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Title: Memoir of George Dana Boardman
Author: Alonzo King
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------------------------------------------------------------------------

Title: Memoir of George Dana Boardman
Author: Alonzo King

* * *

Memoir of George Dana Boardman, late missionary to Burmah,
containing much intelligence relative to the Burman mission
by
Alonzo King,
Minister of the Gospel in Northborough, Mass.

* * *

"I will go in the strength of the Lord God." Ps. lxxi. 16.

* * *

BOSTON:
LINCOLN, EDMANDS & CO.
AND HUBBARD AND EDMANDS, CINCINNATI.
1834.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1834, by
LINCOLN, EDMANDS & CO. in the Clerk's Office of the District Court
of Massachusetts.

Lewis & Penniman, Printers, Bromfield-street.

* * *

ADVERTISEMENT.

The following work is respectfully presented to the Baptist Board of
Foreign Missions, at whose particular request it was undertaken. Its
appearance in public has hitherto been prevented by circumstances not
within the control of the Compiler. He hopes, however, that it has lost
nothing by the delay. The recent arrival from India, of Mr. Boardman's
private journal and some other papers, has contributed much to the
interest and value of the book. It is now commended to the charities and
prayers of the public, and to the blessing of the God of missions.
_Northborough, (Mass.) March_, 1834.

* * *

NOTICE.

The subject of this Memoir was so universally beloved by his connexions
and friends--such was the ardor of his piety, and depth of his
humility--and so striking were his traits as a faithful, successful and
persevering missionary--together with the circumstance, that the profits
from the copyright of the work are secured to the Board of Missions, to
aid them in sustaining their important station in Burmah, that they feel
confident the friends of the missionary cause will read the book with
interest and pleasure, and will exert themselves in widely diffusing it
abroad in our land.

_Boston, May_ 1, 1834.

* * *

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.
Including a sketch of Mr. Boardman's early history.

CHAPTER II.
Mr. Boardman pursues his studies at Waterville--He indulges a hope in
Christ, and makes a profession of religion--The happy state of his mind.

CHAPTER III.
Waterville college--Mr. Boardman enters it--His progress in
study--Graduates, and is appointed tutor.

CHAPTER IV.
His domestic afflictions--Progress and result of his exercises on the
subject of missions--He offers himself to the Board and is
accepted--Leaves college.

CHAPTER V.
He pursues his studies at Andover--Correspondence--His labors for the
Clarkson Society in Salem--He visits Maine and receives ordination.

CHAPTER VI.
Mr. Boardman's travels West and South--His marriage, embarkation, and
voyage.

CHAPTER VII.
Mr. Boardman's arrival and residence at Calcutta--Description of schools
and native churches.

CHAPTER VIII.
Mr. Boardman announces the close of the war with Burmah--He is requested
by the English Baptists to remain still longer in Calcutta.

CHAPTER IX.
Mr. Boardman leaves Calcutta and arrives at Amherst--Establishes a new
station at Maulmein--He is in imminent peril of his life, and suffers
loss by robbers.

CHAPTER X.
Mr. Boardman is joined at Maulmein by Messrs. Judson and Wade--He opens a
school for boys--Conversation with his two Burman scholars--Review of the
past year, and resolutions for the future--His letter on the death of Mr.
C. Holton--An interesting extract from his diary.

CHAPTER XI.
The thermometer at Maulmein--Mr. Boardman's religious discourse with his
pupils--Death of Dr. Price--He leaves Maulmein and establishes a new
station at Tavoy--Prospects of the mission at that place.

CHAPTER XII.
Historical sketch of the Karens--Their apparent readiness to receive the
Gospel--Description of Tavoy, with its temples and images.

CHAPTER XIII.
Uncourteous demeanor of a few natives--Interesting case of a Chinese
youth--Hopeful conversions and baptisms--Mr. Boardman's method of
spending the Sabbath.

CHAPTER XIV.
Plan of enlarged operations in the department of native schools--The
deified book of the Karens.

CHAPTER XV.
Mr. Boardman's first tour into the Karen jungle--Baptisms--Visit to the
prison in Tavoy--Execution of a bandit.

CHAPTER XVI.
Voyage of health to Mergui--Description of Mergui--Death of little
Sarah--Review of the past year.

CHAPTER XVII.
Revolt of Tavoy--Mrs. Boardman repairs to Maulmein--Mr. Boardman follows,
but soon returns to Tavoy and resumes his labors.

CHAPTER XVIII.
Dangerous illness of Mrs. Boardman--Visit to the Karen settlements south
of Tavoy--Mrs. Boardman leaves for Maulmein.

CHAPTER XIX.
His letters to Mrs. B. at Maulmein--Leaves Tavoy to take charge of the
station at Maulmein--His health declines--Returns to Tavoy--Success of
the missions.

CHAPTER XX.
Mr. Boardman's last letter to his relatives in America--Mr. and Mrs.
Mason join the mission--Mr. Boardman dies amid the mountains of Tavoy.

CHAPTER XXI.
Conclusion.

* * *

MEMOIR.



CHAPTER I.
Including a sketch of Mr. Boardman's early history.


"It is a homage due to departed worth, whenever it rises to such a height
as to render its possessor an object of general attention, to endeavor to
rescue it from oblivion; that when it is removed from the observation of
men, it may still live in their memory, and transmit through the shades
of the sepulchre, some reflection, however faint, of its living lustre.
By enlarging the cloud of witnesses by which we are encompassed, it is
calculated to give a fresh impulse to their desire of imitation; and even
the despair of reaching it is not without its use, by checking the
levity, and correcting the pride and presumption of the human heart."
--HALL.


GEORGE DANA was the third son of the Rev. Sylvanus and Phebe Boardman. He
was born in Livermore, State of Maine, Feb. 8, 1801. His father was at
that time pastor of the Baptist church in that place, but has since
removed to New Sharon, in the same State, where, though now in the
decline of life, he still performs with ability the duties of a faithful
and affectionate minister of Christ.

As it is desirable to know something definite of the early years of one,
whose memory is cherished, and whose name is held in high esteem by all
who knew him, curiosity eagerly pries into the dawning and gradual
development of that intellect, which, in the zenith of its strength, shed
an influence at once so healthful and enlightening, on pagan darkness.
From the scanty materials in our possession, we are able to discover the
germ only, or at most the tender bud, while the flower, in its early
freshness and beauty, was:

"born to blush unseen,
And waste its sweetness on the desert air."

His venerable father, however, by the request of the Compiler, has
furnished a few interesting incidents of the early years of George. From
childhood he was much attached to books, and would often attempt to
conceal his bodily indisposition from his parents, lest it should induce
them to detain him from school. To his instructers he was uniformly
endeared by his proficiency in juvenile studies. His opportunities for
improvement were rather limited, till 1810, when his parents removed to
North Yarmouth. Here he enjoyed better advantages, and evinced a more
ardent desire for the acquisition of knowledge. His attachment to books
increased; and while they withdrew him from his youthful sports, they
rewarded the trifling sacrifice by the superior enjoyment of their
perusal. He had begun to "sip at the Pierian spring," and so sweet to him
were its waters, that at the age of twelve years he determined, if not
immediately, yet at some future period, to allay his thirst by drinking
"more largely" at the fountain-head. At that early period, says his
father, he had resolved on a collegiate education, and had remarked to
his mother, that if the circumstances of the family were such as to
forbid it at present, this should be his first object after he became of
age. This ardent thirst for knowledge his parents wisely cherished; and
after having stated to him distinctly, that if such were his
determination, he must depend for support on his own resources--to which
he promptly and cheerfully assented--he was sent to the academy in North
Yarmouth. He was now in his thirteenth year. An incident here occurred,
which, as related by his preceptor, evinced the ease with which he could
commit to memory the lessons assigned him, and the power with which he
retained them. He was put upon the study of the Latin grammar. This he
despatched in less time than his instructer had ever known it done
before. Having gone through it the first time, he fondly hoped to be put
immediately to the use of the Lexicon. He was told, however, that
previously to this he must go through the grammar once or twice more. He
was disappointed, but took his seat; and after an hour or two, was asked
if he had got a lesson, and being called, he recited, verbatim, sixteen
pages. He was then asked if he had got more. He answered, "yes;" and on
being asked how much, he replied, "I can recite the whole book, Sir, if
you wish."

In 1816, his parents removed to New Sharon. George was now placed for a
season at the academy in Farmington, where his proficiency gave him the
pre-eminence over most of his fellow students. He soon after commenced
the study of algebra, in which he made no considerable progress and
seemed discouraged; but when he was removed to Bloomfield academy, and
put under the tuition of Mr. Hall, a thorough mathematician, he soon
overcame the difficulty of obtaining the knowledge of that abstruse
science, as he before thought it. Mr. Hall ever retained for him a high
degree of respect, and was often heard to speak of him as a youth of much
promise. Such was his confidence in him as a scholar that on one
occasion, having business that called him abroad for a week, he committed
the whole charge of the academy to his young pupil during his absence.
Mr. B. was then only sixteen years of age.

"From a child," says his father, "he possessed strong passions, but not
turbulent,--was fond of pleasure, but more fond of books. The labor he
did on the farm was done hastily, and often so as to indicate absence of
mind from his employment; but when he had done his work he could always
find a book. On a rainy day in hay-season, when the laborers had left the
field, he was soon missed, and upon inquiry, 'where is George?' it was
replied, 'he is in school.' To his parent's authority he seemed to feel
bound and willing to submit. His health, after the age of three or four
years, was generally good, and he appeared to possess a strong and
vigorous body. He bid fair, till after his close application to study, to
be very strong and athletic; but after the age of about fifteen, he was
seldom long at home, and seemed to grow tall, spare and delicate."

His aptness to teach, and his talent in commanding the attention and
respect of his pupils, were evinced at an early period of his life. When
in his sixteenth year, an age at which few persons think of entering the
field of public instruction, he was found capable of governing, to the
entire satisfaction of parents and children, the most unmanageable
schools in the country. On his entering the place where anarchy had
prevailed, order arose out of confusion, and the discordant elements, of
which district schools are often composed, settled down into unbroken
harmony. The influence which he wielded, and which gave him such success
in his employment, was not of a despotic character, such as in days gone
by led to the barbarous use of corporeal punishment; it was the subduing
influence of love blended with fear; a respectful influence, which, while
it prompted obedience through fear of offending, rendered that obedience
pleasant by the love which it inspired. He understood better than most
persons of his age, the principles of human nature, in the application of
which to the business of instruction he was completely successful. His
countenance, though youthful, was capable of assuming an expression
pre-eminently calculated to inspire with respectful attention the minds
of his young pupils. Words with him were seldom necessary to produce
order. He could look them into silence, and was wont to observe,
humorously, that if a scholar withstood his looks, he usually considered
him a hopeless character. The order and quiet introduced by his judicious
management, were turned to the best advantage, and under his skilful
guidance his youthful charge went rapidly forward in the acquisition of
knowledge.

It is amusing and instructive to recur to the days of our childhood, to
trace the progress of improvement in the business of instruction, and
mark the wide difference between that age and the present, in the modes
of imparting knowledge. Then, a common school was an absolute monarchy,
in which the teacher was the despot. The badge of his office, the emblem
of his unlimited authority, is too well known to require description, and
needs only to be alluded to, to fill the mind with horror. The innocent
trifles even of playful children were laid under its ban, and received
the rigor of its discipline. This, together with the tedious routine of
forms, was pre-eminently calculated to fill the minds of children with
gloom, and render the acquisition of knowledge any thing but pleasing.
Happily the times and the customs are now in a measure changed, though
there are but too many vestiges of former barbarity still lingering about
the nurseries of learning, in the more retired parts of the country.
Primary schools have assumed more the form of little republics, where the
youthful citizens are exempted from needless restrictions. The laws by
which they are governed are of a moral character, enforcing obedience
from the power of motive. The teacher is regarded as a kind and faithful
guardian, watching over the best interests of his little charge, and
leading them on, by gentle means, in their delightful employment. The
superiority of the latter over the former method of instruction and
government, is too obvious to need a labored support. It requires little
depth of penetration to discover, that those youth who are made to feel
that all the avenues to knowledge are strewed with flowers, will enter
with a keener zest, and make more rapid advances, than those who feel
that at every step they are treading on thorns and thistles; and that
such as have been taught to govern themselves, will be likely to make
more active and useful citizens, than those who have been required to
surrender their wills to that of a tyrant, and to yield both body and
mind to a state of vassalage. The very task of self-government brings
into exercise the best feelings of their nature; and the consciousness of
possessing the power and the right of self-control, impresses them with
the proper dignity of intelligent and accountable beings, which is itself
one of the strongest moral restraints, and a most powerful incentive to
virtue. If Mr. Boardman had not adopted, in all its extent, the present
mode of instruction and government, he was evidently advancing towards it
with a quickened step, and had he continued in the field, would
unquestionably have stood conspicuous in the ranks of approved
instructers. One who knew him well has remarked, that he always taught
school with great success, and possessed such a versatility of talent,
that he was never for a moment embarrassed with the multiplicity of
objects, which necessarily engage the attention of a teacher in common
district schools.



CHAPTER II.
Mr. Boardman pursues his studies at Waterville--He indulges a hope in
Christ, and makes a profession of religion--The happy state of his mind.


"I was a stricken deer, that left the herd
Long since. With many an arrow deep infixed
My panting side was charged, when I withdrew
To seek a tranquil death in distant shades.
There was I found, by One who had himself
Been hurt by the archers. In his side he bore,
And in his hands and feet, the cruel scars.
With gentle force soliciting the darts,
He drew them forth, and healed, and bade me live."


THE seminary at Waterville, (Me.) was, for several years, known only as a
literary and theological institution. The reputation which it had
acquired for literary advantages, soon drew the attention of young
Boardman; and as his parents were desirous he should be placed under a
decidedly moral and religious influence, it was determined that he should
pursue his studies for a season at that place. He repaired to Waterville
in May, 1819, and entered upon his favorite pursuit with renewed ardor.
For a time, the society of the religious students, then about twenty in
number, did not exert that influence upon him, which his friends had
fondly anticipated. Perhaps, as is often the fact, the religious
atmosphere in which he moved, awakened the latent enmity of his heart,
and instead of subduing him to the obedience of Christ, served only to
drive him to greater extremities.

He, however, always paid an external respect to religion and religious
people, and in the midst of youthful recreation, was the subject of many
painful relentings. As he was almost the only one in the institution who
was not professedly religious, the pious students, as well as officers of
instruction, watched his movements with deep concern, and felt a strong
desire for his conversion to God.

His father, alluding to this period in the history of George, thus speaks
of him: "Many things seemed calculated seriously to impress his mind. The
scholars were usually called on in rotation, to lead in morning and
evening prayers, while he was passed by. Prayer meetings were weekly
held, at which he attended, when his case was rarely, if ever omitted, in
such terms as he could not mistake; and when he came to occupy the same
room with one of the students, he soon learned that his companion
constantly repaired to his closet once a day, where he spent one quarter
of an hour in agonizing prayer for his conversion. Much religious
conversation with him in person, evinced the deep solicitude his friends
felt on his account. At length an expression of concern depicted on his
countenance, and the half-suppressed sigh, which would sometimes escape
his bosom, inspired the hope that an arrow had reached his heart. Some
time elapsed, however, before a gleam of hope was by him expressed, as
having arisen in his forlorn bosom; and after a faint hope was
acknowledged, he often expressed strong doubts of his gracious state,
thinking himself too great a sinner, so soon, if ever, to find
forgiveness. But so rich was the grace, and so abundant the manifestation
of a Saviour's love, that all his doubts and unbelief were soon overcome,
and his heart was filled with rapture, and his tongue with praise. And
now, he who never before had the gift of singing, applied himself with
such assiduity to the study of music, that, aided by a strong desire to
unite with the people of God in that delightful employment, he became,
though not a melodious, yet a judicious participant in vocal music. Never
has the first visit at his father's house, after his conversion, been
forgotten, nor the circumstance of his being requested to lead in the
devotions of the family."

It will be interesting to enter more in detail into the exercises of his
mind previously to conversion, and to know something more of the darkness
of that night, which was succeeded by so bright a morning. The following
account of his religious experience, taken from his original manuscript,
in the hand-writing of his bereaved widow, has at length reached us. It
is given entire.

_Mr. Boardman's Christian Experience._

"My parents were hopefully pious. They often instructed me in the
principles of religion, and urged on me the importance of possessing, at
an early age, an interest in the Redeemer. Their parental instructions
were, however, too much neglected. The world with its fascinating charms,
had too much engrossed my mind. Sometimes the realities of religion
forced me to serious thought; but at others, the amusements of the young
attracted my chief attention. I desired to have Christ for my friend at a
dying hour, but my language generally was, 'Go thy way for this time.'
When any alarming sickness prevailed in the vicinity, I felt a desire to
be prepared for its attack; but when the apparent danger was past, my
anxiety abated, and I lived as before. I would occasionally resolve to
attend to the subject of religion without delay; but some unexpected
event ever induced me to procrastinate.

"Thus was I led on, till the fifteenth year of my age. At that time, the
doctrines of divine sovereignty and election greatly harassed my mind.
They appeared to me the most hateful sentiments that could be inculcated.
I engaged in a violent opposition to them, but was soon defeated. The
arguments brought to their support, were incontrovertible. I was
silenced, but not satisfied. When I ceased to oppose these doctrines, I
became concerned for the salvation of my soul. I viewed myself exposed to
the displeasure of God forever; but had no discovery of the odious nature
of sin in his sight. For several weeks, my mind continued in a state of
deep distress. I sought for peace; but how to obtain it, I knew not.
Soon, however, I became so much at ease respecting myself, that I again
engaged, though somewhat reluctantly, in the amusements of the young. But
I found not that enjoyment in them, which I formerly had. The solemnities
of eternity would sometimes rush upon my mind, and leave no place for
enjoyment from my youthful recreations. I chose rather to be under deep
distress for my sins, than to enjoy the pleasures of the world. It
appeared to me, that should God cut me off as a cumberer of his ground,
and send me to hell, he would be just. I delighted in christian company
and conversation, although I at such times felt the greatest distress. I
wept over my sins, but found no relief. This state of mind continued till
a change of circumstances, unfavorable to religious inquiry, put a check
to my serious thoughts, and allayed, in a degree, my distress of mind. I
was now among the irreligious. But still, the recollection of my former
feelings would sometimes renew my distress. My conscience would often
check me in presence of my gay companions, and I found it exceedingly
difficult to conceal my feelings.

"About this time, I conceived the plan of effecting my own conversion. I
had not much doubt, but that at some future time, God would give me
grace. But as I was naturally proud and aspiring, I expected to
experience a remarkable change. Something more than ordinary must usher
me into the kingdom of Christ.

"About three years rolled away, without any considerable change in my
feelings. My great purpose of self-conversion was not carried into
effect. I mingled with the world more than ever, but still thought often
on the subject of religion.

"In my nineteenth year, my mind became more deeply distressed in view of
my state, than at any preceding period. The thought of hell alarmed me. I
viewed myself to be alone in my exercises, considering them as entirely
different from those of any other person. My sins appeared great and
aggravated; but such was the hardness of my heart, that I could not
repent. I saw no way of escape. Nothing but destruction awaited me.
Christ seemed to be a Saviour for those who trusted in him, but not for
me. Such was my anxiety of mind, that I could not, for some time, attend
to my usual employments.

"I remained much in the same state of feeling for several weeks, when a
subject different from anything I had previously thought of, powerfully
impressed my mind. I saw that I had been engaged in continued acts of
rebellion against that God, whom it was my duty to serve. Those very
deeds, which once appeared commendable, seemed now only to increase my
guilt. Even my prayers, which I once thought were pleasing in the sight
of God, now appeared abominable in my own. My impressions were not,
however, so deep as those of many persons, nor were they such as I had
expected. It was not now the fear of hell, but the thought that I had
sinned against God, that was the cause of my trouble. But yet my heart
was so hard, that it seemed impossible to melt it into contrition. With
the poet I could say:

"'I mourn because I cannot mourn.'

"Thus from day to day was I troubled, 'not as other men' are, but
pursuing, as I supposed, an untrodden path. The Bible was wholly laid
aside; because the threatenings which it contained applied to me with
renewed force and terror, I could discover a Saviour for every body but
myself, 'O' thought I, 'If I could but repent, it would allay my
distress. But, alas! I fear that God has left me to final impenitence and
unbelief. It would be just in him to make me miserable. What shall a
wretched sinner do? I cannot remain here, I dare not go back, I cannot go
forward. I will mourn over my sins, if, peradventure, the Lord may give
me repentance unto life.'

"At this time, my attachment to Christians became more ardent. While I
witnessed their devotions, I longed to fall upon my knees, and pour out
my heart with them in prayer. Soon after, I became oppressed with fear,
lest I should be a hypocrite. My prayer ascended to God, that if I never
found peace in _believing_, I might never find it in any thing else.

"At this critical moment, Christians began to speak to me in encouraging
terms. But the effect was only to increase my distress, as I now thought
that I had deceived them. I resolved never to hope till I had reason to
hope, and until I could even say, '_I know that my Redeemer liveth._' I
now felt the keenest distress, for I was in my own estimation a
hypocrite, and a most heinous sinner. Christians continued to encourage
me. But their encouragements did not comfort me. At length a person,
whose piety I could not doubt, related to me his Christian experience. I
traced the progress of his exercises, and wondered at the apparent
similarity between his experience and my own. Still I expected him to
speak of some more wonderful manifestations of divine things, of more
deep convictions, and the like. And when he came to the time when he
obtained hope, 'What,' thought I, 'is this a Christian experience? I have
felt nearly all which he has expressed. There is one point in which we
differ; he has _evidence_ of pardon and acceptance with God; I have none.
If, however, he has related a _Christian_ experience, and my experience
correspond with his, may I not hope?' A calmness succeeded, to which I
had ever before been an entire stranger. I opened the Bible, and, O how
precious was that holy book. It spoke the language of salvation. The
Psalms were peculiarly precious. Secret prayer became a most delightful
employment. Christians were endeared to me more than ever.

"Soon after this, I disclosed my feelings to a very dear Christian
brother. I acknowledged to him that I had sometimes _hoped_, but had not
much _evidence_, that I was a child of God. After conversing for some
time, he said to me, 'You have evidence, if you are not too proud to
receive it. You must be willing to be a very little Christian.' 'Dear
Lord,' was my silent ejaculation, 'let me be the least of all saints. I
had rather be a door-keeper in the house of the Lord, than to dwell in
the tents of wickedness.'

"In the course of the conversation, my mind was filled with holy joy, and
I returned home late in the evening, happier than though I had been
elevated to an earthly throne."

In July 16, 1820, Mr. Boardman made a public profession of religion, and
united with the Baptist church in Waterville. Mr. F. who was then a
student at Waterville, in a letter to the father of Mr. Boardman, speaks
of this event in the following manner:

"Dear Sir,

"As it must afford you great joy to know, that your children are walking
in the truth, I take the liberty to inform you, that on Saturday last, at
the monthly meeting of the Baptist church in this place, your son George
gave a relation of his Christian experience, and proposed himself as a
candidate for baptism. The Sabbath following was appointed for the
administration of the ordinance. The day was fine, our meeting full, and
after the close of the morning services, he gave, by request of the
church, a public account of what the Lord had done for him. The whole
assembly tarried and heard with attention. It was a new thing in this
place. Probably many who were present had never before heard a Christian
experience. Some were apparently affected. The administration of the
ordinance was solemn and deeply interesting. Your son has experienced a
great blessing in obeying the command of Christ. His exhortations and
prayers have been heard in all our meetings since his baptism. The good
confession which he has witnessed, has been peculiarly satisfactory to
me. I have now no doubt remaining, of his having passed from death unto
life."

"Mr. C. also a fellow student with Mr. Boardman, in a letter to the
Compiler, relates the following incident:

"While associated in study with Mr. B. at Waterville, a circumstance
occurred, which was deeply interesting to me at the time, and whenever it
has since occurred to me--and it often has--the most pleasing emotions
have always been produced.

"I had known, that Mr. Boardman's mind had for some time been unusually
impressed with religious subjects; and though I had said but little to
him personally, I felt much interest in his case. As he had not appeared,
for a week past, so much affected in view of his state, as for some time
previous, I feared his religious feelings were beginning to subside,
without producing any permanent good.

"One evening, as I was sitting alone in my room, Mr. B. came in. My
fears, as to the decline of his religious feeling, were at once removed,
on discovering that he was then in a deeply anxious state of mind. Some
questions were proposed to him, which led him to say, that he had at
times indulged a faint hope, but that he then thought he had been utterly
deceived. At my request he gave a particular account of his mental
exercises for some weeks past. As he advanced in his relation, his
countenance began to brighten. A heavenly glow took the place of gloom
and anxiety; his soul seemed filled with the peace of believing; and
after engaging with him in prayer, he retired, giving glory to God.

"From his account of the exercises of his mind, it was evident that he
had a deep sense of the depravity of his nature, and saw clearly that it
was alone through the blood and righteousness of Christ, that he could
hope for pardon and salvation."

These are pleasing testimonies in favor of the genuineness of the change
which he professed to have experienced, and are the more valuable, as
they are given by those who were intimately acquainted with him, and had
ample opportunity to observe the character and progress of his religious
exercises under all the circumstances connected with his conversion. But
it is not to first impressions that we are to look for the best evidences
of grace in the heart. "Behold, we count them happy, _who endure_." "He
that shall _endure to the end_, the same shall be saved."

The following extract of a letter, addressed by him to his sister, Mrs.
Blanchard, discloses the particular state of his mind at the time of his
baptism, and immediately subsequent to that event:

"My dear Sister,

"To describe my various feelings since I last wrote you, would be to fill
a volume. I then informed you that I entertained a hope of having
experienced a change of heart. Although my hope was then faint indeed, I
have since, if not deceived, been blessed with a gradual increase of
faith till the present time; even such an increase as has enabled me to
follow the footsteps of my blessed Redeemer in baptism. An awful sense of
my total unworthiness would have restrained my steps, had not the voice
of duty called me to go forward. At this crisis, the dear Saviour, in
whom I trust, promised that he would never leave me, nor forsake me.
Encouraged by his word, and trusting in him for grace equal to my day, I
cheerfully submitted myself to the ordinance of baptism. The occasion was
solemn to the last degree.

"In the afternoon I sat down, unworthy as I was, at the table of the
Lord. My soul was melted with the love of Christ. I never experienced
such a season before. I cannot express to you the joy I felt on that
occasion. It seemed to me that I could never again forsake my Saviour.
The love of Christ appeared truly incomprehensible. I wanted to tell _the
world_ what a dear Saviour I had found. The half of the enjoyment to be
found in the service of God, had not been told me. My heart throbbed with
joy, while my eyes were suffused with tears. Since that time, I have, in
general, enjoyed a sweet composure of mind till yesterday--Lord's day, P.
M.--when the discourse from the pulpit became so deeply interesting, that
I almost fancied myself disembodied from the flesh, and desired to
depart, and to be with Christ."

The extract here made, exhibits a high degree of religious enjoyment. He
was then in the morning of his espousal to Christ, under the influence of
his first affection, contemplating the love of his Redeemer in the
symbols of his body and blood. It is here, at the table of his divine
Master, beholding thus in the elements of the Supper the body of the Lord
Jesus, that the believer feels most forcibly the import of the apostolic
exclamation, "Behold, what manner of love the Father hath bestowed on us,
that we should be called the sons of God." But a discovery of what he is
at heart, often calls back his thoughts from Christ, and fixes them upon
himself. It is then, in the strong, clear light of contrast, that he sees
the immense moral distance at which he is from what he should be; that he
becomes wholly dissatisfied with himself and his attainments, and
ardently pants for entire conformity to the divine image.

Such were the feelings of Mr. Boardman, when brought down from the high
and delightful contemplation of his Redeemer's love, by a glance at his
own deep moral pollution. "But I have great cause to mourn over the
sinfulness of my heart. I am not as I would be. The monster, pride, has
shown himself to me in all his deformity, and has fixed his abode in my
heart. _I hate him._ Fain do I hope, that the Lord will assist me in
vanquishing him, and all my other foes. He has done marvellous things for
me; his goodness is without a bound. Time shall be but the commencement
of the service I owe him, and eternity will only suffice to utter all his
praise. That such a guilty, simple, polluted wretch as myself should be
brought to partake of the banquet of Jesus's love, seems strange almost
beyond belief. '_Herein is love, not that we loved Christ, but that he
loved us, even when we were dead in trespasses and sins._'

"We hope, dear sister, that in this amazing love, we have a mutual share.
Our conflict with sin will soon be ended, and we shall be made like unto
our glorious Head, even Christ. What if we are afflicted during the few
moments of our stay on earth, if we are to praise and enjoy God forever
in eternity. Christ, also, was a man of sorrows, and acquainted with
grief. Whose sorrows are like his sorrows? Certainly not yours nor mine.
Let me request you, dear sister, to pray often for your unworthy brother.
Remember his need of divine assistance, to enable him to discharge with
fidelity the duties of one who professes to be a disciple of the meek and
lowly Jesus.

"You undoubtedly rejoice to learn, that two more Burmans have embraced
the religion of the Saviour, and have professed his name. It is matter of
joy, even among angels, when one sinner repenteth."

Early in August, while meditating on the shortness of time, and the rapid
approach of eternity, he was roused by intelligence from his friends of
the most cheering character. On opening a letter, which assured him of
the hopeful conversion of a beloved sister, he exclaimed, with a full
soul, "O, may I render to the Lord the tribute of a grateful heart." Some
time in the same month, he visited his friends at New Sharon, and had the
satisfaction of witnessing the baptism of his sister. From the time when
he made a profession of religion, till he was unable to write, he was in
the habit of recording the most important incidents of his life. While on
this visit to his friends, he made the following memorandum in his
private journal. It forcibly illustrates the effects of what Payson
denominates, in relation to himself, "accursed self-seeking." Few, if
any, even of the best of men, have entirely escaped its killing
influence. A well-meant, and perhaps acceptable, discharge of duty, is
often followed by this bane of religious enjoyment, a fear lest men may
not think well of us and of our performances. Much of the mortification,
sometimes apparent in men otherwise deeply pious, results not so much
from the thought of not having honored God, as from the fear that they
have failed to set off self to advantage in the view of men. This morbid
sensibility should work its own cure. It is destructive to peace of mind,
a formidable barrier to usefulness, the offspring of Satan, and utterly
abhorrent in the sight of God. It is as unbecoming to the creature, as it
is odious to the Creator. None but a perfectly independent being can,
without the imputation of weakness, seek his own glory. It is a base
passion. Of this we need no further evidence, than that which is
furnished by the shame and backwardness which men universally feel in
acknowledging themselves under its influence. Even the most unprincipled
men would hide this weakness from the view of others. Its food is
adulation, and its name is legion. The example of Him, who sought not his
own glory, but the glory of Him that sent him, should effectually
extirpate this root of bitterness from the human breast. Happy is the
man, who has gained such an ascendency over this abomination of his
heart, that he can, on all occasions, lose sight of self in the interest
he feels for souls, and the honor he would bring to God.

The extract follows.

"Sabbath eve, Sept 10. I have had a trying day. I am a poor, ignorant,
proud creature. Why am I thus? O that I could hide myself from the face
of men. What shall I do? Lord, direct me. I fear I have wounded the
blessed cause. I acknowledge my unworthiness and sin. O my pride; what a
monster! I fear--O abominable wickedness--I fear that men will not think
well of me. This is what troubles me. Begone, base fiend, and let me lie
at the feet of Jesus."

On his return to Waterville, he wrote as follows:

"Sept. 14. To-day, I have had a pleasant season in meeting my brethren in
Waterville, the place of my spiritual birth. Dear Saviour, thy children
are precious companions. May they be my company on earth, and mine in
eternity. Thanks be to thee for preserving me in my absence, and blessed
be thy name in the great congregation. Deign, gracious Father, to
communicate thy grace, that we may spend our days in thy blessed service.
Give us much brotherly love, and incite us to watchfulness and prayer."

"Lord's day, Oct. 21. Have had some precious seasons of late. How shall I
express God's goodness to me! It is like a powerful and constant stream,
which, though it meets with many obstructions, yet keeps continually
flowing. Why does God bless me so? Certainly not on account of any merit
in me. It is all of grace, through Jesus Christ his Son."

It is not always easy to determine the exact limits of propriety in
selecting from a private journal. Here the mind is seen in its undress.
Whatever is beautiful in its structure, or rich and elegant in its
furniture, may be examined and brought to light without fear of censure.
And why may not its most prominent blemishes also be exposed? Because
custom--modern custom indeed--seems to forbid it. It is, indeed, a common
remark, in writings of this kind, that the individual was not without his
failings; and this general acknowledgment is thought amply sufficient,
without entering into particulars. And if, in some instances, special
blemishes are brought to light, they are often so modified as to set
them, at last, in the light of virtues. It would be difficult to justify
custom in the delineation of such traits as are lovely, and in the
studious concealment of whatever is calculated to cast a shade upon the
picture. The true standard of a man's piety is most clearly seen by
presenting him as he is, a compound of evil passions and propensities,
and by exhibiting the power of grace which enabled him to overcome them.
From characters which have been given of some good men, one would suppose
that human nature, in those instances, at least, had been cast in a mould
peculiarly favorable to piety, that there was very little of the strength
of depravity with which to contend, and that, consequently, the
obstructions to an elevated degree of purity were few and easily removed.
It is the man, not the grace of God, that in these instances is the
object of admiration. If, in any circumstances, man is deserving of
praise, he certainly is deserving of the greatest, who has had to contend
with, and has overcome the most powerful human corruptions. Where sin is
seen to abound, and grace much more abound, the glory is then transferred
to Him to whom it exclusively belongs. If infidelity scoff at such
seeming contradictions, it is for the same reason that it scoffs at every
thing else, which is too elevated and spiritual for its conceptions.

It is thought that the tendency of a biography, in which light and shade
are seen to intermingle, is more favorable to the mind of the pious
reader, than one which dazzles by its brightness. For here he finds
himself conversant, not with one of a higher order of beings, but with a
man of like passions with himself, agitated by the war in his members,
and sighing for deliverance from his body of death. It certainly is not a
dictate of piety that induces a man to be satisfied with harboring in his
own breast the hateful passions which he sees have existed in the bosoms
of men eminent for their religious attainments. The fact of their having
gained the ascendency over self and sin, will gird him with strength for
the same conflict; while a faultless character, by the elevation to which
it rises, may discourage even an attempt at imitation. In the latter
case, the effect is to throw the mind into a state of doubt and
gloominess, if not into despair. While, therefore, on some, a character
drawn in its highest degree of perfection, may act as a powerful
incentive to imitation, on others, and probably the far greater part, it
acts as a real discouragement. And on men of the world, it is believed,
that such a character is far from leaving the most favorable impression.
For though they may pretend to doubt every thing else pertaining to
religion, they seldom doubt that a man professing to be pious has his
failings. And the very concealment of those failings, which are common in
a greater or less degree to all, only gives them greater reason to regard
the whole in the light of fiction. The advantages, then, are on the side
of plain truth. And when it is remembered that at the day of final
account, the secrets of all hearts will be revealed by Him who knoweth
what is in man, what motive can justify the concealment of those traits
of character, a full disclosure of which will then be made, presenting an
affecting contrast to the historic page which has recorded only the
virtues of his people. It is said, that respect for the dead, and regard
for their surviving relatives and friends, should deter us from the
disclosure of anything which may cast an unlovely shade over their
memory. It is replied, that respect for departed worth is but a poor
apology for making the pious dead speak falsehood, which is, in effect,
the case, where there is but a partial exhibition of character. And with
respect to regard for surviving relatives, the Compiler of this work is
relieved from apprehension of censure arising from this quarter. The
father of our beloved Boardman has explicitly stated his desire that no
effort might be made to extol his son, but to magnify the grace of God in
him.

These remarks are made with a view to present the reasons, for giving the
following extract from Mr. Boardman's private journal, and a few others
of a similar character in subsequent pages.

"Oct. 28. All the fiery darts of the adversary seem aimed directly at me.
Pride, abominable pride, most of all, torments me. I am proud even of my
faults. Envy, too, prevails, to an alarming extent in my heart. I was
displeased to-day, and felt wickedly, because one of my Christian
brethren appeared more spiritual than myself. We were conversing with an
aged Christian friend on the subject of religion, and this brother
answered the questions which were proposed better than I could; he also
asked better questions than I could, and discovered more grace than I. O
wretched man that I am! I fear I shall never be of any service in the
world. At present, I am a tax on Christ and on his people, if the
expression be admissible. If ever a Christian had reason to complain, I
more. A child of God, and at the same time serving self and sin; a proud
wretch, and yet a pensioner on the divine bounty; a sinner, a pharisee, a
worm, a nothing, and still hoping for eternal life. O Lord, save me, for
I sink in deep waters, where there is no standing. Help, Lord, or I
perish."



CHAPTER III.
Waterville College--Mr. Boardman enters it--His progress in
study--Graduates, and is appointed tutor.


THE friends of the Waterville seminary, both in Maine and Massachusetts,
impressed with the importance of giving to their beneficiaries, most of
whom were then at Waterville, a more classical education, deemed it
expedient to raise the character of the institution to that of a college.
The State of Maine, comprising nearly as much territory as the whole of
the other New England States, commanding an extensive range of sea-coast,
and a soil of much productiveness, and rapidly increasing in population,
was considered as an inviting field for the establishment of such an
institution. The local situation of Waterville was such as to favor the
plan, lying far in the interior of the State, and containing a
flourishing village at the head of boat-navigation, on the waters of the
Kennebec. The resources of the State were considered as amply adequate to
the endowment of another college; and the number of her youth as
sufficient to fill it with scholars of a promising character. It was
confidently believed, that the contemplated change in the character of
the institution, so far from proving detrimental to the truly able
seminary at Brunswick, would actually add to the interests of both; and
thus increase the amount of intellectual culture in the State. Thus far,
the experiment has proved the correctness of the theory. Most of all, the
situation of the churches in Maine, many of them in their infancy,
located in flourishing villages, and destitute of pastors, seemed
imperiously to demand the immediate adoption of the measure. It was also
hoped, that an institution of the kind, established in that region of
country, might eventually send forth men, whose religious influence
should be felt on other continents.* A petition was accordingly presented
to the legislature of the State, in the early part of 1820, and a charter
was granted, giving to the institution the title of Waterville college.
Mr. Boardman and a particular associate in study, composed the first
class. Such had been the proficiency which he had made in his studies,
that, at an examination by the Faculty, he was found qualified to enter
two years in advance.

[Footnote: * The hope was not in vain. The voice of one of her first and
ablest sons, has been heard in distant India, gladdening the dwellers
amid the mountains of Tavoy; and that of another, Mr. C. Holton, one of
her most meek and godly pupils, among the "sable sons of Africa."]

Usefulness now became his ruling passion, and as his studies were pursued
with this object steadily in view, he applied himself with an assiduity,
which left little time for miscellaneous reading and correspondence. Yet,
in the ardor of these pursuits, he did not neglect the cultivation of
personal piety. Aware that his future usefulness depended mainly upon
this, he eagerly embraced every favorable opportunity to accomplish so
desirable an object. Though young both in years and in Christian
experience, he had become extensively acquainted with the deceitfulness
and desperate wickedness of his own heart, and felt deeply the need of
close self-examination, watchfulness and prayer. How much his rapid
growth in grace and in the knowledge of Christ is to be attributed, under
God, to the circumstances in which he was placed, is not for us to
determine. Those circumstances, however, were peculiarly favorable. He
was the first that had experienced religion at Waterville. With the
religious students, he had been, as we have seen, the subject of many
prayers and tender expostulations. His hopeful conversion, therefore,
sent a thrill of joy through every bosom. They hailed this new accession
to their number and their strength, with ardent gratitude to God; and
were ever ready to impart that instruction, which greater length of
experience had enabled them to treasure up. The ministry, too, under
which he at that time set, was of the most able and instructive
character: a ministry, which, by the grace of God, was full of divine
unction. The truths to which he was accustomed to listen, seemed to fall
from lips touched as with a coal from the altar of God, and were like
apples of gold in pictures of silver. Under such circumstances,
encompassed by such associates, and breathing such an atmosphere as
everywhere encircled him, it might be expected that his improvements
would be in proportion to his advantages.

The following extracts from his correspondence, will give a general view
of his religious and other feelings, at the time of entering college:


"_Waterville College, July_ 20, 1821.

"My dear Sister,

"Your favor of last January was gratefully received. It is my intention
to visit you at Cumberland, soon after the close of the term in August. I
have also contemplated visiting other places in that vicinity at the same
time. But while I lay plans for the future, let me well remember that all
things here are fluctuating and uncertain. Next fall may find me in
eternity.

"Reflections on this subject are often profitable. The decay of things
earthly, though a gloomy consideration, is a source of great consolation
to the true Christian. Were those who are practically waiting to receive
a crown of glory, to indulge the thought of continuing here forever, how
would it damp their joys. Yes, dear sister, if I thought this sinful
world was to be my everlasting home, I should be in despair. My
affections, however, are too much set on earthly things, 'My soul lies
cleaving to the dust.' All my trust is in the Lord Jesus Christ; to him I
look for pardon and salvation. Indeed, it is joyful to know that
salvation is of grace. Were any part of it left to me, I should utterly
fail of the crown of life.

"Permit me to inquire respecting your own state. If you do not enjoy all
those manifestations of the divine presence which you may desire, allow
me to caution you against rash conclusions. A decision respecting our
characters as Christians, is of the utmost importance. We ought,
therefore, to take an impartial survey of our situation. We may determine
too hastily. If you do not enjoy religion, as you once thought you
should, you ought not to yield immediately to despair. We must not think,
when visited by fiery trials, that some strange thing has befallen us.
But while we guard against despair, we ought to be still more guarded
against presumption. This has ruined thousands."

Some of the earliest records of his religious exercises, indicate a
prevailing tendency of his mind to the Christian ministry. He was early
led to inquire, "Lord, what wilt thou have me to do," and to pray that he
might have grace to discover, and pursue the path of duty. He appeared to
feel habitually, and to a very high degree, the preciousness of souls,
and the importance of their conversion to God. The result was, that a
growing, and finally settled, conviction, that it was his duty to devote
himself exclusively to the work of the ministry, took possession of his
mind. While in his last year in college, he made the following entry of
his feelings in his private journal:

"I shall soon be twenty-one years of age. A wide world lies before me; a
world of various pursuits and employments; a world of sin and of sinful
beings. It becomes me seriously to inquire, what God would have me to do.
I have some fondness for science and literature; a greater fondness for
theology. My constitution is pretty good, my heart exceedingly prone to
evil, my talents for speaking small, but my mind is swallowed up in the
cause of Christ. My inclinations to engage in the gospel ministry, are
very strong; my sense of my insufficiency, very deep; my impressions of
duty, increasing; the calls for laborers in the Lord's vineyard, very
loud and frequent. The churches at home are destitute of pastors, and
souls are perishing by thousands in heathen lands, without the knowledge
of the Saviour. O my God, what shall I do? where shall I go? I am
willing, so far as I know myself, to devote my all to the service of my
God. O Lord, direct me. Send me where thou wilt. I am thine. Only let me
glorify thee in all things, whether by life or by death."

Nearly at the same time his mind was directed to the subject of missions,
with an absorbing interest. His feelings in relation to the state of the
heathen, were not, as is too often the case with young Christians, slight
and ephemeral; they were deep and abiding, and continued to increase,
till they carried him away from kindred and country, to toil, and suffer,
and die in a pagan land.

The following letter to his father, contains the first distinct
enunciation of his feelings on this subject:


"_Waterville College, Oct._ 13, 1821.

"My dear Father,

"I readily embrace the opportunity presented, for writing and sending to
you. Since leaving New Sharon, I have been busily employed in study, and,
as I feared, have found little to facilitate a growth in grace. Butler's
Analogy of Natural and Revealed Religion, however, furnishes many strong
evidences in favor of Christianity, and will, I hope, prove useful to me
in some situations in life.

"I cannot say that I am fully established as to the course which it may
be my duty, in future, to pursue. That it is my duty to be engaged
somewhere in the promotion of the Redeemer's cause, I have but little
doubt. But how, and where, are questions with me--questions, which I
would submit to Him, who knoweth all things. To Him, I am in some measure
willing to devote my all. These physical and intellectual powers with
which he has endowed me, are his by right, and ought to be sacredly
devoted to his service. I feel a good degree of satisfaction in
committing my case to him, and am willing to go where he shall direct,
whether among the Indians of North America, or of Hindostan, or among the
islands of the sea. Learning, eminence, riches, honors, applauses, are
comparatively nothing in my esteem. I am willing, so far as I know
myself, to be hungry, poor, naked and despised, if I may thereby win
souls to Christ. This world presents nothing worth attention, compared
with the pleasure of being wholly engaged in doing good, and in
reflecting honor on the dear Redeemer of lost sinners."

Ever after his conversion, he took a deep interest in the spiritual
welfare of the people in Waterville. A friend, who was with him at
college, says, "He probably visited more among the inhabitants of the
town, and labored for their spiritual good more assiduously, than any
other student. And the Sabbath school immediately became to him, and
continued to be, so long as he was in the place, a delightful sphere of
Christian effort."

The subjoined extract corroborates, at least, a part of the above
testimony.


"_Waterville College, Jan._ 14, 1822.

"Dear brother P.

"I embrace this opportunity of writing and sending to you. As to the
state of religion, it is mournfully low. The young seem to rejoice in
their youth, and to let their hearts cheer them in the days of their
youth--to walk in the way of their hearts, and in the sight of their
eyes; but they forget that for all these things God will bring them into
judgment. O, my brother, these things grieve our hearts; we did hope for
_better_ things. I trust the children of God _do_ feel for this people.
Last evening we had a little prayer meeting, after the close of the
meeting in the evening, and it was to me a refreshing season. O that God
would bless the inhabitants of this place by a copious effusion of his
spirit. Brother P. do you pray for us daily? Perhaps the Lord will hear.
Our little Zion is in deep trouble. Her enemies have besieged her round
about. If the Lord were not on our side, our prospects would be gloomy
indeed. But I trust we do feel and put our trust in him. His elect are
his; his cause is his; we hope _we_ are his; and we know he heareth us,
if we pray as we ought. O, it may be that Satan is making a desperate
effort with the people here--that Zion, having been long in deep waters,
is about to receive deliverance. The Lord's hand is not shortened, his
ear is not heavy. I believe, that in due time, this village, which is now
a 'valley of vision,' full of dry bones, over which the ministers of
Christ have long prophesied, will feel a shaking, and that we shall hear
a noise, bone coming to its bone--that the breath of the Lord will blow
upon them, and there will stand up here an exceeding great army. May God
hasten the joyful time.

'The Lord can clear the darkest skies,
    Can give us day for night;
Make drops of sacred sorrow rise
    To rivers of delight.'

"We are told, that when the enemy cometh in like a flood, the spirit of
the Lord shall lift up a standard against him. And may not the prayers of
saints compose that 'standard?' I do _feel, deeply feel_, at some
seasons, for this people; especially since they have indulged so far in
vain amusements. They little think, while in the midst of their
recreations, that their Christian friends are praying for them; they
little think of the awful nature and tendency of sin. May the great God
awaken them from their slumbers, and renew their hearts."

Mr. Boardman had now nearly completed his collegiate studies, and the
question as to his future course became increasingly pressing, and called
for an immediate decision. His character, as a scholar, and his talent in
teaching, had made the most favorable impression on the minds of the
Faculty. It had already been intimated to him, that on closing his
studies, he might, if he would accept of it, receive the appointment of
tutor in the college, with the understanding, that as soon as
circumstances would permit, a Professorship should be given him. It was
even anticipated, as we shall hereafter learn, though probably not
mentioned to him at the time, that eventually, he should be raised to the
Presidency of the college. These circumstances will account for the
severe mental struggle exhibited in the subjoined letter to his father, a
few weeks previous to his graduation.


"_Waterville College, July_ 19, 1822.

"My dear Father,

"In a letter I lately wrote to brother H. I promised to write you soon.
Depressed in spirits, and weary with study as I am, I will endeavor to
fulfil my engagement. But I know not what to write. If you are acquainted
with deep anxieties of mind as to a future course of conduct; if you have
experienced a long suspense of judgment respecting the path of duty,
inclined to go one way, but feeling some, yea, many apprehensions, that
God calls you another way; if you have seen the time when friends, the
providence of God, and your own choice, called you different ways, and
if, in such a time, you have been left to mourn in sorrow the hidings of
the Saviour's countenance, you know how to pity me. Alas, my father, your
son is unhappy. I want to preach the gospel; I want to give myself wholly
to the work; I want to be benefitting immortal souls. But some of my
friends advise me to remain at Waterville, while others would dissuade me
from it, and the providences of God seem rather to indicate that it may
be my duty to stay. If I stay, I cannot speak much in public. The duties
of an officer in college would engross my whole attention. While my
thoughts are devoted almost exclusively to scientific pursuits through
the week, I am but poorly prepared to stand up in the counsel of God on
the Sabbath. Study engrosses the mind much more than labor, especially
mathematical study. Still there are many things in favor of my staying.
The good instruction I might receive from the excellent Dr. C. is truly
tempting; I want to be with him. Besides, the college very much needs
such help as I might, perhaps, be able to give it. Under all these
considerations, increased by the urgent request of the president, your
own advice, and that of some others, I feel a little inclined to remain
in Waterville a year or two, should my services be needed.

"But must I forego the pleasure of preaching Christ and him crucified? I
cannot easily endure the thought. Pray for me, my father; and again. I
say, pray for your unhappy son."

The solicitations of his friends finally prevailed, and on graduating, he
received the appointment of Tutor in Waterville college. Yet such was the
reluctance with which he yielded, for the present, his favorite object of
becoming a missionary to the heathen--an honor, which he coveted above
all others, that he remarked to a fellow-student, "I now calculate on a
year of misery. My whole soul is engrossed with the state of the heathen,
and I desire to go among them, but I have engaged for a year, and I must
remain."

The following letter to his father speaks of his return to Waterville
after visiting his friends, and of his entrance on the duties of his
office.


"_Waterville College, Oct._ 10, 1822.

"My dear Father,

"You will, doubtless, be surprised on receiving this letter from me,
dated at this place. On arriving at Hallowell, I received a letter from
Dr. Chaplin, advising me to come immediately to Waterville, and enter on
the duties of my office. My plans, therefore, for going West this fall,
are totally defeated. This appears to be the place of my destination for
the present. And I hope the Lord, who ordereth all things wisely, will
safely keep me, so long as I can render more service to his cause here,
than in any other place. It is my desire to be engaged in the duties,
which my heavenly Master requires of me. When I can no longer be useful
to the world, I desire to leave it, and all its sins, its sorrows and its
cares. Truly, this is a world of disappointment and tears. But these
things we must expect. Good soldiers may, nay, they _must_ expect severe
hardships. But we have a good Captain, a glorious Leader; he will guide
us through, and at last receive all his faithful servants to a glorious
resting-place. When I think of all the labors and trials which appear
before me, I am ready to shrink. But I trust God is my helper, and he
will not suffer me to be overcome. Young men, who are Christians, and
especially those who are called to preach the everlasting Gospel, have
reason, at the present day, to look forward and contemplate what lies
before them. And what abundant reason have they to look _upward_, and
pray for strength and wisdom from Him, who alone can 'furnish them unto
every good word and work.' When I send forward my thoughts, and consider
what, in human probability lies before me, I shudder, and say with the
Apostle, 'Who is sufficient for these things.' The words of the poet
Robinson, have often been on my mind;

'Guide me, O, thou great Jehovah,
Pilgrim through this barren land;
I am weak, but thou art mighty,
Hold me in thy powerful hand.'

"I am deeply convinced of my inability to discharge the various and
arduous duties incumbent on me; and of my unworthiness to sustain the
important office which I have been called to fill. But the Lord is
strong, and he has chosen the weak things of this world to confound the
things of the mighty. There is reason enough to trust in Him for the full
supply of all my wants. In Him I may be enabled to advance the cause of
righteousness in the earth. And O that I were as ready to serve him, as
he has shown himself ready to help and to deliver me.

"I wish to hear from you much. Dear Harriet's case rests very near my
heart. I wish her a peaceful transition from this world to that glorious
one, to which she appears to be rapidly advancing."



CHAPTER IV.
His domestic afflictions--Progress and result of his exercises on the
subject of missions--He offers himself to the board and is
accepted--Leaves college.


COWPER has beautifully said,

"The path of sorrow, and that path alone,
Leads to the land where sorrow is unknown;
No traveller e'er reached that blest abode
Who found not thorns and thistles on the road."


As yet, Mr. Boardman had not been called to experience in affliction any
considerable trial of his faith. But a scene now awaited him, and the
other members of the family, eminently calculated to produce this effect.
The tendency, and no doubt the design of affliction, in many cases, is,
more fully to develope the Christian virtues, and to magnify the power of
divine grace in sustaining its possessor under circumstances of
suffering. Such certainly was its effect in this instance.

The affliction alluded to, was the decease of a sister, whose health had
for some time been delicate, and of whose final recovery her friends had
long entertained some serious doubts. It will be interesting and
profitable, and not, perhaps, entirely out of place, to know something
more of that beloved sister, to trace the progress and termination of her
disease, and learn the sweet serenity in which she fell asleep. We are
the more inclined to do this, because the information on these points is
communicated by Mr. Boardman himself; and thus, while he makes us
acquainted with the character of his sister, he unintentionally throws
open to us an avenue to his own heart. On this account, the information
is doubly valuable.

_To Mr. and Mrs. Blanchard._

"_Waterville College, Oct._ 21, 1822.

"Dear Brother and Sister,

"Although I but seldom receive letters from you, yet if my writing will
afford you pleasure or profit, I will comply with your wishes. For
certainly, the kindness I have received from you both, demands more than
such a service. I have reason to bless God, for affording me friends so
willing to aid me in my difficulties.

"I left New Sharon a fortnight ago last Saturday. Harriet was then quite
low, but not so feeble as she had been for some days previous. The state
of her mind was very pleasing. She appeared to long for deliverance from
this state of sin and sorrow, that she might dwell with God. Her
conversation was instructive, spiritual and consolatory. She endeavored
to soothe our afflicted minds, by exhibiting for our comfort, the
promises of the Gospel, and by telling us of the blessed state on which
she hoped very soon to enter. What solemn pleasure did we feel, while
listening to her pantings for heavenly glory. Ah, the place was

Privileged beyond the common walk
Of virtuous life, quite in the verge of heaven.

There was exhibited the power of a Christian hope, in supporting a sinner
just quitting the shores of time, and launching into eternity. Her whole
appearance loudly spoke, 'See in what peace a Christian can die.' And
shall we, can we, very dear brother and sister, mourn for her, should she
be taken from us, as others have mourned for departed friends? O no; we
cannot, we will not. The Lord gave, and the Lord is about to take away;
and blessed be the name of the Lord. I can cheerfully surrender Harriet
into the hands of Him who has redeemed her soul with his atoning blood;
and is now calling her to come away from this world of wo, and to enter
into rest. Yes, she shall rest from her labors, and _her works shall
follow her_. She will leave to those who survive her, a legacy more
valuable than thrones or kingdoms. She leaves her prayers, she leaves her
holy example, she leaves her dying exhortations, her farewell blessing.
She has evinced to us that she feels a deep interest in the spiritual
welfare of us all. While I was setting by her bed-side, and listening
with mournful pleasure to her conversation, she spoke of us all by name,
and mentioned what blessings she hoped and prayed would descend upon us
individually. May the Lord, in infinite mercy, hear her prayers.

"What reason have we to bless God, the giver of every good and perfect
gift, for the influence of the Holy Spirit, through whose agency we hope
our dear sister has not only been renewed in heart, but prepared also, in
so good a degree, for the change that awaits her. Let us not weep and
despond; but trust in God, and look to him daily for the continuance of
his goodness to H. and for grace to prepare us to endure with Christian
resignation the loss, the early loss, of so beloved a sister. We are poor
creatures at best, and are apt to repine and murmur. But grace can humble
us, and make us rejoice that the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth.

"How does it become us to think much of death. We, too, soon must die. In
a few days, we may be looking around on all the objects we hold dear on
earth, and be bidding them a long, a last farewell. Surely, it would be
well for us to consider our latter end. We ought, especially at this
solemn season, to examine ourselves, to see whether we be in the faith,
rooted and grounded in love, and built upon the foundation of the
apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone.
May you both enjoy, through life, a good hope in Christ; may he be your
confidence and trust."

_To the same._

"_Waterville College, Dec._ 9, 1822.

"Dear Brother and Sister,

"You have doubtless heard before this, of the breach that is made in our
little family. Our beloved Harriet is no more. On Saturday, the 30th ult.
at 6 o'clock in the morning she 'fell asleep.' The loss of her society,
of her prayers, and of her humble, pious example, we shall long and
deeply lament. But there are circumstances connected with her case, which
should silence every feeling of disquietude. During her long and
distressing illness, she manifested a holy resignation to the divine
will, and an unshaken confidence in her Saviour's righteousness alone, as
the ground of her justification before God. All her near relations were
permitted to see her in her last illness, and to hear her converse on the
goodness of God, and the supports she found in religion. The family in
general are blessed with much composure and tranquillity of mind. She has
left a most pleasing evidence of the vitality of her religion. Her pains,
her toils, her sufferings, and her sins, are passed forever, and she is
gone, we trust, to dwell with God, the judge of all, and the spirits of
the just made perfect. When we take into consideration all these
circumstances, what abundant reason have we to submit patiently to the
loss, and to bless God for his great mercy towards us. Surely, he is
good. Where is there a family that has more reason than ours to be
thankful? I cannot but rejoice for our dear parents. Their latter days
seem to be days of peace and gladness. If they are not blessed with an
abundance of this world's goods, they are blessed in their children; I
mean, they see their children blest. How has the Lord God favored us! how
has he favored me! His favors are innumerable. How unworthy are we of the
mercies we enjoy.

"This dispensation of divine providence calls loudly on us to be also
ready. Let us obey the voice which speaks this heavenly admonition. Soon
we may follow our dear Harriet down to the shades of death. How still and
imperceptibly death pursues his prey. He may not be far from every one of
us. Let us work, therefore, while the day lasts, for the night cometh
speedily."

There occurs at this place in the letter, a sudden and somewhat
remarkable, transition of thought from one subject to another. There was
indeed a connecting link--the thought of death--and it was this,
probably, that led him to speak of an event which had occurred at a
distance. Whether he had, at this period of his history, regarded himself
as certainly destined to a distant mission, or not, the letter shows with
what interest he watched the progress and prospects of the mission in the
East. He continues;

"Our dear valued, excellent missionary brother, James Colman, is no more.
What a dark providence! He seemed to be destined to fill an important
place in the field of missions. We trusted that by his assiduous labors,
the poor Burmans would be richly blessed. But God's ways are not as our
ways, nor his thoughts as our thoughts. We are not permitted to
understand his secret purposes. But what we know not now, we may know
hereafter. We hoped that brother Colman would live long. But in a moment,
his wife is left a widow, the mission family made to weep, and we who
stand afar, and only hear that Colman is no more, mourn in sackcloth. Let
us pray that God may raise up others to fill the places of those who are
taken from the field of labor. It is time for the Christian church to
awake. The fields are white already to harvest. The calls for
missionaries are loud and often repeated, on every side, 'Whom shall we
send, and who will go for us?' is the language that is constantly heard.
If missionaries must be sent, they must also be supported. We must all
put our hands to the work. May we be found among those, whom the Lord,
when he cometh, shall find so doing."

When men of promise are removed from places of trust and importance we
are wont to exclaim, in relation to the Sovereign Disposer of events,
"Clouds and darkness are round about him." The event seems clothed in
mystery, and, in the view of our limited capacities, almost
unreconcileable with the wisdom of divine government. In these respects,
God acts as a sovereign; his way is in the sea, his path in the great
waters, and his footsteps are not known. He sometimes, however, removes,
in a degree, the clouds and darkness which were round about him, and
makes us to see that "righteousness and judgment are still the habitation
of his throne;" that out of the most trying and mysterious of his
providences, he is able to bring the most important results.

Such was the event here alluded to. The lamented individual, whose name
is introduced above, sailed from Boston in company with his missionary
associates, Nov. 16, 1817, and arrived at Rangoon, September 19, 1818. He
died at Cox's Bazar, July 4, 1822. When the tidings of his death reached
America, it produced a sensation of deep sorrow in every heart interested
in the Burman mission. Mr. Boardman first saw a notice of the afflictive
event in a public paper, and from that moment, as we shall soon learn
from a letter of a later date, his attention became principally directed
to the Burman mission, from which it was never afterwards diverted.

The following letter, while it presents in an interesting light, his
filial and paternal tenderness, and his warm attachment to scenes of
domestic comfort, illustrates also his growing piety and his deep sense
of guilt and unworthiness. It unfolds, at the same time, the progress of
his inquiries on the subject of missions.

"_Waterville College, Feb. 22_, 1823.

"My dear, very dear Parents,

"In the multitude and variety of my avocations, I do not forget the
beloved members of our family. I often call to mind past scenes--scenes
which every person on earth but myself has long since forgotten, and
which can never be renewed. I indulge sometimes in pensive melancholy, at
the thought of never again enjoying, under your parental roof, the
society of our dear Harriet. But we hope to enjoy her society in a
larger, a holier, and happier family above. Sometimes it appears to me
probable, that my pilgrimage here on earth will be protracted but a few
days longer, when I shall fall asleep. But I am not particularly alarmed
at the thought of death. Deprive me of the hope and prospect of doing
some little good in the world, and I should wish no longer to stay. I
would be kept no longer from my dear Saviour, than I can be engaged in
his blessed service. I have such a weight of sin about me, that my life
is one of mourning and sorrow. My heart almost weeps over its own sins.
But the more of sin I see in myself, the more precious does the Saviour
appear. But alas! I have a thousand times wounded him, since I professed
to be one of his friends. What a source of grief it is to the real
Christian, that he has so many wrong, unhallowed feelings, so many sinful
propensities, so many vain desires; that he has so few and so faint
aspirations after holiness, so few desires for the advancement of the
Redeemer's glory and the conversion of souls; so little conformity to
Christ, so much conformity to the world. I blush, and am ashamed of
myself. If such a sinner as your unworthy son is saved at last, all
heaven will ring with praise to redeeming grace. What a miracle of
sovereign mercy, that such a wretch as I should escape eternal burnings;
much more that I should be raised to a seat of glory in heaven!

"Our little family has probably seen its most flourishing days. One is
not. Two are now separated from their parents, and we are all hastening
to the great place of rendezvous for all the living. I need not intimate,
that the parents of our family must evidently pass, in a short, a very
short time, the valley of the shadow of death. But they may live to
entomb all that is mortal of their four surviving children. The chain is
now broken, and we may soon drop away, link by link, till no part of it
shall remain. O, how much grace do we need to prepare us for the trying
scenes that await us. How I long for my dear brother and sister Frances
to taste the sweets of religion. Should they experience a saving change,
how happy would you be; how happy should we all be, even though our
beloved Harriet is no more. They are kind, sympathetic, tender, and
affectionate; all they want is the 'one thing needful.' I do hope that
soon they will love Christians, because they are Christians, and in some
measure bear the image of Christ. I do pray that their separation with
Harriet may not be an eternal separation. O that all our dear family
might be washed from their sins, delivered from all their imperfections,
and be permitted to meet at last in heaven. How would we praise Him who
was slain, and has redeemed us to God by his blood. Whose voices would
rise higher than ours? I have spent much time in reading missionary works
since leaving New Sharon. I have also read much in the Bible about the
glory of the church in the latter day, and feel myself much interested in
the divine predictions on this subject. My mind has been much occupied
about the Jews, as it appears from several parts of the prophetic
scriptures, that they are to be eminently active and useful in spreading
the Gospel among the nations. I have sometimes thought of becoming a
missionary to them. I feel comparatively but little anxiety to what part
of the world I am sent, if God calls me there. It is of but little
consequence where I live, or where I die. Life is so short when
protracted to the longest, that the difference is comparatively small,
whether we live at ease, or are compelled to toil in poverty, and live
without a settled habitation. My choice would be to live in the embraces
of my friends, especially of my parents, my brothers and sisters, and,
finally, to die in their presence. But when I take duty and eternity into
the account, all these things, so desirable in themselves, appear
comparatively small. Eternity will be just as long, and heaven just as
sweet, if I die on a desolate island, or on some heathen shore, as though
I should die at home in the midst of my weeping relatives. And as for a
resting-place for my body when I shall lay it aside, my bones can rest,
my ashes sleep, as securely in Burmah as in America,--on a desolate,
unfrequented island, as in a Christian church-yard. Why should I fear to
lay me down in Burmah? I shall hear the voice of the archangel, and arise
from the grave as soon, as though buried in the sepulchre of my fathers.
If not deceived, I am willing to spend my days, and to breathe out my
life, where duty shall call; whether in America or in some heathen land;
among the relics of departed saints, or by the side of Juggernaut. The
great inquiry is, 'What does God require me to do?' Only let this
question be satisfactorily answered, and all my doubts subside. In the
strength of my Redeemer, I will press forward, and devote myself without
reserve to his service."

This question did not long remain unsettled. In April following, he made,
through the Corresponding Secretary, a formal tender of his services to
the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions, to be employed among the heathen,
and was promptly accepted.

The time now drew near in which he was to leave the college. The parting
scene was tender and affecting beyond description. His last farewell to
the religious students, given, not in words--for these his ardent
feelings would not allow him to utter--but in the strong and thrilling
pressure of the hand, will never, never be forgotten by those who
witnessed it.

The following sketch from RECOLLECTIONS OF BOARDMAN, by E. W. F. relative
to this incident, will be read with interest. While it is so beautifully
graphical, as to recall forcibly to mind every important particular in
that thrilling scene, it is mainly valuable here for the exact
portraiture which it presents of Mr. Boardman himself.

"We remember the hour of parting. In the corner room, on the third floor
of the south college edifice--the room from which may be seen the broad
surface of the Kennebec river--the green fields on the opposite side--the
president's house and part of the village;--the room which he had
occupied for several years--there, surrounded by his Christian brethren,
who were members of the college, stood Boardman, about to give them the
parting hand, and to say the last farewell. He stood by the window for a
few moments, as if to survey, for the last time, the objects on which he
had so often gazed. After he had lingered for a moment to view each long
familiar object without, he turned away from the window--and cast his eye
around upon his beloved companions, who stood in silence, forming a
circle quite round the room. All was still. The eye of Boardman alone was
undimmed by a tear. In a tender, and yet unfaltering tone, he addressed a
few words to his brethren. '_My dear Brethren_,' said he, '_serve your
Saviour unceasingly_--AND FAITHFULLY UNTIL DEATH--AND IF IT MAY NOT BE
YOUR DUTY TO BE MISSIONARIES ABROAD, BE MISSIONARIES AT HOME.' We all
knelt down in prayer together, for the last time. On arising, Boardman
passed round the room, and gave to each brother the parting hand. His
countenance was serene--his mild blue eye beamed a heaven-like benignity,
and though there was in his manner a tenderness, which showed he had a
heart to feel, yet there was no visible emotion, till he came to his
room-mate, Mr. P. As he took him by the hand, his whole frame became
convulsed--his tongue faltered--his eye instantly filled, and the tears
fell fast, as if all the tender feelings of his spirit, till now
imprisoned, had at this moment broken forth;--he wept--he faltered
'farewell'--and then, smiling through his tears, said, as he left the
room--'we shall meet again in heaven.'"

