercial School". Among the pupils in this 1857 school we find the following names: Tuckerman, Webb, McDonald, Ridge, Laverack, Hoskisson, Mountford, Stewart, Hobbs, Dargin, Pendergast, Barker, Robinson, Edwards, and Moses.

In 1860, Mrs. Doyle, whose husband edited the Windsor Advertiser, kept a school, first in Lilburn Hall, Bridge Street, and afterwards in Fitzgerald Street. She was assisted by Mrs. White. It was known as "Albaville Seminary".

In 1860, or earlier, "Everton College" was started by Rev. C.F. Garnsey, in Bridge Street, Mr. J.P. McGuanne, who is a member of the Council of the Australian Historical Society, being one of the masters. When the Rev. C.F. Garnsey became rector of St. Matthew's, Mr. J. Hole, one of his masters, took over the school, and it was long known as Hole's Academy. It was carried on in the large building still standing in Brabyn Street, at the corner of Church Street. The school was still carried on here in 1874, and some of the members of the present Municipal Council, we understand, received both education and chastisement in this school.

In 1860-75, Mr. R.W. Thornton had a school in Bridge Street.

A large ladies' school, known as St. Katherine's, was conducted by Mrs. C.J. Nealds in Bridge Street, and afterwards in Macquarie Street, about the years 1872-1882. Mr. C.J. Nealds was local telegraph master for a few years in Windsor, in the seventies. Mrs. Nealds had, in her younger days, been a governess to the Royal family in England. She met with an accidental death by being burnt at Coogee, on 24th May, 1896, in her seventy-eighth year. The same school was taught by Miss Wilkinson, 1876-8. She was the daughter of the Rev. S. Wilkinson, Weselyan Minister. The Misses Flett were also in charge of this school about the year 1882.

From 1874 to 1877 two Congregational Ministers kept a school in George Street, the Rev. W.J. Webster and the Rev. E. Leach.

A private school was opened by Mr. Bernard Keenan in the Oddfellows' Hall about the year 1872, or earlier. After the fire in 1874 the school was removed to "Lilburn Hall", Thompson Square. In 1884 the hospital "poor land" at Blacktown Road was leased for thirty years to Mr. Keenan at ten pounds a year ground rent, and a large boarding school erected thereon. The school was widely advertised and good masters were engaged, with the result that one of the largest and most successful private schools outside Sydney was carried on here for many years, giving an impetus to the local tradesmen. Attention was given to drill, a fine rifle corps being formed in 1891 among the boys. Sports of all kinds were encouraged, and an asphalt cricket pitch was laid down in 1896. Entertainments and other social functions were held in the large dining-room, to which local residents were freely invited. Mr. B. Keenan took an interest in local affairs. In 1878 he was a subscriber to the local hospital. He was at first an enthusiastic member of the Church of England, and took part in the services. He next became a member of the Presbyterian Church in 1880, and used to preach in the Ebenezer and Pitt Town churches, where he drew large audiences. His religious ardour cooled down in later years, and he turned his attention to the acquisition of local property, and also took an interest in more public affairs, being made a J.P. in 1897, and the same year he announced himself as a candidate for Parliamentary honours. After disposing of his school in 1897, Mr. Keenan removed first to Manly, and afterwards to Rose Bay, where he died on 1st November, 1912. His will was a rather unique and remarkable document which gave the lawyers a lot of trouble to execute; and it also showed that he lived a kind of dual life, for at his death he was refused burial honours by his Masonic friends as well as by the Roman Catholic Church, to which it is known he wished to secretly belong when he left Windsor in 1997. He expressed in his will a wish to be buried in the local Roman Catholic cemetery, but this was, under the circumstances, wisely refused, and he was buried quietly in the Waverley cemetery.

The school was taken over in 1898 by the Rev. Dr. Mantel, and he passed it on to Mr. W.J. Young, M.A., in 1899, who conducted it up to the year 1909. It was later taken over by Mr. J. Bennett Little. This large school building in February, 1915, passed into the hands of the local Hospital Trustees. The school was closed a few years ago.

Mr. J.G. Young kept a very good school, known as the "High School", opposite the Court House, in the Peninsula, about the years 1888-1892.

Mr. J.T. Fitzgerald, B.A., had a school known as Etham College in George Street, opposite the Presbyterian Church.

Mr. Eckford Firth had a boys' school in the Methodist school hall.

There were many small schools taught by various ladies in different parts during the nineties, among them were: Misses Hopkins, Olson, Moran, Greenwell, McGilvray, Linsley, and Busby.

Madame Naegueli had a school for girls, known as the Pastalozzi School, from 1888-1895. She was followed by Mrs. Jerdan, who had a girls' high school in the Church of England Hall.

Another good school was taught by Mrs. Tuckerman, in Mileham Street.

The only schools at present in Windsor are the Public School and St. Joseph's Convent High School, and the Roman Catholic Primary School. The latter took up the work about the time that the denominational school, so long taught by Mr. Wm. B. Langton, was closed.



BEFORE the year 1810 the Hawkesbury was included in the Parramatta Magisterial district. Amongst those who exercised the Magistrate's office before 1810 in this part were the Rev. S. Marsden, Dr. Thomas Arndell, Mr. C. Grimes, and Mr. William Cox. But, when Governor Macquarie laid out the various Hawkesbury townships in 1810 he appointed the following as special magistrates for each centre:—

Andrew Thompson, Windsor; and on his death in October, 1810, William Cox, of Clarendon, 1810-36.

Dr. Jas. Mileham for Pitt Town, and afterwards for Castlereagh, 1810-23.

Rev. Robert Cartwright for Wilberforce, 1813-1818.

Rev. Henry Fulton for Castlereagh, 1815-1823.

Captain John Brabyn took the Rev. R. Cartwright's place in 1817, holding office until 1829.

Governor Macquarie appointed in 1811 a bench of three of the above to sit weekly in Windsor, and deal with special cases from the surrounding districts, namely: Mr. Wm. Cox, Dr. James Mileham, and Rev. R. Cartwright.

Towards the end of his term Governor Macquarie appointed Lieut. Archd. Bell as the first paid magistrate at Windsor, and he had associated with him Capt. Brabyn and Wm. Cox. Lieut. Bell held office as Police Magistrate until the year 1834.

Short sketches of the lives of the above magistrates are given under the heading of Pioneers, in Chapter II.

The next Appointment was that of Dr. Wm. Richardson, 1829-36.

Mr. Samuel North, 1830-43. Mr. North succeeded Lieut. Bell as Police Magistrate, and lived in the old Government House. There is a street in the Peninsula called after him, and he was a life member of the Hawkesbury Benevolent Society. He took a leading part in the 1843 election, and was relieved of office the following year. He died about the year 1863. His fine property, "Northfield", at Kurrajong, was afterwards secured and greatly improved by the late Hon. Jas. Comrie, who died at the age of eighty-six, at "Northfield", on November 2nd, 1902 (see also Chapter XVI.).

William Cox, junior, of "Hobartville", was appointed in 1830, holding office until his death, at the age of sixty years, on 20th January, 1850.

Mr. Geo. M.C. Bowen was a magistrate, 1831-39, when he was removed to Berrima, but came back, and the family seat was "Bowen Mount" for many years.

Mr. Jas. Thos. Bell, of "Belmont", sat on the magistrate's bench, 1839-44.

Mr. Josiah A. Betts, of Wilmington, near Riverstone, was a magistrate, 1843-44. He was hon. secretary of the Benevolent Society, 1843-49. Mr. Betts was also one of the seven members of the District Council formed in 1841, but which was only short-lived, expiring in 1846.

In the year 1843 both candidates for Parliamentary honours were placed on the list of magistrates, Mr. Robert Fitzgerald, M.L.C., holding office up to 1860, when he probably ceased to reside in the district. His death took place 9th May, 1865, at the age of fifty-eight years. William Macarthur Bowman, M.L.A., of Richmond, held office until his death, at the age of seventy-five, on 11th December, 1874.

After a lapse of some eight years, Mr. Jas. Ascough was raised to the bench of magistrates. He was one of the original trustees of the School of Arts. He held office in the Benevolent Society. He was also chairman of the meeting held in 1860 to inaugurate the Hawkesbury Volunteers. His residence was the quaint old cottage next to the Presbyterian Church, the property being still held by a member of his family, and was built by Joseph Cope, in the thirties.

Captain John Larking Scarvell, of "Clare House", Killarney, where he resided as early as 1835, was a magistrate in 1851-61.

Sydney Scarvell also lived there, and was a magistrate from 1859 till his death on 9th December, 1875.

Mr. Stephen Tuckerman, of Sackville Beach, was appointed in 1851, being a very old and respected resident of the Hawkesbury River, where the family has lived ever since the days of Governor Macquarie. Some of the family went away many years ago to the Mudgee district. Stephen Tuckerman died at the age of sixty-nine, on the 1st February, 1875. He was married to Sarah Beasley, on 27th January, 1823, by the Rev. John Cross, in St. Matthew's, Windsor.

Mr. George Bowman, M.L.C., of Richmond, was a magistrate from 1856 up to the time of his death, on the 26th August, 1878. It was he who built the Richmond Presbyterian Church, in 1845, and presented it to that denomination, adding the spire and clock in 1877.

Mr. William McQuade was a magistrate, 1857-59. He died on 3rd April, 1885, aged fifty-eight.

Dr. Henry Day was also on the bench, 1857-71.

Mr. Jas. Bligh Johnston, who was born at Portland Head in 1809, was a magistrate for thirty-three years up till the time of his death, at the age of eighty-two, on 16th September, 1891. He also held the office of coroner for the district for twenty years, being succeeded by his son, the present occupant of the office. He was also the Returning Officer for the electorate for some years in succession to Mr. Robert Dick, and this office was subsequently filled by his son. He was also for thirty-eight years connected with the Hawkesbury Benevolent Society, for nearly thirty years occupying the responsible office of president. Another institution in which this worthy citizen took on interest was in the Windsor Branch of the Bible Society.

During the sixties and seventies the following Richmond residents were appointed to the Bench, holding office for varying periods, and in the undermentioned order: Messrs. Ed. Powell, G.M. Pitt, Jas. Comrie, Arthur Dight, Sloper Cox, Andrew Town, Hy. Newcomen, John Ducker, Wm. Lamrock, W.H. Holborow, and Richard Skuthorpe.

The Windsor Magistrates appointed at this time were:—

Mr. S.H. Terry, 1865-79.

Mr. Hy. Moses, M.L.C., 1868-79.

Mr. J.M. McQuade, appointed in 1868, holding office until his death, aged sixty-five, on 19th August, 1891.

Mr. J.M. McQuade was for many years the visiting justice at the local gaol, and figured prominently in things social and political, editorial and municipal. He was, although last on the roll of elected candidates, one of the original Municipal Council in 1871, and was Mayor in 1874; and after him the local park is sometimes, and sometimes not, called McQuade Park.

During the year 1870 no less than Ave appointments were made to the bench of magistrates, all good and worthy citizens. They are as follows:—

Mr. Benjamin Richards, who died, at the age of eighty, on 5th March, 1898. It was he who started and successfully developed the Riverstone meat industry. He was for some years chairman of the Hawkesbury Race Club.

Mr. Richard Ridge, who died, at the age of seventy-nine, on 27th May, 1892, was a large coach proprietor, running the mails to and from Sydney in the forties, from his Horse and Jockey Hotel, on the site at present occupied by the Commercial Banking Co. of Sydney. He was a trustee, and also for twenty-two years a vice-president of the Benevolent Society.

Mr. Samuel Edgerton, who died, at the age of seventy-eight, on August 16th, 1878. He arrived with H.M. 80th Foot in 1836, as bandmaster. He did not return with his regiment in 1844, but took up his residence in Windsor, in the Peninsula, taking an active part in the Hawkesbury Volunteers, of which he was the first captain, in 1860. Capt. Edgerton also assisted in the various efforts to establish a town band, but such efforts in Windsor, as elsewhere, were generally short-lived (see also Chapter XVII.).

Mr. Robert Dick was also appointed in 1870, taking a large share of the work for nearly thirty years, as he was widely recognised as a "good man, and a just." He died at the age of seventy-seven, on 18th October, 1898. He was guardian of minors for the district for over twenty years. For many years during the seventies he acted as Returning Officer for the electorate. He was elected in 1871 as one of the original Municipal Council, being also elected as the first Mayor of the town. Mr. Dick was one of the founders of the volunteer movement and held office as lieutenant. He was one of the promoters of the Windsor Gas Co. The Benevolent Society found in him a generous subscriber, and he was a trustee for over thirty years. One of the new wards is well named the "Robert Dick." He was a leading member of the Presbyterian Church, and an elder for twenty-four years. A tablet to his memory has been placed on the walls. Mr. Dick visited Scotland during the years 1872-73, receiving a very cordial welcome home from the inhabitants of Windsor.

Mr. Wm. S. Hall, 1870-1880. He died, aged seventy-five, on 27th July, 1894, and was the father of Mr. Brinsley Hall, M.L.A. Mr. W.S. Hall was the third son of Mr. George Smith Hall, senior, of Sackville Reach, who died in 1879, aged eighty-two, and grandson of Mr. George Hall, who was one of the pioneers who built Ebenezer Church in 1809, and who died in 1840, at the age of seventy-seven. The Hall family is thus one of those fine old types of families which have done so much to build up the Hawkesbury district, generation after generation.

Mr. E. Raper, 1874-1880.

Mr. William Hall Johnston, of Sackville Reach, was appointed in 1876, and met his death, aged sixty-eight, by being thrown from his horse on 2nd January, 1897.

Mr. William Gosper, 1878-1905. He died, aged eighty, on 12th July, 1908. Mr. Wm. Gosper was one of the original Municipal Councillors in 1871, retaining his seat up till 1897, when he resigned. He was elected Mayor in 1877, and again in 1891. He also took a keen interest in the local fire brigade.

Mr. Henry Albert McQuade held office, 1880-94. He died, aged thirty-nine, 12th February, 1898.

Mr. A. Tuckerman and Dr. J. Callaghan were appointed in the year 1880, and are, therefore, at present, the senior magistrates of the district.

The other magistrates appointed in the eighties were John Henry Fleming, 1882-94. He died, aged seventy-eight, on 20th August, 1894, and was for thirty-two years a church warden in the Wilberforce Church of England.

S.J. Dunston, 1882-98; G.T. Collins, 1882-86; Thos. Primrose, 1884-1905. He died, aged seventy-eight, on 1st December, 1905. He was another of the original Municipal Councillors, elected in 1871, and was Mayor in 1879, and again in 1883 and in 1886.

Mr. D. Holland, 1886-1905. He was elected to the Municipal Council in 1891, and was Mayor in 1892.

Mr. W. Moses, 1885-1905; Mr. Bernard Conlan, 1886-1904; Mr. W.F. Linsley, 1886-1903. The latter was a very active worker in the volunteers, Council, and in other ways up till his death, aged seventy-two, on 5th February, 1903.

Mr. Jas. B. Johnston was appointed in 1888, and Mr. Brinsley Hall, M.L.A., in 1890.

As we have reached to quite modern times, and are dealing with the historical, we must stop.



Police Magistrates.

"THIS first batch of magistrates were: William Cox, Dr. Mileham and Rev. R Cartwright, in 1810. In 1820, Lieut. Archibald Bell was appointed as Chief Magistrate, and with hint were associated Captain Brabyn and William Cox. The magistrates in these days had a strong body of the chief settlers known as the Grand Jury associated with them. An interesting reference to their work in the Sydney Gazette of October 21st, 1826, is as follows: "The Windsor Grand Jury on October 12th, 1826, were: John Dight (foreman), Richard Rouse, Henry Cox, John Single, George Bowman, William Faithful, James Mein, John Johnston, William Hall, Thomas Arndell, John Grono, George Hall, Andrew Johnston, John Atkinson, and Jonas Bradley. They petitioned for better accommodation at the court-house, and suggested that the further end of the building should be fitted up for the purpose. They also petitioned for additions and repairs to the local gaol."

Lieut. Bell held office till 1830, when he was succeeded by Samuel North, 1830-44, and during the tatter's term of office, Courts of Petty Sessions were first ordered to be held in Windsor on 30th September, 1832. It might be mentioned that Captain Samuel North arrived in New South Wales in 1826, with the 102nd Regiment, of which he was a lieutenant, having previously served in the 27th Inniskillens. He entered the public service on 7th May, 1827, and was superintendent of Government bonded stores until his appointment to Windsor in 1830, where he acted as Police Magistrate up till 1844. He took a too active part in the election of 1843, which may have accounted for, not his retirement, but his removal to Berrima, where he remained till 1847, and was then sent to Carcoar, 1848-51, from whence he was transferred to Sydney. In 1859 he was appointed Water Police Magistrate to the Port of Sydney, which office he held up till his death which took place at Woolloomooloo, 4th June, 1864, aged seventy-three years. He was buried in St. Jude's cemetery, Randwick. He left a family of three sons and six daughters. One son and one daughter are living at present. The following advertisement, from The Sydney Morning Herald, Tuesday, October 22nd, 1844, giving the date of his removal from Windsor, is interesting: "Windsor.—Mr. George Seymour has the honour to announce that he has received instructions from Samuel North, Esq., Police Magistrate, who is removing to Berrima, to sell by public auction, at Government Cottage, Windsor, on Saturday, the 26th instant, at Eleven o'clock precisely, several Horses and Mares, Milking Cattle, Waggon, Drags, and Carts: and further articles."

Clerk of Petty Sessions.

The Clerk of Petty Sessions was known in the early days as the Magistrate's Clerk, the Clerk of the Bench, or the Clerk of the Court. The office was filled first by Andrew Johnston, who built one of the first hotels in the district, known as the "King's Arms", and later as the "Macquarie Arms". He was found drowned at Killarney. George Smith held the office from 1813 to 1819; Robert Fitz, 1819 to 1834; Henry Bailey, 1836; Alfred Holden, 1835 to 1838; and G.T. Wyatt, 1838 to 1844. George Augustus Gordon held the office from 1840 to 1870, and also acted as Police Magistrate in succession to Samuel North. He died on 21st February, 1909, at the age of eighty-six years. William Henry Thomas followed, 1870 to 1873, when he was removed to Wollongong. He died at Grafton, in August, 1893, aged sixty-seven years. William Henry Hughes Becke, who was an uncle of Louis Becke, the author, came in 1873, and remained till 1889. He was afterwards a Police Magistrate, and retired in 1896. He died 17th July, 1910. Mrs. Becke died 18th September, 1896. From 1889 to date the office has been filled by: O.A.S. Fitzpatrick, 1889; H.T. McAlister, 1896; W.I. Perry, 1898; A. Gates, 1900; E.H. Page, 1904; E.J. Harrison, 1908; P.J. Sheridan, 1910; G.A.E. Wheeler, 1913.

Chief Constables.

Thomas Rickerby, 1800. He had a grant of land in the centre of the town, running to the creek, known as "Catherine Farm". This grant passed into the hands of the Cope family, who cut up a portion in 1838, hence we have a Catherine Street and a Rickerby Creek in Windsor. Thomas Rickerby died on 15th May, 1848, aged sixty-seven years. Andrew Thompson, 1804; Mathew Lock, 1810; John Howe, 1813-25. The latter succeeded Andrew Thompson in the local office of auctioneer and appraiser. He or his son also did some exploring in the Maitland district. Howe's bridge was built by him over the South Creek, and he was a relative of Robert Howe, printer, of the Sydney Gazette. He had two daughters, Mary and Eliza. The Howe family was connected by marriage with several old families in the district, such as the Loders, Wisemans, Dr. Dowe, Dargins, and Laban White. The next Chief Constable was George Jilks, 1826-27, and again in 1839-40. In 1826, Constable Green, aged twenty-five, was foully murdered in the execution of his duty. Then followed Ben Hodghsen, 1827-35; George Shirley, 1840-44; William Hobbs, 1850-61; Jeremiah Frewin, 1862; John James Fitzpatrick, August, 1869, to September, 1893. He was the father of Mr. J.C.L. Fitzpatrick, M.L.A., who started the Windsor and Richmond Gazette in 1888, and of Mr. O.A.S. Fitzpatrick, a former C.P.S. in Windsor. He retired with the rank of Sub-Inspector, and died 26th November, 1899, aged sixty-nine years. Senior Sergeant George Boyd, from Carcoar, followed in 1894; Senior-Sergeant Peter J. Nies, from Parramatta, came next, followed by Senior-Sergeant Henry Norris, from Deniliquin, in 1908; and Senior-Sergeant Sim, from Temora, in 1914.

Gaol Keepers.