_Extracts from his diary._

"March 1, 1823. O how unlike I am to my blessed Saviour! How vain and
foolish are many of my words, how unholy are my thoughts, how sinful are
my actions. I feel reproved by every Christian I meet, and even by the
brutes and reptiles themselves. My Saviour demands, and has a perfect
right to demand, every thought, every word, every action, every talent,
every moment of my life. When shall I be more conformed to the image of
that Saviour, whom I have so often grieved?"

"March 3. The predictions of the Scriptures relative to the conversion of
the heathen to Christ, will be accomplished, whether I become a
missionary or not. This does not determine that I am to be idle. By no
means. My inquiry ought to be, not 'what will be done without me?' but
'what have I to do? what duty has my Saviour imposed upon _me_?' In that
work, let me be ever engaged.

"March 14. What unspeakable privileges do I enjoy--my Bible and my God."

As it is desirable that a distinct and connected view of his feelings on
the subject of missions, should be given somewhat in detail, the
following letter, written while on his voyage to India, and addressed to
his select friends at Andover, may here find an appropriate place.

"_Ship Asia, lat._ 29 11' _S. long._ 83 18' _E_

"My dear Brethren,

"In compliance with your request, I will now give you a sketch of those
exercises and events, which led me to think it my duty to devote myself
to the work of a missionary among the heathen.

"I obtained hope of a gracious interest in Christ in December, 1819. I
was then a member of the sophomore class in Waterville college, State of
Maine.* Till then, I felt no interest whatever in missions of any kind.
Nor was my interest in them much excited, till nearly a year afterwards,
though my father's family, and nearly all the members both of the Faculty
and college were deeply interested in them.

[Footnote: * In a previous part of this Memoir, it is stated that the
seminary at Waterville was not known as a college till 1820, and that Mr.
Boardman entered two years in advance, placing him in the junior, not in
the sophomore class. This seeming contradiction will be removed, when it
is known, that although a college charter was not obtained till 1820, yet
the officers of the institution commenced a regular course of collegiate
instruction in 1819. As the institution had then assumed the _form_ of a
college, and as Mr. B. was actually pursuing the studies which properly
belonged to the sophomore year, he might speak of himself some years
after, as being then a member of college, and in the sophomore class.]

"Soon after professing religion in July, 1820, I was led to pray very
often that God would make me useful. I had no particular choice as to the
manner in which he should employ me, but I felt under infinite
obligations to him, and longed to express my sense of them by a life
devoted to his service. I used to offer up that prayer very often in
secret, and frequently in our social meetings, I had an abiding
impression that I was 'not my own, but bought with a price.' I seemed as
one waiting at the foot of the divine throne, to receive any command
which God might please to give; and I enjoyed an indescribable
satisfaction in thus giving myself up as a living sacrifice. I felt
infinitely unworthy, and still I longed to be wholly employed in his
service. If not deceived, I then made, daily, an unreserved dedication of
myself to God, to be his servant. Like Saul, I inquired, without
prescribing any favorite course, 'Lord, what wilt thou have me to do?'
Sometimes, when I read or heard of the desolate places in God's heritage,
I longed to be employed as a laborer, however menial, in some spot,
however barren. To engage in the Gospel ministry, I had one standing and
uniform objection; not to the work itself as appearing disagreeable, (it
was far otherwise,) but to myself, as being wholly unfit for it. My
feelings continued uniformly as I have described, till the winter of
1820, when the thought occurred to me, that I could take my Bible and
travel through new settlements, where the Gospel was seldom if ever
heard, and without sustaining the name of a preacher, could visit from
hut to hut, and tell the story of Jesus's dying love. O, thought I, in a
sort of rapture, what a blessed privilege thus to spend my life in the
service of Him, who has laid me under infinite obligation to be wholly
his. Then, in imagination, I could welcome fatigue, hunger, cold,
nakedness, solitude, sickness and death, if I might only win a few
cottagers to my beloved Saviour.

"Not many months afterwards, I began to think of the Western Indians, and
of laboring among them. Unfit as I considered myself to preach among
civilized Christians, I rejoiced at the thought of laboring, and at last
finding a grave in the forest. Time appeared short, the worth of a single
soul, infinite. I have often said of that time, 'O that it were with my
spirit now as it was then! Then I was a happy, though a very
inexperienced youth. All these feelings I kept studiously concealed
within my own breast, suffering not even my nearest friends to know how I
felt; at the same time, I fervently and constantly prayed that God would
employ me as his infinite wisdom should see fit.

"In the course of the year 1821, I became more acquainted with the state
of the Western Indians, and longed the more to labor for their good. And
as I became more acquainted with the wants of Christian churches at
_home_, as well as abroad, I began to feel that _I must preach_, unfit as
I was. I would go into my closet, to weep there over the desolations of
Zion. Sometimes, in visiting friends in destitute parts of my native
state, I longed for the privilege of breaking to them the bread of life.
My prayers for divine direction now became more constant and ardent. My
soul was full of compassion and love to the Indians--it was full of love
to the churches in America--it was full of love to Christ and the Gospel.

"At length a new subject engaged my attention, viz. foreign missions. I
had not been in the habit of comparing the claims of the Eastern and
Western missions; only I had not allowed myself to indulge a single
thought of going to the East. It was now the spring of 1822, when I began
to think of the hundreds of millions perishing in the Eastern world.
Twenty millions dropping into eternity every year, without any knowledge
of a Saviour. The thought was overwhelming. I then began to consider the
peculiar facilities for spreading the Gospel in the East--where the
population is so dense--where so many speak the same language--where the
language is written, and where the same religious opinions prevail so
widely, &c. &c. My mind was thrown into a new agitation. On the one hand,
was my native country--partiality in favor of the Indians--unfitness for
the Eastern mission;--on the other, the millions of heathen in the East,
and the facilities which one might enjoy in spreading the Gospel among
them, &c.

"In the course of the spring, 1822, I found one friend whose mind was
affected in a manner similar to my own; and we unbosomed our feelings to
each other. Still I talked of going westward, and he of going eastward.
We often took sweet counsel together in relation to our future course.
The time of my leaving college was now fast approaching, and the question
of duty was daily becoming more and more important. A few months more,
and I must direct my course one way or another. This led me to more
ardent prayer for divine direction. At length Commencement day arrived,
and to my great grief and embarrassment, I next morning received an
appointment to become a tutor in college. My best friends thought, that
in that infant seminary, situated in a new and flourishing State, I might
have the prospect of immediate and increasing usefulness to the interests
of both science and religion. But I had one objection which none of them
knew or understood. My heart was on a mission. I was aware, that if I
again became connected with the college, and should prove in some degree
useful and acceptable as an instructer, I should find it difficult to
dissolve my connexion. But I could not withstand the unanimous advice of
my most judicious friends. Still, when I signified my consent to their
advice, I gave them to understand, that I should probably resign at the
end of one year. By this time I had felt it my duty to preach the Gospel,
and having taken a license, I had preached with very great pleasure.

"I entered on my duties in college in October, 1822; but a few days only
elapsed, before I became impressed more deeply than ever, with a sense of
the perishing condition of the heathen, and of my duty to devote my life
to their spiritual welfare. Sometimes I tried to ascertain the strength
of my desire to become a missionary, (for I now had that desire,) by
inquiring whether there was no station of ease, or emolument, or honor,
with which I could be satisfied. But I could think of none. There was not
a situation, either civil or ecclesiastical in America, which presented
to my mind any temptation. So strongly did I desire to be preaching to
the heathen, 'the unsearchable riches of Christ.' The state of pagan
nations became now, in a great measure, the burden of my prayers and
meditations, and a favorite theme of conversation with religious friends.
Still I did not mention to them any design of engaging personally in the
missionary work. In fine, all my conduct, conversation, meditation,
correspondence, and much of my reading, had some bearing on missions. One
consideration only restrained my feelings; I felt too unholy and too
worthless to be employed in such a holy work. Indeed, I felt unworthy to
belong to Christ's visible kingdom, much more to sustain the important
character of a missionary to the heathen. I feared that I should dishonor
so holy a cause.

"About this time, taking up a newspaper, I saw a notice of the sudden
death of the ever to be lamented Rev. James Colman, missionary in
Arracan, a province of India beyond the Ganges. Mr. Colman belonged to
the American mission in Burmah. I knew that Arracan, to which for
prudential reasons he had just repaired from Rangoon, was a most inviting
field for missionary labor, and all the friends of that mission supposed
that Mr. Colman was exactly suited to occupy the place. But, alas! he is
very suddenly cut off in the beginning of his career. 'Who will go to
fill his place?' 'I'll go.' This question and answer occurred to me in
succession, as suddenly as the twinkling of an eye. From that moment, my
attention became principally directed to the Burman mission, from which
it has never since been diverted. My desires to become a missionary so
increased, that I felt it my duty to make them known to the President,
who had been principally accessary to my appointment. He expressed a hope
that I should not be called away, at least for the present. But my mind
became more and more settled every day. I still prayed for divine
direction, and the more I prayed, and the more I enjoyed of spiritual
communion with God, the more I felt inclined, and the more I felt it my
duty to become a missionary--and a missionary to the East.

"Soon after, January 2d, 1823, I visited Boston and vicinity, principally
to converse on this subject with those who had the management of foreign
missions. During this visit, several intimations of Providence greatly
strengthened me in my previous convictions of duty; particularly a visit
to Salem, where I had an interview with the present Assistant Secretary
of the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions. That excellent man found what
were my feelings, and said, that for three or four days, his spirit had
sunk within him at the thought, that not an individual had as yet
appeared to occupy Mr. Colman's place. As Providence ordered it, a number
of ministers met at his house two days afterwards. I was present, and at
their request, related the exercises of my mind. They encouraged me to go
forward. It was then thought that I might sail in the course of four
months, but God ordered otherwise in that particular.

"My next step was to consult my family connexions on the subject; and on
visiting them, I found, to my joyful surprise, that their minds were
quite prepared to hear me propose the subject. My parents had long
thought that I seemed marked out for the missionary work; and my letters
had convinced them that my mind had been not a little occupied on that
subject. It is a singular fact, that my dear mother, from the moment I
had experienced religion, had anticipated an event like this. Several of
my family connexions are pious, and their hearts have long been bound up
in the missionary cause. All the objection they felt, arose from natural
affection. That was strong. But in my parents, grace had sanctified those
affections, which it neither could nor should destroy. The rest of the
family yielded a weeping assent. Not long after, I obtained the consent,
and even the approbation of the President of the college.

"It was now concluded that I should not sail for the present. This
afforded opportunity to examine the momentous question anew. I now
entered on a more formal examination of the subject than I had ever
undertaken before. In about eight weeks, the General Missionary
Convention, the Missionary Board, were to meet in the city Washington,
and it seemed desirable, that if I ever offered myself, it should be at
this triennial session.

"I read the prophecies respecting the spread of the Gospel, and found
they foretold that the 'knowledge of the Lord should cover the earth as
the waters do the seas.' But how is this knowledge to be spread? The
Apostolic, as well as more modern times, answered, 'by men going abroad
and preaching the Gospel, and in no other way. But who shall go? Who
shall send out missionaries? I could think of no nation but one, if even
one, which possessed so great facilities, and was under so great
obligations as our own. Thus I became convinced that the American
churches ought to send out missionaries to the heathen. I next entered
directly on the question, whether it was my individual duty to go as a
missionary. That I had a _desire_ to go, was a point long since settled.
The points to be settled now, were, _why_ I wished to be a missionary,
and whether I possessed the requisite _qualifications_? On the latter
question, I felt that my friends must decide, rather than myself I was
not conscious that there was any radical defect in my constitutional
character.

"As to my _motives_ in wishing to enter the missionary work, I must be
the sole judge, and that was the most difficult question. I sometimes
hoped and thought, my motive was one of love to God, and a desire to
glorify him; at other times I feared it was the indulgence of an
unsanctified fondness for distinction. On this subject I prayed much, and
spent nearly a fortnight, coming, as it were, upon my motives unawares;
for if I formerly undertook to examine them, I found they had the power
of assuming false guises.

"My Sabbaths, for about six weeks, I spent as seasons of fasting in
relation to this subject. At length it pleased God to manifest his
excellency and glory to me as he had never done before. He seemed to
combine in his character all that was excellent, and lovely, and
glorious. He appeared to fill all immensity with his glorious presence.
He filled my soul. Then I experienced 'joy unspeakable and full of
glory.' I seemed to myself like a worm, and no man,--I was lost in him.
As a mote floating in the air has no tendency to move against the
stillest breeze, so I felt not the least inclination to act contrary to
the gentlest movings of the Holy Spirit. I lost my own will in the will
of God. I had been in the habit of writing the exercises of my mind
briefly in a journal, from which I will now make some extracts, which
will exhibit the frame of my mind better than I can at present recollect.

"Thursday morning, March 13, 1823. I trust that I have just had a season
of communion with God. My soul seemed drawn out in love to him, and in
desires to become like him. I wished to resemble him as much as a sinful
man can resemble a holy God. I wanted to be holy. I wanted to be
swallowed up in God. I wanted Jesus to reign in me. I wanted the same
spirit to dwell within me, and to subdue every evil propensity. I panted
for perfection. And I still pant. I am willing to be employed in the
service of God, in any manner, or any place, and during any length of
time he may please to direct; and when my work is done, I want to go home
to the bosom of my Father and my God.

"Friday morning, March 14. A comfortable season this morning in prayer.
How precious are thy thoughts unto me, O God, how great is the sum of
them! What unspeakable treasures do I enjoy; my Bible and my God. What a
precious Saviour is my Jesus. What a privilege to be employed in his
service. I am wholly his, and wish to be wholly under his control. Let me
have my Saviour, and I am happy, whatever else is denied me.

"Lord's day eve. March 17. A comfortable state of mind to-day. The truths
of the gospel which I was permitted to hear in the day-time, and to
preach in the evening, are precious to me. As to the mission, I feel much
as usual. I do not think a missionary life so desirable, because its
duties appear few or easy, or its responsibilities small, but because I
hope I may be more serviceable to the church as a missionary, than in any
other capacity. I lay my account with trials, perplexities,
disappointments, discouragements and fatigues; and without the persuasion
that Christ would accompany me, I should shudder at the thought of going.
But in the strength of a covenant God, I can press through every trial
and danger; and if his special grace is granted, I can calmly look the
king of terrors in the face.

"Saturday, March 22. If a sense of extreme unworthiness would deter me
from entering on missionary work, I should long since have abandoned the
thought. But the Lord Jesus is my worthiness, as well as my righteousness
and strength. I may well be astonished that the eternal God should employ
so unworthy a servant as myself in accomplishing his designs; but if he
does see fit to send me with messages of peace to the heathen, I may
boldly stand before nobles and kings.

"Thursday, March 27. I hope I shall be permitted to engage in a mission,
but sometimes I entertain many doubtful apprehensions. Most of the time I
feel that I cannot be denied. I see more objections and difficulties now
in the way of _abandoning_, than in the way of _pursuing_, my favorite
plan. I think I can never remain satisfied in this country, unless I have
more evidence than I now have that it is my duty.

"Lord's day, March 30. By reason of bodily indisposition, I was detained
from public worship this forenoon. Undisturbed by noise or company, I
tried to give myself to God, and think I had an increasing desire, and an
increasing evidence that it was my duty to become a missionary. My heart
seemed to leap for joy, as my evidence increased, and I longed to go
forth and preach the gospel. But on a sudden, the pangs of separation
from every beloved object in America seized my mind, and distorted it
with anguish unutterable. What! must I bid adieu to my dear, very dear
parents, brothers and sisters, and friends? Must I die before the time?
For what is it less than death to be separated from them, probably to see
them no more on earth? But at length it occurred to me, that it was
Jesus, the dearest of all my friends, who called me to go; then I said,
Welcome separations and farewells, welcome tears and cries, welcome last
sad embraces, welcome pangs and griefs, only let me go where my Saviour
calls, and goes himself; welcome toils, disappointments, fatigues and
sorrows, welcome an early grave, if I may only preach to the heathen 'the
unsearchable riches of Christ.' I feel that I shall go. Precious Saviour,
go with me, that I be not alone.

"Saturday morning, April 5. I sometimes think that for poor souls sitting
in heathen darkness, I have a peculiar sort of love, such as I have for
none else. But my principal motive to engage in missions, is, I think, a
regard for my precious Saviour. For this, I sometimes think I can endure
separation, forests, burning suns, persecutions, dangers and death. And
when the consideration is superadded, of rendering immortal services to
those who must otherwise perish in heathenism, I feel an impulse which is
restrained by no earthly ties, however strong, by no endearments, however
tender, by no dangers, however appalling.

"Lord's day morning, April 6. In prayer I seemed lost in God, swallowed
up in him. I prayed for new and large supplies of grace, for more of the
influence of the blessed Spirit. I do not know but my desires were
completely absorbed in love to God, and in desire to serve him. I feel an
increasing desire for the missionary work, and hope my mind is free from
unsanctified prejudices. The greatest obstacle is my unfitness for the
work. When I think of planting the standard of the cross in lands of
darkness, where the Saviour's name was never known, and of beginning a
work that shall last till time shall end, of laying a foundation for
others far more suitable and worthy than myself, I shrink and shudder. I
feel more suited to take some retired spot in the vineyard of the Lord,
where I shall attract but little notice, and my labors will involve
consequences comparatively unimportant, and my duties will require but
moderate talents; where I can live almost unobserved, and die almost
unlamented, but by a few Christian friends. I am astonished that such an
ephemeral insect as myself should once think of that awful work--the work
of 'preaching among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ!'
Still I long to go, and can think of no disappointment so great as that
of a denial. I sometimes fear that if I go, I shall become an apostate,
and a reproach to the cause I profess to love. But whatever becomes of
poor unworthy me at last, let me never dishonor the name of my precious
Christ."

"Such were my exercises for about six weeks; which time I devoted
principally to an inquiry into my individual duty on the subject of
missions. All this time I felt rather a growing and prevailing conviction
that it was my duty to become a missionary. I have never been perfectly
satisfied so as to have no doubts even to this day, though since the last
date I have seldom wavered much. I conceive that in matters not revealed,
we are to act according to prevailing evidence, for we can seldom attain
to absolute certainty.

"Under the date of Saturday evening, April 12, 1823, I find the following
note in my journal: 'I have at length come to a conclusion, and have
written to the Corresponding Secretary, offering myself to the Baptist
Board of Foreign Missions. O, that my offer may be received or rejected,
according as its reception or rejection will most promote the glory of
God and the welfare of souls.'

"N. B. In my offer, I said I was willing to be sent whithersoever the
Board should direct, though for some reasons I had a predilection for
being sent to China, Palestine, or Burmah. The Board accepted my offer,
and soon gave me an appointment to Burmah. THERE MAY I LIVE, LABOR AND
DIE."



CHAPTER V.
He pursues his studies at Andover--Correspondence--His labors for the
Clarkson Society in Salem--He visits Maine and receives ordination.


MRS. Judson, who had for some time been in this country for the benefit
of her health, was now about returning to her husband, and her labors in
the East. She was alone. At first it was thought advisable, that Mr.
Boardman should accompany her; but as Mr. and Mrs. Wade, who had first
given themselves to the Lord, and were desirous also to be given, through
the Board, to the heathen, were soon after accepted, and in a state of
readiness to leave the country, it was thought best that Mr. Boardman
should remain and devote a longer time to the acquisition of such
knowledge, as should render him more extensively useful to the mission.
He accordingly left Waterville in June following, and as the institution
at Newton had not then been established, he was directed to pursue his
studies at Andover, Massachusetts.

The following letter addressed to a friend, Mr. P. with whom he roomed
while in college, gives us a glance at one of the most useful theological
institutions in our country. The mention of the seminary at Andover,
seldom fails to awaken in the minds of the pious, associations of deep
interest. It was here that Judson, and Hall, and Mills, with others,
matured, if not conceived, their plans for carrying the gospel to the
heathen.

"_Andover Theological Seminary, July_ 4, 1823.

"Very dear Brother,

"A thousand circumstances combine to make the recollection of Maine, of
Waterville, and of my acquaintance with you, unusually interesting and
pleasant. Those agreeable interviews we have enjoyed, those connexions we
have formed, those seasons of social prayer and mutual confession, are
all effectually secure in my mind from the obscuring veil, or the
obliterating hand, of oblivion. Yes, brother P., I shall always remember,
and always love you. But you need, I hope, no assurances of my
attachment.

"A series of interesting providences, which I cannot now relate, has led
me at last to this place; and be assured, I feel myself on almost sacred
ground. Here were enkindled many of those fires which, for twelve or
fifteen years, have been bursting through the surrounding darkness, and
sending forth their light to nations once involved in all the gloom of
paganism. Here lived Samuel J. Mills. He was a man of God. His life
affords ample proof, if there were no other, that the Gospel discloses a
system which affects the heart, and moves the life. I have finished, with
great satisfaction to myself, the perusal of his Memoirs this evening,
and when I had done I could pray, 'Lord, Make me like Samuel J. Mills.'
Never did I read a work of human production which enkindled so much
ardor, and excited so many desires to do good on an extensive scale as
his Memoirs, written by Dr. Spring.

"Here lived Obookiah, that happy youth. Here lives, now, David Brown, one
of the humblest of all God's adoring children, if we may judge in any
degree from short acquaintance and external appearance. This afternoon I
took a most delightful walk into the grove by the shady path where Mills
used to walk and pray. There I tried to give myself away to God, and
prayed that if it would be for his glory, and would not inflate my wicked
heart with pride; nor hinder me from attending to other appropriate
duties, I might also be permitted to devise and execute some plan for
spreading the knowledge of the Saviour, till his name shall be known and
his praises sung in every land, by every people. O, my brother, what a
blessed thing it is to live for God. It affords the real Christian
unspeakable delight to be wholly employed according to the divine
disposal.

"I want the brethren in Waterville college to feel more than ever that
'they are not their own.' They have professed to devote themselves to
God. But it is not enough to give up ourselves at baptism. We should do
it _daily_ and _nightly_ and _hourly_. Let the brethren _feel the worth
of souls_, and they would take no rest without the assurance that they
were doing something for their salvation. Were there but one neighborhood
of unconverted men in the world, what incessant prayers would be offered
to God from every Christian's heart; what unremitted exertion would be
made to bring them back to God. But alas, when a world is in ruins, and
only here and there is one who is awakened to behold the wide spread
desolation, what astonishing sluggishness is manifested. It is easy to
look around and see a vast moral waste, but it is quite another thing to
_feel_, and to 'sigh and cry' for it. Oh, when shall God's people awake
to duty, and to human wo! When shall we learn to act like rational
beings. O that an impulse may be given to our feelings--that the blessed,
the transforming influence of the Holy Spirit may excite us to more
vigorous action. I feel a particular anxiety for the brethren in
Waterville college. I would not insinuate that there is a very unusual
want of interest there. But _not half enough is felt, not half enough is
done_. Waterville college occupies an important place in the interests of
American Baptists; perhaps none more so in all New England. I ardently
hope that the pious students there will keep themselves unspotted from
the world. May the Lord increase abundantly their piety and devotedness
to his cause. Exhort them from their affectionate brother to be often in
prayer. Suggest to them the importance of making it a business to shake
off spiritual sloth. Introduce as much missionary intelligence into your
meetings as practicable.

"As to the missionary field,* I hope it prospers. I have been out to
examine one here, which the students are preparing. The whole field, say
half an acre, was a ledge of solid rock. They have demolished the rock
three or four feet in depth, and hauled on soil, so that nearly one half
of the field is now in a state of cultivation. They work on the ledge
every day, drilling and blowing with powder. The subduing of that piece
of land, small as it is, cannot probably cost less than 4 or 500 dollars.
But the students are all zealous in the work. The level to which it is
reduced is about five or six feet below the original surface of the rock.
The labor of subduing the four acres at Waterville, is the work of a
pigmy when compared to this. O, we are happy here, and I assure you time
passes sweetly along. You know I formerly disliked the study of language.
But now I have an object in view, and can pore on the Hebrew with
indescribable satisfaction."

[Footnote: * A few acres of ground, cultivated by the students, the
proceeds of which are devoted to the cause of missions.]

_To his brother-in-law, Capt. B._

"_Andover Theological Seminary, July_ 1, 1823.

"My dear brother Blanchard,

"You cannot easily imagine what satisfaction your letter, received this
morning, afforded me. I did not know but the manner of my leaving Maine
would give unpleasant feelings, such as you would not soon forget. Be
assured, dear brother, it was not because I had no regard for you that I
took 'so rapid a flight.' Circumstances seemed to require it. The Board
of Missions had informed me, that unless Mr. and Mrs. Wade should
conclude to accompany Mrs. Judson to Rangoon, it would be necessary for
me to leave for that purpose almost immediately. Hence it was that I left
you so abruptly. But my surprise and joy were great, on learning, the
next day after calling at your house, that Mr. and Mrs. Wade were going
with Mrs. Judson, and that I was to remain some time longer in America. I
was pleased with the Providence which so fully seconded my favorite
plans. I would not be understood to express an unwillingness to leave
America when it shall seem to be duty. But I could not feel persuaded,
myself, that it was my duty to go so suddenly, and with so little
preparation. I would not give up my hope and prospect of finally being
employed as a Missionary to the heathen, for any worldly consideration
whatever. No. It is in my heart to spend my days in endeavoring to preach
the Gospel to my brethren, who are now sitting in darkness, and in the
shadow of death.

"At present, I am engaged in the study of Hebrew; and on the whole, I
like it. In the course of a fortnight, I hope I shall be able to read the
Bible in the original tongue. I am delighted with the study, because it
is immediately preparatory to the work I expect to perform when I arrive
at Burmah.

"My situation is truly pleasant. I have a fine room in one of the
edifices, called Bartlet Hall, with every thing necessary for convenience
or comfort. And the society is such as I want. There are about 150
students in the seminary, all professedly pious. Several of them are
calculating on a foreign mission.

"I was pleased to learn the happy alteration in the circumstances of your
family. I hope that little jewel will be preserved. The name you have
mentioned is rather a long and inconvenient one, and I believe has been
very well borne by his delighted uncle. It pleases me, whether it
flatters my vanity or not, to think you have such a regard for me, as to
erect such a precious monument to my memory in your house. I hope sister,
and her sweet babes, and yourself will be the objects of our heavenly
Father's care so long as you live. May we be prepared to meet in heaven,
where, with our dear Harriet, and all our beloved friends whom God by his
grace may have fitted for that employ, we may unite in the song, Worthy
is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and
strength, and honor, and glory, and blessing."

Mr. Boardman had many friends in the college at Waterville, near and dear
friends, whose society he highly valued. There was one whom he honored
with his confidence, to whom he would intrust his secrets. Immediately
after his mind became seriously exercised on the subject of a foreign
mission, he communicated his feelings to his friend. It would be wrong to
say, that in him he found a spirit congenial with his own. But he found
such a degree of congeniality, as from this time forward rendered their
interviews on this subject, and their interchange of feelings and
sentiments, both frequent and deeply interesting. To him he was wont to
communicate, on the evening of almost every day, after the hours for
study were past, the progress of his inquiries, the advanced state of his
feelings, and the brightening up, or otherwise, of his prospects. He
could not but see and know that there was an immense distance between his
own feelings and those of his friend, on these interesting topics; yet
the hours of darkness, and sometimes of midnight, were often spent in
imaginary excursions to the land of pagans; in summing up the toils and
difficulties to be there encountered by the missionary, and in estimating
the sacrifices and sufferings inseparable from such an undertaking. And
when imagination had brooded over the darkness that for ages had rested
unbroken upon the nations, faith would sometimes pierce the veil, and
dissipate that darkness, and discover the dawning glory of the latter
day. These cheering and not unprofitable interviews were kept up, till
Mr. B. left Waterville for Andover. An occasional correspondence between
him and his friend was preserved from this time to that of his
embarkation for Burmah. The following extract is from the first of this
correspondence.

"_Andover Theological Seminary, July_ 3, 1823.

"Very dear Brother,

"You have doubtless been apprised of the kind Providence of our covenant
God, in opening a way for me to spend some time longer in this country,
before my final embarkation. I assure you I am most delightfully
situated. I am now studying the Hebrew, and though it is extremely
complex and difficult, I find an indescribable pleasure in it. Every
advance I make prepares me for greater usefulness in that interesting
mission, which I hope finally to join. My leisure hours are devoted to
writing letters, to meditation, miscellaneous reading, exercise and
intercourse with the brethren. I find some dearly beloved kindred souls
here. Particularly my friend, brother S---- P----. O, that I were more
like him.

"I have read, with considerable interest, Buck on Experience; and Henry
Martyn's Memoirs, with delight. What cannot grace do in humbling the
proud heart, in changing foes to friends, and in employing the
instruments which Satan has prepared for his own use, in the blessed work
of extending the Gospel! The Bible is every day unfolding new beauties
and new treasures. This morning I took up the life of S. J. Mills, that
man of God, who did so much for the cause of his blessed Master in
awakening and carrying the spirit of missionary enterprise among the
American churches. My soul seemed to have caught new fire. Some remarks
in his life, relate to the interesting case of the lamented Henry
Obookiah, the Sandwich Islander. So I have just been reading his Memoir.
All conspire to enkindle new zeal in my breast. I hope God has important
designs to be accomplished by even me, his most unworthy servant. O, my
brother, what a blessed employment, to live for God alone. Here, now, I
give away my whole body, and soul and spirit, and am far richer for the
gift. Ah, 'tis not a gift, it is only acknowledging that to be his which
he has claimed. I hope I do feel that I am the Lord's, and my desire and
prayer is, that he will glorify himself by me. For nothing else would I
wish my life to be prolonged.

"I want a mighty impulse to be given to our churches on this subject.
Like an electric shock, I want it to spread from north to south, from
east to west, till all our souls are kindled with a glow of holy zeal for
God. What, shall the redeemed of the Lord slumber on the ruin of millions
in tenfold moral darkness? It cannot, must not be. Let the people of God
consider for what they are placed here, that they are 'the salt of the
earth, the light of the world;' and let them consider but for a short
time the responsibilities of their station, and they will be aroused to
action. How thoughtless have we been. Our vision has scarcely passed the
boundary of our acquaintance. What contracted benevolence to man has
characterized our movements. We have too long lived as if our own
salvation and that of our friends, for whom we feel a deep interest, and
on account of whose state we have been driven to prayers and tears, were
all that concerns us. When shall Zion arise, and put on her strength, and
be clad in her beautiful garments. O, my brother, let us weep, let us
pray, let us labor. The glory of our dear, blessed, and most precious
Saviour is involved. Do, my brother, endeavor to awaken more interest in
college for the honor of God and the welfare of souls. At seven o'clock
every morning, I hope I shall be enabled to remember the church, the
people, and the college in Waterville. My heart is sometimes much
enlarged in prayer for you. I am now happy, but how soon I may be in the
vale of sorrow is unknown to me. If I had what I deserve, my sorrow would
this moment commence, and never cease. O, my God, forgive a trembling
sinner."

An extract will here be given of another letter, written soon after, and
addressed to the same friend. It will serve to illustrate the activity of
his mind in devising liberal things for the good of the church and the
world. It is mostly valuable, however, for the sketch it gives us of the
operations of a religious society at Andover, whose influence has
probably been felt in every quarter of the earth. Should the perusal of
the extract lead to the formation of similar societies in other
seminaries, and to the putting forth of similar efforts to meliorate the
condition of the heathen, an object will be secured sufficiently
important to justify its insertion in this work.

"_Salem_,

"My dear Brother,

"The account you gave of a change in the religious state of things at
Waterville cheered me much. I wished myself transported to that dear
spot, sitting, conversing, and praying with you. But my joy was
comparatively for a moment. A letter received not long after, assured me
that my hopes had flourished but to fade. It is distressing, it is
heart-rending to contemplate the spiritual death which pervades, in too
great a degree, that interesting, and, by me, beloved people. O, shall
neither the mercies nor the judgments of God awaken them? Had I a heart
of flesh, I might plead for them. 'I do earnestly remember them still.' I
cannot forget a people endeared to me by so many tender ties. But I
cannot extend the hand of relief.

"Since residing in Andover, I have thought much of the Philalethian
Society.* I know not who are the officers, but will take the liberty to
make a few suggestions in this letter. The missionary department is
defective. I say so because it appears plain, that in a seminary of
learning occupying so important a place as Waterville college,
there ought to be something systematical on the concerns of
missions,--something designed more particularly to awaken the interest,
and to enlighten the minds of the students. At Andover, there is a
'Society of Inquiry respecting Missions,' so called, which meets once in
three weeks. A dissertation is produced, and read by some member of the
middle class, on a subject assigned him at a previous meeting. The
reading of this piece usually occupies thirty or forty minutes.
Afterwards letters of correspondence are read, and such business
transacted as may be laid before the society, by a standing committee,
appointed to superintend its general concerns. The themes are such as the
following: 'What is the moral state of the Canadas? What peculiar
qualifications are necessary for a missionary to the slaves? What are the
prospects of a mission to Patagonia? Can any thing be done for Portugal?
Which mission demands most patronage, the Bombay or the Ceylon? the
Sandwich islands or the Palestine? What are the encouragements of a
mission to the East? and what the discouragements? What qualifications
ought every foreign missionary to possess? &c. &.c. The answers to these
questions are highly interesting and instructive. The chapel doors are
open for all, gentlemen and ladies, &c. and frequently the room is full.
There is no fee for admission into the society. It owns property,
however, to a considerable amount, arising principally from the donations
of benevolent friends. The missionary library belonging to the society is
very valuable, enriched by many specimens of translations, missionary
journals, reports, histories, manuscripts, biographies, heathen deities,
and paintings, and clothes, and ornaments, and garments, from various
heathen countries where missions have been established. Here you may find
missionary intelligence consolidated or detailed in all shapes and forms.
You seem almost to converse with the missionaries, and to see their
various stations. You stand on an eminence from which you look out upon
the world, and command almost at a single glance, a view of the whole
earth, as it rolls in moral darkness under your feet. Occasionally you
are cheered with here and there a brightly illuminated spot, where the
Sun of Righteousness pours in his healing beams, gradually enlarging its
dimensions, rolling back the pavilions of darkness, and melting away the
fetters and manacles, which Paganism has forged and fastened upon her
tame, besotted devotees.

[Footnote: * This is a religious society in the college at Waterville,
the object of which is the investigation of truth. Mr. Boardman's object
was to improve this society, and to extend the sphere of its operations.

There is now an another society in college, very nearly resembling in
character what he here wished the Philalethian to be. It is called, in
honor to his memory, 'The Boardman Missionary Society.' It was formed in
the spring of 1832, and embraces among its members most of the students
of the institution. It has for its object the increase and wider
diffusion of the same spirit, which actuated that devoted man, and the
acquisition of information by a regular correspondence with most of the
missionary stations throughout the world.]

"Now it appears to me, that you might have something of this kind in the
Philalethian society. I leave it for your consideration. This course, if
pursued, would greatly increase your interest in missions: it would make
you generally more acquainted with the benevolent operations of the day,
and with the comparative claims of the several classes of people whose
cases might be the subjects of your communications. Let these pieces be
written on paper of one uniform shape and size, and let them be preserved
in manuscript for the library of the society. I hope you will do much for
missions, and acquire the name and the character of possessing a
missionary spirit. You are probably aware that it is not in adding to the
pecuniary funds of the Missionary Society, that the students at
Waterville college are to accomplish most for the spread of the Gospel.
It is in the awakening and cultivation of a missionary spirit, the
summoning of all your inward powers to the holy enterprise, and the
powerful action of your own minds upon the minds of others,--it is in
this that your prospects of success present themselves. If the brethren
feel their own souls kindle with a holy passion for missions while at
college, they will, wherever they go, carry the spirit with them; and
will transfuse it into all with whom they associate. And I need not tell
you that the lispings of desire from the lips of a poor cottager, far
removed from the bustle of fashionable and busy life, may ascend to God
with more acceptance, than ten thousand rivers of oil offered to support
the mission. It has often afforded me much comfort and satisfaction to
consider that when I am gone to the scene of my labors, some humble
saint, whom, perhaps, I have never seen, or if seen, have never noticed,
may, morning and evening, raise a broken whisper to God, that he would
cause his blessing to descend upon me, and make me the instrument of
turning many Burmans from idolatry, to serve the living God. Should I
never be permitted--what I ardently desire--to welcome you to Burman
shores, it shall afford me comfort in the moment of sorrow, that
brother ---- lifts up his ardent soul to God for me."

_To his sister, Mrs. Blanchard._

"_Beverly, Oct._ 1, 1823.

"Very dear Sister,

"Your excellent letter of July 27th is now before me. I rejoice with you,
and would render thanks to our heavenly Father for his distinguishing
mercies towards you, in restoring you again to health, and in reviving in
your mind a recollection of his parental kindness. It would be well for
us to remember that God is daily doing us good,--that his common
blessings demand from us new and obedient expressions of obligation. It
has often astonished me, that the profusion of his mercies, showered upon
our dear family, should produce so little feeling in my stupid heart.
What family has been so signally blessed as ours? Surely he hath not
dealt with us after our sins, nor rewarded us according to our
iniquities.

"I rejoice to learn that your recent sickness led you to take a nearer
view of the eternal world, to consider whether your days were not well
nigh numbered and finished, and to examine into the state of your heart,
that you might know whether you are indeed united to Christ. What is
there like feeling ourselves wedded to him in bonds of affection, that
earth and hell cannot sever? The man who lives daily by faith in the Son
of God, who like Enoch walks with God, stands firm and secure, though all
around him be convulsed; though the mountains be removed, the earth
tremble, and the sea roar. God is a hiding-place from the windy storm and
tempest. How secure is the Christian in the folded arms of his covenant
God. What, though the elements were melted into one solid mass of ruins,
God, who is our refuge and strength, is still the same. This vital union
to Christ will support us under every loss and bereavement we are called
to sustain. If our souls are stayed on him, we can endure our trials
without feeling their poignancy. And though all the earthly objects of
our affection were removed from our view, we should still feel that our
great portion was left,--we could say with Jeremiah, 'The Lord is my
portion, saith my soul;' and with Job, 'Yet surely I know that my
Redeemer liveth.' This thought has often comforted me. Whatever we may
lose, if we love and value Christ as we ought, we shall feel that our all
is left us still. And this sundering of the ties which bind us to the
earth and earthly objects, is only preparing us to set our affections
more undividedly on our Father and Friend in heaven. This considerably
cheers me in prospect of leaving all my earthly friends. I hope, that
while I feel no abatement of affection to my friends in America, I shall
find my affections more concentrated in Christ, who, I believe, will be
with me wherever I go. But for his promise to be with his servants in all
their labors and toils, I should despond and shrink from the great work
to which I trust he has called me. Sometimes, when I lose sight of this
gracious promise, I almost say _I cannot go_. But generally, I am
comfortably supported by his cheering words. Some may say I am unfeeling,
and have but a small share of natural affection. But they know not my
heart, and are unacquainted with the struggles I have often felt. Be
assured, my love to my friends was never warmer, my affection for them
never stronger, than when I regarded them in the light of a speedy
separation. In such a light I regarded them last spring. But when I
reviewed my evidences of duty to go far hence to the heathen, and was
constrained to believe that I had not taken that honor to myself, I said
to my troubled thoughts 'peace, be still.' Yet if I had not had an
enlarged view of the greatness and importance of the work before me, I
could not have endured the trial. An agony which few have felt would have
accompanied me in all my way. But a good providence has seen fit to
protract my stay in America, so that I anticipate the privilege of seeing
once more the faces of my beloved friends, on whom I _did_ suppose I had
closed my eyes forever. Perhaps something may be designed for me in this
providence, which I cannot foresee. I desire henceforth to live at God's
disposal--to be wholly at his service. I would be crucified with Christ,
and live no more to myself, but to him who has died for me. The Gospel
teaches me that I am not my own, and that I must hold myself in readiness
to obey any mandate from Him, who has bought me with a PRICE. I wish to
feel but little concern for this world, but to glorify God, and finish
the work he has given me to do. It is matter of comparatively small
importance to me, whither I go, or where I die, if I may but do what God
would have me.

"It is probable that I shall not sail for Burmah at present. A little
before sailing, I hope to visit my friends in Maine. Then I hope to see
you, and that you will be able to say, 'Farewell, my brother;' and will
be willing, from the heart, that God should employ me as he pleases."

As the subject of a voluntary exile from his friends is here introduced,
it may not be improper to make a remark or two in this place. It should
not be thought, that the struggle of mind alluded to in the above extract
between feeling and duty, derogates at all from the piety, the zeal, the
self-devotement, or decision of character of this worthy missionary.
Indeed, all these mental qualities would lose a large proportion of their
beauty and excellence, were this tender-heartedness, this keen
sensibility to the endearments of kindred and home buried in the shade.
This, while it throws around the human character a peculiar charm, at the
same time confers upon it a superior dignity, and sweetly blends the
beautiful with the sublime. It would be an unamiable character that
betrayed no feeling, no tender affection for friends and relatives, when
on the point of leaving them forever. Under such circumstances, firmness
and decision of purpose would appear more like brutal insensibility; and
a willingness to endure sacrifices, toils and suffering, like stoical
indifference.

When the disciples at Cesarea besought the Apostle with tears to desist
from going up to Jerusalem, where they knew his life would be endangered,
had he only said to them, 'What mean ye to weep?' we should unavoidably
have felt that his answer was harsh and abrupt, indicative of a stern,
unbending temper of mind, that could rebuke with unsparing severity the
expression of nature's best feelings and the sweetest dictates of piety.
But when we hear him adding, 'And _break my heart?_' his reply loses the
sternness of its aspect, and the rebuke is softened into a mild and
gentle reproof by the overflowing of a heart full of Christian affection.
And when we hear him assigning the reason of his conduct in refusing to
hearken to their kind expostulation, that he was 'ready not to be bound
only, but also to die at Jesusalem, _for the name of the Lord Jesus_,' we
are constrained to acknowledge that his character derives additional
lustre from the tenderness of his 'breaking heart'--that at no period in
his history does he appear in a more deeply interesting light; and we
cheerfully concede to him the title, which by universal consent, has been
given him, of the GREAT APOSTLE.

The following letter will disclose more fully the strength of Mr.
Boardman's attachment to his friends and his country, and the power of
grace in enabling him to part with all, at the call of duty:

"_Andover Theological Seminary, Jan._ 14, 1824.

"My very dear Sister,

"Your kind letter of the 8th and 28th ult. I have just received and read
with much interest. It was thought expedient by the missionary friends in
this region, that I should spend the last vacation in Beverly, and defer
my visit to the friends in Maine till next spring. I could not but comply
with their advice, though I wished very much to visit you, and your dear
little G. D. B. B. I hope his life will be a blessing to his parents and
to the church. May you be enabled to train up all your children in the
law of the Lord. You will need to pray much for divine grace. I try to
remember you, your dear husband and your children, when I retire to ask
spiritual blessings on myself and my friends.

"I have been aware, dear sister, from the first, that my proposal to
engage in a foreign mission would call forth many emotions in your
breast, but I hoped God would graciously enable you to bear with
submission, the loss you would be called to sustain. Think not, my
sister, that I have lost all sensibility on the subject. Be assured, if
tenderness of feeling,--if ardor of affection,--if attachment to
friends,--to Christian society and Christian privileges,--if apprehension
of toil and danger in a missionary life,--if an overwhelming sense of
responsibility,--could detain me in America, I should never go to Burmah.
But a sense of duty,--a sense which I could not, on sober examination,
charge to fanaticism, and which I could not evade; an overwhelming view
of the worth of souls, and of their perishing state, and an ardent desire
to promote, in the greatest degree possible, their eternal welfare, has
compelled me to say, 'Send me wherever my services are most needed. Much
as I love my friends,--much as I prize the pleasures of home, and the
friendship of my native land,--much as I dread the loss of all I hold
dear in America,--I will go wherever duty calls. I'll go to China, to
Burmah, to Palestine or Turkey; I'll stay in Waterville, or I'll become
the pastor of some little church in this country, only let me be employed
where and as long as the Lord will.' With such a state of feeling, I
submitted myself to the decision of the General Convention. They saw fit
to give me an appointment to the Burman mission; and I frankly
acknowledge that their appointment exactly accorded with my ardent
desires; they were desires, however, which I wished to keep under the
entire control of a sober sense of duty. Since my appointment, I have
known seasons when the thoughts of parting from my friends seemed almost
insupportable. But still I cannot say I ever regretted that I gave myself
up to the Convention, or that they gave me the appointment they did.

"It is the _greatness of the work_, more than the _trials which attend
it_, that makes me tremble most. When I think of aiding in laying the
foundation on which others will build as long as the world shall stand;
and when I remember that their success may depend, in some measure, on my
discharging my duty with fidelity, I stand and almost shudder at the
thought. But this is not all. I must be a pattern of holiness and good
works, both to heathen and to converts. To the _missionaries_, rather
than to the _Bible_, the people will look for the fruits of the Christian
religion. Besides, my labors may be immediately connected with the
everlasting well-being of multitudes with whom I may have intercourse.
All these things seem sometimes too much for me. But my strength is in
the Lord of Hosts.

"Pray much, dear sister, for grace to be given to you and me. I need the
prayers of saints very much. I feel an anxious solicitude for the
spiritual welfare of brother H. and family. We must pray for them daily.
The Lord may see fit to hear and answer our prayer.*

[Footnote: * This brother has since made a public profession of religion.
'The effectual, fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much.']

"Tell your dear husband to write me soon. I want to hear from you
often--to know how your souls prosper. Do you have daily intercourse with
the dear Redeemer? Let us study to have the mind of Christ. Our life is
short. We must do our work soon, or we must leave it undone."

Nearly the first acquaintance he formed in Massachusetts was in Salem.
The people there had been trained up under the kindly influence of
Christian affection, and had themselves drank deeply into its spirit.
Here, therefore, he found friends interested in every good work, and felt
himself entirely at home.

Several benevolent ladies in Salem, had, among other labors of love,
formed themselves into an association, denominated the Clarkson Society,
for the benefit of the colored population of that town. Having become
acquainted with Mr. Boardman, the Society were desirous to avail
themselves, for a few weeks, of the benefit of his labors. On receiving
his appointment, he laid the subject before several of his most judicious
friends, who advised him to accept, and spend the ensuing vacation in the
service of the Society. This service he might regard as bearing a near
relation to that in which he hoped to spend his days. The manner in which
he discharged his trust, as appears from the records of the Society,
while it shows that his heart was peculiarly interested in the work
before him, gave pleasing promise of what he would be, should he be
suffered to enter upon that wider field of missionary labor, to which his
thoughts were directed.

He entered upon his labors on the 26th of April, and continued them, with
little intermission, for nine weeks. At the expiration of this period, he
addressed to the ladies of the Society an interesting report of his
services, which was unanimously accepted.

In September, he left Andover on a visit to his friends in Maine. On his
way to New Sharon, the place of his father's residence, he called at his
sister's, in Cumberland, spent a short time in North Yarmouth, and having
passed some days with his father's family, was returning by the way of
Waterville. From this place he addressed the following letter to his
sister.

"_Waterville, Sept._ 30, 1824.

"My very dear Sister,

"In addressing you at this time, I am prompted both by inclination and a
sense of duty. You have probably heard of our safe arrival at New Sharon.
Our journey was pleasant, and I trust profitable. The family were in
health. I came to this place on Thursday. The friends here are generally
in health of body, and though complaining of great barrenness in
religion, they yet have been visited with a little reviving in their
bondage. My situation is agreeable. What reason have I to bless the Lord
for all his benefits towards me!

"On my return to Waterville, I understood that the Lord was working
wonders in the back part of the town. The tidings afforded me a degree of
joy, and I soon went out to see the work myself. I trust it is really a
good work. Ten or twelve have been hopefully converted to God within
three or four weeks. The Lord seems to be still at work, though not in so
extraordinary a manner as in some places. We have great reason to bless
his name for his work of grace on the hearts of men. What an exertion of
divine power must that be, by which the proud are made lowly--the enemy
of God and holiness is converted into a friend. What gratitude and praise
are due to him, who has washed away the sins of his people in his own
precious blood. If we are Christians indeed, Christ died for _us_. He did
not spill his blood merely for _great_, but for _little_ Christians also.
God, in purposing the redemption of his people, knew from eternity all
the perverseness of their hearts, and determined that the full price
should be paid for every sin. Yes, and the dear Redeemer undertook the
mighty work, and he accomplished it by the sacrifice of his own body on
the tree. What boundless love was this, that the Lamb of God should give
his soul an offering for sin. Well did the enraptured Apostle exclaim,
'Behold what manner of love the Father hath bestowed on us that we might
be called the sons of God!'

'O, for such love, let rocks and hills
Their lasting silence break.'

Could I say, dear sister, with certainty, that I love the Saviour, my
happiness would be complete. But, alas, how languid are my affections,
how cold and how few my returns of love. My heart is extremely hard and
insensible. Still, I hope I have some hungerings and thirstings after
righteousness. One thing cheers me--I abhor myself on account of sin. If
not very much deceived, I do love Jesus, notwithstanding. And I know if
he has given me any love to him, he has done more than earth and hell can
destroy. If we love him at all, we have been changed, 'for the carnal
mind is enmity against God.'

"How important is self-examination. The man who does not examine himself
daily, knows not what are his needs. Unless we examine and see where our
weaker part is, we shall not keep it fortified. And I am persuaded that
self-examination, to be really _profitable_, must be _habitual_. Every
day ought to witness our faithfulness in the discharge of this important
duty. Yet such is the deceitfulness of the human heart, and such the
darkness of the human mind, that we cannot perform this duty profitably
without divine assistance. The Psalmist, sensible of the difficulties of
the task, calls thus upon God for aid; 'Search me, O God, and know my
heart; try me, and know my thoughts; and see if there be any wicked way
in me, and lead me in the way everlasting.' All our self-examination
should begin and end with prayer.

"We, dear sister, are professors of the religion of Christ. How
responsible the station! Are we then a spectacle to the world, to angels
and to men?--The light of the world and the salt of the earth? What
manner of persons ought we to be in all holy conversation and godliness.
Are such moths as we permitted to become stones in that spiritual temple,
of which Christ himself is the corner? Does God condescend to be our
Father and our Redeemer? Then let us be more holy, more like him."

Early in January, 1825, Mr. Boardman again visited his native State. At
the request of the Board, he spent several weeks in travelling through
different parts of the State, for the purpose of awakening a more general
interest in the subject of foreign missions. For the same reason it was
thought advisable that his ordination should take place in Maine. He was
accordingly ordained at North Yarmouth, February 16, 1825. Here, as we
have seen, he had some time resided with his parents when quite young.
His aged father was still remembered with affection and respect by the
surviving members of his former flock, as an able and faithful pastor. As
a token of respect to the father and the son, and from love to the cause
of God and the heathen, the church at North Yarmouth unanimously
requested the privilege of his ordination with them, at their own
expense. DEAR PEOPLE--the writer is happy to acknowledge their worth. He
knows them well--too well ever to forget them, and will always regard the
few years of pastoral care and toil spent there, till the providence of
God laid him aside from his labors, as among the happiest of his life.
May they never want a pastor--may the Lord be unto them as the dew of
Hermon, and as the dew that descended upon the mountains of Zion, for
there the Lord commanded his blessing, even life for evermore.

The sermon on the occasion was delivered by Dr. Chaplin, President of
Waterville college, from Ps. lxxi. 16. "I will go in the strength of the
Lord God." From this appropriate text, _The suitableness of a spirit of
entire dependence on God in a missionary to the heathen_, was presented
in an interesting and impressive light.



CHAPTER VI.
Mr. Boardman's travels West and South--His marriage, embarkation, and
voyage.


EARLY in the spring, Mr. Boardman was directed to travel West and South
for a few weeks, as Agent of the Convention, to solicit aid to its funds,
and to call up the attention of the churches to the subject of missions.
On his arrival at Philadelphia, he wrote thus to his friends in
Cumberland.

"_Philadelphia, May_ 25, 1825.

"Dear Brother and Sister,

"No doubt you wish occasionally to know where your wandering brother is,
and as I have a little leisure to-day, I will attempt to inform you. When
I wrote you last, I do not now recollect, so I cannot tell how far back
to go in giving you a history of my travels.

"About the first of April, I made a short visit in Rhode Island, and
spent a few days in Providence, but soon returned to Boston and Salem.
About the middle of the month I received an appointment from the Standing
Committee to take a tour towards the South. On leaving Boston for the
western part of New York, I arrived at Albany in two days. After the stay
of about a week in the neighborhood of Albany and Troy, I took passage
for Utica, ninety-six miles above, on board a canal packet boat. I
ascended the canal from Utica, only four miles to Whitesborough. Thence I
travelled south-west to Hamilton, where stands the theological seminary,
in which brother Wade, now in Calcutta, received his education. This is a
very flourishing institution under the care of two Professors and a
Tutor. There are about fifty young men in the seminary, all of whom are
professedly pious, and members of Baptist churches. They are preparing
for the ministry. The course of study occupies, generally, from three to
four years, according to the age, former attainments, &c. of the
students. The Baptist churches in this section of country are numerous,
large, wealthy and respectable, and are constantly becoming more so.

"I left Hamilton about the fifth instant, and took the stage to Albany,
and thence the steam-boat to New York city, where I arrived on Tuesday
the tenth. That was a week of much interest to me. The New York Sunday
School Union, the American Tract Society, the United Foreign Mission
Society, the American Bible Society, and the American Society for
meliorating the condition of the Jews, all held their anniversaries, and
ministers of the Gospel, of different denominations, from all parts of
the United States, were present to take part in the performances. Mr.
Eustice Carey, from Calcutta, and Mr. Ellis, from the Sandwich Islands,
were there. The season was deeply interesting.

"On Saturday last I took passage for this place (Philadelphia). This is a
most delightful city. I shall remain here ten or twelve days longer, and
then proceed to Baltimore and Washington. That will probably be the
extent of my route, and in the course of four weeks I shall be setting my
face homeward. In all the places I have visited, I have made efforts for
the mission, and in most cases, with pretty good success.

"You have probably received most or all of the late news from Burmah. Not
a word has been heard of Messrs. Judson and Price at Ava. We feel very
desirous to hear. I have so many hopes that they are safe, that I am not
greatly distressed; and yet so many fears that they are not, that I
should not be surprised if we should hear to-morrow that they are no
more. The Lord reigneth."

In about four weeks from this time, having finished his travels further
South, we find him in the city New York, on his way home. From New York
he addressed two letters to his friends, one to his brother and sister
Blanchard, and the other to his parents, including the other members of
the family. As an allusion is made in these letters to the state of
affairs in Burmah, it may be proper to remark, for the information of
those who are unacquainted with the fact, that a most sanguinary war was
then raging between the Burman and Bengal governments. Intelligence had
been received in this country that our missionaries were at Ava, the
capital of that empire. But as all communication was cut off, the actual
condition of the missionaries could not be ascertained.

As Mr. Boardman was now about leaving his native country, and as the
following were the last letters which he expected to address to his
friends, before tearing himself from their embraces, it might be expected
that he would touch some of the tender strings, which, under similar
circumstances, vibrate in almost every human bosom. The extracts will
show how strongly he felt the sentiment of the poet:

"There is a land, of every land the pride,
Beloved by heaven o'er all the world beside;
Where brighter suns dispense serener light,
And milder moons imparadise the night;
A land of beauty, virtue, valor, truth,
Time-tutored age, and love-exalted youth;
Where shall that land, that spot of earth be found?
Art thou a man?--a patriot?--look around;
O, thou shalt find, howe'er thy footsteps roam,
That land THY COUNTRY, and that spot THY HOME."

"_New York, June_ 28, 1825.

"My dear Brother and Sister,

"I must write you in haste, for I have but a few moments at command. I am
now on my way from Washington to Boston, where I expect to arrive on
Wednesday. I have received directions to prepare for an immediate
departure for Calcutta. The Committee at Boston think I had better go
there, and commence the study of the Burman language without delay.
Before I shall have acquired the language, the Burman war will probably
close. It is expected that I shall sail from Philadelphia on the eighth
of July, in a new ship which is to be launched this week. The captain is
an excellent, gentlemanly man, and the supercargo is pious. There will be
a physician on board, and every comfort that we shall need.

"I heard of this resolution of the Committee only last Wednesday, so that
I have but a fortnight in which to prepare. But I can be ready, I trust.
My out-fit is probably now ready. What I most want is, that the God of
missions go with us. For this, I trust, you will daily pray.

"In view of soon leaving America, and its friends, and many enjoyments,
my heart would sink, were it not sustained by the nature of the work in
which I am engaged, and the promise of that God, at whose command I am
ready to make so great a sacrifice. But I feel calm and sustained. My
hope is fixed in God. I trust his gracious promises, which are rich and
sure. 'They that trust in the Lord shall be as Mount Zion, which can
never be removed, but abideth for ever.' I must leave you, my dear
brother and sister, and rejoice to leave you in the care of a watchful
and gracious Providence. May every needed blessing be yours. May you be
enabled, during a long life, to glorify God by letting your light shine,
and when you shall be gathered to your fathers, may your last end be
happy. May a thousand, thousand mercies fall upon you, and amid all the
vicissitudes and cares of life, may you hear your Saviour say, 'Cast all
your cares on me.' May your children be rich blessings both to you and to
the church.

"Yours forever,

GEORGE D. BOARDMAN."


"_New York, June_ 28, 1825.

"My dear, very dear Parents, Brother, and Sisters,

"The disturbances which have existed in Burmah, have hitherto prevented
my proceeding to that work to which I have for more than two years
considered myself devoted, and I have feared they would still detain me
for a considerable time. But the prospect is now changed. Last Wednesday,
while in the city Washington, I received a letter from Dr. Bolles,
calling me directly to Boston, to prepare for an immediate departure. The
Committee met about the middle of the month, and after deliberating on
the subject, determined I should go by the first opportunity to Calcutta.
I left Washington next morning, and yesterday reached this city on my way
to Boston. We shall probably sail from Philadelphia on the eighth of
July. So you see that probably, in two weeks, I shall leave America, with
all its privileges and endearments. Were I going on any other business
than that of preaching the Gospel to poor sinners, who have never heard
it, my heart would sink at the thought. But I have reason to be very
thankful, that that Gospel which I go to proclaim contains just such
promises as I need. In general, I trust I feel a calm, steady, uniform,
humble confidence in the promises of God. I know they are abundant and
sure. I often say, 'If thy presence go not with us, carry us not up
hence.' The presence of God affords infinite encouragement and comfort.
Who could not endure all things, if only the Lord were with him? Could I
but have this testimony, 'that I please God,' trials, labors, dangers,
and self-denials, would all be sweet. How calmly, then, could I await
afflictions, and that solemn hour, 'when heart and flesh shall fail.'

"I still feel the same attachment to the mission as ever. But I feel a
much greater attachment than I ever did before to America and American
friends. I feel a growing attachment to each of you. But I can leave you
all in the hands of Him to whom I intrust myself, and though absent from
you in body, I shall often be with you in spirit. Yes, my dear parents, I
shall often in thought visit your kind and beloved circle; I shall hear
my father's charming voice; I shall listen to my mother's tale of
tenderness; I shall recount a brother's kind favors, and shall remember
my sisters' affectionate assiduities; yea, I shall not forsake that sod
which covers the sleeping dust of our dear, dear Harriet. At the hour of
your prayers I shall think that you remember me--then, also, I shall
remember you.

"A thousand, thousand blessings rest on you all. I would write to you
individually, had I time, but you perceive my time is short. I have many,
very many letters to write. The peace of God be with you all forever.
GEORGE D. BOARDMAN."

Mr. Boardman, though fond of retirement, was not an ascetic. He loved the
society of kindred spirits, with whom he could unbend himself and freely
participate in the enjoyments of domestic life. The spirit of many of his
private letters evinces his high relish for the endearments of the social
circle. Soon after resolving upon a mission to the heathen, his thoughts
were directed to the choice of a companion, to share with him the
privileges, privations, toils and sufferings inseparable from such an
undertaking. Sensible that his usefulness depended greatly on the
connexion thus to be formed, he prayed much and fervently for divine
direction, and a kind Providence directed his inquiries to a favorable
issue. He sought, he said, for piety, for talents, for a cultivated mind,
for a gentle and affectionate heart. And he sought not in vain.

Miss Sarah B. Hall, daughter of Mr. Ralph and Mrs. Abiah Hall, of Salem,
Mass. was destined to be the companion of his travels, the helper of his
joys, and the soother of his future sufferings. From a child, she was
distinguished for her studious habits, and when quite young, wrote on
several important questions in religion, and some portions of the
Scriptures. Her facilities for obtaining an education had been good, and
she had improved them to the best advantage. At an early age, she became
deeply impressed with the sinfulness of her nature, and the necessity of
a radical change of heart. Soon after obtaining hope in the merits of
Christ, she became a member of the first Baptist church in Salem, then
under the pastoral care of Dr. Bolles. For some years previous to her
acquaintance with Mr. Boardman, her mind seems to have taken a direction
in favor of a missionary life. The cause of this early bias is to us
unknown. It, most probably, originated in love to her Saviour, and a
desire to do him honor by commending him to those who had never heard his
name. It would be trite to say, that in her he found a kindred spirit.
But as she had long dwelt in thought on the perishing condition of
heathen nations, shrouded in midnight darkness, and as her heart had been
expanded with a benevolence towards them, which prompted her to desire to
go in person and tell them of her Saviour's charms, she was fully
prepared to enter into his views and feelings on that important
undertaking. His acquaintance with Miss Hall commenced soon after his
determination to give himself to Christ in a mission to the heathen, and
their interest in each other kept pace with their acquaintance. It was
not the superiority of her personal charms, he remarked in conversation
with his friend, though these were by no means small, but what he was
pleased to term her intrinsic excellence, heightened by her modest,
unobtrusive spirit, that most endeared her to his heart. How far he
judged correctly of her qualifications to fill a station of the highest
importance in his own view, and to discharge duties of great magnitude as
the companion of a missionary, has, in part, already been seen; and
should her valuable life be prolonged, we may expect that by the grace of
God, she will be able to give still further evidence that he was not
mistaken.

We here present a single letter from Miss Hall, illustrative of her
strong attachment to her friends, and of the power of religion to enable
her to make so great a sacrifice for the glory of Christ. It was
addressed to her parents from Maine, whither she had gone on a visit with
Mr. Boardman, previously to their marriage.

"_North Yarmouth, March_ 10, 1825.

"My dear Parents,

"This separation from you, and other dear relatives, cannot but forcibly
present to my mind the time, when I shall have sighed a long, _long_
adieu. My dear parents, I feel convinced that I cannot endure that great
separation without a violent struggle. This has always been my opinion.
But I trust the precious promises of the Gospel give me consolation,
while I think of the trying scene. A recollection of the sufferings of
our dear Redeemer for us, his _enemies_, should silence every murmuring
thought. Did Jesus, _the Son of the Most High God_, leave the regions of
eternal blessedness, descend to this _vale of tears_, submit to an
ignominious death, for _our_ sins? and shall we be so ungrateful as to
refuse doing all in our power, that others may know and experience the
benefits of this great atonement? Let us go to Mount Calvary; let us
behold, for a moment, the meek, the lowly Lamb of God bleeding for our
transgressions. Then let us inquire, 'Shall we withhold from this Saviour
any object, however dear to our heart? Shall we be unwilling to suffer a
few short years of trial and privation for _his_ sake?' Let us call to
mind those days of darkness through which we passed, before Jesus lifted
upon us the light of his countenance. We have, I trust, each of us, seen
our lost and ruined condition by nature,--have seen ourselves exposed to
the righteous indignation of our Creator,--have felt ourselves sinking
into endless despair and ruin; and all this merited. But, O, amazing
love! at that desperate moment the Saviour smiled upon us. He opened his
arms of compassion, and all polluted as we were with sin, he received
us,--forgave us our iniquities, and bade us hope for joys unutterable
beyond the grave. Did we not then surrender all into his hands? Was not
this the language of our hearts,

'Had I a thousand lives to give,
A thousand lives should all be thine?'

Has not this precious Redeemer as strong claims on us now as he then had?
Yes, every moment brings us under renewed obligations to him. But I must
dismiss this theme for the present.

"Your ever affectionate daughter,

S. B. HALL."

Mr. and Mrs. Boardman, after taking leave of their friends in Salem,
proceeded to Philadelphia, and on the 16th of July took passage in the
ship Asia, for Calcutta.

"Freely they quit the climes that gave them birth,
Home, kindred, friendship, all they loved on earth;
What things were gain they now account as loss,
And glorying in the shame they bear the cross.
They know, and 'twas enough for them to know,
The still small voice that whispered them to go;
For He, who spake by that mysterious voice,
Inspired their will, and made his call their choice."

The missionary is aware from the first, that the work on which he is
about to enter, will require him to break away from the friends and the
society he loves. As yet, however, these trials are seen only in the
distance, and are therefore but partially felt. As the hour of separation
draws near, his feelings become more intense, and the ties of affection
gather more closely about his heart.

It is, in parting with living, as with deceased friends; if, especially,
they are to be long absent, or are expected never again to return. After
the separation has actually taken place, and we feel ourselves torn away
from those whom we love, we have leisure to view them in the retrospect.
We call up their many amiable qualities; we review their kind, gentle and
engaging manners, and passing entirely unnoticed every depreciating
circumstance, leave the whole field of retrospection without a blot.
These engaging features, seen through the magnifying medium of bereaved
affection, brighten and expand beyond the limits of real life, and awaken
our surprise that we did not more justly estimate their value.

"So blessings brighten as they take their flight."

Such, as will be seen by the following letter, were, in a degree, the
feelings of Mr. Boardman on leaving his country and friends. And in this
he was not alone. All who have gone before him have felt a measure of the
same anguish of spirit; and if they have expressed less, it was not
probably that they were less alive to the endearments of consanguinity.
The amiable Henry Martyn seemed, at times, almost to sink under the
conflict he felt in his own bosom, on leaving his friends and his native
shores for India.

But it is pleasing to observe how grace can sustain its possessor, and
enable him to triumph over the strongest principles of human nature, and
to rejoice even in the sacrifice of filial and fraternal affection to the
glory of Christ and the salvation of perishing souls. The letter, from
which an extract is below, is dated "On board ship Asia, off Newcastle,
Delaware, July 17, 1825," and addressed to Mr. and Mrs. B----, of Salem.
In the first page he dwells with sentiments of gratitude on the
affectionate treatment he and Mrs. Boardman had received from many of
their Christian friends in Philadelphia, and their kindness in furnishing
them with many of the comforts and conveniences so desirable on a long
voyage.

"Very dear Mr. and Mrs. B.

"The ship dropped down the river on Thursday, as we expected, and we came
on board yesterday afternoon. We have waited ever since for the
supercargo. Soon as he arrives we expect to get under weigh.

"Though surrounded as we are with more company than we could expect, we
feel a little sadness coming over our minds. Indeed, dear Mr. and Mrs. B.
we _do_ feel tenderly to-day. We are leaving _all that has been dear to
us_, and it is not by any means the least cause of tenderness, that we
are leaving you. But be assured it affords us peculiar satisfaction that
such is the relation in which you stand to the mission, that we shall
often hear not only from your family, but from our dear parents.

"We indulge, beloved friends, sentiments of gratitude and affection
towards you and your family, which the language of the heart alone can
express. But we know you neither need nor desire our flattering words.
Then let our hearts _feel_ what we choose not, and are not able to
_utter_. But we may say, that your kindness to each of us has endeared
you forever to our hearts; and for myself, I shall always think of your
paternal roof.

"We most ardently pray, that both your lives may be prolonged a great
while, to be devoted to the cause in which you are supremely engaged. We
hope, that when declining years steal on, you may be enabled to reflect
on a whole life uniformly devoted and useful,--that your evening may be
long, cheerful, and serene, and your sleep sweet, till the morning of the
resurrection.

"We feel anxious, too, for both of your children. We know it rests with
God to convert them, and make them, through mercy, great blessings to the
church, and great comforts to yourselves; or, in judgment to leave them
to themselves. But for the former we sincerely and earnestly pray. We are
constrained to hope, that so many fervent prayers as we are persuaded
have for years been offered up for them, will not be disregarded in
heaven. Both your children are destined, probably, to conspicuous walks
in life. So much the more important is it that they become renewed in the
temper of their minds. Tell them, it is our _last, best wish_, that they
would give themselves no rest, till they rest in a good hope in Jesus.*

[Footnote: * Both these sons, we humbly trust, now _rest in such a
hope_.]

"We desire filial regards to our parents in Salem and New Sharon, and
tender love to all our brothers and sisters. We also desire particular
regards to the church and people in S. S. is, and ever shall be, dear to
our remembrance. Burmah also is dear, and we wish to be there."

When they had been forty-five days at sea, he again wrote to Dr. Bolles,
the Corresponding Secretary of the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions.

"_Ship Asia, Sept._ 2, 1825. _Lat. S._ 2 2', _long. W._ 28 44'.

"Very dear Sir,

"A ship is in sight, by which we hope to convey letters to America. I
shall have time to write only a few lines. You will be pleased to learn
that our sea-sickness was comparatively slight. We are now all perfectly
well. We have the best of accommodations on board this ship, and are
treated with the kindest attention by the officers, and great respect by
all on board. We have divine worship Lord's-day mornings at 10 o'clock,
and prayers in the cabin every evening. To say the least, these services
are attended with pleasing seriousness, and perhaps I may say with
encouraging solemnity. We hope we are not without some enjoyment of the
Saviour's presence. I have seldom taken more pleasure in preaching than
on board this ship. Mrs. B. is very happy, and seems perfectly contented.
We have now been out forty-five days, and not an unpleasant occurrence
has yet disturbed our peace.

"Our best regards to Mrs. B. and your family. Pray, dear sir, for us,
that God may qualify us for our great work."

On the 9th of September he wrote thus to Dr. B.

"The brig by which we hoped to send letters, would not speak to us. We
are now in lat. 10 S. long. 34 30' W. For nearly a week we have been
within 100 miles of the Brazil coast. South America. Though fifty-two
days out, we have experienced no disaster, and no storm, but have had
thus far a most peculiar passage. We first run east nearly to the Azores,
or Western Islands, where we had a week of unexpected calm. We then took
the northeast trade winds, which, however, were so far east that we were
afraid of running to South America; but after we lost those winds, and
took variable winds, we were constantly driven east. And even after we
took the southeast trades, six degrees north of the line, they were so
far south that we made almost due east, till two weeks since, when we
were within 300 miles of Africa, west of Cape Mesurado. We were then
perpetually in fear of falling into the calms, that prevail between the
twentieth degree of west longitude and Africa. About two weeks ago the
wind came from the south and south-east. We stood westward, and in one
week we were obliged to tack about, to avoid the South American coast.
And here we have been about a week, with but very little wind, and that
not the most favorable. Still we are contented and happy. The captain
thinks it _settled_ that we shall have a long voyage. But we have ample
provision, &c. for such a voyage.

"It is always pleasant to enjoy more happiness in an object than we
anticipated. Such a happiness, I am pleased to say to you, I enjoy in my
dear Sarah. One thing we both deeply regret; we have no place on board
this ship suitable for retired and undisturbed devotion. Still I hope we
are not entirely without comfort in the Holy Ghost. There is another brig
in sight, by which we hope to send letters."

We have not the means for gratifying the reader with further details of
the voyage. Letters containing such details, it is believed, were sent to
friends in America, but they have not been placed in the hands of the
Compiler. Though a voyage at sea is barren of most of the interesting
objects, which meet the eye of a traveller, in a tour by land, yet there
are even here many things to awaken curiosity, and call forth the
exercise of devotion. Here he may _behold the works of the Lord, and his
wonders in the deep, when he commandeth the stormy wind, that lifteth up
the waves thereof_. He may admire the wisdom and the power of that dread
Being, who _has set hounds to the sea, that it shall not pass_; and who
has said, _Hitherto shalt thou come, but no farther, and here shall thy
proud waves he stayed_. In the perpetual sinking and swelling of her
billows, he may see a striking illustration of the character of _the
wicked, who are like the troubled sea, which cannot rest, whose waters
cast up mire and dirt_. This element, now so void of every thing to break
the monotonous scenery, he may regard as one of the wide theatres on
which are to be displayed the wonders of redemption _in the latter day,
when the abundance of the sea shall be converted to God_. It can hardly
be doubted that themes like these, and others of a kindred character,
occupied the thoughts of our missionaries in their leisure moments. They
had seen the shores of their beloved country rapidly retiring, till they
were lost in the distance, and had looked, for the last time, upon their
native hills, now sinking beneath the waves. They had engaged in an
enterprise which they had reason to believe would hasten forward "the
golden age" of godliness, and now, on their way to the field of their
future toils, it was natural to look forward with desire and hope to that
brighter and better day.



CHAPTER VII.
Mr. Boardman's arrival and residence in Calcutta--Description of schools
and native churches.


IF, on leaving his native shores, there are circumstances calculated to
fill the heart of the missionary with sorrow, there are, on his arrival
at his destined port, those which give to it a thrill of joy. Now the
perils of the ocean are past. The eye no longer rests upon the waste of
waters, from which it would fain turn away, where, comparatively, not an
object appeared to diversify the scenery, and not a sound was heard save
the voice of the tempest and the flood.

On his arrival in a foreign country, there is, however, a wide difference
between the scenes that he meets with, and those which he has left
behind. Here every thing is new and strange. Nothing hardly seems akin to
the land of his birth and the home of his early years. The face of
nature, as well as the face of man, wears a different aspect. The hills
that rise before him are not his native hills. The verdure that crowns
them, differs in kind and appearance from anything which he has seen
before. He no sooner steps on shore, then the curse of Babel meets him in
the unintelligible sounds which break upon his ear. The people with whom
he is now to associate, be they polished or rude, are to him barbarians,
for they _speak in an unknown tongue_. Their complexion, their physical
structure, and conformation of features, as well as manners and habits,
are all widely different from those of his own countrymen. Nor is the
change less apparent in the various tribes of animals which come under
his observation. Birds of a different plume and different form every
where meet him. If their notes are not less melodious, they are not such
as he has been accustomed to hear among the branches of his native trees.
The beasts which rove through their forests, and the fish that divide
their floods, bear such a resemblance only to those with which he has
been familiar, as to show that they belong to the same great family. It
will often happen, too, that the people among whom he is now to take up
his abode, are equally diverse from his own in their morals, their forms
of civil polity, and in the spirit and tendency of their religion. He may
find to his grief, that morality is dethroned, and doomed to become the
creature of mere expediency--that instead of being a free man in full
possession of the rights which he has once enjoyed, he is now under a
despotic government, and required to crouch at the feet of a tyrant. He
may find, also, that the vitality of the Christian religion has here no
existence--that the temples which rise before him are temples of
abominable idols, lifting to heaven "their spires of gilded blasphemy,"
and "claiming to share the incommunicable perfections of Jehovah."

Such were some of the changes, which met our beloved missionaries, on
their arrival in India. But they were changes which had been anticipated,
and though painful, some of them, in the endurance, they were prepared to
meet them with becoming fortitude. They had put their trust in that God,
before the symbol of whose presence Dagon had fallen and was broken.
Their faith in the stability of his promises, and the entire fulfilment
of his divine purposes, was unwavering. In him they trusted for the
overthrow of other Dagons, and the introduction of a better state of
things.

The following letter is from Mrs. Boardman to her husband's parents,
written soon after their arrival at Calcutta, and dated December 13,
1825.

"My dear Parents,

"Through the kind protection of the Father of Mercies, we were kept from
danger during a long voyage, and permitted to land in Calcutta on the 2d
of this month. As my dear husband has written to brother H. giving the
particulars respecting our voyage, I shall speak of events of more recent
date.

"We were several days sailing up the river to Calcutta. The banks of that
part of the river nearest the Bay of Bengal, are covered with thick
jungle, which appears at a distance like beautiful verdant foliage; but
on a nearer approach, looks rude and dreary. Amidst this uncultivated
desert a few little mud-walled huts can sometimes be seen, and here and
there wanders a wretched idolater. This jungle is infested with tigers
and other wild beasts. As we approached Calcutta, the scenery gradually
changed. Native villages became more frequent, and the inhabitants more
numerous. They are often seen carrying large bundles of rice. But, O, how
unlike our happy American cottagers! When evening comes, the poor Indian
is not welcomed by an affectionate wife to the table furnished for their
mutual repast. His children do not cling about him, and by their
endearing caresses awaken in his bosom the tender and pleasurable
emotions of parental affection. Alas! she who should be his companion, in
whose faithful bosom he should repose all confidence, who should share in
all his joys and mitigate his sorrows, is a menial--a mere _slave_. And
those dear innocents whom he should love and protect with parental care,
are spurned from his presence, and sometimes exposed to premature death.
Before he lies down on his pillow at night, he does not raise his voice
to the living God in prayer, or chant a song of grateful praise for
present blessings, and the promises of future good which the Gospel
gives. Ah, the wretched man has never heard of the Gospel, nor of one of
the precious promises it contains. He cannot go to Jesus and plead that
his soul may be washed in that blood which cleanseth from all sin, for he
knows not that there is a Jesus, or that his blood has ever been spilt.
His prospects of futurity are darker than the dreary desert by which he
is surrounded, and his soul rude and uncultivated as the soil he treads.

For three or four miles below Calcutta, the scenery is most beautiful. On
one side of the river is a fine botanic garden of considerable extent.
The land appears in a state of high cultivation, and the mansion houses
of European gentlemen contribute much to the beauty of the prospect.

"Now, dear parents, I presume you are ready to ask, what are the
prospects of your absent children? Our prospects at present are
uncertain. The war in Burmah still rages with great fury. We have very
little reason to think that a reconciliation will soon take place. No
accounts on which dependence can be placed have been received from the
dear missionaries at Ava. Very strong reasons exist for believing that
they are imprisoned. Let us not cease to pray for them continually.

"We expect soon to commence the study of Burman, under the instruction of
a native teacher. O how we long to enter on a preparation for our work.
The work of a missionary among the heathen appears daily more and more
desirable. Pray for us, dear parents, that we may have much grace."

On their arrival at Calcutta, Mr. and Mrs. Boardman were received by the
English Baptist missionaries with great cordiality and Christian
affection, and provided with every thing that could contribute to their
happiness during their stay. On account of the war in Burmah, all
missionary operations in that empire were suspended. Mr. and Mrs. Wade,
whose prospects of usefulness at Rangoon were for the present entirely
cut off, had retired from the scenes of war, and of great personal
danger, and were now quietly pursuing the study of the Burman language,
in a village near Calcutta, with the hope of soon returning to the field
of their labors. Under these circumstances, it was thought advisable that
Mr. and Mrs. Boardman should also remain till the termination of the war.
Their advantages for acquiring the language of Burmah here, would be
nearly equal to those of a residence in the empire; as Mr. Wade had
already made considerable proficiency in the study, and they could also
be furnished with the aid of a native teacher. They took residence at
Chitpore, four miles from Calcutta, where Mr. and Mrs. Wade were then
residing. From this place, Mr. Boardman wrote to Mr. and Mrs. Hall, the
parents of Mrs. Boardman, as follows:

"_Chitpore, Dec_ 15, 1825.

"Very dear Parents,

"This letter will probably be handed you by Capt. K. of the ship Coral,
who lives near your house in Salem. When he heard of our arrival in
Calcutta, he sought us out and rode several miles to see us. He informed
us, that as he expected to sail for America in a few days, he should be
happy to take letters for us, to any of our friends in Salem or Danvers;
and added, that he would deliver them in person. This was very kind. He
has since called and passed an evening with us, and we expect him to call
once more, and take our letters and parcels.

"And now, my dear parents, I wish you could make a visit at Chitpore. You
would find your two fond children sitting together very happily, and
engaged in writing letters to their beloved American friends. Our
mansion, to be sure, is but a bamboo cottage, with a thatched roof, but
it is a palace compared with most of the native huts about us. But you
know, a large and splendid house is by no means essential to happiness.
Food and clothing sufficient, with the presence of God, are all that is
absolutely necessary. Could a man have, in addition, one confidential
friend, who sympathised in all his joys and sorrows, and with whom he
could enjoy all the endearments of social and conjugal life, he might be
happy indeed. Such a friend, such a wife I have, in my beloved Sarah. I
shall never be able, I fear, to discharge the obligations I feel towards
you for conferring on me so great a blessing."

Under the same date, he wrote as follows to E. and H. Hall, the brother
and sister of Mrs. B.

"Dear Brother and Sister,

"This will assure you, that how far soever we are separated, we feel no
abatement of our affection towards you. We still retain the feelings of a
brother and a sister. Indeed, I have thought, that my attachment to you
has been warmer since we left you than ever before. Should you see your
absent sister, you would not find her sad and melancholy, but cheerful
and happy.

"We hope that still greater happiness is in reserve for us, especially in
the precious work to which we are devoted. You know that the state of the
heathen in the East has long been a subject of great interest to us, and
that for some years we have ardently longed to be employed in conveying
to them the knowledge of the only way of salvation. This privilege we are
now beginning to enjoy.

"But in our interest for the heathen, we cannot forget the eternal
welfare of our own relatives. Be assured, my brother and sister, we do
often pray for _you_. We long to hear that you have embraced the Lord
Jesus Christ, and are enjoying a comfortable, well grounded hope of
finally dwelling with him in glory."

In a letter to Dr. Bolles, having spoken of religious services on board
the Asia, and the encouraging solemnity which seemed to prevail through
the assembly, he adds,

"Allow me to say, that we entertain a hope that one of the sailors was
converted on the passage. Although we have great reason to lament our
unfaithfulness, we hope we have had, at times, some suitable sense of
divine things. To say the least, we have found great pleasure, and, I
trust, profit, in studying the word of God. To this we have directed our
chief attention during the voyage."

In the same letter, he thus sketches the manner of their reception at
Calcutta;

"The report of our being at Sand Heads, reached Calcutta several days
before we did, and our friends had made kind preparations to receive us.
Soon after coming in sight of the city, we had the pleasure of welcoming
on board the Asia, our missionary brother Mr. Hough. He informed us that
the Burman war was renewed after an armistice of several weeks, and that
no well authenticated accounts had been received from our dear missionary
friends, Judson and Price, at Ava. It is generally supposed, that they
are imprisoned with other foreigners, and have not the means to send
round to Bengal. It is painful to add, that our justly esteemed friend,
Mr. Lawson, one of the English missionaries at this place, is no more.

"At noon, (Dec. 2.) we came on shore, and were accompanied by our
supercargo to the house of Mr. William H. P. in Circular Road, where we
were very kindly received by our English brethren, Pearce, Penny and
Yates. Here we found Mrs. Colman waiting with a carriage to take Mrs. B.
and myself to this place in the evening. The cottage we occupy was
formerly the residence of our esteemed friends, Mr. and Mrs. Eustace
Carey. Mr. and Mrs. Wade, Mrs. Colman, Mrs. Boardman and myself, compose
a very happy American family. But we apprehend it will not be prudent to
continue here during the approaching hot and rainy seasons.

"We feel an ardent desire to be employed in teaching the Burmans the
unsearchable riches of Christ. We are not yet discouraged by the dark
cloud which hangs over our prospects in Burmah. We still hope and trust,
_we firmly believe_, that eventually this war will tend to advance the
cause of Christ in that dark empire. We hope our friends at home will not
be discouraged, but will continue _instant in prayer_, and withal,
praying for us, that utterance may be given us, that we may open our
mouth boldly to make known the mystery of the Gospel."

Under date of January 6th, 1826, then at Chitpore, he writes thus:

"Several hundreds of the Nepaul people, who are on their way to 'Gunga
Sauger' to bathe and wash away their sins, are staying for a week or ten
days, within fifteen rods of our cottage, under the cocoa-nut trees. Some
of the native Christians preach to them, and distribute tracts, which
they are pleased to receive. I wish I could go and preach to them; I
would tell them of 'the more excellent way.' We think of removing into
Calcutta soon."

His next is dated at Calcutta. During his stay in that city,--a period of
about one year and eight months,--he applied himself most assiduously to
the study of the Burman language. He was frequently invited to attend at
the examination of schools, a service in which he greatly delighted, and
on which he dwells with lively interest in some of his letters. He also
assisted the missionaries regularly in maintaining the gospel in English,
at several of their places of worship. A few of his letters, written soon
after his arrival, will here be given. They will show the interest which
he felt in all those flourishing institutions at Calcutta, which are
designed to elevate the intellectual character, to purify the morals, and
renovate the hearts of pagans. The first of these is addressed to Dea. C.
Stockbridge, North Yarmouth, Me.

"_Calcutta, Feb._ 20, 1826.

"My dear brother S.

"Knowing, as I do, that you feel a deep interest in everything connected
with the cause of Christ in India, I will occupy this sheet in specifying
some of the things, which, among many others, appear to me very
important. I regret that I am not able to state precisely how many
Christian churches there are in Calcutta. I have ascertained that there
are several belonging to the establishment, and government is erecting a
new house of worship in Fort William. There are a Scotch kirk, several
Roman Catholic churches, and several chapels of Dissenters. The
Independents have one chapel, where Mr. J. Hill preaches. The Baptists
have two places of worship for Europeans. One is in Lall Bazar, the other
in Circular Road; the former is occupied by Mr. Robinson, the latter by
Mr. Yates, who preaches every Lord's-day, and every Tuesday evening.
Brother Wade and myself preach there alternately on Sabbath mornings
during our stay at Bengal. It gives me pleasure to add, that a few weeks
ago, six were baptized at this place, and six more stand as candidates at
the present time. Four of these I know, and they are very worthy and
promising young men. At the Dissenting chapel, and I presume at the
churches, there are Sabbath schools, attended by English, Portuguese, and
country-born youth. Besides these chapels and churches for Europeans,
there are several native chapels, or bungalows, where the missionaries
and native preachers break the bread of life, not only on the Sabbath,
but almost every day in the week. How many native preachers there are, I
cannot precisely tell. I have become personally acquainted with several
of them. The Church missionaries have a printing establishment, and
publish a monthly magazine. The Independents have another press, where
they publish a quarterly work, and the Baptists have another, where they
publish the Auxiliary Herald. At these presses, valuable religious books,
especially school-books in various languages, are printed in great
numbers. A weekly religious newspaper, such as you have in America, is, I
think, greatly wanted in this place; though some of the friends to whom
the subject has been named, have expressed their fears that it would be
impracticable to establish and sustain it.

"The Roman Catholics, who are principally Portuguese, are most extremely
destitute of Christian knowledge. A young Portuguese called to see me the
other day, who is a member of the church in Circular Road, having but
recently been converted from the Catholic faith. He told me he never saw
a Bible, and scarcely knew there was such a book, till he came among the
Protestants. Gentlemen who have visited Spain and Portugal have affirmed,
that if possible, the Roman Catholics in Calcutta are in a more
deplorable state than in those countries.

"The establishment of schools presents a very interesting feature in the
prospects of India. I regret my want of information on this subject. I
have not been in the place a sufficient length of time to collect the
facts. You will be gratified, however, with the few I have collected. Mr.
and Mrs. Penney, of the Baptist society, superintend a most interesting
school, called the Benevolent Institution. The school is conducted
principally on the plan of Lancaster. The two departments (of boys and
girls) consist of about two hundred children and youth, of various
nations and colors. They embrace Portuguese, country-born children,
Hindoos, Moosoolmans, Chinese, Malays, Africans, &c. &c. The pupils learn
to read, write, spell and cipher. Some study geography, astronomy,
history, &c. and are daily taught from the Scriptures. The consequence
is, that many of them are hopefully converted to Christ, and several of
them are now successfully employed in preaching the Gospel. Some pious
members of this school have united in an association, called the
'Calcutta Juvenile Society.' They meet once a week, for the promotion of
personal piety and the acquisition of Christian knowledge. Their avowed
object is to propagate the Gospel among their neighbors; especially among
the Portuguese and the Bengalese; and I am informed their efforts have
been blessed to the conversion of more than one soul. They have a
library, furnished by the munificence of friends, and enjoy much public
patronage. O how delightful it is to see these young men, thirty or forty
in number, piously engaged in such a cause; young men, who, but for
missionary efforts, would now, in all probability, be 'wandering after
the beast,' or bowing down to idols.

"Affectionately yours,

G. D. BOARDMAN."


_To Mr. and Mrs. Blanchard._

"_Calcutta, Feb._ 22, 1826.

"My very dear Brother and Sister,

"Five years ago, I think, the work of establishing female schools in this
place was first attempted. Six months or more elapsed, and the friends
had been able to obtain but two scholars. Now there are about sixty
schools, averaging, perhaps, ten scholars each, more or less, making six
hundred in all. The superintendence of these schools is divided among
three female missionaries. The annual examinations have taken place since
we arrived at Calcutta. On this occasion, a selection is made from each
of the schools, of four or five children. These children, amounting
generally to between two or three hundred, are assembled at some suitable
place, where the examination is conducted in presence of many interested
spectators, both natives and Europeans. Mrs. B. and myself were present
at this examination, and it gives me pleasure to say, that though I could
not understand the Bengalee, I could perceive a promptness in their
recitations which was truly gratifying. You will keep in mind, that these
girls are taken wherever they can be found, and they belong, mostly, if
not entirely, to heathen families. The schools are scattered round
through all parts of Calcutta, and are taught by natives. Christian books
are used altogether. The ladies who superintend them ride out every day
and visit two or three of them; the next day, as many more, and so on,
till they have visited them all. What a delightful prospect is here
presented! Six hundred Hindoo females, who, but for missionaries, had
never known that they had immortal souls, are thus afforded the means of
knowing not only that they have such souls, but also that a way has been
provided for their redemption. And these little girls thus taught, will
carry home with them what they have learnt at school, and will repeat it
to their parents. These parents and children may be brought to a
knowledge of those glorious truths which otherwise they would never have
known. Here, too, is room for the exercise of Christian benevolence. One
of these schools costs only about thirty dollars a year.

"I have but little space left for an account of the asylum. You know that
India is a land of widows and orphans. The great number of the latter,
suggested the expediency of the asylum. There are here about sixty girls,
to whom the two superintendents devote their exclusive attention.

"You are probably aware, that we now reside with Mr. and Mrs. Wade. We
have a small, well-situated house in Circular Road, a few steps from the
English Baptist missionaries and their chapel. I preach here every
fortnight, and occasionally in other places. We are extremely happy in
our new place, and in each other.

"The war still continues in Burmah. We have not yet heard from the
missionaries at Ava. We do not think of proceeding to Burmah till the
termination of hostilities."

_To Mr. and Mrs. Hall._

"_Calcutta, Feb._ 26, 1826.

"My very dear Parents,

"We shall not proceed to Burmah at present. Divine Providence often works
in a mysterious way, and our expectations are often disappointed. But
there are several things in which we may always place confidence. He who
governs the affairs of nations and of individuals, is an infinitely wise
being, and will do nothing, and permit nothing to be done, but what will
promote his own glory and the prosperity of the church. We may rest
assured, that the few saints he has in Burmah, are each as dear to him as
the apple of his eye; and his cause in Burmah is as sure to prosper
_eventually_, as the cause of Christianity ever was in any other country,
either in times of prosperity or of adversity. We need to have a strong
and lively faith in all the divine promises. Our prospects now, we
consider brighter than they were six, or even four weeks ago; but we
still want that faith, which will support us and keep us unmoved under
all circumstances. We are told, that 'they who trust in the Lord, shall
be as Mount Zion, which cannot be removed, but abideth forever.' May we
have this faith, and then, whatever intelligence we may receive from the
seat of war, or from our friends Judson and Price, or from any other
quarter, we shall be unmoved. Our eyes, we trust, are directed towards
Him, who orders and disposes of all events as seems best to his infinite
wisdom. We hope, and doubt not, that you daily pray for us, that God will
graciously keep and sanctify us both, and prepare us to serve him here
and hereafter. Wishing you every needed blessing, temporal and spiritual,
and entertaining a very affectionate attachment to yourselves and each of
your dear children, I subscribe myself,

Your very affectionate son."

The subjoined extract would be read with interest, if it had no relation
to Mr. Boardman. It is taken from a letter addressed by Mrs. B. to her
former beloved pastor, Dr. Bolles. As it couples herself and husband in
many of its expressions, it may be considered as speaking the language of
both.

"_Calcutta, Feb._ 27, 1826.

"My dear and respected Pastor,

"I have recently written to Mrs. B. a particular account of the state of
things in Burmah, as far as we had become acquainted. Since that time, no
official communications have been received.

"It is a source of much satisfaction to us, that while in Bengal, we can
employ our time in the study of the language. Mr. Boardman and myself
have just commenced reading Mr. Judson's translation of the New
Testament. The highest motives present themselves to urge us on to
diligence and perseverance in study. We feel, that to point the wretched
Burmans to the cross of Christ, is to be the great object of our lives.
Until we have acquired their language, we cannot engage in this important
work. How then can we spend one moment in idleness! I trust, that in the
acquisition of this difficult language, the hope that I shall one day be
able to tell idolaters of a Saviour, will beguile many a tedious hour.

"I sometimes fancy myself surrounded by a little group of Burman girls,
listening eagerly to every word falling from my lips, as if upon that
word depended their eternal happiness. I seem to see the tears of
contrition rolling down their little cheeks. They anxiously plead for
pardon, and an interest in the blood of Jesus. O, my pastor, I cannot
express what I feel on this subject. At the anticipation of beholding a
scene like this, the tear of gratitude already starts from my eye--my
hand trembles, and my bosom beats high with hope. What though no loved
parent gaze upon me in that lonely dwelling, and hear me tell of Jesus;
what though no brother nor sister fondly watch my looks and listen to my
accents! God will be there, and He who bled on Calvary, and now sits
enthroned at the right hand of the Majesty on high, will smile upon a
scene like this."

The following is from Mr. Boardman to a friend in America, written a few
days earlier than the preceding.

"Dear Sir,

"Four weeks ago we were gladdened, for a few moments, by the news of
_peace_ with Burmah, which was announced by the firing of guns and the
beating of drums. We were soon saddened, however, by hearing that
Rangoon, and Ava, and Prome, were to be retained by the Burmans, and that
probably many of the poor creatures who had put themselves under the
protection of the British, would fall a prey to the more stubborn
Burmans, as soon as their protectors should leave the country. Still, as
the articles of the treaty, sent by Sir Archibald to his Burman Majesty,
stipulated that the prisoners at Ava should be delivered forthwith, we
hoped to hear from our dear friends Judson and Price in a few days, and
ere long to see them in Bengal. But there was not time for a message to
be sent from Ava to Calcutta, before our ears were again saluted with the
din of war. The Burmans did nothing towards performing their part of the
treaty, and in fifteen days after the articles of the treaty were
prepared by Sir Archibald, he found it necessary to recommence
hostilities. He attacked Melloon and captured it, with considerable
booty, and among other things the very articles of the treaty which he
had prepared for the Burman monarch to ratify. The Woongyees (chief
minister of state) had concealed them in an old chest, and his Burman
Majesty was not probably aware that any proposals of peace had been made.
Indeed, some suppose he may not have been apprized of the fall of Rangoon
and Prome. It is very dangerous to announce any bad news to the golden
ears, so that his Majesty should be led to suspect that he is not
omnipotent. It is reported, that Mr. Lausago, who has been held in high
repute among the Burmans, was prevailed on not long since to propose to
his Majesty to make peace with the English; and that his proposal implied
such a suspicion of the weakness of the Burman cause that it cost him his
life. Sir Archibald, when we last heard from him, was on his way from
Melloon to Ava, where he expected to arrive about this time, to propose
terms to his Majesty in person at his capital. What the event will be, we
cannot foretell. We feel exceedingly anxious about our friends at Ava.

"We have much to say of divine mercy. The Lord is reviving his work in
many places. At several stations in Ceylon there is a very considerable
religious excitement. Mr. Winslow of Oodooville is now here. Not long
since he received letters from his colleagues in Jaffna, stating that in
one of their schools there was not a boy but was anxious for his soul, or
had found mercy; and in the college only three. Several other places were
also blessed with revivals of religion."

_To his Parents._

"_Calcutta, Feb._ 28, 1826.

"My very dear Parents,

"Calcutta, where we now are, abounds in benevolent institutions. Every
few days we are invited to attend the celebration of some anniversary.
To-day I am called on to attend the anniversary of the Bethel Society for
Seamen. The benevolent public have furnished a small brig, which floats
in the Hoogly, where divine worship is conducted every Lord's-day. I have
preached there twice, and have been much gratified at finding so large
and serious a congregation.

"It will afford you pleasure, my dear parents, to know that though we are
detained from going, as we hoped, directly to Burmah, our time is not
unoccupied in Bengal. We have a Burman teacher, and are studying the
language to pretty good advantage. I preach regularly once a fortnight,
and occasionally at other times. It affords me much pleasure thus to be
employed in that precious work on which my heart is so much set. The
doctrine of the atonement by the blood of Christ never afforded me so
much holy delight as it now does; it is the anchor of my soul, sure and
steadfast. O that I may always be found delighting in none but Jesus
Christ and him crucified. May he ever be the burden of my preaching, and
may his glory be my high and constant aim.

"Our eyes are still directed towards Burmah as the field of our future
labors, and to God as our guide and Saviour. Have my dear parents yet
regretted, that they gave up their son to leave all for Christ and for
the heathen? I trust not.

"Pray for your affectionate son."



CHAPTER VIII.
Mr. Boardman announces the close of the war with Burmah--He is requested
by the English Baptists to remain still longer in Calcutta.


THE frequent allusion to the war in Burmah, and to the unknown condition
of the missionaries at Ava, may be supposed to have awakened, in the mind
of the reader unacquainted with these events, a desire to know how that
war terminated, and what proved to be the fate of those missionaries. In
a letter to Dr. Bolles, dated Calcutta, April 14, 1826, Mr. Boardman,
evidently in a high degree excited in view of the facts of the case,
writes thus:

"The joyful news of peace with Burmah, and of the safety of our friends
at Ava, has filled our hearts with joy and gratitude. But I forbear to
speak of the sufferings of our friends, as you will receive an account of
them from brethren Judson and Price themselves. I will only say, we view
it as one of the most glorious displays of God's gracious Providence
known in modern times, that our friends Hough and Wade at Rangoon, Judson
and Price at Ava, with their wives, should have been preserved through
such extreme dangers, and such unparalleled sufferings."

Thus the painful uncertainty which, for nearly two years, had agitated
and distressed the Christian public, was happily terminated. As the
tidings spread that the missionaries were yet alive and safe, they
produced the sensation of general joy, and the expression of fervent
gratitude to God. But when the scene came to be opened on which that
terrible tragedy was acted; when we were introduced to "the man with the
spotted face," the "executioner," and "son of the prison," and saw him
"seizing Mr. Judson, throwing him violently on the floor, and binding him
with the small cord, an instrument of torture;" when we behold him
"dragged violently along the streets, thrust into the _death prison_, and
bound with five chains;" and when, especially, we traced him from one
prison to another, with naked, blistered, bleeding feet, fainting and
sinking under the pressure of his woes, and ardently desiring the
friendly aid of death to release him from his extremely accumulated and
painful sufferings--it was then, that a sensation of horror succeeded to
that of joy, and we felt that He alone, who _restraineth the wrath of
man_, could have wrought so wonderful a deliverance. In reviewing that
scene, even at this distance of time and place, though it may have been
reviewed many times before, the bosom still swells, the heart throbs with
mixed emotions, and the eye lets fall a tear of tenderness over the
sufferings of those devoted missionaries. Doubtless their _reward will be
great in heaven_.

But we choose not to attempt even an outline of those sufferings, as this
is not only not the proper place for them, but lest the reader should be
satisfied with partial views of a subject, concerning which he ought to
know all the particulars. For a full and affecting view of this dreadful
tragedy, we refer him to Mr. Knowles' Memoir of Mrs. Ann H. Judson, page
227th and onward; a book which should be among the first in the library
of every family.

The termination of the war, and the release of the prisoners, opened the
way for the renewal of missionary operations in Burmah. The book of
Providence, which had so long been sealed up, was now opened, and its
pages seemed bright with promise. It was seen that a more wide and
effectual door was opened for the introduction of the Gospel into that
darkened empire, over which sin had long held a usurped dominion. In this
our missionaries greatly rejoiced. They did not look on Burmah with
feelings of revenge, but with that charity that covereth a multitude of
sins. She had despitefully smitten them on one cheek, and they were now
ready to turn to her the other also. For the cords by which she had bound
and tortured them, they would give her the liberty of the sons of God.
For the stripes which she had inflicted, and the wormwood and gall which
she had administered, they would carry her the balm of Gilead, the oil
and the wine of the Gospel. Instead of rewarding her as she had rewarded
them, they would enter her prison of sin, convey to her the bread and the
water of life, strike the chains from the feet of her prisoners, and say
to her captives, go free.

Upon this work of Christian philanthropy, Mr. Boardman and his associates
at Calcutta, were impatient to enter. But though peace had been declared,
the Burman empire was still like _the troubled sea_ after a violent
storm. It had not yet had time "to rock itself to rest." The limits of
the territory which was to be ceded to the Bengal government, were not
definitely settled. The missionaries, therefore, as it was their
intention to fix on some spot within that territory, where they might
prosecute their labors under the protection of the English, without fear
of further molestation, had not the means of comparing the advantages of
different places, and of determining on the field of their future toils.
Besides, the rainy season was about commencing, during which it becomes
necessary to pay special attention to the preservation of health, by
carefully avoiding all improper exposure to wet and cold. For these
reasons, they deemed it expedient to remain yet longer in Calcutta, where
they were prosecuting the study of the language to good advantage.

The subjoined letter is from Mr. Boardman to Mr. Jacobs, of Cambridge. It
gives an interesting account of the progress of Christianity in Calcutta
and its vicinity.

"_Calcutta, April_ 12, 1826.

"My dear Brother,

"We have good news to relate respecting Christianity in Hindostan. This
evening we expect to attend the anniversary of the Independent Missionary
Society in this place, and the report, we are informed, will be very
interesting. The substance of it is, that in a village ten miles below
Calcutta, there reside several fishermen, who, on their way to their
fishing-ground down the river, have frequently called at a Christian
place of worship. The consequence is, that they have renounced idolatry
and embraced Christianity, and the whole village is in a state of
commotion, and the current of feeling is quite in favor of the Gospel.
The people have already torn their idol from its temple, and presented it
to Mr. Trawin; and they are about tearing down the temple itself, with
the intention of erecting a Christian chapel of its materials, on or near
the same spot.

"We have also heard that in the district of Palamcotta, near Cape
Comorin, two Church missionaries have been greatly blessed in their
labors, so that in the course of the last two years, eleven hundred
families have renounced idolatry and embraced Christianity. Not that all
these persons have been actually converted; but many of them have been,
if we may judge from the firmness and constancy with which they have
endured persecution and imprisonment on account of their new religion.
Even women have visited the prisons where their husbands are confined, to
persuade them to fidelity in the service of their new Master.

"The Baptist church in Circular Road is also in a very flourishing state.
Thirteen young men have been baptized there, since Mr. Lawson's death, in
October last, and several other persons are desirous to receive the same
ordinance. Some others are under deep convictions of sin, and the members
of the church are remarkably united and engaged in their Master's cause.
All these things look encouraging, and it appears to me we have much
cause to engage in our work with new and redoubled diligence.

"Brother Wade and myself, with our companions, expect to leave Calcutta
in six or eight weeks, to join brother Judson. As Rangoon is not retained
by the British, we do not think it best to recommence the work there, but
rather to settle in some of the towns ceded to the English. We need much
divine direction. We consider the present, an important crisis in the
affairs of the mission. We long to proceed to Burmah, and engage in the
delightful work before us. May the Lord's strength be made perfect in our
weakness."

The following is addressed to the whole circle of Mrs. Boardman's family
friends collectively.

"_Calcutta, May_ 12, 1826.

"My dearly beloved Friends,

"It is now the hot season in this country, and we all avoid writing as
much as our duty will allow.

"We have now been in India nearly five months and a half, and I think
that we have not had so much rain in all this time, as sometimes falls in
America in twenty-four hours. The consequence is, the season is unusually
hot--many people cannot procure good water, and among the natives it is
very sickly. The cholera-morbus prevails considerably, and it is said
that on some days, five or six, or even seven hundred of the poor natives
die with it. But through the goodness of the Lord, both Sarah and myself
have enjoyed an excellent state of health ever since we arrived, and even
ever since we parted with you. We cannot be too thankful for this great
blessing. I am encouraged to hope we shall continue to enjoy our health
in this country, though we cannot speak with any certainty. We must not
boast of to-morrow, for we know not what a day may bring forth. We need
be always in readiness to go; we need to feel ourselves to be strangers
and pilgrims on the earth. We see as much cause as ever, yea, _more_, for
pitying and trying to relieve the wretched sons of India. We are fully
persuaded that the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and nothing else, is able to
make idolaters holy and happy. Here, in the single town of Calcutta, they
are dying by hundreds in a day, and many of them have never heard that
Christ died for sinners. The Gospel, we are assured, can help them. It
has been so in some places. We believe it will be so, before long, all
over India. But India, at present, is in a most deplorable state. I have
been to see the _swinging_, you have heard described, and I can assure
you it is as bad as you have heard.

"For these reasons, we are willing, and even desirous, to spend our lives
in India. We think of you, and pray for you daily. We have a most sincere
affection for you. Our hearts sometimes ache when we think of being
parted from you, and all our dear friends in America. But when we think
of the heathen, we rejoice that we are here."

At the close of the rains, September 22d, 1826, Mr. and Mrs. Wade, who
had been in Calcutta two years and three months, left that place for
Amherst, where they arrived in safety. Mr. Boardman remained still in
Calcutta; at first, on account of the delicate health of his family,
which he had reason to hope would soon be such as to enable him to
follow. But, for other reasons, which will best be understood by the
following letters, he remained in Calcutta till March 19, 1827. The first
of these is from Mr. Boardman himself to his fellow-laborers in Burmah,
and shows with what conscientious exactness he studied to conform his
whole conduct to the instructions of the Board, one of which is, that "No
important enterprise may be undertaken by any one of the missionaries,
without the concurrence of his brethren." If, in his communication, he
appears fearful lest the decision of the question proposed should be
referred to himself, it was not that he was incapable of forming a
judgment of his own, nor that he was wanting in energy of character to
carry his decisions into effect; but that he might maintain a conscience
void of offence towards God and towards man.

"_Calcutta, Nov._ 15, 1826.

"My dear Brethren,

"Accompanying this, is a letter from the Baptist missionaries here,
which, after much deliberation and prayer, I have consented they should
lay before you. It contains a proposition to which, if it makes the same
impression on your minds, that it did at first, on my own, I am sure you
will be slow to give your assent. The proposition is this; that for a few
months, perhaps a year, you would consent to my remaining here to supply
the place in the Circular Road Chapel, which brother Yates is obliged, by
the state of his health, to vacate. When the proposition was first made
to me, Mrs. B. united with me in saying, we could by no means listen to
anything of the kind. We felt decidedly opposed to it, not from any
unwillingness to remain with the people here, but from a very strong
desire to reach our final earthly home, and to commence with you those
labors among the Burmans, in which we wished to spend our days.

"But as the subject was daily pressed upon us by our best and most
judicious friends here,--as the prospect of immediate usefulness was
confessedly very promising,--and as we could continue, as heretofore, to
pursue the study of the Burman language to tolerable advantage, we began
to make it a subject of solemn consideration and prayer; and the result
is, we are willing to stay or to go, as you may advise. I wish you to
understand distinctly, that I throw myself entirely into your hands. I
particularly request you not to refer the decision of the subject back to
me; but to decide in the affirmative or negative, as on mature
deliberation, your judgment shall dictate.

"In the very kindest Christian love to you all, I remain your
affectionate brother and fellow-laborer in the gospel of Christ.
G. D. BOARDMAN."

The subjoined is the letter referred to.

_To the Brethren of the American Baptist Mission in Burmah._

"_Calcutta, Nov._ 18, 1826.

"Dear Brethren,

"The object of our writing is to request of you, as a particular favor,
to allow brother Boardman to remain at Calcutta to supply brother Yates'
place for a season. The proposal was made to brother Boardman a few weeks
since. He at first was not willing to listen to it; but upon further
consideration, he has been brought to say, that he can by no means
consent to stay without your concurrence; but providing that is obtained,
he shall be happy in complying with our request. The grounds on which we
solicit this favor of you, are the following:

1. A suitable supply is needed for a season by the church in Circular
Road. It has pleased God to bless the church with an increase of numbers,
and to make brother Boardman very useful; so that the people are very
anxious to obtain his services, if possible, till the return of brother
E. Carey.* When you consider how important it is, that so large a church
in this country should have an accessable supply,--that the state of
brother Yates' health renders his departure necessary,--and that without
this arrangement, the whole work of this station must fall on a new
comer, who has a new language to learn; we hope, we feel assured, you
will listen to our pressing solicitation.

[Footnote: *Mr. Carey was at this time absent in England, for the
recovery of his health, which had been much impaired by hard labor. Mr.
Yates, mentioned soon after, was on the eve of departure for England by
way of America, also in pursuit of health.]

2. As brother W. H. Pearce, in consequence of brother Yates' departure,
will have much additional work thrown upon him, he is anxious that
brother Boardman should relieve him from the work he has to do as agent
of your society, till brother Carey's return; and he thinks that brother
Boardman in this department, would be able to serve you, and promote the
objects of your society to a much greater extent than his present
engagements have allowed. As brother B. will have his Burman teacher and
books in Calcutta, we hope his time will be almost as well employed as if
in the country. He can carry on conversation and reading to any extent,
and will thus be becoming daily more fitted for usefulness in your
service.

"These are the reasons for which we solicit the favor of brother B.'s
continuance here for a season; and there are other reasons which lead us
to think that the Board in America would not object to your complying
with our earnest desire.

1. Our brother Lawson, who is now in glory, was for many years, when on
earth, engaged in serving your society, and though we do not consider
them under any obligation to us, on account of his services, yet we think
they would not object to serving the general cause in which we are both
embarked, by allowing one of their missionaries to supply for a season
the place vacated by his death.

2. Brother Yates proposes returning to England by the way of America, and
while in your country, to make it his chief business to promote the
interests of the Burman mission, by preaching and collecting for it; so
that while you are obliging us, we trust we shall, to the utmost of our
power, endeavor to return the obligation.

3. We think this temporary arrangement will probably be productive of
permanent good, by uniting in the bonds of closer friendship, the two
societies in England and America; as an interchange of kind offices among
their missionaries must produce mutual gratification."

This letter, signed by the missionaries in Calcutta, secured the object
of their wishes, and Mr. Boardman remained.

We here give some extracts from his journal, kept at Calcutta from May to
the last of July, 1826.

"May 18. It is still uncertain what course we are to pursue in regard to
the general affairs of the mission. The late war has occasioned a very
considerable change in our circumstances and prospects. We think,
however, that it has presented a wider field for missionary operations
among the Burmans, than has ever been presented before. In those parts of
the Burman territory which have been ceded to the English, missionaries
will no doubt be permitted to prosecute their labors without fear or
molestation. And what is more, those Burmans who are desirous of
examining the Christian religion, will feel none of those fears which are
always felt by the subjects of a cruel and capricious despotism at
Rangoon.

"Although we are of the opinion, that it is best to abandon the station
at Rangoon for the present, we are not at all disposed to abandon Burmah.
We think, as we always have thought, that the country presents prospects
of usefulness, equal, if not superior, to those of any country in India.

"Mr. Judson wrote us not long since, that he was just going in company
with commissioner Crawford, to explore and survey a tract of land, lying
on the Martaban river, where the English propose to erect a town to be
the emporium of their trade with Burmah. Should a town be erected there
under favorable prospects, it seems probable that it may become the seat
of our permanent missionary establishment. Till this point is decided, it
would be vain and presumptuous for us to leave Calcutta. We feel quite
disposed to leave the decision of the question to Mr. Judson, inasmuch as
he is acquainted with the country and the people, and we are not.

"May 19. This evening we have been honored with a visit from Messrs.
Bennett and Tyerman, gentlemen deputed by the London Missionary Society
to visit the several missionary establishments supported by that society
throughout the world. Their account of the South Sea Islands, where they
have spent two or three years, and of the Sandwich Islands, where they
have spent three or four months, is extremely interesting and
encouraging. Of China, the deputation speak in the most discouraging
terms. They say, scarcely anything has been done, and scarcely anything
can be done, so long as the present political system continues. But they
encourage us to look forward to the time, when He whose right it is to
reign, shall exert his power, and bring not only China, but every other
heathen country into obedience to himself.

"Mr. Tyerman, from his extensive acquaintance with missionaries who have
studied different languages, felt prepared most fully to recommend, that
instead of merely studying the Burman books in order to acquire the
language, we should associate with Burmans themselves, and converse with
them as frequently as possible, so as to learn their modes of expression
from their own mouths in common conversation. We are of his opinion. We
are persuaded that a man can become so far master of the Burman written
language, as to read their books without difficulty, while he might
scarcely be able to carry on with them any regular discourse. For this
reason, I cannot think it advisable for a man designated to the
missionary work, to pay much attention to the language until he arrives
among the heathen, unless he can obtain a teacher to whom the language is
nearly or quite vernacular. Besides, failing in proper modes of
expression, a man without a native teacher, will also fail greatly in
regard to _sounds_. But very few, if any, of the Burman letters can be
expressed in all their varieties by any English letter, or any
combination of English letters. The sounds must be heard by our ears,
before we can learn to utter them with our organs. And if a mistake is
made as to the power of a letter, it will affect the sound of the word in
which that letter occurs; and if several such mistakes meet in the same
word, it will appear extremely barbarous, if not quite unintelligible to
an ear familiar with the correct sounds of the language. Bad habits thus
contracted, are not easily corrected. On all these accounts, I should not
advise a young brother destined to join this mission, to make much use of
the Burman Dictionary, (excellent as it is) which has recently been
published. A man might learn the meaning of five hundred words on the
voyage, and on his arrival here he might not be able from the sounds he
gave them to understand a tenth part of them.

"June 1. We have just now been favored with long accounts of Mr.
Crawford's tour to the new settlement. To Americans, it may seem strange
that we should think of settling as missionaries in a place which is now
a forest or a jungle. But in this country, a city, so far as relates to
native population, can be built in a few weeks. I have seen a collection
of houses burnt down in Calcutta at three o'clock, P. M. and before the
next morning other houses were erected and ready for habitation on the
same spot. In the course of two or three days, shops are opened and the
natives are driving their business as usual. In some instances, thousands
of natives emigrate in a company, and there is reason to believe that
emigration to Amherst (the new settlement) will be rapid, especially as
many of the Burmans _must_ flee their country to avoid the present
distress on account of the late war. It would not be strange, if in two
years Amherst should contain fifteen or twenty thousand inhabitants.

"June 13. We have just heard, by way of Mr. E. Carey, now in England,
that the excellent and venerable Dr. Baldwin has closed his eyes on
mortal scenes. We sensibly feel the loss which Zion in general, and our
denomination and our mission in particular, is called to sustain in this
bereaving Providence. For _myself_, I feel that I have lost a particular
friend, whom I loved no less than I respected. Dr. Baldwin had admitted
me to a familiarity of friendship, which almost created in me the
endearments and confidence of a child. But I loved him most for his love
to Zion, and his labors for her welfare. He now rests from his labors,
and his works do follow him.

"June 30. O, that I could speak the Burman language fluently! For several
months past, we have had a Burman teacher, who is sunk in all the
darkness of Boodhism. His mind is dark beyond description or conception.
What the veriest child in America knows of religion, must be explained to
him in the minutest manner before he can comprehend it. I am exceedingly
desirous to be able to explain to him, and to the other Burmans, who are
calling daily to see him, the nature of Christianity. I trust I shall yet
be able to converse more easily with them. One thing is certain, the
Burmans are to be converted to God, for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken
it. And methinks I see the door opening, and the way preparing for the
Gospel to be proclaimed in every part of this idolatrous empire.

"July 15. To-day the annual Rutt Juttra closes. The last eight days have
been days of noise, confusion and wickedness. One of the cars, loaded
with images, is deposited near our house. The car was drawn out eight
days ago, amid the beating of drums, tomtoms, and brass plates,
accompanied with dancings, jumpings, yellings, shoutings, &c. all of
which was nearly deafening and altogether disgusting. Just as it was
passing our house, the car struck a brick, and the people could draw it
no further. The Brahman said, that the god was not pleased to go any
further till four o'clock, P. M. So the disgusting sight was before our
eyes several hours, till the Brahman obtained more help to move his
moveless god. Then it went on with its usual jargon. The car, with its
idol, having been bathed in the Ganges, was left in the public street,
this evening, when it was drawn back, to stand idle till next year. When,
O when shall these deep shades--this dark night of superstition and
idolatry flee away! Blessed be God, all this moral gloom shall soon be
dispersed by the brightness of that Sun, which has begun to dawn so
gloriously on India.

"Mr. Wade and myself are happy in the consideration, that while we are
preparing to commence preaching among the Burmans, we have an opportunity
of proclaiming the glorious Gospel to other sinners, who stand in equal
need of feeling its heavenly power. We greatly need the prayers of other
Christians, that we may have an abundance of the Christian spirit, and
may be prepared in God's time, to proclaim salvation to the millions in
Burmah, who are involved in midnight darkness.

"August 8. Attended the anniversary of the Bengal Baptist Auxiliary
Missionary Society; Dr. Carey in the chair. After stating, that the
success of the mission had very far exceeded his most sanguine
expectations, and after mentioning many very striking circumstances in
relation to missionary success, the Doctor made some remarks to the
following import; 'In the course of half a century, a great deal has been
done in India and other places. The Gospel has spread very rapidly and
extensively. And what is remarkable, we know not _how_ it has been done.
There has been no one man who could say it is through _my_ labors. And,
indeed, I know not (said he) that any one can say, "I have done so much
as to set me above my brethren."

"Every person present knew that if any man had been distinguished by his
labors. Dr. C. was that mon. But he did not seem to suspect that the
people would think so; he rather told us that there could be no contest
for the meed of distinguished merit."

_To Mr. and Mrs. Blanchard of Cumberland._

"_Calcutta, Dec._ 21, 1826.

"My very dear Brother and Sister,

"I cannot express the joy we felt on receiving your most obliging and
affectionate letter, dated Liverpool, England, October 21, 1825.* I have
just been reading it, and was deeply affected in tracing the lines of it,
all of which tend powerfully to revive an affection of no ordinary kind.
Indeed, I feel that I have a peculiar sort of love for you both. You and
your dear children are not forgotten. You are daily in our thoughts, and
are daily mentioned in our prayers. We trust we are likewise remembered
by you.

[Footnote: * Mrs. Blanchard had accompanied her husband on one of his
voyages to Liverpool, from which place, it seems, they addressed to their
brother the letter here replied to.]

"You will be rejoiced to hear, that we are the parents of a lovely
daughter, named Sarah. She was born on the 30th of October. We desire to
bless God for the precious gift, and to train it up for him. My earnest
desire is, that the daughter may become very much like her dear and
excellent mother.

"We still reside in Calcutta, and know not when we shall proceed to
Burmah. Our eyes are unto the Lord, who alone is able to guide the simple
in the right way. We feel it a trial that we are so long detained from
the land of our prayers and our tears. We believe Providence has
evidently laid out our path hitherto, and we cannot think it is yet time
for us to move forward. It is a great relief to us, that we have a Burman
teacher and Burman books, so that we can study the language almost as
well as though we were in that country.

"One thing more I must name as an occasion of peculiar gratitude. While
detained here, I have been called upon to preach in English generally
once or twice a week; and I have reason to bless God that he has assisted
me, and that he has blessed my labors more than ever before; so that, if
I should never be allowed to preach to the natives of India, I hope I
shall have occasion to praise him forever, that he has brought me hither.
I never enjoyed so much comfort in preaching Christ crucified, as I have
in Calcutta.

"You will be deeply affected to hear of the decease of Mrs. Judson. The
stroke is very heavy upon us, but we desire to bear it with Christian
submission. For the present, may the God of all grace be with you."

The following extract is from a letter addressed to Mr. Peck, then
Professor in Amherst college, now in Brown university. It developes some
of the curious notions of the Burmans respecting the eternity of matter,
and the revolutions of the universe. Childish and absurd as those notions
are, one can hardly help thinking that a few rays of divine light have,
at some remote period in their history, penetrated the gross darkness
that covers them. Their theory of the destruction of their system by a
deluge of water, and of the shortening of the period of human life, bears
some resemblance to the facts recorded by Moses relative to these events.

"_Calcutta, Jan._ 26, 1827.

"My dear Brother,

"Had I thought that any letter of mine would have given you as much
pleasure as yours gave me, I should certainly have written you one long
ago, even if it had cost me an hour due to repose. Accept numberless
thanks for the sermons you sent me. They all have the double advantage of
reminding me of the dear brother who sent them; and of their much
respected authors.

"The general affairs of the mission, you will probably learn from other
sources.

"As you are a philosopher and a mathematician, I will send you for
amusement, a very brief abstract of Burman cosmogony and chronology:--

"The Burmans deny the creation of matter, and reckon an infinite
succession of universal revolutions of nature. Each of these revolutions
is divided into four grand periods. The first period is the new birth of
the new system of nature, which, phoenix-like, arises out of the ashes of
the system last dissolved. During this period, the waters which, at the
destruction of the former system, deluged the earth, disappeared,--and
according to the eternal laws of nature, the sun, moon, and stars broke
forth--every thing comes into sudden existence--Bramhas (a kind of
superior beings) descend and people the earth,--but have power to return
to the upper regions whenever they please. At the commencement of the
second period, the Bramhas begin to eat a certain kind of earth, by which
they lose the power of ascending,--the period of life begins to shorten
and continues to do so until a person is old at the age of ten
years:--after which it gradually lengthens until the system is destroyed
by water. The third period commences with a rain which deluges the four
great and all the small islands, together with Myenmo mount,--and
destroys all that exists thereon. After this, several successive suns
break forth,--dry up the waters and consume the system. The fourth
period, commencing from this conflagration, continues through another
deluge, whose waters, by continual motion and dashing together, congeal
and harden, and thus form a new system; each of these four grand periods
is divided into sixty-four smaller periods; and each of these latter,
into sixty-four still smaller, &c. &c. During one of these grand
universal revolutions, several gods successively appear and disappear.
During the _present_ grand revolution, four of these gods have appeared;
one lived 40,000 years; another 30,000, another 20,000, and the last,
Gaudama, who is now worshipped, lived only 80 years.

"I leave it for you to say to which of the ancient systems, this splendid
nonsense is most akin. I do not claim to be the author or inventor of
this wonderful scheme. I have found most of it in books already
published. I have conversed with my teacher on the subject, and he
generally says, 'It is an astonishingly deep and wise system.' Enough of
this."

_To his Parents._

"_Calcutta, Feb._ 28, 1827.

"My dear Parents,

"You cannot imagine with what pleasure your letters of May last were
received by us a few days since. They contained the first intelligence we
had received from home for about eighteen months. Although we have not
yet been permitted to enter on our work, as we expected soon to do, yet
we feel an increasing desire to be wholly engaged in it. I am sensible
that without a high degree of piety, and trust in God, a missionary
cannot reasonably expect to enjoy much happiness.--I am more and more
convinced that the Christian needs to be fed daily upon the bread of
life, or his soul will famish. There is nothing in this world suited to
fill his enlarged desires. Neither is there any thing substantial here.
Ah, my dear Parents, you have just been taught this by painful
experience. My heart is grieved at the worldly loss you have so recently
sustained.* We hope God has raised you up some kind friends to relieve
your present necessities, and especially to furnish you with a shelter
during the present inclement season. Indeed, we are persuaded that many
are ready to do this. It is a consolation to us, to know that you have a
building of God, an house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. I
suppose by this time you are much weaned from the world, and are ready to
say, it is not your rest. But 'there _remaineth_ a rest to the people of
God.'

[Footnote: * Mr. Boardman, the father of our missionary, had but a few
months previous to this, lost his dwelling-house, with most of its
furniture by fire.]

"We expect to proceed to Amherst, and join the missionaries there quite
soon. Wishing you much of the Redeemer's presence, and with love to all
the family and friends, I am your affectionate son."

_From his Journal._

"_Calcutta, Feb._ 6. 1827.

"During this week, the Calcutta Missionary Association held its annual
meeting. Religious services both in English and Bengalee are performed in
almost every part of the town. Last evening we attended the monthly
concert at the Union chapel, and this morning the missionary prayer
meeting. I afterwards walked five miles to Kidderpore to witness a
religious service in Bengalee. Two persons preached in succession; one a
Portuguese, the other a Hindoo. The first sermon by Choodroo, I did not
hear; the second, by Paunchoo Christian, I heard, and though I could
understand nothing that he said, I could easily perceive by his apparent
pathos, and the tears that were shed, that the subject was deeply
interesting. I was told afterwards, that the text was, 'The grace of our
Lord Jesus Christ be with you all.' I was also informed, that when the
speaker and his hearers were most deeply affected, he was dwelling on
some parts of his Christian experience. As I had never attended Bengalee
worship before, the character of the congregation attracted my attention.
Near the speaker, were seated a few Bengalees of decent appearance, and
with serious but cheerful countenances, who seemed intensely interested
in all that was said. When the service was ended, they came to the
missionaries and gave them a Christian salutation. They were native
Christians. Near them there were a few in whose countenances was depicted
somewhat of anxiety and distress. They listened attentively to all that
was said, and then retired in silence. I suppose they were inquirers.
Perhaps the Lord had touched their hearts. Besides these, the people were
very inconstant in their attendance. Sometimes the doors and windows of
the chapel were thronged; and anon, the multitude would disperse and
leave but fifteen or twenty hearers. Soon again others, hearing the
preacher's voice, and seeing the place open, would enter, so that in a
few minutes the congregation would increase to fifty, or a hundred, who,
in their turn, would soon retire. All classes of people, Portuguese,
Moosoolmans and Hindoos, listened as they passed,--the poor and the rich,
the high and the low,--but in general, it was 'the _common_ people' that
'heard the word' most 'gladly.' Among these, several came with large
bundles of cloth, fruit, &c. for sale. Could I have preached to them in
their language, I would have chosen the words of our Saviour, 'Come unto
me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.'

"Feb. 7th. Last evening heard an excellent sermon on Paul's spirit being
stirred by the idolatry of the Athenians. The more I consider the
subject, the more I am convinced, that a system of scientific and polite
education _without the Gospel_, would do but little towards dethroning
idolatry. Even polished Athens was _wholly_ given to idolatry. Not a few
of the _ignorant only_, but _all_ the people, philosophers, statesmen,
and _all_, were not _inclined_ merely, but _given_, _wholly_ given to
idolatry. What if we could, in a single year, raise all the inhabitants
of India to an equal degree of refinement in arts and sciences with the
Athenians? Would this be all that was wanting? No. Still our spirits, if
like Paul's, would be stirred within us, on beholding them wholly given
to idolatry."

_To Dr. Sharp, Boston._

"_Calcutta, March_ 6, 1827.

"Very dear Sir,

"Accept my thanks for your letter of August 17, which was received by the
Emerald.

"Several months since, I wrote to a friend in America, (Mr. Jacobs)
mentioning that a large number of the natives of a village ten miles
below Calcutta, had renounced idolatry, torn down their temple, and given
their image to the missionary, Mr. Trawin. Within a few weeks, the work
of the Lord has commenced in the surrounding villages in a most wonderful
and glorious manner. Messrs. Trawin and Piffard, missionaries from the
London society, have been applied to by a deputation from a large number
of the villages, five, eight, and ten miles below Kidderpore, begging
that they would visit their respective villages, and make known to the
people the way of salvation. The missionaries have gone out, and have
been astonished to find the people prepared to receive the Gospel. The
places of worship are thronged,--multitudes follow the missionaries from
village to village, to hear the word of life. On some occasions, the
applications for Christian instruction have been so urgent, that the
missionaries have thought proper not to return to their houses, but have
spent the whole night in their palanquins, so that they might spend more
time in their delightful work. And once, when they wished to take some
refreshment, the people threw open their temple for their accommodation.
On this occasion, no opposition was made, except that one Brahman said,
'I can never worship in that temple again.' The people appear to have
entirely given up the distinction of caste, and many who, a short time
since, were 'mad upon their idols,' are now eager to furnish a common
repast for the native Christians who come among them. The applications to
the missionaries for visits and instruction are almost incessant; and
once, when they were at a certain village, the people asked them when
they would come again. The missionaries answered, 'In seven days.' The
people in return, begged they would come in _five_ days.

"I judge from what my informant said, that the half has not been told me.
What will be the result of this strong work, we cannot foretell. Our
hopes are much raised. O that the sacred fire may spread all over India!
Should it reach Calcutta, here is a vast quantity of rubbish and filth of
superstition and idolatry for it to consume. Let our hearts rise to God
in fervent supplication for so desirable an event.

"I have some other facts to relate, but for want of time I must defer
them.

"The news from Burmah you will receive from other sources. We think of
proceeding in about ten days, to join our brethren, Judson and Wade, at
Amherst."



CHAPTER IX.
Mr. Boardman leaves Calcutta, and arrives at Amherst--Establishes a new
station at Maulmein--He is in imminent peril of his life, and suffers
loss by robbers.


THE period so long and anxiously sought, had now arrived, when Providence
called Mr. Boardman to his destined field of labor. During his stay in
Calcutta, he had enjoyed the advantages of an excellent preparatory
school. He had become familiar with the manners and modes of operation of
those excellent missionaries, whose praise is in all the churches. The
esteem in which he was held by them, is sufficiently apparent from the
earnestness with which they sought his longer continuance among them, and
the benefits of his labors with the church in Circular Road. Though his
detention at Calcutta was exceedingly painful to his feelings, from his
ardent desire to enter immediately upon the work to which he had been
called, it undoubtedly qualified him for a more able and successful
discharge of his duties as a missionary to the heathen. Here his faith,
and his patience, and other graces, had undergone a salutary trial, and
would be less liable to fail him amid the discouragements which he might
afterwards be called to encounter.

On the 20th day of March, 1827, Mr. Boardman embarked with his family for
Amherst. The ship in which they took passage, was detained in the river
till the 7th of April, and did not arrive at Amherst till the 17th of the
same month.

We have briefly sketched Mr. Boardman's early history. We have beheld him
borne away from the land of his birth, have followed him on his voyage,
and have seen him entering that empire of darkness on which his heart was
set. We are now to view him in a situation entirely new, and to see how
he will bear the heat and burden of the day.

Amherst is situated on the eastern bank of the Martaban river, near its
mouth, and about seventy or seventy-five miles east of Rangoon. Maulmein
lies about twenty-five miles above, on the same side of the same river.

On his arrival at Amherst, Mr. Boardman found Mr. Wade alone at the
mission premises, Mr. Judson and Mrs. Wade having gone to Maulmein hoping
to improve the health of his little daughter, Maria Judson. This "tender
hearted, affectionate, darling Maria,"--to adopt the affectionate
language of the surviving parent,--was born while her father and mother
were prisoners at Ava. On the return of Mr. J. and Mrs. W. to Amherst,
"we had the pleasure," says Mr. Boardman, "of seeing for the first time
our dear and respected friend, Mr. Judson." "But ah," he continues, "he
looks as if worn out with sufferings and sorrows. His late bereavements
have affected him much; but God is his stay."

On the 24th, the dear little sufferer, Maria, "breathed her last, aged
two years and six months; and her emancipated spirit fled to the arms of
her fond mother." Mr. Boardman, who had been absent a few days at
Maulmein, returned an hour or two after her death, and in season to
construct the coffin, and make other preparations for the funeral. At
nine o'clock the next day, they took a last look at little Maria, and
placed her by the side of her mother's "new made grave." "Surely," says
Mr. Boardman, "this is mournful work. Dear brother Judson is visited with
breach upon breach. But he is quiet. After leaving the grave, we had a
delightful conversation on the kindness and tender mercies of our
Heavenly Father. Brother J. seemed carried above his grief. Religion
bears our spirits up."

On the 20th of May, he wrote as follows to Dr. Bolles.

"Dear Sir,

"Soon as a suitable opportunity presented, after arriving at this place
from Calcutta, I requested the brethren to advise me as to my future
course. The result is, we have concluded to have two mission stations in
this region; one at Amherst, and one at Maulmein. Mr. Wade will remain at
the former, and I shall occupy the latter, while Mr. Judson will go from
one place to the other for the present, as duty may seem to require. The
two stations are twenty-five miles apart, on the same river, so that the
intercourse between them will be constant, and, in general, daily.

"The native population of Maulmein is supposed to be about 20,000. One
year ago it was all a thick jungle, without an inhabitant. The population
of Amherst is not nearly so great.

"Sir Archibald Campbell has been so good as to offer me a beautiful spot
of ground sufficient for a large mission establishment. It is about a
mile south of the military cantonments. On this spot, by the advice of
the brethren, I am building a small bamboo house, which will be finished
in a few days. It will probably cost two hundred, or two hundred and
fifty rupees, with the necessary out-houses and enclosures.

"Although our prospects are not so settled as we could wish, there still
being no small uncertainty in regard to the future measures of the
English government, yet my dear companion and myself feel more than we
have ever felt, that we have reached the scene of our future labors.
These are people for whom we are willing to labor and to die. May divine
grace prepare us for the arduous and responsible work in which we are now
about to engage."

_Journal._

"Amherst, May 27. We have spent a week with our friends at this place,
and expect to leave them to-morrow for Maulmein. We feel a deep regret at
parting, but we must consult _duty_, rather than pleasure. Besides, we
hope to be joined by brother Judson, if not by Mr. and Mrs. Wade, before
long.

"May 28. Arrived at Maulmein. After nearly two years of wanderings
without any certain dwelling-place, we have to-day become inhabitants of
a little spot of earth, and have entered a house which we call our
earthly home. None but those who have been in similar circumstances can
conceive the satisfaction we now enjoy.

"June 2. Our happiness increases in our new habitation; and, besides, I
hope I feel more of that peace of God, which is seldom enjoyed in a busy
or unsettled life. We have been here five days, during which we have seen
but two European faces. But as they were the faces of Christians, our
countenances were gladdened by the sight.

"It is Saturday night. For about two whole years I have not enjoyed so
quiet an evening as this. The week's work is done; our house is arranged
for the Sabbath; the native visiters are gone, and Mrs. Boardman and
myself, with our little offspring, are left entirely alone. Yet we are
not alone, for God is with us;

'And where he vital breathes, there must be joy.'

O how delightful is the dawn of the Sun of Righteousness on my
long-benighted soul! I am now ready to consider myself one of the
happiest of men.

"June 10. This is the second Lord's-day I have had the happiness of
spending with my dear family since coming to this place. How delightful
to be thus retired! We need only to be delivered from our inward
corruptions, and we should enjoy a little heaven here below."