George Loder, a grandson of John Howe, held this office from 1820, or earlier, to 1829; G. Walpole, 1829-35; Thomas Keenan, 1842. It was part of the duties of the gaol-keeper to put certain prisoners in the stocks in those days. The stocks were placed in George Street, near the School of Arts site. Michael Raper followed in the sixties. In his time a warder named Spinks was foully murdered by a prisoner with an axe, his grave being: in St. Matthew's Churchyard. Eugene McCabe, 1875-81, when he was transferred to Gundagai, where he died 25th December, 1896. Arthur Berckelman, 1882-86, a veteran of the Crimean Light Brigade. He died 15th January, 1904, aged seventy-six. Two long-sentence prisoners escaped on 8th September, 1886, by cutting through four inches of hardwood and picking two locks with a piece of wire. H. Elbest, 1887-92; J. Murdoch, 1892-1900. N. Easterbrooke, 1901-3. Later men only remained for short periods, the gaol being no longer used for long-sentence men. The present gaol was built in 1859 on the site of a still earlier gaol.


Lieut. Thomas Hobby, 1811-26. He belonged to the 102nd Regiment, and assisted William Cox in the construction of the Blue Mountain Road, 1814-15. Hobby's Yard in the Bathurst district is called after him. He obtained a grant of one hundred acres near Clarendon, from Governor Hunter on 20th June, 1800. He died 8th January, 1833, aged fifty-seven years. He is buried in St. Peter's Churchyard in Richmond, where Mrs. Hobby was also laid in January, 1839. John Howe, 1821-36; John Dight, 1828-35 (father of Arthur Dight, M.L.A.), David Dunscombe, 1835-40; Dr. Dowe, 1843-60; Laban White, 1860-71. The latter was closely connected with the district for many years. He died 5th September, 1873, aged eighty years. James Bligh Johnston, 1871-91, died 16th September, 1891, aged eighty-two years. Mr. James Bligh Johnston, junr., 1891, still holds the office.


The office of bailiff has been held as follows: Richard Ridge, 1817; George Smith, 1818; P. Roberts, 1819; Henry Steel, 1825; W.J. Fitz, 1829-30; William Gaudry, 1830-35; Laban White, 1839; J.B. Laverack, 1858; W. Hobbs, 1859; J.T. Smith, 1882-91; E. Kennedy, 1891-96; F.W. Linsley, 1896-1902; A. Ranger, 1903; J.T. Rowthorn, 1906-9.

Chapter XVII.


AS early as June, 1797, Lieut. N. Mackellar was in charge of a military detachment at the Hawkesbury, being a portion of the 102nd Regiment, or New South Wales Corps. It was for this military officer's use that the old Government House at Windsor was built, about the year 1798. From this date up till 1842 Windsor was the centre of much military activity. The barracks erected especially for the use of the soldiers, about 1820, are still standing, and portion of the present hospital building was originally the military hospital.

In the early times the soldiers were called on to assist in harvesting the crops. Many of the old residents of the district are the descendants of soldiers, who, when their time expired, preferred to settle in the colony instead of returning to the old land.

A detachment of the 73rd Regiment, which came out with Governor Macquarie in 1809, was settled here for a few years. In 1825, the military at Windsor consisted of one sergeant, one corporal, and fifty-six privates. In 1835-37 a detachment of His Majesty's 50th Foot, under Lieut.-Colonel Woodhouse, were stationed at Windsor. They were succeeded in 1838-30 by the 80th Foot, formerly known as the Staffordshire. The regiment arrived in New South Wales in various ships from 1836 to 1840, and was removed to India in August, 1844. Among the officers were: Lieut.-Colonel N. Baker, and Adjutant Lightbody. (See Reminiscenses, by Wm. Walker, page 8). The bandmaster, Samuel Edgerton, settled in Windsor, and became a magistrate. He organised a local band, and took part in the formation of the local Volunteers in 1860. He died 16th August, 1878, aged seventy-eight years (see also Chapter XV.).

Another Regiment stationed here was the 99th Duke of Edinburgh, daring 1842-43. The officers were Captain Reid and Lieutenant Beatty. At other times the 58th and 83rd Regiments were represented here. With the cessation of transportation to New South Wales in the early forties, the military were withdrawn from Windsor. The officers for many years occupied the building now known as the Royal Hotel.


In the year 1854 the Government passed legislation which led to the formation of a number of local corps, but the movement did not catch on till 1860, when a large number of men enlisted in the various towns of New South Wales as volunteers. Windsor was early in the field, the Hawkesbury corps being formed on 5th October, 1860, the first officers being Captain S. Edgerton and Lieutenant Sydney Scarvell. The first meeting called to form the Windsor Volunteer Corps was held on 19th September, 1860, when a deputation was appointed to wait on the Government and offer the services of thirty-six loyal subjects. The deputation consisted of William Walker, M.L.A., James Ashcough, J.P., Robert Dick, J.P., and Sydney Scarvell, J.P. The movement went forward with enthusiasm. The Governor, Sir J. Young, came up to Windsor to present the colours, and a steamer conveyed over three hundred volunteers from Sydney right up to Windsor to assist in the local demonstration. The corps was known as the Hawkesbury Volunteer Rifles from 1862 to 1882. The name was then altered to the Hawkesbury Infantry. We give here only the early officers, with their promotions:—

Samuel Edgerton, Captain, 1860-72. Retired 1872.

Sydney Scarvell, 1st Lieut, 1860-68.

Robert Dick, 2nd Lieut., 1865-68.

James A. Dick, 2nd Lieut., 1869-73. Captain, 1874-76.

W.F. Linsley, Ensign, 1870-76. Captain, 1876-92. Major, 1892-94.

C.S. Guest, 1st Lieut., 1874. Afterwards Lieut.-Colonel in Richmond, but retired in 1910. Died 1915.

James Anderson, 2nd Lieut., 1883-88. 1st Lieut., 1888-94.

D.D. Pye, 2nd Lieut., 1888-92.

J.J. Paine, 2nd Lieut., 1892. 1st Lieut., 1892-94. Captain, 1895-1906. Major, 1906-13. Lieut.-Colonel, 1913-15.

About the time of the outbreak of the Boer war, in the year 1899, the Hawkesbury Squadron of NEW SOUTH WALES LANCERS was formed, with half squadrons at Windsor and Richmond. The original officers were: Captain Brinsley Hall, Captain R.B. Walker and Lieut. N. Hall, for Windsor; Major Philip Charley, Captain W.T. Charley and Lieut. H. Skuthorp, for Richmond. The uniform was light brown with red facings, and a felt hat adorned with a plume. On retiring from the squadron, presentations were made to Captain Brinsley Hall, M.L.A., and Major Philip Charley.

About the year 1903 the name of the Lancers was changed to the AUSTRALIAN LIGHT HORSE. The Hawkesbury Squadron was successful in winning the Prince of Wales Cup, 1906-7, which was open for competition to all the mounted troops in Australia. Four teams competed, both Victoria and South Australia being represented. The competition was over a three mile course, with three firing competitions of five shots each at a target, and between each firing three hurdles had to be negotiated. The local team who brought this rare trophy to the district were: Captain Brinsley Hall (leader), S.Q.M. Sgt. Owens, Sgt. Hibbert, Sgt. Timmins, Sgt. Fallow, Sgt. Dunston, Far.-Sgt. Huxley, Corp. White, Corp. McMartin, Tpr. Aubrey, Tpr. J. Greentree, Tpr. A. Greentree, Tpr. Mason, and Tpr. Armstrong.

A number of mounted men went from the district to the Boer War, which was in progress from 1898 to 1902. A monument will be seen in Windsor Park to the memory of those who went, but "came not back." The artistic earring on the pedestal is the work of the late J. O'Kelly, and it will repay a little study. Unfortunately, it was not enclosed at first with a fence, and its proximity to the local school tempted some embryo iconoclasts whose marks remain. The inscriptions on the monument read:—

In memory of soldiers from Windsor and District who lost their lives in the service of the Empire in South Africa.

This monument was erected as a token of respect by the residents of Windsor.

Trooper GEORGE ARCHIE MONTGOMERY, killed at Zeerust, South Africa, 27th October, 1900.

Trooper CHARLES JOHN GOSPER, accidentally drowned in the Vaal River, South Africa, 26th November, 1901.

Farrier Sergeant GEORGE JENNINGS DICKSON, who died of enteric fever at Standerton, South Africa, 9th January, 1902.

The following is a list of the Windsor and Riverstone district soldiers who have volunteered for the war. The list was closed early in December, 1915; many others will doubtless follow at a later date. The list it will be noted does not include the Richmond, McDonald, Colo, or St. Albans districts, nor a dozen immigrants from the Scheyville training farm:—

Akins, Charles, Windsor | Bolton, Hy. H., Windsor (wounded)
Baird, Norman, Pitt Town | Bradshaw, R.N., Scheyville
Baker, W., Oakville | Brooks, John, Freeman's Reach
Bennett, W.H., Windsor | Buchanan, Donald, Windsor
Blacket, Ulric, Vineyard | Callaghan, Clive, Windsor
Blackmore, Walter, Wilberforce   |

[Military List (cont'd., p. 145)]

Callaghan, Reginald, Windsor | Hudson, Sid., Vineyard
Cambridge, K., Windsor | Hughes, Robert B., Windsor
Cambridge, Thomas, Windsor | Hulbert, William, Windsor
Clarke, B., Oakville | James, Henry, Windsor
Clarke, Manfred H., Windsor | Jennings, C.B.E., Windsor
Clout, Leslie, Windsor | Johnston, Staunton H., McGrath's Hill
Cobcroft, B.H., Windsor | Jones, Joshua, Ebenezer
Connelly, Fred., Windsor (killed) | Jones, Bert, Sackville
Davis, Eric, Wilberforce | Jones, Hilton, Windsor
Dickson, John, Windsor | Jones, Russell, Cattai
Dickson, P.A., Windsor | Kemp, Arthur, Ebenezer
Dickson, Walter, Windsor | Laraghy, Jack, Sackville
Dunn, Richmond, Windsor | Laraghy, Boy, Sackville
Dwyer, Gregory, Clarendon | Laraghy, Victor G., Sackville
Dwyer, John, Clarendon | Liddle, Edwin S., Windsor
Dwyer, William, Clarendon | Liddle, Fred., Windsor
Dyer, E.J., Windsor | Liddell, Sydney, Windsor
Eather, Cecil, Windsor (killed) | Lillis, Leo., Freeman's Reach
Eather, Frank, Windsor | Lindsay, A.J.H., Cattai
Farlow, Alwyn, Freeman's Reach | Lindsay, W.S.T., Cattai
Fiaschi, Dr. Thomas, Sackville | Maisey, Fred. T., Windsor
Ford, A.E., Windsor | Marshall, A. Campbell, Cattai
Fullerton, Dr. A.T., Windsor | Marshall, Stewart, Cattai (not accepted)
Gadsden, E. Jeffery, Windsor | Mitchell, Bently, Bullridge
Gibson, Geof. V., Windsor | Molloy, Jas. V., Windsor
Gibson, V.J.V., Windsor | Moses, Jas. Wm., Windsor
Gosper, Charles E., Windsor | Mullinger, Boy, Windsor
Gow, Harold, Windsor | Norris, Arthur, Windsor
Green, Mervyn, Magrath's Hill | O'Brien, V., Windsor
Greentree, C.A., Cattai | Ogden, Joseph, Oakville (wounded)
Greentree, D.S., Cattai | Paine, Lt.-Colonel J.J., Windsor
Hall, Ronald, Wilberforce (not accepted) | Parkin, B.T., Windsor
Hanchett, Samuel, Windsor | Phillips, Leslie, Windsor
Hanchett, James, Windsor | Pickup, Clive, Windsor
Haxby, E.C.H., Windsor (twice wounded) | Potts, Rowland, Windsor
Holden, Reginald, Windsor | Pye, Major Cecil B.A., Windsor
Honeman, Garnet, Windsor (not accepted)   | Pye, Eric J.D., Windsor
Hough, Ernest, Windsor | Rees, Victor John, Windsor
Hoskisson, Samuel James, Clarendon |

[Military List (cont'd., p. 146)]

Rhodes, William B., Wilberforce (not accepted)   | Swords, B.E., Windsor
Rigg, William, Sackville | Taylor, Fred C., Windsor
Robertson, Wm., Windsor | Teals, Alex, Wilberforce
Robertson, F.J., Windsor (not accepted) | Thomson, F.S., Cattai
Sandoz, George E., Windsor | Toomey, Alfd., Windsor (killed)
Scholer, Richd., Windsor | Toomey, Edward, Windsor
Shadlow, Cecil D., Windsor (not accepted) | Turnbull, Cecil O.W., Wilberforce
Shirley, Wm., Windsor | Turnbull, Fred., Wilberforce (wounded)
Shimmels, Arthur, Scheyville | Turnbull, Harry N, Wilberforce
Sim, E., Windsor | Ulstrom, Charles, Windsor
Simpson, Cecil, Wilberforce | Uren, Dr. Cecil, Windsor
Simpson, Norman. Wilberforce (wounded) | Walker, Archibald G., Windsor
Smallwood, William, Cattai | Wall, Stanley, Windsor (wounded)
Smith, Robt., Freeman's Reach | Ward, Oscar D., Windsor
Smith, Albert Edward, Freeman's Reach | Ward, William, Windsor
Startin, Wm., Mulgrave | White, W. Frank, Vineyard (wounded)
Streeter, Frederick, Windsor (wounded) | White, Roland, Cattai
Streeter, Roy, Windsor (killed) | Woods, William H., Sackville
Sullivan, Regd., Windsor |

Riverstone List

Alcorn, Cecil, Riverstone | Davis, Herbert, Riverstone
Alcorn, S., Riverstone | Drake, Edward, Riverstone
Alderton, Robert, Schofields | Drayton, Stanley, Riverstone
Bambridge, Phil, Riverstone | Freeman, Herb., Riverstone
Bertie, J., Riverstone | Green, John, Riverstone
Bertie, Leo., Riverstone | Grenshaw, Cecil, Marsden Park (not accepted)
Brookes, Alfred, Marsden Park | Griffin, E.W., Marsden Park
Brookes, Ernest, Marsden Park | Hayward, F.A., Marsden Park
Carter, Fk., Marsden Park | Hayward, John, Riverstone
Case, G., Riverstone (not accepted)   | Hayward, Robt., Riverstone
Cassidy, John, Marsden Park | Humphries, T., Riverstone
Clarke, Frank, Riverstone | Hurley, F., Riverstone
Clout, Cyrus, Riverstone | James, Matthew, Riverstone
Comyn, Frank, Riverstone | Johnston, Harold, Schofields (wounded)
Croft, G., Riverstone | Keegan, F., Riverstone
Davies, W., Annangrove |

[Military List (cont'd., p. 147)]

Kenny, Herbert, Marsden Park (wounded)   | Schofield, Edwin, Riverstone
Kenny, John, Marsden Park (wounded) | Schofield, Horace, Riverstone
Knight, C. C, Schofields | Schofield, S.R., Riverstone (not accepted)
Martin, Ernest, Riverstone (not accepted) | Showers, A.B., Riverstone (killed)
Mason, Ambrose, Vineyard | Smith, Albyn, Riverstone
Matthews, Rex, Marsden Park | Symonds, James, Riverstone
Matthews. Eric, Marsden Park | Sulivan, Eric, Riverstone
Morris, William McC., Marsden Park | Taylor, Frank W., Marsden Park
Pye, J.J., Schofields | Teale, George, Riverstone
Rimington, H.J., Marsden Park | Teale, William, Riverstone
Robbins, J., Riverstone | Towers, J., Riverstone
Schofield, Aubury, Riverstone | Wiggins, Frederick, Schofields



THE hotels of the early days, if they could only now be made to speak, would throw great light on the past history of this and every other early settlement.

In the early days, before Halls and Schools of Art were built, they were the only centres of social life. Some were conducted in the moat honourable and upright manner, while others were simply dens of infamy, where crime was hatched and the law defied.

Amongst the first things Governor Macquarie did was to close up a large number of the worst houses along the river, leaving about half a dozen. We do not know which these were in 1810, but we find the following list in the Sydney Gazette, 17th February, 1821:—Royal Oak, William Baker; Lord Nelson, Jas. Doyle; Plough Inn, Charles Beasley; Green Dragon, Thos. Dargon; Hope and Anchor, George Kable;——, Henry Kable, senr.

In the present article we shall endeavour to locate some of these; but owing to recurrence, duplications, and changes of names, both of owners and hotels, as well as removals and transfers, many difficulties are met with in compiling an accurate list.

From various sources we find the number of public houses open at the one time in Windsor given thus: In 1811, six; 1822, five; 1837, thirteen; 1843, fourteen; 1845, sixteen; 1857, sixteen. In 1866, 1875, 1894, 1910 the number is seven; at present, 1915, six.

The oldest continuous license is held by the Fitzroy Hotel, running back for over fifty years, probably to the days of Governor Fitzroy, 1846-1855.

The Commercial is probably as old, but the license was lost for about twelve months in 1893. The latest new licenses are the Carrington, in 1888, and the Royal, in 1874. This license and name may have been transferred from the Royal Hotel opposite the Presbyterian Church. The Royal Exchange is also one of the latest, but it was transferred from the Barraba Hotel, burnt in 1874.

It might be of interest to mention the hotels that have been last closed: Hawkesbury River, closed in 1913 by reduction vote; Farmer's Family, license transferred in 1893 to the Commercial; Barraba, burnt down 1874; Court House, closed about 1882; and the Rose Inn and Oddfellows' or Butcher's Arms, closed 1879.

In describing the situation of the various past and present hotels, we wish to avoid reference to the present occupants of premises, as far as possible, as this is confusing to the future historian and is out of date in a very few years.

So many changes having taken place in many of the proprietary, we shall refer chiefly only to those long in occupation. We give in the accompanying list the location of forty-six (more or less) public-house sites in and near Windsor, but excluding Magrath's Hill. We will take the streets in regular order, beginning at the Peninsula end:—

1. Court Street.—Court House Hotel, built by John Shearing, opposite the court-house, about the year 1870. Mrs. Shearing died at Stanmore, 17th February, 1893. Robert Leddra kept the place about 1877. He died 6th June, 1882, aged sixty years. This building was afterwards used as a private school by Mr. J.G. Young, 1888-92.

2. Bridge Street (corner of Court Street, next the South Creek.)—On this site one of the first hotels was built, in 1813, by Andrew Johnston, Clerk of Court, called at first the King's Arms, and later Macquarie Arms, and finally the Windsor Hotel (1857). It was here the banquet was held in 1817 to celebrate the laying of the foundation stone of St Matthew's Church. It was occupied by—Ransom (1815), and William Cross (1837), and sold by his executors in 1845; and by J. Mawson (1857). The place was swept away by the 1867 flood, and not a trace of it remains to-day.

3. At one time we believe two public-houses stood on or near this corner. (See Crosse's executors' sale notice in S.M. Herald, 15th May, 1845).

4. On the opposite side, now the Carrington (Lord Carrington was Governor of New South Wales, 1885-90), formerly stood the Currency Lass, and later the Dove Inn. It may have also been known as the Harp of Erin, kept by E. McDonald, in 1857. The premises were damaged by flood waters, and the present building was subsequently erected. It was greatly improved, and a balcony added in 1880, when it was re-opened as an hotel, a thousand loads of material being carted to raise the yard above the flood level in 1892. The site has not been in continuous use as an hotel. It was used as a school, and also as a residence, for many years. Among the old landlords have been such names as Thos. Cullan, 1837; John Shearing, 1843; D. Maher;—Clare; A. Dalton, 1857; McDonald, 1864; Jas. Gosper, 1866-67. After a lapse of twenty years a license was again obtained by R. Huggins, 1886-1904.

5, 6. Thompson Square—Two sites, both still standing, one a balconied house, just below the Royal Hotel, and the other for long, and still occupied by the local doctors, close to the river. We have not the names by which these were known, but in the forties the Show meetings were held here in Coffey's Hotel. Other names attached to these two sites are: Doyle, about the year 1830, when the Lord Nelson Hotel may have been hereabouts; Jas. Howe, Panton, Fisher, and James Ridge; the latter as late as 1870.

The Post Office was kept in the doctor's home in 1850, at which time it had no balcony.

7. At the corner of Freeman's Reach and Wilberforce Roads, just across the river, stood the old Squatter's Arms, kept by one Ryan. The old ruin has only recently been removed. The house originally resembled the old Government House. It was open from about 1846 to 1867.

8. Macquarie Street (corner of Bridge Street, south side)—In a very old plan of Windsor this corner is marked as McQuade's Inn. We have not been able to find the latest name of the hotel, but one, Morgan Carroll, was in the business here in 1843-45. McDonald, Dunstan, Bullock (1857), Donnelly, and as late as 1870, Maher, were, we believe, on this or some neighbouring site. In 1857 the building was known as The Sportsman, and at another time as The Traveller's Befit.

9. In Macquarie Street (on south side near Baker Street), stood the Jim Crowe. This was an early house, kept by Henry Hudson (1837-46), who ran a coach to Sydney in opposition to that run by Ridge; and afterwards by Jas. Lane and others. The house, which is still standing, was closed about 1878 as an hotel.

10. Next door to the above stood the Hole in the Wall, kept, we understand, by J. Rafter (1833-45), and later by Chafe, Gosper, Egan and Lovell. The hotel was called at one time, "Help a Lame Dog over the Stile", and also the "Erin go Bragh". It has now disappeared.