_This is not your rest_, is a scriptural maxim, which may, with great
propriety, be kept always in mind, by those who dwell in this ever
changing world. The following extract from Mr. Boardman's journal,
illustrates the truth of this remark. We would not intimate, however,
that he ever felt like resting in anything earthly, as the chief sources
of his enjoyment, or that he appeared at any time unduly attached to
life. We have the most satisfactory evidence that his treasure was in
heaven, and that his heart was there also. But it may be possible, with
all the deadness to the world usually attained to by the most decidedly
religious, so to rest in present enjoyments, as not to remember,
habitually, that they are ever liable to be interrupted, and instead of
ministering to our comfort, may become sources of much disquietude. Under
such circumstances, it is well that we are called back, even though it
were by the voice of fatherly rebuke, to a remembrance that we are yet in
the body, and, therefore, subject to like changes with others.

"We should suspect some danger nigh
When we possess delight."

It was but a short time after Job had said, "I shall die in my nest,"
before he had a most painful proof of his mistake.

Mr. Boardman had now become quietly settled; he had reached what he
considered his "earthly home," and we have seen how much he enjoyed it.

_Extract from his Journal._
"June 25. The new, populous Burman town of Martaban, which lies on the
opposite side of the river, has been deserted by its inhabitants, and is
now a resort for vagabonds, deserters, thieves and robbers. Bands of
these people not unfrequently cross the river and rob houses, and return
with their spoils to Martaban, where they are beyond the authority of the
English. Last night, our house was robbed of nearly every valuable
article it contained, except such as could not be easily taken away."

The following letter from Mrs. Boardman to Mrs. Bolles, of Salem, will
give a more detailed account of this daring robbery than can be obtained
from the journal.

"My very dear Friend,

"I have hitherto refrained from letting you know the extreme loneliness
of our condition, and the constant danger to which we have been exposed.
I knew that the mention of these things would fill the hearts of my
parents and friends with fears and forebodings. I knew, too, that you, my
dear friend, would weep when thinking of your Sarah in such
circumstances. But now that the danger is past, and our situation has
become more favorable and pleasant, I may mention some circumstances
which you will probably be interested to learn.

"Maulmein, the place of our residence, is separated from the Burman
province of Martaban, only by the river. The opposite side is the refuge
of robbers, who come over in parties, twenty or thirty in number, armed
with muskets, spears, knives, &c. Thus equipped, they break into houses
in the most daring manner, seize everything valuable, and retreat
immediately with their booty to the other side of the river, where they
are entirely beyond the reach of British authority. They have, in one or
two instances, surprised and destroyed whole villages that were left
unguarded. And in one place, they even attacked a guard of seapoys. In
some cases, persons by attempting to defend themselves and property, have
fallen victims to the cruelty of these monsters. Thus surrounded by
dangers, we lived alone, in a house of such frail materials, that it
could be cut open in any part with a pair of scissors, in the midst of a
desolate wood, and at some little distance from even a Burman neighbor.
There was then not one person in the Burman village in whom we could
place the least degree of confidence. It was even intimated to us, that
the head man of the village had, in former times, been a leader of a
party of robbers. The military cantonments are about a mile distant, and
we are the only Europeans living outside. Before we took up our abode
here, Sir Archibald Campbell intimated, that some danger might be
apprehended from wild beasts and robbers, if we built without the
cantonments, and generously offered us a place inside. This kind offer we
felt it our duty to decline, as a residence in the cantonments would have
cut off nearly all our intercourse with the Burmans, and thus our dearest
hopes and fondest anticipations would be blasted. Mr. B., therefore, with
the approbation and advice of his brethren at Amherst, erected a house on
this spot, which we now occupy. We came to this place, wishing, I trust,
to spend and be spent among this people, and trusting in an Almighty arm
for protection. Be assured, my dear friend, we felt happy in our
decision. We saw this wretched, deluded people, perishing in their
ignorance of the Gospel; we thought of the love of the Saviour to
precious souls; we cast a glance towards Gethsemane and Calvary, and that
was sufficient. Shall we consult our own ease and comfort, we said; or
shall we be willing to take joyfully the spoiling of our goods? This was
the question, and, I trust, the grace of God enabled us to choose the
latter. And the spoiling of our goods we were soon called to take.

"About a month after our removal, we were awakened one morning just
before day-break. Mr. B. called for a light, and to our surprise and
consternation, we found every trunk and box in the room broken open and
robbed of their contents. The bureau also shared a similar fate. The
looking-glass we brought from Philadelphia was gone; the watch Mr. B. had
kept so long, and our silver spoons, given me by my ----. They also took
our bunch of keys, causing us to fear that they might visit us again;
especially as they found only eight or nine rupees in money. After the
first surprise had a little subsided, I raised my eyes to the musquetoe
curtains surrounding our bed, and to my indescribable emotion, saw two
large holes cut, the one at the head the other at the foot of the place
where my dear husband had been sleeping. From that moment, I quite forgot
the stolen goods, and thought only of the treasure that was spared. In
imagination, I saw the assassins with their horrid weapons standing by
our bed-side, and ready to do their worst, had we been permitted to
awake. O, how merciful was that watchful Providence, which prolonged
those powerful slumbers that night, not allowing even the infant at my
bosom to open its eyes at so critical a moment. If ever gratitude glowed
in my heart, if ever the world appeared to me worthless as vanity, if
ever I wished to dedicate myself, my husband, my babe, my _all_, to our
great Redeemer, it was at that time.

"The next morning, persons were employed in critically searching the
village, in order to recover the lost goods, but to no purpose. To this
day, not a trace has been found of them, leaving no doubt that they were
taken immediately over the river to Martaban. Since our loss, we have
received many kind presents from our friends, so that we now find
ourselves comfortable, and are contented and happy. Yes, my beloved
friend, I think I can say, that notwithstanding our alarm, never did five
months of my life pass so pleasantly as the last five have done. The
thought of being among this people, whom we have so long desired to see,
and the hope that God would enable me to do some little good to the poor
heathen, has rejoiced and encouraged my heart. I confess, that once or
twice my natural timidity has for a moment gained the ascendency over my
better feelings. And at the hour of midnight, when the howling of wild
beasts has been silenced by the report of a musket near us, we would say
to each other, 'Perhaps the next attack may be upon us, and the next
charge aimed at our bosoms.' Then I have been almost ready to exclaim, 'O
for one little, _little_ room, composed of such materials as would enable
us to sleep in safety.' But these moments of fear have been transitory,
and we have generally been enabled to put our trust in the great Shepherd
of Israel, who never slumbers nor sleeps, assured that he would protect
us, and, if most for his glory, would suffer no arm of violence to be
raised against us; and we have also felt a sweet composure in the
recollection, that God had marked out our way, and if it best accord with
his designs, that we should fall a prey to these blood-thirsty monsters,
_all would be right._

"Shortly after the robbery, Sir Archibald kindly furnished us with two
armed seapoys to guard our house--also with two guns. A short time since,
one of the seapoys, while sitting in our verandah, was attacked by a
tiger or some other wild beast, but the creature was frightened away
before the man was much injured.

"But what has contributed more than anything else to produce the pleasant
change in our circumstances, is the prospect of settlers near us. I just
begin to speak the language a little, and am anxious to be engaged in
this long anticipated employment."

In the midst of these perilous circumstances, other things of a different
character, served greatly to encourage them in their work. The prospects
of the mission at that station were brightening, and the number of
inquirers increased daily. Eight apparently respectable Burmans called at
Mr. Boardman's house at an early hour on Sabbath morning, July 15, and
inquired, "Teacher, is this your day for worship? We have come to hear
you preach, we wish to know what this new religion is." He requested them
to be seated, and spent several hours in explaining to them the leading
features of Christianity. It was all new to them, and seemed to awaken a
considerable interest in their feelings. They proposed many questions,
some of which were important, and others extremely trifling. The
peculiarities of Christianity seemed to them like idle tales, while, to
use Mr. Boardman's words, they manifested a wondering interest in some
things of the least importance in the system.

_Journal, continued._

"July 16. I have been reading the Memoirs of Mr. J. Chamberlain, and feel
reproved on account of my inactivity, and want of skill in the Burman
language. When he had been in Bengal only one year, he began to go abroad
and preach to the Bengalese in their own language. I have been in India a
year and a half, and yet I feel unprepared to preach in the Burman
language. But leaving what is behind, I desire to press forward; and
perhaps I shall be able ere long to speak a word to the natives to better
advantage. Even now, nothing but the blessing of God is wanted to make my
words effectual to the salvation of these immortal souls.

"July 17. Visited a poor Burman, who is just on the borders of the grave.
Seeing he could live but a short time, I told him as simply as I could
the story of Jesus's dying love. Many Burmans present listened
attentively. May some good be done by this occasional visit.

"July 18. The poor man whom I visited yesterday, died this morning. This
shows me the importance of being in season and out of season, and of
letting no opportunity of doing good pass unimproved. Had I not called on
him yesterday, he probably would never have heard of the name of Jesus,
till he should be called to appear before his judgment-seat.

"19. Attended the funeral of the man who died yesterday. Being a poor
man, he was buried--not burnt. I was induced to attend in hope that by
showing kindness I might gain the favor and confidence of the people, and
thereby bring some of them to hear the Gospel, and that I might perhaps
have an opportunity to say a word to some one, that should impress his
heart. I did speak quietly to several on the doctrines of the
resurrection, and the future judgment. They replied, that their minds
were dark and uncultivated like the jungle; they had not yet come to the
true light; they had never heard such things before. Perhaps the Lord is
preparing their uncultivated minds for the seed of life to be sown.

"Some persons came to me after the funeral, and expressed great
satisfaction that I had been so kind as to attend. I spent an hour in
giving them instruction. But O, how imperfectly do I speak! I want a
tongue like the pen of a ready writer.

"July 21. Several persons called to-day, to whom I spoke on the concerns
of their souls--they were quite attentive. Among them were three
merchants from Rangoon, who said they were about to return. Remembering
that they are blessed who sow their seed beside _all_ waters, and that we
know not which shall prosper, this or that, I conversed with them a
little; and considering they might never have another opportunity of
hearing the Gospel, or of learning the way of salvation, I gave each of
them a small portion of the Scriptures. This seed of life, though it
should not find a friendly soil immediately, may hereafter be lodged in
some distant spot, where it will bring forth fruit unto life eternal. One
of the merchants read to the others for some time, and they departed,
saying they would read the books daily.

"July 22. Lord's-day. One of the severest privations we experience here,
is the want of public worship and gospel ordinances. To supply this loss,
_in part_, it is our custom to read an approved sermon on Lord's-day
morning, and engage in prayer. To-day, Mrs. Boardman and I have united in
commemorating our dear Redeemer's dying love, at his last table. Although
only two in number, we trust we had some enjoyment of the presence of our
beloved Saviour. We experienced in a degree what Paul meant when he said,
'The love of Christ constraineth us.' I desire that the love which Christ
has manifested towards sinners, may constitute the main-spring of my
actions, and the governing, controlling principles of my life.

"August 3. Twenty-five or thirty persons have visited us to-day. Although
they do not all come for the purpose of obtaining Christian instruction,
yet they afford us an opportunity of saying something about Christ, which
they generally hear with attention. _Some_ come for the express purpose
of being instructed; and when we tell them we know but very little of
their language, they reply, 'Do speak to us according to your ability.'
If, at any time, they do not readily comprehend our meaning, they request
us to repeat our words again and again, till they understand us fully.

"The other day, Mrs. B. and myself took our little babe and walked out to
the road. In a few moments more than sixty children, all, I judge, under
twelve years of age, gathered around us. O how we longed to be imparting
to them the saving truths of the Gospel! Indeed, no one, who has not been
in similar circumstances, can tell how a missionary feels on beholding
hundreds and thousands around him perishing for lack of knowledge, with
no one to point them to the Lamb of God. A fire is shut up in his bones,
he struggles to give it vent in language, but his tongue, chained in
silence, cannot perform its office. Such, at least, have been our
feelings for some time past. May the Lord listen to our cries, and send
salvation to this people.

"August 4. Early this morning a respectable Burman, who has been
attending for some time on the preaching of the brethren at Amherst,
called to see us. He affords considerable evidence of a change of heart.
He has spent some time with us, conversing on the Christian religion,
which, he says, he intends soon to profess by baptism.

"As I was passing through the bazar to-day, I met with one of the Burman
merchants to whom I had given portions of Scripture, July 21. He accosted
me very respectfully, and said, 'Teacher, there are some things in the
books you gave us, which I do not fully understand. What is meant by
_angels_?' I told him they were spiritual beings whom God had created,
and who stood around the throne of God to execute his commands. He seemed
satisfied. Here we were interrupted, but he said he would call at the
house for further instruction.

"August 5. Lord's-day, 2 o'clock, P. M. Since breakfast I have been
incessantly employed in declaring to a company of Burmans and Talaings,
the unsearchable riches of Christ. They do not dispute, but inquire. They
waited and conversed to-day till I was completely exhausted, and could
say no more. I was however seconded and greatly assisted by the man from
Amherst, mentioned yesterday, who boldly espoused and attempted to
explain the Christian religion among his own countrymen.

"August 12. Lord's-day. A spirit of inquiry seems to be excited to a
considerable extent. Many who have visited us, and heard the word, wish
to come again and obtain a more perfect knowledge of it, and many others
signify a desire and intention to come soon. The Burman merchant to whom
I gave the books, called on me yesterday for further information on some
points which he did not fully understand. While he was here, the head man
of the village also came; and these two, together with our Burman
teacher, who seems to be inquiring, entered into some particular
discussion of the Christian history and doctrine. In the midst of this
discussion, how great was my joy on beholding Mr. Judson approaching the
house. It is now probable that we shall all be settled together at this
place."



CHAPTER X.
Mr. Boardman is joined at Maulmein by Messrs. Judson and Wade--He opens a
school for boys--Conversation with his two Burman scholars--Review of the
past year, and resolutions for the future--His letter on the death of Mr.
C. Holton--An interesting extract from his diary.


WHAT Mr. Boardman anticipated at the close of the last chapter, was soon
after realized. The prospects for successful missionary operations at
Amherst were every day becoming darker, while those at Maulmein were as
constantly brightening. Events which could not be foreseen, contributed,
one after another, to diminish the population of the former, and to
increase that of the latter. The missionaries at Amherst had repeatedly
been assured by Mr. Boardman, that his house was daily thronged with
inquirers, who were desirous to obtain further information respecting the
Christian religion. Besides, it was very confidently expected that the
parents and friends of the children in the school at Amherst, would, in
the event of a removal, follow the missionaries to their new station, and
thus continue to receive their instruction. These circumstances
determined them to enter without further delay the inviting field of
labor at Maulmein. It was to make preparations for their removal, that
Mr. Judson had now come up. These preparations were soon made, and on the
14th of October Mr. Judson and Mr. and Mrs. Wade left Amherst, and the
same day took possession of their new abode at Maulmein. This station,
the first occupied by Mr. Boardman on entering Burmah, and which, aided
by the counsels of his brethren, he had himself established, now became
the seat of the mission in that great empire. From this spot, most
delightfully situated, and commanding unusual advantages for missionary
enterprise, the light of the Gospel began now to radiate, as it had
before done from Rangoon and Amherst, into the darkness of the
surrounding regions. It seemed evident that God had designed this place
eventually to become as "a city set on a hill, that cannot be hid."
Before the close of the year, the female school, which had been removed
from Amherst, was again in successful operation under the combined
instructions of Mrs. Wade and Mrs. Boardman. Mr. Boardman had himself
commenced a school for boys, which it was thought would meet with
considerable encouragement. Mr. Judson was building a zayat at
Koung-Zay-Kyoon, about two miles and a half north of the mission
premises, in a very populous part of the town, where he was soon to
commence public religious services. Mr. Wade had completed a zayat for
himself, about half a mile south of the mission house, on the principal
road leading from Maulmein to Tavoy-zoo, in which he also was proclaiming
the word of life to all who would hear. All the places of worship, so
soon as they were completed, were thronged with company, to whom tracts
and portions of the Scriptures were distributed.

Some portions of Mr. Boardman's journal kept at this time, will show with
what feelings he regarded the progress of religion both in Burmah and
America.

"Oct. 28, 1827. Lord's-day evening. Till to-day I have never had the
pleasure of a free conversation with a Burman Christian. This evening I
have been conversing with Moung Ing.* He has lately returned from Mergui,
where he has spent a few months in preaching to his countrymen Christ and
him crucified. In my former conversations with Burmans, I have been
obliged to combat their prejudices, and to bear with their weaknesses;
but in Moung Ing I found a friend and a brother. While expressions of
love and praise to the Redeemer flowed from this convert's tongue, the
Burman language seemed much more musical than ever. It gave me a pleasure
which I cannot describe, to hear him relate his conversion, and his
present feelings and hopes. He has a firm conviction that ere long the
gospel will spread over this whole country. Relying on the divine power,
and faithfulness, and grace, he says, we need not fear nor be
discouraged. Christ has power, he added, and I daily pray in secret and
in public, that he will exert that power, and bring the nations of the
earth to the knowledge of himself.

[Footnote: * This converted Burman, now a promising preacher of the
Gospel, is one of the first fruits of Mr. Judson's labor in that land of
darkness. He first visited the zayat at Rangoon, in the character of an
inquirer, August 31, 1819, was baptized March 4. 1821, and ordained in
the early part of 1827.]

"Nov. 29. I think we never before received at any one time, so much good
news from our native land, as to-day. Nearly all our letters contain
accounts of the wonderful works of God in beloved America. _Surely God is
good to Israel_. Our hearts have overflowed with gratitude, and we
immediately inquire, 'When, O when, shall the gospel thus triumph in this
land of darkness.' Our hopes are somewhat encouraged. We are now settled
in a very favorable spot, enjoying every advantage which a most
salubrious climate, for India, and most perfect religious toleration can
afford. And I hope I may add, we feel a united and ardent desire to
devote the remainder of our lives to the spiritual welfare of this
people.

"It is proposed to enlarge our school, if events in providence should
favor the design. We hope now to be able in some measure to gratify the
wishes of our friends in North Yarmouth, Framingham and Lower Dublin, who
have been contributing so long for the religious instruction of Burman
boys.

"Dec. 2. This evening I have enjoyed the privilege of uniting with Burman
Christians in celebrating the Saviour's dying love. This I have for years
longed for, but have never before enjoyed. How delightful to unite with
those who were once involved in all the darkness of paganism, in
commemorating the grace of Him who hath called us out of darkness into
his marvellous light. At the Lord's table, two native Christians prayed.
Brother Judson then read a portion of Scripture, and made some remarks in
Burman, then read an extract from Haweis's 'Scriptural Communicant's
Companion,' in English; then prayed in Burman and in English before
administering the bread, and prayed in like manner before giving the cup.
It was to me a solemn and delightful scene. We anticipate an increase of
numbers soon. To-morrow we shall observe the monthly concert for prayer
in English. May the Lord vouchsafe to us his blessed presence.

"Dec. 4. This evening called my two Burman scholars into my room, and had
the following conversation with them.

'Do you remember your mother?'

'Yes, sir, we think of her every day.'

'What did she say to you when she was with you?'

'When she was ill she could not speak to us.'

'What did she say before she was taken ill?'

'She said we must give diligence to become disciples.'

'Did she sometimes pray with you?'

'Yes, sir, every Lord's-day, and sometimes on other days she took us out
_into a retired place_, and prayed with us.'

'When she was first taken ill, what did she say to you?'

'She said, I shall give you to the teachers, but I shall go to heaven to
be with Christ. She was not afraid to die.'

'What sort of place do you think heaven is?'

'God is there, Christ is there, and there is no pain, nor poverty, nor
sickness, nor old age, nor death, nor sin; but holiness and happiness.'

'Do you wish to become disciples?'

'Yes, sir; very much.'

'Which would you rather be, a disciple, or a rich man?'

'I had rather be a disciple,' said each of them.

'Why had you rather be a disciple?'

'Because wealth can be enjoyed but a short time, and can do its possessor
no good when he dies.'

'Why do you not become disciples?'

'Because we are under the power of the devil.'

'Who is the devil?'

'He is a powerful spirit, who deceives men exceedingly. Formerly he was a
good angel, but he sinned against God, and was driven out of heaven, and
came to this world; and he deceived Adam and Eve; he is a great
deceiver.'

"Having said this, the younger boy, who is about nine years of age, gave
me a very correct account of the creation and fall of the first pair. The
interview was closed with a short exhortation, and they repeated a prayer
adapted to the state of those who wish to become disciples.

"This conversation convinced me of the great importance of giving
Christian instruction to _children_. Mah Men-lay, (the mother of the
lads) had been a Christian only about seven years. Yet how much divine
knowledge had she instilled into the minds of these boys. They probably
know more of the Gospel than many boys of their age in Christian
countries.

"Dec. 16. Received to-day, through the kindness of a friend in
Philadelphia, a file of the Columbian Star for more than a year. These
are the first religious newspapers of any kind which I have received
since leaving America, and they have afforded a rich feast. How
encouraging to our hearts to be informed of the wonderful spread of the
Gospel at home. This is surely a time of the right hand of the Most High.
May we be encouraged to look to God with more habitual dependence and
expectation."

"Jan. 1, 1828. In reviewing the past year, I desire to notice the
goodness of my Heavenly Father, in allowing me, early in the year, to
administer both the ordinances of the Gospel; a privilege which I had
never before enjoyed; in bringing me and my dear family to Burmah, the
probable scene of our future labors; in restoring to health my companion
and my child when reduced by sickness to the borders of the grave; in
preserving my own health during the whole year, without one day's
illness; in granting me the opportunity of instructing a few heathen in
the glorious truths of the Gospel; in preserving our lives when our house
was broken open by robbers, our goods stolen, and when, in all
probability, assassins stood over our bed to despatch us at the slightest
symptom of our awakening; in prolonging and augmenting my domestic
happiness; in granting me, as I trust, a larger share of the influence of
his spirit than I have enjoyed for some time before; in bearing with my
incessant wanderings and sins, besides bestowing on me other benefits,
more numerous than can be mentioned. Here I erect my Ebenezer, and say,
'Hitherto hath the Lord helped me,' and praised be his holy name forever
and ever.

"During the ensuing year, I desire to be more exclusively devoted to
Christ than I have ever been; to be more constant and circumspect in
imitating him, and to be more spiritual in my thoughts and conversation.
I desire to follow my own will less, and God's will more; to possess a
stronger faith and a more fervent spirit of prayer; to be more willing to
deny and mortify myself; to be actuated in all my conduct by a sense of
divine love, and of the truth of those wonderful things that are taught
in the Scriptures. I desire, also, that my family, my relations, my
friends, benefactors and correspondents, may be crowned with divine
blessings; and that this year may be distinguished above all preceding
ones, by a more copious outpouring of the Holy Spirit, and a more
extensive spread of the Gospel. If I should be called into eternity
before the close of the present year, I desire that I may be enabled to
leave a dying testimony to the excellency of the Gospel, and the
preciousness of Christ, and that, washed in his atoning blood, I may be
graciously admitted into the glorious presence of my dear Redeemer.

"Jan. 2. This morning I called my two scholars into the study, and asked
them if they knew who furnished them their means of subsistence. 'God
furnishes it,' said the younger one. 'That is true,' I said, 'but he does
not come down and feed you with his own hands. What _man_ is it that
supplies your wants?' 'It is God,' he added with earnestness; 'he gives
us every thing.' 'True,' said I. 'but _how_ does he supply you? Is it not
by inducing some _man_ or _men_ to give for you?' 'I think so,' said the
elder; 'it must be the teachers who support us.' But the younger was
unwilling to give up his point. I at length made them both understand
that God had disposed certain individuals in America to contribute to the
support both of them and of us. I added, that I had just received a
letter from one of those benefactors, in which I was requested to send
home some specimens of Burman writing, and asked if they would like to
write something? They both seemed pleased with the proposal, but said
they could not write, but they would dictate if I would write for them.
In the course of the day they both came and dictated a short letter."

The following is a translation of it.

"Believing in the Lord Jesus Christ, I daily, without ceasing, offer up
prayers. I pray continually that the blessed religion of the Lord Jesus
Christ may be established. I am reading the Gospel of Matthew, and the
Epistle to the Hebrews, and am studying a Tract. I have great respect and
love for my benefactors who live in America, and affectionately address
them in this letter."

Mr. Boardman continues:

"I have lately adopted the plan of calling them to me before breakfast,
and after tea every day, when each of them repeat an appropriate form of
prayer, after which I attempt to pray in their language. This last
exercise seems to deepen the solemnity of the occasion, while it affords
me a good opportunity of practising in this difficult exercise; and I
hope God may hear the prayer of sincere desire, though it be not clothed
in the most correct and appropriate language.

"On Lord's-day, the boys are taught a catechism, and portions of
Scripture; and are examined on the sermon which they have heard at the
chapel.

"Jan. 7. Received a visit from Moung Dwah, who requests baptism. His
conversion is very satisfactory. Received another boy into the school.

"Jan. 17. Witnessed the baptism of Moung Dwah and Mah Hlah. May they go
on their way rejoicing, and may many be induced to follow their steps."'

The extract which follows is taken from a letter addressed to Dr.
Chaplin, President of Waterville college, Maine. It is valuable for two
purposes; it exhibits the writer's views of what should be the peculiar
attainments of a missionary to the heathen, and at the same time records
the name, and a few of the many characteristic virtues of an eminently
meek and devoted servant of Christ, Mr. Calvin Holton. He died at the
missionary station in Monrovia, Africa, July 23d, 1826, soon after
entering the field of his labors.

"Very dear Sir,
"Yours of February, 1826, was received a short time since, and read with
the pleasure which I derive from all your letters. You speak of the need
we have of eminent piety, in order to be prepared for our arduous and
holy word. Nothing is more true than this. I always thought that a
missionary to the heathen stood in need of peculiar attainments in
sanctification; and the little experience I have had, has convinced me,
that, how much soever is lacking in me, I do really need some higher
attainments than I am wont even to aspire after. This subject has
occupied my thoughts more of late, than it has for a long time. I feel
the need of a livelier sense of the love of Christ. I want to feel more
as St. Paul did, when he said, 'the love of Christ _constraineth_ me.' It
is my desire, that a sense of the unspeakable love of Christ may be the
main-spring of all my actions to the end of life. I want to feel
indifferent to the pleasures, and enjoyments, and honors, and emoluments
of this world, and live wholly for God and his cause. I want a stronger
faith. The Burmans have a word which means, _to set before our eyes_. I
want a faith which will 'set before my eyes' all the great things which
the word of God contains, that they may be as real to me, as though I had
seen them with my eyes, and they were continually present with me. Of
such faith I have as yet obtained but a scanty portion. I feel assured
that you will pray the Lord to increase my faith. You will perceive by
the date of this letter, that I am devoting to you one of the last hours
of an expiring year. How rapidly time flies! And with it many of our dear
friends are passing into eternity! Several of the friends of my youth
have recently been called away since I saw you, among whom you have
mentioned Mr. Holton. Respecting Mr. Holton, I feel disposed to make a
few remarks, which will be new, and perhaps interesting to you. Nothing
that I can say, will be of any service to him now, but it may be a
satisfaction to his friends to know, that he was instrumental in no very
inconsiderable degree, in deepening those feelings of heart which
resulted, I trust, in my conversion to God. Well do I remember the first
interview I ever had with him, and from that time forward it was his
constant endeavor (as it seemed and still seems to me) to win me to
Christ. Once, when he saw my spirits depressed, he said, 'I hope you will
not find rest till you find it in Jesus.' About that time he taught a
small class of the students to sing, and I could often discover the
workings of his heart, in the general conduct of the evening, when we
were together. He used to close the interview by a prayer, in which I
always felt that my salvation was the main subject of his petitions. He
always watched with a tender solicitude, the state of my mind, and was
constantly endeavoring to impart to me some valuable instruction. In this
way, I consider that he was in a considerable degree instrumental in my
conversion, although I had many serious reflections before I knew him;
and there were others whose instructions, exhortations, and prayers,
contributed a share in the blessed work. I can most heartily say, I wish
I had much more of the spirit he usually manifested during our residence
at Waterville. You will recollect, that in the year 1822, some unusual
efforts were made in Waterville, for the establishment of Sunday schools;
and a Sunday School Society was formed with encouraging prospects. It may
be a satisfaction to you to know, that Mr. Holton was a leading person in
commencing and promoting these efforts. I well remember the time (it was
a pleasant afternoon of Lord's-day) when he and his young friend* retired
into the grove north of the college, and under a clump of young pines,
knelt down and prayed for direction in regard to this interesting
subject. It was a very precious season. The two friends felt that God had
heard them, and would be with them. They went forward in his strength,
and with the co-operation of other friends, the society for Sunday
schools was soon constituted with promising prospects. Mr. Holton was a
man of prayer. When we had been absent on a vacation and met again, he
would propose to engage in prayer, and confession, and thanksgiving. Thus
was the good man preparing, while in college, for that crown of glory,
which was so soon to be awarded to him. May the college with which you
are connected, constantly be blessed by the example and prayers of
students much resembling our dear departed brother.

[Footnote: * This young friend was, unquestionably, Mr. Boardman
himself.]

"Our prospects, we hope, are brightening. Last evening, two men and a
woman proposed themselves as candidates for baptism. We have hopes of
them all, but shall defer their baptism for a season. A priest, the
second in rank in the place, has lately began to examine the Christian
religion, and visits brother Wade's zayat every day. He sometimes speaks
of 'changing religion,' &c. We hope and pray that he may be guided by the
Spirit into all truth.

"Jan. 1, 1828. In mercy we are spared to enter on a new year, and to send
our Christian salutation and good wishes. I feel a strong desire, that
during this year, God may be pleased to enlarge his kingdom more than in
any year since the Christian era. I know you will unite in this desire.
Mrs. B. is now surrounded by a group of Burman girls, and is delighted
with her employment."

We now approach a very important period in the history of our beloved
missionary; a period, from which may perhaps be dated the commencement of
those very rapid advances in the growth of his Christian graces, which so
early ripened him for glory. To say nothing of the expediency or
inexpediency, in ordinary cases, of entering formally into covenant with
God, to live uniformly and invariably according to prescribed rules, it
is seldom, indeed, that we have witnessed in any man a severer struggle
in coming to so important a conclusion, a more ardent desire to be wholly
given up to God and his cause, a more rigid process of self-examination,
a more solemn arraignment of the spirit before the bar of conscience, or
a happier example of the soul betaking itself in its impotency to the
strength of God in Christ, than is furnished by the following extract
from his diary.

"Feb. 21, 1828. An important defect in my Christian character, consists
in not aiming at sufficiently high attainments in holiness. I sometimes
think if my _circumstances_ were different, I should lead a more holy
life. But I think, again, that the man who does not live as well as he
can under _present_ circumstances, would not, in all probability, live so
in any change of circumstances whatever. Formerly, I thought if I ever
attained to the situation in which I am now placed, I would live more
holily, and more entirely devoted to God. But the change of circumstances
has taken place, and I am still sluggish as ever, and am thinking of some
other change as more favorable to piety. O my neglected Saviour, how long
shall I be thus tardy in my heavenly course? Quicken my pace, inflame my
love, and elevate my affections.

"23. That momentous question, whether I shall from this time till the
close of life, endeavor, with all my might, to spend every moment of time
in the holiest manner possible, and avoiding everything which I think
inconsistent with the greatest glory of God, or whether I shall live on
in the miserable way I have hitherto done, remains--strange and shameful
to say--still undetermined.

"I have recently read President Edwards's resolutions and Dr. Doddridge's
rules for spending a day, and my reason and conscience bear a most
unequivocal testimony to their excellence. Yet I cannot, I dare not
subscribe my name, and declare and promise before God that I will live
so, or even endeavor to live so, till death. Dr. Stenett's lines very
aptly express my feelings:--

'My reason tells me thy commands
    Are holy, just and true,--
Tells me what e'er my God demands
    Is his most righteous due.
Reason, I hear, her counsels weigh,
    And all her rules approve;
But still I find it hard to obey,
    And harder still to love.'

"I am fully convinced, that as a creature of God, I owe him my all,
everything I am or can be, or can do; and when I also consider, that I am
a _redeemed_ creature, my obligations seem increased a thousand fold. And
yet I am hesitating whether to live--rather to try to live--as holily as
I possibly can the rest of my days!

"It really seems to me that I violate, at least, one half of President
Edwards's rules every day of my life. There is scarcely one of them which
I dare adopt. Mr. Pearce signed his resolutions _with his own blood_. I
dare not sign them with ink. Indeed, I seem entirely destitute of
strength, and almost destitute of life itself. The weakest saint is
stronger than I, the most stupid has more animation, the most timid has
more resolution. My circumstances are nearly all in favor of my leading a
most holy life, yet I am behind, far behind those, whose circumstances
are most unfavorable.

"Is there--tell me, my soul--is there a secret lusting within thee for
those things, or even for any one of them, which are inconsistent with an
eminently holy life? Is Christ's yoke burdensome? Is there still a
cleaving to the present course of life? Is there anything repulsive or
disagreeable to thee in a life wholly devoted to God? Speak plainly and
honestly. Dost thou _desire_ a more exact conformity to Christ? Dost thou
sincerely pray the Holy Ghost to influence and govern thee in all things?
Dost thou desire that there never may be one moment of relaxation, during
which thou shalt be exempted from the restraints of this heavenly guest?
Dost thou wish to be continually filled with all the fulness of God? Dost
thou not ask for even _one_ moment to serve sin, to gratify the former
appetites? Ponder well these important questions, and answer truly.

"I hope I can reply, that I would not spare a single lust, and that I do
desire the Holy Spirit to direct, control and suggest all I think, and
say, and do, from this moment till I die. But still, I feel that it is a
great thing to say so assuredly, so I only express what I _hope_ is true.
And if it is so, I am again ready to ask why I do not give more diligence
to avoid whatever is suited to repel, and to practise what is fitted to
invite his presence.

"March 2. I have lately taken a more deliberate and solemn view than ever
before, of the important question mentioned above, viz.; whether it is
not my solemn and indispensable duty to live more holy and devoted to
God, than I have ever done. I have divided the number of those, who pass
for evangelical Christians, into three classes. The first and lowest
class includes those who appear sound in doctrine, and are regular and
moral in their conduct, generally attentive to religious duties, and
careful to avoid anything that would disgrace their profession. This is
nearly all that can be said in their favor. The second class aim somewhat
higher. They would add to the above list of duties, a degree of zeal and
devotedness, occasionally watching against sin and endeavoring to grow in
grace, but often abating their diligence, relaxing their efforts,
becoming stupid and slothful, and seldom, if ever, waging a steady war
with their lusts, and living in the comparative neglect of many of the
more strict duties of religion. Though they profess to be pressing
forward towards the mark, they are often found loitering and sleeping on
the race ground, and appear too well contented, if they can but keep pace
with their fellows. The third class are quite as much above these in
their aims, as these are above those of the first class. They seem to be
continually striving to attain to perfection. They war with every enemy
of God; they assiduously cultivate every Christian grace; they pant for
holiness and glory. They look not at those who are behind them, but at
Him who is before them.

"I hope that my aims are higher than those of the first, but must utterly
disclaim the privilege of ranking with those of the third class. The
second class is my proper place.

"But while I assign myself to the second class, the question comes with
immense and solemn weight, why I should _remain_ there? Why not press
forward, and join those who have taken the highest ground, who live so
near the throne, and are comparatively so blameless in the sight of God?
Is there anything in my outward circumstances to prevent my being as much
devoted to God as Edwards, Brainard, Pearce or Baxter? I am constrained
to acknowledge there is nothing. I ask myself again, if I am not under as
solemn obligations as these men were to be holy? Why should I say _as_
holy as these men? Let me rather ask, am I not under the most solemn
obligation to _be holy as God is holy_? I surely am. He claims from me
all that I can give him--my heart, and soul, and mind, and might, and
strength.

"But a great difficulty remains--my strength is perfect weakness. It is a
great effort to oppose the whole tide of human corruption. Who can
successfully contend against all his spiritual foes? Who can, of himself,
live as holy as God requires.

'How can a feeble, helpless worm,
Fulfil a task so hard.'

My past experience teaches me, that I have not the strength for the
desperate undertaking. I fear to engage. I pause and hesitate before I
dare proclaim a war of utter extermination. Who can live, even a _day_,
without sinning? But this is for _life_. Is there a helper at hand? One
on whose strength I can lean and be supported? THERE IS, THERE IS. _I
thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord._ It is written,

"'My grace is sufficient for thee.' 'He giveth power to the faint, and to
them that have no might he increaseth strength.'

"'Strengthen ye the weak hands, and confirm the feeble knees; say to them
that are of a doubtful heart, be strong, fear not.'

"'God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye
are able, but will, with the temptation, make a way to escape, that ye
may be able to bear it.'

"'Be of good cheer, I have overcome the world.'

"'I will strengthen thee; yea, I will help thee; yea, I will uphold thee
in the right hand of my righteousness.'

"Is this all true? Canst thou, O my soul, embrace it as thy strength? Is
this for thee? Canst thou stay thyself upon it? If so, thou canst add,
'God is my salvation; I will trust and not be afraid; for the Lord
Jehovah is my strength and my song; he is also become my salvation.' But
thou art still fearful, still distrustful. Say then, _Lord, increase my
faith._

"June 8. I propose, on the whole, to adopt Dr. Doddridge's plan of
spending my time,* that I may live in the fear of God all the day long. I
also propose to spend a portion of time, each day, in meditation, in
conformity to Mr. Baxter's advice.+ I do not enter into a _covenant_ to
prosecute this plan through life, but I hope never to neglect the
prosecution through press of business, or indifference, or a want of
enjoyment in so beneficial an exercise."

[Footnote: * See Rise and Progress, chap xvi.]

[Footnote: + See Saints' Rest, last four chapters.]

We may judge what was the effect of the adoption of these measures from
the following entry in his diary, made two months subsequent to the above
date.

"Aug. 7. This evening I have had an impressive sense of the holiness of
the Divine Being, the excellence of the Scriptures, and the purity of the
blessed Spirit. I have felt an unusually sweet sense of supreme love to
God, as the holiest and best of beings; indeed, as the _only source_ of
true holiness, the infinite fountain of excellence and goodness. Every
thing else has appeared in its comparative insignificance. I wanted to be
with God, to be like him, and to praise him forever. Without God, I could
have no home, no heaven, no happiness, no holiness, no rest."

The following extracts are from "a letter of Christian friendship"
addressed to Dr. Bolles. They show us how his mind was affected by
special favors long after they were conferred, and breathe the same
spirit into the bosom of his friend, which runs through the preceding
pages:

"My Dear Sir,

"As I have no particular news to write, I will fill this sheet with
observations of a more private nature than those I have usually
communicated to you in your official capacity. The present letter may be
considered as a letter of Christian friendship.

"I have no doubt you sometimes feel a kind solicitude to know the state
of my mind as it respects _personal religion_. From the time of leaving
Andover in the autumn of 1824, till our arrival in India, my outward
circumstances were unfavorable to my spending my time, and to my engaging
in devotional exercises, in that regular order on which the life and
growth of personal piety so much depend. The consequence was, I had
occasion continually to complain of my languor and listlessness. After
reaching Calcutta, I had a better opportunity for cultivating and
enjoying the religion of the closet, and hope I did, at times, feel the
love of God shed abroad in my heart by the Holy Ghost, so that I had joys
with which a stranger intermeddleth not. I then enjoyed more enlarged and
glorious views of the work of redemption by the blood of Christ than ever
before. Since our arrival in this place, God has been pleased to favor me
again with some of those visits of his grace, which I formerly enjoyed,
but over the suspension of which I have so long mourned. He has shown me
the depravity of my heart, and the evil of sin in such a manner, as to
make me feel that I richly deserved the fiercest tokens of his wrath
forever. Such, at times, have been my views of the grace of Christ, and
the glories of the heavenly world, that I have desired to devote the
whole remaining period of my life entirely to his service. It has seemed
but of little moment what my outward circumstances are, whether difficult
or easy, if I may but labor for the glory of God and the good of souls.
The honors, emoluments and pleasures of the world, have lost their
charms; time has dwindled down into a moment; life has seemed desirable
only that I might fulfil as an hireling my day, and serve my generation.
Eternity has seemed near, and its vast and boundless prospects bursting
on my sight, have shown the emptiness of the world, and endeared to me
the thought, that at a day not far distant I shall be called into the
presence of Christ, where I shall see him as he is, and _shall be made
like him_. Remembering my past unfaithfulness, and want of progress in
divine things, I have desired to reach forward unto those things which
are before, and to press towards the mark for the prize of the high
calling of God in Christ Jesus. I hope I can say, that it is my daily
desire to set my affections on things above, and to feel daily and hourly
the power of divine grace on my heart. I wish to be more influenced in
all my conduct by the motives which the Gospel presents.

"The sight of my eyes daily affects my heart. In this place there are
probably twenty thousand souls that are perishing for lack of vision, a
large part of whom have never heard of the grace of the Gospel. To some
few we have gained access. But the great mass of the people are too busy
with the world to think of religion. O, that I could point those who are
willing to hear to the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sin of the
world. This I sometimes try to do; but how imperfectly! But I do rejoice
in the hope that before many months, my mouth will be opened and my
tongue loosed. Then, if it please God, I will lift up my voice like a
trumpet. From that time, I will delight to spend my days in preaching to
the heathen Christ and him crucified.

"Do any ask if I regret having engaged in this work? Were I to answer
'yes,' I should do violence to all the feelings of my heart. No: so long
as I believe that the heathen are perishing in sin; so long as I believe
that the blood of Christ cleanseth from that sin, and that he would have
me engage in proclaiming his dying love to sinners; so long as I believe
the realities of heaven and hell, and expect to meet the universe of
mankind assembled at the bar of God,--so long as I feel the constraining
influences that emanate from the scenes of Gethsemane and Calvary; so
long as this heart beats, this blood flows, or this tongue can move, I
will, through grace, rejoice in embarking and employing my all in
disseminating the glorious Gospel of the blessed God in these lands of
darkness and of the shadow of death."



CHAPTER XI.
The thermometer at Maulmein--Mr. Boardman's religious discourse with his
pupils--Death of Dr. Price--He leaves Maulmein and establishes a new
station at Tavoy--Prospects of the mission at that place.


DURING the first three months of the year 1828, Mr. Boardman kept a
regular journal of the state of the atmosphere at Maulmein, as
ascertained by the thermometer which he kept on his study-table. From the
5th of January to the close of the month, mercury ranged at nine o'clock,
A. M. from 70 to 80. At three o'clock, it ranged from 84 to 88.
During the whole of this period, the atmosphere was in a cloudless state,
with the exception of four days; and only two of these were cloudy
throughout. This, he remarks, is, to many, the most pleasant season of
the year, it being a medium between April and May for intense heat; and
between July and August for cold chilling winds and rain. The inhabitants
of the place have enjoyed excellent health, and the distress occasioned
by the famine is some abated. The farmers are now harvesting their rice.

"The mornings of nearly one half of the days have been foggy till about
nine o'clock, when the sun bursts out and sheds his uninterrupted rays
upon us till he sets. The prevalent winds have come from the northward,
(inland,) and have been in general very light.

"At break of day, the thermometer has sometimes stood at 64 to 66. And
in some cases at about sunrise it suddenly sinks two or three degrees. On
such occasions the poor natives wrap themselves up in their warmest
dresses; but still, they are often seen shivering with cold. As for
ourselves, we find a surtout or cloak exceedingly comfortable at such
times. I would not advise a young brother who proposes to come to this
country, to dispose of any of his thick clothes. He will need them here
as much as in America."

"During the month of February, the mercury stood at 9 o'clock, A. M. at
from 69 to 83. And at 3 o'clock, P. M. at 84 to 91. In this time only
one day was entirely cloudy, several were partly clear and partly
cloudy."

Respecting February, he says, "This month has been somewhat colder than
January. It is a little remarkable, that this year the Burman cold season
(according to their reckoning) ends precisely on the last day of the
American winter. I call this the _cold_ season in conformity to custom,
especially in Bengal, although it is in reality, the _moderate_ or
_temperate_ season, the rainy months, from May to October, being much
colder. It still continues very healthy. There are but very few fevers,
and we hardly hear the cholera mentioned. But the season for that
dreadful malady is approaching. Symptoms of hot weather have already
appeared.

"The showers which have fallen this month, have been peculiarly
acceptable, as the earth to the depth of three inches, was perfectly
baked and pulverized. Vegetation had almost ceased, and the herbage had
nearly withered away. But the showers have afforded a very seasonable
relief. Gardens at this season of the year are kept alive only by profuse
irrigation; and in many places it is exceedingly difficult to obtain a
supply of water for family use."

During the month of March, the thermometer stood at 9 o'clock, A. M. at
from 79 to 84. And at 3 o'clock, P. M. at from 87 to 93. Two entire
days only of this month were cloudy.

Mr. Boardman's friend in North Yarmouth, to whom the following letter was
addressed, had, it seems, in a previous communication, made some
inquiries as to the prospects of Christians of similar professions being
useful to the cause of Christ in Burmah; also respecting schools, and the
propriety of the missionaries publishing a history of Burmah. In answer
to these inquiries, he writes as follows:

"My dear Brother Stockbridge,

"Yours of March the 20th, 1827, was received a month since. Little did I
think when I was writing you before, that in two days afterwards your
first-born son would be removed by death. May his early and sudden
departure be richly sanctified to yourselves and your surviving children,
for whom I have just offered up prayers to our Heavenly Father.

"I have laid your letter before my brethren in the mission, and they say,
in reference to Christians of similar professions being useful to the
mission in this place, that if good tried Christians would come and
_learn the language_, they might be of essential service. Without
learning the language--which, by the way, is no small labor--they could
not do much, except by the encouragement they might afford the
missionaries. It would be delightful to have more Christian society, but
whether it would be desirable for a _family_ to resign all the privileges
of a Christian home for this dreadful wilderness, without the intention
of learning the language, and preaching to the natives, seems to me, at
least, doubtful. I would not, however, discourage any good Christian
brother who feels his heart inclined to come. You cannot easily form an
idea of the wretched way in which children, even of Christian parents,
must be brought up in this country. No schools--no English preaching--no
good example from the people around them, adapted to their age and
circumstances--their parents incessantly employed among the heathen, so
as to have scarcely any time to instruct their own children--and the
horrid customs and language of the heathen, made more familiar to them
than Christian example and Christian instruction.

"As to the history of Burmah, I fear we cannot gratify you. Desirable and
fraught with benefits as the work you propose, may be, the missionaries
have no time for performing it. Our hands are full, and it is by mere
theft that we can get time to write letters and journals. If a few laymen
were here, and should direct their labors in this way, they might do
good. In that case, they must study the language.

"As to schools, we have made a beginning. We think, though we cannot yet
speak with certainty, that it will require thirty dollars per year to
support either a boy or a girl in the school at this place."

_To his Mother._

"_Maulmein, Jan._ 17th, 1828.

"Ever dear Mother,

"We have lately had the pleasure of receiving two letters from you, one
written from Cumberland, and one from New Sharon. As Sarah is most
incessantly engaged in the school, and in family cares, she hopes you
will not think her wanting in filial affection, if, instead of writing a
separate letter, she should sign her name with that of your son.

"You will be happy to learn that we expect to-day to witness the baptism
of two Burmans. A third person has requested baptism, but is now absent.
Several others give us hope that they will soon follow.

"We feel deeply interested in the schools. Sarah spends all her time from
breakfast till noon, with the Burman girls, besides having the charge of
all the clothes of both the schools, and the provisions for the boys. On
Lord's-days she spends some time in instructing them in Christianity, and
occasionally converses as she is able, with Burman women, on religious
subjects.

"George has charge of the boys, but still spends most of his time in
studying the Burman language. We hope the children thus placed under our
care, will be brought to know and serve the Lord Jesus, and that they may
become eminently useful to their benighted countrymen.

"But we feel the deepest solicitude for our dear little babe, whose soul
is in a special sense intrusted to us. Our prayers daily ascend to the
throne of grace in her behalf. Do let us know that you also remember her
daily in your prayers.

"As to our dear parents, both in Salem and New Sharon, we feel
comparatively at rest. We are assured they have made Christ their refuge,
and that he who has received them into his gracious favor, and led them
on thus far, will not forsake them at the last. We desire and pray that
the days of your declining years may pass happily away in the enjoyment
of His favor, whose presence gives joy even in the darkest hour. And when
your earthly pilgrimage shall be ended, may you hear the Saviour's voice
kindly calling you to your heavenly and eternal home. But while you
remain in the flesh, we hope and are assured you will not forget us, who
so much need your intercessions. Our work is inconceivably responsible
and momentous, and we are often oppressed with a consciousness of our
unworthiness and want of proper qualifications for the duties of our
station. Our eyes are unto the Lord, who, we hope, will give us strength
and grace equal to our day.

"We continue to enjoy much mutual happiness, and feel an unabated desire
to be useful to the poor heathen. You cannot easily imagine how totally
dark a heathen's mind is. He is as much a stranger to religious truth, as
a blind man is to the distinction of colors. But when the light of divine
truth begins to shine, as it is now beginning to shine on these dark
minds, the darkness is dispersed, and the truth is received gladly."

Mr. Boardman has before informed us, that he was in the habit of holding
daily familiar conversation with the boys of his school on religious
subjects. Of this judicious measure, pursued no doubt with fidelity and
much earnest prayer to God for direction and success, he was soon
permitted to witness the most encouraging results. In addition to the
directness of the application of truth thus personally enforced, the
laying aside, on the part of the teacher, of his seeming superiority of
rank and character, and the bringing of himself down to a level with his
pupils, when he places them in the most easy and unembarrassed
circumstances to listen to his familiar inculcation of truth, combine to
render this one of the most happy and successful modes of imparting
religious instruction. In a conversation of this kind, one of Mr.
Boardman's scholars requested that on the next day he might read the
Scriptures all day, instead of attending to his usual studies. "Why,"
asked Mr. B. "do you wish to read the Scriptures?" "In order," said the
lad, "to become a disciple." "Do you then wish to become a disciple while
yet so young?" "I do, sir, because young people are exposed to death as
well as others; and if I should die without becoming a disciple, I should
go to hell; but if I become a disciple, I shall have nothing to fear."
"Have you seen your sin?" "I have seen some of them." "What sin does your
conscience charge you with?" "I have neglected the true God, who has
sustained me by night and by day, and who has fed and clothed me all my
life, and I, notwithstanding, have worshipped false gods." "But you have
not worshipped Gaudama?" "I have not worshipped _him_, but have neglected
the _true_ God." He then confessed some other violations of the divine
commands. On his speaking of Christ as a great benefactor, Mr. B. asked
him why we should love Jesus Christ? "Because he pitied us, and laid down
his life to save us from hell," was the reply.

On leaving Calcutta for Amherst, it was Mr. Boardman's happiness to
become acquainted with Dr. Calender, a pious physician, who took passage
in the same ship. With this gentleman he formed a most endeared Christian
acquaintance, and contracted a firm and lasting friendship. During his
residence at Amherst and Maulmein, this gentleman became his family
physician, and by his kind and unremitted attentions greatly endeared
himself to the mission family. In January Mr. Boardman's little daughter
was severely afflicted with ophthalmia. After gratefully acknowledging
the divine blessing on the means employed for her recovery, he thus
speaks of the kindness of the doctor:

"We feel under great obligations for the assiduous attention which our
dear Christian friend, Dr. Calender, has shown her. Indeed, this is only
_one_ of the instances in which we have experienced his kindness. From
our first acquaintance with him in Calcutta, he has ever been ready to
afford us all the assistance in his power. He attended Mrs. Boardman and
our babe during their severe illness immediately after our arrival at
Amherst; and in many other cases he has evinced much delight in
contributing to my comfort. Although he will receive no compensation from
us, we doubt not he will be rewarded at the resurrection of the just. It
is a subject of deep regret to us, that his declining health obliges him
soon to leave us for Scotland, his native land.

"Jan. 24. Received a formal visit from our friend and Christian brother,
Dr. Calender. He leaves to-morrow. Our prayer is that the God of grace
may comfort and support him in all his pilgrimage, and at last raise him
to a seat of glory in the skies."

Under date of the 8th of March, Mr. Boardman thus describes a scene
familiar to many who live in the interior of our own country:

"Just as we were lighting the lamps this evening, we heard the rushing of
winds coming with the roar of a hurricane from the east. On running to
the door, we beheld the eastern mountains, a mile from our house, all in
a flame; a violent tempest was driving the fire directly towards us. The
mountains for a mile or more in extent, were involved in one general
blaze; and as the grass and brushwood were thick and perfectly dry, the
devouring element spread and advanced towards us with amazing rapidity.
From the nature of our house, built of bamboo and leaves, we knew that
should the fire reach us, all attempts to save it would be ineffectual.
Our only resource would be in precipitate flight, as the house would be
reduced to ashes in ten or fifteen minutes. We packed up a few clothes,
and some other light articles of necessary use, and stood ready to
retreat with them and with our beloved babe, from the impending danger.
The darkness of the evening heightened our alarm, as we had reason to
apprehend that tigers, leopards, and other wild animals, driven by the
fire from their haunts, might beset our path. The fire still continued to
advance till it came within a few rods of our house, when,
providentially, the winds ceased and the fire subsided. The eastern
horizon is still glittering with the blaze on the mountains; but unless
the winds should again increase, we are out of danger. Had the fire
reached our dwelling, a large portion of the village would probably have
been destroyed. Thus we are again preserved when no human hand could save
us.

"March 14. This morning one of the scholars in the girl's boarding school
fell asleep in death. She was seven years old,--had been a slave, and had
suffered much from cruel masters. She had been in the school about six or
seven months, and had learned enough of the Gospel to lead her, as we
trust, to a saving knowledge of Christ. She left most satisfactory
evidence of having experienced true conversion. She died peacefully, and
we doubt not she sleeps in Jesus.

"March 20. At sunrise, witnessed the baptism of a young Burman, or rather
a Siamese youth, twenty years old, who till lately was in midnight pagan
darkness. But the Lord has been exceedingly good to him; he seems to have
more knowledge of Christ and his Gospel, and more love to God, than some
who have heard the Gospel for many years.

"March 23. Lord's-day. Three very respectable Burmans requested baptism,
and this evening, after the Lord's supper, were examined and accepted by
the church. They will probably be baptized next Lord's-day. These, with
the three who have just been baptized, and one who has been examined and
approved, make seven who have been admitted as candidates for the
ordinance since the year commenced. May this prove to be the beginning of
a powerful work of grace in this region."

In a letter to Dr. Bolles, Mr. Boardman thus announces the death of Dr.
Price:

"The Lord has been pleased again to visit our missionary circle, and to
remove one of our number by death. Intelligence has just reached us from
Ava, that Dr. Price died there, of consumption, on the 14th ult.
Particulars have not yet been received. Thus our number is again reduced,
and we are called to bow in submission to the divine dispensation. May we
be enabled to make a wise, practical improvement of this event. It
teaches us to be diligent in business, fervent in spirit, serving the
Lord.

"But how singular and inscrutable the Providence, which preserved the
families of both our missionary brethren at Ava, during all their severe
sufferings in their late captivity, and has since, in the space of about
two years from their release, removed Mrs. Judson and Maria, and Dr. and
Mrs. Price!"

The view which we have taken of the mission at Maulmein, presents the
brethren there as laboring in company, in the enjoyment of much Christian
and domestic comfort. The time had now come, when it seemed expedient,
both to them and to the Board in America, to widen the field of their
operations. Letters had been received from the Corresponding Secretary,
advising them to disperse in different directions, and to establish new
stations at such distances from each other, as to admit of occasional
meetings for prayer, consultation and mutual encouragement. Such
locations of themselves, desirable as they were to the missionaries, and
important for the purposes specified, seemed, at the present time,
impracticable. Maulmein, a new town built in the jungle, was so situated
that there was, in the judgment of the brethren, no other eligible spot
for a missionary station within one hundred and fifty miles; unless, by
fixing on some place in Martaban or Rangoon, they chose to expose
themselves again to the caprice of the Burman government. Tavoy and
Arracan, two important provinces, had been ceded by the Burman monarch to
the English in the late treaty of peace. These two provinces, now under
the English government, presented most inviting fields for missionary
enterprise. The former of these, Tavoy, was at length determined on as
the site for the new station, and Mr. Boardman as the person to commence
the establishment. Several circumstances worthy of notice, would, we may
suppose, combine to render this appointment not a little trying to his
feelings. He had himself founded the station at Maulmein, and had been
nearly one year laboring assiduously to improve it. He had patiently met
and surmounted the obstacles attending its establishment, had endured the
perils, privations and actual losses recorded in its early history, and
had enjoyed the satisfaction of seeing it rising in comforts and
usefulness. He had looked upon this spot as his "earthly home," as the
"end of his wanderings," and we have seen with what high satisfaction he
contemplated it as the field of his future labors. But what endeared the
spot to his heart more than all these, was, that a good degree of
religious feeling had been produced by the preaching of the Gospel to the
natives, which, it was fondly hoped, would be productive of the most
favorable results. Three had just been baptized, and four more were
admitted as candidates for that ordinance. Besides, if he must leave
Maulmein, it would be natural to suppose that he would prefer another
station to one in Tavoy. It should be remembered, that his thoughts were
first directed to the Burman mission, by the death of Mr. Colman, at
Cox's Bazar, Arracan; that from the moment of his receiving the
intelligence of this event, his thoughts had dwelt with intense interest
on that station, that his first convictions of duty were, that it was for
him to fill the place of that worthy missionary, and to re-establish the
mission made vacant by his death. Yet we may learn with what readiness he
could forego all these considerations, when we hear him saying, "Still,
we feel no reluctance at leaving when duty calls."

On the 29th of March, Mr. Boardman and his little family, in company with
the young Siamese, lately baptized, the Karen, who had been admitted as a
candidate for baptism, and four of the scholars belonging to the boy's
school, left Maulmein for Tavoy. The next day they embarked at Amherst on
board the ship which was to convey them to the place of their
destination, with the hope of sailing in a few days. While lying in
Amherst harbor, Mr. and Mrs. Boardman went on shore to visit the
memorable hope-tree, under whose shade repose the ashes of the excellent
Mrs. Ann H. Judson, the heroine of modern missions, to shed, as they
supposed, the last tears of affectionate remembrance over her sleeping
dust. "The grave," he remarks, "is near the bank of the river, enclosed
within a wooden paling, with not a stone to tell the passing stranger who
lies there.* We can seldom think of Amherst without the most painful
associations. The place itself is delightful, but the events which have
occurred there, are extremely painful to our recollection."

[Footnote: * We are happy in being able to state, that since the time
alluded to, the pious benevolence of a few female friends, has enabled
the Board to erect a neat memorial of Mrs. Judson, which has been placed
at her grave, under the hope-tree in Amherst. It consists of two marble
grave-stones with the following inscription:

"Erected to the memory of Ann H. Judson, wife of Adoniram Judson, Jr.
Missionary of the Baptist General Convention in the United States, to the
Burman Empire. She was born at Bradford, in the State of Massachusetts,
North America, December 22d, 1798. She arrived, with her husband, at
Rangoon, in July, 1813; and there commenced those Missionary toils, which
she sustained with such Christian fortitude, decision and perseverance,
amid scenes of civil commotion and personal affliction, as won for her
universal respect and affection. She died at Amherst, October 24th,
1826."]

They left Amherst harbor April 1st, and arrived at Tavoy on the 9th. Mr.
Boardman thus describes Tavoy:

"The city stands on a low plain, and is regularly laid out, surrounded by
a wall of brick and foss. The streets intersect each other at right
angles, and the general appearance of the place and people exhibits much
more of comfort and prosperity, than in the neighborhood of Maulmein. The
population of the place, according to the last census, is about nine
thousand, of whom about six thousand are Burmans.

"Tavoy is in latitude 13 and 4', nearly south-east from Rangoon, and
south by east from Martaban, at about one hundred and fifty miles distant
from each. The city, though on a low plain, is surrounded by high
mountains on three sides. Across the mountains, on the west side, it is
only fifteen miles to the sea. It is nearly thirty-five miles to the
mouth of the river, and twenty-one miles from the anchoring ground for
ships."

On his arrival at Tavoy, Mr. B. felt less disposed to regard this as his
earthly home, than when he established himself at Maulmein. He also seems
to have indulged less sanguine hopes of success. His removal from that
field of labor to this, and the disappointment of his hopes relative to
the re-establishment of the Arracan mission, had led him to regard
himself more as a stranger and a pilgrim on earth, and to follow,
unhesitatingly, the dictates of divine providence, however opposed to his
inclinations. The Lord was thus preparing him for more extensive
usefulness. He had now entered on a field of labor entirely new; a field
which he was to occupy, not in company with his brethren, but alone and
single handed. The following extract from his journal, will show with
what feelings he entered upon this new station:

"On our arrival, we were very kindly received by Capt. Burney, the Civil
Commissioner for the Tavoy District. What, now, is the design of
Providence, in bringing us to this place; whether we are to spend our
days here, or wander still further; and if we remain here for life,
whether we are to toil and labor, and after all, say, 'Who hath believed
our report?' or whether God is about to appear in mercy, to emancipate
the Davays from the bondage of idolatry, we cannot foretell. One thing is
certain, we were brought here by the guidance of Providence. It was no
favorite scheme of ours. We did not follow our own inclinations, or our
own wills in coming, independently of the dictates of duty. For although
we thought this an important station to be occupied, we rather chose a
scene of labor in the more populous province of Arracan. Tavoy is a place
which we know scarcely anything about, except that it is inhabited by the
benighted worshippers of Gaudama's shrines and images. We have come
hither in simple obedience to what we could consider as nothing else than
an indication of the Divine Will. Should we never have the happiness to
witness a conversion among the Davays, we cannot reproach ourselves with
having forced our way here against the advice of our more judicious
brethren, and the apparent will of God. Here then, in obedience to the
intimations of Providence, we pitch our tent; here we set up our banner;
here, if it be the Lord's will, we are willing to live, and labor, and
find our graves. Our Father, the pilgrim's God, be thou the guide of our
youth. If thou hast any work to accomplish by us in this place, here are
thy servants; employ us as thou seest best. From this day till the close
of life, may we pursue no other object than that of serving our God and
Redeemer."

On the 19th of April, ten days from the time of his arrival, Mr. Boardman
had procured a house in the city, and having become quietly settled, had
commenced public worship in the Burman language. He immediately had
evidence that the Lord, in bringing him to Tavoy, had an important work
to accomplish through his instrumentality. He had no sooner opened his
doors for worship, than inquirers began to present themselves. A few
extracts from his journal, commencing at this early date of his new
mission, cannot fail to be interesting.

"April 19th. This evening, a young man, named Myat Poo, attended Burman
worship with us at the house, and after the service was ended, he told me
he was inquiring about the true religion. He said he had lately come from
Maulmein, where he had once or twice heard about our religion--that he
had ever since been considering it, and was now strongly inclined to
embrace it. He began, he said, to consider while at Maulmein, but since
he had seen Moung Shwayben and myself in Tavoy, he had believed. I told
him not to think by becoming a Christian he would obtain worldly good.
'By no means,' said he, 'I seek not worldly good; I want to be saved. My
whole past life seems to be nothing but sin against the eternal God, whom
I have neither known nor served.' As we proceeded in conversation, his
mind seemed more enlightened, and his feelings more excited. 'When I was
at Maulmein,' said he, 'I had a little light like the dawn of day; now
the sun has arisen upon me. I was blind, now I see. I feel as if I had
passed into another state of existence, (i.e. transmigrated.) I am very
happy.' Afterwards he added, 'As the grass and shrubbery, which in the
hot season are dry and withered, instantly revive, look green and
flourish when the rains begin to fall, so my mind, which has been
miserable and almost dead, is now revived and happy.'* Before the evening
was past, he said his mind was made up, he renounced Boodhism, and
embraced Christianity; and although a sojourner here before, he now
wishes to reside here permanently, that he may enjoy further instruction.
I gave him a book, and desired him to consider so weighty a matter
somewhat longer. He said he would, adding, 'I shall come again
to-morrow.'

[Footnote: * This is an exceedingly expressive figure in India.]

"April 20th, Lord's-day. About twenty Burmans came in, as they said, to
hear the new teacher. I read a portion of Scripture and engaged in
prayer, and made a few remarks, some of which they probably understood.
Myat Poo was here most of the day, and expressed additional conviction of
the truth of the Gospel.



CHAPTER XII.
Historical sketch of the Karens--Their apparent readiness to receive the
Gospel--Description of Tavoy with its temples and images.


THE effect of Mr. Boardman's labors on the condition of the Karens,
constitutes the most striking feature of his mission at Tavoy. It seems
desirable, therefore, that something should here be known respecting that
singular and interesting people. At the time Mr. Boardman became
acquainted with them, they had no written language,* and of course, no
records of their origin, or of remarkable events which might have
occurred among them. The subjoined historical sketch was given by Mr.
Boardman, after two years extensive acquaintance with them, and contains
some interesting particulars:

[Footnote: * Mr. Wade has since reduced their language to writing, and
has been successful in teaching some of them to read.]

"It may be proper here to introduce some remarks respecting the
difficulties to be encountered in Christianizing the Karens. My object in
doing this, is particularly to prevent any too sanguine expectations
which any of my communications may have excited in our American friends
respecting their immediate conversion to God, and to show what need a
missionary to them will stand in of a large share of the apostolical
spirit and zeal.

"1. The Karens speak a language peculiar to themselves; a language, which
has never been reduced to writing. It may not be absolutely necessary to
construct a written language, into which the Bible may be translated and
given them; but when we consider that they are a people spread over all
the forests of Arracan, Burmah, Martaban, Tavoy, Mergui, Siam, and
perhaps many other countries, it can scarcely be doubted but the giving
them the Scriptures in their own language, written or printed, is one of
the most feasible and hopeful of all human means to be attempted for
their conversion. They are very desirous to obtain a written language,
which is another circumstance in favor of giving it to them. But it will
be a great work to learn their spoken language, then reduce it to
writing, and afterwards translate the Scriptures into it. But there is
this great advantage, there will be no false books in the language to be
confuted.

"2. The Karens are divided into two great classes, or nations, as they
would say; the Myeet-thos and the Myeet-khyans. I judge that in Tavoy the
division is nearly equal. These two classes use two dialects so different
that the one understands the other with difficulty. I imagine, however,
that they think more of the difference of dialect than a foreigner would.
Each class very naturally prefers its own peculiar dialect, and its own
peculiarities of dress and manners. Both classes being oppressed by their
heathen masters, they have more friendly intercourse with each other,
than either of them has with the Burmans. Still, a Myeet-tho chooses a
Myeet-tho, and a Myeet-khyen a Myeet-khyen. Of the two, the latter class
is much more conformed to Burman customs, than the former, and not a few
of them live near the Burman villages, and have embraced the Boodhist
religion. Of this description are those I have lately visited at
Sieng-maw-tau, and particularly those at Toung-Byouk. None of this class
have been baptized. This is probably owing partly to their prejudice in
favor of Boodhism, and partly to the fact that Ko-thah-byoo, who is our
most active disciple, and has most frequently explained to them the
Gospel, is a Myeet-tho.

"3. The Karens live very much scattered, and in places almost
inaccessible to any but themselves and the wild beasts. The paths which
lead to their settlements are so obscurely marked, so little trodden, and
so devious in their course, that a guide is needed to conduct one from
village to village, even over the best part of the way. Not unfrequently
the path leads over precipices, over cliffs and dangerous declivities,
along deep ravines, frequently meandering with a small streamlet for
miles, which we have to cross and recross, and often to take it for our
path, wading through water ancle deep for an hour or more. There are no
bridges, and we often have to ford or swim over considerable streams,
particularly in the rainy season; when, however, the difficulties of
travelling are so great, as to render it next to impossible. Sometimes we
have to sleep in the open air in the woods, where, besides insects and
reptiles, the tiger, the rhinoceros, and the wild elephant, render our
situation not a little uncomfortable and dangerous. I have never met with
either of these dangerous animals in the wilderness, but have very
frequently seen their recent footsteps and their haunts, while others
meet them. It is but seldom they do hurt, but it is in their power, and
sometimes they have the disposition. And when, after having encountered
so many difficulties, and endured not a little fatigue in travelling, and
been exposed to so many dangers, we come to a village, we find, perhaps,
but twenty or thirty houses, often only ten, and not unfrequently only
one or two within a range of several miles.

"The Karens are the simplest children of nature I have ever seen. They
have been compared to the aborigines of America, but they are as much
inferior both in mental and physical strength, as a puny effeminate
Hindoo is inferior to a sturdy Russian, or a British grenadier. Of all
people in the world, the Karens, I believe, are the most timid and
irresolute. And the fable, that when some superior being was dispensing
written languages and books to the various nations of the earth, a surly
dog came along and drove away the Karens and carried off their books,
agrees better with their indolent and timid character, than half the
other fables in vogue among the wise and learned Burmans do with truth or
common sense. These artless people seem contented, and not unhappy in
their native forests, treading the little paths their fathers trod before
them. It is surprising to see how small a portion of worldly goods
satisfies their wants and limits their pursuits. A box of betel, often no
other than the joint of a bamboo, a little heap of rice, a bamboo basket
for each member of the family to carry burdens in, a cup, a rice and a
curry pot, a spinning wheel of most simple structure, a knife and an axe,
a change of simple garments, a mat of leaves, half a dozen water buckets
of bamboo joints, and a moveable fireplace, is nearly all their frail
houses contain to administer to their comfort. With these accommodations,
they are more free from worldly cares, than the owners of farms and
stalls, and folds, and games, and ships, and stores. Their only worldly
care is to raise a little money to pay their taxes, under which they
groan. Although indolent in the extreme, they are so remote from the
city, that they are, I believe, less wicked than most heathen nations.
They have no hopes in a future life, and generally disdain all allegiance
to the prevailing religion of the country. They are in general, as
careless about the future as about the present, except those who have
heard the Gospel, and those who have been encouraged by the Burmans to
build kyoungs and pagodas, in the hope of avoiding in the next world, the
state of hogs, and dogs, and snakes and worms. They are too idle to be
quarrelsome or ambitious, and too poor to gamble, or eat, or drink to
very great excess. Their minds are vacant and open for the reception of
whatever contains a relish, and it is not a little gratifying to see so
many of them finding that relish in religion."

_Extracts from the journal, illustrative of the character of the Karens._

"May 1. Received a visit from about thirty Karens, with whom I had some
conversation on religion. Their remarks confirmed the opinion I had
previously entertained, that, _as a people_, the Karens are atheists in
the fullest, largest sense of the word--that they acknowledge no being
whatever as an object of worship. Some few of them, from their connexion
with Burmans, have become Boodhists. But the general mass of the people
are absolutely destitute of any kind of religion whatever. They are
called by Burmans, 'wild men,' because they have no written language, no
religion, avoid the cities, and--somewhat like the aborigines of
America--dwell in the wilderness, in mountains and vallies. They are
averse to war, and, in general, are said to be a better race of people
than the Burmese. One of their most common sins is intemperate drinking;
and as they manufacture their own liquor, this sin is very prevalent. The
people live in small villages, five, ten or fifteen miles apart, but are
all linked in a sort of brotherhood. The following story, related by my
visiters to-day, will show the credulity of these people, and also
suggest an idea of the facility with which almost any religion, true or
false, may be introduced among them.

"More than ten years ago, a man in the habit of a religious ascetic,
visited one of the Karen villages several times, and preached to the
people that they must abstain from the use of certain meats, such as
pork, fowls, &c.--must practise certain ceremonies, and worship a book,
which he left with them. He also told them there was one living and true
God. About half of the villagers, who were, perhaps, thirty in all,
believed the teacher and espoused his religion. When he had gone, one of
the villagers, more devoted than the rest, and possessing a more
retentive memory, became teacher to his brethren, and although he cannot
read a word in the book which they so much venerate, and knows not even
in what language it is written, he is their living oracle, and the
defender of their faith. In consequence of their devotedness to their new
religion, the poor villagers have suffered much persecution from their
Burman neighbors and oppressors, and their lives have been put in
jeopardy. The teacher has ventured out to the city only once since he
embraced this religion. The persons who related the story said, that as
the English were now the masters of the country, the Burmans would not
dare to offer them violence, and they accordingly promised to request
their teacher to bring his book and submit it to my examination. As one
of the men was the chief of the village where this sect resides, I
suspect I shall, before long, have an interview with the venerated man.
My visiters requested me to go out to their village, and if I could not
go, they begged I would allow one of the native Christians to go and
explain the nature and precepts of the Christian religion. I intend to
comply with their request. I gave them a tract, and they engaged to get
some person to read it to them.

"May 4. Lord's-day. Upwards of thirty persons collected for worship. They
gave good attention, and appeared to understand a part, at least, of what
I told them. Several of them were persons who came last Lord's-day, which
is encouraging. One of them was an aged female religious mendicant. She
listened attentively and asked many questions.

"May 13. The messengers from the Karen teacher arrived to-day. They are
all relatives of the old man, and are, probably, among the learned of his
tribe. One of them reads Burman very well; a qualification which very few
Karens possess, though many of them can speak it a little. In most cases,
however, I am obliged to employ the Karen Christians with me, to
interpret. The messengers first exhibited their present--fourteen duck's
eggs--and then delivered the following message:

"'The Karen teacher has sent us to say he is very ill, and cannot visit
the English teacher at present. After the close of the rains he will come
and bring his book to be examined. He desires that his relative, one of
the messengers, may be allowed to remain with the English teacher two or
three years, to learn the western language, that he may become a skilful
expounder of the divine law. He has received the tract which the English
teacher sent, and on hearing it read, he believed it heartily and wept
over it. With his son, who understands Burman, he goes from house to
house, and causes it to be read to the people. Several others also
believe. It would afford great joy if the English teacher, or one of the
Christians with him, could come out and explain the Christian Scriptures;
many would believe.'

"I have conversed with my visiters at some length, and they profess
firmly to believe our doctrine and to worship our God. They propose to
spend three days with me, and then to return. Their village is three
days' journey from Tavoy. They say my doctrine is much the same as
theirs; but, I apprehend, that though their great teacher told them of an
eternal God, the other things that he taught are very different from what
I teach. I proposed to send out one of the Christians who are with me, as
it is impossible for me to go during the rains.

"May 16. Repaired early in the morning to a neighboring bank, and
administered Christian baptism to Thah-byoo, the Karen Christian, who
accompanied us from Maulmein. May we often have the pleasure of
witnessing such scenes. The three Karen visiters were present. They
appeared to be impressed with the truth of our doctrine, and say they are
resolved to worship the eternal God. I begin to feel almost persuaded to
believe that there is a spark of sincerity in them, and that we shall yet
see them walking in the ways of truth. They have urged Ko Thah-byoo to
accompany them, and I left it with him to decide whether he will go or
stay. He has concluded to go. Perhaps God has a work for him to do among
his countrymen. He is very zealous in declaring what he knows of the
truth.

"The visiters say they are so persuaded that we are right, that they are
willing to leave the merits of their book to my decision. If I pronounce
it a bad book, they say they will burn it. They also propose to erect a
large zayat, and to invite me out after the rains, when they will call
the Karens together from various quarters to hear the Gospel. I have hope
that God is about to do a great work among these sons of the wilderness.

"One of the Karens remains With me as a learner. The rest leave this
morning. May the Lord go with them.

"May 18. Lord's-day. Fewer people than usual at worship to-day; but one
person, who has attended several times before, said to the Siamese
Christian, 'I can see no benefit to be derived from worshipping _a dead
god_, like Gaudama; but from worshipping _the living God_, which you tell
us of, some good may arise. The Burman priests preach the law of a dead
god; this man, (meaning myself) the law of the living God.'

"After worship, in conversing with the school-boys, I was surprised and
gratified to find that one or two of them could repeat correctly a
considerable part of the remarks I made during worship. This encouraged
me to hope that my discourses are not so unintelligible as I feared, and
that the truth may have a salutary effect on the hearts of these youth.
One of them also repeated part of an address, which I delivered at family
worship, three days ago. It was truly gratifying to perceive how
correctly he remembered even slight incidents and occasional allusions
and references. The new Karen scholar, who is about twenty years of age,
seems determined to make up by diligence and perseverance, what is
wanting in soundness and acuteness of intellect.

"May 20. Ko Thah-byoo finding the rains very violent and the brooks much
swelled, was obliged to abandon his plan of visiting the Karen teacher's
village. He returned last evening. During his absence he met several
people, to whom he spoke as he was able. Many of them heard with
attention, and two of them accompanied him on his return, in order to
gain further instruction. They profess a readiness to receive the Gospel,
and wish me to visit them after the rains.

"May 28. Last evening two respectable Karens, whom Ko Thah-byoo saw in
his late tour, called for further instruction. They live a day's journey
from Tavoy. They profess a full belief of the truth of the Gospel."

Mr. Boardman thus describes Tavoy, with its temples, pagodas and images.
Like ancient Athens, the city seemed wholly given to idolatry. But faith
lifts up her eye, and beholds very different scenes in prospect.

"June 2. In order to decide on the best place for building a zayat and a
dwelling-house, I have lately surveyed the town, going through the length
and breadth of it. My spirit has been somewhat stirred at witnessing the
idolatry of the people. A priest told me the other day, that the city
contains about fifty kyoungs, which are inhabited by about two hundred
priests. To nearly all the kyoungs, one temple or more is attached,
stored with images of Gaudama and various relics of idolatry. Some of
these images are twenty feet high, built of brick, plastered and gilt
throughout. Some are of wood, and many of alabaster. This beautiful stone
is found in large quantities in the vicinity of Ava, and wrought by the
hands of the artificer into objects of worship, and sold into various
parts of the Burman empire. Some of these images are larger than the
life, of one solid piece. In one of these temples I counted thirty-five
images, of which about one third were alabaster. It ought, in justice, to
be said of the images of Gaudama, that they are not obscene and
disgusting, as many of the Hindoo images are, but though differing, in
some respects, from a perfect human figure, they are neither grossly
disproportioned, ugly or monstrous. In many cases, the idols, with their
thrones or pedestals, are set with an immense variety of ornaments, so as
to present a very dazzling appearance, especially to the eyes of an
eastern idolater. The furniture of the temples, though ill-arranged, is
so set off with looking-glass, gold paper, and other tinsel decorations,
as to impose on ignorant persons, and excite their highest admiration. No
small degree of taste (_oriental_ taste, to be sure,) is also displayed
about the kyoungs and pagodas. The kyoungs are the largest buildings in
the city, some of them being supported by one hundred and twenty or
thirty posts, besides those connected with verandahs and stair-cases.
These kyoungs, as well as the temples, are fitted up with an immense
variety of images, sacred relics, &c. &c.

"The north-east corner of the city is appropriated almost exclusively to
sacred edifices. Mango, jack and other fruit trees, are thickly set
throughout the town, presenting the appearance of an extensive grove,
with a few scattering huts; but in the north-east corner the grove
becomes a forest, intersected by innumerable paved foot paths, leading to
various sacred spots. Almost every object the visiter beholds--the walls,
the walks, the buildings,--all exhibit marks of idolatry--emblems of the
deity whom the city worships. Even many of the trees, especially of the
banyan, have thrones of brick, six or eight feet square, and four or five
feet high, inserted under them; and on worship days the sacred trees and
thrones are loaded with lilies and other flowers offered principally by
females, in hope of obtaining annihilation. The pagodas are the most
prominent and expensive of all the sacred buildings. They are solid
structures built of brick, and plastered. Some of them are gilt
throughout, whence they are called _golden_ pagodas. The largest pagoda
in Tavoy is about fifty feet in diameter, and perhaps one hundred and
fifty feet high. That which is most frequented is not so large. It stands
on a base, somewhat elevated above the adjacent surface, and is
surrounded by a row of more than forty small pagodas, about six feet
high, standing on the same elevated base. In various niches round the
central are small alabaster images. Both the central and the surrounding
pagodas, are gilt from the summit to the base, and each one is surrounded
with an umbrella of iron, which is also gilt. Attached to the umbrella of
the central pagoda, is a row of small bells or jingles, which when there
is even a slight breeze, keep a continual chiming. A low wall surrounds
the small pagodas, outside of which are temples, pagodas of various
sizes, and other appendages of pagoda worship, sacred trees or thrones,
sacred bells to be rung by worshippers, and various figures of fabulous
things, creatures and persons mentioned in the Burman sacred books.
Around these is a high wall, within which no devout worshipper presumes
to tread without putting off his shoes. It is considered holy ground.
Outside this wall are perhaps twenty zayats and a kyoung. The whole
occupies about an acre of ground.

"The total number of pagodas in Tavoy is immense. Large and small, they
probably exceed a thousand. Before leaving America, I used to pray that
pagodas might be converted into Christian churches. But I did not know
that they were solid monuments of brick or stone, without any cavity or
internal apartments. They can become Christian churches only by being
demolished and built anew.

"Besides the pagodas in town, there are vast numbers in all the
surrounding regions. Almost every mountain, and hill, and rising ground,
is tipt with a pagoda. The Burmans, like the worshippers of Baal, seem to
delight in groves and high places. They build on high mountains and
places difficult of access, that the merit of the builders and
worshippers may be the greater.

"When I look at these grand holds of sin and idolatry, my sinking heart
says, 'Baal's prophets are many, and I am alone; what can I do against so
many?'

"But the Scriptures sustain my spirits, by assuring me, that more are
they that are with us, than they that be with them. Relying on the divine
promises, I can rejoice in full conviction, that ere long, the praises of
our God will be sung over all these idolatrous plains, and on these
mountains and hills, and the echo shall resound from hill to dale, nor
die away till every vestige of idolatry shall be swept from the earth, to
be seen no more forever."

In some parts of his journal, Mr. Boardman throws out a suspicion that
the friendship and good feeling of the priests with whom he had become
acquainted, were only apparent, that while they professed to be pleased
with his doctrines they were in heart meditating his defeat. This
suspicion, it seems, was but too well founded. The circumstances
hereafter recorded were trying to his faith; but they were such as the
Lord saw he needed, and therefore suffered them to take place. They
served to keep alive the feeling of dependence, to drive him with greater
importunity to Him who giveth strength to the feeble, and to show him
that though the opening of his mission in Tavoy was extremely flattering,
so far at least as regarded the Karens, he still needed the continued
support of the same Almighty arm.

For several days, he had no visiters from the city. The priests whom he
had met, had not called on him as they promised, and the mission premises
seemed, for the time, to be deserted.

On the 13th of June he wrote as follows:

"Under an increased conviction that the priests have warned the people
not to listen to my instructions, and in compliance with the repeated
solicitations of the native Christians, I have at length concluded to
repair an old zayat, which stands in the very best part of the town, and
to spend a part of each day in conversing with such as may come in,
devoting the rest of the day to the study of the language. This, on the
whole, seems to be the best course. For, at present, I see none of the
people of the city, am learning nothing of their peculiar dialect, which
differs considerably from pure Burman, and am imparting to _them_ no
religious instruction. My heart aches, my very soul is grieved, at what
my eyes daily behold. I can no longer forbear. The people may revile me,
but be it so; it is for their good that I propose this measure. I am
willing to bear their scoffs, if I may but be the instrument of imparting
to them some spiritual instruction.

"Evening. I have for several days felt an unusual desire for the
conversion of these people, but every thing has appeared dark and
unpromising. This evening I have felt quite an unusual degree of fervor
and importunity in prayer, that God would appear and work wonders among
the people of this city. My spirit was grieved on thinking of their awful
state; they appear to be deliberately judging themselves unworthy of
everlasting life, and are daily praying for the preferable blessing of
annihilation.

"June 29. Lord's-day. Six Karens, from a distance of three day's journey,
arrived last evening. They stated that those of their brethren who had
been sent to me by the Karen teacher, were travelling from village to
village, showing and reading the book I had given them, and that many
people had embraced the Gospel. Though they had not seen those persons,
yet having heard of them and of me, they had come, they said, to see my
face, and to hear the law from my mouth. They propose to spend two days
and then to return. Two respectable persons from town, natives of
Rangoon, were also at worship to-day. Whether they will listen further or
not is uncertain.

"June 30. A zayat is nearly completed, and I propose to sit in it the
beginning of the month; and my prayer is that God in infinite mercy may
make it a bethel, that I may be assisted by divine grace to recommend the
dear Saviour in such a way that multitudes shall love and obey him. _O
Lord, revive thy work; in the midst of the years make known, in wrath
remember mercy._"

From the spirit which breathes through the preceding extracts we can
hardly fail to discover the true state of Mr. Boardman's religious
feeling. It will be pleasant, however, to turn aside for a moment from
the view of temples, and idols, and dark-minded pagans, and hear him
speak distinctly on this subject.

"My religious enjoyment has of late been quite unusual. I have great
satisfaction in thinking that heaven will consist in similar enjoyments,
only they will be unending and inconceivably more holy and excellent than
those I now possess. My mind is much occupied on divine things, and much
in prayer to God for this people. My thoughts are continually employed
about them, how I shall address them, how I may best persuade them, and
how I can most successfully recommend to them Christ and his Gospel. In
prayer, I feel a degree of fervor quite unusual with me. Sometimes I feel
a rising hope that God is about to display his grace. May his name soon
be glorified here. Night and day, sleeping and waking, my thoughts are
upon this people. When shall the Sun of Righteousness arise, to enlighten
this dark corner of the earth!

"The past has been one of the happiest weeks I have enjoyed for several
months. I have felt more joy in thinking of God and his infinite
perfections, his moral excellencies, his precious promises, and his
unparalleled compassion for sinners, than all the world, in all its
glory, can afford. O how delightful to think, _to be assured_, that the
Gospel will spread over the whole world, and that the name of Jesus will
be as ointment poured forth, among all nations. Yes, even idolatrous
Burmah shall become a scene for the display of the divine glories. But
while I have felt an unusual degree of reliance on the divine promises, I
have also felt an unusual sense of my own weakness and incompetency to
perform the great work before me. How precious is that promise, 'My
strength shall be perfect in thy weakness.'"

The following extract of a letter from Mrs. Boardman and addressed to his
parents, while it corroborates the statements made in his journal of the
strength and ardor of his desires to be useful to the people of Tavoy,
bears honorable testimony also to some other religious feelings
characteristic of the man.

"We are now, my dear parents, separated from our missionary associates,
and all religious society whatever. We have come to a station unoccupied
before by Christian teachers, and feel that our responsibilities are
greater than ever. Weak, sinful and ignorant, what can we do here without
the help of God! This city seems wholly given to idolatry. Here are more
than 200 priests, who devote their whole time, talents, learning and
influence, to the interest of the religion of Gaudama. What can we do
against such a torrent of error. We feel that of ourselves we can do
nothing, but our hope is in the Rock of Ages. The promises of God support
our fainting spirits under every discouragement.

"The dialect used by this people is very different from pure Burman. The
men here can most of them speak and understand the Burman, but this is
not the case with the women. This we regret exceedingly, as it will
require some time to make ourselves so familiar with their dialect, as to
be able to hold conversation with them on religion. I have with me no
female Christian.

"I think I have never known my dear husband to feel more for the poor
heathen than of late. He enters upon public labors with much fear and
trembling; yet I am assured that he has hope in God for success, and in
him alone. He has Burman worship with the boys of the school, and with
the two native Christians, every evening. Pray much for us. Without the
spirit of the Lord, all our efforts will be in vain."



CHAPTER XIII.
Uncourteous demeanor of a few natives--Interesting case of a Chinese
youth--Hopeful conversions and baptisms--Mr. Boardman's method of
spending the Sabbath.


THE prospects of the mission at this station were now becoming
increasingly encouraging. The spirit of inquiry had gone abroad both
among the Karens and the people of Tavoy. But there were some things, of
almost daily occurrence, which served to keep alive, in the breasts of
our missionaries, the feeling of humble dependence on God. Instances of
arrogance like the following, must be extremely painful to the feelings
of the enlightened Christian, who has sacrificed all he holds dear on
earth to do good to the souls of those who thus oppose him. They are not,
however, without their use even to him. While they disclose the darkness,
the pride, the self-conceit, and the blind devotion of the heathen to
their religion, they serve also as trials of his faith and patience, and
discover to him feelings within his own heart, which, perhaps, might not
otherwise have been revealed.

One of the circumstances alluded to, is thus mentioned in the journal:

"While conversing with some persons, who seemed to listen with attention,
a high spirited man came in and said to me, 'You know but very little.
You ought to read more of our books. I want you to give diligence to make
yourself acquainted with our sacred writings; then you would know
something.' I acquiesced, saying, 'I know but little of the books you
mention; but I am endeavoring every day to add to my stock of knowledge.'
'Yes,' he replied, 'you have read such and such books'--meaning those
which he had heard me say I had read--'but the matter is not clearly
stated in them. I want you to read _such_ and _such_ books; then you will
not condemn what you do not know.' It was with some difficulty that I
could _rule my spirit_, on this occasion; for though I knew I was greatly
ignorant of their sacred books, I did not much like the dogmatical style
in which his sentiments were delivered. I told him, that it was my
intention to study the books which he named, but had already learned
enough of them to know a few things, which he, and all the Burmans
believed; such as that their God was a sinner, that he died, that he was
annihilated, and that, of course, he could do nothing. 'That,' he
replied, 'is all true; but I want you to read the books, and then you
will come to the light.' In reply, I remarked, that if I did come to the
light, I could not worship a dead God, an annihilated God. I then asked
him if he had read _our_ books. 'How can I read your books? I don't know
that you have any.' I then gave him a tract, but confess, and record it
to my shame, that through the perturbation of the moment, I did not give
it with a becoming spirit, nor with prayer that it might be blessed. He
read a little, threw down the tract, and with a haughty air walked off;
taking all my hearers along with him. I felt sad, self-condemned, and my
heart was humbled in me. I retired immediately to my private room, and
prayed for the pardon of my own sins, and for the salvation of his soul.

"July 1st. Moung Bo, a Burman, has lately, and, especially to-day,
expressed to me some doubts respecting the religion of Gaudama. He is a
man of good understanding, and of great powers of speech; is extensively
acquainted with the Pali, or sacred language of the Boodhists, and has
worn the yellow cloth, that is, been a priest, several years.

"July 2d. Ko Moung called and spent a few hours at the zayat. He seemed
captivated by my description of heaven. 'All the Burmans,' he said, 'pray
for annihilation as the chief good; but if there is a place of
everlasting happiness, without the intermixture of misery, it is
preferable to annihilation. I must see you again.'

July 4th. In the afternoon, as I was conversing with a man who seemed
attentive, a priest passed by, and looking up with a sullen countenance,
said to the man, 'What are you there for?' 'Listening,' said the
terrified hearer. Soon after this the zayat was nearly full. Some
opposed, some went off in sullen silence, some inquired, and one or two
seemed to be on my side.

"July 6th. Lord's-day. In the morning, had Burman worship at the house,
and went to the zayat at 2 o'clock, P. M. A crowd soon collected. Many
priests passed by, frowning most indignantly. My 'high spirited friend'
was present, and, before the whole assembly of perhaps forty persons,
repeated nearly the same things respecting his sacred _books_, as before.
I was prepared for it, however, and answered him mildly. He soon became
quiet.

"Moung Bo, mentioned July 1st, came in, and declared before all present,
that he was determined to embrace the new religion. He had been reading
the Christian books, and had conversed with me, and he was now determined
to cleave to the Gospel. Some were angry, some mocked, some were
astonished. 'It is no small thing,' I remarked, 'to renounce the religion
of one's ancestors, and to embrace the Gospel. Such a step should not be
taken without due examination. Can you adhere to Christ through life? He
is no disciple who believes to-day and denies to-morrow. Do you think you
can endure to be reviled, cursed, persecuted, calumniated, disowned by
your countrymen, your neighbors, and even by your relations? Can you
endure _death_ for Christ's sake?' He replied, 'I have examined, and my
mind is decided. I will no longer worship the pagodas or the images; and
if my countrymen, my neighbors, my relations revile me, let them revile;
if they will kill me, let them kill. I shall go to God and be with Jesus
forever. The present life is short, the future is eternal.' 'Then you are
willing,' said I, 'that this assembly, and myself, and even the
all-seeing God, should bear witness against you, if you should ever go
back.' 'I am,' was his reply. The people were so urgent in their
inquiries and opposition, that I could not leave till dark.

"July 7. Early this morning, Moung Bo came to the house, and I had an
hour's conversation with him. I tried to sound him to the bottom of his
heart--told him not to expect me to confer on him the least possible
advantage--reminded him, that if he should join us, he must expect scorn
and reproach. He calmly said, 'I fear them not, I am afraid of hell; but
I put my trust in the Lord Jesus Christ, in hope that when this short
life is over, I may enjoy everlasting peace with him in heaven.' I
inquired whether he attached any merit to his former strictness in
keeping the law of Gaudama. He replied, that as the religion of Gaudama
was false, so all who observed it got to themselves only sin and demerit,
and that his sins were innumerable. Whether he is sincere in all this, a
future day will disclose.

"At the zayat, I had about forty persons, among whom was an old man, who
had been a priest several years. With him I had a long and deliberate
discussion in the hearing of the rest. He frankly acknowledged he could
not answer my arguments, and that if what I stated of Christ's doctrine
and practice was _true_, he thought it preferable to Boodhism. He
promised to examine the subject further. Ko Moung was at the zayat nearly
all day, and seems to have acquired an attachment to me. He enjoys my
remarks, and expresses a pleasure when the people cannot answer my
arguments. He said he wished to go to America with me. I said, 'There is
a better country than America.' And when he perceived I meant the
heavenly, 'Oh,' said he, 'I want to go with you most of all to that happy
place.'

"In the afternoon Moung Bo came in, and again avowed himself a disciple.
He was more modest and cautious than formerly. Another person accompanied
him, who seems disposed to embrace the Christian doctrine; but his case
is doubtful. As they both expressed a disposition to embrace the truth,
one of the assembly, who, when alone with me, had spoken favorably of
Christ, was so enraged, that he broke out in severe reproof of Moung Bo
before all, saying, 'I think it folly and madness to renounce the
religion of your fathers, just because a foreigner comes and attempts to
propagate a new religion. Think a little before you take such a step. It
is no mark of a wise man to dishonor his ancestors, by declaring that
they were all in error.' Moung Bo calmly replied, that he was not acting
without consideration--he knew what he was doing--his great inquiry was,
not what his ancestors believed, but what was _true_. This he wished to
embrace, whether his ancestors embraced it or not. His reprover then left
the zayat.

"July 8. After considerable conversation, I had the pleasure of an hour's
candid discussion with a respectable and learned old gentleman, who had
been a priest; and I have some hope that he felt the force of truth. He
acknowledged that Gaudama did not keep the law of love, enjoined in the
New Testament. This gave me an opportunity to dwell somewhat largely on
the meekness, compassion and love of Christ; and I feel persuaded, from
the experience of yesterday, as well as to-day, that there is no subject
on which I can touch their hearts so quickly, as by leading them to the
cross of the compassionate, dying Redeemer.

"July 10. Moung Bo called at the house this morning, and expressed a deep
sense of his sinfulness and inability to save himself, or even to do any
thing in point of meriting salvation. When I unfolded to him the
Christian doctrine of loving our neighbor as ourselves, he said, 'There
is not a Burman who keeps that law. Even Gaudama did not keep it. O, how
excellent it is!' I begin to hope that divine grace has reached this
man's heart. He is a good scholar, and it is said there is not his equal
for eloquence in Tavoy. Should he be truly converted, we may hope God has
designs of mercy to execute through his instrumentality.

"July 11. After repairing to the zayat, Moung Bo again boldly engaged in
recommending the Gospel to about twenty persons. Shortly after, a young
man came in, who, on entering the zayat several days ago, had given me
much encouragement. He appears thoughtful and remarkably guileless.

"A respectable young Chinese, named Kee Keang, entered the zayat, and
said he wanted to learn the English language more perfectly. He professed
to believe in the true God, and in Jesus Christ. I supposed it was a mere
pretence, but requested him to call at my house in the morning, when I
would converse more fully with him.

"July 12. The young Chinese came this morning according to appointment,
and in answer to my questions, he related the following account of
himself. He left China at the age of eleven years, in company with his
father and elder brother, in whose employment he has lived at Penang,
Sinepore and Malacca. At one of these places, he met with a young man
from Madras, who taught him to read English, and gave him a part of the
Bible. It was the Old Testament, from Genesis to Proverbs. The young man
used sometimes to pray with him, and to speak to him about Christ. The
young man, he said, had the appearance of a Portuguese, but whether he
was a Roman Catholic, or not, he cannot tell. From the Bible, he learnt
something about the true God and Saviour; and for two or three years, he
has forsaken the worship of images, and worshipped only the living God.
His father is now dead, and his brother, knowing him to be a Christian,
has refused to employ him. He had, for some time past, felt it his duty
to be baptized, and thought of going to Penang for the purpose, not
knowing that I was a missionary and could administer the ordinance. His
object in studying English is, that he may better understand the
Scriptures. He reads tolerably well, but says he does not understand all
he reads. His countrymen call him a fool for being so much more anxious
to study English than Chinese. He appears to have read the Scriptures
carefully, as he gave me a very consistent account of what he considered
to be its fundamental doctrines. He professes to believe from his heart,
and desires to be baptized. When I reminded him, that should he be
baptized, his countrymen would persecute, and perhaps kill him, he said,
at first, 'They will not know it.' I told him, if he lived according to
the Gospel, they could not help knowing it. 'Well then,' he replied, 'Let
them persecute me, let them kill me. They cannot injure my soul. I fear
God, but I do not fear man. The present state is but momentary, the
future is eternal.' 'How,' I inquired, 'would you feel in your heart
towards your persecutors?' 'I could not hate them,' he replied, 'for the
same God that made me made them also, they are my brethren. I should beg
of God the forgiveness of their sins, as well as my own.' I inquired, if
he thought his sins were many. 'Very many.' 'Would it be just in God,' I
continued, 'to send you to hell on account of your sins?' 'Certainly, he
cannot do wrong.' I asked him which he would choose, to be a rich man, or
go to heaven? He, supposing I inquired if he would be rich in heaven,
said, 'Not _rich_, but _holy_, like God. I hope to see God and enjoy
him.' On my repeating my inquiry, he said, he only wanted enough to eat
and wear--he had no desire to be rich. 'Are you aware,' said I, 'that God
is a witness to all you say, and knows the thoughts of your heart?' 'I
am, I dare not lie before him.' Our conversation lasted several hours;
and I feel constrained to say, that so far as seriousness, words,
meekness of demeanor and outward appearances in general are concerned, he
gave most ample evidence of true piety. But I must see him more, and make
further inquiries about him, before I can think of baptizing him.

"July 13. Lord's-day. In teaching Christian duties and doctrines to the
boys of the school, I have taken particular pains to inculcate the
sentiment, that neither the practice of the one, nor the belief of the
other, can be real, or will be acceptable to God, without a radical
change of heart. And I am sure they distinctly understand, that a new
heart is essentially requisite to any right action whatever. But,
contrary to the apprehensions of many persons, this sentiment, so early
and so firmly fixed in their minds, does not hinder their praying in
secret, or reading the Scriptures, or attending to any of those things
commonly called the means of grace. They are not unfrequently overheard
praying, and repeating portions of Scripture at the midnight hour. That I
might know whether they pray with sense and propriety, I have to-day
listened, and heard, with satisfaction, the two oldest in succession."

Mr. Boardman here repeats, as accurately as he was able, the substance of
each of these prayers. So far as sentiment is concerned, they seem to be
the effusions of pious hearts. The eternity, the immutability and other
perfections of God, are first acknowledged in apparently profound
adoration. An acknowledgment of sin, especially the sin of idolatry,
follows, with supplication for pardon and sanctification through the
blood of Christ. Intercession for their wretched countrymen, desire for
further instruction in divine things, and thanksgivings for their
blessings and privileges, mingle with the prayers. They are such as, if
understood, would be listened to in any Christian congregation with
interest, and bear ample testimony, that the instructions of their
indefatigable teacher had not been in vain.

"July 17. Ko Moung was present, and listened attentively to all that was
said. Moung Youk, an Ava man, appears to relish the Gospel a little. He
told _me_ he was in suspense; but he afterwards told Moung Shway-bwen,
the Siamese Christian, that he wished to be my disciple.

"July 18. Not having heard anything from Moung Bo for several days, I
sent to know where he was, and learnt he was confined at home with
illness. But being a little better, he came to the house, and his
conversation gave me additional evidence of the truth of his conversion.
Moung Youk, the Ava man, was present all the afternoon, and said to me as
we parted, 'I shall probably join you soon.'

"July 20. Lord's-day. Moung Bo and Moung Youk came to the house early in
the morning, and appeared well. The latter said he wished to attach
himself to me for life. He professes a great fondness for hearing about
Christ and his salvation."

The same inquirer was with Mr. Boardman at the zayat on the 21st, and
accompanied him to the house to join in the evening worship in Burman. He
was also present on the 22d, and gave additional evidence of true
conversion. On the 23d, Moung Bo publickly avowed his faith in Christ. On
the 24th, a visiter, who entered the zayat the day preceding, professed
his decided belief of the Gospel. On his return home, Mr. B. found
several Karens waiting for instruction. They had heard of him, and came
on purpose to converse with him.

"July 27. A good number of young persons listened to the Gospel to-day.
Towards evening, we had the pleasure of receiving a parcel of letters
from Bengal and America. It is now a long time since we have before had
letters from home. We hope more parcels are on the way, as we understand
a vessel has been stranded in the river, which contains a box for us.

"July 28. Towards evening, a friend brought us a parcel containing
letters from our friends; also magazines and heralds. He had picked them
up on the beach, near the wreck of the vessel mentioned yesterday. Some
of them were so torn, and soaked with salt water, that we have not been
able to decipher a single line. But we could recognize the hand-writing
of our dear parents, brothers and sisters.

"July 29. Ko-Thah-byoo, the Karen Christian, who went out five days ago
to visit a Karen village, returned today; and says all the people of the
village listened to his words.

"July 30. Several persons visited me, among whom was Ko Moung, who still
seems to halt between two opinions. He makes no considerable progress,
and I fear he is still in the gall of bitterness and in the bonds of
iniquity. But still there is a little hope; his mind is not at rest; he
cannot go back; he dare not go forward. He wants to go to heaven, not in
Christ's, but in Gaudama's way. His good sense is on our side, and his
feelings are half at least with us. But Satan and all his emissaries are
dissuading him from embracing the truth, and I greatly fear they will
prevail. O, may He, who is stronger than the strong man armed, enter in,
and take entire possession of his soul.

"July 31. The young Chinese called this morning, and declared more fully
than ever, his belief of the Gospel, and his desire to receive baptism as
soon as I am willing to administer it. I have lately made considerable
inquiry respecting him, and have uniformly obtained a good report of his
conduct. In order to try his motives, I proposed several questions, but
in no case did he betray anything wrong. I said, 'you are poor and
without a situation: if you are baptized, your countrymen will hate and
deride you, and perhaps no one else will employ you.' 'Then,' he replied,
'God will take care of me.' 'Perhaps,' said I, 'Mr. ----, with whom you
wish to find employment, will not care to engage a man who has been
baptized. He may repulse you on account of your profession.' 'Let him do
so,' was his modest, but firm and prompt reply. 'Why,' I inquired, 'do
you wish to be baptized?' 'Because Christ has commanded it.' Many similar
questions were put to him, which he answered in a manner equally
satisfactory. On being asked when he wished to be baptized, he replied,
'to-day, or to-morrow, as you please; only I wish to be baptized before
long.'

"Afternoon. Moung Bo, whose absence for a week had occasioned me much
anxiety, called, and after assigning satisfactory reasons for his long
absence, requested the privilege of being baptized on the next
Lord's-day. I have examined him frequently and closely, and feel
satisfied that he is a converted man. He is universally reviled by people
and priests. But he bears it patiently, and says he can pray for his
persecutors. He thinks several persons with whom he has conversed appear
to relish the Gospel. Two, in particular, believe it fully.

"Among my hearers were Ko Moung, an old gentleman, who asked many
pertinent questions, and evinced an unusual interest in all that was
said. I could not leave the zayat till dark, and heard the old man say as
he was leaving, that he had many other inquiries to make. May the Lord
enlighten his mind and change his heart.

"The evidence in favor of the young Chinese and Moung Bo, is so
satisfactory, that I propose to baptize them on the ensuing Lord's-day.

"August 1, 1828. Another interview with the Chinese youth so often
mentioned in the journal for July. Every interview with him strengthens
the conviction that he is a new man.

"At the zayat, had thirty or forty hearers, some of whom listened
attentively and received portions of our Scriptures."

Mr. Boardman thus describes a baptismal scene. Such scenes must be
peculiarly cheering to the spirits of a faithful missionary. The seals
thus set to his ministry, the trophies thus won to Christ from the midst
of pagan darkness and idolatry, must be invaluable in his esteem. They
serve to sustain him amid toils and perils, reproach and insult.

"August 3. Lord's-day. Having repeatedly examined Moung Bo, and Kee
Keang, the two persons who applied for baptism last month, we could not,
consistent with our feelings of duty, defer their case any longer; and
this day has been fixed on for administering the ordinance. Accordingly,
after worship, a little band of us, passing through that part of the town
most sacred to Gaudama, bent our way among pagodas, temples and
kyoungs,--alike unheeded and unheeding,--and entering the high pagoda
road, we passed on till we came to the baptismal tank. Near the tank was
a tall pagoda, pointing its gilded summit to the skies. It being Burman
as well as Christian worship-day, the multitudes were gathered around to
pay their devotions to the gilded shrines. In that tank, under the shadow
of that pagoda, and in sight of their former companions, who now gazed
with mingled astonishment and malice, the two young disciples solemnly
renounced their vain idols, and put on the Lord Jesus Christ by a public
profession of his name. O, it was a joyful, memorable occasion. Some of
the heavenly host, I doubt not, gazed on the sight with approbation; and
He who promised to be in the midst of two or three, assembled in his
name, was, I trust, in the midst of us.

"August 7. Had the unspeakable pleasure of hearing from America by
letters and magazines. Bless the Lord, O my soul, for the news of the
prosperity of the Redeemer's kingdom in our beloved native land.

"Moung Bo came and told how happy he was, although persecuted in every
quarter. Many listening hearers at the zayat. There seems to be a shaking
among these dry bones.

"August 8. This morning received the joyful intelligence of the effusion
of the Holy Spirit at Maulmein. In the afternoon had a very solemn
congregation at the zayat. Yesterday and to-day are among the most
pleasant of my life; and certainly, the most encouraging, as respects
usefulness among the heathen. O that the shower of grace which has begun
to fall at Maulmein, may soon reach Tavoy. I seem to see the day dawning.
_Rise, thou Sun of Righteousness, with healing in thy wings_.

"August 10. Lord's-day. After worship with the native Christians in the
morning, went to the zayat, where we had an attentive congregation. Two
persons in particular, profess to be convinced that the Gospel is true,
and begged for Christian books, After tea had Burman worship as usual.
Two Karens from the jungle were present. It is proposed to commence
to-morrow, at sunrise, a daily devotional exercise, at which the Burman
Christians and the school boys are to meet me at the house. May the Lord
vouchsafe to us his gracious presence.

"August 12. Two persons who had before visited the zayat, and received
portions of the sacred Scriptures, came again to day, and afforded
encouraging signs of an _inquiring_, if I may not say, of a _believing_
mind.

"Today, one of the native Christians, finding a book which he had written
with much care, torn to pieces, 'his mind,' to use his own expression,
'rose' to an unwarrantable pitch. Being engaged at the time, I knew
nothing of the affair, till he had left the house. Soon as I was
discharged, the poor penitent came and related the whole story to me. He
was so ashamed of his anger that he could not look me in the face. This
only made me love him the more. He is generally of a most humble and
quiet spirit. I doubt not God has forgiven him; but he cannot forgive
himself. Several hours after, he said to me, 'My mind is still hot, on
account of my sin.' On my telling him God would show mercy to those who
confess and forsake their sins, he seemed relieved."

The following is a description of the manner in which Mr. Boardman
usually observed the Sabbath.

"Aug. 17th. Lord's-day evening. The past may, perhaps, be considered a
fair specimen of the manner of our spending the Sabbath. At 6 o'clock we
have Burman worship with the Christians and the school. After this, till
breakfast, at 8, we spend the time in retirement and English reading. The
scholars, meanwhile, are taught the catechism by a Burman Christian.
After family worship and breakfast, Mrs. B. and myself, with the Chinese
Christian, have worship, and a printed sermon is read. At the same time,
the Burman Christians hold a prayer-meeting with the school, in an
adjoining room. After this, public worship in Burman, and catechising the
boys. At 2 o'clock, P. M. I go to the zayat, and remain there till dark.
After tea, Burman family worship, when one of the native Christians
prays. From 8 till 10 o'clock, read the Scriptures, perform evening
devotions, &c. &c. Mrs. Boardman is engaged in the afternoon and evening
in family cares, and in giving religious instruction to the scholars and
domestics. Today, while I was catechising the boys in the hall, the
Burmans were holding a religious meeting in the west verandah, and the
Chinese Christian explaining the Gospel to a company of his countrymen in
the east verandah of our house. One of the Chinese has become so far
enlightened as to refuse to worship images, by which he has lost his
situation. But he says, 'God will take care of me.'

"Aug. 20th and 21st. Many Chinese came to converse with Ke Keang on
religious. Moung Shway-Ken, the young man mentioned on the 11th July,
called at the house. He has experienced opposition for listening to me,
and has sought relief by labouring out of town for a month. During all
this time he has been thinking of the Gospel, and is _almost_ persuaded
to be a Christian.

"Aug. 22d. Moung Shway-Bwen relates the circumstance of a very
respectable Burman calling at the zayat and professing a conviction of
the truth of the Gospel. He first heard the truth from Moung Bo, ten days
ago, and has since been constantly employed in considering it. He
professes to be a decided believer.

"Aug. 24th. One of my hearers at worship to-day, was Moung Shway-Kyah, a
respectable and intelligent young man, mentioned in the journal for July
7th, as accompanying Moung Bo, and thinking like him. He now professes a
firm attachment to the Gospel, and we have reason to hope he is sincere.

"Six Chinese came to-day to converse with Ke Keang. It appears that ten
or twelve persons are in the habit of visiting him almost daily, at his
lodgings, to converse respecting the Gospel. These circumstances,
together with a letter I have recently perused, from a friend in
Singapore, encourage me to hope, that the Holy Spirit is about to be
poured out on 'the dispersed' of this interesting people.

"Aug. 26th. About a month since, an interesting young Karen was found by
Ko-thah-byoo, in the niche of a pagoda, where he had been fasting for two
days. Knowing only the religion of Gaudama, which he had heard from the
Burmans, he had embraced it so far as to practise this austerity, in hope
of obtaining a great reward in a future state. Our Karen Christian
explained to him the folly of fasting as practised by the Burmans, and
invited the young man to our house, where he paid a very serious
attention to religious instruction. After learning the way of the Lord
more perfectly, he took a Christian book and returned to his native
forest. Our prayers accompanied him. We all remarked something peculiarly
amiable and interesting in his appearance. I have often wished to have
him live with me, in hopes he might become truly pious and a herald of
the Gospel. Yesterday he returned to us, with three of his relations, to
receive further instructions. After conversing with me for some time, and
attending Burman worship with us, he went to Ko-thah-byoo's apartment,
where I heard them talking of the Gospel till near midnight; and at break
of day, this morning, the conversation was renewed. This afternoon he
expressed a desire to live with me, that he might learn more fully the
great doctrines of Revelation. On my inquiring how long he would be
willing to stay for this purpose, he replied, 'Ten or twelve years, till
I can learn fully about God and Christ. Many of the Karens will
also come.' He says he wishes no longer to worship heaps of
brick--pagodas--but to know and serve the everlasting and true God.

"Attended the funeral of a Chinese, who had become a Boodhist, and had
expended 15,000 rupees in erecting and gilding pagodas in this place.
When will Christians do as liberally for the true God?

"Aug. 27th. After evening worship in Burman, the Karen Christian having
related the adventures of the day, said to me, 'There is one subject on
which I wish to wait your decision: I wish you would write to America for
more teachers to be sent out.' The same subject had rested with much
weight on my own mind nearly all the day. We are in very great need of at
least two additional missionaries in the province of Tavoy.

"Aug. 30th to 31st. We are not left wholly without encouragement. Our
school is in a more flourishing state than at any former period; and one
of the boys seems somewhat impressed with divine things. Many Karens have
heard the Gospel, and profess to believe it; and we hope that during the
last two months, since the zayat was opened, one or two persons have been
savingly converted. Several others appear to be inquiring, and the Gospel
has been heard, and the Scriptures read, by several hundred persons.
God's word will not return to him void. In the divine promises alone, our
hopes are fixed and firm. Whatever of good may have been, or may
hereafter be done, should be wholly ascribed to the agency of the Holy
Spirit. To that blessed Agent's care I commit the interests of truth in
this place, and again adopt the language of the praying prophet, 'O Lord,
revive thy work; in the midst of the years make known; in wrath remember
mercy.'"



CHAPTER XIV.
Plan of enlarged operations in the department of native schools--The
deified book of the Karens.


IMPRESSED with the rational belief that a knowledge of the useful
sciences was an important means of raising the intellectual character of
the heathen from its depressed and bewildered state, a prominent object
with Mr. Boardman, both at Maulmein and Tavoy, was the establishment of
native schools. As these schools would be under his immediate direction,
they would also afford him a convenient opportunity for imparting
religious instruction, without which, a knowledge of the sciences would
be of comparatively little avail. But his own pecuniary resources did not
at this time admit of any extended plan of operations in this department
of his labors. Under these circumstances, it must have been peculiarly
cheering to his heart to become acquainted with the gentleman named in
the following letter, who so readily seconded his object, and so
liberally contributed to its support.

It will be seen by the subjoined communications, that Mr. Boardman had
devised liberal things for Burmah. Had he lived to carry his noble plans
into execution, very important benefits would undoubtedly have followed.

_Letter to Dr. Bolles._

_Tavoy, Sept._ 8, 1828.

"Dear Sir,

"A few days since I had an interview with A. D. Maingay, Esq. civil
commissioner for these provinces, when, after expressing a deep interest
in native schools, he generously authorized me to draw on him monthly,
for fifty Madras rupees, to establish and support a boys' day school, for
the English and Burman languages, and the more familiar and useful
sciences. Such a school has since been opened, and nineteen scholars are
now successfully pursuing their studies. One of these scholars is Moung
Shway Bwen, the young Siamese Christian; four others, formerly belonged
to the boys' boarding school; the rest are Burman, Chinese, and Tavoy
boys. One third of the day they study Burman with Moung Shway Bwen; the
other two thirds they study English with L. Ke Keang, the Chinese
Christian. After paying the wages of these two teachers, there will
remain of the fifty rupees, I hope, enough to defray all the incidental
expenses of the school: such as books, stationary, school-room, &c.

"Soon as L. Ke Keang began to teach English, the school received a new
impulse. Several applications have been made for admission, and
considerable additions are daily expected. Many of the parents,
particularly the Chinese, have _requested_ that their sons may be taught
the principles of the Christian religion.

"It is a very happy circumstance that both the teachers are devoted
Christians. The boys are daily called together at sunrise, when I read
the Scriptures and pray with them in Burman.

"Moung Shway Bwen has become a boarder, and two of the boys from town
have also been admitted to the boarding school, which increases the
number to seven. These are more fully taught the Christian religion, and
are under our entire inspection and control.

"We have endeavored, by a most rigid economy, to reduce the expenses of
the boarding school, and are in hopes we shall be able to support a boy
for twenty dollars a year, perhaps for less, if the number should be
considerably increased. I am happy to add, that the superintendence of
both schools, under the present arrangement, does not require more of my
time than that of the boarding school alone, before this arrangement was
made. I hope, before long, to submit to you a digested plan of enlarged
operation in the department of boys' schools. The enterprise of the
American churches will, I trust, as usual, be found equal to every
reasonable demand upon them, for an object so important as that of
raising the cramped and depressed, but powerful intellect of the Burmese
youth, to a general knowledge of moral and religious truth. Let us enjoy
a constant remembrance in your prayers, and the prayers of the American
churches, that a divine blessing may abundantly rest on us in all our
attempts to instruct this degraded, but dear people."

The following is the "digested plan of enlarged operations in the
department of boys' schools," just alluded to, and was soon after
transmitted to the Secretary, Dr. Bolles. It is inserted here that it may
be seen in connection with the preceding.

"_Tavoy, Sept._ 29, 1828.

"Dear Sir,

"In a letter of the 8th inst. I gave you some account of the boys' school
under our care. In this letter I propose to lay before you a plan for
more extended operations in this department of missionary work. It seems
highly important that our views and plans should not be confined to the
present time, or to the present scene of our labors. We are not to forget
that we are _missionaries to Burmah_, and though God, by a mysterious but
wise providence, has permitted us for the present to be in a measure
expelled from the heart of the Burman empire, yet we are to look with a
watchful and hopeful eye, for the first opening that presents itself to
return and enter again on missionary labor within the territories now
subject to the monarch of Ava. In the mean time it becomes us, like the
Jews when driven from their own country, to seek the peace of the cities
where we dwell, and to be making preparations for a return. Of these
preparations, we should consider the subjection of these ceded provinces
to the reign of Christ, as the most important. Should the Gospel gain a
firm hold here, it will be comparatively easy to introduce it into the
Burman empire. It accordingly becomes us to preach the Gospel,
disseminate the Scriptures and religious tracts, and to establish schools
in those provinces, not only for the benefit of the people here, but that
we may be prepared ere long to re-enter Burmah with greater strength and
surer hopes of success. Omitting for the present any remarks on the other
parts of our duty, allow me to suggest _a plan for a wider range of
operations in the department of native schools_.

"From a village about fifteen miles above this city to another about
thirty miles below, is a regular chain of villages on both sides of the
Tavoy river. The population of the different villages varies from fifty
to three or four hundred souls. The aggregate population, exclusive of
those of the city, is about 18,000. In these villages there are but few
kyoungs, and the boys are growing up in a great degree ignorant of even
that knowledge which Burman priests can impart. It is my wish to see
schools established throughout these two chains of villages, as well as
in the city. My plan, in substance, is this: Let the day-school which is
now opened under the auspices of the local government, be under the
careful superintendence of a missionary, and be considered a _central
school_, where young men shall be taught in such branches as shall
qualify them to become teachers in village schools. As fast as suitable
and well disposed youths are qualified, let them be employed as
school-masters in different villages. Thus, in a few years, an indefinite
number of village schools may be supplied with teachers trained up under
our own inspection. Each of these schools would cost from ten to fifteen
rupees per month. If this plan is commenced soon, I am encouraged to hope
the government would lend its patronage. Out of the village schools, the
more promising boys may be selected, and sent to the central school for a
more thorough education. Let the books used be such as will tend to
elevate and enlarge the mind, inform the understanding, eradicate
previously imbibed errors, and lay the foundation for a superstructure of
Christian instruction. Let a self-denying missionary undertake the
business of superintending these schools, and of preaching in the
different villages; let him bend all his energies to effect a total
reformation in moral and religious instruction throughout the villages.
Here it should be mentioned, that on the east side of the river, a few
miles back from the Daway villages, is a corresponding chain of Karen
settlements. In these settlements are more than two thousand souls, who
have no books, no written language, no object of worship, no religion;
but are expecting a religion will soon be given them. Already a large
number have heard the Gospel, and appear disposed to embrace it. Let an
itinerating missionary visit their settlements, give them a written
language, establish schools, and with the help of Karens now in the
boarding school, furnish some elementary books preparatory to the
translation of the Scriptures into their language. Meanwhile he can
preach to them in Burman, and Karens who understand Burman can interpret
to the people. Under a divine blessing, without which nothing can be done
successfully, we may hope for great and happy results from such a system
of operations. Nor is Tavoy alone to be benefited. Not only the provinces
of Yay and Amherst on the north, and Merquin on the south, but Arracan
and Pagu, and ultimately, Burmah Proper, we may reasonably hope will
partake of the benefit, and become scenes of similar operations. It
should also be mentioned that Tavoy is near the borders of Siam, to which
country the Board will, we trust, be ere long sending missionaries.* Thus
Siamese, Daways, Karens, Taliengs, Burmans, Arracanese, and Chinese will
probably send their sons to our schools; and it is not too much to hope
that some of the boys on their return home, will take with them the
Gospel, not printed on paper alone, but engraven on their hearts.
Especially may we hope for this from those who enjoy the additional
advantages of the boarding school. Nor should the Burman Chinese boys of
whom we have now a number in the school, be forgotten. These boys are
generally more intelligent and efficient than the common Burman boys, and
as they will speak both English and Burman, and in some instances
Chinese, we may hope, should divine grace be imparted, that some of them
will become heralds of salvation, not only to the Burmese, but to the
numerous Chinese population who are dispersed through the Burman
dominions.

[Footnote: * Mr. Jones, a missionary of this Board, is now in Bankock,
the commercial capital of Siam.]

"It will be readily seen, that in order to carry this plan into effect,
an additional missionary is immediately needed; and I take the liberty to
add, that I very much need an associate to live in Tavoy, and divide with
me the multiplied and arduous labors now pressing upon me.

"Some may inquire whether the Burman boys are not generally taught to
read and write at the kyoungs, and whether it is needful to spend
missionary time and money in teaching what the priests would teach
without such expense. In reply to the inquiry I remark, that it is but a
small thing to learn to read and write as the boys at the kyoungs are
taught. Six months' instruction at our schools would enable a boy to read
the Burman language well; so that the expense after that time is not
incurred in teaching boys what the priests would teach them, but in
teaching them _better_ things. In what are the boys at the kyoungs
instructed? They are regularly taught to be idolaters. From the day of
their admission as pupils, till their course of study is completed, which
is several years, they are taught nothing but error. The whole system of
Burman geography and astronomy, as well as of morals and religion, is but
one tissue of error, and the kyoungs are the theological seminaries where
these errors are inculcated. The Burmans have scarcely an idea of
anything but deserts and the ocean, beyond Hindostan and Ceylon, on the
west, while China is the utmost limits on the east, and Penang on the
south. The young pupil's first lesson is a sort of te deum to Gaudama,
and is followed by a succession of similar lessons during the whole term
of their literary course. The Burmans have no books into which the
vagaries of Gaudama's theological hypotheses are not intermingled. While
the boys are learning to read at the kyoungs, they are continually
required to practise the rites of idolatry; and from the time they are
able to read till they leave the schools, they are continually employed
in committing to memory and reducing to practice the instructions of
their atheistical leader. These evils can be corrected only by a
subversion of the present system of education, and the introduction of
such books as will direct the youthful intellect into the right channel.
It is not enough to explode the dreams of Gaudama; the youthful mind mast
be fed with wholesome knowledge. Besides, the instruction afforded at the
kyoungs, miserable and injurious as it is, is sought by comparatively
few. Of the whole population of Tavoy district, _not one person in a
hundred_ is engaged in the pursuit of learning. Probably not more than
one person in ten can read or understand Burman books.

"I now submit the subject to the consideration of the Board. If anything
is to be done, it should be done soon, as the government of the place are
now deliberating on the best plan to be adopted in order to encourage a
wider diffusion of knowledge.

"With sentiments of much respect and esteem, I am, dear sir, yours in the
service of the Gospel.

GEORGE D. BOARDMAN."

In his plans for the improvement of the Burman youth, Mr. B. was promptly
seconded by his amiable companion, who felt no less than himself, that an
important object would be gained by imparting to the degraded females
right notions of the Creator and his works. In relation to this subject
he remarks, "Mrs. Boardman is about opening a boarding school for girls;
but as yet we can furnish no details on this subject. As her heart is
much set on the object of drawing forth the hidden and smothered
intellects of the poor Burman females, and of raising them to the
knowledge of God and salvation, of which they are most perfectly
ignorant, I have no doubt her endeavors will prove eminently useful."

This plan of enlarged operations in the department of native schools, was
afterwards submitted to the General Convention of the Baptist
denomination in the United States, held at Philadelphia, April 29, 1829.
The committee to whom was referred the consideration of the Burman
mission, brought in a report replete with encouragement and hope. In
noticing the plan proposed, they say, "The plan submitted by Mr.
Boardman, for the establishment of native schools, is wise and judicious.
It requires no argument to prove, that the most likely way to the
demolition of the abominable idolatries which enfetter the souls of the
heathen, is the introduction of rational and Christian education among
the rising generation. We, therefore, earnestly recommend the adoption of
the plan, as far as may be compatible with the means at hand."

The story related in the following extract, though perfectly familiar to
many into whose hands this work may fall, is invested with circumstances,
which will always give to the perusal a lively interest. The verbal
relation of it, by one who has so often and so forcibly pleaded the cause
of foreign missions, has sent a thrill of sympathy to their hearts, and
the ocular demonstration of the principal fact which it records in
relation to the DEIFIED BOOK OF THE KARENS, has deeply and solemnly
impressed them with the extreme ignorance and credulity of that deluded
people. Surely the rocks and the mountains among which they roam are
covered with thick darkness. But that darkness is beginning to be
dispelled; the Sun of Righteousness has arisen on their forests; the
voice of prayer and praise is heard among their native hills; and the
blessed effulgence of truth will spread, we trust, till these wild men of
the wilderness shall walk in the light of life.

The story is thus related by Mr. Boardman in his journal:

"On returning from the zayat, I found my house thronged with Karens, and
was informed that the Karen teacher had arrived with his much venerated
book. After tea, I called them up and inquired what they wished for. The
teacher stood forward and said, 'My lord, your humble servants have come
from the wilderness, to lay at your lordship's feet a certain book, and
to inquire of your lordship whether it is good or bad, true or false. We,
Karens, your humble servants, are an ignorant race of people, we have no
books, no written language, we know nothing of God or his law. When this
book was given us, we were charged to worship it, which we have done for
twelve years. But we know nothing of its contents, not so much as in what
language it is written. We have heard of the gospel of Jesus Christ, and
are persuaded of its truth, and we wish to know if this book contains the
doctrine of that Gospel. We are persuaded that your lordship can easily
settle the question, and teach us the true way of becoming happy.' I
requested them to produce the book, when the old man opened a large
basket, and having removed fold after fold of wrappers, he handed me an
old tattered duodecimo volume. It was none other than the 'Book of Common
Prayer, with the Psalms,' published at Oxford, England. 'It is a good
book,' said I, 'but it is not good to worship it. You must worship the
God it reveals.' We spent the evening instructing these simple foresters
in some of the first principles of the Gospel. They listened with much
attention; but the old teacher, who, it seems, is a kind of sorcerer,
appeared disappointed at the thought, that he had obtained no claim to
heaven by worshipping the book so many years.

"Sept. 9, 1828. The Karens left us for their native forest. It was a
source of regret to us all, that Ko-thah-byoo was not present to
facilitate our intercourse by interpreting for us. Just before leaving,
the old sorcerer put on his jogar's dress, given him, he said, nearly
twenty years ago, and assumed some self-important airs, so that one of
our native Christians felt it his duty to administer a gentle reproof,
and told him there was no good in wearing such a dress, and advised him
to lay it aside altogether. 'If,' said the sorcerer, 'God will not be
pleased with this dress, I am ready to send it afloat on yonder stream.'
He then presented his reprover with his wand, saying he had no further
use for it."

Mr. Boardman was afterwards informed that the teacher, on his way home,
tore his jogar's dress in pieces and threw it into a brook. What a rebuke
is this to the selfishness of too many professing Christians, who refuse
to relinquish habits, the practice of which, it is most evident, is
offensive to God. On the evening of the same date, he wrote as follows:

"For several days past, we have observed a happy change in the largest of
our boarding scholars. He has been more sedate in his deportment, more
attentive to study, and has often been heard in the night, and at break
of day, praying alone. He reads the Scriptures much of the time, and in a
few instances has been heard recommending the Gospel to his school-mates
and to the heathen; and once he has spoken to me of his own accord on the
subject of religion. This evening he has conversed with me somewhat
freely, and I hope God is about visiting his soul in mercy. I was
speaking of my intention to visit the Karen settlements, when he said, 'I
should like to accompany you. Sir.' 'Were you a believer in the Gospel
yourself,' said I, 'it might be well for you to go; but as long as you
are an unbeliever, you cannot profitably recommend the Gospel to others.'
'I do believe the Gospel,' he replied, 'with my heart, and I pity the
poor Karens, and want to tell them of the Saviour. For the last nine or
ten days, I have been thinking of my former bad condition and my ill
deserts; I have felt persuaded that if I die in unbelief I must sink to
hell, where there is no deliverance. I see my past sins and follies and
repent of them. I have no hope but in Jesus Christ, who died to save lost
sinners. His mercy is very great, in not only delivering from hell, but
in imparting endless bliss in heaven. O, how great is his grace. He did
not spare his own life, but laid it down for us.' When I reminded him of
the danger of self-deception, and its dreadful consequences, he said, 'If
we fail in this one thing, the failure is immense. As to gold, or silver,
or worldly riches, they last but a moment; but the pains of hell and the
joys of heaven are interminable. Repentance in hell may be pungent, but
it will be unavailing. _Now_ is the time to repent, that we may be
saved.' On my inquiring whether he thought he could keep the law of
supreme love to God, and of love to man, he said, 'Of myself, I can do
nothing at all. If Christ grant me his grace, I can fulfil the will of
God.' He said many other things of an encouraging nature.

"Sept. 13. An interesting, intelligent and amiable young man, who has
visited me several times, and taken some portions of Scripture, called
again to-day, and gave me some reasons to hope that a work of grace is
begun in his heart. He wishes to study the English language, that he may
understand the Scriptures better.

"Sept. 19. Moung Yay, who on several former occasions has visited the
zayat, and urged me to study the Burman books, called again this
afternoon; and though less insolent than usual, he could not leave
without expressing his regret that I had not learnt the
THADAH-SHUTSOUNG,* and then uttered the usual adage,
_Thadah-ma-tat-tsah-ma-tat_; that is, not to understand the Pali Grammar,
is not to understand books. I told him I intended to study the _Thadah_,
and proposed to pay him if he would teach it to me. 'Ah,' said he, 'I am
incapable; I have not studied it myself. On further inquiry, I found
there was not a person in Tavoy qualified to teach me the book, which he
declared must be studied, before I could preach to the Burmans. This,
however, it was evident, was only a plea to get rid of attending to the
Gospel.

[Footnote: * That is, eight parts of speech, a Pali Grammar, the
acquisition of which is the highest attainment in knowledge.]

"Sept. 30. Moung Oo-lah, the interesting young man mentioned on the 13th
instant, called at the zayat. Divine light seems to be gaining admission
into his mind; and, to use his own words, he begins to believe the
Gospel, but is unable, of himself, to distinguish truth from error. I was
much pleased with his childlike spirit, and directed him to several
passages of Scripture, where we are taught to distrust our own
reasonings, and to ask wisdom of God. He seemed much affected at the
thought of God's enlightening the mind, and changing the heart.

Oct. 1, 1828. This is the season of the year for several general
festivals, and the people are so much engaged in adorning their kyoungs
and pagodas, and in attending to the instructions of their priests, that
our zayat is almost deserted. But our trust is in the Lord, who, in his
own time, will vindicate his cause.

"Oct. 8. Several persons at the zayat, among whom was a learned man, with
whom I had considerable conversation. He has obtained a little knowledge
of the Gospel, and seldom opposes; but still he says he prefers
annihilation to heaven.

"Oct. 9. Ko-thah-byoo returned from the Karen villages, where he has
spent the last ten days in making known the Gospel to his countrymen. The
Karen teacher, or rather conjurer, mentioned in former journals, came
with him and appeared somewhat tamed and in his right mind. He now says
he will practise no more jogar's tricks and ceremonies, but will, from
the heart, worship the eternal God and his son, Jesus Christ.

"Oct. 22. Impressed with a sense of our own sins, and our need of
quickening grace, and the importance of a revival of religion among us,
our little church, consisting of six in all, observed this day as a
season of humiliation, fasting and prayer. We hope it has not been in
vain. Fervent prayers were offered up by all the brethren, some in
English, and some in the Burman language. May the Lord graciously
condescend to hear our supplications.

"Oct. 28. Conversing with a Daway to-day, I inquired which were the
better people, the Daway's, with Gaudama's religion, or the Karens with
no religion at all. He decided in favor of the Karens. Boodhism has many
excellent precepts, but as fear and hope are the only passions to which
it appeals, it is destitute of life and energy, and is incompetent to
produce good men. It tells of no condescending, bleeding, dying love. It
points to no expiring Saviour. No love is kindled up in the heart by the
exhibition of a 'greater love.' Religion with a Boodhist is a mere
bargain with his own interest. Sin is not sinful, only as it involves the
sinner in suffering; in like manner, goodness is not good, only as it has
its reward. The Boodhist has no God to please or to offend, and his own
interest is all the motive that acts upon him. This self-interest,
powerful as it is in many cases, cannot restrain a man from the present
indulgence of a depraved inclination, by the fear of a distant evil, as
the hope of a distant good. These remarks are confirmed by the state of
morals here, supposing even Boodhism to be the true test of morality.
Where we see the city wholly given up to idolatry, and yet negligent of
the morality which their own idolatry prescribes, we feel that our work
is indeed hard. But the same divine energy which gave life to the bones
in Ezekiel's vision, can raise up an exceeding great army in this place
to glorify his name.

"Oct. 29. Noung Boke, a learned Burman, has recently made me frequent
visits; and though he is haughty, self-sufficient, and sometimes
disrespectful in his manner, I have some little hope that he is
_considering_. To-day he made some pertinent and serious inquiries about
prayer. On leaving me he said, when he should be at leisure he would
attend more constantly on my instructions, and read our books. I fear
that convenient time will never come.

"Nov. 12. Ko-thah-byoo returned from another tour to the Karen villages,
with ten of his countrymen, several of whom profess to have become
converts to Christ. One of the more promising is the chieftain before
mentioned.

"Nov. 14. Two of the Karens have expressed their determination to live
according to the Gospel, and solicited further instruction preparatory to
being baptized.

"Moung Boke, the learned man mentioned October 29, came and spent an hour
with me. He has lost none of his roughness or self-importance. Still he
gives me a little hope that he feels some uneasiness about his state. He
inquired more about prayer, and manifested considerable interest in the
question whether God will hear the prayer of Burmans. He said he had two
minds. I told him, that, according to the Apostle James, such a man was
'unstable in all his ways.' He acknowledged that James was right. After
leaving the zayat, I heard him say to himself as he walked away, 'these
words are all good words.'

"Nov. 23. Ko-Moung after an absence of two or three months, came into the
zayat this afternoon. He says he has been out of town. He has made no
proficiency since I last saw him, but keeps up his old story, 'I dare not
reject your words, neither dare I set at naught all that my ancestors and
the wise men and priests have believed and taught.' 'If,' said I, 'you
should set one of your feet in one boat, and the other in another, and
those boats should separate, you would surely sink between them.' He said
he understood me, but that it was hard to give up Gaudama. 'If,' replied
I, 'you were drowning in the ocean, and a plank should float near you,
you would seize upon it. But if the plank, being insufficient to support
you, was sinking under you, and a good safe boat should be sent to
relieve you, would you not quit the plank and take to the boat?' He
smiled, and said it was fine reasoning. This man always admires
instruction, but never puts it in practice.