11. In Macquarie Street (north side, near the Weselyan School Hall), an hotel was kept for a short time by R. Dunstan, but we have neither date or name.

12-13. Macquarie Street (near Suffolk Street)—Two buildings near here were once need as hotels. We have not the names, but here the Dorset family were going strong in the sixties and the early seventies. Thompson and Levy also kept the place later. One may have been known as the Oddfellows' in 1867.

14. Macquarie Street (opposite the Convent gates)—Here the Rising Sun was found in 1837-52, kept by William Heath, J. Cough, and J. Dorset.

15. George Street—We will take first the south side, beginning opposite Thompson Square, next Moses's store. The Sir John Young Hotel. Sir John Young was Governor of New South Wales, 1861-67, so we presume the place was licensed about that time. It was kept by Q. Hall (1866-68); Bushell (1868-74); Cain or Kane, and R. Leddra. The name was changed to Hawkesbury River Inn, then shortened to Hawkesbury Hotel. The balcony was added in 1893. Later names found over the door were, we think, Walmsley, Crowley, Horwood. Booth, and the last James Walsh. It was closed about 1912 by an electorate reduction vote, and the place was destroyed by fire early in 1913, and demolished in 1915.

16. Between Baker Street and Fitzgerald Street. These are the sites of at least six hotels, although we have found difficulty in exactly locating and describing them, but we believe the order was first, the Butcher's Arms. This place was near Baker Street, on the east side, kept in the seventies by Cavanough. Political meetings in 1843 were held here.

17. Red Lion stood near Baker Street, on the west side, about Dyer's shop. It is mentioned in Charles Harpur's play called "Bushrangers". It was kept by Mary Dargin in 1835-37, and may have been the site of the Green Dragon in the twenties.

18. 19. Barley Mow, close to Kable Street, was kept in 1837 by Robert Smith, known as "the Ginman;" and later by Jas. Cullen. Another hotel stood close by, perhaps next to the Congregational Church. It may have been the Golden Nugget, Cricketers' Arms, 1857-60, or Barley Corn at different times. It was, we understand, kept by the Kable family at one time, and also by G. Freeman (1857). These two are difficult to trace. There may have been only one here.



[bottom] WINDSOR BRIDGE, AS IN 1879.

20. Between the Bank of New South Wales and the Poet Office stood two hotels aide by aide. The White Hart, kept by Durham in 1840, then by W. Blanchard and Charles Beasley, 1843-65; also by J. Baker, Byrnes and by Hall, at the earliest period of its history in the thirties.

21. Plough Inn. This was even an earlier house than its neighbour. It was associated with the name of Edward Robinson in 1835-45. Some of the earliest meetings connected with the Agricultural Society were held there.

22. Bird in the Hand.—This old hotel stood in Fitzgerald Street, between the Post Office and the Methodist Parsonage. Here William Bowman's political meetings were held in 1843. It was kept at different times by Primrose (1837-45). Henwright, Gamble, and Burnes. We have not been able to trace it after the fifties.

23. Barraba.—This hotel stood on the corner opposite the Post Office, and was built by John Hoskisson, about 1857. It was kept by C. Blanchard (1857), Reid and Seymour, and then in 1866-68 by Charles Beasley, who removed here from the White Hart, then Hopkins, (1869-73), and Miss Bushell (1873-74), when it was burnt down in the big fire (see Chapter I.).

24. 25. Lower down George Street, near where the watercourse crosses the street, and now O'Brien's Produce Store, was an hotel, kept in the forties by C. Eather, and later by Alfred Dalton, J. Daley, and Hull. There may have been two sites about here, but they were very old, and their names are not known.

26. Further along George Street, about opposite to Catherine Street, where Ward's store now stands, was a public-house, kept in the forties by P. Burns, or Byrnes, and by J. Gough, who was at another time in charge of the Rising Sun. Others who kept the house were: Thomas Freeman, H. McCourt and Ed Watt, who also kept the St. Patrick, in 1857.

27. The last on this side of George Street is at the corner of Brabyn Street.—The old Benevolent Society's Home demolished in 1915. It was built in 1835-36, and used as a home for the old folks up till 1846. Additions were made to it in 1841; but in those days there was no balcony. After 1846 it was used as a private school for a time. It was licensed as the Railway Hotel in 1866, then the Farmers' Hotel in 1878, or earlier, and there were many changes of landlords, among whom were: Norris, Carroll, Loonan, Hopkins, Martin, and Ingate. The license was transferred to the McQuade Park Hotel, whose license had been previously forfeited, in 1884 (see also Chapter XIX.).

28. We now return to George Street, on the north side, opposite to Thompson Square, where we find the Royal Hotel, formerly the residence of the Fitzgerald family, and it will be found elsewhere described. It was also the military officers' mess rooms for some years. It was opened as an hotel by the Bushell family in 1872, and kept by them till 1900. Mr. a. T. Bushell died here on 12th April, 1892, aged sixty-nine, after which Mrs. Bushell kept it; Bloome (1901), and McDonald (1902) were later. The cottage next door is part of the premises, and is very old, built probably about 1820. It was given a new roof in 1893 (see also Chapter II, Fitzgerald family).

29. In Baker Street (off George Street), stood the Royal Oak, kept away back in the thirties by Wm. Baker. The 1867 good waters entered it. The place was afterwards occupied by Panton and Betts, storekeepers; F. Beddek, and R. Coley, solicitors. It was demolished some years ago, but the interesting old foundation may Still be seen on the west side of Baker Street.

30. George Street, corner of Kable Street, where the Commercial Bank now stands, was the site of Ridge's Horse and Jockey. The coaches for Sydney used to start from here. It was also kept by Gaddersly, as early as 1842, George Seymour and John Booth. As Ridge built the Fitzroy Hotel in the sixties, or earlier, we believe this hotel was closed at that time.

31. The Fitzroy stands nearly opposite the Bank of New South Wales. It is the oldest continuous license in Windsor. Amongst the occupants in its earlier days we find Holmes, 1886-1881; J. Gough, 1882-1894; Wheatley, 1895-6; Rivett, 1896; Figg, 1897; Smith, 1898-1901; and Eagles, 1902-4. Governor Fitzroy, after whom the place is named, was in office, 1846-1855. One report says the Parramatta coaches ran from here in 1847. The meetings in connection with the building of the School of Arts were held here in 1860.

32. The White Swan stood two doors nearer to Fitzgerald Street, in the same building now occupied by Mr. A. Berckelman. This is an old hotel site. It may have been the Green Dragon of 1821, kept by T. Dargin. George Freeman kept the hotel in 1837-45, and John Smith later, but it does not appear in the fifties.

33. In Fitzgerald Street, at the corner of Union Lane, now Miss Dick's fine property, stood an hotel, kept by Robert Smith in 1837, and later by G. Freeman. We are not sure of the name—Barley Corn, perhaps, or Barley Mow.

34. On the opposite side of Fitzgerald Street, next the water tower, is the site of a very old public-house, known by different names. Cross Keys, kept by Daniel Dickens, in the early thirties, whose two daughters were burnt to death when drawing off rum in the cellar. It was known also as the Australian, kept by H. Beasley, the boat builder, in 1837, and Help me Through the World. The names Smith, Oilman, and Primrose appear from 1837-1852, but the reference may be to other sites in Fitzgerald Street.

35. At the corner of Johnston Street is the Royal Exchange, built by George Freeman, probably when he left the White Swan. We have not the date, perhaps in the sixties, or earlier. It was kept by Freeman, Hudson, Windred, Wood, and Nutter. The license evidently lapsed, or had been transferred, for we learn that when the Barraba, nearly opposite, was burned down in 1874, that Miss Bushell transferred her license to this building, which was kept by her for over thirty years, since when it has frequently changed hands.

36. The two-story building, with the old coachway under part of the upper story, and now occupied by R.T. Clerke, was for long a public-house. It may have been J. Delander's St. Patrick, in 1837, or B. Watt, 1857. It is beet remembered by old hands as P. Doyle's Rose Inn, 1870-77. The name must have been well painted, for it is still very distinctly visible on the side after the lapse of thirty years.

37. Another hotel stood further down, before the watercourse is reached; but we have no name to give it, nor are we sure of its occupants, for it has been mixed up with its neighbour, the Rose. McCourt, J. Dorset, or T. Freeman may have been located here, also the name White Horse.

38. Further along George Street, opposite the Salvation Army Barracks, was an hotel kept by Frank McDonald, 1864-70. Mrs. McDonald died 14th August, 1874, aged seventy-sis. The house may have been known as the Erin-go-bragh in 1866. McDonald was a great politician in his time.

38. Next door, near the corner of Catherine Street, was an hotel known as the Australian, kept by J. Primrose. The sign is still legible. Also by J. Fewings as the Butcher's Arms, and later the Oddfellows' Arms, 1876-78.

40. At the corner of Church Street and Catherine Street, on the south side, in the two-storey building still standing, T. Primrose kept the Bell Inn, 1867-1870. It may also have been known as the Blue Bell at one time.

41. In George Street, opposite the Presbyterian Church, in a large three-storey building, was the Royal Hotel. The sign is just barely readable on the high gable, and also a few letters in front. Sir Henry Parkes was entertained here on 7th September, 1869, when he laid the foundation stone of the Public School. It was kept by C. Blanchard, Mrs. Edward, and Mrs. Hopkins. The latter afterwards moved to the railway end of the town, while the name Royal Hotel went to the opposite end.

42. Commercial Hotel, known for a time as the McQuade Park Hotel, is at the corner of George and Tebbutt Streets, opposite the Park. It was built by Michael McQuade in the forties. At first it was but one storey, the second storey being added at a later time. It was kept in 1843 by T.N. Fisher, then by members of the McQuade family. But the name best known is that of Harris, who was in charge for about fifteen years, 1867-1881. In the earlier days of its history more than one of the Governors were entertained here and held receptions. In later years it has seen many changes; Meads, 1882-86; Wheelright, 1887-89; Buckley, 1890-92; Cross, 1895-99; Cobcroft, 1901-2. Other names: Burns, Atkinson and Nash have been seen over the door. The license was cancelled in 1892, and much money was spent in law appeals to get it back without effect, till an arrangement was made to transfer the license from the Farmers' Family Hotel, near the railway.

43. Railway Hotel, corner of Brabyn Street. The railway was opened to Windsor in 1864, and soon after this hotel, which is one of the last built in Windsor, was opened. It was built by Mrs. Hopkins, who died 26th November, 1882, aged seventy-two. Other occupants have been Edwards, 1867-74; Norris, 1879; Gillas, 1882; Solomon, 1886; A.J. Viney, 1892-1901, and Cornwell.

44. Another hotel stood opposite the Park on the Richmond Road, near Cox Street. It was, we believe, built by James Upton in the forties, and afterwards was kept by Jas. Cullan, who is said to have kept the Sportman's Arms in 1843, and that may have been the name of this hotel.

45. A Michael O'Brien is said to have kept an hotel on the green at the back of Fairfield, near the railway yards, but of this we have no data.

46. The last site we have to mention is on the Cornwallis Road, near the bridge. Here Thomas Norris kept a public-house in 1845, a brewery being at work close by about the same time.

We still have, a few names not located, as William IV., T. Greaves, about 1830-37; Rose Inn, kept by John Tindall, in 1835; Prince of Wales, Mrs. Onus, 1857.

With regard to the district outside Windsor, we might mention that in 1878 there were three hotels at Magrath's Hill: The Australian, Killarney, and Royal Oak, but only one is now licensed.

At Pitt Town for many years was to be found the Maid of Australia, closed in 1898.

At Riverstone, two, Never fail and Riverstone. One was closed in 1914.

At Clarendon, two, Chester and Farmers. Both now closed.

At Wilberforce, The Old Retreat.

This makes nine licenses which were all in existence thirty years ago, where to-day only three remain.



Military Hospital.

THE first reference to hospital accommodation in Windsor takes us back to the purchase of an old brewery, about 1812, from the executors of Andrew Thompson, on the bank of the South Creek, where it was subject to inundation on the periodical rise of that creek. This building cannot now be located, but it was used for a very short time only, when a granary and store on the present School of Arts site in Bridge Street was turned into an hospital with provision for fifty beds. There can be little doubt that this was the origin of the large Military Hospital, also known as the Colonial Hospital, before 1841, built in Macquarie Street, by Governor Macquarie in 1820.

On this site there originally stood a barracks for convict workmen, but this was converted into an hospital at the cost of six hundred and sixty-eight pounds, fourteen shillings about or before the year 1823. The following extract is from a report made to Sir Thomas Brisbane in 1842, concerning improvements made to public buildings the previous year:—


"This barrack was formerly occupied by convict workmen, and occasionally used as a Roman Catholic Chapel. The material and workmanship of the building are altogether bad. The wall enclosing the premises is in a very dilapidated state, as also the lavatory sinks, which are exposed outside the walls, and for want of proper sewers are very offensive.

"The foundations of this building, being laid with soft brick and inferior loam mortar, was mouldering away with the wet; but it has undergone a repair during the year 1823, and from better materials being used and proper drains made round the buildings, with a cesspit to abstract the damp, as recommended, it has acquired a more permanent basis, and may endure some time."

The Military Hospital closed down in 1841, after the withdrawal of the military forces from the district. It was, however, taken over by the Hawkesbury Benevolent Society, and re-opened for local hospital purposes in 1846.

Hawkesbury Benevolent Society.

A full history of the Hawkesbury Benevolent Society will be found as an appendix to their report for 1856, compiled by the late Hon. Wm. Walker, M.L.C. From this we learn that the Society was formed at a meeting held on 31st December, 1818, and adjourned to 11th January, 1819, for the purpose of devising means of relieving the poor and indigent of the district. A previous society had been formed, known as the "Windsor Charitable Institution", of which Mr. Robert Fits was secretary, but it was absorbed by the new effort, and the name changed after a few years to "The Hawkesbury Benevolent Society."

Those present at the original meetings were—Rev. R. Cartwright, J.P., Wm. Cox, J.P., Dr. J. Mileham, J.P., hon. treas; Lieut. A. Bell, Capt. J. Brabyn, J.P., Thos. Pitt, John Jones, Hy. Baldwin, and Geo. Hall.

It was agreed to endow the society by forming a herd of cattle.

The same plan was adopted, though not so successfully, by "The Portland Head Society for the Promoting of Christian Knowledge and the Education of Youth." The Society collected a Sock of sheep about the year 1809, but was obliged to sell them off after a few years' trial, in 1815.

The Hawkesbury Benevolent Society's herd was successfully started, and the following grants of land were obtained from Governor Macquarie: ten acres at Wilberforce, five hundred acres at Currency Creek, and thirteen acres on Penrith road, near Windsor, for pasturage.

One of the early reports of the institution will be found in the Sydney Gazette of 8th July, 1820, from which We give the following synopsis of business transacted:—

"The half-yearly meeting of the Windsor Charitable Institution was held at the Court House on 3rd July, 1820. Present:—Wm. Cox, Esq., Rev. John Cross, and others, including Robt. Fitz, treasurer, and John Howe, the storekeeper. It was reported that eighteen persona had been relieved with such stores as wheat, maize, sugar, rice, and salt, and also with cash, fifty-three pounds, fourteen shillings and threepence. Also, that the institution owned sixty head of cows, and ten calves. A close-logged shingled roof dwelling had been erected for the stock-keeper, and twelve acres of land fenced in with the necessary yards and garden."

In 1833-4 this old stock-keeper's house on the Penrith road was used for a poor-house before the old asylum was built in Brabyn Street.

The cattle numbered in 1822 some one hundred and forty-four head, and were driven to the Hunter River district by Thos. Dargin, and were under his care until 1827, when John Gaggin took charge and settled with them on Philips' Creek, Liverpool Plains, where they remained, numbering over six hundred head in 1835, in which year the Australian Agricultural Company successfully claimed and got the site. Ed. Nowland, who had taken charge two years previously, was then instructed to seek for fresh pastures. He took up one thousand acres, and an extensive leasehold known as "Mooki", in the same district, and here the cattle grew and multiplied for many years. The herd numbered in the early sixties up to seven thousand head, and the sales brought in frequently over five hundred pounds a year profit to the society.

The society had not been long settled in their new location at Mooki before a neighbouring pastoralist claimed the site as part of his estate, and law cases, arbitration, and litigation went on for years and years, repeated verdicts being given against the society. At last, in the year 1863, the whole herd was sold, and both freehold and leasehold were leased, and the money invested. The total law costs paid during the year 1863 amounted to no less than four thousand eight hundred and thirteen pounds, being made up of the costs of Reynolds, who won the suit and mulcted the society in his costs amounting to one thousand three hundred and twenty-one pounds; the society's own costs, one thousand eight hundred and six pounds; Arbitration costs, one thousand six hundred and thirty-five pounds; and sundries, fifty pounds. This being a total loss to the society.

In 1866 the Mooki leasehold expired, and in order to conserve water frontage, the society purchased three hundred and sixty-nine acres for three hundred and seventy pounds, and then leased the whole freehold of one thousand three hundred and sixty-nine acres for four hundred and fifty pounds a year.

In 1898 it was agreed to ask for an Act of Parliament giving permission to sell the Society's land, and Mr. B. Hall, M.L.A., managed to get this passed in 1903, and in the year 1907 the whole of the Mooki property was sold for five thousand three hundred pounds, and also the Currency Creek, one thousand acres, for one thousand pounds.

A study of the Society's investments in Government Debentures and Bank Stock is very interesting. In 1864 the amount was one thousand five hundred pounds; in 1864, four thousand pounds; in 1886, five thousand pounds; and in 1805, five thousand seven hundred and seventy pounds. This money was obtained chiefly through the sale of cattle, as the leased property at Mooki was being taken away. Finally all the cattle were sold and the freehold land leased.

In 1907, when the properties at Mooki and Currency Creek were sold, the invested funds rose to twelve thousand four hundred and eighteen pounds. The building of the new hospital, in 1911, reduced this to seven thousand five hundred pounds. The report for 1913 showed that the investments amounted to eight thousand two hundred pounds. Seven hundred pounds of this was withdrawn in 1914 as part payment of the new Home in Brabyn Street, which cost about one thousand pounds in all.

Quite a number of Acts of Parliament have been passed dealing with the Hawkesbury Benevolent Society. An attempt was made in 1829 to incorporate the Society, rules being drawn up by Mr. F. Beddek, but it was not till the 21st July, 1840, that an Act was passed incorporating the Society, thus giving them power to hold property, and of suing and of being sued. This Act was amended in 1860.

Another Act, passed on 19th October, 1903, changed the name to "The Hawkesbury Benevolent Society and Hospital", and also gave power to sell and to convey land.

In the year 1840 Richard Fitzgerald died, leaving an annuity of fifty pounds a year to the Society, which was paid each year by his son, Robert Fitzgerald, up till his death in 1865, when the management of the property passed to R.M. Fitzgerald, who died in 1909. He continued to pay the fifty pounds a year until October, 1875, when there was a special Act of Parliament passed permitting him to hand over to the trustees of the Society, Government bonds for one thousand two hundred pounds to continue the benefaction, a proviso being inserted that if the Society dissolved or ceased to exist the money revert to the Fitzgerald estate. This Fitzgerald legacy, together with the Government's subsidy thereon—not paid, however, since 1905—has benefited the hospital to the extent of over five thousand pounds during the past seventy-four years.

Old Asylum, Brabyn Street

We will now endeavour to trace the history of the old Asylum near the railway station. In the year 1826 a meeting was held in the Court House, convened by W.M. Johnson, to consider a letter from Governor Darling referring to the erection of a poor-house in Windsor, but not much was done beyond housing a few old folk in a wooden cottage on the Penrith road grant till 1833, when it was resolved to erect a substantial brick building in Windsor for the reception of the aged and destitute of the district. Subscriptions were invited, and in April, 1834, the tender of Mr. Gleed was accepted to build an asylum of brick, thirty-four feet by thirty-one feet, two stories high, to cost two hundred and seven pounds. An application for a site was made to the Government, and one acre in Brabyn Street, between George and Macquarie Streets, was granted on 24th May, 1834, but not conveyed until 1861. This building was finished in 1836, and an overseer appointed at thirty pounds a year; also a medical attendant, probably Dr. Richardson.

An addition next to George Street was added in 1841, at a cost, with furnishing, of about two hundred pounds.

In the year 1845 the committee of the Hawkesbury Benevolent Society decided to enlarge their sphere of usefulness so as to include hospital accommodation, as the Colonial Government Hospital had been closed in 1841. They applied for and got the use of the building in Macquarie Street, and moved the aged inmates thither, and at the same time opened hospital wards.

The old building in Brabyn Street proved rather an incubus to the committee, the sums spent on repairs and improvements being out of all proportion to the rents received. In 1898 a new iron roof cost two hundred and fifty-two pounds, and in 1892 repairs and moving wall cost two hundred and nine pounds, and again in 1900 repairs one hundred pounds. The place was let as an hotel, known as the Railway Hotel, in 1866 (see Chapter XVIII.—Hotels, No. 27).

The aged inmates again took possession, after a lapse of fifty-four years, in the year 1910, while the hospital in Macquarie Street was being re-built.

The committee in 1913 decided to erect a new building for the old folk, in Brabyn Street, as the 1835 building was too old and out of date. Plans were called for, and revised by a small committee, and the new building has now been completed and the old building demolished.

The new building, which cost eight hundred and fifty pounds, was opened by the Hon. F. Flowers on 14th December, 1914, and was designated "The Home for the Infirm."

Some of the inmates have lived to a great age. On 9th May, 1875, one Michael Norton, of Ireland, died, aged one hundred and twelve. Another Hawkesbury resident, but not a resident of the asylum, Ed. Riley, died, aged one hundred and seven, on 5th September, 1891, at Webb's Creek.

Macquarie Street Building.

The old hospital building in Macquarie Street cost the committee considerable sums for repairs and renovations. We find in the year 1857 the sum of two hundred and twenty-one pounds spent on the building. Part of this, however, was, it appears, expended on the old Asylum. In 1859 an old brick wall was taken down and a palisading around the ground substituted, at a cost of one hundred and thirteen pounds. In 1863 a new slate roof was put on, and balconies added, at a cost of four hundred and ninety-one pounds.

In 1890 further additions and improvements were carried out, including a women's cottage, bathrooms, sheds, and sanitary improvements, at a cost of over four hundred pounds. The years 1886-7 called for an expenditure of over five hundred pounds for new floors and staircase, and additional rooms for the superintendent, and other improvements, and remodelling the front of the building.

In 1890 further additions, improvements and painting necessitated the expenditure of two hundred and fifty pounds. In 1898 a new fence and other improvements cost ninety-two pounds.-.

Hawkesbury Benevolent Society and Hospital.

The Act of 1903 changed the name of the society as above. It also gave them ample funds for further developments by the sale of their surplus property. The disposal of a large portion of which we have already referred to.

In the year 1903 a resolution was passed to build a new surgical ward, and special sums were set apart and donations received for this purpose, but the committee decided a few years later, in 1907, to build, not a surgical ward, but an entirely new hospital at a cost of three thousand pounds. This sum was afterwards considerably increased. Much discussion followed, and much ink was expended over proposed sites. No less than five sites were proposed, two being in Newtown, one at Brickfield, another next the condensed milk factory, and still another in Crowley's paddock, near the tennis courts. None of these, however, was taken, and a resolution was passed in 1909 to build the new hospital on the site of the old hospital in Macquarie Street. Designs were called for and that of Mr. G.M. Pitt, which utilised the main walls of the old building, was selected, and the tender of Mr. W. Noller, of Parramatta, accepted for four thousand five hundred pounds.

The building was completed, and opened by Lord Chelmsford, on April 6th, 1911, the total cost being five thousand eight hundred and ninety-nine pounds, fire shillings and sixpence.

This sum was made up of the surgical ward fond, one thousand five hundred and fifty pounds, the chief subscribers being Miss M.L. Dick, Major Philip Charley, and Mr. Hy. Fowler. The balance came from the sale of the Mooki property, or other invested funds of the society.

In re-building the old premises, the Macquarie tablet was removed from the front, where it may be seen in the illustration given. It was then placed at the south-west end, on the ground level, and now reads thus:—

The property at present (1915) held by the Hospital Trustees consists of the old Asylum site of one acre in Brabyn Street, appropriated in 1834. Also, a grant of twelve acres, three roods, thirty-three perches fronting Penrith Road and Ham Street, which was granted to the trustees on 16th October, 1861, in redemption, of a promise made by Governor Macquarie in or about the year 1818. This site was originally used for grazing the society's cattle. It was then let at a small rental until the year 1884, and was known as the Poor Ground. In that year the late Mr. B. Keenan got a thirty years' lease of the land at ten pounds a year, the lease somehow being dated February, 1885, instead of 1884. On this he erected a Urge Grammar School, which fell into the possession of the Hospital Trustees in February, 1915.

The property in Macquarie Street consists of three roods and eight perches, and was dedicated on 2nd October, 1866, although the society entered into possession in 1845.

A proposal was made in 1908 to secure the adjoining properties belonging to Mrs. Brancker, and that known as Gosper's saleyards. As this is necessary for drainage and garden purposes this proposal should not be lost sight of. It should be of interest to the present inhabitants of Windsor who have inherited these fine hospital properties with their splendid endowments, to know to whom they are indebted for their inception and maintenance in past years. The following list gives the names of such, as far as they can be traced, but it will be noticed that the dates available are only from 1841.

The trustees, although holding honourable and responsible office, are not called on for much actual service, and cannot, therefore, be said to have done work as such for the society equal to that of other officers. Five trustees are appointed for life, as a rule, and the latter date here mentioned is the date of death, unless otherwise stated. The names in order of appointment are: Wm. Cox, 1841-49; Robert Fitzgerald, M.L.C., 1841-65; Wm. Bowman, M.L.C., 1841-74; Thos. Tebbutt, 1841-57; Mr. Tebbutt resigned in 1857; he died in 1866; Thos. Arndell, 1841-65; Alfred Cox, 1850-59; Mr. Cox left the colony in 1859; Jas. Hale, 1867; Richard Ridge, 1859-92; Wm. Walker, M.L.C., 1859-1908; Robt. Marsden Fitzgerald, 1866-1909; Robert Dick, 1866-98; Benjamin Richards, 1874-98; William Beard, 1893-97.

The present trustees, in order of seniority, are: Messrs. S.T. Greenwell, J.J. Paine, J.B. Johnston, R.B. Walker, and R.A. Pye.

The office of president has been filled as follows:—

Wm. Cox, 1840—six years.

Wm. Bowman, M.L.C., 1846—two years.

Robert Fitzgerald, M.L.C., 1848—six years.

James Hale, 1854;—four years

John Dawson, 1858—two years.

Geo. Bowman, 1860—one year.

Jas. B. Johnston, senior, 1861—twenty-nine years.

Wm. Walker, M.L.C., 1891—seventeen years.

Dr. J. Gibson, 1909—two years.

R.B. Walker, 1911—

With regard to the office of vice-president, only two have held the position for a lengthened period Richard Ridge, 1863-85, when he retired after twenty-two years' service. He died in 1892.

Major Phillip Charley was elected in 1898, and is, after sixteen years, still in office.

We now come to the office of honorary secretary, which entails the heaviest part of the work. The position has been held by the following:—

Josiah Allen Betts. 1840—nine years.

Alfred Cox, 1850—two years.

James Ascough, 1852—two years. Died 9th May, 1874.

Wm. Walker, M.L.C., 1854—fourteen years. Died 12th June, 1908; aged eighty.

Richard Coley, 1868—six years. Died 15th October, 1889. Aged eighty-four.

Wm. Dean, 1873—nine years. Died 7th December, 1882. Aged fifty-one.

S.T. Greenwell, 1882—nine years.

J.J. Paine, 1891—seventeen years.

R.A. Pye, 1909—four years.

A.J. Berckelman, 1913—

The office of hon. treasurer also carries much responsibility and anxiety, and has been filled by:—

Samuel North, 1840—five years. Died about 1863.

John O'Dell, 1845—one year.

Francis Beddek, 1846—six years. Died 12th November, 1852. Aged fifty-two.

Richard Coley, 1853—three years. Died 15th October, 1889. Aged eighty-four.

Geo. Ancell, 1856—nine years. Died 29th August, 1864.

Wm. J. Crew, 1865—eight years. Died 1st April, 1890. Aged eighty-five.

Wm. Beard, 1873—twenty-five years. Died 21st July, 1897. Aged sixty-eight.

S.T. Greenwell, 1898—four years.

Edgard Board, 1902—eight years.

J, B. Johnston, 1910—one year.

M.H. Pulsford, 1911—

There are many other names of those who occupied seats on the committee for many years, and also those who assisted by collecting funds that should be mentioned, such as: Rev. Mathew Adam, 1841-63; Thos. Chaseling, 1860-68; John Galloway, 1856-94; C.W. May, 1856-84; John Ezzy, 1856-68; J.M. McQuade, 1856-68; J.H. Fleming, 1878-92; D. Holland 1878-94; Bernard Conlan, 1885-1904; Samuel Cox, 1887-1908; J.T. Gosper, 1890-1909, and others.

The medical officers who have served the institution are as follows:—

Dr. Wm. Farquar Stewart, 1840—seven years.

Dr. Joshua Dowe, 1848—twelve years.

Dr. William Bell, 1848—two years.

Dr. Henry Day, 1860—eleven years.

Dr. B J. Wetherill, 1871—three years.

Dr. John Selkirk, 1873—five years.

Dr. D. McPhee, 1877—one year.

Dr. G.V. Marano, 1878—one year.

Dr. Thos. Fiaschi, 1879—five years.

Dr. B.J. Newmarch, 1884—two years.

Dr. C.H. Hozier, 1885—four years.

Dr. Jos. Callaghan, 1889. Still in office (1915), and easily holds the record.

Dr. John Gibson, 1890—twenty years.

Dr. A.T. Fullerton, 1911—four years.

Dr. T. Davis, 1914—

The position of Superintendent was filled in the earl; days by Messrs. Henry Williams, J.B. Laverach, and Timothy Paul, and later by J.T. Rowthorne, 1874-78; Wm. Howley, 1878-88; L. Mayer, 1888-91; and Henry Guest, 189.1-94.

The committee then appointed a Matron as head of the hospital, Miss F. Risbey being the first (1895-1905), Miss Cooper following in the year 1905, and resigned in 1915 to go to the war in charge of a hospital ship. She was succeeded by Matron Melvin, from Quirindi.

It is a matter of great difficulty, although of deep interest, to make a selection from the foregoing of, say, the fifteen or twenty who have rendered the greatest and the most long-continued service to the society and hospital in past years. Unfortunately, the earliest reports date only from 1841 to 1868.

Then there is a blank of nine years till 1877, from which time up to the present the complete annual reports are available. The following list is therefore, in parts, only approximate, and some worthy names may have been omitted.

In the following list the names are given with the earliest date of service, except, perhaps, in the case of the auditors. The length of service is given, together with the offices filled, and where possible the year of death and age.

These names might be termed the Roll of Honour:—

Rev. Mathew Adam, 1841—twenty-two years, vice-president, committee. Died 1863. Aged fifty-two.

Wm. Bowman, 1841—thirty-three years, auditor, trustee, life member. Died 1874.

Thos. Arndell, 1841—twenty-four years, trustee. Died 1865.

Josiah Allen Betts, 1841—nine years, hon. secretary, auditor.

Wm. Cox, 1841—eight years, president, trustee, life member. Died 1850. Aged sixty.

Thos. Tebbutt, 1841—sixteen years, vice-president, trustee, auditor. Died 1866.

Samuel North, 1841—five years, treasurer, life member. Died 1863.

Jas. Bligh Johnston, 1845—thirty-six years, president, vice-president, committeeman. Died 1891. Aged eighty-two.

Francis Beddek, 1864—six years, treasurer, auditor, life member. Died 1852. Aged fifty-two.

Richard Ridge, 1847—forty-five years, vice-president, trustee. Died 1892. Aged seventy-nine.

Thos. Chaseling, 1850—eighteen years, committeeman. Died 1878. Aged seventy-two.

Richard Coley, 1853—twelve years, secretary, treasurer. Died 1889. Aged eighty-four.

Wm. Walker, 1854—fifty-four years, president, vice-president, secretary, trustee. Died 1908. Aged eighty.

Geo. Ancell, 1854—eleven years, committee, treasurer. Died 1864.

John Galloway, 1856—thirty-eight years, committee. Died 1894.

C.W. May, 1856—twenty-eight years, committee. Died 1900. Aged eighty-seven.

Robert Dick, 1866—thirty-two years, trustee, auditor. Died 1898. Aged seventy-seven.

Wm. Beard, 1873—twenty-four years, treasurer, trustee. Died 1897. Aged sixty-eight.

Benjamin Richards, 1874—twenty-four years, trustee. Died 1898. Aged eighty.

Smith T. Greenwell, 1878—thirty-seven years, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, trustee.

J.H. Fleming, 1878—fifteen years, committee. Died 1894. Aged seventy-nine.

Bernard Conlan, 1885—twenty years, committee. Died 1904. Aged seventy-three.

Dr. Joseph Callaghan, 1889—twenty-six years, committee, surgeon.

Dr. John Gibson, 1890—twenty years, committee, president, surgeon. Died 1910.

J.T. Gosper, 1890—twenty-two years, committee. Died 1910. Aged seventy-seven.

J.J. Paine, 1891—twenty-four years, secretary, trustee.

J.B. Johnston, 1891—twenty-four years, committee, trustee.

Major Philip Charley, 1897—eighteen years, vice-president.

A picture of some of the hospital workers will be found on another page.



THE history of Windsor is closely bound up with the River Hawkesbury. Governor Philip and his party sailed up this noble stream in 1789 as far as the Green Hills (Windsor), and Lieut.-Governor Grose placed the first settlers along its banks in 1794.

The history of its various floods and bridges is dealt with in Chapters XXI. and XXIII.

Ship and boat building was extensively carried out along the banks of the river at Green Hills, Richmond, Pitt Town, and Portland Head in the very early years of settlement, Captain Grono, Messrs. Beasley, Griffiths, and Andrew Thompson being rival builders.

The cutter Nancy was the first boat launched in September, 1803, but she was wrecked in 1805. An eighty ton schooner, the Elizabeth and Mary, was built in 1810. The Governor Bligh was built in 1807 by Andrew Thompson, and sailed to New Zealand, where her captain rescued ten persons from an adjacent island. The Governor Burke, of three hundred and sixty tons, was launched in the thirties, and was built by Beasley.

The above are some examples of the larger boats built on the river in the early days.

In these early times vessels large and small traded from the rich Hawkesbury flats, not only to Sydney, but around the eastern coast of Australia, and as far as Tasmania. See Historical Records, vol. V., pp. 311, 741.

As early as 1822 Governor Macquarie reported that a wooden wharf was built at Windsor, at which vessels of one hundred tons could berth. This wharf was on the same site as the present small wharf near the Windsor bridge. Another wharf, known as Beasley's, was a little higher up, near the Municipal water pump, at the foot of Fitzgerald Street. These wharves were great centres of activity and sources of wealth to the town for very many years.

In 1814 a ferry, known as Howe's ferry, was established at the site of the present bridge, and in 1828 a cattle and passenger punt was provided at Pitt Town.

In 1828 the first irrigation pump in the colony was placed on the river, near Pitt Town, by Lawrence May. It was capable of lifting twenty tons of water per hour. (See Sydney Gazette, 1st September, 1828.)

The river has also been a source of pleasure and recreation to the district. In the years 1845-46 regattas were held, and again in the early seventies this sport was revived, and as many as one thousand two hundred people assembled on the banks of the river on 26th December, 1871, to witness aquatic contests. Among the competitors were Kemp, Ward, Alderson, White, Wilkins, Johnson, Welsh, Plunket, Norths, Mills, Arnold, Jones, Ford, Grono, Brookes, Batti, Tout, and others. Another successful regatta was held in 1872, with twenty-five pounds of prise money.

Another useful recreation club formed on the river in 1895 was a swimming club. The president was Mr. B. Keenan, and the hon. secretaries Messrs. Fred Collison and R.B. Walker. There were eighty members when it first started. In 1896, on 16th January, the mile swimming championship of Australasia was decided under the Windsor club's auspices on the Hawkesbury, when competitors from New Zealand, Queensland, Victoria, and New South Wales competed. There were sixteen entries for the five guinea trophy mile championship, but only five started. It was won by Percy Cavill, N.S.W., in twenty-eight minutes two seconds, being the record for a straight mile in fresh water. Then came L. Leo, N.S.W., W.J. Stratton, N.Z., H. Hoey, N.Z., and E. Prior, N.S.W, A special train was run from Sydney to Windsor, and three local steamers, St. Alban, Lottie, and Colonel, were in attendance. The river was alive with boats; one thousand five hundred spectators were present, while the banks were gay with bunting and decorations. There were numerous entries for other events, including high-diving.

For an account of this great demonstration, see the Windsor and Richmond Gazette, 18th January, 1896.

Amongst other useful purposes the river serves is irrigation, numerous pumps being at work in the summer months on each side of both the Hawkesbury and the South Creek.

A water brigade was formed in 1872, to be in readiness in case of flood, and to become proficient in the management of the flood boats. The members were Messrs. J. A. Dick, Wm. Moses, R.D.W. Walker, W. Gosper, W.F. Linsley, W. Alderson, and E.J. Tout.

In 1888-89 the river was again called on to serve the town, when the present pumping plant and water supply was started, a description of which will be found under Chapter XXXIII., dealing with Municipal affairs.

From thirty to fifty years ago there was a large shipping trade done on the river, numerous boats, and later small steamers also, brought all kinds of farm, dairy and orchard produce from the Macdonald and Colo rivers, Webb's Creek, Wiseman's Ferry, Sackville, Cattai, Portland Head, and Lower Portland up to the Windsor wharf, where it was disposed of and sent by rail to Sydney or to inland towns. The boats took back stores and such supplies as were needed along the river farms and orchards. A writer in 1857 describes the Hawkesbury as "Windsor's sister and helpmaid".

This river trade was valued in 1876 as worth seventeen thousand pounds a year.

An estimate was made of the river traffic, which appeared in the Windsor and Richmond Gazette of 13th and 20th April, 1889, as follows:—

From 1870 to 1882 an average of three hundred and seventy trips a year; from 1883 to 1885 an average of two hundred and sixty trips a year; and from 1886 to 1887 an average of one hundred and thirty-five trips a year, and in 1888 an average of forty trips a year.

This decline in trade was owing to the gradual silting up of the river.

In the year 1882 a dredge, the Archimedes, was at work near Windsor, but with very little success, each fresh in the river filling the newly-cut channel.

A large sum of money, five thousand pounds, was voted in 1889, and surveys were made for deepening either the Hawkesbury or the South Creek, but the cost would have been: For the river scheme—twenty-six thousand pounds, and for South Creek scheme—nineteen thousand two hundred pounds, much more than the sum voted, and the surveyors could hold out no hope of the suggested improvements surviving the first big flood in the river.

In 1888 the river was almost closed to navigation, but a flood in 1890 opened the channel again so that the large flat bottom tourist steamer General Gordon, one hundred and thirty-five feet long, one hundred and three tons burden, and drawing two feet of water, got up to the Windsor wharf for the first time for three and a half years. The General Gordon came up again in 1893, and as late as 1897, carrying tourists.

The largest steamer that has come to Windsor was the s.s. Victoria, which brought from three hundred to four hundred volunteers from Sydney to a review in October, 1861, when Sir John Young was present.

In 1873 the s.s. Pelican ran an excursion to Sydney, leaving Windsor at 11.30 a.m., and reaching Sydney at 10 p.m. The fares were twenty shillings, and fifteen shillings.

In October, 1891, tho St. Albans landed two hundred and fifty bags, and in 1897 the Surprise landed two hundred hags of maize at the Windsor wharf.

But, alas, the palmy days of the river trade have gone from Windsor, never more, we fear, to return.

The following tidal measurements and distances made when the surveyors were at work on the river are interesting. They appeared in the Windsor and Richmond Gazette, 20th September, 1891: From Windsor Bridge (tide three feet three inches) to Pitt Town wharf (four feet) four and a quarter miles; from Windsor bridge to Great Cattai Creek (four feet one inch) seven and a half miles; from bridge to Little Cattai Creek (four feet eight inches) ten and a quarter miles; from Windsor bridge to Sackville wharf (four feet eight inches) nineteen miles. The greatest depth of water found was off Mud Island, near the Church of England, at Sackville. one hundred feet.

The following is an alphabetical list of the boats and steamers trading on the river from 1872 to 1882, the steamers being later. It is not possible to give the owners with their boats, for the names of the boats were sometimes changed, as was also the ownership:—

Adventure, Australia, Agenora, Alma (s.s.), Acme (s.s.), Bluebird, Blackbird, Better Times, Cecilia, Colonel (s.s.) Dug Out, Emma Matilda, Emily Jane, Emily Edith, Elisabeth, Empress of India, Fanny, Fly, Fly-by-night, Forget-me-not, Farmers' Friend, Friend in Need, Gem, Gosford (s.s.), Happy Jack, Bard Times, Hawkesbury, Jessie Lee, Janet Kingsley, Lottie (s.s.), Maid of Erin, Nil Desperandum, Nonsuch, Noah's Ark, Perseverance, Pilot, Pup, Peerless, Progress, Queen, Rose, Spray, Seabird, Suffolk, Spitfire, Substitute, Star, Sarah Jane, Stone Parson, Same Old Game, Settlers' Friend, Surprise, Sir Andrew Agnew, St. Albans (s.s.), Torment, Tormenting, Rose, Tricket, Terrigal Jack, Thistle (s.s.), Unitor, Victory, Wave, Welcome Home.