"Nov. 30. Noung Boke came again. He is one of the most crusty, crabbed,
dogmatical, captious old men I have ever seen. Hard, cold, and moveless
as a pillar of stone, he is not affected by any of the considerations
that can be urged upon him. Coarse and slovenly in his personal
appearance, abrupt and uncourteous in his address, he possesses not a
single quality to win or to please. Still he hangs about me, and I
sometimes think he feels convinced that the truth is on our side. He
seldom opposes; and as seldom acknowledges anything, but says he comes to
_hear_. When he does oppose, it is with his characteristic bluntness.

"Dec. 4, 1828. Received notice, that in one month we must remove from the
house we now occupy. We must of course erect one of our own,--sorry to
leave my favorite work to build houses.

"Dec. 8. A large number of Karens came, and desired me to go out with
them to their villages. But as they are not all prepared to receive my
intended visit, and as I am very much engaged in building, and, besides,
am not quite well, I have prevailed on them to wait another month."

On the 9th of the month, Mr. Boardman experienced the first of those
alarming symptoms of disease,--an expectoration of blood,--which are the
almost certain precursors of approaching dissolution. We feel a
reluctance at being thus early arrested in our anticipations of his
future success as a missionary. The first discharges of blood were rather
copious, and continued through the day; though he expressed some doubts
as to the source whence they proceeded, whether from the lungs or from
the throat. They ceased, however, soon after, and on the 11th he remarks,
"I am again as well as usual. I desire to bless God for afflicting and
restoring mercies."

"Dec. 11. Ko-thah-byoo accompanied his Karen friends in a third tour to
their villages in the wilderness. Before leaving me, Moung So, the
chieftain, professed to be a decided Christian, and we have some reason
to hope his profession is sincere.

"Dec. 31. Our house, which we began on the 9th inst. is nearly finished,
and we intended to remove into it tomorrow. But on remembering that it is
customary with many good people in America to spend new year's day in a
religious manner, we concluded to defer our removal another day, that we
might unite with our dear friends in our native land in their devotional
exercises."

In the following letter addressed to his parents, Mr. Boardman among
other things, contrasts the circumstances of ministers in America with
those of the missionary in heathen lands.

"Very dear Parents,

"On the 27th of July, we had the pleasure of receiving your letters of
May, 1827, and in two days from that time had the additional pleasure of
receiving those written in October. A few days afterwards, we were,
through the mercy of our heavenly Father, made the joyful parents of a
little son.

"As to our work among the heathen, we feel that we must plant, and water
our planting with tears. God alone can give the harvest. Of ourselves we
can do nothing. We are often ashamed and confounded under a sense of our
inadequacy to the great work before us, and wonder that God should deign
to employ such unworthy means in accomplishing his great designs of love
and mercy to the heathen. We regard it as our greatest privilege to spend
and be spent in this cause; but we want to enjoy more daily communion
with God in order to the acceptableness of our services, and to the
animated and cheerful endurance of the discouragements connected with our
station. 'My leanness, my leanness,' is the almost daily language of my
heart. But Christ strengthens us a little, and we urge on our way. Heaven
is a word which sounds inexpressibly sweet to our ears. Rest! rest from
sin and impurity, in a view of God and the Lamb that shall change us
entirely into the same image; these are the things we want.

"As to outward trials we have no disposition to complain. We can endure
the burning suns of India,--can subsist on a diet to which we were wholly
unaccustomed in early life,--can be separated from Christian society and
the dear friends we most tenderly love; we can submit to many things
which to persons engaged in other pursuits would be deemed hardships; we
can endure toil, and fatigue, and sufferings, without complaining; but we
are pained to see so many heathen urging their way on to perdition
without knowing whither they are bound. To us, a life of inactivity and
unprofitableness seems more to be deprecated, than one of fatigue and
suffering in the cause of our divine Master. A sense of our
responsibility sometimes fills our hearts with solemn dread. We are
situated among a people, where there is not more than one missionary to
thirty thousand souls. People in America have all learnt something of the
Gospel; they have seen it exemplified in the lives of the pious; they are
literally trained up in the knowledge of God. Not so with the people
among whom we live. They know not the simplest rudiments of the Gospel,
have never seen it exemplified, and have not the most distant idea of a
God, who made and governs the world. A pastor in America has the
co-operation of the officers of the church, and of other active and
efficient members, whose counsel he can take in cases of emergency. Many
also of his people can give a word of exhortation,--engage in prayer, and
conduct the devotions in social worship. Many too are actively engaged in
Sabbath school instruction, and various other means of promoting the
spiritual interest of his congregation. The missionary here has no such
helps. He has no officers in his church on whom to depend,--none to
exhort, to engage in public prayer, to conduct the services at social
meetings, and to impart religious instruction to the rising generation.
His most able and best informed church members, if he have any, are but
novices in religion, and need his constant care and nursing. The pastor
in America has brethren in the ministry near at hand, whose assistance
and advice he may easily obtain. But the missionary sees no Christian's
face perhaps for months, and however great his trials, he may mourn over
them alone. Were the large congregations in America to sink down to the
state of ours in this place, Jeremiah's lamentations would not be
mournful enough to express the sorrows of the pastor's heart."

In a letter to the Corresponding Secretary, he thus speaks of some of the
peculiar discouragements attending his labors at Tavoy.

"In all our operations here, we have one serious impediment, of which I
have taken but little notice in my journal. The language spoken by the
Daways, especially the women, differs so materially from pure Burman,
that many Burmans, who have resided in Tavoy ten or fifteen years, have
told me that they could not speak it, or even understand it when spoken
by others. It is a peculiar dialect, not to be found in any books, and
can be learnt only by accurate attention to words and sounds as uttered
by Tavoy people. This circumstance renders it almost impossible to speak
to some classes of persons, especially to females.

"Another discouraging circumstance is the entire want of principle among
the people. Though Boodhists by profession, and very zealous on worship
and festival days, they are notoriously addicted to drunkenness,
falsehood, opium-smoking, gambling, cock-fighting, buffalo-baiting, and
their kindred vices, all which are now prohibited in their own sacred
books. Their consciences, by such constant violations, become defiled and
hardened. Besides, several persons who first encouraged us to hope that
they were under some serious impressions of truth, have turned out to be
bad men, and on finding that I discountenanced their pernicious habits,
they left us altogether. Our only trust is in God. Our heart's desire and
prayer is, that he will appear and revive his work."

In addition to the above discouragements, he had experienced others still
more severe. One of the native converts, who had given satisfactory
evidence of piety, and had received the sacrament, became guilty of
immoral conduct, and was afterwards excluded from their little church.
This, to Mr. B. was like the cutting off of his right hand. He thus
speaks of it: "For some time past the conduct of Moung Bo has given us
pain. We are now called to sorrow over those, who, till lately, have
given us uniform pleasure. The evidence that he had been indulging in
sins covertly from the first, was so satisfactory, that we found it
necessary to exclude him from our little church. How painful was the
stroke to us all! O, who can tell the agonies we have this evening felt!
These are a missionary's trials, and we expected to experience such
things. May God sanctify them to us."

In view of these disheartening circumstances we are not surprised when we
hear him holding the following plaintive language:

"It is now several months since I began to preach the Gospel publicly in
this place. A large number of people attended at first, and gave me some
encouragement to hope they would become true converts. But when the
novelty of the subject ceased, and curiosity was gratified, and
especially when the priests saw the tendency of the Gospel to subvert
idolatry, the people left me. The Gospel is now known in some small
degree by many in Tavoy, and is known only to be despised and neglected.
The zayat is nearly deserted; many who once offered us some
encouragement, have fallen off like blighted blossoms, and we are left to
trust entirely to the promises of God. I scarcely know a single outward
circumstance suited to encourage us. Every thing looks dark and
unpromising. How long affairs will remain so, is known only to Him in
whose name we trust. We are not required to _convert_ the heathen, but to
_preach the Gospel to them_, and God, in his own time and way, will
bestow converting grace. We feel deeply impressed with our own
helplessness and insufficiency. But if God has a work for us to do here,
we are willing and waiting to execute his commands. We have no other
object on earth to accomplish but to serve God and our fellow men. For
this, and we trust, for this alone, do we desire our hitherto
unprofitable lives to be protracted. Yes, we are willing to spend our
life, whether it be long or short, in this service.

"At present none come to the house, or to the zayat for instruction. The
ways of our little Zion truly mourn because few come to her solemn
feasts. Lord, wilt thou not revive us again, that thy people may rejoice
in thee? If these troubles serve truly to humble us, and make us feel our
entire dependence on God, they will not have been sent in vain.

"The great confusion we are in at present, being just on the point of
removing to our new habitation, prevents my making such reflections in my
journal as the close of the year would seem to suggest and demand. I
cannot, however, suppress our conviction of the importance of our looking
more constantly to God for grace to qualify us for our work, and for
success to attend our efforts. We have been, of late, more deeply
impressed than ever, with the necessity of our being entirely engaged,
both body and soul, in our work. At the same time, we are fully aware
that God alone can give us success in our toils. But this circumstance,
instead of discouraging us, should only excite our zeal in labor, and our
importunity in prayer."

In tracing Mr. Boardman's movements thus far, we see nothing deserving of
censure, but much to admire and imitate. If his success had not been
quite equal to his expectations, it was such as ought certainly to have
afforded, and probably did afford encouragement in relation to the
future. The prospects which opened upon him with so much promise, on his
entrance into Tavoy, had indeed become a little obscured by the madness
of the heathen upon their idols, their refusal to receive religious
instruction, and by the apostacy of some who had avowed themselves the
disciples of Christ. These things were calculated to operate as
discouragements, and to try the strength of his Christian graces; they
composed a part of the preparatory discipline by which God was fitting
him for more extensive usefulness. Brighter and better days were in
reserve for him, as to the success of his enterprise, and he hailed them,
as we shall hereafter learn, with devout gratitude to God.

While he was thus toiling alone at Tavoy, not indeed without considerable
success, but in the midst of opposition and discouragement, his brethren
at Maulmein were enjoying a season of refreshing from the presence of the
Lord, the fruits of which served greatly to encourage their hearts, as
well as to awaken a deeper and more general interest in the American
churches. Up to the twentieth of May, a number had given evidence of
piety, six of whom had been baptized, five males and one female. Among
those baptized were two who gave pleasing evidence that God had called
them to testify the Gospel of his grace to their benighted countrymen.
Several others who had not been baptized, were hopefully pious.



CHAPTER XV.
Mr. Boardman's first tour into the Karen jungle--Baptisms--Visit to the
prison in Tavoy--Execution of a bandit.


ON the 2d of Jan. 1829, Mr. Boardman with his family removed into the
house which he had erected for himself on a site best calculated to
facilitate his intercourse with the people of Tavoy. Having become
quietly settled again in his own habitation, he resumed his labors with
fresh ardor. Towards the close of the month, two Karens, who had
travelled several days' journey with the expectation of finding him at
some of their settlements, on being disappointed, came three days'
journey further to see him at the mission premises, and to receive his
instructions. One of them was from the province of Mergui. He informed
Mr. Boardman that the Karens in Tavoy, Mergui, and Tenasserim, had heard
of him and were desirous to receive his instruction. Soon after, several
others arrived from the eastern settlements. They stated to him that the
people in those places were anxiously waiting his arrival among them. A
number of them had some time previously expressed a desire to be
baptized, but had been advised to defer the ordinance for a season, that
they might become better acquainted with the nature of that sacrament,
and with the general principles of the Gospel.

The following is a sketch of his first tour to the Karen villages:

"Feb. 5th. Having committed my beloved family, the little church, and the
schools, to the care of an ever kind and watchful Providence, I set out
this morning on my long expected visit to the Karens. Besides myself, the
company consists of Ko-thah-byoo, and another Karen, who professes to
believe in Christ, two of the largest boys in the school, and a Malabar
man who serves as cook. We left home at 9 o'clock, A. M. and directed our
course eastward towards Tshick-koo, the village of Moung So. For the
first two hours and a half, we passed along a winding footpath, over
hills and rice-fields, with here and there a little hamlet, or a single
hut, and almost as often a pagoda on the summit of a hill or cliff. In
this region, almost every conspicuous point of land, promontory, cliff
and peak, is tipped with a pagoda. At noon we entered into the thick
jungle of bamboos, and pursued our way, a little relieved by the shade
from the scorching rays of a tropical sun. Soon after we met a company of
men sent by the governor of the city, to await the arrival of a large
party of Taleings and Karens, with elephants, from Bankock, the capital
of Siam; for narrow, unfrequented, and untrodden, as our pathway was, it
was the high road between Siam and Tavoy. At two o'clock, we were
overtaken with a heavy shower, for which we were quite unprepared, this
being the driest and hottest season of the year. A considerable part of
our baggage was wet, but, providentially, my papers and books, consisting
of a Bible, Brainerd's Memoirs, and a few portions of Scripture, were
preserved. At four o'clock, after ascending a steep hill by a path
entirely paved with bricks, we came in sight of a pagoda, perched on the
tip of a ragged cliff. On ascending by a ladder the lower story of the
pagoda, I cast my eyes down, and almost directly under my feet lay a
large sheet of water, blackened by a countless number of small fish. On
inquiry, I learnt that the priests having pronounced them sacred to the
pagoda, and having imprecated the most dreadful curses, such as leprosy,
fever, death and hell, on all who shall presume to take them, the Daways
and Karens not only leave them to multiply and fill the waters, but deem
it an act of merit to feed them with rice and fruits; and offerings which
they have so long been accustomed to receive from passing travellers and
worshippers at the pagoda, have made them familiar with the sight of man,
and taught them to regard him as their friend; and like their patrons,
the priests, they wait to receive tribute from all that pass. Their
boldness on our passing, cost one of them his life, and furnished us a
good repast for the evening. One of our company, not fearing the wrath
nor the curses of the priests, struck a spear into the water, which
transfixed one of the fattest of them.

"At five o'clock, we encamped, having travelled about eighteen miles. As
there was no house in the region, we were obliged to lodge in the open
air, which cost us another drenching, much more complete than that we
received in the afternoon. While we were taking our food, a heavy black
cloud arose in the east, accompanied with lightning; and the increasingly
loud peals of thunder admonished us to provide ourselves a shelter. But
before we could collect suitable materials, the rain began to pour down
in torrents, and we exposed our persons to the peltings of the shower,
rather than our books and remaining dry clothes. Having covered these
with leaves, we took patiently what fell upon us. Some lay down on the
wet, cold ground, without a covering, and sleep soon made them insensible
to the severity of the storm. Others kindled a fire and gathered around
it, waiting for the rain to cease. This afforded us some opportunity for
spiritual conversation, after which one of the company engaged in prayer.
During the day, I had been affected with the thought of my unworthiness
to be employed in carrying the tidings of salvation, even to the wild men
of the wilderness, and had appropriated to myself the language of Moses,
'If thy presence go not with us, carry us not up hence.' With these
sentiments, after imploring a divine blessing on my absent family, and
the church, and our present undertaking, I prepared for rest. At midnight
the rain ceased, the stars shone forth, and I lay down and rested in
quiet until the morning.

"Feb. 6. Rose early, and felt truly grateful that we had been so much
refreshed, and had been preserved from illness, and from the tigers and
wild elephants which infest this forest. After breakfast and worship, we
proceeded on our journey. We soon began to meet detached parts of the
company from Siam, and as they had never seen a white man before, some of
them were a little startled at meeting me. In one case, an alarm was
struck, as a warning to the people to be on their guard. At noon we began
to pass the high range of mountains, which separates the Karen
settlements from the Daway villages. The ascent was extremely difficult
and fatiguing, as our route lay mostly over cliffs and precipices, often
also across large streams, which run through the defiles in the
mountains, and formed the way-marks of our path. The banks on each side
rose mountains high, and shut out from our view the whole surrounding
scenery. Spent with hunger and fatigue, at four o'clock we left the
mountains, and having passed several remains of old stockades, erected by
the Burmese to prevent the incursions of the Siamese, we were so happy,
at six o'clock, as to descry at a little distance a miserable hut, the
first abode of man we had seen since yesterday noon. It was occupied by
two or three families of Karens, but soon as we reached it, the
hospitable people gave up their own rooms to us, spread a mat for my bed
and a bamboo for my pillow. I threw myself upon these, and soon forgot
that my bed was hard. Seldom, if ever in my life, have I been so much
fatigued. Our hosts soon set before us a good plate of rice, on which we
fed with thankful hearts. After worship, in which our hosts united with
us, we lay down and slept.

"Feb. 7. At eleven o'clock we reached the village of Moung Pyee, the
chief man of the largest district of Karens in the province of Tavoy. But
as he had been ill for several weeks, and had removed to another place,
no preparation had been made to receive us, and we passed on, thinking
that on our return, we might find some of the people in readiness to
assemble and hear the Gospel. At noon we met a younger brother of Moung
So, and several others, who, hearing of our approach, had come out to
welcome us, and assist in conveying our baggage. At this, I 'thanked God
and took courage,' judging that the people felt interested in our visit.
After refreshing ourselves, and receiving much hospitality at a village
called Ky-wai-thah-khoung, we proceeded, and through the kindness and
preserving care of our heavenly Father, at three o'clock we arrived in
safety at Tshick-kar, the village of Moung So.

"This is the utmost eastern limit of our journey, and, indeed, of the
settlements this side of Siam. Here we found a very convenient zayat
erected for our accommodation, and large enough for the whole village,
consisting of sixty or seventy persons. The people soon began to
assemble, and showed us all the kindness in their power; bringing us
presents of fowls, ducks' eggs, yams, fish, plantains, various sorts of
rice, and everything which the village could furnish. Their countenances
beamed with joy at seeing us, and they said, 'Ah, you have come at last;
we have long been wishing to see you.' Moung So, ill as he was with a
fever, soon came and continued day and night with us in the zayat. In the
evening about thirty persons assembled, and I addressed them from John
iii. 16. 'God so loved the world,' &c. They listened attentively, and
many of them spent the whole night in the zayat with me. Moung So, Moung
Kyah and Moung Kyah's father-in-law, in particular, seemed perfectly
delighted, and gave the profoundest attention to the words both of
myself, and of Ko-thah-byoo, who interpreted, in Karen, as much of my
discourse as he could recollect. By this means, the women and others who
did not understand Burman, were enabled to hear, in their own language,
the wonderful works of God.

"Feb. 8. Lord's-day. Early in the morning, people of both sexes and all
ages, about fifty in number, came with presents. After breakfast, I
addressed them from Acts xvi. 31; 'Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and
thou shalt be saved.' After I had done speaking, while Ko-thah-byoo was
interpreting in Karen, I took up Brainerd's Memoirs, and felt condemned
and humbled, from the consciousness that I had so little fervor of
devotion, so little spiritual-mindedness, so little, in fine, of all
those qualifications required in a missionary to the heathen. Still, I
felt that I had a little compassion for the poor Karens, and some ardent
desires for their conversion. Lord, increase my faith, my love, my zeal
for thy glory, and for the salvation of sinners.

"At noon preached from Matthew; 'Come unto me, all ye that labor and are
heavy laden,' &c. About fifty persons were present, and the attention was
better than in the morning. The people seemed to understand and relish
the word spoken. During the afternoon the people dispersed, and I had
some pleasure in retirement and prayer. The words of the Apostle,
'receive with _meekness_ the _ingrafted_ word, which is _able_ to save
your souls,' were very comforting to me. In the evening preached again to
the usual congregation, on love to God and our neighbor. The people paid
respectful attention, and seemed unwilling to leave the place. Fatigued
now with the labors of the day, I prepared for rest; but just as I was
about to retire, five persons came forward and declared their faith in
Christ, and their desire to be baptized. The names of three of them were
Moung So, Moung Kyah and Moung Kyah's father-in-law. They had, several
months previous, requested baptism, and although they gave some evidence
of piety, it was thought best to defer the administration of the
ordinance till I should visit them. Their appearance and conduct since I
came among them, has strengthened my hope respecting them. Of the other
two, one was Apyah-thee, the old sorcerer, who had been the depositary of
the book, mentioned in former journals. The fifth was a disciple of the
old man; his name is Shau-oung. Of the two last, I have many fears; but
concluded to suspend judgment respecting them all till morning.

"Feb. 9. The people assembled early. Endeavored to decide on the proper
course to be pursued in relation to the applicants for baptism. After
much deliberation and prayer, I thought best to defer the ordinance. At
nine o'clock, addressed the people from Paul's discourse on Mars' Hill.
The consciences of not a few gave testimony, we hope, in favor of divine
truth. The attention was close and solemn. Before services were ended,
messengers arrived to inform us that a zayat was ready, and the people
waiting to receive us at the small village where we refreshed ourselves
on the day of our arrival at this place. As we had finished our business
at Tshick-koo, I promised the messengers I would come to their village
early to-morrow morning, and spend the day with them. With this
arrangement they seemed much pleased. May the Lord be with us there, as
we trust he has been with us here. Had a comfortable season this morning
in prayer for myself, my dear family, the church, the schools, and the
cause of Christ in general. In the evening discoursed to the people from
the decalogue, together with the spiritual comment on it given by our
Lord. Much interest was manifested by all, and at the close, many
inquired to know how they could remember (recollect) the Sabbath day. The
interest they manifested on this subject, greatly encouraged me to hope
that they are truly desirous of being conformed in their lives and
conduct to the requisitions of God's word. After much conversation, we
composed ourselves to sleep, nearly half the congregation remaining in
the zayat all night, that they might take leave of me in the morning.

"Feb. 10. Rose early, and addressed the people from the 19th Psalm, after
which, I gave them a copy of the Psalms so far as they are translated
into Burman. This fulfils my engagement with the old sorcerer, on his
giving up his Prayer Book with the Psalms.

"On leaving, Moung Kyah and his father-in-law accompanied us to the next
village, to hear more of the word of life, and to assist in carrying the
baggage. Moung So would doubtless have gone with us, but the state of his
health would not allow. He was so anxious to hear all that was said, that
he scarcely left the zayat from the evening of our arrival at his
village, till we took our leave. We left Tshick-koo at 7, and at 9
o'clock arrived at Kywai-thah-khoung, the village to which we had been
invited. The people soon began to collect, small and great, with
presents, all seeming desirous to please and make us comfortable. After
breakfast, Ko-thah-byoo discoursed to them in Karen, an hour or two, on
the being and perfections of God. They seemed not quite so attentive and
serious as at Tshick-koo, but the two candidates for baptism, who had
accompanied us, set them an example of listening with most profound
attention. In the afternoon, and again in the evening, I spoke to them on
the duty and subject of prayer. The congregation consisted of about
forty, only a small number of whom understood Burman. The attention,
however, was serious, especially in the evening.

"During the interval of worship, had much satisfaction in reading and
meditating on Col. chap. 3.--descriptive of the future glorification of
the saints. In prayer, also, had much enlargement of soul. The world and
all its allurements lost their charms, and I desired to live entirely to
God and his precious cause.

"Feb. 12th. Rose early, and enjoyed some comfort in prayer in the woods,
also, in reading Brainerd's Memoirs. After a most fatiguing journey of
twenty-two miles over rocks and mountains, in ascending one of which, one
of our company threw himself upon the ground as if to die, we at last
reached the place of our destination, and found the zayat prepared for
our accommodation. Thah-shee was ill of a fever, but the people soon
began to assemble, and one man, who had heard the Gospel repeatedly from
Ko-thah-byoo, presented a request for Christian baptism. Shortly after,
another man made a similar request. I advised them to defer the ordinance
for the present. After delivering a short address to the people and
engaging in prayer, we retired to rest. But our rest was short. Before we
had all fallen asleep, the rain began to pour down in torrents, and as
the zayat was covered only with bamboo mats, with nothing to screen us
from the wind and rain at the sides, both we and our baggage were soon
drenched in the shower. It was in vain that we spread additional mats
over us. All our wearing apparel was wet, and the rain beat through the
mats incessantly. At midnight it was proposed to remove from the zayat to
a small house not far distant, which the hospitable inhabitants had
vacated for our use. Having removed and kindled a large fire, we dried a
few clothes to sleep in, and lay down again in quietness till morning.
This is the second night we have been without a shelter since we left
home. Each of these nights it has rained, yet, with gratitude we
acknowledge it, we have not taken the slightest cold.

"Feb, 14th. After addressing a few people, who assembled early in the
morning, we took our leave and proceeded homeward. The hope of soon being
in the bosom of my dear family, gave strength to my limbs and agility to
my feet. The golden pagodas of the city soon rose in the distance, and at
four o'clock, after having travelled more than a hundred miles in the
wilderness, and preached seventeen times, I had the pleasure of reaching
home, and of finding all healthful and happy. My heart throbbed with
love, gratitude, and praise.

"Bless the Lord, O my soul, and all that is within me, bless his holy
name. Bless the Lord, O my soul, and forget not all his benefits."

The state of readiness to receive him, in which Mr. B. found the villages
visited in this tour, the kindness and humanity manifested by many in
relinquishing their own homes to furnish him with a shelter from the
storm, their hospitality as expressed in their little rustic presents for
refreshment after his long and tedious journey, and above all, the fixed
attention of the people to his instructions, their apparent interest in
all that he said, and their earnest solicitations for further
instruction, all conspired to render this first excursion into the
wilderness of the Karens, one of cheering interest and promise. Unless
frequent disappointments had checked the ardor of expectation, he must
have returned to his family with high hopes that the light of the Gospel
was about to pour in among those hills and mountains, guiding the wild
men of the forest to the Lamb of God.

But events in divine providence are often such as to humble the pride of
man, and destroy within him the spirit of self-complacency. The day of
adversity may generally be expected to follow, and at no great distance
the day of prosperity. God hath set the one over against the other. In
relation to the little company of hopeful converts to Christ, Mr.
Boardman, on his return from this deeply interesting tour, did not find
all things as he could have wished. On a former occasion, he was called,
as we have seen, to withdraw fellowship from one of their small church,
viz. Moung Bo. Other trials of a similar nature now awaited him. The
reader will perceive that a tinge of melancholy rested upon his spirit
while he described the circumstance alluded to. The apostacy of an
individual in any church is deeply painful to the heart of the faithful
pastor; much more so to the heart of the missionary who has the charge of
a little handful only of professed disciples, whom he has been
instrumental in rescuing from the darkness of paganism. Here the loss is
more severely felt, because the number is so small; but most, because a
stain is brought upon the Christian profession in the sight of the
heathen. Under the following date, he thus writes:

"March 2d. It is now about four months since God began to chastise this
little church. Not long after our arrival at Tavoy, we began to entertain
hopes that the arm of the Lord was about to be made bare in the salvation
of sinners. Two persons, young men of talents and promise, professed
their attachment to the Gospel, and as far as we with our limited
experience could judge, were truly converted. They were accordingly
baptized, and the day of their baptism was to us a day of triumph and
holy exultation. At the same time six others professed to be converted,
and requested baptism. We thought that the day of emancipation from the
darkness and thraldom of idolatry had begun to dawn on the people of
Tavoy. But our rejoicing was short. Soon one of the baptized began to
grieve us, and though he sometimes appeared to relent, we saw with deep
anguish of soul that he daily became more alienated from us and from
Christ. Admonition, expostulation, and temporary suspension were tried,
but in vain. A day of fasting and prayer was appointed, and he attended.
He appeared for the time to be penitent, but soon relapsed further than
before, and quite forsook us."

Mr. Boardman here descants in melancholy strains on a variety of other
discouraging circumstances connected with the history of the mission. He
then, alluding to his recent absence among the Karens, proceeds as
follows:

"Meanwhile, the second of the baptized had dishonored his profession.
After an ineffectual trial of all the mild means of Christian discipline,
we were obliged to separate him entirely from our fellowship. Our church
is now reduced to four. Every outward circumstance is discouraging, and
the burden of our hearts is increased rather than diminished. Under these
circumstances, we have resolved to seek the Lord's face and favor, until
we find some mitigation of our sorrow; and at the same time to direct our
labors more particularly to the children of the schools, and other
persons connected with our family, or under our influence. And O, may
God, in infinite compassion, look upon us and send relief."

_Extract of a letter to Mr. T. B. R----, of Bangor, Me._

"_Tavoy, April 7th_, 1829.

"Dear Brother,

"We are happy to hear of the prosperity of Zion in other places, if her
ways mourn here. Pray for us that we also may be revived, that we may
again rejoice in the God of our salvation.

"We have had much trouble in our little church. It seems sometimes as if
Satan not only desired to have us, but had actually taken us, and would
sift us as wheat. If our faith fail not under our sore trials, I hope we
may be such monuments of grace as to strengthen our brethren.

"For a few weeks past, our church has had a little reviving in her
bondage, and two precious souls, which one year ago were dark as
midnight, appear to be enjoying the light of life. But the great mass of
the people here remain yet unaffected. O, it is heart-rending to witness
their utter heedlessness. Conscious to themselves that they are living
almost entirely contrary to the precepts of their own religion, and
knowing of no way whatever for a poor sinner to escape the punishment due
to his sins, they have no ear to hear, no heart to understand the truths
of the Gospel. But I bless God that the time is coming when it will not
be so. Where sin has abounded, grace will superabound. Christ shall
reign. The truth shall prosper; and whether it be during the short space
of my life or not, is a matter of little moment. God will accomplish his
work. Only we want more prayers. Give us more prayers and more
missionaries, and the work will go on."

_Journal continued._

"March 3. Moung So, the head man of Tshick-koo village, with another
Karen, who requested baptism during my late tour, arrived at this place
on Lord's-day evening, and repeated their request to be received. As we
are all encouraged to hope well of them, they will, probably, be received
before long. We feel, however, the need of proceeding with cautious
steps.

"March 4. A very respectable looking old Karen, said to be the chief of
his nation in the province of Mergui, was introduced by Ko-thah-byoo. He
states that all the Karens in Mergui and Tenasserim have heard of us, and
his great desire to see us had brought him thus far from home. After
listening to the Gospel awhile, he took his leave, saying he would return
in the evening.

"Ko-thah-byoo has concluded, with our approbation, to go out on a
missionary tour of several weeks. It is surprising how magnanimous a
naturally weak man becomes, when the spirit of Christ and the love of
souls inspire him. This poor Karen, who, to say the least, does not exult
in intellectual endowment or human learning, is continually devising new
and judicious plans of doing good. 'There are,' said he, 'the districts
of Pai and Palan, and several other places near the mouth of the river,
where there are many Karen settlements, which I wish to visit. There are
also many Karens in the province of Mergui; I wish to declare the Gospel
to them all. And, before long, I want to go across and visit the Karens
in Siam, and afterwards to visit Bassein, my native place, near Rangoon.
Many Karens live there.'"

"Such, in general, are the old man's plans. An event has occurred this
evening, which seems a providential indication of present duty. The old
Karen chief, who was here this morning, has desired Moung-thah-byoo to
accompany him to Mergui in his boat, promising, at the same time, to see
that he shall be conducted from one Karen village to another, till he
shall reach the province again. Should he go, he expects to be absent
five or six weeks.

"March 5. While conversing this morning with the two Karens, who are
waiting to be baptized, three of the largest boys in the school came, and
with much trepidation desired that they, too, might receive the
ordinance. They have all exhibited pleasing evidence of religious
impressions for some time past, and we hope well of them all. One of them
is a Karen, whom we took into our boarding-school last May. His name is
Sekkyee. Another, named Shway Hmong, is an Indo-Chinese, seventeen years
of age. He was formerly a Boodhist, and wore the yellow cloth for about a
year before coming to live with us. His prejudices against us were, at
first, very strong, but for the last three months they have been giving
way, and from being very refractory and ungovernable, has become quiet
and amiable. The other is Shway Kyo, (Stephen Chapin) the son of good old
Ma Men-lay. For a long time he has been somewhat serious, and has often
been heard at midnight engaged in prayer. He has a volatility of
character which is unfavorable, and we have our anxieties lest his
goodness should prove like the morning cloud and early dew. He is,
however, a child of many prayers, and we have our hopes. He and Shway
Hmong accompanied me in my late tour among the Karens, and it was during
that tour, that the latter says his mind became decided in favor of the
Gospel.

"Evening. The members of the church and about ten spectators, spent the
time from dark till near eleven o'clock, in prayer and religious
conversation, and in the examination of the three youths above named. Ma
Ay, also, Ko-thah-byoo's wife, underwent an examination in relation to
her Christian experience. She was formerly very ignorant and very wicked,
but under the care and instruction of her husband and Mrs. Boardman, she
has, within the last few months, become a very hopeful inquirer, and now
appears to be truly converted. She requested baptism three months ago.
This has been the most encouraging season we have enjoyed since coming to
Tavoy. Those present appeared deeply affected by a sense of divine
things. It was truly delightful to see so many persons attend in solemn
silence, and hang around the place till the late hour of the evening
admonished us to dissolve the meeting. No decision was formed respecting
the applicants for baptism. May the Lord direct us in these responsible
duties.

"March 8. A good number of Karens are now with us, and Ko-thah-byoo
spends night and day in reading and explaining to them the words of
eternal life. It seems as though the time for favoring this people had
come.

"March 10. Ma Ay, Ko-thah-byoo's wife, having given us satisfactory
evidence of piety, was this day baptized. The scene was solemn, but our
feelings on the occasion were somewhat chastened, by recollecting the
unworthy conduct of those last admitted to this ordinance. May the Lord
give stability and perseverance to his handmaid, and enable her to remain
steadfast unto the end. After the baptism, Ko-thah-byoo took leave of us,
to go on his tour among his countrymen.

"March 16. I have lately made inquiries in order to ascertain how many
children are learning to read in this city; and according to the best
computation I can make, there are not more than five girls and one
hundred and forty boys, learning to read, out of a Burman population of
six thousand. It has been ascertained, by a recent survey of schools in
this whole province, that not one person in a hundred is engaged in
literary pursuits. We have felt that there is a demand, an imperious
demand, for an extraordinary effort in this department of labor; and we
are now using means for the establishment of schools throughout the town.
Our plans, if successful, will involve expenses, and funds are requisite
to carry them into effect; but we feel assured that the Christian public
in America, will not allow so useful a department of missionary labor to
languish for want of support.

"March 20. Moung So, who came again on the 17th instant, and gave
additional evidence of being a sincere Christian, was to-day baptized.
Before going to the waterside, our family and schools were called
together for a prayer-meeting. Besides a discourse appropriate to the
occasion, three prayers were successively offered to the throne of grace.
Prayers again at the water. The scene was solemn and affecting. May the
God of all grace mercifully smile on our poor endeavors to promote his
kingdom."

Mr. Boardman visits the prison at Tavoy, and describes the execution of a
noted bandit.

"March 24. At the suggestion of Major Burney, I visited the jail to-day,
to converse with Nya-No, a notable thief and murderer, who is to be
executed this afternoon. For several years past, this man has been the
dread of this city and neighborhood. He has become so expert in iniquity
and in escaping the hands of his pursuers, that he has been supposed by
the natives to have intercourse with unseen spirits, and to be both
invincible and invulnerable. For two years past he has kept himself
concealed, or rather, I should say, has been harbored, in a small village
near the city. Large rewards have been offered in vain to such as would
deliver him up into the hands of justice. Suspicions having arisen that
he was concealed by the principal people of the village, search was made,
but in vain. The headman was deposed from office, and a new one placed in
his stead. But all these plans proved abortive. Two months ago, it was
reported that he had been seen in the village, and the whole town went
out to seize him. He was found, but could not be taken. He had armed
himself with large knives, and threatened instant death to the man that
should come nigh him. One person ventured, but receiving a deep wound in
the attempt, was forced to retreat. The inhabitants of the village were
now called up before the governor, and required to deliver him up within
fifteen days, or to pay a fine of 10,000 rupees, and have their wives and
children sold as slaves. This had the desired effect. The culprit was
soon delivered up into the hands of justice, and to-day he is to suffer
the penalty of the law. But in the full view of death, he protests his
innocence, and my heart sunk at witnessing his indifference and apathy in
reference to a future state. After expatiating on the nature and
magnitude of his sins, and the only way of acceptance and pardon, he
replied coldly, that he had lived in the daily practice of religious
rites, and only begged that his life might be spared. The Lord have mercy
on his soul.

"After conversing with him, I went through the prison to see its inmates.
It grieved and surprised me to find here one of my old acquaintances, a
learned man with whom I had had some religious conversation at the zayat,
sitting in chains among the rabble. Close by him lay sleeping another
head man, who had had the reputation of being a very religious character;
but having been detected in defrauding the public revenue to a great
extent, and in receiving bribes and perquisites which did not belong to
his office, had been drummed through the town in disgrace, and sentenced
to three years imprisonment. Next to him sat another inferior officer,
whom I recognized as one of the city police. In another part of the
prison, I found a man who had left the _priesthood_ so lately that his
hair, in priestly style, was still too short to be tied up.

"P. M. The prisoner has just gone past the zayat to the place of
execution. Miserable man! He will soon find himself, I fear, in a company
of beings still more diabolical, if possible, than himself and his former
associates. O, when will this sinful world be converted to God! When will
the last platform be dropped; the last executioner's office be performed,
and the inhabitants of the earth learn righteousness!

--'My heart is pained,
My soul is sick with every day's report
Of wrong and outrage with which earth is filled.'

The culprit will be swung off in a few moments. O, what a boon is time of
probation! a time to repent in, and a time to pray, a time to prepare for
death and judgment. Soon the great executioner will perform his last
office upon us all. May God enable me to spend the remnant of my days in
works of piety and labors of love to this benighted people.

"March 25. While in the prison yesterday, the thought occured to me that
Christian books distributed among the prisoners, might be read by them in
their leisure hours, and thus prove a blessing to their souls. I
accordingly visited the prison this morning, and after some religious
conversation left them a book to read. I intend to visit the prison on
Lord's-days, and converse with the inmates, as they are all within doors
and at leisure on that day.

"March 31. Boodhism is a long established religion with this people, and
though we believe the Spirit of God can easily subvert it, we have reason
to suppose, from the known character of the divine dispensations, that no
small effort must be made to break in upon the fortresses, and to
demolish the strong holds in which this people are intrenched. They
consider their religion their birth-right, and whether it be true or
false,--a fact which they take no pains to settle,--they are determined
to abide by it to the last extremity. The question, 'What is truth,' is
not in their creed. But 'Cut me in fifty pieces,' said a man the other
day, 'Cut me in fifty pieces; I will not give up the religion of my
ancestors. Whether it be true or false, I cannot tell; but I will part
with life sooner than with it.'

"April 8, 1829. Had a spirited conversation with several Burmans. At
first they endeavored to silence me by sneering, laughing, and jesting.
But being filled with compassion for their souls, I spoke freely of
Christ's sufferings and death, and a future judgment. At length they
became silent and attentive. Was never so badly used while exhibiting
truth, and never felt so much pleasure in suffering reproach for Jesus'
sake.

"April 12. Lord's-day. In making a comparison today between the present
and the past, I thought it worthy of observation, that although I have
not half so many visiters at the zayat as formerly, those who do come
stay longer, listen more attentively, and cavil less. Whether this is
owing to any change in my mode of address, I cannot tell. Formerly it was
my custom to begin my discourses by telling the people of a Supreme God,
against whom they had sinned, and that therefore they stood in need of a
Saviour. But the passage to the dear Saviour was so much disputed that I
could seldom introduce him to advantage. I now introduce the Saviour
first,--tell of his glories, his compassion, his pardoning mercy, his
sufferings and death in our stead, and propose to the people to choose
whom they will worship, one who _can_, or one who _cannot_ save them from
sin. They all acknowledge that the doctrine of salvation from sin is
entirely new to them. They do not pretend that Gaudama or any other Boodh
can save from sin. They trust entirely to their own good works. In their
dreams, they are floating by the buoyancy of their own meritorious deeds,
over the ocean of existence to the opposite shore--annihilation--when
existence itself is no more, and when happiness and misery cease with the
final wreck of their being.

"May 1. Ko-thah-byoo arrived, having spent the last seven weeks in the
wilderness, making known the Gospel to his countrymen. His account of his
travels is interesting and encouraging. We are concerned, however, to
find that he is in a bad state of health. May the Lord spare him for much
usefulness to the wild wanderers among his native mountains."



CHAPTER XVI.
Voyage of health to Mergui--Description of Mergui--Death of little
Sarah--Review of the past year.


MRS. BOARDMAN'S health which had generally been good, now became
considerably impaired. With the hope that a short respite from her
arduous and unceasing labors, and a change of air and scenery, would
recruit her wasted strength, Mr. Boardman resolved on a visit to Mergui.
This place lies in a southerly direction from Tavoy, and is about two
day's sail, with good wind. They embarked on the 13th of May, but owing
to adverse winds, they did not arrive till the 24th, having been eleven
days on the passage. This circumstance, however, he regarded as a
providential favor, as it gave them an opportunity to enjoy the sea-air
and sea-bathing, the principal means on which he depended for the
restoration of Mrs. Boardman's health. In his journal of May 25, he gives
the following sketch of Mergui:

"This town is healthfully situated on an island, enjoys a constant
sea-breeze, and is generally considered one of the most pleasant places
in all the coast. The population is upwards of four thousand, principally
Burmans. But there are some Moosoolmans, and about one hundred and fifty
Portuguese, with a padre or priest, and a church. It may be supposed,
however, from reports, that the Christian religion is little known, and
the Christian spirit little felt by either priest or people. Mergui is
certainly an inviting field for missionary labor. It will be recollected
that Moung Ing, the first Burman missionary, spent the rainy season of
1827 in this place; and he says the news of an eternal God and salvation
is known throughout the town.

"During our stay in town, we are very hospitably entertained by the civil
magistrate of this place. This is the season for mangoostiens, considered
by some the most delicious fruit in India. A gentleman of the deputation
from the London Missionary Society, said, if he were to describe the food
of the gods, he would say that they ate, not ambrosia, according to
heathen mythology, but mangoostiens. This delicious fruit is very
abundant in this place."

On the 27th they left Mergui for Tavoy, and arrived there on the evening
of the 29th. They were happy on returning to find that the schools, which
they had intrusted to the care of the native teachers, had been well
conducted, and that the native Christians were living in love and
harmony. Having completed the arrangements necessary after their trip to
Mergui, they prepared to resume their missionary labors. On the ninth of
July, Mr. Boardman, at the expense of the government, employed a man by
the name of Richardson to teach English in the day school. 'This
arrangement,' he remarks, 'secures more instruction to the youth than I
could give, and saves me considerable more time for missionary duties.'

"June 16. Baptized Moung Shway Kyo, _Stephen Chapin_, the eldest son of
good old Mahmen-lay. He was the first boy admitted to our boarding-school
at Maulmein, and though on our first arrival here he gave us considerable
trouble and anxiety, he has since conducted with propriety, and for the
last four months has given evidence of piety.

"June 21st. Baptized two of the boarding scholars, Moung Lek-kyee, a
Karen youth, the first who entered the school at Tavoy, and Shway Hmoung,
an Indo Chinese, fifteen years of age, who was admitted to the school
nine months since. These two persons, with Stephen Chapin, applied for
baptism several months ago, and have ever since given pleasing evidence
of piety. They are noticed in my journal for March, and were with me in
my tour among the Karens. They read Burman, and are studying English. We
hope they may eventually become useful to the perishing heathen around
them.

"July 6. A rich feast on the letters and magazines brought us by the
Arabella, from Boston."

The following lines from Mrs. Heman's _Hour of Death_, beautifully
express a truth, which Mr. Boardman had now been taught by painful
experience in the death of his first-born.

"LEAVES have their time to fall,
    And flowers to wither at the north wind's breath,
And stars to set--but all,
    Thou hast _all_ seasons for thine own, O death!

Youth and the opening rose
    May look like things too glorious for decay,
And smile at thee!--but thou art not of those
    That wait the ripen'd blossom to seize their prey.

We know when moons shall wane,
    When summer-birds from far shall cross the sea,
When autumn's hue shall tinge the golden grain;
    But who shall teach us when to look for thee?

Is it when spring's first gale
    Comes forth to whisper where the violets lie?
Is it when roses in our paths grow pale?
    They have _one_ season--_all_ are ours to die.

LEAVES have their time to fall,
    And flowers to wither at the north wind's breath,
And stars to set--but all,
    Thou hast _all_ seasons for thine own, O death."

In a letter to Mr. C. ----, of New York city, dated July, 1829, Mr.
Boardman thus speaks of that afflictive event:

"Dear Brother,

"My letter to you now is a messenger of heavy tidings. Our first born,
our dear Sarah, after an illness of more than a fortnight, has left us in
tears. Our anxieties about her are now over; but O, how affection still
clings to her, and often sets her ruddy, beauteous form before our eyes.
It comforts us to think that her sufferings were comparatively light.
But ah, what a void has her loss made in our little family, and in
our aching hearts! It grieves me to think, that I was so sinful as to
need such an afflictive stroke.

"George, our only surviving child, is very ill, and we scarcely hope for
his recovery. Mrs. Boardman's health, as well as my own, is also feeble.
I think I can bless God for affliction as well as for prosperity. The
hand that afflicts is no less kind, than that which is opened for the
supply of our daily wants. Affection clings round its beloved object, and
when it can cling _no longer_, it hovers--However, all is peace within,
and I think I can say, 'Thy will, O God, be done.'"

Speaking of this event in his journal, he says, July 13th,

"At 7 o'clock this morning, we committed the dear remains of our
first-born to the grave. By her side are reserved places for her
heart-stricken parents to sleep. May we, at this time of the Lord's
dealings with us, be able to lay open our hearts to the influence of
divine grace, and receive any impression which the Holy Spirit may see
fit to impart."

_Letter to Dr. Bolles._

"_Tavoy, July_, 1829.

"Dear Sir,

"Totally deprived as we are of the personal 'Christian intercourse which
tends to alleviate burdens and soothe the spirit of care,' we most highly
prize the devotional hints and expressions of pious condolence, which the
epistles of our Christian friends in America generally contain. We
particularly value every assurance we receive of our having a remembrance
in the daily intercessions of those who frequent the throne of grace.
Such hints and assurances are to us 'rills of comfort,' which tend, I
hope, to keep alive and heighten our relish for the blessed fountain,
from which all holy joys and sympathies emanate.

"The decease of our lamented brother Price has disappointed many an
ardent hope respecting Ava. Surely, God's ways are mysterious, and it
becomes short-sighted, erring men to bow in submission to divine
sovereignty. The unsettled and critical state of affairs between the
Honorable Company and the Burman Government, seems unfavorable to our
renewing missionary operations at the Burman capital, especially as we
have heard since brother Price's death, that our mission is watched by
the King and Court with an eye of confirmed jealousy.

"In reference to schools, we have found it extremely difficult to
establish and sustain them in Tavoy. The day school now consists of a few
Karens, a few Portuguese, eight or ten Indoo Chinese, and five others who
accompanied us from Maulmein. More than half of them belong to the
boarding school, and it gives me pleasure to add, that the five eldest,
including Moung Shway-Bwen, who was baptized at Maulmein, are hopefully
pious. Three of them were baptized a few days since. It is a circumstance
which argues strongly in favor of boarding schools, that while none of
those who are not boarders seem affected with divine things, there is not
one boarder of those arrived at years of reflection, who has not
manifested more or less religious concern. I have been endeavoring for
three months past, to establish boys' day schools throughout the town;
but up to this day, I have found only one competent person who is willing
to engage under my direction for a fair compensation; and he has hitherto
failed for want of scholars.

"Mrs. Boardman has, for a long time, been endeavoring to establish girls'
day schools on the plan of those in Bengal, but has met with one
continued series of opposition and discouragement, till within the last
three months. At first, she could find no person who was competent and
willing to teach. But the prospect at present is more encouraging. She
has now a most interesting and flourishing school of twenty-one scholars,
taught by a Tavoy female. We consider the existence of this school, and
its continuance and increase amid so much opposition, a very important
point gained. Nothing but the divine blessing on Mrs. Boardman's most
untiring efforts, could have gained it. We hope the charm is now broken,
and that prejudice will now gradually give way. Indeed, when we reflect,
that in Bengal the missionaries were eighteen months in collecting the
first five scholars, and that shortly after, hundreds were collected in
their schools, and that female education received the approbation of many
learned and rich and respectable Hindoos, we feel greatly encouraged. As
to the expenses of a day school, we are not prepared to speak with
certainty. Mrs. Boardman has adopted a plan by which the teacher's pay is
in proportion to the progress of her pupils. Four rupees is the price for
teaching a single girl to read. A plan somewhat similar is under
consideration in reference to those who have already learnt to read. If
this plan can be brought into general use and application, it will secure
a useful appropriation of all the money expended, more effectually than
any other plan with which we are acquainted."

The following is Mr. Boardman's review of the year ending July 25, 1829.
Other missionaries have endured more bodily sufferings than he, but few,
it is believed, have endured in a single year, a greater amount of
exquisite mental sufferings. The result of his afflictions affords a
happy illustration of the Scripture, "When he hath tried me, I shall come
forth as gold."

"_Tavoy, July_ 25, 1829.

"Thinking it may be profitable to me, at some future time, to review
parts of my past experience of God's dealings with me, I here record some
of the particulars which have marked my course during the last year. Few
afflictions had previously fallen to my lot, and a continued series of
mercies had, perhaps, led to the conclusion in my own mind, that infinite
wisdom and goodness saw fit to lead me with the cords of love, rather
than to drive me with the scourge of affliction. I recollected, that, on
advancing this sentiment in presence of a pious lady, on a certain
occasion, she looked at me with an expression of pity, and said,
'Remember, my brother, that the day of adversity is set over against the
day of prosperity.' The propriety and truth of the remark will appear
from the following narrative of facts.

"The first of those providences, which have contributed to bring me to my
present state of feeling, was a small loss of property by shipwreck. The
actual value of the articles lost, was very small, but as they were the
necessaries of life, which cannot be procured here, I felt the loss,
though without repining. Although I attributed it to providence, I now
see that I had no very devout thoughts on the subject.

"In the course of a few weeks afterwards, I sustained a similar loss from
a similar cause. This, though not of more value than the first, was more
severely felt, as the supplies for my family seemed to be cut off. Not
long after, I received a letter from a Christian friend, sympathising in
my repeated losses, and suggesting to me the propriety of examining my
own heart and conduct, to see wherefore God thus contended with me. At
first, I regarded the suggestion as superstitious, thinking that my
losses were among those common events to which all are alike exposed.
These things, however, were not sufficient to bring me to a proper state
of feeling. 'For all this, his anger was not turned away from me, but his
hand was stretched out still.'

"In our church we had three native members, the amiable manners of one,
the learning and eloquence of another, and the union of all these
accomplishments in the third of whom, rendered all of them the objects of
my complaisance, affection and confidence. In September or October, one
of these idolized disciples became irregular in his conduct. I
immediately called the offending brother to account, expostulated with
him on the immorality of his behavior, warned, reproved and exhorted him
to repentance. My efforts, for a season, seemed to have the desired
effect. We appointed a day of fasting and prayer, and the church united
in imploring restraining grace in behalf of the offender. Our hopes were
raised, but only to be dashed to the very dust. A speedy relapse
convinced us that something else was needed; but every effort made for
his recovery proved unavailing, and the day was appointed for the church
to meet and amputate this diseased limb, which gave the body so much
pain. But to add to our grief, on the very evening appointed for this
painful work, the two others, in whom I had rejoiced, were overtaken in
different, but public and disgraceful sins. Thus the flowers of our
church faded. My heart was overwhelmed with sorrow. The first offender
was excluded, and the other two suspended from communion for a season. As
they soon after confessed their faults and appeared truly penitent, they
were restored to the fellowship of the church.

"These trials seemed to rouse me, in a degree, from my slumbers, and led
me to inquire if there was not a cause, in myself, for all these evils to
come upon me. Soon after, my dear wife became so deeply impressed with
divine things, and particularly with a sense of her own sinfulness, that
she had no rest night nor day. Such was the state of our feelings, that
nearly all our conversation was of a religious character. We endeavored
to return to the Lord, from whom we had strayed; but our path, especially
that of Mrs. B., led hard by the borders of despair. But through
sovereign mercy we both escaped; not, however, to enjoy rest and safety,
but to be tossed by other billows, and to encounter other dangers.

"A little relieved from despair, we endeavored to ascertain why such a
cloud hung over us. We confessed our sins to the Lord and to one another.
We considered ourselves worthy to be trodden under foot of men, and were
astonished to think of our pride and selfishness. But, 'for all this, the
anger of the Lord was not turned away from us, but his hand was stretched
out still.' That member of the church who had given us the most pleasure,
and from whom we had entertained the fondest hopes, now began to give us
repeated occasions for sorrow and humiliation. Expostulation and reproof
had less and less effect on him, and the instances of his obliquity
became more and more frequent. But the crisis of his disgrace and ours
was not yet.

"About this time we sustained a third loss, by shipwreck, and began to
think that the Lord was displeased with us. We accordingly retrenched,
both in food and apparel. We submitted to the plainest fare, and thought
ourselves happy in thus having it in our power to do more by way of
charity. But the health of Mrs. B. evidently declined, and with it that
of her nursing child, so that she was obliged to resume her former diet.

"During all this time, we were filled with the most distressing views of
our utter sinfulness in the sight of a holy God. We prayed, but found no
relief. _Heart_ sins were what distressed us, such as pride, selfishness,
thirst for the approbation of God's people.

"To increase our sufferings, the conduct of one of the church, already
twice alluded to, was continually grieving our hearts, and rendering the
Christian cause in the place contemptible. Hopeful inquirers ceased
visiting us, and all seemed to stand aloof from our dwelling. The
sickness in my family was such, that I could spend but little time in
missionary labors. Finally, I was again attacked with an expectoration of
blood, more copious and alarming than before. The symptoms, however, soon
abated, and through divine mercy, I was permitted to resume my daily
labors. But other circumstances soon prevented me from engaging in public
preaching as I wished, and none came to me to inquire how to obtain
eternal life. The last hopeful inquirer forsook me, and I felt that the
cause of Christ in Tavoy was lower than on the day of our arrival in the
place. _Then_ Christianity was not known; _now_ it was known only to be
despised and ridiculed. At length, outward circumstances becoming more
favorable, I thought to resume public labors; when my family had a
relapse of their former illness, from which they had not fully recovered.
Attendance on them by day, and watchfulness by night, added to the
anxiety and mental distress I suffered, entirely disqualified me from
public duties; and even if I had a leisure hour to spend in the zayat, no
one came near me, through fear of my dangerous, heretical sentiments. An
encouraging remission of disease now took place in my family, and I
prepared to take a missionary tour into the interior. But sickness again
returned, and I was obliged again to defer my long promised tour to a
more convenient season.

"The misconduct of our offending church member now became still more
evident, and gave us reason to fear that we must give him up, also, as
past recovery. Afterwards, while I was absent on my tour among the Karen
settlements, his conduct was such, that on my return, we felt obliged to
exclude him entirely from our fellowship and society. In this painful
event, I felt a double stroke, as I was not only deprived of his society,
but was left to feel that my reputation, as a cautious, prudent,
discerning missionary, would greatly suffer in the judgment of wise and
good people. That I should be obliged so soon to inform the Christian
world, that two persons, whom I had received, baptized, and spoken of in
such high terms, had apostatized and disgraced the Christian profession,
seemed almost too much for me to bear. But there was no remedy. After
mourning for several days over my ruined honor, which, by the way, was
professedly identified with the honor of the Christian cause, my proud
heart began to yield and to melt. I gave up the point, and resolved to
give the Christian world a fair expose of the conduct of the apostates,
whom I had in times past idolized. My mind was some relieved, and prayer
became a more delightful duty. But every day shed new light on the
darkness, impurity, pride and selfishness of my heart. The burden of sin
was almost insupportable. My only relief was in prayer, confession and
reading the Scriptures. The attributes of a compassionate, long-suffering
and forgiving God, absorbed my thoughts, and, in a degree, relieved my
burdened heart. But still I mourned, because I could not more deeply
lament over my sins. The house of prayer, the closet, the retired spot,
were places to which I loved to resort. But still my heart was in a
degree heavy. Black, heavy sins, in unbroken succession, rolled over my
poor soul, and I enjoyed rest only in anticipation.

"I now saw, most clearly, that my heavenly Father had been, for several
weeks, leading me through a furnace of affliction to purify me, and I
began to love the fire which consumed my dross. Still, I was distressed
to think, that after all I had suffered, such a mass of sin and
corruption yet remained to be purged away. The hand of God was so evident
in all these afflictions, that I rejoiced, even in adversity, and blessed
the hand which held the rod. I resigned myself to the divine
chastisement, and desired that God would continue his corrections till I
should be entirely subdued to the obedience of Christ. I admired and
adored the forbearance and grace of God, that had spared so vile a wretch
for so long a time. The greatest comfort I could find, was in reading of
the wonderful acts of God's forbearing and forgiving love. Christ, Christ
was my only hope. I longed for the Spirit's influence to mould me
entirely into his image.

"This state of mind was soon after succeeded by a peculiar languor and
coldness of religious affections, which pervaded all my duties and
devotions. The approach and increase of this languor, I saw with pain,
but was utterly unable to overcome it. Like an incurable disease, it
daily gained upon me, and I had daily less and less power to oppose it.
All my religious enjoyment seemed now to have vanished. At the same time,
Mrs. B. and her child were again visited with disease. A short voyage was
tried for their improvement, and with some success. But while _their
bodily_ health improved, _my spiritual_ health daily _diminished_.

"Scarcely had we become settled at home, after our short voyage, when I
was again visited with sickness, from which I have but just now
recovered. But it soon became apparent, that all we had suffered, proving
insufficient to accomplish the purposes of divine wisdom and goodness,
was to be followed by a still more heavy affliction. Our children again
became unwell. Medical advice was immediately procured, but it proved
unsuccessful, and we were concerned to see a gradual increase of their
complaints. After a fortnight's illness, our oldest child was suddenly
taken more unwell, and her symptoms soon became alarming. We hardly
thought of losing her, however, till we found, on the morning of the
third day, that the icy arms of death had embraced her. In an hour
afterwards, she sweetly fell asleep. Thus, at the interesting age of two
years and six months, our dearly beloved, our _first-born_, the beautiful
and engaging Sarah Ann, surrendered her spirit to Him who gave it, and
left her afflicted parents to mourn the wreck of their fondest hopes.

"All our anxieties were now transferred to ourselves, and the little
sickly child that survived. We considered his case as critical, and even
dangerous. And on Lord's-day evening, the night after dear Sarah Ann took
her heavenward flight, her little brother, as if loath to remain behind
in this vale of sorrows, seemed just ready to wing his way to that
brighter world, and mingle spirits with her he so much loved. And while
we were watching, as we supposed, his expiring moments, it pleased God to
send relief, and spare to us a little longer our son, our only child.

"Such is the detail of the chastisements with which it has pleased God to
visit us during the past year. What here remains for me, is merely to
record my present state of feeling under these repeated corrections. I
feel myself happy to be in the hands of God, assured that my afflictions
were not sent in anger, but to take away sin. Yet when I have felt the
divine hand tearing asunder some of the strongest cords that twined about
my heart, I have said, 'my flesh trembleth for fear of thee; I am afraid
of thy judgments.' I dare not at all times say, 'Purge me till I am
pure;' but, at other times, I am ready to say, 'remove not thy hand, till
its purpose is fully accomplished.'"

The subjoined extract of a letter to Mr. N. W. W. though of a later date,
will here find an appropriate place, as it has reference to events just
specified.

"My dear Brother,

"Before this letter arrives, you will have heard of the repeated
afflictions with which we have been visited; that our first-born has been
called away, that we have had sorrow and trouble in our church, and that,
for several days in succession, during the late revolt, our lives were in
constant jeopardy. But our heavenly Father delivered us, and blessed be
his holy name. I feel that no outward mercies in my life call more loudly
for gratitude and love, than these successive afflictions. They have led
me, through sanctifying grace, to take a nearer view of eternal things. I
had, for ten years, as it seems to me, been in a deep and dangerous
spiritual sleep. I _knew_ but little, and felt less of religion. I knew
the Saviour, but followed him at too great a distance. A worldly temper,
wholly uncongenial with the temper of the Gospel, possessed my heart. Now
I see its awful sinfulness. Pray for me, that God may in infinite mercy
forgive me.

"But I now sometimes think that I see such a beauty and loveliness in
Christ, that I would give up all for him, be poor, despised and
persecuted like him. I fain would be wholly like him, would feel that I
have not where on earth to lay my head, would bear his cross for him,
suffer with him, would be crucified and die with him, yea, would rather
_live_ with him that new and mysterious life, which is hid with him in
God. But yet I seem to know nothing of Christian experience as I ought to
know. O how highly should I value an evening's interview with an old,
experienced Christian, who has travelled the whole distance from earth,
and is just entering the heavenly world."



CHAPTER XVII.
Revolt of Tavoy--Mrs. Boardman repairs to Maulmein--Mr. Boardman follows,
but soon returns to Tavoy, and resumes his labors.


ONLY about four weeks had now elapsed since the death of little Sarah,
when another event as trying perhaps to his faith and patience as any he
had yet experienced, was permitted to interrupt his labors. The event
alluded to is thus described in a letter to Dr. Bolles:

"_Hon. Company's Steam Vessel, Diana,_

"_Tavoy River, Aug._ 20, 1829.

"Dear Sir,

"The province of Tavoy has engaged in an open revolt against the British
government. On Lord's-day morning the 9th inst. at four o'clock, we were
aroused from our slumbers by the cry of 'Teacher, Master, Tavoy rebels,'
and ringing at all our doors and windows. We were soon apprised of our
extreme danger by the continual report of musketry within the town, and
the balls that were whistling over our heads and passing through our
house. In a few moments a large company of Tavoys collected near our
gate, and gave us reason to suspect they were consulting what to do with
us. We lifted our hearts to God for protection, and Mrs. Boardman and
little George with a few attendants were hastened away through a back
door, to a retired building in the rear. I remained in the house with a
single Burman boy, to watch and communicate the first intelligence. After
an hour of the greatest anxiety and uncertainty, I had the happiness of
seeing the Sepoys in possession of the city gate, just in front of our
house. We soon ascertained that a party of about two hundred and fifty
men had in the first instance attacked the powder magazine and gun shed,
which were very near our house, but that a guard of six Sepoys with a
native officer had repulsed them. This we considered a great mercy, for
had the insurgents obtained the arms and ammunition, our situation would
have been most deplorable. A second party of sixty had attacked the house
of the principal native officer of the town, while a third party had
fallen upon the guard at the prison, and let loose all the prisoners, one
hundred in number, who as soon as their irons were knocked off, became
the most desperate of all the insurgents. We now received an urgent
invitation from Mrs. Burney, the lady of Major Burney, who was then at
Maulmein, to remove into town, and occupy a part of the government house.
We were at first disposed to decline the invitation, thinking that
tranquillity would soon be restored, and that we might, perhaps, be
respected on account of our religious character. But the leader of the
party which attacked the magazine being taken prisoner, deposed that the
whole province was engaged in the rebellion, and that large
reinforcements from all quarters might be hourly expected. The highest
degree of alarm now run through all the city; and although the Sepoys had
possession of the city gates, the insurgents, supposed to be twenty times
as numerous, were surrounding the wall on every side. In a few moments a
force of several hundred was seen advancing along the wall-road towards
our house. Our danger was now imminent, for had an engagement ensued, we
were directly in range of the rebels' fire. I called my family together,
and advised the native brethren to assemble for prayer. The rebel forces
along the wall-road immediately changed their position from the west to
the north side of our house, where a slight skirmish speedily ensued. Our
danger, which arose from our being situated on what was likely to be the
battle ground, induced us to accept Mrs. Burney's kindness, and to remove
into the government house. We caught a few light articles on which we
could lay our hands, and with the native Christians fled for safety. I
visited the house several times after this, and saved a few cloths and
papers, but the firing being near, rendered it hazardous to remain; and
the last time I went I found the house plundered. A large part of our
books, furniture and clothes, which had remained behind, were either
taken away or destroyed. We had been at the government house but a short
time, when it was agreed to evacuate the town and retire to the wharf. In
the hurry of our second removal, many things which we had brought from
our house, were necessarily left to fall into the hands of the
plunderers. We soon found ourselves at the wharf; a large wooden building
of six rooms, into which, besides the Europeans, were huddled all the
Sepoys, with their baggage and ours, and several hundreds of women and
children belonging to Portuguese and others, who looked to the English
for protection. Our greatest danger at this time arose from having in one
of the rooms, where many were to sleep, and all of us were continually
passing, several hundred barrels of gun-powder, to which, if fire should
be communicated accidentally by ourselves, or by the stratagems of our
enemies, we must all have perished at once. The next danger was from the
rebels, who, if they could rush upon us, or take us by surprise, would
doubtless have massacred us on the spot. We lifted our hearts to God, and
he heard us from his holy habitation. We were preserved in safety through
the night, but were unable to compose ourselves to sleep. All our
attempts to communicate intelligence of our situation to the people in
Maulmein and Mergui were defeated, and the heavy rains soon affected the
health of the Sepoys. We had but a small supply of rice near the wharf,
and that was in continual danger of being destroyed. But through the kind
care of our heavenly Father, we were preserved alive, and nothing of
importance occurred till the morning of Thursday the thirteenth, a little
before break of day, when a party of five hundred advanced upon us from
the town, and set fire to several houses and vessels near the wharf. But
here again God interposed in our behalf, and sent a heavy shower of rain,
which extinguished the fires, while the Sepoys repelled the assailants.
Soon after, on the same morning, we had the happiness of seeing the steam
vessel Diana coming up the river with Major Burney on board. Our hearts
bounded with gratitude to God. It was soon agreed that the Diana should
return immediately to Maulmein, for a reinforcement of troops, and Major
Burney had the kindness to offer a passage for Mrs. Boardman and our
family, together with his own. After looking to God for direction, I
concluded to remain behind, partly in compliance with Major Burney's
advice, and partly in hope of being useful as an interpreter and
negotiator, and a preserver from bloodshed. With painful pleasure I took
a hasty leave of my dear family, and in the evening the Diana left us,
not however without having several heavy shots from cannon fired at her
by people on the city walls. The English forces, small and weak, and sick
as they were, were now throwing up breastworks; and on Saturday the 15th
inst. it was agreed to make an attack on the town, in order, if possible,
to take from the wall the large guns that bore upon us, and to try the
strength of the rebel party. I stood at the post of observation, with a
spy-glass to watch and give the earliest notice of the event of the
action. I soon had the pleasure of announcing, that the officer and
Sepoys had scaled the walls, and were pitching down outside the large
guns that were mounted there, while friendly Chinese were employed in
conveying them to the wharf. The success was complete, and nothing
remained but to rescue the prisoners, (about sixty in number) whom the
rebels had taken and confined. After a short cessation and a little
refreshment, a second attack was made, during which the prisoners
escaped, and the city was evacuated by the rebel party. A second battery
was also taken and brought to the wharf. In the morning we walked at
large in the town; but what desolation, what barbarous destruction was
every where exhibited! Every thing that could not be carried away, had
been cut and destroyed in the most wanton manner. Our own house was cut
to pieces, our books scattered, torn and destroyed; our furniture either
cut, or carried off, or broken in pieces; and the house itself and the
zayat, converted into cook-houses and barracks. During the last three
days, we have been picking up the scattered fragments of our furniture,
books, &c. and repairing our house. Nga-Dah, the ringleader of the
rebellion, and eleven of his principal adherents, have been caught. The
inhabitants are now coming in with white flags, and occupying their
houses. The bazar is open, and the work of repairs is going on. Yesterday
morning the Diana arrived with a reinforcement of European soldiers, and
to-day I have come on board, expecting to proceed to Maulmein
immediately. My present plan is, if my brethren approve, to return with
my family by the first opportunity, and resume missionary labors. Of the
native members of the church, the four Karens are in the Karen jungles,
with the two little Karen boys, one of whom is named _David Jones_. They
will probably come into town as soon as they hear of our return. Of the
rest, one is with Mrs. Boardman, at Maulmein, one is with me, and one is
left to guard the house. All the boarding scholars are with us, except
three Karens.