Among the owners of these boats were: Messrs. Bailey, Butler, Blundell, Bernsdoff, Chaseling, Cameron, Douglass, Eales, Everingham, Chapman, Cross, Conroy, Gee, Greentree, Herps, Hayman, Jones, Jackling, Jurd, Kemp, Leet, Musgrove, Mackay, Clifford-North, Nicol, Metherell, Morris, Rose, Scott, Sullivan, Sanday, Smith, Starkey, Turnbull, Walters, Woodbury, Whalan, Williams, Watkins, Walker, and Wall.



South Creek.

IN order to reach Windsor the Sooth Creek must be crossed, and this led up to the question of a bridge at a very early date. Andrew Thompson, that enterprising pioneer, obtained permission to collect tolls for fourteen years, and on this condition he constructed the first bridge, which was a floating one, in the year 1802. The position of this bridge was in a line with Catherine Street, at the back of the court house. (See Governor Macquarie's plan of Windsor, dated 1812.) The following order referring to this bridge was issued by Governor King:—

"Government and General Orders, 25th May, 1802.

"Whereas Andrew Thompson (Settler and Constable) has been at a great expense in constructing a floating bridge over the South Creek at the Hawkesbury, leading from the Parramatta Road to the Green Hills, which is of great convenience to the settlers and inhabitants in this colony; and as the subscriptions for carrying on that work have been very inconsiderable in comparison to the expense, he has requested that a permanent toll may be established by authority, for persons, &c, passing that bridge, as may compensate him for the expense he has been at, and to enable him to keep it in repair. In consequence of that just claim, the following toll is established for the term of fourteen years from this date, provided he keeps the said bridge in constant repair (accidents by flood or fire excepted) viz.: for each foot passenger fourpence, or ten shillings per annum; for each horse, two shillings and sixpence, or two pounds ten shillings per annum; for every cart or carriage, one shilling and sixpence, or one pound ten shillings per annum.

"Government having subscribed fifteen pounds and two men for three months towards erecting the said bridge, constables and Government men, going or returning from public labours, who have a pass signed by the magistrate at Parramatta, Toon-Gabbie, or Sydney, or from the Magistrate at Hawkesbury, as well as every officer and soldier actually in the execution of public duty, are to be free of any toll, but if any person whatever endeavours to impose by passing under these pretexts, they will, on conviction, forfeit five pounds to the proprietor of the said bridge.

"The Governor having given to Andrew Thompson the exclusive privilege of keeping and maintaining the bridge, and the receipt of the tolls arising therefrom, for the space of fourteen years, from this, date, any person keeping a passage boat, or using any other mode of carrying or conveying passengers, horses, or carts across the South Creek, will, on conviction before two magistrates, forfeit the sum of five pounds for each offence to the proprietor of the bridge.


This bridge of boats was replaced with a log bridge two hundred and fourteen feet long, which took seven months to build. This second bridge was built by the trustees of Andrew Thompson's estate. John Howe had the oversight of the work, and when it was opened by Governor Macquarie, on 10th November, 1813, the name of "Howe's Bridge" was given to it. This bridge, we believe, was at the same place as the former floating bridge, and it was twenty-four feet over the water level, and had four rows of piles. It was the largest bridge in the colony at the time, and is the bridge referred to in the first part of the following letter:—

Surveyor-General's Office,         

Sydney, 18th January, 1827.

Sir,—In answer to your letter of the 13th inst., requesting to know if the bridge over the South Creek at Windsor was built by a private individual, and if so directing me to report under what conditions it was built.

The first bridge over South Creek was erected by Mr. A. Thompson, who was allowed a Toll regulated by the Magistrates; when this was destroyed in 1814 a new and enlarged bridge was erected by Mr. Thompson's executors with, I believe, some trifling assistance from Government. A lease of the tolls of this bridge was granted by Governor Macquarie for seven years, on the expiration of which the bridge fell under the control of Government, and the tolls which were permitted to be received by the executors of Mr. Thompson are now received by Government. I am not acquainted with any other bridge built by an individual who has been authorised to receive toll in payment of his expenses.

I have, etc.,                  
J. OXLEY,         

The Hon. Alexander McLeay,
     Colonial Secretary.

This 1814-15 bridge was said to have been destroyed by an earthquake in the year 1823, but this is probably a myth. The bridge built in 1823 was probably the first one built on the present site.

In a report as to the value of improvements made in public buildings of New South Wales, and compiled for Governor Brisbane by S.L. Harris, architect, and dated 24th December, 1823, reference is made to a bridge then re-building at Windsor, and complaint is made that piles were being placed in mid-stream that would endanger the bridge in flood time. This bridge was still known as Howe's Bridge in 1830. A Quaker named James Backhouse, who visited Windsor in 1838, mentions that a bridge was then being re-built at the South Creek. It was eventually replaced by the one known as the Fitzroy Bridge, opened about 1848 by Governor Fitzroy. It was constructed on the wooden arch principle. The sum of five hundred pounds was spent in repairs to this bridge in 1860, and it stood till replaced by the present iron bridge built in 1879-80. A temporary wooden bridge was erected while the iron bridge was being built. Tolls were collected here up till 1887. The old toll house still stands near the bridge, and is probably amongst the oldest buildings in Windsor. The bridge was improved in 1895 by having a new concrete floor put down. The tolls collected on the South Creek bridge, and also for the Hawkesbury River ferry, will be found in the old Australian almanacs, so that we need not repeat them here.

Windsor Bridge.

The Hawkesbury River at Windsor was crossed as early as the year 1814 by Howe's ferry, and the ferry or punt was used for many years. The idea of a bridge was first put forward by the Hon. William Walker, on the occasion of the opening of the railway in 1864. It was warmly discussed in Parliament during the next few years, the trouble being whether it would be a high level or a low level bridge. In 1872 a start was made, the bridge taking two and a half years to build. In 1874 preparations was made for the opening, and the sum of ninety-eight pounds and eightpence was collected for the demonstration. There was a large committee appointed: Messrs. W. Dean and S.T. Greenwell being hon. secretaries, and Mr. R. Coley, hon treasurer. There was a great procession through the town, and in the evening a bullock roast in Thompson Square. A full account of the proceedings appears in the Australian of 7th August, 1875. The bridge was four hundred and eighty feet long, and cost ten thousand two hundred and eighty pounds, and was fourteen and a half feet above the tidal level. When opened it was named the Windsor Bridge. This bridge was covered by every strong fresh that came down the river, and an agitation was started for raising it fifteen to eighteen feet, but this was found impracticable. At last it was decided to spend four thousand pounds in raising the bridge another eight feet by placing eight feet cylinders on top of the existing ones. The work wag started in 1896, the traffic meantime being carried on a temporary low wooden bridge. The work, which occupied some eight or nine months, was completed early in 1897. An account of the improvements made will be found in the Windsor and Richmond Gazette of 3rd April, 1807. Mr. James McCall superintended the work. The raised bridge is twenty feet longer than the original, and hundreds of loads of soil were carted from the lowland near Mileham and Brabyn Streets to fill in the river bank to the higher level.

Richmond Bridge.

In 1857 steps were first taken to build a bridge to connect Richmond with the Kurrajong Hills. A private company was formed, known as "The Richmond Bridge Company". The directors in 1872 were: James Ascough (chairman), William Walker, G.M. Pitt, W. Bowman, and Andrew Town. A wooden bridge was completed in 1860, at a cost of ten thousand pounds. Tolls were collected until the bridge was taken over by the Government in 1876. This bridge consisted of nineteen spans. It was a low-level bridge five hundred and thirty-seven feet long. It was repaired at considerable cost in 1890. The piles of this old bridge are still seen beside the present concrete bridge. The fine Monier concrete bridge which now serves the Kurrajong side, was erected in 1905-6 at a cost of eighteen thousand six hundred pounds, and will carry a light tramway if necessary. It is fourteen and a half feet above the ordinary river level.

[top] HAWKESBURY RIVER - A 25 feet rise.

[bottom] HAWKESBURY RIVER - Same view at normal level.



Other Bridges

of smaller dimensions are found in the district. One over the Chain of Ponds was built as early as 1821. Another bridge is that over Rickaby Creek to the Cornwallis flats. In the year 1860 this bridge was washed away and the local Member (William Walker, M.L.A.) got a grant of three hundred pounds for a new bridge, which was built by Thomas Collison, and opened in October, 1860.

The large Hawkesbury railway bridge at Brooklyn was opened on 1st May, 1889.



OF all the names, both past and present, connected with Windsor, none is so widely known outside New South Wales as that of John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S., whose private observatory is to be found on the Peninsula in our midst.

Mr. Tebbutt was born in Windsor on 25th May, 1834, and received his education at the schools of Mr. Edward Quaife, and the Rev. Mathew Adam and Rev. H.T. Stiles, all of Windsor, together with his private study after leaving school. His biography will be found in the Astronomical Memoirs published by him in 1908, and particulars of his work will also be found in several astronomical publications in various parts of the world, for his work is known in every observatory throughout the five continents.

We cannot here attempt to give even an outline of his many years' work, but a few notes will be of interest to his fellow townsmen.

Mr. Tebbutt began to take an interest in astronomy when only nineteen years of age. His first telescope was a small marine glass, which is still preserved in his observatory, and which did duty from 1853 to 1861. In 1861 he obtained a three and a quarter inch refracting telescope, with which he observed a large number of lunar occultations of stars during the period 1864 to 1870. These observations were employed by Dr. Hugo Clemens, of Gottingen, in an investigation of the longitude of Windsor, and although they were made with so inferior an instrument, they were spoken of in the highest terms. The observatory time from 1864 to 1879 depended on the use of a telescope of only two inches aperture. In 1872 he acquired a four and a half inch equatorial telescope. Previously to the year 1863 observations were taken in the open air, but in that year Mr. Tebbutt erected his first observatory, which was a very modest building constructed of pine and roofed with slates. In 1879 a substantial observatory of brick was erected, close to the building just referred to. In this structure an excellent transit instrument of three inches aperture was installed for the determination of accurate local time. In 1886 was added a fine equatorial refractor of eight inches aperture and one hundred and fifteen inches focal length, the work of Grubb, of Dublin. The observatory contains an excellent astronomical library, chiefly formed by contributions from all well-known observatories and kindred institutions of the world. With the two equatorial instruments a vast number of observations have been made, extending from 1872 to 1912, and the results have been regularly published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, and in the Astronomische Nachrichten. The work achieved may be summarised as follows:—

Meridian observations for local time.

Observations of occultations of stars by the moon.

Micrometer observations of minor planets.

Micrometer observations of comets.

Observations of eclipses, transits and occupations of Jupiter's satellites.

Observations of solar and lunar eclipses.

Measures of double stars, especially those which have proved to be binary.

Observations of the remarkable variable stars, Eta Argus and R. Carinæ.

Lastly, observations of a miscellaneous character.

The accuracy and usefulness of all these systematic observations are attested by numerous monographs in the observatory library. It may be mentioned that it is "to this observatory we are indebted for the discovery of two of the grandest comets of the nineteenth century, namely, those of 1861 and 1881, both of which were objects of great interest when at their maximum splendour. No fewer than seven returns of Encke's celebrated comet were observed at Windsor. This comet should be of special interest to Australian astronomers, for its first predicted return was verified by Sir T. Brisbane's observatory at Parramatta in 1822. So far back as 1862 Mr. Tebbutt was offered the post of Government Astronomer, but he preferred to work privately for the science. His observatory has been placed on the list of working observatories in the national ephemerides of Great Britain, France, Germany, and the United States. In 1861 he was elected a member of the Philosophical Society, now the Royal Society of New South Wales, and he is at present the oldest member but one of that Society. In 1873 he became a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society of London, and in 1895 was chosen as first President of the New South Wales Branch of the British Astronomical Association. In 1867 he received a commemorative silver medal from the New South Wales Commissioners of the Paris Exhibition, and in 1905 the Royal Astronomical Society presented him with the Jackson-Gwilt medal for services to astronomy extending over nearly half a century. In addition to his astronomical work, Mr. Tebbutt is the author of meteorological work extending over half a century, and to him we are indebted for a complete catalogue of floods and freshes in the Hawkesbury River from 1855 to the present time.

It will be seen from this notice that Mr. Tebbutt is now in his eighty-second year. Attention to private affairs is now sufficient for him, and he feels unable to do much for his favourite science.

His fellow townsmen, many of whom have followed with much interest—although at times "afar off"—his deep scientific labours, wish that he may spend the evening of his life with faculties unimpaired, and so be enabled to still follow, even though, perhaps, with a little less ardour than formerly, his loved science.

The writer desires to thank Mr. Tebbutt for his kindness in revising the MSS. of this article and that on "Weather and Floods", and also for reading the proofs. In addition, he would like here also to thank Mr. Tebbutt for much help in compiling this series of articles on the "Early Days of Windsor", including the use of his library and replies to many queries.



THE danger from floods is always a source of anxiety to the occupants of the low-lying lands along the banks of the Hawkesbury; the river may rise and overflow its banks at any time during the whole year. Nevertheless, it appears from Mr. Tebbutt's records that a flood is an event of rare occurrence during the months of January and December. The few which have been recorded were very small. Farmers and dairymen do not take such risks as formerly with regard to their homesteads, barns, and haystacks, having grown wiser by the bitter experiences of the former generation, and now build on the high ground. Still, from time to time extra large floods do come down, doing terrible damage, not only to the growing crops, but to live stock and produce as well.

We give herewith a list of the biggest floods, that is, such as rose thirty-five feet or more. This would be at least fifteen feet over the present Windsor bridge, and would encroach a considerable way up Bridge, Baker, Kable, and Fitzgerald streets on the north side, whilst a forty-eight feet rise would bring the water right across George Street near New Street. Such rises occurred in the years 1864 and 1867. The highest flood recorded was that in 1867, June 23, which rose sixty-three feet. All Windsor was covered excepting two spots; an island about two hundred feet wide, and extending from Johnston Street, near the Gazette office, up to the School of Arts and a little beyond. Another island started near New Street, extending along the Terrace past St. Matthew's Church, taking in Tebbutt Street and part of McQuade Park, and from the railway station about a mile back along the Penrith Road.

Richmond was half under water. An island was formed about the old Clarendon House to near the Roman Catholic Church. Another island started from about the Black Horse Hotel, and extended back through part of "Hobartville" to Yarramundi. Pitt Town was also an island two hundred chains long and the same wide. The whole of the road to Pitt Town and Cattai was under water, except a small portion in Pitt Town. The Parramatta road was under water out to Vineyard. Most of the Riverstone Meat Company's paddocks were also flooded, and all the low laud away towards Blacktown.

The flood measurements in the accompanying list, from 1855 to date, are taken from the meteorological observations of Mr. J. Tebbutt, F.R.A.S., made at his private observatory on the Peninsula, near Windsor, and may, therefore, be accepted as correct. Those given before that date are, we fear, not so accurate, and at times are much exaggerated.

The rainfall and the temperature records are also from Mr. Tebbutt's observatory, dating from the year 1863:—

Highest Floods at Windsor.

1799, March 3—Rose 50 feet. One life lost.

1800, March—Rose 40 feet.

1806, August 26—Rose 47 feet Five lives lost. Hundreds of haystacks floated away.

1809, August 1 —Rose 48 feet. Eight lives lost. In consequence of floods Windsor and other towns were laid out on higher ground in 1810.

1811, March 25.

1816, June 2—Rose 45 feet.

1817, February 26—Rose 46 feet. Two lives were lost. A large relief fund was raised.

1819, February 20—Rose 46 feet.

1857, August 22—Rose 37.7 feet. The first big flood for thirty-eight years. Penrith bridge swept away.

1860, April 29-30—Rose 37.4 feet. Cornwallis bridge swept away. November 19—Rose 36 feet. Three big floods this year.

1864, June 13—Rose 48 feet. July 16—Rose 36.1 feet 55.03 inches of rain this year.

1867, June 23—Rose 63.2 feet Six lives were lost. Record flood, fifteen feet above the highest known.

1869, May 9—Rose 36.8 feet.

1870, April 28—Rose 45 feet. May 13-14—Rose 35.5 feet. Record wet year, 62.51 inches of rain falling. Seven big rises in the river.

1871, May 2—Rose 36.9 feet.

1873, February 26-27—Rose 41.6 feet.

1875, June 7—Rose 38.9 feet.

1879, September 11—Rose 43,3 feet.

1889, May 29—Rose 38.5 feet.

1890, March 13—Rose 38.9 feet. Three floods this year. 45.67 inches of rain fell.

1891, June 26—Rose 35.5 feet.

1900, July 7—Rose 46.2 feet.

1904, July 12—Rose 40.1 feet.

Meteorological Observations.

Greatest annual rainfall by a gauge 6.8 feet above the ground:—1870, 62.513 inches; 1864, 55.030 inches; 1892, 54.626 inches; 1890, 45.667 inches; 1867, 44.300 inches.

Least annual rainfall, by the same gauge:—1906, 14.809 inches; 1902, 17.489 inches; 1888, 17.640 inches; 1901, 18.471 inches; 1905, 18.510 inches.

The average rainfall for fifty-two years, ending December 31st, 1914, is 30.973 inches. The wettest months are February and March, and the driest mouth is August.

The highest shade temperature recorded since 1862 was 130 degrees on January 4th, 1909, and the lowest temperature on the grass, 17.6 degrees, on July 8th, 1896.

A terrific hailstorm passed over Windsor in July, 1844, doing much damage. Over one thousand panes of glass were broken. A similar hailstorm took place on 18th January, 1893, when the damage done at the Hawkesbury Agricultural College was estimated at eight hundred pounds.

Snow was seen on the Kurrajong Hills on 20th August, 1872, 28th June, 1875, and in October, 1895.

Severe earthquake shocks were felt in Windsor in the years 1804, 1823, and 1842. That of 1823 is reported as having destroyed Howe's bridge over South Creek, but this is doubtless a gross exaggeration.



THE first medical practitioner in the Hawkesbury district was probably Dr. Thos. Arndell, who came here in 1804, and though he did not seek to build up a practice, he remained in the district. His death took place on 9th May, 1821.

Dr. James Mileham came to the colony in 1797, and was Government surgeon at Windsor from 1811 to 1823. He died in Sydney, 28th September, 1824.

Further reference to Dr. Arndell and Dr. Mileham will be found in Chapter II.

Dr. William Balmain received a grant of two hundred and seventy acres at Magrath's Hill, known as "The Sister's Farm", It does not appear that he practised his profession in the Hawkesbury district. This grant is dated 12th November, 1799.

Dr. Martin Mason was at the Hawkesbury for a few years about 1807.

Dr. Major West, 1822-26; Dr. T.B. Allan, 1826-27; Dr. Benjamin Clayton, 1835, were here for short periods.

The next local medico was Dr. William Richardson, M.D., of Edinburgh, who arrived by the same ship (Castle Forbes) that conveyed Governor Darling to these shores. He was appointed surgeon-assistant on the medical staff of New South Wales on 3rd of March, 1826. He settled first at Bathurst, coming to Windsor in 1831, remaining till 1837, when he went to Goulburn, and afterwards to Port Macquarie in 1841. He was appointed a member of the Medical board of New South Wales on 15th May, 1846. He received an appointment at the Sydney Infirmary in 1845, Hobart Town, 1848. After a few years he retired on a pension, returning to Scotland, where he died in September, 1863. When in Windsor he occupied the site now known as "Sunny Brae", between Fitzgerald and Kable Streets, which he sold to the late Thomas Cadell.

Dr. Alex. Gamack, 1838-39; Dr. Harry Graham, 1839-40.

Dr. William Farquharson Stewart, 1840-48. He lived in Fitzgerald Street, and also in premises now occupied by the Bank of New South Wales, and was the Benevolent Society's medical officer for eight years. He died at the early age of thirty-five, on 2nd January, 1848. His son, W.D. Stewart, who was born in Windsor, died in Richmond in 1902, where some of his descendants still reside. Mrs. Helsham, wife of Dr. Helsham, being his grand-daughter.

Dr. White, 1842-43 (is probably the Dr. Blanc of an ancient local romance).

Dr. William Bell, 1846-49, lived in Burke's Buildings, Thompson Square, and afterwards practised at Carcoar, Campbelltown, and Picton, 1859-71, where one of his daughters married into the Antill family.

Dr. Joshua Dowe was for over twenty-years the resident doctor, 1841-67. During this time he married Miss Sarah Loder, of a well-known local family. It was he who built the large balcony residence in Bridge Street, near the School of Arts. He afterwards removed to Tamworth, where he died 22nd September, 1875, aged sixty-three. His son, R.A. Dowe, solicitor, of Tamworth, who was born in Windsor in 1848, died 8th January 1915.

Dr. Henry Day practised first at Wilberforce, and then at Windsor, from 1857-71. He was the hospital doctor for some eleven years, and lived in the Terrace, near the Windsor bridge. In the year 1882 Dr. Day was the quarantine medical officer in Sydney.

Dr. H.A. Huffington practised in Windsor and Richmond from 1861-65.

Dr. William Shaw, 1863-64.

Dr. B. Fyfe, 1864; Dr. E. Pring, 1867; and Dr. J.B. Wetherill, 1871-73.

We now come to one whose name will long be remembered in the Hawkesbury district, Dr. John Selkirk, of the Royal College of Surgeons, London. He was admitted as a practitioner by the New South Wales Medical Board,, in 1839. His first regular practice was at Wiseman's, Lower Hawkesbury, from where he removed to Richmond about the year 1850, and to Windsor in 1874, where he died 15th September, 1877, aged sixty-four, and was buried in St. Peter's Cemetery, Richmond. He was greatly mourned by a large circle of friends in the district, where for thirty-six years he practised his healing art. Dr. Selkirk took a keen interest in the welfare of the district. He was a good churchman, a keen politician, and an ardent volunteer, being one of the first to enlist.

Dr. Thomas Fiaschi began practise in 1876, remaining until 1886, when his superior surgical skill demanded his residence in Sydney; but he has ever since taken a deep interest in the district, and has considerable vigneron interests in the Sackville district (see Chapter XXVI.).

Dr. D. McPhee, 1874-82.

Dr. G.V. Marano, 1877-79, Dr. W.Q. Dalgairns, a Spanish medico, came in 1878, and died 30th August, 1879. Dr. H.P. Gordon died 11th June, 1882, aged thirty-eight; Dr. W.F. Jackson, 1882-83; Dr. B.J. Newmarch, 1883-5; Dr. C.H. Hozier, 1885-9, was afterwards in Kiama, and then went to Germany.

Dr. Joseph Callaghan, L.R.C.P., Edinburgh, came to Richmond in 1877. In September, 1882, he sold out his Richmond practice and bought a practice in Sydney. A strong effort was made to retain his services for the district at the time. However, he was committed to the Sydney arrangement, but the following year he returned, and has been practising in Windsor from November, 1883, to the present time, 1915. He is one of the senior Magistrates of the district, and has taken keen interest in all that concerns the welfare of the district. He has been for thirty years on the committee of the Hawkesbury Race Club, and for many years president of the local School of Arts.

Dr. John Gibson, M.D., Edinburgh, purchased Dr. Hozier's practice in February, 1889, and continued the same up till the time of his death, which took place in the Eastern Archipelago, near Java, 5th May, 1910. He had gone there on a voyage to recruit his health. Dr. Gibson was largely instrumental in having the fine new hospital erected in 1910.

Dr. A.Y. Fullerton succeeded Dr. Gibson in 1910, and left Windsor to join the New South Wales military forces in August. 1914, and is now in Gallipoli. He was succeeded by Dr. Davis.



THE first mention we find of a local lawyer is in Bonwick's History, where he mentions that the first Methodist meeting held in Windsor was conducted by an emancipist lawyer in the year 1812 (see Chapter IX.). Another lawyer, George Crossley, had a farm of three hundred and fifteen acres at Richmond Hill as early as 1806. His name appears frequently in connection with the arrest of Governor Bligh, he being the Governor's legal adviser. Crossley appears from the Historical Records to have been highly respected in the Hawkesbury district. He died in 1823, and was buried in the old Devonshire Street cemetery, Sydney, the remains being removed to La Perouse cemetery in 1901. The inscription on the headstone reads:

Here lyeth the body of


The much lamented wife of George Crossley,
Who departed this life the 24th September, 1817.
Aged 52 years.


Who departed this life March 19th, 1823.
Aged 75 years.

In the forties there were several legal gentlemen in Windsor of whom we have very little information. Mr. Thos. Darling, 1842-46; Mr. Johnson, 1848-9—an Irish gentleman, and Mr. David Lawson, a brilliant young Scotchman, who died 27th May, 1849, at the early age of twenty-seven, and is buried in St. Matthew's cemetery. Mr. Stephen N, Lamb-ton from Parramatta, who arrived in New South Wales in 1838, practised in Windsor 1848-51, where he died at the age of forty-two, in the year 1851. He was the father of Mr. S.H. Lambton, of the General Post Office, who studied in Windsor at the Academy of Rev. M. Adam.

We have now to mention one who, as both a lawyer and citizen of Windsor, took up the work of the pioneers and played an important part in developing the town and district, Mr. Francis Beddek.

Mr. Beddek was an English attorney, admitted to the New South Wales bar on 1st February, 1828. He began practise in Windsor about the year 1828, and continued to make it his home and interest for the next twenty-four years. He was married in St. Matthew's by the Rev. E. Smith, on 11th December, 1828, to Miss Elizabeth Blatchford, sister of Mrs. Cox, of Clarendon, and they resided at Claremont Cottage, near St. Matthew's. Mr. Beddek was also a director of the Commercial Banking Company of Sydney, as early as the year 1843. He was the hon. treasurer of the Hawkesbury Benevolent Society for six years, and a life member of the same. He acted as hon. secretary for Robt. Fitzgerald in the exciting election of 1843. He also took an interest in the formation of the first Agricultural Society in 1845, and was always ready to assist in anything that tended to advance the interest of the district. He died at the age of fifty-two, on 12th November, 1852. Mrs. Beddek's death, at the age of sixty-three, took place on 21st May, 1863. The Beddek vault is worthy of a visit, and will be found in St. Matthew's churchyard, near those of such other worthy pioneers as Tebbutt, Brabyn, Arndell, and W. Cox, in the south-east corner.

Mr. Richard Coley was admitted to the New South Wales bar on 17th February, 1844, and began practise in Windsor in the year 1848, where he continued to reside for over forty years. Mr. Coley took into partnership in the early seventies, Mr. C. Bed veil, but the connection was dissolved on 14th July, 1873. Mr. Coley married Miss M. Bell, of Belmont. He took great interest in the local Fire Brigade; he was also interested in the Hawkesbury Benevolent Society, holding for some eight or nine years both the office of hon. treasurer and hon. secretary.

Mr. Coley was an active member of the Masonic Lodge, as is indicated by the present name, "102 Richard Coley Lodge". He also held office as a trustee and warden in St. Matthew's Church, and in his will, which was valued for probate at nine thousand seven hundred and two pounds, he left four hundred pounds to St. Matthew's Church. He died at the age of eighty-four, on 15th October, 1889. His grave will be seen not far from-the front door of St. Matthew's (see also Chapter XXXIV.).

Mr. William Walker was articled to Mr. F. Beddek in 1841, and admitted to practise in New South Wales on 30th October, 1852, continuing in his profession and residence in Windsor for some fifty-six years.

Mr. Walker came from Scotland at the age of nine X years, with his father, Mr. Geo. Walker, who was brought. out under the direction of Dr. Lang as a teacher, arriving in Windsor on 3rd December, 1837. The family lived first in Macquarie Street, near Suffolk Street, then in the Peninsula, and finally in the red-tiled cottage in New Street, in the year 1857, opposite the Church of England Hall, where his father died at the age of eighty-seven, on 22nd September, 1883 (see Chapter XIII.).

Mr. William Walker, in addition to his practice, found time for everything that tended to help the town and its institutions. He was one of the founders of the School of Arts, and its first president in 1861, holding that office for some seventeen years. He threw himself into all the work of the Benevolent Society, being for fourteen years its hon. secretary, from 1854-67, and president from 1801 to 1908, and trustee for forty-nine years.

Mr. Walker took an active interest in the local Presbyterian Church, holding the office of Elder and representative to the General Assembly for very many years. There is a tablet to his memory in the local church. He was interested in Municipal affairs, being elected to the first Council in 1871, and he was Mayor of the town in the year 1878. Mr. Walker was also keenly interested in politics, and represented Windsor in the Lower House from 1860 to 1864, being instrumental in advancing the interests of the town in many directions. He was appointed to the Upper House in 1887, holding a seat in the Legislative Council for twenty-one years.

The Hon. Wm. Walker died at the age of eighty, on 12th June, 1908, and is buried in the local Presbyterian cemetery, leaving a large family of sons and daughters, several of whom hold influential and important positions in various parts of the Commonwealth.

We now come down to more modern days, and in closing give the names of Mr. Alex. Brodie Neilson, who was articled to R. Coley, and practised for twenty years from 1873 up to the time of his death at the age of fifty-four years, on 30th December, 1892.

Mr. Geo. McCauley, articled to Mr. Morgan, M.L.A., admitted to practise 24th August, 1895, and carrying on his profession until 1912. He was seventeen years in Windsor, and died on June 25th, 1912, at the age of forty years.

Mr. J.J. Paine, who came from Parramatta to Windsor in November, 1889, taking up the practice of Mr. R. Coley.

Mr. R.B. Walker, who was articled to his father, the Hon. Wm. Walker, and with whom he was afterwards associated, and succeeded in 1908.

Mr. Ed. Campbell, of Richmond, might also be mentioned; he began practise there in the year 1892.



ONE of the earliest industries of this district was the building of schooners and small boats. This was carried on along the river bank.

From the earliest times, the rich flats and good grazing land in the district have given an impetus to dairying, and the growing of maize, pumpkins and melons. In more recent years the science of irrigation has led to the cultivation of suet other vegetables as cabbages, cauliflowers, and beans, as well as tomatoes.

In some parts the vine has been tried and abandoned. In the eighties Dr. Fiaschi planted the famous Tizzana vineyard, near Ebenezer. A description of this industry appeared in the Windsor and Richmond Gazette for the 7th March, 1891.

For a long time horse-breeding and training have been a lucrative business in the district, the Hobartville and Belmont stud being amongst others well-known throughout Australasia. (See Windsor and Richmond Gazette, 28th February, 1891.) Hobartville sold seven hundred and forty-seven horses, valued at ninety-five thousand pounds, during the seventies and eighties. The local sales ceased in 1891.

Apiaries were much in evidence some twenty years ago, when such paymasters of the cult as the Rev. J. Ayling, Messrs. G.F. Daley, W.C. Barker, and J.D.G. Cadden attended their well-kept hives.

An attempt to introduce the growing and manufacture of sugar was made in 1872-3, but without success.

From a very early date the Hawkesbury was the centre of New South Wales wheat-growing and milling industries, but the local growers were compelled to pass the wheat-growing out to the west and south-west, on account of the rust in the crops about the year 1873. At Wilberforce, Buttsworth's mill, built in 1848, and in other parts old ruined milk may still be seen. Buttsworth's old mill was demolished in 1915. One of the earliest windmills, the tower of which is still standing, was on the river bank, opposite the Ebenezer Church. Another was started at Pitt Town in 1835, by Lawrence May. This was a horse-power floor mill. In Windsor proper there were three flour mills. One in Kable Street, near the river, run first by Cadell and Co., and in 1857 by Farron Bros. As early as 1830 another mill, known as the Endeavour Mill, stood in George Street, near Dight Street, opposite the park. It was alternately known as Teale's, Dawson's and later as Liddel's, and then Hoskisson's. For a long time the tall chimney was a prominent landmark. After standing for about sixty-five years it was pulled down in June, 1896. Another flour mill stood opposite the Presbyterian Church. It was known at different times as Holland's, Hopkins', and Moses', and was pulled down in October, 1893. It will be noticed that in the years 1857-66 three steam flour mills were running in Windsor at the same time, viz.: Hopkins', Dawson's, and Farron Bros'.

The brewing industry was established by Andrew Thompson on the 11th May, 1806. Hie license stated that he was to sell at one shilling per gallon, and sixpence for small beer. In the year 1835 there were three breweries: One was O'Dell's, in Macquarie Street, near Fitzgerald Street. Cadell's original brewery and malt-house was on the Cornwallis Read, near the Riccaby Creek, a public-house being also near by. The largest brewery was built about 1845, at the corner of Kable Street and the river bank, and was known as Cadell's Hawkesbury Brewery. Governor Young, in visiting it in 1861, stated that he questioned if there was another as large and ably conducted in the colony. These large three-storied buildings were well-constructed of brick, with slate roofs. The main portion was pulled down a few years ago. The malt-house is still standing.

The tanning industry was at one time very extensively carried on in Windsor. We find in the 1835 Directory that there were two local tanners:—Samuel Marsden, Macquarie Street, opposite the Oddfellows' Hall, and Joseph Windred, in George Street. Mr. Marsden also kept a drapery shop on the opposite side of the street to his tannery. His family were very musical. Mr. Anthony Hordern married one of his daughters.

We glean from a special article in the Windsor and Richmond Gazette, 6th October, 1888, that there were then no less than six local tanneries, containing over two hundred pits, with a total weekly capacity of over five hundred hides. These tanneries were as follows:—

1.—R.W. Cobcroft, Argyle Street, Newtown.

2.—Julian's, near railway, Newtown, and afterwards known as Marr's. McGrath, and Perkins also worked it at other times.

3.—Buttsworth and Evans, Brabyn Street.

4.—W.P. Linsley, Macquarie Street, formerly Marsden's tannery; also Cavanough's, and afterwards known as Moore and Maisey's yard.

5.—J.S. Busby, Peninsula, at present Anschau's, and the only one that has survived. This tannery was started by Mr. Busby in 1867, and was enlarged in 1881, and again in 1895. In 1898 it was able to turn out up to two hundred and fifty hides a week.

6.—W.H. Hull's, in George Street, near Kable Street, and once owned by R. McNiven, who was Mayor of Windsor in 1882. He died in Balmain on 7th March, 1891, at the age of forty-five. This was Joseph Windred's tannery in 1835.

Another, Mottram's, James Street, Newtown, was built later than the others. The large iron sheds may still be seen.

For some years (1883-93) a wool-scouring wash was located on the South Creek, but frequent floods drove the proprietors (Magrath Bros.) to Emu Plains, in October, 1893. Several families left Windsor with the industry, which at one time paid locally as much as fifty pounds a week in wages.

The meat industry, in the shape of beef-salting, was tried by Mr. Robert Fitzgerald, in the forties. About the year 1880 the late Benjamin Richards established the Riverstone Meatworks, which have continued to flourish. In 1889 Mr. S. Hoskisson made an attempt to establish similar works at Clarendon.

A jam factory at Riverstone, in 1893-5, did not return many dividends to the shareholders.

The manufacture of cordials has been carried on for the past twenty years or more.

In 1889 the Hawkesbury Dairy Co. was formed, but did not get properly going until 1892, when the present factory was erected as a butter factory, the property being then valued as: Land, three hundred and twenty pounds; buildings, eight hundred and twenty pounds; and machinery, Ave hundred and ten pounds. Total, one thousand six hundred and fifty pounds. The water-tower was erected in August, 1896. The whole business has been remodelled and reorganised on entirely different lines, the factory now being for the manufacture of condensed milk and powdered milk. The opening of the original factory on the 24th of August, 1893, was a red-letter day in Windsor. Lord Jersey came up by special train for the purpose, being the first Governor to visit Windsor for thirty years. The factory was named the "Jersey" factory, and a banquet followed in the Church of England Hall. All the children from the surrounding schools were present, and formed a procession and marched through the town.



THE first Bank stalled in Windsor was an agency of the Commercial Banking Company of Sydney, of which Mr. F. Beddek, solicitor, was a director. The agency was opened in his office, then in Macquarie Street, in the year 1941. The agency was continued afterwards in George Street, between Kable and Baker Streets, north side, until 1844, with Mr. T.O.S. Green as cashier, when it closed up, Mr. Green being afterwards teller in the head office in 1851.

Mr. Robert Dick acted as agent for this bank till it re-opened in 1874.

In the year 1858 two banks started in Windsor. The Barrack Street Savings Bank of New South Wales was opened, with the late Hon. Wm. Walker, M.L.C., as accountant, who held the office for forty-four years, when, in 1903, his son, Mr. R, B. Walker, took it over, and held office until the amalgamation with the Government Savings Bank in 1914.

The same year, 1858, saw also a branch of the Bank of New South Wales established under the management of Mr. Nicolas Nugent, who held office for eighteen years, until his death in 1875.

Mr. Chas. Hole, a native of Windsor, then took charge, and continued in office for nineteen years, until his death at the age of fifty-four, on 13th November, 1894. His father died in Parramatta a fortnight later, at the age of eighty years. The family were connected with those of the Revs. C.P. Garnsey and H.T. Stiles.

Mr. C. Hole was one of the promoters, and for long the secretary of the local gasworks, which were started in the year 1883 (see Chapter XXXIII.).

The next manager was Mr. C. Chester, who was transferred from Moruya in December, 1894, and remained twelve years, until 1896.

During his time the bank was re-roofed and fenced, and the porch added, opening on to the street.

Mr. W. Scott followed in 1906, remaining about six years, when the management passed over to the present occupant, Mr. It. A. Nevile, in 1912.

The Commercial Banking Company of Sydney reopened in 1874, in the building in George Street, known as Laban White's, the first manager being Mr. W. W, Bodenham, who was transferred to Parramatta in 1886, and was followed by Mr. Chas. W. Gaden, 1886-88, when Mr. W.H.B. Piddington followed, and remained until 1893. He afterwards entered Parliament. It was in his time, about the year 1889, that the present premises were erected. Mr. W.P. Busby, from Taree, followed, remaining until February, 1897, when Mr. J.G. Beasley took charge, and remained sixteen years, when he retired from the service, being succeeded the same year, 1913, by the present manager, Mr. W.H. Haxby, from Moruya.

The last bank to enter the field in Windsor was the old Australian Joint Stock Bank, which opened in the premises now occupied by the Windsor and Richmond Gazette, in November, 1888, with Mr. F.H.M. Norton, who resigned from the New South Wales bank, as manager. This bank, however, did not flourish, and closed down in Windsor on 30th June, 1896.



OWING to changes in the boundaries of the electorate and to the single and doable electorates, it is difficult to follow out the order of representation, but taking Windsor proper as a centre, although not the name of the electorate, we find the following have represented Windsor: Wm. Bowman, 1843-58; W.B. Dalley, 1858-60; Wm. Walker, 1860-69; Arthur Dight, 1869-72; Richard Driver, 1872-79; Alex. Bowman, 1879-82; H.M.H. McQuade, 1882-85; Alex. Bowman, 1885-92; Sydney Burdekin, 1892-94; Wm. Morgan, 1894-1902; Brinsley Hall, 1902, still holds the seat.

The first election was held on 17th June, 1843. The candidates were William Bowman, of Richmond, who won by a single vote, and Robert Fitzgerald, of Windsor, The campaign was a long and bitter one, much local feeling being aroused. When the result of the election was announced, the supporters of the defeated candidate broke out into riot, and smashed the windows and property of many of the Bowman supporters in Windsor.

The Fitzgerald committee was: Jas. Hale (chairman), F. Beddek (hon. secretary), Dr. White, Dr. W.F. Stewart, and Messrs. John O'Dell, John Shearing, Michael McQuade, J.L. Scarvell, Chas. Smith, Jas. Cullen, W.G. Burgis, Ed. Coffey, Richard Ridge, Richard Dunstan, and John McDonald.

The Bowman local committee was: Messrs. Chas. Tompson (chairman), Thee. Darling, Lee, J.A. Betts, T. Tebbutt, Johnston, and Cadell. They met in the Bird in the Hand Hotel, in Fitzgerald Street, between the present Poet Office and the Methodist Parsonage.

The rival candidates advertised for three or four months in the Sydney papers before the election. They both gave liberal subscriptions to the Hawkesbury Benevolent Society, amounting to nearly forty pounds. Messrs. S. North and O'Dell, being public officers, were rebuked by a judge for partisanship in the revision of the rolls, having rejected the names of about twenty Bowman supporters.

The following Hawkesbury residents have also occupied seats in our Upper or Lower Houses of Legislature: Lieut. A. Bell, John Panton, 1843; Jas. A. Cuneen, 1861-69; W.K. Piddington, 1872-76; Hy. Moses, 1876-1892; Robert Fitzgerald, 1849, M.L.C.; Jas. Comrie, 1858, M.L.C.; Geo. Bowman, 1856, M.L.C.

Amongst those who have acted as returning officers at the Parliamentary elections we find: Samuel North, 1843; Laban White, 1850; Jas. Ascough, 1860; Robert Dick, 1872; J.B. Johnston, senior; J.B. Johnston, junior.



THE first record we find of a local Poet Office is when Mr. Robert Fitz was appointed Postmaster in the year 1828, at a remuneration of thirty-four pounds, seven shillings and ninepence per annum, at which time there were three mails a week to and from Sydney.

Mr. Hy. Bailey was next Postmaster, appointed in 1834, and was followed in office by Mr. Alfred Holden, in 1835-36, and in 1836 by Mr. John O'Dell, who had to handle a daily mail with Sydney. He remained in office, we believe, for many years, the office being in Macquarie Street, near Fitzgerald Street. Mr. O'Dell took a keen interest in politics, and also in the local hospital.

Mr. Geo. Panton, probably of the old firm of Betts and Panton, was postmaster in 1852. The Post Office in 1850 was the building, minus the balcony, where Drs. Callaghan and Davis now live, in Thompson Square.