"Our preservation and deliverance from such imminent peril, should awaken
in our hearts the warmest gratitude to our heavenly Father, and the most
unwavering confidence in his parental care. The foregoing account should
revive and deepen the impression made by previous events, in regard to
this mission, that we stand in need of the continual and fervent prayers
of Christians in America, not for our preservation only, but for divine
guidance in all our affairs."

Mr. Boardman arrived at Maulmein Saturday evening, August 22d, and had
the happiness to find his family and his missionary associates in health.
He remained there but one week, during which time he enjoyed in a high
degree the society of his Christian friends in that place. Lord's-day
evening, he writes, "Enjoyed the pleasure of uniting in worship with my
dear brethren and the native Christians. Eighteen months have now elapsed
since I have been favored with such a privilege, or seen the face of an
individual who professes to be an experimental Christian, except the
members of our little church at Tavoy. Have felt much pleasure in
beholding the delightful state of things at this station. Our missionary
associates appear much engaged in their work, and the native members of
the church seem united and happy." August 29th, he says, "After much
deliberation, it is unanimously agreed by the brethren, that I had better
leave my family here, till affairs are more settled, and to wait the
openings of Providence in order to know our subsequent duty. I expect if
God will, to embark for Tavoy to-morrow morning. And, O, that the spirit
of all grace may go with me."

The month of September, which is passed over in the journal without
notice, was probably employed by Mr. Boardman in completing the repairs
of the mission house, which had suffered much from the insurrection, and
in making other necessary arrangements for the renewal of their
missionary labors. Having completed these arrangements, we next find him,
on the 1st of October following, at Maulmein, whither he had gone to
accompany his family on their return to Tavoy.

"_Maulmein_, Oct. 1st, 1829. We were to have embarked for Tavoy to-day;
but the Diana not being in readiness, we are obliged to wait.

"Oct. 4th. Evening. Embarked for Tavoy. We are grieved at parting with
our dear friends here, whom we love more than ever; but we hope to meet
them again, if not here, in a brighter world. Besides our former company,
we have with us Mah Hla, an excellent mother in Israel, from the church
in Maulmein. She accompanies us in hope of being useful to Mrs. Boardman
in teaching the females of Tavoy.

"Oct. 5th. _Amherst_. Arrived here this morning at 10 o'clock. We have
had an agreeable, and I hope profitable interview with the few native
Christians who live here. After prayers in the old mission house, which
is now quite in ruins, we took leave of our friends, and embarked again."

Notwithstanding the desolations which reigned around the old mission
premises at Amherst, and indeed throughout the town, as is learned from
other parts of the journal, there was one spot still sacred to their
recollection, full of pleasant and mournful associations--the grave of
the lamented Mrs. Judson, on the bank of the Martaban. To visit the spot
hallowed by the memory of one so dear to those who have learned her
history, must be considered as a high privilege to all the friends of
piety and missions, especially to the missionary himself; for it is here
that he beholds one of the brightest human examples of toil and
suffering, of zeal tempered with knowledge, of decision, patience, and
perseverance, which the world has ever witnessed. Reminded while here of
the most remarkable incidents in the life of that truly excellent woman,
he cannot but feel a kindred spirit waking up within him, prompting him
to new and more vigorous action, and urging him forward to a holy
emulation of her noble deeds.

On this occasion, Mr. Boardman left a permanent token of his respect for
the memory of Mrs. Judson and her "sweet Maria," by making arrangements
with a gentleman of the place, to erect a small _tumulus_, (or hillock)
of brick over the grave, that the spot might not be entirely forgotten.
He had not been apprised of the measures which were then in progress for
the erection of the monument, which has since been erected over their
grave.

"Oct. 6th. We left Amherst harbor at sunset last evening, and arrived at
the mouth of the Tavoy river at 10 o'clock this evening. The passage has
been remarkably quick and pleasant."

At seven o'clock the next morning, they arrived opposite the city. On
resuming his labors, he was happy to find that the number of inquirers
began to increase, that his congregations at worship were larger than at
any preceding period, and that a greater degree of solemnity marked their
attendance on his instructions. The school also immediately became larger
than ever before. It was encouraging to learn that his Karens, having
been informed of his critical situation at the time of the revolt, had
felt great solicitude for his safety, and were making inquiries
respecting him in every quarter. A large number of them, so soon as they
heard of his safe arrival, hastened from their jungles to present him
their congratulations. Three of the number, one of whom was a man of
sixty-five years of age, came for the purpose of receiving baptism. They
had applied to be admitted to the ordinance several months previous, and
had given satisfactory evidence of piety. "Is it not," says Mr. B. "a
pleasing proof of the power of the Gospel on the heart, that these
persons, uninduced by any earthly prospects, should, in their old age,
have given up the customs of their ancestors, and that they should,
decrepid as they are, traverse mountains and rocks and hills and streams
a distance of fifty miles, to receive Christian baptism?"

Mr. Boardman thus speaks of their baptism:

"Oct. 25th. Lord's-day. Our congregation was larger and more solemn than
usual. Towards evening, as we proceeded, about thirty in number, to the
baptismal tank, we were joined by twenty or thirty other persons, and the
whole company having seated themselves, listened with solemn attention.
During the whole service, including a discourse, a prayer, and the
administration of the ordinance to the three candidates, the utmost
stillness and solemnity prevailed, and some remained on the spot to make
further inquiries respecting the Gospel. In the evening we had, as is
usual with us, a _conference_ or _covenant_ meeting. On this occasion one
of the persons just baptized seemed to rejoice abundantly. 'I feel,' said
he, 'as if I had almost arrived at the feet of Jesus.' 'Are you so near,'
I inquired, 'that you do not wish to approach nearer?' 'No,' he replied,
'I wish to get nearer still.' I inquired if he would not ere long grow
weary, and wish to depart from the Saviour's feet? 'No, I wish to abide
there forever,' was his answer.

"Nov. 12th. The church has observed this day as a season of fasting and
prayer, preparatory to the participation of the Lord's Supper, which is
to be administered next Sabbath. A good degree of solemnity and fervor
characterized the prayers of the native Christians.

"Nov. 15th. Lord's-day. Preached in the morning from the parable of the
barren fig-tree, and at the close solemnly admonished Shway Kyo, for
several recent unworthy acts, which I should perhaps have never known,
had I not particularly enjoined it on all the church members, that if
they knew of any sin in their brethren, they should be faithful to the
offender, and not dare approach the Lord's table, suffering sin on a
brother. In the afternoon administered the Supper the first time for
several months. We think that in order to make these seasons profitable,
it is desirable to devote a portion of time previously to prayer,
self-examination, Christian watchfulness and brotherly reproof. The
administration of the ordinance once in four months, preceded by such a
course of preparation, would, we think, be more likely to prove useful,
than when occurring monthly without such preparation."

Encouraged by the increasing attention given to his instructions by the
natives, and desirous to extend the sphere of his usefulness, Mr.
Boardman now commenced a course of itinerary preaching. He thought it
important that the villages surrounding Tavoy, and ultimately those at a
greater distance, should be frequently visited, with the design of more
extensively diffusing the knowledge of the Gospel. He entered upon these
new and laborious duties on the 17th of November. He usually visited from
three to four villages a week. In these visits, he _taught publicly and
from house to house_, discoursing with those whom he met by the way, and
giving such instruction as seemed adapted to their condition. These tours
gave him a better opportunity to study the character of the Burmans than
he had yet enjoyed, as he here fell in with them at all seasons and under
all circumstances. Although human nature is everywhere essentially the
same, yet there are shades of difference which it is profitable to
contemplate. The shrewdness which he sometimes met with, especially among
the priests, as he travelled from village to village, is a pleasing
evidence that the Burmans are not wanting in intellect, and would be
amusing, were it not displayed in warding off truths of the most solemn
importance.

We present a few extracts from his journal illustrative of the nature of
his visits in general:

"Nov. 23d. Visited a village east of the town, where a priest,
eighty-three years of age, listened very attentively to the Gospel, and
begged a book. Twenty or thirty other persons were present, and gave
different degrees of attention. On my way home, visited a kyoung near the
principal pagoda in town. The priest heard me without opposition, and
desired me to repeat my visit. 'I like what you say,' said he; 'come
again at an early part of the day.' Moung So, the baptized Karen, and
head man of his village, having lost his mother lately, fears that the
other relatives of the deceased will wish to perform the heathenish
customs practised among the people subsequent to the funeral; and to
counteract the bad effects of such practices, he proposes to erect a
preaching zayat near the grave, and has invited Ko-thah-byoo and his wife
to go with him and proclaim the word of life, while the heathen around
may be indulging in their wicked customs. They are to leave tomorrow.

"Nov. 24. Visited a village six miles south-east of the town. Spent
several hours with the head priest of the village, who seemed pleased
with the Gospel, but was afraid to accept one of our books. Towards night
visited another small village, and at sunset called on the head priest of
all this region. He received me courteously. He has the reputation of
being an assemblage of everything that is lovely and of good report. I
had conversed with him but a short time, when, with no small address, and
with the design, probably, to evade my close appeals, he said,
pleasantly, 'You, teacher, and myself, are not like other people. You are
better, and I am better. We are not so wicked.' 'Ah, teacher,' said I,
'that speech came from a heart that feels not the burden of its own
sinfulness. We should reflect, not on the sins we have avoided, or on
what duties we have performed, but on those points in which we have
transgressed, or have not attained to the perfect rule of duty. By doing
so, we shall avoid the sin of boasting, which is very abominable in the
sight of God.'

"Nov. 27. Paid an early visit to the priest, mentioned on the 23d, who
then invited me to call again. He and his disciples paid me no less
attention than before, and after listening to the Gospel two hours, they
begged me to accept a small present of eatables, which they said they
gave out of love to me and my doctrine. On leaving, he desired me to call
again.

"Nov. 28. Crossed the river and visited two villages. In one of them was
a kyoung, where I preached the Gospel to a priest of eighty-six, and to a
noviciate of eighty-three. Many of the villagers assembled, and after
hearing the Gospel several hours, the head man desired me to give him a
form of prayer in Burman, which he copied, and said he would teach it to
his people, and then they would come to me for further instruction. The
head man of another village followed us several miles, and professed to
be much pleased with the Gospel. On my way home, had some serious
conversation with my fellow-travellers, and at sunset visited a large
kyoung outside the town. The priest is an affable man, and heard my words
for awhile; but when he felt a little cramped by the truth, he betook
himself to flattering me, in order, as I supposed, to induce me to press
lighter. In the evening, had some close conversation with Ko-long. He is
a shrewd, old hard-faced Burman.

"Nov. 30. Spent the day in making preparations for a short tour among the
villages south of the town. One of the disciples and two of the
school-boys accompany me."

He left home December 1st, and returned on the 5th. "Many thanks," he
remarks, "are due to the Father of mercies, for his kindness to those
that went out, and those who remained at home." In the course of his
tour, he visited ten villages, most of them both in going and returning.
During his absence, he had the privilege of preaching the Gospel of the
grace of God to more than two hundred persons, some of whom heard him
with encouraging attention. He visited six kyoungs, and preached Christ
crucified to priests and people. In most cases, the priests showed but
little regard, either for him or for his doctrine, though some appeared
favorably disposed. In several instances, especially in the plains of
Oo-too, he was urged to prolong his visit, or soon to repeat it. "Mah
Hla," he observes, "the Christian matron, who accompanied us from
Maulmein, has been of much service to me in explaining our object to the
people, and in removing their fears. It being harvest time, most of the
villagers, both men and women, are now living in small sheds, erected in
the rice-fields for the occasion. This is the reason why we found so few
of the people at home in the villages. We sometimes went into the
rice-fields and sat down upon the grass near the reapers, and preached
the Gospel to companies of fifteen or twenty persons. Were I to take a
second tour through these villages, I should wish to allow a larger
portion of time to each village. But rapid as our progress was, we hope
some seed has been sown, which will bear fruit unto life eternal.

"Dec. 8. An elderly Taleing man from a village across the river, twenty
miles from town, called at the zayat this afternoon, and earnestly plead
for a Christian book. It appeared, that several months since, he had seen
a book, (the Epistle to the Ephesians, I judge, from his account of it)
which condemned idolatry; and from that time, he says, he has not dared
to worship idols or pagodas, and from a conviction that the book he had
seen was true, he had resolved, that whenever he should visit the city,
he would call on me and request the favor of a book. After an hour's
serious conversation with him, I gave him Ephesians and the catechism,
and having closed the door of my little room, proposed to engage in
prayer with him. Of his own accord he knelt down, (Burman fashion,
prostrate,) and repeated after me. He appeared really to feel what he
said, and to be in earnest in seeking a Saviour. He invited me to visit
his village, promised to come and conduct me on my way, and to provide
for my entertainment after my arrival. This is not the first instance I
have known, since leaving America, of the _word of God_, without note, or
comment, or preacher, being instrumental in enlightening a benighted
soul. Lord, perfect thy work in this man.

"Dec. 12. Another visit from our Karen brother, Moung Khway. He has
visited us about once a fortnight ever since our return from Maulmein.
This, considering his village is eighteen miles distant, is a pleasing
circumstance in his favor. Whenever he comes to us, or goes away, he
throws himself prostrate on the floor, and implores a blessing upon us.
And, surely, we ought to value such a prayer, offered up to God for us by
an untutored Karen, more highly than all the applauses of the wise and
great of this world."

On the 14th Mr. Boardman set out on his second southern tour, in the
mission-boat, which he had lately purchased, and returned on the 19th. In
this tour, he visited and preached the Gospel in five villages, besides
conversing with several individuals from other places. 'Many interesting
cases,' he remarks, 'have occurred during this journey, and we hope much
good will follow. Several persons professed to be convinced of their
errors, and of the truth of the Gospel. Others appeared deeply impressed
with divine truth, and many received our books with demonstrations of joy
and gratitude. During the week, I have exhibited the crucified Saviour,
more or less fully, to perhaps one hundred and fifty persons. On reaching
home, I found several Karens waiting my arrival. I had scarcely seated
myself, when Ko-thah-byoo, and two of the baptized, and several others
from Moung So's village arrived. After a short discourse in Burman,
prayers and thanks were offered to God, in both Burman and Karen. Twelve
Karens were present. Of these, two had come to solicit baptism. Two were
females, who have been listening to Mrs. Boardman's instructions during
the past year. Three were head men of villages, among whom was our
hitherto faithful brother, Moung So. He and Ko-thah-byoo report, that
during the heathenish ceremonies occasioned by the recent decease of his
mother, Moung So, and the other Christians of his village, having built a
zayat near the grave, spent the time in listening to religious
instruction.

"Dec. 20. Lord's-day. With the school and the visiting Karens, we had a
large congregation. After worship, the two candidates for baptism were
examined. We advised them to wait for a season. Ko-thah-byoo has long
wished to go across the great mountains, and visit the Karens in Siam;
and having lately seen some of them, who earnestly invited him over, he
has laid the subject before us for our consideration and decision.

"Dec. 21. Moung Sek-kyee, the Karen youth, who entered our school soon
after our arrival in Tavoy, and was baptized last rainy season, has
to-day requested leave to return and dwell in his native jungle, where he
hopes to be useful to his countrymen. As he can read the Burman
translation of the Scriptures tolerably well, I felt no hesitation in
dismissing him; and as he is a remarkably steady and exemplary youth, we
hope he may do much good. We have given our assent that Ko-thah-byoo
should visit Siam. The journey across the mountains will occupy six or
seven days. He will be absent seven or eight weeks.

"Dec. 22. Having solemnly commended the Karens, and especially Moung
Thah-byoo, to the divine blessing, we sent him on his journey this
morning. I gave him an affectionate letter of introduction and
commendation, written both in Burman and English, to the people and 'the
powers that be.' This, with the word of God, is all the credentials he
takes. Whether they will be sufficient for him, we cannot tell. Moung So
and Moung Kyah have volunteered to accompany him to the Siamese frontier.
May the Lord go with them, and give them much success!

"Dec. 28. Several days ago, we had intimation that the two sons of our
late lamented brother Price, were on their way to us. To-day they have
arrived, two pretty little boys, and with them numerous letters and
pamphlets from America, to gladden our hearts. The executors of Dr.
Price's will have requested us to take charge of the two orphan boys, and
we have given our consent. We hope they may become useful men. They speak
English a little, and Burman perfectly."

The sickness of Mr. Boardman's family prevented him from making such
reflections in his journal, as the close of the year would naturally
suggest. The following letter, written in June, 1830, and addressed to
the Corresponding Secretary, must be regarded as a most happy supplement,
and will be read with lively interest.

"_Tavoy, June_ 21, 1830.

"My dear Sir,

"The Lord in his loving kindness and tender mercy, having recovered my
dear companion from that severe and alarming illness, which prevented me
from appending to my journal of December, certain reflections and
observations which the close of the year naturally suggested, I will now
subjoin them, with the design of giving you a general view of what has
been done during the past year, and of our present circumstances. This
station has been occupied so short a time, we are so few in number, and
our strength is so feeble, the sphere of our labor so circumscribed, our
ability to labor efficiently so small, on account of our inexperience and
ignorance of the Burman language, especially of the language as spoken in
Tavoy; and our success comparatively so inconsiderable, that a lengthened
detail of duties performed, projects and plans accomplished, hopes
realized, extensive influence exerted, and conversions effected, ought
not, as yet, to be expected. Trusting, however, in the promise of the
Holy Spirit's agency and co-operation, and hoping that every new year
some new achievements may be won, I will send you an annual review, and
begin by noticing,

"1. _The labor in the zayat._ These have been neither abundant nor very
successful. Nothing worthy of particular notice has occurred but what has
been mentioned in my journal for the time. The curiosity of the public
respecting my object in coming here, having been gratified, the people
have not come to visit me so much as formerly; and not finding my time
fully occupied with visiters, I have fitted up a small room in my zayat,
where I sit, when not otherwise engaged, and converse with such as come
in, spending the leisure time in reading, writing, studying, and such
other employments, as tend to promote the great object I have in view. In
some cases, especially in the early part of the year, I visited other
zayats in the town, and conversed with such persons as I met. Both in my
own, and in other zayats, I have often held conversations, which I cannot
but hope will be followed by permanent good.

"2. _Village preaching._ Besides several thousand foreigners, there are,
in this city, more than six thousand Burmans and Tavoys; in the
surrounding villages, about twenty thousand more, and in the jungle about
three thousand Karens, making the whole population of the province of
Tavoy, more than thirty thousand souls. This is literally a population of
_atheists_, who believe not only that there _is not_, but that there
_cannot_ be, any eternal God, any Supreme Being to govern the world, or
call its inhabitants to an account. Among all these people, there is no
one to teach them the knowledge of God and salvation, of heaven and hell,
but ourselves. An extensive and weighty charge--an awful responsibility
rests upon us. And what are we among so many? In the city alone, there
are arrayed against us about fifty monasteries, with two hundred men in
the sacerdotal garb, all of whom, when employed at all, are employed in
teaching atheism and metempsychosis. Similar monasteries are scattered
here and there throughout the whole province. Against this strong tide of
fatal error, there is, as I have said, no one to oppose an embankment but
ourselves. But with God on our side, we will do what we can. The question
has often occurred, How can we do the greatest amount of good to this
whole population? How can we best promote those eternal interests of
theirs, whose importance, instead of being diminished, will be increased
ten thousand fold, when all other interests shall be forgotten as
insignificant? By what course of conduct, by what plan of operation, can
we probably advance, in the _greatest_ degree, the _highest_ interests of
this thirty thousand people, most of whom are dispersed through the
province, in villages of from ten to five hundred inhabitants. Village
preaching is most obviously required; and out of the time that could be
spared from the business of the family, the zayat, the church and the
schools, I have visited, within the last two months, between twenty and
thirty of the villages, and preached Christ crucified to both priests and
people. In a few instances, I have been received and treated but
coolly--in most, respectfully--in some, gladly. Hundreds of persons have
thus heard of the Redeemer, who never before heard of any salvation, nor
hoped for any relief from sin and misery, except by undergoing countless
transmigrations of the soul, and finally obtaining release on the shores
of annihilation. Christian books have also been widely circulated; and in
more instances than one, I have heard of their having been read with
interest and hopeful advantage. Many persons have acknowledged their
doubts of the truth of Boodhism, and some have even boldly avowed their
preference of the Gospel. The Karens have justly occupied a considerable
share of our attention. They seem to be, in general, a people prepared
for the Lord. A large portion of them in this province, and some of those
in Mergui and Tenasserim, and some in Siam, profess themselves
Christians; and in the judgment of charity, a number of them (perhaps
ten,) are truly converted to Christ. In February last, I visited a few of
their settlements; but as I gave in my journal for the time, a detailed
account of the visit, I will only add here, that since that time, they
have manifested a greater interest in the Gospel than formerly. Large
numbers of them have visited us, and spent several days in succession at
our house; not unfrequently ten, fifteen or twenty being present at once,
though their settlements are thirty, fifty and even seventy miles
distant. Repeated applications have been made for me to visit them; and
when, unable to go myself, I have sent Ko-thah-byoo, they have received
him with the utmost cordiality. In one of the villages which I visited,
the head man and two others have been baptized. Four others (the sorcerer
and his principal disciple,) have requested baptism. The Lord's-day is
regularly observed as a day of abstinence from secular employment, and as
sacred to the worship of the true God. On this day, a large number of
persons usually assemble to pray and hear the Scriptures read; and
Christianity in that village may, in truth, be called the religion of the
place. This Christian village is called Ts'heik-koo, and its head man is
Moung So. It is about fifty miles east of the city. Three other Karens
have been baptized during the year, and the influence of the Gospel seems
to become every month more deeply and widely felt. Urgent applications
have recently been made by Karens from the frontiers of Siam, for some
one to come over the mountains and preach the Gospel to them; and
Ko-thah-byoo has accordingly been sent. The present state of the Karens
in this region seems urgently to demand, that one missionary should
devote his whole time to them.

"3. _Native Schools._ During several of the first months of the year, the
boys' boarding school, supported by charities from America, and the day
school, supported by a monthly allowance from government, continued much
the same as at the close of the preceding year. The boarding school
consisted of twelve, who, together with a few others who were not
boarders, constituted the day school; the whole expense of which, for
instruction, books, stationary, &c. was met by a monthly allowance from
the Bengal government. The only expense remaining to be met by charity,
was for the school house, food, and clothing of the boarders, which, I am
happy to find by the account, has not exceeded, on an average, three
rupees per month, for each scholar, or about eighteen dollars a year; a
sum considerably smaller than was apprehended at the opening of the
school. At the time of the revolt, in August last, we had many
apprehensions that not only these schools, but also the station itself at
Tavoy must be relinquished. But in the event, we found ourselves happily
disappointed, particularly in relation to the day school, which has
increased in number to about thirty scholars, several of whom are lads of
promise, and belong to families of respectability and influence. We are
particularly pleased with the fact, that there now belong to the school
several sons of native Tavoys, none of which class could, previous to the
revolt, be prevailed on to continue in the school more than three or four
weeks. There are now in the school, Burmans, Tavoys, Moosoolmans,
Portuguese, Indoo-Chinese, a Taleing, a Karen, and a Yooan-Shan. They are
taught to read, speak, and write the English and the Burman languages;
and the advanced classes study the elements of arithmetic, geography, and
astronomy. With the exception of two Portuguese Roman Catholic boys, who
are forbidden by their religious guides, all the scholars attend worship
with us in Burman twice a day; and on Lord's-days they study and recite
Scripture lessons under our direction, and all, not even excepting the
Portuguese boys, study and commit to memory short lessons in our Burman
religious books every day. In the course of the year, a Burman, an
Indoo-Chinese, and a Karen, the three largest boys in the boarding
school, have been baptized and received into Christian fellowship, and
three others have made application for the same privilege.

"Along an extended chain of villages lining each bank of the Tavoy river,
a large number of schools under the superintendence of an itinerant
missionary might be advantageously established. I have submitted to the
Board a plan for the establishment of these schools, which has met their
approbation; but nothing can be done towards carrying it into effect
until one missionary, at least, shall join the Tavoy station.

"In the early part of the year, Mrs. Boardman was obliged, by impaired
health, and the increasing cares of the boys' school, to discontinue the
female boarding school, which she commenced the preceding year; and has
since directed her attention more to female day schools, which, being
taught by native females, do not demand so much of her time. After much
fatigue and perseverance, she succeeded in opening three schools, one of
which soon became very flourishing, and afforded us many hopes of
becoming useful. It consisted of more than twenty scholars, some of whom
made very gratifying proficiency, some of the girls learning to read
intelligibly in less than three months. But upon the revolt in Tavoy,
this school was quite broken up, and it is but recently that the teacher
is rallying her scholars a second time. Eight or ten have already
recommenced their studies, and we hope the school will become very
useful. At several different times, when the boys' day school has been
destitute of an English teacher, Mrs. Boardman has taught English, and
thus saved the amount of one hundred Madras rupees to the fund for female
schools.

"4. _Native Church._ This church at the close of the preceding year,
consisted of three members, a Yooan-Shan, (in former letters called by
mistake, a Siamese,) a Karen, and an Indoo-Chinese. The last of these, we
were obliged, at an early part of the year, to exclude from our
fellowship. The other two members remain steadfast. The church now
consists often native Christians. Ten other persons, five of them Karens,
concerning whom different degrees of hope are entertained by us, may be
named as having applied for baptism. They are still on trial, and we
shall be happy if any of them prove worthy of the Gospel ordinances.

"5. _Miscellaneous notices._ The last has been a year of frequent
interruptions in our missionary work, and of repeated and heavy
afflictions in our family. The messengers of disease and death have
visited us, and left us enfeebled and sorrowful. But we have found it
good to bear the yoke in our youth; and we hope that through the
remainder of our life, we may remember with thankful submission the
loving chastisements of our heavenly Father. Few have been the days
during the year, when we have not had some painful affliction in some one
or more members of our little family. But already, we see some of the
good effects of these parental corrections and admonitions, in a greater
desire to be weaned from the world and sublunary enjoyments, and to
aspire more ardently after that life which 'is hid with Christ in God.'

"In consequence of these repeated interruptions, and the revolt of Tavoy,
all missionary operations have been suspended at this station for nearly
a third part of the year. Still it has pleased God to look upon the low
estate of the little church. Eight have been added by baptism and several
others hopefully converted. When I consider that besides this,
twenty-five once heathen lads have been daily taught the principles of
the Christian religion, many hundreds of adults, priests and people, in
town and village, have heard of the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom
he hath sent, and a large number of Christian books have been distributed
in various parts of the province, and read with interest by many
individuals, I feel a humble confidence that, through the agency of the
Holy Spirit, as we have sown in hope and tears, so, in due season, we
shall reap in joy.

"In closing this lengthened letter, permit me to remark, that the many
inconveniences and actual sufferings necessarily resulting to a
missionary and his family, from the want of a brother and a
fellow-laborer in such a country as this, especially in cases of
sickness, the wretched state in which his family, the church, and the
schools must be left, if a missionary, thus solitary, is removed by
death, and the great need of more laborers in this part of the Lord's
vineyard, compel me again to urge the request for more missionaries to be
sent to this station as soon as possible. Meanwhile, I remain as ever,
dear Sir, yours, in the service of our Redeemer."



CHAPTER XVIII.
Dangerous illness of Mrs. Boardman--Visit to the Karen settlements south
of Tavoy--Mrs. Boardman leaves for Maulmein.


IN order to form a just estimate of human character, we need to view man
in all the attitudes in which the providence of God has placed him. If we
would know the ardor of his piety, the strength of his faith and trust in
God, we should contemplate him not on the sunny heights of prosperity
only, nor yet amid those common afflictions even, which few are
privileged to escape; but also in the deep vale of adversity where, to
most minds, every thing of a worldly nature wears a melancholy
aspect,--amid crushed hopes and blighted prospects. It is in the midst of
such scenes that the latent feelings of the heart are most likely to be
elicited, and new, or at least genuine, traits of character are
developed. It is for the purpose of presenting Mr. Boardman under such
circumstances, that we here give a few extracts from his unpublished
journal. Although his whole missionary course had, as we have seen, been
one of trial, yet those trials, not excepting that even of the loss of
his first-born, might have been easily borne, in comparison with the one
which he now anticipated. Mrs. Boardman's health had again become very
much impaired, and though she had now presented him a son, it continued
rapidly to decline, and awakened alarming apprehensions as to its
termination.

Under date of January 1st, 1830, he writes as follows:

"As Mrs. Boardman, previous to her late confinement, had been reduced
very low by a protracted illness, for which she was in a course of
salivation, she is now extremely feeble, and her case may justly excite
alarm as to the event. But I desire to leave her and myself, and our two
babes, and our two adopted children, in the hands of Him, without whose
permission not a sparrow falleth to the ground.

"Jan. 5. Mrs. B. still grows weaker, and her case is now more alarming.
All missionary labor has been suspended for a week, to allow me all my
time in taking care of her. Have written to Maulmein for some of our dear
friends to come to our assistance, and be with us at this critical time,
we hope they will be able and disposed to comply with our request. Should
they come even immediately, I can scarcely hope for their arrival before
the crisis, or, perhaps, the fatal termination of my dear partner's
disorder. My comfort in my present affliction is the thought that if, to
our former trials, the Lord sees fit to add that of removing my beloved
companion, he does it with the perfect knowledge of all the blessedness
which death in its consequences will confer on _her_, and of all the
sorrows and distresses which her loss will occasion her bereaved husband
and four orphan children in the peculiarities of our present condition.
There is not a European female to take charge of the children this side
Maulmein, a distance of more than one hundred and fifty miles. As to
myself, I will not attempt to describe what would be my loss in the death
of such a wife. Neither will I say anything of the schools, the church,
and the poor ignorant females of Tavoy. I feel assured that our loving
Lord knows the exact amount of suffering which her death would occasion;
and if, with this knowledge, he still sees fit to take her away, he has
enabled me to say, 'Thy will, not mine, be done.' It affords me great
relief to have been assured by her that the bitterness of death is past,
and that heavenly glories have been unfolded in a wonderful and
unexpected manner to her view. She feels that she can now leave us all in
our heavenly Father's hands, and depart to be with the Lord.

"Jan. 15. Through the divine mercy, Mrs. Boardman is gradually
recovering. Still I scarcely dare leave her for a quarter of an hour.
From the first of her illness, I have given up every other care to attend
upon her, and no missionary work has been going on, except that the
assistant teachers have, according to their ability, continued to conduct
the boys' day school.

"On receiving intelligence of the death of Mrs. Eustice Carey and Mrs.
Pinney, both of them peculiarly valuable members of the Circular Road
Mission, Calcutta, I wondered that God should be so merciful to me in
sparing my dear partner, while other missionaries, much better than
myself, are bereaved.

"Jan. 27. The attending physician has urgently recommended that Mrs. B.
be removed from town to a situation where she may enjoy the sea air.
Accordingly we have today removed out to a bungalow, standing on the
sea-side, about ten miles from town. During our stay at this place, which
may be near a fortnight, the school is suspended."

This measure seems to have been quite successful. Her health had become
so much improved, that on the 8th of February, Mr, Boardman thought it
safe and expedient to return to the city. A few letters addressed to his
family connexions, will here come in place. They will serve to develope
more fully the state of his religious feelings under his affliction.

_To Mrs. Blanchard._

"_Tavoy, Feb._ 17, 1830.

"My dear Sister,

"How many tears of joy you must have shed on hearing the news of brother
B.'s baptism. Mine have also flowed. How gladly would I extend to him the
hand of Christian fellowship!

"Five years ago yesterday I was ordained to the work of the ministry. How
little have I done! and what is worse, how little have I tried to do! I
desire to be more devoted, humble, self-denying, prayerful and watchful
than before.

"God, in love, has sent us cup after cup of affliction here in Tavoy. O
how bitter! O how sweet! What a blessed anguish I have sometimes felt! A
few weeks ago, while sitting by my dear Sarah's sick bed, and expecting
her soon to leave me, I had such comfort in laying all my sorrows before
my dear loving Lord as I cannot describe. I hope the fruit of all will be
to take away sin. If you will believe me, I sometimes half doubt whether
I knew anything about true religion when I left America. Christ, heaven,
the cross, the grave, life, death, love, joy, grief, the Bible, the
Gospel, the throne of grace, all seem different from what they then did.
Should we be so happy as to meet in heaven, what do you think we shall
talk about first? Till we get there, let us build us a little tabernacle
close by the cross of calvary, and watch our Saviour, and hear what he
will say. '_Ye are dead, and your life is hid with Christ in God_. Let us
try to understand and experience this."

_To his Brother H----._

"_Tavoy, Feb._ 17, 1830.

"My very dear Brother,

"Four days ago, we received letters from you, and other dear family
connexions. We read them all with much interest. We rejoice to hear of
your general health, and pray that you may have much occasion to bless
God for afflicting you. We have felt of late that our afflictions are our
greatest blessings. We can sympathise with each other in the loss of a
beloved first-born. What high marks death aims at. But all is ordered in
love to the children of God. Our dear little Sarah, I feel sure, and your
dear Sylvanus, I trust, was taken away that we might have our affections
set more entirely on things above.

"You inquire about our loss by robbery, who robbed us, of what, and how
it has been made up. We do not know _who_ they were. They took nearly all
we had. A part of it has been made up, and we took the spoiling of the
rest joyfully. We have since had successive losses, but we have learnt to
think almost nothing of them. What if we do lose worldly things? Our
Saviour still remains; heaven will endure. We are now poorer than ever,
and we are willing to be so. If we are rich in faith, what matters
worldly poverty. We have had much sickness in our family during the last
year, and we hope it is doing us good. My dear Sarah was taken ill near
the close of the year, and soon after her confinement grew worse. She
several times felt, during her illness, that she was just going home, and
the thought filled her with joy unspeakable and full of glory. There was
no one but myself to attend her. We sometimes thought the last moments of
our earthly union were passing away. I was enabled, however, to leave all
in the hands of my dear Saviour, though the thought of parting was
painful. We had two infant children of our own. Dr. Price's two boys had
just joined our family. Had Sarah been taken away, I should have been
left with these four little boys in this wretched place. But God be
praised, she is now better, though not well. May our afflictions abound
in the fruits of holiness."

_To his Mother._

"_Tavoy, Feb._ 17, 1832.

"My very dear Mother,

"What abundant reason have we to bless our loving Saviour for his
afflicting kindness. You lost your first-born. All three of your married
children have lost theirs also. Could we but _believe_, this bitter would
yield us sweet; this darkness, light; this sorrow, joy. What are all our
trials mixed in the bitterest cup, if Jesus do but mingle with them a few
drops of his precious love! When you shall have trodden a few more
trembling steps in this sickly, unfriendly world, you will find the
visions of glory bursting upon you. Heaven's portals will expand, 'on
golden hinges turning,' and ministering spirits bid you welcome to the
celestial city, and introduce you into the divine presence of the Man of
Calvary. Blessed hour! Does not your heart beat with desire that it may
hasten on? How many of your children and grand-children have gone before
you, and how many will follow after, and join you in blessing and
praising the Lamb, who has loved you and washed you in his own blood.
Then, dear mother, I hope to see you once more, not as you are now,
infirm, aged, sickly, sorrowful, weeping; trembling, sinking under an
insupportable burden of sin; but youthful and all glorious, in the white
robe of righteousness, cleansed from the least spot and stain of sin, and
perfectly swallowed up in love to your precious Lord. Yes, mother,
through grace, I hope to meet you then, but not before. O, how will we
praise our dear Redeemer, with new hearts and voices, when we reach his
blessed feet.

"Heaven is a dearer word to me than formerly; partly because in heaven I
have many friends already; but principally, because I hope there to be
filled with the fulness of God. If, in this life, at such a distance from
God, so full of sin and misery, we are called to be _partakers_ of the
_divine nature_, what will it be, when, entirely disrobed of sin, and
clothed in the beauty of holiness, we are called into the presence of God
and the Lamb? Dear Harriet, we trust, is there now, and many others are
there, whom we have known and loved as our own flesh. O, what do they
know! What do they behold! What do they feel! With what pity do they look
down on us, grovelling in this dusky plain! Indeed, mother, why are we so
unwilling to put off filth and sin, to be clothed with holiness and
eternal glory? It is not improbable that your children in Burmah will
reach heaven the sooner for having pitched their tent in a sultry clime.
Disease often reminds us of the end of our pilgrimage. Besides a cough of
several months' continuance, I am not laboring at present, nor usually,
under any disease, but I cannot say the same of Mrs. Boardman. For
several days during her late illness, she seemed suspended between life
and death. But God, in mercy, rebuked her disorder, and she is now
better. He has given me, I think, some new desires in the midst, or
rather as the fruit of my afflictions, sanctified, as I trust they have
been, by the Holy Spirit. I wish henceforth to live near to the cross of
the Redeemer,--to remember the sorrows of Gethsemane and Calvary,--to
take up my own cross and follow the Captain of our salvation to
Golgotha,--to die to self, the world, and all worldly tempers and
pursuits,--to live in, upon, and unto Christ in all things,--to deny
myself, and live as a stranger and a pilgrim on earth,--to see my
vileness more, and continually to abase myself before God for it,--and to
enter upon that new life which is hid with Christ in God.

"Accept very many thanks for your affectionate epistle, which we read
with much interest. Long as you can wield your pen, send us letters
often. Pray for our little George, and Judson Wade. If we all live, I
will tell them how you love them and pray for their conversion. With most
filial love to my reverend father, I am your very affectionate son."

We are here again admonished of an event, which we feel reluctant to
approach, and which we would fain keep out of sight. The cough of which
he here speaks never left him till it had dissolved the connexion between
body and spirit. We feel for the moment almost ready to say, that he
ought to have been spared,--that one, whose life and labors promised so
much to the cause of missions, ought not so soon to have been called from
the field. But then, again, who that reads the foregoing letters, can for
a moment doubt but that God was ripening him for glory and eternal life?
And who would detain the spirit from the possession of that for which it
so ardently aspired?

_Extract from a letter to Mr. E. Hall._

"_Tavoy, Feb._ 17, 1830.

"My dear Brother,

"In writing to my friends who have no interest in the loving Saviour of
sinners, one thought,--one desire swallows up all others. O, that you
could see that loveliness in Christ which many of your dear family
friends have seen. Then you could not help loving him, for he is
altogether lovely. Do you think you could bear to hear this Saviour say
to you, 'Depart into everlasting fire.' How we long to hear of your
conversion. We are happy to learn that you are amiable, steady and
dutiful in your conduct. _But one thing is needful._ Reflect, my dear
brother, upon this one thing needful, till you can say in sincerity you
have obtained it."

_To his Father._

"_Tavoy, Feb._ 19, 1830.

"My dear Father,

"There is a subject on experimental religion, on which I very much need
the instruction of an experienced Christian; and to whom can I apply with
more propriety than to yourself? I find, on reading the apostles'
writings, that they address their fellow Christians and speak of
themselves as persons that are 'dead to sin,'--'buried with Christ into
death,'--they 'are dead, and their life is hid with Christ in God,'--they
'have crucified the flesh with its affections and lusts,'--their 'old man
is crucified with Christ,'--they are 'dead,' and by consequence, 'are
freed from sin,'--they 'cease from sin,'--being 'born of God, they sin
not, they cannot sin, they have overcome the world, the world is
crucified unto them, and they unto the world.' Now these things are
mentioned not only as things to be _desired_, or _sought after_, but as
_already obtained_. Ye _are_ dead--_have_ crucified the flesh,--_have_
put off the old man,--_are_ freed from sin,--_hath_ ceased from sin, &c.
&c. It is represented as _already past_, the attainments are said to be
_already made_. But I feel that such expressions literally taken are not
true of _me_. I am not dead to the law of sin and death; I am not free
from sin; I have not ceased from sin; I am not crucified unto the world,
and the world unto me. On these accounts I sometimes fear I am not led by
the same spirit that led them. The things above mentioned are rather the
objects of my longing desire and prayer, than of actual possession. I
fear my religion is not the religion of the apostles and primitive
Christians. The question I wish to have answered is, 'whether one who has
not experienced these things, but only desires and hopes, and daily prays
that he may experience them, is a real Christian?' Perhaps I ought rather
to inquire, whether the experience thus recorded in the Scriptures is the
only true Christian experience. Do you think this is the experience of
professors in general? Or has the spirit of such experience fled from our
fallen world? Is there no way to attain it? What would you recommend a
burdened backslider to do, in order to be crucified with Christ,--to be
crucified to the world, and to have the world crucified to him?

"The apostles also speak of a _new life_, which I suppose to be a
resurrection from the death before spoken of. On this subject I have the
same difficulties as on the death before mentioned. The suggestions of
your experience and of your acquaintance with what the Scriptures say on
this subject, would, I trust, be of essential service to me. Meanwhile, I
hope the Holy Spirit,--the great Teacher of all Christians,--will
graciously guide me into all truth. With much filial affection, I am your
dutiful son."

The following is an extract of a letter to the Corresponding Secretary.

"_Tavoy, Feb._ 16, 1830.

"Dear Sir,

"I intended, but forgot to insert in my last letter, a tribute of respect
and gratitude to Major Burney and his lady. Ever since our arrival in
Tavoy, till by his promotion to the Company's service he was called to
leave this place, he and his lady have been incessant in their kindnesses
to my dear family, often conferring on us favors, without which we should
have been reduced, in several instances, to a state of actual suffering.
May they receive a reward at the day of recompense.

"Ko-thah-byoo has recently returned from his eastern tour. He was
prohibited from going across to Siam by a company of Taliengs, who were
returning from Tavoy, and would not allow him to go in their company.
Their opposition was wholly on account of his religious character. He
went five days of his journey, and was then positively prohibited
proceeding farther without a pass from the governor of Tavoy. His
companions, however, were allowed to proceed, and they declared the news
of salvation to many Karens on the frontiers of Siam with pleasing hopes
of success."

His third southern tour among the Karen settlements:

"Feb. 17. A number of Karens came to-day from a place four days south of
the town. They bring information, that several zayats have been erected
to accommodate us in our expected visit. It was formerly my intention to
go through to Mergui during this hot season, but the season is so far
advanced, that I shall be able to go but part way. We intend to commence
our tour on the 20th.

"Feb. 21. Lord's-day. Yesterday morning I left home in company with
Ko-thah-byoo and Moung Sek-kyee, and after a fatiguing walk of perhaps
eighteen miles, arrived about sunset at the first Karen village south of
the town. The village is called Lieng-maw-tan, and contains seven houses
and about forty people. This morning they collected together, and paid an
indifferent attention to a discourse from 'The people that sat in
darkness saw a great light.' Finding they were not intending to assemble
in the afternoon, I proceeded with my companions a short distance,
to a little village of four neat new Karen houses, called
Kywai-ka-ran-khyoung. Here the people were very attentive, and gave us
much encouragement. We have never met with them before, but hope,
hereafter, to meet them often.

"Feb. 22. After having spoken at large to the people, and witnessing
their interest in the Gospel, we proceeded this morning, accompanied by
two of them as guides, and after mid-day, reached another small village
called Oo-too-khyoung. Here we had few to listen, but they were very
attentive, Ko-thah-byoo addressed them, both in their own language, and
in the Burman."

Mr. Boardman here gives a part of Ko-thah-byoo's address on this
occasion. It may serve, perhaps, as a specimen of native Karen preaching,
and for this reason, if for no other, it will be read with interest.

"The following remarks," continues Mr. B. "in the Burman language, made
an impression on my mind. He had been describing the folly and
hurtfulness of worldly things and worldly tempers, and proceeded to
say,--'A worldly man is never satisfied with what he possesses. Let me
have more houses, more lands, more buffaloes, more slaves, more clothes,
more wives, more children and grand-children, more gold and silver, more
paddy and rice, more boats and vessels; let me be a rich man. This is his
language. He thinks of nothing so much as of amassing worldly goods. Of
God and religion he is quite unmindful. But watch that man. On a sudden
his breath departs, and he finds himself deprived of all he possessed and
valued so much. He looks around and sees none of his former possessions.
Astonished, he exclaims, 'Where are my slaves? Where are my buffaloes? I
cannot find one of them. Where are my houses and my chests of money? What
has become of all my rice and paddy that I laid up in store? Where are
all the fine clothes, that cost me so much? I can find none of them. Who
has taken them? And where are my wives and my children? Ah, they are all
missing. I can find none of them. I am lonely and poor, indeed. I have
nothing! But what is this?' The preacher here enters upon a description
of the sufferings of the soul that is lost; after which he represents the
rich man as taking up this lamentation, 'O, what a fool have I been! I
neglected God, the only Saviour, and sought only worldly goods while on
earth, and now I am undone.' While the old man was preaching in this
strain, every eye was fixed on him, and every ear was attentive. Soon
after he pursued the following strain: 'All in this world is misery.
Sickness and pain, fear and anxiety, wars and slaughter, old age and
death, abound on every hand. But hearken! God speaks from on
high;--Children, why take ye delight, and seek happiness in that low
village of mortality; that thicket of briars and thorns? Look up to me; I
will deliver you, and give you rest where you shall be forever blessed
and happy.'

"This discourse lasted nearly two hours, during which he had the stillest
and most profound attention from every individual present.

"Feb. 23. After worship with the family where we lodged, we proceeded
this morning to Tha-byoke village; but as the men were absent, we made
but a short stay, and proceeded to Toung Byouk, a large settlement of
Tavoys and Karens, near the mouth of the Tavoy river. In the evening we
discoursed to a few people, but they manifested but little interest in
what was said. In the morning several Karens came in on their way to a
funeral, but their minds were so full of tom-toms, and pagodas, and
processions, and works of merit, that the doctrine of grace could
scarcely obtain a hearing. The people promised, however, to come in and
hear the word on their return home, and so we were left alone. It was to
me a wretched day. I felt, I imagine, somewhat as David Brainerd did,
when, in spite of all his remonstrances, the poor Indians _would_ dance,
and powow, and use their various infernal arts. Toward night one Karen
came in, who had paid better attention in the morning than the rest of
his companions, but he was all changed. He could not stay a moment to
hear the Gospel, and said he came just to say that the Karens had all
gone home another way. This was a severe stroke to us. Our hearts sunk at
the tidings. That pagoda, those processions, those priests, had filled
their minds and their ears, and there was no room left for the Gospel.

"Feb. 25. Accompanied by Ko-thah-byoo and Moung Sek-kyee, I left Toung
Byouk this morning, and near night reached the Karen village of
Sam-mah-batt, where finding men who will accompany me home to-morrow, I
shall leave my companions to pursue their southern tour. This village is
small, but the people seemed attentive, and we have hope they will become
our constant visiters.

"Feb. 26. Having taken an affectionate leave of Ko-thah-byoo and
Sek-kyee, I left Sam-mah-batt early this morning, and near night reached
home, happy and thankful to find all well.

"March 6. Called on the priest of Toung-ngoo kyoung, and had an hour's
serious conversation with him on the means of becoming holy. Our views
were very dissimilar, he maintaining that holiness was to be sought by
forsaking wife and children, shaving off the hair and beard, wearing the
yellow cloth, and meditating on the Boodhs, the law and the priests.
After showing, to his satisfaction, not only that one could, but that
many did do all this without attaining to the least degree of holiness, I
endeavored to lead him to the fountain which is open to wash in from sin
and uncleanness, and to unfold to him the wondrous grace of the Lord the
Spirit, in taking up his abode in the heart, sanctifying it by his
influence, and fitting it for glory. My doctrine was as new and strange
to him, as his was unsatisfactory to me. He, however, listened with some
attention.

"Afternoon. Called this afternoon on the old priest, who had several
times asked me to repeat my visits. He is past his seventieth year. Found
him in a temple near his kyoung sweeping the floor, frequently supporting
his tottering worn-out system by his broomstick. 'And so,' said I, 'you
are seeking for cleanness of eye-sight, and freedom from impurity in your
next state?' 'Yes, that is the reward which the most excellent Bood has
taught us to expect from such meritorious deeds.' 'But your Bood is dead
and gone,' I replied, 'how can he reward you?' 'Ah, but another is
coming; he will bestow the reward.' 'But would you not rather be
sanctified and beatified as soon as this miserable life terminates?'
'Why, yes, that would be better.' I left with him a few tracts and
returned home."

The missionaries at Maulmein having learned the feeble state of Mrs.
Boardman's health, had urged the propriety of her removal to that place.
Several circumstances, beside her feeble health, rendered such a measure
desirable. Mr. and Mrs. Bennet had just arrived at Maulmein from America,
with the intention of joining the mission. Mrs. Bennet was from the same
town in which Mrs. Boardman's parents then resided, a circumstance, which
rendered an interview desirable. Besides, Mr. and Mrs. Wade had now
repaired to Rangoon to resume missionary operations, and collect the few
scattered disciples remaining in that quarter. The females at Maulmein
were, of course, left without a spiritual guide of their own sex. Mrs.
Boardman, it was thought, though in feeble health, might, in some
measure, supply this deficiency for a short season. She left Tavoy on the
13th of March. On the 29th, two more Karens from a distance visited the
zayat, and applied for baptism. They represented the Gospel as spreading
in their settlement.

"March 30. A large number of people, perhaps one hundred, have been at
the zayat to-day, several of whom listened attentively; particularly a
simple old man, who was with me an hour or two yesterday. He says, ever
since he heard me preach the Gospel a year ago, he has been considering
it.

"March 31. The simple old man of yesterday visited me twice to-day, and
appears deeply interested in the Gospel. This morning several of his
associates came with him.

"This afternoon our kind hostess, who entertained us last December at
Oo-too, spent an hour or two in the zayat. She earnestly solicits me to
repeat my visit to her village, saying there were many persons there who
were anxiously waiting to see me. I gave her a form of prayer, and while
I was explaining it to her, about thirty persons collected around, and
paid solemn attention. Divine truth seems to be reaching some hearts, and
may God, in great mercy, grant them repentance unto eternal life."

The following letter to Professor Peck details a more systematic division
of his time than he has elsewhere expressed:

"My dear Brother,

"You desire me to exhibit to you 'an inner view of the missionary,' by
which I should have understood his inward trials and comforts with their
causes, and in fine, the whole of his inward experience, did not your
context lead me to suppose you meant his common every-day business and
employments. In this latter sense I will answer your inquiry as it
respects myself and family; although I am constrained to think that the
inner view of most missionaries, would be much more interesting and
worthy of your careful inspection. I will set down one quarter of our
time to the score of interruption from direct missionary work, occasioned
by the illness of myself or some of my family. In all such cases, we
attend upon each other, there being no one to do it for us. We are also,
in a considerable degree, our own physicians and apothecaries. And when
our beloved first-born was committed to the dust, I was the sorrowful
chaplain. So I expected to be at the anticipated funeral services of my
own dear wife, a few weeks since. But God, in abundant mercy, lighted off
his hand, and spared me the distressing pang. Think of us, in our
prospect of a separation, and no European female, or Christian brother
within one hundred and fifty miles. But I spare you. One sixth part of
our time must be charged to other interruptions beyond our control. Two
thirds only remain for missionary work. Of this I spend one half in
village preaching. Sometimes I leave home early in the morning, and visit
a village or two, at the distance of three or four miles from town, and
having preached the Gospel, or rather told the people of salvation, from
house to house, as we are received, or in some zayat or other public
place, where the villagers from ten to fifty or more, choose to assemble,
I return home in the evening, and next morning repeat the same routine of
labor in some other village. At other times, I go out on Monday morning,
and having spent the week in travelling over dusty burning plains, and
visiting successive villages and proclaiming Christ crucified to priests
and people, I return home on Saturday night. During my absence, Mrs. B.
performs all the labor, and sustains all the care of the station. More
seldom, I go out to visit the Karens. As their settlements are at a
greater distance from town, and are accessible only by hard roads, over
mountains, rocks and streams, and through forests haunted by beasts of
prey, these tours are by far the most fatiguing and hazardous, and
require the longest absence from my beloved family. But when I find the
Karens so anxious to hear the Gospel, and when, on returning home, I find
that our heavenly Father has kept all the dear members of my family from
evil, I forget the fatigue and hazard, and rejoice in my work.

"When at home, I am principally engaged in superintending the schools,
preaching in the house every day, sitting in the zayat and talking with
visiters, visiting the monasteries in town, and preaching to those who
are too haughty to visit me, studying the language, reading, writing
letters and journals, conversing and praying with the school boys,
preparing books and lessons for them, &c. &c. Mrs. Boardman's labors are
less varied, but not less incessant. Besides the weighty charge which she
sustains during my absence, she has a female school, the native female
Christians, inquirers and visiters, a family of four boys, two of our
own, and two of Dr. Price's, to look after, and the whole charge of
feeding and dressing the boys in the boarding-school.

"As to the necessary degree of bodily strength and elasticity, the kind
of constitutional temperament, &c. I can only say, it is extremely
difficult to foresee the specific effects of climate, food, lodging, &c.
before the trial is made. You will recollect that while in America, I was
a pining, consumptive invalid. I enjoyed better health then than was
apparent, and to this day I maintain the same spare consumptive habit.
But I scarcely know of any evil effects of the climate on me, although I
have been more than four years in the country. How soon or how suddenly I
may sink, is known only to our heavenly Father."



CHAPTER XIX.
His letters to Mrs. B. at Maulmein--Leaves Tavoy to take charge of the
station at Maulmein--His health declines--Returns to Tavoy--Success of
the mission.


THE letters of Mr. Boardman to his lady at Maulmein will take the place
of his journal for April and May. The frequent mention made in them of
his leaving Tavoy, may create a desire in the mind of the reader to know
the cause of his retiring from a station of so much promise. It is only
necessary to remark in relation to this subject, that the brethren at
Maulmein, seeing the prospect of immediate and extensive usefulness
presented at Rangoon, determined on a removal to the latter place, and
had written Mr. Boardman to return to Maulmein and perform the duties of
that station. With some reluctance, but in deference to their judgment of
duty, he consented. And it was in anticipation of this change that he
spoke in his letters of leaving Tavoy. This decision, however, was
afterwards reversed, and after having remained at Maulmein a few months,
he returned and resumed his labors at Tavoy.

"_Tavoy, March 26th_, 1830.

"My dearest Sarah,

"To-day is the Lord's-day. My mind is calm and tranquil. May God be
present with us at our worship, which is soon to commence.

"I have lately been making choice extracts from our Burman Scriptures,
enough to fill a page or two, and have had ten or twelve copies taken of
them for rewards for the scholars, and for gratuitous distribution. Some
persons will, perhaps, accept and read a page who would refuse a book. At
the bottom of the page is the following sentence in Burman: 'The
missionary who lives outside of the north gate of the city of Tavoy,
extracted this passage from the great Scriptures.' Thus the same leaf
will show the people something of our doctrine, and the place where we
live.

"Evening. We have had rather a solemn and agreeable day. The discourse
was, on coming to the waters of life. The people paid good attention, and
afterwards repeated very readily much that had been said to them. This
evening, the state of my mind is calm but pensive. Little Sarah's dear
form has been haunting me, but I feel that I can fully resign her to our
dear Father who gave her."

"_Tavoy, March 29th_, 1830.

"My dearest Sarah,

"Last evening, Moung Shway-Bwen, in relating the state of his mind, said,
'I saw last night, in my sleep, all the people small and great in Tavoy,
assembled at our house; and when the teacher had done preaching, there
was a wonderful movement on the minds of the people, and they all joined
in prayer and praise to the eternal God. I was so overjoyed at the sight,
that I awoke, and kindled a fire and engaged in prayer for a while before
break of day. I think such a thing is worth praying for.' He closed the
meeting with a very copious, and apparently feeling prayer.

"To-day, several Karens from Tshick-koo and its vicinity arrived. Two of
them requested baptism, and they say there are two others who are
desirous of that ordinance.

"Tuesday, March 30. To-day, I have had nearly a hundred visiters at the
zayat, not all religious visiters, but many of them gave good attention.
I find the more I preach 'Christ and his cross,' the better attention I
get. I gave a discourse on the Lord's opening the heart of Lydia. I made
out an allegory somewhat like the ship Grace. The plan was this: A
sovereign forms the design of favoring every city in his realm with a
visit. With his proper suit he proceeds, but finds the gates of every
city shut against him. The people of his suit call and call, but gain no
admittance for themselves or their lord. In some cities all are asleep
and will not be awakened; in some, they are frightened and run away; in
some they will not believe that it is their sovereign; in some, they rise
up in arms against him; but all with one consent remain with closed
gates. Every gate is fastened by a prodigious lock. The sovereign goes
through his whole realm, and is not admitted into a single city. He
repeats his tour once and again, but with no better success. At last he
resolves to try a wondrous key which he possesses; and at its touch, the
city gates fly open, and all the people the moment they behold him,
welcome their lord, and acknowledge him their rightful sovereign. So with
every city to the gate of which this wondrous key is applied. But to some
gates it is not applied, only the call is repeated, but on the citizens
refusing to open to their sovereign, he marks down their conduct in his
book and passes on. The key is the love of Christ, applied by the Holy
Spirit. You will understand all the rest."

"_Tavoy, April_ 12, 1830.

"My dearest Sarah,

"Some of the Karens from Oo-too have called to express their regret at
our expected departure from Tavoy. Four or five days ago, Ko-thah-byoo
attempted, but found himself unable to go to the Karen jungle and call
together his friends to hear my parting advice. He sent his message,
however, by some Karens who were going east near Moung So's village. The
messenger met Moung Thitshee on the way, who belonged to that village,
and he hastened home, called together the people, and to-day a dozen or
fifteen of them, men, women and children, have arrived, with loads of
fowls, rice, fruits, &c. Your two Karen women are among them. They say
they love to come to the city when you are here, but now that you are
gone they shall come no more. Thitshee says, now we are going away, he
does not wish to live near the city, but to retire far away into the
jungle. Poor creatures, my heart bleeds for them.

"Late in the evening. Have had rather a solemn time with the Karens who
are to leave in the morning. Thitshee appeared more serious and
thoughtful than ever I saw him before. He says they have resolved to make
no more liquor in his village, and they have almost left off the use of
the noxious draught.

"After the discourse and prayer in Burman and Karen, the conversation
turned on the way of remembering the Sabbath,* and the people manifested
a singular interest in the subject. They finally concluded to break a
little stick of bamboo every morning, and when seven breaks should be
completed, they would recollect that the Lord's-day had arrived. They
propose also to pray every day _as if it was Lord's-day_."

[Footnote: * The Karens have no division of time into weeks, and days of
the week.]

"_Tavoy, April 18, Lord's-day evening._

"My dearest Sarah,

"How shall I describe to you the events of the last two days? But I will
not detain you in suspense. Our Karen friends from the east arrived on
Friday evening. Moung Kyah and Moung Khway are the only two of the
baptized, whose circumstances would allow them to come. Moung So is still
unable to travel so far. Among those who have arrived are seven Karens,
who came out for the express purpose of receiving baptism. Several of
them have been candidates for that ordinance a number of months, and all
of them have been hopeful converts, and sober, reformed people for more
than a year. Several others, four, at least, from Moung So's village,
would have come, but were either absent from home, or detained by
illness. When our friends first arrived, they sat in silence for some
minutes. Neither they nor I felt inclined to speak. For an hour or more
we had no free conversation. I saw their hearts were full, and so was
mine. Moung Khway at last broke silence, by saying, 'I hear you are about
to leave us, and I know not where we shall meet again; if not in this
place, I hope we shall meet in the presence of God.' I nodded assent, and
he proceeded; 'I don't know how it will be, whether we shall know each
other in heaven, but I hope we shall, I want to know you there.' In the
evening, after a discourse from Eph. iv. 17--32, the seven candidates
made their application for baptism. We had time to examine only one of
them, and deferred the rest till the next morning. In the morning, after
the usual stated devotions, we all assembled in my little room in the
zayat, and after several prayers, resumed the pleasant work of hearing
Christian experiences. The whole day was occupied in this delightful
employment. Each person gave us satisfactory evidence of true grace.
True, we had not that evidence which arises from a daily observation of
their conduct; but Moung Kyah and Moung Khway were solemnly charged to
give their testimony regarding this topic, and they uniformly gave a
decided testimony in favor of the candidates' total abstinence from all
heathenish practices for more than a year; also on their disposition and
ability to converse on religion, and especially to pray. As to the
evidence derived from their conversation and relation of experience
before the church, I can truly say it was as satisfactory as could be
expected.

"When they had all done, and the church had unanimously agreed to receive
them, I inquired if they all wished to be baptized now, or wait till some
future occasion should occur; perhaps, after the rains; and one of them,
who had appeared rather embarrassed, and on this account had given us
less satisfaction than the rest, said he would wait till another time, to
which we readily assented. The others all wished to be baptized
immediately. After we had been assembled in the zayat an hour or two, Lot
Kyike, our amiable Chinese boy, who had given us so much occasion to love
him and think well of him, came in. He sat till all was over. I inquired
what his object was in coming. 'To ask for baptism; Sir, I have been very
much distressed; while the Karens were relating their experience, I
thought within myself, these people, who but seldom hear the word of God,
and cannot read, are entering the kingdom of heaven before me, who daily
hear the Gospel and can read the Scriptures. Besides, I am going to
Maulmein, but do not know that I shall live to reach there. I wish,
therefore, to be baptized before I go.' His application was so urgent,
and his account of his religious views and feelings so satisfactory,
that, although we had proposed to delay his baptism for a season, we
feared we might do wrong and offend God; and so we unanimously agreed to
receive him, and appointed this morning for the time of administering the
ordinance to him and the six Karen candidates.

"After a short recess, which the native members of the church and the
candidates spent in religious conversation, the Karens proposed several
inquiries about practical religion. After these inquiries, they wished to
know the names of all the teachers, that they might pray for them
distinctly; and, also, by what name they should designate the American
Indians, of whom they had heard me speak as a people somewhat resembling
the Karens; 'for,' said they, 'we wish to pray for them also.' In the
morning I delivered a discourse preparatory to the baptismal service,
from the closing paragraph of Matthew's Gospel. I spoke of the
sovereignty of Christ, 'all power in heaven and on earth,'--therefore he
must be obeyed--the commission to go and make disciples of all
nations--the command for the disciples, and no others, to be
baptized--the subsequent duties of the baptized, to observe whatsoever
Christ has commanded--the encouragement derived from Christ's promised
presence, &c. In the morning, after prayers and practical observations,
we repaired to the wonted place, where the seven candidates were
baptized. Lot Kyike, the Chinese youth, could not wait for me to come out
and lead him into the water, but came hastening in to meet me.

"Towards evening we met to celebrate the Lord's Supper. It was altogether
such a communion season as we never before had in Tavoy, either as to the
number of communicants, or the feeling manifested by them. It was,
indeed, the house of God, and the gate of heaven. O that you had been
present to partake of our unusual joy. After recess and tea, we again
assembled to hear experience. Moung Bwah came of his own accord, and we
have had such an experience meeting as was never held in this place
before. But I must defer particulars for the present. I am quite
exhausted with the duties and pleasures of the day.

"April 19. I have made arrangements with the Karens, that if I can visit
Tavoy after the rains, I will meet them half way, that is, just this side
the great pass in the mountains, where they propose to build a zayat for
the occasion, and they say it is a central place, where men, women and
children can convene from all quarters. You are aware, that a goodly
number of Karen females give more or less evidence of piety, and that it
is important to select and appoint a place to which they may resort and
be baptized, if thought worthy. All the Karens seem delighted with the
plan and place proposed.

"April 20. The Karens, after having spent a long time in fervent prayer,
have, at length, gone with melted hearts. Happy, very happy has been our
interview. Such a spirit of love and prayer as we have enjoyed during the
last three days, I have never before witnessed. At parting, the Karens
begged that you would come with me after the rains, and they would carry
you out to the place of meeting. But who can tell whether we shall not,
before that time, have joined the innumerable company in the skies?

"I send this long letter by one of the natives, who leaves a day or two
before us; and I hope and trust that shortly after receiving it, you will
see us all; and God grant we may unite in serving him better than we have
ever done.

"Your ever most affectionate

GEORGE ----."


Mr. Boardman left Tavoy on the 27th of April, and reached Maulmein on the
3d of May. Mr. Judson had left for Rangoon a few days before his arrival.
During a residence in Tavoy, of two years, Mr. Boardman had collected a
native church of twenty persons, fifteen of whom were Karens.
Ko-thah-byoo and Moung Shway-Bwen, with their wives, the two baptized
Indo-Chinese, and several others of the boys' school, accompanied him to
Maulmein.

_To Dr. Bolles._

"_Maulmein, July_ 6, 1830.

"Dear Sir,

"We are rejoiced to learn, by your last letter, that in the course of
nine months we may expect a considerable reinforcement to our numbers and
strength. Glad should we be were all the persons you name now on the
spot, studying the language. Our native church, as well as ourselves,
daily pray for the safe and speedy arrival of our friends.

"Since my arrival here, early in June, Mrs. Boardman has been carried
through another attack of her complaint. She is now better, and as well,
perhaps, as she has reason to expect she ever will be in this world. My
own health has been impaired ever since our exposure during the
insurrection at Tavoy, nearly a year ago. I have had an uninterrupted
cough, which is sometimes so violent, that I obtain relief only by lying
down for an hour. The physicians say, it evidently arises from diseased
lungs, and cannot be removed.

"Since coming to Maulmein, my labors have been of such a nature as
scarcely to admit of being noticed in a journal, and, accordingly, I have
kept none. This letter I design shall supply that deficiency. My weekly
labors are nearly as follows:--Preaching on Lord's-days, two sermons in
English and one in Burman; attending a Burman catechetical recitation,
somewhat like that of a Bible class. On Friday evening, a sermon in
English. Every other evening in the week, I attend a prayer-meeting, or
experience-meeting, or deliver a lecture or exposition in Burman. In the
day time, I correct proof sheets for the press, and the writing of two
Burman copyists; receive visits from pious or inquiring soldiers and
Burmans whenever they call; prepare lessons for the boys' school, &c. &c.
In addition to this, I have had, till lately, the trouble of
superintending the erection of a house to live in, the old mission-house
having gone to decay. Mrs. Boardman, enfeebled as she is by severe and
repeated attacks of illness, is no less busily occupied than myself. Mr.
and Mrs. Bennet are also engaged with all their powers in their
appropriate business. As the fount of new type is still deficient, Mr.
Bennet has not yet begun to print the Testament, but he keeps the press
well and constantly employed in printing religious tracts, catechisms,
schoolbooks, &c.

"Of the three native readers or preachers whom our brethren left behind
them, one is employed at present, according to Brother Judson's advice,
in translating part of the New Testament into Taleing; one is sickly and
does little more than go about the town distributing tracts and portions
of the printed Scriptures. Some days he has given away fifty or more,
most of them to strangers who come on business from a place near Ava.
Another of them about six weeks since completed a tour of more than a
month on Pelew Island, where he was received with great kindness, and
many heard the Gospel with attention, and received books with
demonstrations of thankfulness and joy. In the course of his tour he
distributed about one hundred and fifty tracts and portions of the
Scriptures, and met with three persons who appeared to relish the Gospel
so much as to propose coming to us to receive baptism. About a month ago
this same person who speaks Karen tolerably well, set off in company with
Ko-thah-byoo to visit the Karen settlements up the river. They took a
large supply of tracts and books for distribution. Four days ago, they
returned delighted with their tour; the Karens had received them in the
same manner as those in Tavoy had previously received Ko-thah-byoo. Many
of them listened with the most encouraging attention to the message of
redeeming love. Books were most eagerly received both by those who could
read, and by those who could not, 'for,' said they, 'we will ask others
to read them to us.' Long before the close of their tour, their supply of
books failed, and Ko-Myat-kyaw was compelled to give away the books from
his own private satchel. On their return, five Karens accompanied them to
town, four of whom profess to be decided in embracing the Gospel, and
have applied for baptism; but though the whole native church would give a
unanimous vote in their favor, I am inclined to defer their baptism for
further proofs of their sincerity and steadfastness.