The name that will be most intimately connected with the Windsor Post Office by alt the old residents k that of Mr. Jas. Adam Dick, who was appointed in 1861, and held the office for some thirty-nine years, when he was retired on a pension, in the year 1899. He died, at the age of sixty years, on 3rd January, 1900. During his time the Post Office Department secured the site of the old look-up, now the Council Chambers, where the Post Office was carried on for many years, and the electric telegraph office for a further period, the present building being erected in 1860. The present post office site was purchased in 1878 for the sum of six hundred pounds, and the foundation stone was laid in 1879 by the then local member, Mr. Richard Driver, M.L.A., and the business transferred there in due time, followed afterwards by the telegraph office.

Mr. J.A. Dick also took an active interest in the volunteer movement, for many years holding office as second lieutenant, and afterwards as captain of the local corps. His mantle and offices fell some years later on his son-in-law, Lieut.-Col. J.J. Paine.

Two of the late Mr. Dick's sons are well-known medical practitioners in New South Wales, and both are at the war front to-day.

The next Postmasters were: Mr. A.D. Fowler, 1901-1907; Mr. H.E. Edwards, 1907-8; Mr. T.W.C. Young, 1909-11; Mr. H.J. Lancaster, 1912-15; G. Ireland, 1915, at present in charge.

The telegraph office was first in charge of Mr. C.N. Ambrose, 1861-70; then Mr. J.A. Dick, 1870-2; after which Mr. C.J. Nealds, who had held at one time an important position in the railway department, took charge in 1873-75, followed by Mr. Jesse Cook, 1878-80, when the office passed under control of the Post Office.

An interesting article on the local Post Office appeared in the Windsor and Richmond Gazette, 9th February, 1907, from the pen of Mr. John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S.



THE earliest local papers came out in the early days of Responsible Government, when the election fever ran high, but they were short-lived. The Windsor Express was run by Geofry A. Eager in 1843, and the Hawkesbury Courier in 1844, in which Messrs, Statham and Forster also assisted.

After a silence of some six years there appeared in 1850-51 the Windsor Telegraph, Messrs. Albermarle Layard and Benjamin Isaacs being responsible for its production.

A magazine called the Windsor Review, edited by J. Kennedy, of York Cottage, arose and fell about the year 1857. In 1860 appeared the Windsor Advertiser.

It is very difficult to find to-day any files of the above, only isolated copies, few and far between, being available.

In the early seventies two rival papers appeared, and from that period onwards, owing in a large measure to the inauguration of Municipal Government on 31st May, 1871, the town has had continuous press representation.

In 1870 the Hawkesbury Times began its career of four years, edited for a local company by J.D. Delaney, who died on 11th April, 1894.

The Australian was launched on its fiery career in September, 1871, edited by Geo. L.A. Davies. This paper ran for some twenty-three years, closing down 2nd December, 1893.

The Hawkesbury Chronicle started in 1879, under the auspices of C.E. Fuller, then Messrs. Spencer Bros., and latterly by G.C. Johnson. It supplied the town with local information till 1888, when the present Windsor and Richmond Gazette came out, under the editorship of Mr. J.C.L. Fitzpatrick, M.L.A., passing into the bands of the present proprietor, Mr. F. Campbell, in 1899.

The Hawkesbury Herald, under the conduct of Messrs. W.H. Pinkstone and F. Collison, began in 1902, appearing at first in Windsor; but now in Richmond.



AS early as the year 1846 a system of railways was discussed, and a rough survey of a line thirty-six and a half miles long to Windsor was included. The following properties lay at that time along the proposed route from Blacktown to Richmond: Messrs. Pye, Bobart, Betts, Marsden, Fitzgerald, Teale, Allen, and Hale. This report was printed in 1848, and makes an interesting study.

In 1856 a petition was presented asking for a railway to Windsor and Richmond, and the same year a select committee was appointed to consider the matter. In October, 1860, the sum of fifty-one thousand pounds for a railway, Blacktown to Windsor, was passed, and in 1861 the sum was increased to sixty thousand pounds for a horse railway from Blacktown to Richmond.

In 1863 the first sod was turned, and the following year an additional grant of fifteen thousand pounds was made to make the line fit for locomotive traffic. The line has a very long viaduct over the Hood area (as seen in the illustration) on the N.W., and a high bridge over the South Creek to the S.E. The railway being the only means of communication in flood time for traffic.

The line was officially opened on 29th of November, 1864, by a banquet and ball, at which Sir J. Young was present. The fares were fixed at eight shillings and sixpence, and five shillings return to Sydney. A further sum of ten thousand pounds was spent on the line in the year 1865.

It is of interest to note here the dates of the opening of other lines about that time: Parramatta, 1855; Campbelltown, 1858; Blacktown, 1860; and Penrith, 1862.

The first station-master of whom we have record is Mr. Geo. Bonamy, 1867-73, who went afterwards to the Ashfield station. He was living at Stanmore in 1896, being then eighty-two years of age. He was one of the founders of the local Congregational Church.

Mr. David Scotland, from Ashfield, was appointed in 1873, and held office till October, 1889. Both Mr. and Mrs. Scotland were very popular in the town and district. Mrs. Scotland died in 1888, and he died 5th January, 1890, at the age of sixty-four.

Mr. W. Critchley was the next station-muster, holding office from 1891 to 1899. Much sympathy was felt for him on account of the death by accident, at Nevertire, of Mr. Critchley in August, 1895, at the age of forty-eight.

Mr. W.C. Bradly followed, holding office from 1899 to 1909, when he was moved to Strathfield, and was followed by Mr. R. Johnson in 1909, and Mr. J.M. Spence, from Wollongong, followed in 1912, and is still in charge.



THE local School of Arts owes its origin to a Literary Society which was started in Windsor in the year 1857. At one of their meetings the following letter was received:—

Department of Lands and Public Works,       
Sydney, 12th September, 1857.

Sir,—Referring to the letter to you from this department of the 27th ultimo, on the subject of a petition addressed to His Excellency the Governor-General, from certain of the inhabitants at Windsor, praying for a grant of a piece of land in that town as a site whereon to erect a Mechanics' School of Arts, and pointing out that the portion of land at the head of Bridge Street, upon which formerly stood the old Military Hospital and Store, it particularly well adapted for the purpose, I am directed to apprise you for the information of the petitioners that the Surveyor-General having reported that there is no objection to the appropriation of the land in question at the head of Bridge Street, the Secretary for Land and Public Works has approved of its appropriation accordingly for the purpose applied for. I am to add that the Surveyor-General has been requested to have the land in question measured and brought forward in abstract for final approval.

I have the honour to be, etc.,          


William Walker, Esq.,

A petition influentially signed had been presented to Governor Denison in 1857 for a site for a Mechanics' School of Arts, indicating as a desirable site a small portion of land "at the head of Bridge Street upon which lately stood the old Military Hospital and Stores." Wm. Walker was "secretary to the Windsor School of Arts Site Committee." The request was approved, 8th September, 1857. A public meeting to arrange for this petition was held on 8th July, 1857.

The Trustees nominated were: James Ascough, James A. Cuneen, John Tebbutt, jun., in 1858, but they were never appointed. On the 9th September, 1879, James A. Cuneen, John Tebbutt, junr., and Wm. Walker were appointed, and a deed was Anally prepared in their names on 14th January, 1880.

In 1897 J.D. Smith and Geo. McCauley were appointed as trustees instead of John Tebbutt (resigned), and J.A. Cuneen (deceased).

The School of Arts site contains twenty perches, and was dedicated 16th July, 1863, for a Mechanics' Institute. The adjoining site, marked as twenty-three perches, and being portion of the Church of England school land, was sold to Mr. G.M. Pitt, on 3rd November, 1858, for one hundred and fifty-seven pounds. (See Land Book in Court House.)

The earliest meeting of which we have a record of the Literary Society, before mentioned, was held on 8th July, 1856, when Thos. Hall, J.P., of "Dartbrook", presided. Dr. Day, Wm. Walker, and J.A. Cuneen took part. One speaker remarked that of all the towns in New South Wales, Windsor stood first in agriculture, fourth in population, and twelfth in literary institutions.

Other members of this Literary Association whose names appear as taking part in the debates, are: W.D. Cavanaugh, J. Swan, A. Neilson, and — Brabant, also the committee mentioned below. The society was a real live institution and did much for the youth of the town. Quite a number of those who names are mentioned rose to eminence in their various callings in later years.

The debates and lectures were reported in the Windsor Review in 1857, edited by J. Kennedy.

Great efforts were made, not only to secure the site, but to collect funds to erect a building in which to hold their meetings. At a meeting of subscribers held in the Fitzroy Hotel, on 24th August, 1860, Mr. Wm. Walker, M.L.A., in the chair, it was reported by the chairman, who was also hon. treasurer, that he had two hundred and twenty pounds, twelve shillings and fourpence in hand, and one hundred and twenty-three pounds promised. Further, that the Government had promised to give six hundred pounds when a like Bum had been locally contributed. A number of canvassers were appointed, and the following committee was elected: Dr. Day, J. Ascough, Wm. Walker, J. Cunningham, J.A. Cuneen, E. Stewart, S. Edgerton, G. Ancel, J. Primrose, H. Moses, J. Cassidy, and J.A. Walker, hon. secretary.

At another meeting, held in October, it was reported that the six hundred pounds required had been subscribed.

In December, 1860, a plan was accepted for a building to cost six hundred and seventy-four pounds, the contractors being Messrs. Cook and Galbait. The new building was opened by the Rev. Dr. Lang, in 1862.

The first subscribers were: Thomas Hall, one hundred pounds, J.A. Cuneen, twenty-five pounds, J. Ascough, and W. Walker, ten pounds each, Dr. Day, B. Ridge, J.B. Laverack, — Abraham, H. Moses, B. Stewart, five pounds each.

The officers of the School of Arts have been very frequently changed, and it is not easy to trace them all. We give, however, an approximate list with the years of office.

President: Wm. Walker, M.L.A., 1861-1877; W.W. Bodenham, 1878-79; Benjamin Richards, 1879-80; Charles Hole, 1880-81; Dr. Fiaschi, 1882-83; Daniel Holland, 1883-84; William Moses, 1884-86; F.H.M. Norton, 1885-86; Thomas Primrose, 1886-1890; George Hull, 1890-91; J.C.L. Fitzpatrick, 1891-94; and later Joseph Callaghan, 3904-1915.

Vice-Presidents: J.A. Cuneen and John Cunningham, 1867-58 (Literary Society); Jas. Ascough, 1861-83; S. Edgerton, 1864-65; J.B. Johnston, 1871-76; Rev. C.F. Garnsey, 1870-71; William Dean, 1870-76; Benjamin Richards, 1876-77; Dr. J. Selkirk, 1876-77, and F. Campbell, 1901-15; R.B. Walker, 1905-15.

Hon. Treasurer: Jas. Cassidy, 1857-58; William Beard, junior, 1864-77; D. Holland, 1885-93; Thos. Lobb, 1893-1900; R.B. Walker, 1901-5; R. Downes, 1912; R. Thistlethwayte, 1912; L. S. Huntley, 1913; W.H. Haxby, 1913-1915.

Hon. Secretary: John A. Walker, 1857-1864; J.H. Watkin, 1867; C.C. Robinson, 1869; J.D. Cadden, 1870; A. Beveridge, 1871-74; R.D. Walker, 1874-78; F.H.M. Norton and J.D. Smith, 1878-84; H. Burton, 1880-81; W.W. Bodenham, 1882; W.F. Linsley, 1882-83; G.B. Stevenson and C. Icely, 1885; O.A.S. Fitzpatrick, 1885-90;—Webber, 1891; C. Broome, 1894-98; Geo. McCauley, 1899-1909; C. Parker, 1912-15.

The early records of the institution are missing, and it is therefore a matter of regret that this chapter is, in consequence, somewhat incomplete.




THE first attempt at local government was the formation of a District Council in the year 1841. It consisted of seven members, Wm. Cox, "Hobartville", Warden; Josiah A. Betts, "Wilmington", near Riverstone; Francis Beddek (who, however, refused to act), Robert Fitzgerald, Thos. Arndell, "Cattai", Chas. Tompson, "Clydesdale", and Thos. Tebbutt.

This council does not appear to have done much practical work, and became extinct in the year 1846.

Another attempt was made in 1860 to form a council, but it failed.

In the meantime fresh legislation was enacted, giving more powers to such local bodies, so that on 31st May, 1871, the following were elected as the first Municipal Council, the total votes received being placed after their names: W.I. Crew, one hundred and twenty-seven; Wm. Gosper, one hundred and fifteen; Robt. Dick, one hundred and seven; Richard Ridge, one hundred and four; Wm. Walker, one hundred and two; Thos. Primrose, one hundred; John Johnson, ninety-two, Wm. Beard, ninety; J. M, McQuade, eighty-seven.

At the first meeting on 7th June, Mr. Robert Dick was elected as the first Mayor of Windsor.

The Municipality was proclaimed on 4th March, 1871, and Mr. S. Tuckerman, J.P., was the first returning officer. The first meeting was held in the Court House, the second in the School of Arts, and afterwards in the Oddfellows' Hall.

The first municipal election in Richmond was on 19th August, 1872. Mr. A.L. Forbes was returning officer, Mr. Geo. Bowman was the first mayor, and Mr. C.S. Quest, council clerk.


It may prove interesting to give a list of those who have been elected Mayor of Windsor, some of whom have been called a second time, or more, to the office:—

Robert Dick, 1871; J.M. McQuade (two years), 1872, 1874; Wm. Dean, 1873; John Johnson, 1875; W.I. Crew, 1876; Wm. Gosper (two years), 1877, 1891; Wm. Walker, M.L.C., 1878; Thos. Primrose (four years). 1879, 1883, 1886, 1903; Wm. Moses (two years), 1880, 1884; F. Simon, 1881; R. McNevin, 1882; W.F. Linsley, 1885; T. Primrose, 1886; F.J. Mortley (six years), 1887 to 1890, 1904-05; D. Holland, 1892; W.H. Dean (six years), 1893, 1894, 1906, 1907, 1914-15; J.J. Paine, (eight years), 1895 to 1902; A.C. Hannabus (two years), 1908, 1909; J.W. Ward, 1910; J.W. Chandler (four years), 1911, 1912, 1913, 1915.

Council Clerks.

The office of Council Clerk has been filled as under:—J. Thos. Smith (four years), 1871-74; G.R. Cadell (one year), 1874-75; Wm. C. Gambrill (three years), 1875-77; R. Turner (seven years), 1878-1884; F.W. Linsley (eight years), 1885-1892; A.J. Berckelman (one year), 1892-1893; M.E. Myers (one year), 1893; N.K. Pendergast (ten years), 1894-1903; Wm, J. Gibson (two years), 1903-1905; A.V. Grimwood (seven years), 1905-1911; S. Morgan (four years), 1911-15; C.H. Wood, 1915.


Many aldermen have passed through the Council daring the put fort; years. Some have done very little, and others have done much for the town. Some have held office for only a year or two, others have been elected year after year. Amongst those who have given long and valuable service of over eight or ten years, we might venture on a list up to the year 1900, but lay no claim to its being absolutely the best.

Of the original Council elected in 1871, the following held office longest, and all filled the Mayor's chair: Wm. Gosper, Wm. Moses, Wm. Walker, Wm. I. Crew, and Thomas Primrose, the latter being an alderman for over thirty years, and was Mayor three times. F. Simon, 1877; J.T. Gosper, 1878; J.T. Smith, 1878; F.J. Mortley, 1887 (who was Mayor six times); D. Holland, 1891; Joe. W. Ward, 1889; Wm. H. Dean, 1888 (Mayor tax times); and J.J. Paine, 1893 (he held office of Mayor continuously for eight years, 1895 to 1902).

Council Chambers.

A number of properties come under the control of the Council. First the Council Chambers. The site was appropriated in 1836 for a watch-house, and contains one rood three perches. In 1860 it was appropriated for a post and Telegraph Office, and finally it was dedicated on 28th January, 1891, for a Town Hall.

The Church Green,

consisting of nineteen acres two roods, was set apart for public recreation on 6th December, 1867, and again dedicated as twenty-one acres, one rood, one perch on 19th May, 1868, The park was for a time known as McQuade Park, called after Mr. J.M. McQuade, who was Mayor in 1872 and 1874. The name was altered by resolution of the Council on 6th March, 1878, to Windsor Park.

At one time the park was in danger of being subdivided. A plan of Windsor (about 1834) shows Forbes Street continued through to Moses Street, while a later plan in 1838 shows Cox Street continued in a straight line to Windsor Terrace, which would cut off a good part of the present football ground. However, the only portion sold was one side of Tebbutt Street, and the area from that street back to the line of Cope's farm, which includes the site of the Roman Catholic Church. The park was enclosed with a fence in May, 1872, at a cost of one hundred and seventy-seven pounds. A cricket pitch and ground is gradually assuming shape, and has been under construction for many years, as funds permit. Asphalt paths were laid down, but are somewhat hard to find in parts to-day. Trees were planted, and more are now required. Seats and swings are provided. A drinking fountain was erected in 1891, and a South African war memorial in 1903. The Park is about to be lighted with electricity, and a bandstand was erected in 1915.

The River Park,

consisting of one acre, three roods, eighteen perches, on the bank of the Hawkesbury, extending from Fitzgerald Street to the Peninsula, was dedicated for public recreation on 8th January, 1875, and proclaimed as "River Park " on 11th March, 1887.

Thompson's Square,

consisting of two roods thirty-seven perches, was dedicated on 8th January, 1875, as a Town Hall site. It was resumed on 14th October, 1899, and notified in two areas after providing for roads for public recreation.

Other Reserves.

A reserve, No. 15,815, of one rood, at the corner of Mileham and Forbes Streets, notified 18th June, 1892.

A permanent common of five hundred and twenty acres to the south of the town, dedicated 16th December, 1892.

A reserve, No. 24,075, for traffic and wharfage, containing two acres and three perches, at the approach to Windsor Bridge between Baker and Catherine Streets, Peninsula, including the site of the wharf, notified 16th May, 1896.

Reserve, No. 36,874, for protection of approach to Fitzroy Bridge in Bridge Street, including the old toll house, which was in existence as early as 1827. The reserve contains two roods, and was notified 12th December, 1903.


It is not possible to give a full account of all the doings of the Council during the past forty-three years. A few notes, however, may be interesting to old residents.

In 1875 the Council became possessed of a South American alpaca, which gave considerable amusement, perplexity and trouble to both Council and ratepayers. It was killed by order of Richard Ridge in 1876.

The Council met in the Oddfellows' Hall, Macquarie Street, for many years before they came into possession of the present building, which was built in the year 1860 for a telegraph office, on the site of an old lock-up or watch-house.

In 1872 the rate of pay was five shillings a day, and fault was found because this was too high.

In 1878 the rates of pay were six shillings, five shillings, and four shillings a day, according to the ability of the workmen, the overseer receiving one shilling a day extra.

The Council granted forty pounds in August, 1878, to make a cricket pitch in the park, and fifty pounds was spent in 1892, and one hundred and fifty pounds in 1896 for the same purpose.

In July, 1882, the streets of the town were lit with kerosene, and the same year an effort was made to establish gasworks in the town. A prospectus was issued calling for six thousand pounds in one pound shares. Gasworks were established by a private company in 1887. The first officers were:—Directors: H. McQuade, R. McNevin, 8. T. Greenwell, C. Hole, secretary. W. Beard, treasurer. Amongst others who have taken part in the management of the company we note: W. Moses, D. Scotland, R. Dick, S.E. Dyer, S. Gow, Ben Richards, D. Holland, P. Fraser, and W.F. Linsley.

In 1901 an Act of Parliament wan passed giving permission to extend the mains to Richmond, but the work was not carried out.

Enquiry was made in 1889 about lighting the streets with electricity. The same year, however, the Windsor streets were lit with gas. The electric light will come into use in 1916, supplied by a private company.

An agitation for a water supply began in the year 1882, and in 1888 the first steps were taken towards getting such a supply for the town. In July, 1889, tenders were called for the work. At first it was intended to pump from Ben's Point, near Riccaby Creek, and to have the reservoir in the corner of the park, opposite the Church of England rectory.

The first sod of the work was turned by the Mayoress, Mrs. F.J. Mortley, on 31st July, 1889. The engineer in charge of the work was Mr. J.P. Sharkey. The water-tower is forty-five feet high, and the reservoir has a capacity of two hundred and fifty thousand gallons.

The pumps were started, and the water supply turned on to the town, on the 9th January, 1890, Mr. J. Sowden being placed in charge of the water supply at that time, and has now been in charge for a quarter of a century. Electricity was applied to the pumps in 1916.

The Penrith water supply dates from 1891, and Richmond, 1892, illustrating the ancient adage, "Windsor leads, others follow."

In order to carry out the water supply scheme, the Council obtained a loan of six thousand five hundred pounds at five per cent, from the A.M.P. Society on 8th December, 1888. This loan has since been reduced by five hundred pounds. The balance falls due on 1st February, 1919.

In 1890 the present Council Chambers were secured in exchange for the balance of the Market Reserve, which was then added to the Public School grounds.

We might mention here that this market site was reserved as earl; as 1835, and included the present Dight Street, which was cut out of it about the year 1889. A portion of one acre was taken for the present Public School on March 12th, 1669, and another slice of thirty-nine perches on 5th January, 1872, and finally the Education Department secured the remainder, one acre one rood, for a playground on 28th January, 1891.

The Windsor Municipality in 1914-15 contained two thousand seven hundred and thirty-three assessments. There were one thousand four hundred and eight electors on the Municipal Boll, while the number of ratepayers was one thousand three hundred and forty-seven.




FREEMASONRY flourished in the Hawkesbury district nearly a hundred years ago, when a number of officers attached to the Imperial Forces stationed here formed a Lodge. The only official record, however, available is that a Lodge, known as the Windsor Social Lodge, was founded in the year 1841 under the Irish Constitution.

A distinguished Mason was Right Worshipful Brother Richard Coley, a well-known solicitor, who came to Windsor from Hong Kong, where he had been initiated into the ancient and honourable Fraternity. For his services to the Craft in New South Wales he was created a Deputy Grand Master of the Order. Shortly before his death, in the year 1889, the Lodge was re-named the "Richard Coley Lodge" in honour of the distinguished brother. Other officers of the Lodge who attained Grand Lodge rank wore Very Wor. Bro. W.H.H. Becke, P.G.D. (for many years Police Magistrate in Windsor), Very Wor. Bro. J.J. Fitzpatrick, P.G.D., Very Wor. Bro, the Rev. P. Fitzgerald, Grand Chaplain (a former Minister of the Presbyterian Church), Rev. S.G. Fielding, Grand Chaplain, still in office (formerly Rector of St. Matthew's, Windsor), and Very Wor. Brother J.J. Paine, District Grand Inspector of Workings. It is a coincidence that Very Wor. Brother Paine, who succeeded the late Wor. Brother Richard Coley in his practice-as a solicitor, to some extent, took over the Masonic mantle of that brother, for Brother Paine has been Worshipful Master of the Lodge on seven different occasions. The Lodge was at one time noted for the number of clergymen in its ranks; at one period no less than five were members at the one time. Other brethren who occupied the chair were Mr. James Ascough, Rev. C.F. Garnsey, Rev. P. Fitzgerald, Rev. S.G. Fielding, Rev. T. Hilhouse Taylor. The immediate Past Master of the Lodge is Wor. Brother W.B. Greenwell, formerly of Windsor, now residing at Killara, and the present Master is Wor. Bro. Samuel Morgan.


The Loyal Prince of Wales, M.U., No. 4036, was opened in Windsor on 5th April, 1845. A hall was built at an early date in Macquarie Street. It was flooded out in June, 1867, and burnt out with all the records in December, 1874. Tenders for re-building were called in October, 1875, and the present hall was opened in 1876.

The local branch of the Oddfellows are greatly indebted to the late John Ross, who acted as the secretary for twenty-four years. When he took office in 1872 the credit balance was fifty-three pounds, and when he retired in 1894 it was two thousand, three hundred and forty-five pounds, with one hundred and sixteen members good on the books. The income for 1892 amounted to five hundred and twenty-five pounds. Mr. Ross was presented with a gold albert in March, 1882, and with a beautiful illuminated address when he retired in July, 1894.

Mr. T. Lobb succeeded Mr. Ross as secretary, and is running him close for equal length of service.

Amongst the earlier officers of the Lodge after the fire were Messrs. J. Robinson, J. Gillard, F. Watting, G, Adam, W. Perry, P. Beveridge, W. Hull, W. Hopkins, Peter Mottram,—Mawson, and A. Johnston.

Protestant Alliance.

A branch known as the Duke of Manchester, No. 65, was in existence in Windsor in November, 1881. The hon. secretary was then C.M. Mills.

Sons of Temperance.

This order was at work in 1871, when Geo. Wade was hon. secretary, and A. Beveridge in 1873.

Loyal Orange Lodge.

An order known as Royal Windsor, No. 52, was in operation as early as the year 1869. J.A. Dawson was hon. secretary from 1872 to 1878. In the year 1882 a large demonstration was held in the Church of England Hall, New Street, when one hundred and forty brethren are reported to have been present from this and the surrounding district, but the information about this and all such societies is very scanty.

Bible Society,

Away back in the days of Macquarie, we find reports, both lengthy and frequent, in the Sydney papers of the doings of the Bible, Society. The Rev. J. Cross was chairman, Joseph Harpur, hon. secretary, 1820 to 1824, of the Windsor Branch.

Hon. Jas. Comrie, M.L.C., was for many years a supporter and an enthusiast in the work of this Society, both in this district and in Sydney. We find his name in 1854, connected with the society in Sydney.

In the seventies we find a local branch, Mr. John Tebbutt being president in 1870, and for several years after that date. Mr. J.B. Johnston, senr., was president in 1890, and later Wm. Walker, M.L.C. Mr. William Beard was hon. treasurer from 1875 to 1890; Mr. S.T. Green well being hon. secretary for the same period, having followed Mr. Martin in that office.

Other good supporters at this time were Messrs. J. Lane, Wm. C. Gambrill, W. Boddenham, and J.S. Busby, and among the clergy the Rev. P. Fitzgerald and Rev. A. Dandie. All the other clergy also doubtless supported the society; but their terms of office were much less than the above.

Coming down to later days of the Society, the name of William Slaughter stands out easily first. For interest. enthusiasm, and downright hard work in all that concerns the Bible Society, he leads. For the past forty years he has made the Bible Society one of the main objects of his life. Of others who have helped on the committee and in collecting funds, we select the following names, both male and female, as worthy of mention. Doubtless there are some others, but our list so far embraces the names of Beazley, Barnett, Robertson, Brancker, Primrose, Dunstan, Clark, O'Kelly, Chandler, Lobb, and Pulsford.

The largest sum remitted from Windsor in one year to the parent society was sixty-six pounds, nine shillings and sixpence, in 1883.

Agricultural Society.

An Agricultural Society was formed along the Hawkesbury, including the Penrith district, about seventy years ago. Meetings were held alternately at Penrith and Windsor. The committee was a very large one, containing the names of most of the leading business men and landholders of the time. The chief offices of the society in 1845-48 were filled by Messrs. W. Bowman, K. Fitzgerald, A.S. Panton, F. Beddek, and Thos. Tebbutt. Other active workers were Messrs. Scarvell, Arndell, Cadell, Hassell, Hale, Chaseling, Wilson, Parnell.

This society appears to have become defunct for some years, but it was re-formed in 1875, with Mr. J.B. Johnston, president; George Davis, hon. secretary; and S.J. Dunstan, hon. treasurer. The names of the committee will be found in the Australian, 31st October, 1875, but it, too, went into recess.

In 1882, however, the society was re-organised on a better fooling, and has continued in operation to the present time. The officials have been as follows: Presidents: A. Town, 1882-88; Geo. Yeo, 1890-1; J.D. Single, 1892-3, and Philip Charley, 1904, still in office.

The office of secretary was filled for over a quarter of a century, 1882 to 1909, by C.S. Guest, who died in 1915. On his retirement, H.S. Johnston was appointed in 1910.

Amongst the veterans of the Agricultural Society were: Messrs. John Devlin, Wm. Mitchell, Christopher May, Bernard Conlon, Geo. Nicholls, and P. Beveridge.



HORSE-racing has flourished in the Hawkesbury district from the earliest days of colonial history. Before there were any regular clubs, and long before the inception of the Australian Jockey Club, which now ordains and directs the destinies of all racing clubs, races were held in several parts of the Hawkesbury district at regular intervals. And seeing that the Hawkesbury has become famous for the production of the sleek thoroughbred, it is scarcely to be wondered at that racing institutions have continued to thrive and grow here. The magnificent horses that were bred and sold at Hobartville for many years, up to about 1888, made the Hawkesbury famous for its blood stock, and there are still many old "sports" in Windsor and Richmond worshippers of the racehorse, who refer in terms of veneration to the deeds of the sons and daughters of such celebrated sires as Tarragon, Maribyrnong, Grand Flaneur, Far Niente, and a lot of others.

As far back as 1832 races were held at Killarney, near Magrath's Hill. John Howe was the secretary and treasurer of the club, and the stewards were J. Teale, Geo. Loder, and John McDonald. In 1857 the Hawkesbury Racing Club was going strong, and H. Hoses was the hon. secretary. In 1872, the Hawkesbury Race Club came into existence, with J.T. Smith as hon. secretary. Later it was known as the Hawkesbury Jockey Club and Race Club, with B. Richards, chairman from 1882-88. Since 1888 it has been known as the Hawkesbury Race Club, and after a very successful career for a number of years it fell on troublous times. The old club was nearly "down and out", and passed through many vicissitudes before it recovered itself about ten years ago. Since then it has flourished "like the green bay tree." Its race meetings are now attended by from six thousand to seven thousand people, and the club makes a profit of sometimes two thousand pounds on a meeting.

In 1888-89 Andrew Town, the well-known sportsman, and owner of "Hobartville", was chairman of the Hawkesbury Race Club, and was succeeded by J.D. Single from 1893 to 1900. The late Mr. Single also took a keen interest in the Hawkesbury District Agricultural Association, and was president for some years.

Dr. Joseph Callaghan, who is still with us, has been thirty years on the committee of the Hawkesbury Race Club, and has also filled the president's chair. Lieut.-Colonel C.S. Guest became secretary of the club in 1882, or earlier, and occupied the position till his death in 1915.

In the forties and fifties great race meetings were held at Wilberforce. This was in the p re-railway days, and parties of sportsmen used to drive from the far-out west to Sydney, and take in the Wilberforce races on their way home.

Among the famous racehorses of the Hawkesbury district, Jorrocks comes easily first. He was a horse of marvellous speed and stamina, and the old horse's history has been so often published that it is unnecessary to recapitulate it here. Jorrocks was an equine wonder, and had a checkered career. The old horse died in the Hawkesbury district, and was buried at "Clifton", the property now of Mr. S. Hoskisson.



AFTER reviewing the long past we might ask what possibilities has the Hawkesbury, and especially Windsor, got for the future f Here we have plenty of first-class land, none in New South Wales better suited for intense cultivation, and combined with this an unlimited water supply. This spells, Irrigable, Irrigator, Irrigate, and IRRIGATION.

What about a local Government irrigation and poultry farm to supply all the Government institutions and hospitals with fruit and vegetables and eggs? Every man along the Hawkesbury should push and agitate for the Warragamba Water Conservation Scheme, and also some provision for storing water for the great Colo River Valley.

The Riverstone Meat Company should secure and improve the land, now not fully utilised, for miles out from and around their present holdings, and then add refrigerating, canning, and the utilisation of the byproducts of their industry.

Why not form a large company for the cold storage and preserving of surplus summer supplies of the cucurbitaceae family, such as pumpkins, melons, cucumbers, vegetable marrows, etc.?

Factories for treating the surplus fruit—lemon and orange peel, tomatoes, etc., should pay well.

The Kurrajong hills should be opened up and greatly extended with some kind of electric traction to bring the produce down to the railway levels from all along the hills.

Mills for the manufacture of cornflour should be on the spot, and not in Sydney.

More lucerne should be grown and pressed ready for dispatch direct to the dry areas of the State, or sister States, without having to pass through the Sydney markets.

Factories which require much water, such as paper mills, and cardboard factories, might, with advantage, be placed along our tidal streams.

Agricultural implement factories, and such as require a large area of level ground, might be established here.

The tourist traffic could be diverted along the Hawkesbury, via Windsor, by the establishment of a motor or tram service between this and the deep water at Sackville.

Our fine hospital building should be fully utilised for convalescent patients from the Metropolis or in some other useful way.

We have the land and the water, and what we want now is capital to develop and utilise and save the produce of the district.

And in some of the ways mentioned a large saving in freight, storage, cartage, commission, haulage and other charges, which are often equal to, if not more than, the profits, would thus pass direct into the pockets of the local producers, and in addition the question of striking a glutted market would be obviated by the storage or preservation of the produce so as to be able to sell in the off season.



BEFORE closing this book it is but right to give a "list of the books and papers from which much of the information has been gleaned:—

Historical Records of New South Wales, vol. I. to vol. VII. (F.M. Bladen).

Heaton's Dictionary of Dates, 1879.

Journal of the Australian Historical Society, vols. I. and II.

Reminiscences (Wm. Walker, M.L.C.), 1890.

Annual Reports, Hawkesbury Benevolent Society, 1841-1914.

Good Old Days of the Hawkesbury (J.C.L. Fitzpatrick), 1900.

Meteorological Observations (John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S.), 1863-1897.

Astronomical Memoirs (John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S.)

History of the Floods of the Hawkesbury (J.P. Josephson), 1795-1881.

New South Wales Almanacs, 1805 to 1915.

Histories of New South Wales: Lang, Collins, Bonwick, Flanagan, etc.

Report of Proposed New South Wales Railways (Thos. Moore), 1848.

Narrative of Proceedings (Wm. Cox), 1814-1815.

Burke's Colonial Gentry.

Windsor District Methodism (Jas. Colwell), 1907.

In Old Australia (J.S. Hassell), 1902.

Muster Book, Windsor District (MSB.), 1813-1818.

Essay on the Hawkesbury (Miss Hendy Pooley), 1910.

Church Registers—Church of England from 1810; Presbyterian from 1838.

Newspapers:— Sydney Gazette; Colonial Observer, 1843; Windsor Advertiser, 1860; Windsor Review, 1856-7; Australian, 1871-1899; Windsor and Richmond Gazette, 1888-1915.

We must not forget to thank Lieut.-Colonel J.J. Paine, V.D., and Capt. Brinsley Hall, M.L.A., for assistance on military and other points.

Mr. F. Campbell, editor of the Windsor and Richmond Gazette, has assisted in many ways. Chapter XXXV. on horse-racing is mainly his work.

Mr. J.P. McGuanne and Mr. Frank Walker, members of the Australian Historical Society, have given valuable contributions from their note books.

Amongst other old Windsor residents we have interviewed are: Mr. Peter Carroll, Mr. G. Robertson, Mr. J. Dick Smith, Mr. W. Slaughter, Mrs. C. Smith, Mrs. Hutchinson, Mrs. Holmes, Mrs. Byram, and Miss Bushell. These ladies, and especially Mrs. Hutchinson, have been exceedingly kind and very helpful in the compiling of these chapters on the "Early days of Windsor".

In addition to the above authorities, we have to mention others who have placed letters, pamphlets, newspaper cuttings and other sources of information at our disposal.

First among these is Mr. Hy. Selkirk, of the Lands Department, without whose assistance these records would have been very incomplete indeed. Mr. Selkirk is a son of the late Dr. John Selkirk, of Richmond and Windsor.

Mr. John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S., has also given valued advice, and loaned some interesting matter from his library. Mr. R.B. Walker has also placed his late father's splendid collection of old papers, books and documents at our disposal. Mr. Hy. Potter, of Glebe Point, supplied copies of many old inscriptions. Mr. Wm. Freame, of Westmead, has forwarded several items, and several of his newspaper articles have been also culled. Mr. Geo. R. Nichols, of Llandilo, and Miss Swann, of Elizabeth Farm House, Parramatta, have also given assistance. The Rev. Geo. E.C. Stiles, B.A., and Rev. G. D'Arcy Irvine, of Rose Bay, and Capt. J.H. Watson, North Sydney, have assisted, especially with the article on St. Matthew's. Miss F. Allman, grand-daughter of Samuel North, has given interesting particulars of his life.

Finally, we have to thank Mr. C.H. Bertie, of the Sydney Municipal library, for many suggestions, and for revising the proof sheets.



Tracing from Design for Town of Windsor,
Approved and signed by
Governor Macquarie, 8th July, 1812.





Adams, Rev. M.
Agricultural Society
Anderson, John
Anderson, James
Antill, Captain H.C.
Arndell, Dr. T., and family
Ascough, James

Baker, William
Balmain, Dr. William
Beazley family
Beard, William
Becke, W.H.H.
Beddek, Francis
Bell, Dr. William
Bell, Lieutenant A.
Benevolent Society
Bent, Judge Ellis
Berkleman family
Betts, Josiah A.
Bible Society
Blackett, Rev. A.R.
Bligh, Governor William
Boer War
Bourke, Governor R.
Bowen, G.M.C
Bowman family
Brabyn, Captain John
Brisbane, Governor Thomas
Brown, J.D.
Busby, J.S.
Bushell family
Butter Factory

Cadell family
Callaghan, Dr. Joseph
Cartwright, Rev. Robert
Catchpole, Margaret
"Catherine Farm"
Charley, Major Philip
Chelmsford, Lord
Church of England
Church of England School
Church of England Cemetery
Church Green
Cleland, Rev. John
Clerks Petty Sessions
Coley, Richard
Comrie, Hon. J.
Congregational Church
Conlan, Benjamin
Cope family
Court House
Court House Officials
Cox, William, and family
Crew, William Irons
Cross, Rev. John
Crossley, George
Cuneen, J.A.
Currency Creek

Dandie, Rev. A.
Dargin family
Darling, Governor
Day, Dr. Henry
Dean family
Debating Society
Dick, Robert
Dick, James A.
Dight family
Docker, Rev. J.
Dowe, Dr. J.
Dowe, Rev. P.W.
Dunstan family

"Ebenezer" Church
Edgerton, Captain
Electric Light
European War, 1914-16
Evans, G.W.
Everingham family

Fair Annual
Faithful family
Fiaschi, Dr. Thomas
Fielding, Rev. S.G.
Fire (1874)
Fire Brigade
Fitz family
Fitzgerald family
Fitzgerald, Rev. P.
Fitzpatrick family
Fitzroy, Governor C.A.
Fitzroy Bridge
Fitzroy Hotel
Fleming, J.H.
Flour Mills
Freeman's Reach
Fullerton. Rev. James, D.D.
Fulton, Rev. Henry

Garnsey, Rev. C.F.
Gas Company
Gibson, Dr. John
Gordon. G.A.
Gosper family
Government House
Gow family
Green Hills
Greenwell family
Grimes, C.
Grose, Lieutenant
Grose River

Hale, James
Hall family
Hallinan, Dean
Ham Common
Harpur, Joseph
Harpur, Charles
Hawaii, Rev. F., and family
Hawkesbury River
    "     Agricultural College
    "     Agricultural Society
    "     Benevolent Society
Hobby, Thomas
Hole family
Horse Racing
Hotel, "Royal"
Howe's Bridge
Howe, John
Hughes, Matthew
Hunter, Governor John

Irvine, Rev. G.A. D'Arcy

Jenkyn, Rev. N.L.J.
Jersey, Lord
Johnston, A.
Johnston, Bligh, family

Kable, Henry
Keenan, Bernard
Kennedy, J.
King, Governor P.B.

Lambton family
Land Grants
Langley, Rev, H.A.
Langton, W.B.
Linsley, W.F.
Literary Society
Lobb, T.
Loder family

Macquarie, Governor Lachlan
Macgrath's Hill
Market Reserve
Marsden, Rev. S.
May, C.W., and family
McCauley, George
McQuade family
McQuade Park
Meares, Rev. M.D.
Meat Works
Methodist Church
Mileham, Dr. James
Milk Product Company
Moore, Rev, D.
Moses family
Mortley family
Municipal Council

Nealds, Mrs. JT.C.
Neilson family
Nelson Common
Norfolk Island
North, Samuel

Oddfellows' Society
O'Dell, J.
Orange Lodge

Paine, Lieutenant-Colonel J.J.
Palmer family
Phillip, Governor A.
Pitt family
Pitt Town
Police Magistrates
Post Office
Portland Head
Presbyterian Church
    "     Cemetery
    "     School
Private Schools
Protestant Alliance
Public Schools
Putland, Captain
Pye, R.A.

Quaiffe, Edward

Recruits (1915)
Riccaby Creek
Riccaby, Thomas
Richards, Ben.
Richardson, Dr. William
Richmond Bridge
Ridge family
Roman Catholic Church
    "     Cemetery
    "     School
    "     Convent
Ross, John
Rouse family
Ruse, James

Salvation Army
Scarvell family
School of Arts
Scotland, David
Selkirk, Dr. J.
Shops, Oldest
Singleton family
Slaughter, William
Smith, Rev. Elijah
Sons of Temperance
South Creek
St. Matthew's Church
Steele, Rev. James
Stewart, Dr. W.P.
Stiles, Rev. Henry T.
Stretton, Rev. F.W.

Tebbutt, John. F.R.A.S.
Tebbutt, Thomas
Thompson, Andrew
Thompson Square
Toll Bar
Town, Andrew
Tuckerman family


Walker, George
Walker, R.B.
Walker, William, M.L.C.
War, 1914-15
Water Supply
Wesleyan Church
    "     Cemetery
    "     School
White, Rev. C.A.
White, Laban
Windsor Bridge

"York Lodge"
Youl, Rev. J.
Young, Governor Sir J.

Wholly set up and printed in Australia by
Websdale Shoosmith Ltd., Printers, Sydney.


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