"Our English congregation is not quite so large as when Brother Judson
was here. Of the twenty or thirty soldiers who attend, about half are
hopefully pious, and half of the remainder may be considered anxious
inquirers or attentive listeners. Two have been baptized since I came up.
As they belong to the corps of artillery, they are considered the first
beginning of a new church, independently of that recently formed in his
Majesty's 45th regiment.

"In the native church we have no additions, and no inquirers except the
Karens. But with the exception of two or three persons, whose love has
for a long time been growing cold, if indeed they ever had any, the
church is much united in heart, and in a better state than I feared after
the removal of their much beloved pastor. It is truly edifying to see how
steadfast they remain.

"Our boys' boarding school consists of thirteen scholars, and with the
slight exception of my translating English lessons into Burman for them,
is wholly conducted by Mrs. Bennet and Mrs. Boardman. The government
patronage is still afforded to the day school as at first, and I doubt
not that still more liberal patronage would be obtained, if we had men to
teach and superintend the village schools, as I have suggested in former
letters. But till new missionaries arrive nothing can be done in this
department. While we were at Tavoy, our hands were more than full with
what we then had to do; and if we return after the close of the rains, we
can do nothing for village schools till we have at least one
fellow-laborer. And if the Karens are to be taught, two additional men
are imperiously required for the province of Tavoy. Their wives would
also find enough to do in the city and adjacent villages, where female
schools might be extensively established.

"As brethren Judson and Wade are in hopes that the Gospel may be fully
and freely preached in Burmah, and are now making the experiment, I wait
the result before writing anything more on the establishment of new
stations. If the Gospel can be preached in the heart of the Burman
empire, there is no calculating what new stations it may be desirable to
form, or how many new missionaries may be needed.

"We have recently received letters from Mr. Wade at Rangoon, informing us
that they have much Burman company daily, many coming from a great
distance, and many earnestly begging for tracts and portions of the
Scriptures. No baptisms have occurred for several months, but several are
hopeful inquirers, and the seed of life is being sown far and wide.

"Brother Judson went up to Prome about the first of June, and we learn
from Mr. Wade's letter, that he has taken a zayat in the heart of the
city, and is preaching Christ crucified to all that come. But it is
added, that the prejudices and suspicions of the people against
foreigners, are very strong, and he fears may tend to hinder his
usefulness.

"We accept with great thankfulness, your expressions of condolence and
sympathy in our troubles. We have received similar expressions from our
other friends; they are a sweet cordial to our spirits. You can scarcely
conceive what relief such kindnesses afford us when oppressed with labors
and cares and sorrows, and sinking under the effects of a tropical sun.
We need, as you say, to feel that our confidence is in God, and I do
sometimes feel that 'I will go in the strength of the Lord God.'"

_Extract of a letter to his Mother._

"_Maulmein, July_ 8, 1830.

"In great weakness of body, I take my pen to write a hasty line to the
best of mothers. Ever since our exposure at the time of the Tavoy revolt,
I have been afflicted with an incessant cough, sometimes more and
sometimes less severe than at present. Medical skill has tried in vain to
remove it. As it evidently arises from a weak, though, perhaps, not
actually diseased state of the lungs, it will probably hang about me as
long as I live.

"In four days more, it will have been one year since we closed our lovely
Sarah's eyes. It has been a painful and pleasant year, filled up with new
afflictions and new mercies. If you ask whether, under these
circumstances, I regret having come to Burmah, I promptly answer, not
only I regret that I came with no more of the spirit of Christ, and with
so much to require the chastising rod of divine mercy. Do you inquire if
I think Burmah has proved unfavorable to my health? I answer, no: had I
remained in America I should probably have been in my grave before now.
But even supposing Burmah had proved unfavorable to my health, or that of
my companion, are the Burmans to be left to ruin because _health_ will be
impaired, or life _shortened_ by our coming hither? To spread the Gospel
through Burmah is worth a thousand lives. What if we do find an early
grave! shall we regret it at the last day? Oh no.

"You will probably learn from other sources the cause of our removal to
this place. We are very happy here, and have as much labor as we have
strength and time to perform. I have baptized two Europeans since I came
to Maulmein, and preached the Gospel to several Karens, four of whom have
requested baptism."

The following letter was addressed to a lad named Judson C. thirteen
years of age, who has since that period become hopefully pious, and is
much interested in the cause of missions.

"_Maulmein, Aug._ 18, 1830.

"My dear young friend,

"If God in his infinite grace should convert you, and, two or three years
hence, send you as a missionary to Burmah, you would perhaps on your
arrival here inquire, if not previously informed, 'where is my old friend
Boardman?' and it is probable that the missionaries would tell you,
pointing to yonder grave, 'there are his remains. The consumption seized
on his lungs, and human skill availed nought, and so he fell a victim to
his disease before he was fully prepared to commence his labors.' If the
prayers of Christians do not raise me from my long threatening, and, of
late, alarming complaints, I shall not live to see your face on earth.
But what if I do not, so as we are prepared to meet in heaven? Are _you_
prepared, my young friend?

"If you should come to Burmah as a missionary, either before or after my
decease, the following hints may be of some little service to you:

"1. Do not be proud of your name, as though it conferred on you any of
the excellencies or honors of that truly worthy man who first established
this mission, and whose name you bear.

"2. Do not be proud of your parentage, as though you deserve, on your
respected parents' account, to be respected above your brethren.

"3. Do not be proud of your literary and classical attainments, as though
they entitled you to a grade or two higher in the opinion and treatment
of your brethren, than you would otherwise enjoy.

"4. Do not be proud of your own talents, or judgment, or information on
any important points concerning which your brethren appear to be
uninformed.

"5. Most of all, do not be proud of your piety or Christian experience.

"6. Do not expect that your suggestions will be regarded, or your
judgment much thought of, when you first enter the missionary circle.

"7. Do not be disappointed or grieved, if your brethren pursue a course,
in several respects, different from what you should recommend.

"8. Endeavor to be very humble, and holy, and compassionate; and store
yourself with a large supply of patience, to be exercised towards the
heathen.

"9. Converse much with Christ in all his going about to do good, and
making it his meat and drink to do his Father's will and to finish his
work.

"10. Remember that time is short.

"If you are not counted worthy to suffer for Christ's sake as a
missionary, perhaps some of your associates at college will be, and these
hints may be useful to them."

The subjoined letter gives further particulars respecting his health. It
also illustrates the power of faith in overcoming the fear of death, and
in enabling its possessor to contemplate an exchange of worlds with
unaffected joy.

_Letter to Dr. Bolles._

"_Maulmein, Aug._ 25, 1830.

"My dear Sir,

"After writing you on the 6th ult. my symptoms gradually grew worse, and
my strength daily failed till the 20th, when I called in a physician. He
advised the immediate and total suspension of all the severer duties of
my avocation, such as speaking or reading aloud, or intense study;--put
me on the regular diet of a consumptive patient, and gave me a little
medicine, saying, though there were no hopes of an entire recovery, the
medicine might help me; and if I could be kept from sinking under my
complaints, till the close of the present rains, I might recover a
little; and by removing to some other climate to avoid the next rains,
might perhaps survive another year, &c. All this I considered more
hopeful than probable. Death seemed near, and I closed my worldly
concerns as fast and as far as strength would permit. I gave up all
labors for the present, and all plans for future labor. Two or three
months I supposed would close my earthly career, and usher me into the
holy and blessed presence of my gracious God and beloved Redeemer. Death
had no alarms, no terrors. My beloved family and the perishing heathen
were all that made me in the least degree unwilling to die. And even
these I could resign into the hands of a gracious and covenant-keeping
God. Meanwhile prayer was made by the native Christians here and at
Rangoon, and by others, daily without ceasing for me: and God heard their
prayers. I soon began to recover strength, and the violence of my
complaint abated by degrees. In a fortnight, Brother Wade came round from
Rangoon, to assume my labors and responsibilities. I am now so far
restored to health that I sometimes sit up all day, and can read and
write without much fatigue. But I cannot study, or put forth any mental
effort. Neither dare I preach, lest I should induce a return of my
complaints. The physician recommends a sea voyage, and has named a return
to America; but I cannot consent to the latter, except as a last resort.
Should I continue convalescent, I hope to return to Tavoy in two or three
months, and if any of the expected missionaries destined to that station
should arrive soon, I could then conduct them to the field of their
labor, and be of some service to them on their first setting out. No less
than two, I hope, will be destined to Tavoy and its neighboring
villages."

Mr. and Mrs. Boardman were now called to drink a second time of the cup
of sorrow. Their infant son, Judson Wade, an interesting child of eight
months, after a severe illness of a few days, was released by death. But
in this, as in the death of their first-born, they appear to have bowed
in acquiescence to the dispensation. The circumstances are so briefly
stated in the following communication, as to leave it impressed upon the
mind that, like Aaron, they "held their peace."

_To the same._

"_Maulmein, Nov._ 25, 1830.

"My very dear Sir,

"Through the abundant mercy of our heavenly Father, I am yet alive, and
my health is so much improved, that I expect to embark in an hour on
board the steam vessel Diana, with my family, to resume the station at
Tavoy. Our hearts have been gladdened this very day of our departure, by
the intelligence that brethren Kincaid and Mason, with their wives, and a
printer, have arrived at Bengal, and may be expected here daily. And,
indeed, so sanguine were we all, that, hearing the report of a ship's
arrival at Amherst this morning, probably from Bengal, and bearing the
long expected missionaries, that our brethren Wade and Bennet have just
gone down to meet and receive them. The health of my family, excepting
myself, is comfortable; but our hearts have been pierced anew by the loss
of our dear babe, on the 8th of September. He was eight months old, and
though generally feeble, was one of the most interesting and lovely of
babes. The Lord has dealt with us severely, but not unkindly. He gave,
and he hath taken away, and I hope we can cordially acquiesce in his
arrangements. Want of time and health and strength forbids me to add.
After arriving at Tavoy, I hope to be able to give you a more detailed
account of myself for the last three months."

We take the following extract from a letter of the same date, addressed
to his brother-in-law, Capt. A. Blanchard.

"_Maulmein, Nov._ 25, 1830.

"My dear brother Blanchard,

"Your letter from Liverpool was received the 5th of last June. You have
probably heard of my long protracted illness, but I have the pleasure to
inform you, that, through the abounding mercy of our gracious Lord, my
health is so far restored, that I am expecting to embark with my family
today, to resume my old station at Tavoy. Still I am by no means free
from consumptive complaints, and probably never shall be. At present, I
have hardly strength enough to walk a mile.

"You will sympathise with us when you learn that we are again left with
only one child, our youngest and most lovely boy having been removed from
us by death. He lies interred at Maulmein, and has a neat little monument
of brick erected over him, and a short inscription on stone at his head,
all done by the kindness and liberality of brother Wade, whose name, in
part, he bore. Thus you see the Lord is severe in his dealings with us,
but not unkind. For two years past, few have been the days in which some
sore affliction, sickness, pain, trial or death, has not been pressing
upon us, to drink up our spirits. But like David, we are constrained to
say, 'it is good for us that we have been afflicted.' This I record for a
testimony of the Lord's infinite mercy."

The following letter from Mrs. Boardman to the Corresponding Secretary,
details their arrival at Tavoy, and some of the circumstances in which
they found the station, after an absence of seven months.

"_Tavoy, Dec_ 2, 1830.

"My beloved Pastor,

"You will see by the date that we have resumed our old station at Tavoy.
We left Maulmein a week ago, and arrived here on Lord's-day. Eight
promising lads, who have most of them been in the boys' school two years,
came with us. The school consisted of twenty-seven scholars previous to
its removal from this place, and now we have returned, those who did not
accompany us to Maulmein wish to en-enter again. Among the boarding
scholars six give us good evidence of piety. They are young, and will
have many temptations to contend with when they leave us. But it is
consoling to think, that God will not suffer one of his little flock to
perish.

"Moung Ing, the native preacher, is now with us, and sits in Mr.
Boardman's zayat explaining the Scriptures to all who will listen. Moung
Shaw-Bwen, who came with us when we first removed to this place, is also
with us. His wife has been in our family about a year and a half. She
gives good evidence of piety, and was baptized about two months since.
Ko-thah-byoo, the Karen who has been so useful among his countrymen, is
here, with his wife and infant child. He proposes setting out on a
journey to the Karens to inform them of our arrival."

On the 8th of December, so soon as the news of his arrival at Tavoy began
to be spread through the Karen jungle, several of his former visiters
came again to see him, loaded with presents. Two of them requested
baptism, but as more were expected soon, their case was deferred to a
future period. December 11th, two small companies came in from the
jungle. Among these were several who had been baptized, from whom Mr.
Boardman learned with satisfaction, that the native Christians were all
in health, and that not one of them had fallen from his steadfastness. Of
those who last arrived, three requested to be baptized.

_From the Journal._

"Dec. 16. Ko-thah-byoo has returned from the Karen settlements, bringing
about forty of his countrymen with him. Among them were all the
disciples, except the two who had previously visited us, and a large
number who wished to be baptized! How pleasing is our interview! But I am
too feeble to describe it. We shall probably spend the next three or four
days in examining candidates. And O, may the spirit of the Lord be with
us to guide us in all our proceedings.

"Dec. 20. Finished the examination, which has lasted above three whole
days and evenings. Eighteen Karens, five of whom were females, have been
accepted, and were this day baptized by our ordained brother Moung Ing.
One of this number is a lovely lad from our school, the son of the chief
native officer of the place, who is a Moosoolman; and the little boy has
much reason to expect severe persecution, and perhaps the disinherison of
a large estate. But he seems prepared by the grace of God to bear all. We
have long had satisfactory evidence of his conversion. In the evening I
administered the Lord's Supper to thirty-seven persons. By the good hand
of the Lord upon us, our church in Tavoy has been nearly doubled to-day.
The season was solemn; but my health forbids me to enter into
particulars.

"Dec. 31. Since the above date, several small companies of Karens have
visited us, four or five of whom wish to be baptized.

"In the course of the month, I have distributed four hundred and sixty
tracts and portions of Scripture in Burman, and eight or ten portions of
Scripture in Malabar, thirty or forty in Chinese, besides a few English
books and tracts. My health being on the whole somewhat improved since
our arrival at Tavoy, I feel some hope to be able soon to do a little
missionary work, if not to teach and preach daily, as I formerly did."

We here give an extract of a letter from Mrs. Boardman to Mrs. Sharp of
Boston. It gives a pleasing view of the success of the Gospel among the
Karens.

"_Tavoy, Dec._ 30, 1830.

"My dear Mrs. Sharp,

"In our domestic relation, the hand of the Lord has been heavy upon us.
About a year and a half ago, we lost our eldest child, a lovely daughter,
two years and six months old. Four months since, we buried our youngest,
a sweet little boy of eight months and a half. Our only remaining child
is now two years old. He bears his father's name, and is a source of much
comfort to us. You have ere this, heard of Mr. Boardman's declining state
of health. He has been unable to preach the last five months, and my sad
heart sinks within me, at the desolate prospect before me.

"In our missionary work we have much to call forth our gratitude. God is
displaying his power and grace among the poor Karens in a most wonderful
manner. Since our return from Maulmein, we have had several companies out
to hear the Gospel. At one time, upwards of forty came, and stayed four
days, listening every day to the doctrines of the cross, with an
attention and solemnity that would have done credit to a Christian
congregation. We have seen all who were baptized previously to our visit
to Maulmein, and as far as we can learn, they have conducted themselves
worthy the followers of Jesus. Perhaps you recollect a chieftain
mentioned in a letter from Mr. Boardman to your husband more than two
years ago. He came at first with the sorcerer, who was in possession of
the deified book, and not long after professed a firm belief in the
doctrines of the cross, and requested baptism. Having waited a suitable
time, and given us good evidence of his piety, he was baptized, and not
long after another respectable man among them, named Moung Kyah, and his
aged father-in-law, followed his example. Their manner of life since has
been such as to remind us forcibly of the apostles and primitive
Christians. The chieftain's name is Moung So. He and Moung Kyah take such
portions of Scripture as we have been able to give them, and go from
house to house, and from village to village, expounding the word,
exhorting the people, and uniting with their exhortations frequent and
fervent prayers. And God has blessed their labors. Three brothers of
Moung Kyah, two brothers and a sister of Moung So, and several of their
more distant relatives have been baptized. Both of their wives have large
families of young children, so that they have never been able to come to
town, as it is three days' journey, over mountains and through deserts.
But from what I learn of them, they are both in a hopeful way. They unite
with their husbands in family prayers, and go to the house of worship on
Lord's-days. Yes, my dear friend, the voice of prayer and praise rises
sweetly from the dwellers on the desolate mountains of Tavoy, and I doubt
not is as acceptable to God, as the incense offered in the churches of
dear New England. Within the last year, twenty-six have been baptized,
making in all thirty-one, not including Ko-thah-byoo. Last Lord's-day
week, nineteen were baptized, eighteen of them Karens, and one of them an
interesting youth, who has been in the school about a year. He is the
second son of Mahommed Lafet, or as the Burmans call him,
Moung-thar-apee. The youth is unusually amiable and modest, but religion
has made him meek and lowly. It was indeed an interesting sight to behold
the noble little boy going to be baptized with a company of ignorant
Karens, who would be spurned from his father's door. The name of the
youth is Moung Shwa.

"Mr. Boardman unites with me in kindest Christian love. O pray for us in
our afflictions."



CHAPTER XX.
Mr. Boardman's last letter to his relatives in America--Mr. and Mrs.
Mason join the mission--Mr. Boardman dies, amid the mountains of Tavoy.


ON the 1st of January, 1831, Mr. Boardman made the following entry in his
journal:

"This year opens with the prospect that one or two missionaries will join
us at this station,--that several Karens will soon be added to the
thirty-three already baptized,--that the boys' school will have
considerable increase of numbers. But there are no animating prospects in
relation to the poor people of this city. Last year opened on a most
severe and dangerous illness of my beloved partner; this year she is
healthful, and I am the invalid, travelling, perhaps with hasty steps, to
my long home. My health and life, and those of my family and friends, I
commit to our gracious God for the ensuing year, praying that he will
dispose of us all as shall most promote his glory and the good of our
souls."

This is the last record, made with his own hand, which has reached us.
His lingering and painful disease was now advancing to its fatal
termination, with a rapidity which promised a speedy release from his
sufferings. It is to be regretted that no account has been transmitted to
us of the state of his religious feeling from this time till within a few
days of his death. The entire devotedness of his little remaining
strength to the benefit of the heathen was unquestionably the cause of
this omission. From what we have already seen of him, and from what we
have learned of the particular state of his mind in immediate prospect of
death, we feel assured that he looked forward to that event as the
termination of his toils and sufferings, and the means of introducing him
into the joy of his Lord.

The subjoined farewell, addressed to his relatives in America, written
while at Maulmein, as it contained nothing which had special reference to
the state of the mission, has been reserved for this place.

"_Maulmein, Sept._ 27, 1830.

"My very dear Parents, Brothers and Sisters,

"Laboring as I am under a long protracted disease, which, though
sometimes slow in its progress, is most surely fatal in its termination,
I feel strongly impelled by my affection for you, to write you while I
have strength remaining, and to inform you of my general situation, and
my feelings in prospect of death. Although this may not be my _last_, yet
it is designed as a kind of _farewell letter_. I address it to you all
collectively, because I have not time and strength to write you
separately. You will have anticipated that my complaint is consumption. I
thank God, I have it in its mildest forms. No pain in either side, or the
chest, no very violent coughing, no raising of blood, no palpitation of
the heart. A hectic fever, which sometimes occurs only once in three or
four days, sometimes once a day, and continues from noon till near
midnight, a continual cough, a constant diarrhoea, and a profuse
sweating, particularly in the morning before rising, and generally,
whenever the fever subsides, these are the principal symptoms. Of course
my flesh and strength are very much wasted, and my appetite has sometimes
almost failed me. Other circumstances of peculiar mercy call for most
devout and humble gratitude to the Father of lights. I have a kind and
skilful physician, who prescribes for me and furnishes me medicine in the
most obliging manner. There are some other kind friends, besides the
missionaries, who seem to take pleasure in showing me favors. But most of
all for outward comforts, I have my beloved wife, whose most untiring
assiduity has mitigated many of my pains, and who is ever prompt to
render all the services that the purest affection can dictate, or the
greatest sufferings require. Besides this, I have no weighty cares, the
whole burden of managing the station having been assumed by one of my
senior brethren. It deserves to be mentioned in this connexion, that my
dear wife has not been so free from missionary and family cares, or from
attacks of illness, as during the last three months, while I have most
needed her kind and soothing attentions. 'Bless the Lord, O my soul, and
all that it is within me, bless his holy name.'

"As to the state of my mind, I cannot say, as some have said, that I am
filled with comfort and transport; indeed, my religious joys and comforts
are not so great as they have often been, and I have much cause to lament
over my great insensibility. Of late I have had a little quickening,
especially in prayer. I am not of the opinion, that we are justified in
omitting or neglecting prayer, or any other religious duty, because we do
not derive from the performance so much enjoyment as we could wish. I
think God often grants us some of his richest blessings in answer to
persevering prayer in times of darkness and discouragement. Accordingly,
I have struggled on for months through not a few trials, and I begin to
hope that the clouds which have so long veiled my sky are a little
cleared away. In prayer, I feel a greater nearness to God than I did, and
sometimes seem almost to see him face to face, to order my speech before
him, and to plead with him as a man pleadeth with his friend. A deeper
sense of the realities of religion, and of comfort in those realities, is
the consequence. So that on the whole, I may say, I am not so happy as
some, nor yet so unhappy as many in the view of death. And I can truly
add, that at no part of my sickness has death possessed any terror or
alarm for me. The general conviction I have, that God, of his matchless
grace, has adopted me into his family and given me a title to an
incorruptible inheritance in heaven, has supported me hitherto, and the
expectation, that as soon as I am dismissed from my Master's service on
earth, I shall be permitted to resume it in heaven, has made death seem
rather pleasant than otherwise. Freedom from sin and pollution, (my great
burden here,) and nearness to my God and Redeemer, are ideas that fill my
bosom with joy. I often wonder that I should be willing to be detained
another day or hour in these low, sultry plains, when by passing the
narrow, but gloomy stream of death, my weary feet would rest on the
heavenly shore, and my soul be set at liberty from the bondage of sin,
far beyond the reach of temptation, to exult for evermore in its nearness
and likeness to its blessed Saviour.

"As to my hope and my confidence of acceptance with God, if any man has
cause to renounce all his own righteousness, his prayers, his tears, his
self-denial, his labors for Christ and the Gospel, and in fact all that
he is, or has, or has done, or will do, or can do, and to trust entirely
and solely, and without conditions to grace, sovereign grace, flowing
through an atoning Saviour, I am that man. Grace, sovereign grace, is my
only confidence. A perfectly right action, with perfectly right motives,
I never performed, and never shall perform, till freed from this body of
sin. I cannot even ask aright for pardoning, quickening, or sanctifying
grace. Never did I feel so deeply as I have of late, that I must lie at
the door of sovereign mercy, and depend entirely on that wondrous love,
which from eternity wrought in the bowels of divine compassion, and, in
due time, was manifested in the sufferings of God's incarnate Son. 'An
unprofitable servant,' is the most appropriate epitaph for my tomb-stone.
True, I have labored a few years for the spread of the Gospel in this
heathen land. I have undergone some hardships and dangers, and have
foregone the privilege of living near my friends and in a Christian
country; but even supposing I had done all this with the purest and best
of motives in every respect and in every instance, and supposing my few
years had been the whole period of my life, what a trifle, what a mere
atom this, in comparison with the ten thousand talents I owe to sovereign
mercy. But, alas! I have to mourn, that two thirds of my life were spent
in sin, and that the remaining third has been so much cut up and divided
between serving God and myself. In thinking on the probability of dying
within a few months, but two or three things occasion me any considerable
unwillingness to meet the solemn event. One is, the sore affliction I
know it will occasion my dear family, especially my fond, too fond wife.
Her heart will be well nigh riven. But I must leave her with Him who is
anointed to heal the broken hearted, and to bind up their wounds. My dear
little son is still too young to remember me long, or to realize his
loss. I have prayed for him many times, and can leave him in my heavenly
Father's hands. Another occasion of my being sometimes reluctant to die
so soon, is the perishing state of the people around me. I have been
studying now almost fifteen years, during the last ten of which, I have
studied with more or less reference to being useful among the heathen.
And now, if just as I am beginning to be qualified to labor a little
among them, my days are cut short, much of my study and preparation seems
to be in vain. But I chide myself for thinking or saying so. If I had
done no good whatever here in Burmah, I ought to submit and be still
under the recollection, that God's ways are not as our ways, nor his
thoughts as our thoughts, and that he giveth no account of his matters.
But I trust God has made me of some service to a few poor benighted
souls, especially among the Karens, who shall be my glory and joy in the
day of the Lord Jesus. I know too, that God, if he see fit, can
accomplish his designs of mercy respecting these heathen without my
services. He can raise up others, or he can work by his Spirit, without
our aid."

The seeming abruptness with which this letter closes, may, probably, be
accounted for by the physical debility to which he had been reduced by
wasting disease. We feel that it is closed too soon--that but a part of
his filial and fraternal feelings has been expressed--and that the finish
of the last adieu, in hope of a speedy and glorious re-union in heaven,
is most desirable. Perhaps, however, this was a point on which he dared
not venture. We have seen that his natural feelings were exquisitely
tender. His affection for his friends was strong and deep, and he felt
their sorrows as though they were his own. Aware, therefore, of the
wounds which such a farewell would inflict, both in his own bosom and in
those of his friends, he might choose to omit it. But there is often a
pleasure in such pains, which we feel unwilling to forego.

The wide and effectual door which Providence had opened for the
prosecution of missionary efforts, both in the British Provinces and in
Burmah Proper, had encouraged the Board of Missions to send help to the
little band of laborers, who were "faint, yet pursuing." Messrs. Eugenio
Kincaid and Francis Mason, with their wives, sailed from Boston, May
24th, 1830, and arrived at Maulmein the 28th of November following. Mr.
and Mrs. Mason had received instructions from the Board, directing them,
as soon as convenient after reaching Burmah, to repair to the station at
Tavoy, and assist Mr. Boardman in the labors under which he was now
rapidly sinking. They arrived at Tavoy Jan. 23d, 1831. But it was only in
time to accompany our lamented missionary in his last tour among his
Karens, and to witness his triumphant death.

The following letter, addressed by Mr. Mason to Dr. Bolles, contains the
first intelligence of this painful event.

"_Tavoy, Feb._ 12, 1831.

"Dear Sir,

"Having an opportunity to send to Maulmein immediately, I sit down to
communicate the melancholy intelligence that brother Boardman is no more.
He died yesterday, about noon, ten or twelve miles from this place, on
his return from the Karen jungle, and was buried here on the mission
premises, this morning at seven o'clock.

"You are perhaps aware that when he left Tavoy last April, he promised
the Karens that, if possible, he would return and pay them another visit
at their villages. Soon after his return here, in December, the baptized
Karens were in to see him, with many others applying for baptism;
requesting him to make them his promised visit, and stating that there
were many families in the village who wished for baptism, but were unable
to come to Tavoy.

"At my arrival, last month, I found that twenty-two Karens had been
baptized, and brother Boardman preparing to go into the jungle to examine
others for this ordinance. He told me the Karens were building him a
zayat near the foot of the mountain, which he crossed two years ago, and
were coming in to carry him out there. When he met me on the wharf, I
clearly saw the characters of death in his countenance. He was unable to
walk to meet me, yet unwilling to show me anything but the kindest
attention, he had himself brought in a chair to the jetty, to welcome me
on my landing. Though I looked upon him as a dying man, yet as I saw his
heart was set on visiting his Karens, and as the physician not only
approved but even encouraged the journey, I did not advise against his
going. Indeed I felt unwilling to deprive him of the privilege of
exhibiting so fine an illustration of the 'ruling passion strong in
death.' Accordingly we proposed to start on the thirty-first of last
month, the Karens having come in two days previous.

"It was not contemplated, at first, that Mrs. Boardman should accompany
us; but on the morning of our departure, she felt unwilling to be absent
from him without any one to perform those kind offices which his
situation required, and which no one can perform like a wife. We
therefore all started together in the afternoon, leaving the mission
premises under the guard of a couple of sepoys with which the military
commander here readily furnished us. Brother Boardman was carried on a
cot-bed all the way, except when the path round a precipitous hill was
too narrow for two to walk abreast, and arrived at the place of our
destination on the evening of the third day, without any particular
exhaustion. During our stay, however, he so evidently lost strength, that
Mrs. Boardman on one occasion advised him to return. He replied with more
than common animation, 'The cause of God is of more importance than my
health, and if I return now, our whole object will be defeated. I want to
see the work of the Lord go on.

Last Wednesday morning, however, it became so apparent that he could not
live long, that we deemed it expedient to return without delay; and on
condition we completed the examination of the females and of the old men
that day, and baptize in the evening, he consented to return on the day
following. Accordingly a little before sunset he was carried out in his
bed to the water side, where, lifting his languid head to gaze on the
gratifying scene, I had the pleasure of baptizing in his presence,
thirty-four individuals, who gave satisfactory evidence to all, that they
had passed from death unto life. After this, he seemed to feel that his
work was done; he had said in the course of the day, that if he could
live to see this ingathering, he could in special mercy say, Lord, now
lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, for mine eyes have seen thy
salvation.

"On Thursday morning we started on our return; when we arrived at the
first house, its inmates refused us admittance. With some difficulty we
got him into a covered corner of the verandah in a very exhausted state.
Through the assiduous attention, however, of Mrs. Boardman, he appeared
to revive, and he did not seem materially different on the succeeding
morning from what he had been for several days. Still it was evident that
the close of his earthly existence was rapidly approaching, and we
concluded, with his approbation, to take him in a boat down a stream that
was near, and which passes within three or four miles of Tavoy. He was
carried out of the house, or rather from the house, by the Karens, who
put him on board the boat, and Mrs. Boardman and myself followed. But on
turning to see if he wanted anything, we found his countenance fixed in
death, and it were difficult to determine whether he breathed or not.
Thus did this indefatigable missionary die, as every missionary would
wish to die, about his Master's business, and surrounded by those in
whose conversion from heathenism he had been instrumental.

"Alas! my brother, I have lost a friend of whom I had just seen enough to
love. But what is my loss compared with that of his widowed companion?
You who know something of the affection existing between them, may form
some faint conception of her feelings. He was respected as well as loved
by all who knew him, and his funeral this morning was attended by all the
European gentlemen and officers of the station."

The following letter is from Mrs. Boardman to her husband's parents. It
furnishes a most afflicting detail of the circumstances of his death.

"_Tavoy, March_ 7, 1831.

"My beloved Parents,

"With a heart glowing with joy, and at the same time rent with anguish
unutterable, I take my pen to address you. You too will rejoice when you
hear what God has wrought through the instrumentality of your beloved
son. Yes, you will bless God that you were enabled to devote him to his
blessed service among the heathen, when I tell you that within the last
two months, fifty-seven have been baptized, all Karens, excepting one, a
little boy of the school and son of the native governor. Twenty-three
were baptized in this city by Moung Ing, and thirty-four in their native
wilderness by Mr. Mason.

"Mr. Mason arrived Jan. 23d, and on the 31st, he, with Mr. Boardman,
myself and George, set out on a long promised tour among the Karens. Mr.
Boardman was very feeble, but we hoped the change of air and scenery
would be beneficial. A company of Karens had come to convey us out, Mr.
Boardman on his bed, and me in a chair. We reached the place on the third
day, and found they had erected a bamboo chapel on a beautiful stream at
the base of a range of mountains. The place was central, and nearly one
hundred persons had assembled, more than half of them applicants for
baptism. O it was a sight calculated to call forth the liveliest joy of
which human nature is susceptible, and made me for a moment forget my
bitter griefs--a sight far surpassing all I had ever anticipated, even in
my most sanguine hours. The Karens cooked, ate and slept on the ground,
by the river side, with no other shelter than the trees of the forest.
Three years ago they were sunk in the lowest depths of ignorance and
superstition. Now the glad tidings of mercy had reached them, and they
were willing to live in the open air, away from their homes, for the sake
of enjoying the privileges of the Gospel.

"My dear husband had borne the journey better than we had feared, though
he suffered from exhaustion and pain in his side, which, however, was
much relieved by a little attention. His spirits were unusually good, and
we fondly hoped that a few days' residence in that delightful airy spot,
surrounded by his loved Karens, would recruit and invigorate his weakened
frame. But I soon perceived he was failing, and tenderly urged his return
to town, where he could enjoy the quietness of home, and the benefit of
medical advice. But he repelled the thought at once, saying he
confidently expected improvement from the change, and that the
disappointment would be worse for him than staying. 'And even,' added he,
'should my poor unprofitable life be somewhat shortened by staying, ought
I, on that account merely, to leave this interesting field? Should I not
rather stay and assist in gathering in these dear scattered lambs of the
fold? You know, Sarah, that coming on a foreign mission involves the
probability of a shorter life, than staying in one's native country. And
yet obedience to our Lord, and compassion for the perishing heathen,
induced us to make this sacrifice. And have we ever repented that we
came? No; I trust we can both say that we bless God that he has brought
us to Burmah, that he directed our footsteps to Tavoy, and even that he
has led us out here now. You already know my love,' he continued, with a
look of tenderness never to be forgotten, 'that I cannot live long, I
must sink under this disease; and should we go home now, the all
important business which brought us out must be given up, and I might
linger out a few days of suffering, stung by the reflection, that I had
preferred a few idle days, to my Master's service. Don't therefore ask me
to go, till these poor Karens have been baptized.' I saw he was right,
but my feelings revolted. Nothing seemed so valuable as his life, and I
felt that I would make any sacrifice to prolong it, though it were but
for one hour. Still a desire to gratify him, if no higher motive, made me
silent, though my heart ached to see him so ill in such, a wretched
place, deprived of many of the comforts of life, to say nothing of the
indulgencies desirable in sickness.

"The chapel was large, but open on all sides, excepting a small place
built up for Mr. Mason, and a room about five feet wide and ten feet
long, for the accommodation of Mr. Boardman and myself with our little
boy. The roof was so low that I could not stand upright; and it was but
poorly enclosed, so that he was exposed to the burning rays of the sun by
day, and to the cold winds and damp fog by night. But his mind was happy,
and he would often say, 'If I live to see this one ingathering, I may
well exclaim with happy Simeon, Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart
in peace according to thy word, for mine eyes have seen thy salvation.
How many ministers have wished they might die in their pulpits; and would
not dying in a spot like this be even more blessed than dying in a pulpit
at home? I feel that it would.'

"Nor was it merely the pleasing state of things around him that filled
his mind with comfort. He would sometimes dwell on the infinite
compassion of God, and his own unworthiness, till his strength was quite
exhausted; and though he told Mr. Mason that he had not the rapture which
he had sometimes enjoyed, yet his mind was calm and peaceful; and it was
plainly perceptible, that earthly passions had died away, and that he was
enjoying sweet foretastes of that rest into which he was so soon to
enter. He would often say to me, 'My meditations are very sweet, though
my mind seems as much weakened as my body. I have not had that liveliness
of feeling which I have sometimes enjoyed, owing to my great weakness,
but I shall soon be released from these shackles, and be where I can
praise God continually, without weariness. My thoughts delight to dwell
on these words, _There is no night there_.'

"I felt that the time of separation was fast approaching, and said to
him, 'My dear, I have one request to make; it is, that you would pray
much for George during your few remaining days; I shall soon be left
alone, almost the only one on earth to pray for him, and I have great
confidence in your dying prayers.' He looked earnestly at the little boy,
and said, 'I will try to pray for him, but I trust very many prayers will
ascend for the dear child from our friends at home, who will be induced
to supplicate the more earnestly for him, when they hear that he is left
fatherless in a heathen land.'

"On Wednesday, while looking in the glass, he seemed at once to see
symptoms of his approaching dissolution, and said without emotion, 'I
have altered greatly--I am sinking into the grave very fast--just on the
verge.' Mr. Mason said to him, 'Is there nothing we can do for you? Had
we not better call the physician? Or shall we try to remove you into town
immediately?' After a few moments' deliberation, it was concluded to
defer the baptism of the male applicants, and set out for home early the
next morning. Nearly all the female candidates had been examined, and as
it is difficult for them to come to town, it was thought best that Mr.
Mason should baptize them in the evening. We knelt down, and Mr. Mason
having prayed for a blessing on the decision, with sorrowful hearts we
sat down to breakfast.

"While we were at the table, my beloved husband said, 'I shall soon be
thrown away for this world; but I hope the Lord Jesus will take me up.
That merciful Being who is represented as passing by, and having
compassion on the poor cast-out infant, will not suffer me to perish. O,
I have no hope but in the wonderful, condescending, infinite mercy of God
through his dear Son. I cast my poor perishing soul, loaded with sin as
it is, upon his compassionate arms, assured that all will be forever
safe.' On seeing my tears, he said, 'Are you not reconciled to the will
of God, my love?' When I told him I hoped I did not feel unreconciled, he
continued, 'I have long ago, and many times, committed you and our little
one into the hands of our covenant God. He is the husband of the widow
and the father of the fatherless. _Leave thy fatherless children, I will
preserve them alive; and let thy widows trust in me_, saith the Lord. He
will be your stay and support when I am gone. The separation will be but
short. O how happy I shall be to welcome you to heaven.' He then
addressed Mr. Mason as follows, 'Brother, I am heartily rejoiced, and
bless God that you have arrived, and especially am I gratified, that you
are so much interested for the poor Karens. You will, I am assured, watch
over them, and take care of them; and if some of them turn back, you will
still care for them. As to my dear wife and child, I know you will do all
in your power to make them comfortable. Mrs. B. will probably spend the
ensuing rain in Tavoy. She will be happy with you and Mrs. Mason; that
is, as happy as she can be in her state of loneliness. She will mourn for
me, and a widow's state is desolate and sorrowful at best. But God will
be infinitely better to her than I have ever been.' On the same day, he
wished me to read some hymns on affliction, sickness, death, &c. I took
Wesley's Hymn Book, the only one we had with us, and read several, among
others the one beginning, 'Ah lovely appearance of death.'

"On Wednesday evening, thirty-four persons were baptized. Mr. Boardman
was carried to the water side, though so weak that he could scarcely
breathe without the continual use of the fan and the smelling-bottle. The
joyful sight was almost too much for his feeble frame. When we reached
the chapel, he said he should like to sit up and take tea with us. We
placed his cot near the table, and having bolstered him up, we took tea
together. He asked the blessing, and did it with his right hand upraised,
and in a tone that struck me to the heart. It was the same tremulous, yet
urgent, and I had almost said, unearthly voice, with which my aged
grandfather used to pray. We now began to notice that brightening of the
mental faculties, which I had heard spoken of in persons near their end.

"After tea was removed, all the disciples present, about fifty in number,
gathered around him, and he addressed them for a few moments in language
like the following: 'I did hope to stay with you till after Lord's-day,
and administer to you once more the Lord's Supper. But God is calling me
away from you. I am about to die, and shall soon be inconceivably happy
in heaven. When I am gone, remember what I have taught you; and O, be
careful to persevere unto the end, that when you die we may meet one
another in the presence of God, never more to part. Listen to the word of
the new teacher and the teacheress as you have done to mine. The
teacheress will be very much distressed. Strive to lighten her burdens
and comfort her by your good conduct. Do not neglect prayer. The eternal
God, to whom you pray, is unchangable. Earthly teachers sicken and die,
but God remains forever the same. Love Jesus Christ with all your hearts,
and you will be forever safe.' This address I gathered from the Karens,
as I was absent preparing his things for the night. Having rested a few
minutes, he offered a short prayer, and then with Mr. Mason's assistance,
distributed tracts and portions of Scripture to them all. Early the next
morning we left for home, accompanied by nearly all the males and some of
the females, the remainder returning to their homes in the wilderness.
Mr. Boardman was free from pain during the day, and there was no
unfavorable change except that his mouth grew sore. But at four o'clock
in the afternoon we were overtaken by a violent shower of rain,
accompanied by lightning and thunder. There was no house in sight, and we
were obliged to remain in the open air exposed to the merciless storm. We
covered him with mats and blankets, and held our umbrellas over him, all
to no purpose. I was obliged to stand and see the storm beating upon him,
till his mattress and pillows were drenched with rain. We hastened on,
and soon came to a Tavoy house. The inhabitants at first refused us
admittance, and we ran for shelter into the out-houses. The shed I
happened to enter, proved to be the 'house of their gods,' and thus I
committed an almost unpardonable offence. After some persuasion, they
admitted us into the house, or rather verandah, for they would not allow
us to sleep inside, though I begged the privilege for my sick husband
with tears. In ordinary cases, perhaps, they would have been hospitable;
but they knew Mr. Boardman as a teacher of a foreign religion, and that
the Karens in our company had embraced that religion.

"At evening worship, Mr. Boardman requested Mr. Mason to read the
thirty-fourth Psalm. He seemed almost spent and said, 'This poor
perishing dust will soon be laid in the grave, but God can employ other
lumps of clay to perform his will, as easily as he has this poor unworthy
one.' I told him, I should like to sit up and watch by him, but he
objected, and said in a tender supplicating tone, 'cannot we sleep
together?' The rain still continued, and his cot was wet, so that he was
obliged to lie on the bamboo floor. Having found a place where our little
boy could sleep without danger of falling through openings in the floor,
I threw myself down, without undressing, beside my beloved husband. I
spoke to him often during the night, and he said he felt well, excepting
an uncomfortable feeling in his mouth and throat. This was somewhat
relieved by frequent washings with cold water. Miserably wretched as his
situation was, he did not complain; on the contrary, his heart seemed
overflowing with gratitude. 'O,' said he, 'how kind and good our Father
in heaven is to me; how many are racked with pain, while I, though near
the grave, am almost free from distress of body. I suffer nothing,
_nothing_ to what you, my dear Sarah, had to endure last year, when I
thought I must lose you. And then I have you to move me so tenderly. I
should have sunk into the grave ere this, but for your assiduous
attention. And brother Mason is as kind to me as if he were my own
brother. And then how many, in addition to pain of body, have anguish of
soul, while my mind is sweetly stayed on God.' On my saying, 'I hope we
shall be at home to-morrow night, where you can lie on your comfortable
bed, and I can nurse you as I wish,' he said, 'I want nothing that the
world can afford but my wife and friends; earthly conveniences and
comforts are of little consequence to one so near heaven. I only want
them for your sake.' In the morning we thought him a little better,
though I perceived when I gave him his sago, that his breath was very
short. He however took rather more nourishment than usual, and spoke
about the manner of his conveyance home. We ascertained that by waiting
until twelve o'clock, we could go the greater part of the way by water.

"At about nine o'clock, his hands and feet grew cold, and the
affectionate Karens rubbed them all the forenoon, excepting a few moments
when he requested to be left alone. At ten o'clock he was much distressed
for breath, and I thought the long dreaded moment had arrived. I asked
him if he felt as if he was going home,--'not just yet,' he replied. On
giving him a little wine and water, he revived. Shortly after he said,
'you were alarmed without cause, just now, dear--I know the reason of the
distress I felt, but am too weak to explain it to you.' In a few moments
he said to me, 'Since you spoke to me about George, I have prayed for him
almost incessantly--more than in all my life before.'

"It drew near twelve, the time for us to go to the boat. We were
distressed at the thought of removing him, when evidently so near the
last struggle, though we did not think it so near as it really was. But
there was no alternative. The chilling frown of the iron-faced Tavoyer
was to us as if he were continually saying, 'be gone.' I wanted a little
broth for my expiring husband, but on asking them for a fowl, they said
they had none, though at that instant, on glancing my eye through an
opening in the floor, I saw three or four under the house. My heart was
well nigh breaking.

"We hastened to the boat, which was only a few steps from the house. The
Karens carried Mr. Boardman first, and as the shore was muddy, I was
obliged to wait till they could return for me. They took me immediately
to him; but O the agony of my soul, when I saw the hand of death was on
him! He was looking me full in the face, but his eyes were changed, not
dimmed, but brightened, and the pupils so dilated that I feared he could
not see me. I spoke to him--kissed him--but he made no return, though I
fancied that he tried to move his lips. I pressed his hand, knowing if he
could he would return the pressure; but, alas! for the first time, he was
insensible to my love, and forever. I had brought a glass of wine and
water already mixed, and a smelling-bottle, but neither was of any avail
to him now. Agreeably to a previous request, I called the faithful
Karens, who loved him so much, and whom he had loved unto death, to come
and watch his last gentle breathings, for there was no struggle.

"Never, my dear parents, did one of our poor fallen race have less to
contend with in the last enemy. Little George was brought to see his
dying father, but he was too young to know there was cause for grief When
Sarah died, her father said to George, 'Poor little boy, you will not
know to-morrow what you have lost to-day.' A deep pang rent my bosom at
the recollection of this, and a still deeper one succeeded when the
thought struck me, that though my little boy may not know to-morrow what
he lost to-day, yet when years have rolled by, and he shall have felt the
unkindness of a deceitful, selfish world, _he will know_.

"Mr. Mason wept, and the sorrowing Karens knelt down in prayer to
God--that God, of whom their expiring teacher had taught them--that God,
into whose presence the emancipated spirit was just entering--that God
with whom they hope and expect to be happy forever. My own feelings I
will not attempt to describe. You may have some faint idea of them, when
you recollect what he was to me, how tenderly I loved him, and, at the
same time, bear in mind the precious promises to the afflicted.

"We came in silence down the river, and landed about three miles from our
house. The Karens placed his precious remains on his little bed, and with
feelings which you can better imagine than I describe, we proceeded
homewards. The mournful intelligence had reached town before us, and we
were soon met by Moung Ing, the Burman preacher. At the sight of us he
burst into a flood of tears. Next we met the two native Christian sisters
who lived with us. But the moment of most bitter anguish was yet to come
on our arrival at the house. They took him into the sleeping room, and
when I uncovered his face, for a few moments, nothing was heard but
reiterated sobs. He had not altered--the same sweet smile with which he
was wont to welcome me, sat on his countenance. His eyes had opened in
bringing him, and all present seemed expecting to hear his voice, when
the thought, that it was silent forever, rushed upon us, and filled us
with anguish sudden and unutterable. There were the Burman Christians,
who had listened so long, with edification and delight, to his
preaching--there were the Karens, who looked to him as their guide, their
earthly all--there were the scholars whom he had taught the way to
heaven, and the Christian sisters, whose privilege it had been to wash,
as it were, his feet.

"Early next morning his funeral was attended, and all the Europeans in
the place, with many natives, were present. It may be some consolation to
you to know that everything was performed in as decent a manner, as if he
had been buried in our own dear native land. By his own request he was
interred on the south side of our darling first-born. It is a pleasant
circumstance to me that they sleep _side by side_. But it is infinitely
more consoling to think, that their glorified spirits have met in that
blissful world, where sin and death never enter, and sorrow is unknown.

"Praying that we may be abundantly prepared to enter into our glorious
rest, I remain, my dear parents, your deeply afflicted, but most
affectionate child,

S. H. BOARDMAN."

The subjoined document, purporting to be an epitaph, was sent to this
country with other papers from Tavoy.

SACRED
TO THE MEMORY OF
GEORGE D. BOARDMAN,
AMERICAN MISSIONARY TO BURMAH.
Born Feb. 8, 1801--Died Feb. 11, 1831.
_His Epitaph is written in the adjoining Forests._
Ask in the Christian villages of yonder mountains--Who taught
you to abandon the worship of demons? Who raised
you from vice to morality? Who brought you
your Bibles, your Sabbaths, and your
words of Prayer?

LET THE REPLY BE HIS EULOGY.

_A cruce corona._



CHAPTER XXI.
Conclusion.


THE esteem in which Mr. Boardman was held by his missionary associates,
is fully attested by the following extract from Mr. Judson's journal.

"One of the brightest luminaries of Burmah is extinguished--dear brother
Boardman is gone to his eternal rest. He fell gloriously at the head of
his troops in the arms of victory--thirty-eight wild Karens having been
brought into the camp of King Jesus since the beginning of the year,
besides the thirty-two that were brought in during the two preceding
years. Disabled by wounds, he was obliged, through the whole of his last
expedition, to be carried on a litter; but his presence was a host, and
the Holy Spirit accompanied his dying whispers with almighty influence.
Such a death, next to that of martyrdom, must be glorious in the eyes of
Heaven. Well may we rest assured, that a triumphal crown awaits him on
the great day, and 'Well done, good and faithful Boardman, enter thou
into the joy of thy Lord.'"

This testimony to his worth is merited. Few missionaries have had the
honor of accomplishing so much for God in so short a time. Omitting
entirely the success of his labors with the Circular Road church in
Calcutta, and leaving out of the account his establishment of the station
at Maulmein, and the result of his efforts for the conversion of the
Burmans, who daily thronged his zayat; the success of the Gospel at Tavoy
alone, during the short period of his labors, has rarely been surpassed,
in the same length of time, even in Christian countries. He had occupied
that important station a little less than three years, from which is to
be deducted seven months' absence at one time, by reason of ill health,
besides almost perpetual interruptions by sickness and deaths in his
family, and a suspension of his labors for some time, in consequence of
the revolt at Tavoy; yet, in the short time left him for missionary
operations, he succeeded, under God, in gathering a church of seventy
professed disciples, mostly from the Karen jungle. Twenty-six were
baptized soon after his death, most, if not all of whom, probably owed
their hope of heaven to his instrumentality.

But the extent of his usefulness is not to be measured by the number of
hopeful converts to Christianity, gathered by his immediate labors. The
seed which he sowed is still springing up, and though he rests from his
labors, his voice yet lives in its echoes amid the hills and the vallies
of his beloved Karens. Under date of December 19th, 1831, Mr. Mason, who
succeeded him at Tavoy, has the following note in his journal:

"I have been busily occupied all day and evening with the examination of
candidates for baptism, and have received thirteen. One man, Moung Thah
Oo, attributes his conversion to the preaching of a Karen Christian,
during the last rains, but most of them heard Mr. Boardman preach when he
visited them three years ago, and say they believed at the first hearing,
but did not obtain a new heart till about a year afterwards. One said he
got a new mind when some of the first converts were baptized. Thus the
work of conversion seems to have been produced, by the blessing of God,
on means precisely similar to those which are blessed in revivals at
home. The whole, however, is to be traced to Mr. Boardman's first visit
to the jungle in 1829. An impulse was then given to Karen minds, which I
confidently anticipate will never stop, until the whole nation is
converted."

The following just delineation of his moral, religious and intellectual
character, has been kindly furnished by one who knew him best, Dr.
Chaplin, under whose immediate instruction he received his collegiate
education.

"Dear Sir,

"In compliance with your request, I will attempt to state a few things in
relation to Mr. Boardman.

"When I first became acquainted with him, he appeared to be a youth of
sober habits, and of superior intellectual powers, but gave no evidence
of piety. During his connexion with this college as an under-graduate,
and previously to his manifesting any special interest in religious
subjects, I had frequent opportunities of observing the movements of his
mind, and the gradual development of its powers. He seemed to have an
unusual share of what Dr. Paley calls 'the heroic character.' He might be
said to be quick in his sensibilities, jealous of his fame, eager in his
attachments, inflexible in his purpose. He was remarkable, too, for
'vigor, firmness and resolution,' and for a kind of haughty independence,
which made him unwilling to be indebted to others for his views on any
subject whatever. When engaged in studying a text-book, he never seemed
anxious to obtain merely an acquaintance with it, or to qualify himself
to state the views of the author with fluency or correctness.
Accordingly, he seldom appeared remarkably ready at a recitation. In
stating the sentiments of a writer, he was frequently slow, and seemed to
be at a loss. His sole object evidently was to canvass the subject of
which his author treated, and to obtain such views of it as would afford
satisfaction to his own mind.

"When he became the subject of renewing grace, his intellectual character
remained the same; but his moral feelings were changed in no ordinary
degree. His independence of mind continued; but the haughtiness connected
with it seemed to have entirely disappeared. In all my intercourse with
him, I found him one of the most humble, teachable, modest young men with
whom I was ever acquainted. He always seemed ready to receive advice, and
to consider it with candor and attention.

"Apprized of his intellectual and moral worth, I felt anxious to secure
his services as an officer in this college. I accordingly recommended him
to the Trustees, who, immediately after he was graduated, appointed him a
Tutor, with the understanding, that as soon as circumstances should
permit, a Professorship should be given him. It was then my hope that he
would continue in the college for many years, and eventually take my
place. But it was soon manifest that such expectations could not be
realized. After officiating as Tutor to good acceptance, for several
months, he began to manifest a deep interest in missionary affairs, and
at length informed his friends that he felt it his duty to consecrate
himself to the support of the missionary cause. This annunciation gave me
no little uneasiness. But the evidence he gave, that in devoting himself
to this great work, he was influenced by motives of genuine piety, and
that he possessed the qualifications of a missionary in an eminent
degree, would not suffer me to oppose his wishes. I felt it my duty to
sacrifice all the pleasing anticipations I had entertained of aid and
comfort from his being associated with me in the labors of the seminary,
and to give my consent to his engaging in the missionary cause."

A prominent religious characteristic of Mr. Boardman, that of ascribing
all he was and all he hoped for, to the free sovereign grace of God in
Christ, gave a complexion to all he did and said. On being asked by his
friend, soon after their first acquaintance, how long it had been since
he found the Saviour, he promptly replied, with great energy, "It is now
about ten months since the Saviour _found me_; and I can never
sufficiently admire that grace which induced him to look after so
worthless a creature."

His life furnishes a happy exemplification of the mind of Him, who went
about doing good--who sought not his own glory, but the glory of him that
sent him. Unconscious that he possessed, to the extent in which it is
here developed, the spirit of self-denial, he deeply lamented the want of
it in himself and others. "Until Christians," he often remarked, "are
more willing to sacrifice, toil and suffer for Christ's sake, the world
cannot be converted. There needs to be a spirit of more expansive
benevolence, like that which swelled the bosom of the Saviour and his
apostles, who counted not their lives dear unto themselves.

A disinterested benevolence, so far as the term is applicable in any
case, characterized his whole conduct. He did not select some favorite
field in heathen lands, which fancy or facts had decked with a thousand
allurements, as the scene of his future labors; he thought, as we have
seen, of the Western Indians, and his heart leaped with joy, when he
imagined himself in the midst of savages, traversing their wild and
dreary forests with the Bible in his hand, to give them the light of
life. He thought of the dispersed of Judah and of the scattered tribes of
Israel, and while other doors of usefulness seemed closed against him,
his heart throbbed with interest in their favor, and he sighed to tell
them that the Messiah, for whom they were still looking, had already
come, and had bled for their redemption. He thought of Palestine; but it
was not that the tombs of the prophets were there, and the sepulchre of
the Man of Calvary--that he might ascend the heights of Carmel and
Lebanon and gaze upon the city of the great King; it was that he might
direct its multitudes to Him, to whom all the prophets bear witness. He
thought of China, and Africa, and the islands of the sea. He looked
abroad over the earth, not to feast his imagination with the beauty or
sublimity of its natural scenery, but to penetrate the abodes of want and
wretchedness; and in proportion as these were disclosed, he longed to
carry to them the light of immortality. If he had any choice, as to the
field of his future toils, it was dictated only by the prospects of
greater usefulness. His preference of place he kept under the entire
control of a sober sense of duty. Hence, in offering himself to the
Board, he desired that he might be sent in whatever direction they might
think proper.

His piety did not, through too great a mixture of human frailties, assume
an ostentatious character, obtruding itself, indiscriminately, on the
notice of all who happened to fall in his way. He was, indeed, bold and
valiant for the truth when it needed his support; but grace had so
tempered the sterner features of his character, and brought down every
thought to the obedience of Christ, that he was modest, teachable and
retiring. Like the Saviour, whom he loved and wished to imitate, he was
meek and lowly in heart. He was the last, however, to view himself in
this light, and often and bitterly lamented his want of conformity to the
divine image. He regarded himself, he said, as a mote swimming in the
air, every motion of which was directed by an unseen agency. Yet the
consciousness of his comparative insignificance and entire dependence on
God, had no tendency whatever to relax the energies of his mind, or
discourage benevolent effort. He once remarked to his friend, nearly in
the language of Mills, "You and I, though very little creatures, may
exert an influence that shall be felt across the Atlantic." How far he
acted upon this principle, and what have been the results, the reader is
prepared to judge.

It hardly need be said, that prayer was a duty in which he delighted and
abounded. But it is a fact worthy of particular regard, that most of the
persons, for whose salvation he expressed so much feeling in some of his
communications, and for whom he offered up daily prayers, have since
given hopeful evidence of conversion. His remarkable success in preaching
the Gospel, and in bringing pagans to the knowledge of the truth, is to
be traced, in a very considerable degree, to the fervor and prevalence of
his intercessions. It was in this exercise, more than in any other, that
his spirit became so imbued with the savor of the divine presence and the
glory of the divine perfections, that his addresses seemed to bring his
attentive hearers immediately before God, producing, as he often tells
us, a deep and awful solemnity of mind.

He was deliberate in forming, and decisive in executing his plans of
operation. His history furnishes numerous examples of the truth of this
remark. A general impression that it was his duty to devote himself to
the cause of missions, did not satisfy him. His motives to engage in the
work were taken up separately, and made to pass under the most rigid
scrutiny. The practicability and probable results of a specified course,
were first examined; and when once determined as to the path of duty, no
ordinary discouragements could divert him from his purpose. If compelled,
as he sometimes was by insurmountable obstacles, to relinquish a favorite
course for a season, he returned to it again, when circumstances would
justify, with renewed ardor. This prominent trait of character, which
began to be developed in his early years, and became increasingly
conspicuous as he advanced in life, carried him steadily forward through
his brief, but brilliant career, and burst forth, in his last tour among
the Karens, with an energy perhaps never surpassed.

The spirit of patient endurance, so conspicuously displayed in the
various and accumulated trials which befell him, is worthy of particular
regard. Instead of wondering that the language of his journals is
sometimes plaintive, we may rather wonder that it did not descend to that
of despondency, or even of despair. His trials were not to be compared,
indeed, with those which had befallen some of his worthy associates in
missionary labor, but they were such as required a large measure of grace
to be endured with Christian equanimity.

To an ambitious mind, a mission to the heathen may be clothed with many
fanciful attractions. The greatness, even of the undertaking, the
self-devotion required of the missionary, his tearing himself away from
the land of his nativity, and his voluntary exile in a pagan country, as
they throw around the enterprise an air of romance, are eminently fitted
to excite the aspirations of such as thirst for the applause of men. But
to Mr. Boardman, the work appeared in quite a different light. It was
indeed desirable, but not for its toils and sufferings, nor for the
breath of human applause; but for its overwhelming importance to the
souls of men and the glory of Christ. These solemn realities had divested
it, in his mind, of that tinsel glitter which allures the mere aspirant
for worldly fame. He went forth to his work under the full conviction of
its tremendous responsibilities.

At first, the missionary sees only the outlines of the picture before
him, and those not in the strength of their real colors. As the time of
trial approaches, those colors begin to brighten. But it is the
_endurance_ of all, of _more_ even than was at first anticipated, that
constitutes the finishing of the piece, the filling up of the picture.
Yet, even here, our lamented friend maintained an unblenching firmness.
He _went in the strength of the Lord God_, and that strength was made
perfect in his weakness.

All who were intimately acquainted with Mr. Boardman, and had an
opportunity of studying the character of his mind, must have observed
that he was, in a high degree, intellectual in his conversation, his
reading and his devotional exercises. Of course, he was the warm friend
of thorough education for the ministry, and deplored that preaching which
did not instruct as well as excite. Hence, too, a prominent object in his
missionary labors was, by the establishment of schools, to unfetter the
mind and elevate the intellectual character of the heathen.

We know comparatively little of Mr. Boardman as a preacher of the Gospel.
Most of his sermons, previously to leaving America, were of a missionary
cast. During his last tour through his native State, he frequently
addressed large and attentive assemblies on that great theme, which had
so absorbed the powers of his own mind. From what we know of the ardor of
his feelings in relation to missions--of the entire concentration of
himself to the work--of the high estimate at which he fixed the value of
souls, and of the predominance of grace over every secular consideration,
we might naturally infer, that his addresses on that subject would be of
a character not easily resisted. Such, in many instances, was the fact.
And when it was remembered that he who addressed them was himself the
missionary, that he was pleading, not his own interest, but that of the
heathen who were perishing for lack of knowledge, and among whom he
expected to toil, to suffer, and to die, a powerful influence was felt
through the assembly expanding the heart of benevolence, unclinching the
hand of avarice, and rebuking the slothfulness of such as were at ease in
Zion. On these occasions he appeared peculiarly in his element. He
seemed, by the divine unction which was sometimes poured upon him, to
lose sight of everything but the eternal destinies of the heathen, and
the paramount obligation of Christians to send them the means of
salvation. His own soul, which was full to overflowing, gave vent to its
feelings

"In thoughts that breathe, and words that burn."

Accordingly, substantial evidence was given of the effect of his appeals.

His addresses were usually dispassionate. Instruction was the point at
which he aimed, and having informed the mind, he labored to fix the
judgment and to incline the will. In the latter case only, did he feel
himself justified in appealing to the passions, and then his accurate
knowledge of the human heart enabled him to do it with much effect. He
did not often weep. A manly firmness and entire self-possession usually
characterized his addresses. But there were topics on which he sometimes
touched, which seemed to thrill through his soul. There were thoughts,
which, in the midst of his discourse, would rush upon his mind with such
subduing power, as to produce an almost entire transformation of the
man--to light up his countenance with the glow of benignity, and to
soften the harsher tones of his voice into those of the most melting
tenderness. And then he was not ashamed to weep, _for the love of Christ
constrained him_.

He was naturally a little reserved, and seldom gave a gratuitous opinion.
His reserve, however, was not, on the one hand, the result of superior
self-esteem, nor, on the other, of a timid distrust of his abilities. His
history furnishes ample evidence that these two extremes had little to do
in the composition of his mind. It was rather the effort of mental
abstraction, a faculty which he possessed in no ordinary degree. He
seemed to have much less to do with the material than with the
intellectual world. He had formed the habit of close thinking, and he
delighted in it. It is owing in part to the same quality of mind, and in
part, perhaps, to partial destitution of taste for natural scenery, that
he so seldom attempted a delineation of the places which came under his
observation, or of the manners and customs of the people among whom he
dwelt. Where the journals of other missionaries would have abounded with
glowing description, his is almost entirely silent. His sketches are
interesting mainly for the matters of fact which they exhibit. But they
have this advantage--and it is one which fully compensates for other
deficiencies--that the missionary and missionary ground, are always
distinctly seen.

His features were good, and there was something in his countenance
indicative of sternness. Yet he was mild and affable, and susceptible of
the most tender emotions. His person was tall and spare; his gate firm
and moderate, bending a little forward, with his eyes fixed on the
ground, and his chin resting on his bosom. When suddenly accosted, he
seemed to be roused from intense thoughtfulness; but was immediately
collected and ready to return the most friendly salutations, or to enter
into conversation on any subject which interested him. His forehead was
high, but inclining in a direction backward, and his large blue eye, was
deeply set under a projecting brow. His other features were of a kindred
style, prominent, but not disproportionate, and his whole appearance
manful and pleasingly dignified.

The bereaved widow and orphan son of our lamented friend, have high
claims on the sympathies and prayers of American Christians. For her son,
she was encouraged to hope, by her expiring husband, that other prayers
than his would be offered, when it should be known that the father was no
more. Let the pledge given by the dying missionary in faith of its
fulfilment, be redeemed; and let the prayers of Christians ascend before
the throne that the son may be as the father.

"A widow's state is sorrowful at the best," was the tender sentiment that
fell from his lips while the hand of death was on him. But a widow in
foreign lands, surrounded by iron-hearted pagans, far from the kind
attentions of sympathising friends, is desolate indeed; the more so in
the case before us, because her loss is no ordinary one. As his
attachment to other friends was ardent, to her it was peculiarly so. His
affection for the partner of his life, as may be seen from a few extracts
from his letters, and as might have been more fully shown, had it not
been sacrilege to intrude into the domestic sanctuary, and bring forth
its hidden furniture to the public eye, was of the warmest, tenderest,
purest kind; an affection which identified her interest with his own, and
which was never insensible to her sufferings, or unkind in its treatment.
But we will pray that the widow's God and the orphan's Father may be with
her, to sustain her in her lonely condition, and to fit both her and her
dear George for a happy re-union with him whom she so justly loved.

To his bereaved parents and friends, we affectionately tender our
sympathies. But they have a better consolation than we can afford. For
the loss which they have sustained they have an ample compensation in the
success which crowned his labors. His aged father, in a letter to Dr.
Bolles, holds the following submissive language: "I can say, that when he
first expressed to me his views respecting the missionary cause, it was
the joy and rejoicing of my heart, nor have I perceived, that any of the
family, even to this day, have felt the least regret that he engaged in
that important work. We feel amply compensated, by the success which has
attended his labors, for all the privations we have been called to
endure." And well they may. Is it esteemed an honor among men to be
raised to seats of power, to receive the applause of the world, to
possess the wealth and control the destinies of nations? His was an honor
rendered greater than theirs by the more noble enterprise in which he was
engaged, by the superior dignity of an ambassador of Christ, by the
remarkable success which crowned his embassy, and by the higher and more
lasting applause of _well done good and faithful servant_. His are
laurels that will not wither, a crown which shall never fade, robes that
will not tarnish, a kingdom which shall never be removed.

Happy ought that parent to consider himself, who is permitted to train up
a child for such extraordinary usefulness; whose superior mental
endowments are sanctified by the grace of God and devoted to his service;
whose expansive benevolence enables him to look abroad upon a world lying
in wickedness and buried in the shadow of death, and whose zeal for its
redemption prompts him to regard with comparative indifference,
sacrifices, sufferings, dangers and death, in a pagan land. More
especially ought he to consider himself happy in the remembrance that
these toils and sufferings have not been in vain; that the child whom God
has assisted him in training up for himself, has actually done much
towards meliorating the condition of his species, has dispelled a portion
of the moral darkness which brooded upon the minds of pagans, has
diminished by his efforts the wailings of endless despair, and by adding
new gems to the crown of his Redeemer, has raised to a higher key the
everlasting song of heaven.



THE END OF "MEMOIR OF GEORGE DANA BOARDMAN"



NEW PUBLICATIONS.
-----------------

_Lincoln, Edmands & Co. have recently published the following new and
valuable works._

MEMOIR OF ROGER WILLIAMS, the Founder of the State of Rhode-Island. By
James D. Knowles, Professor of Pastoral Duties in the Newton Theological
Institution.

_From the Providence Literary Journal, &c._
"The name of Roger Williams has been associated with all that is
enthusiastic in religion, and visionary in politics. He has shared the
fate of those noble men, who, in the earlier part of the seventeenth
century, made an effort to shake off the oppressions of regal power, and
the trammels of ecclesiastical bigotry. Since the world began, it has
been the fashion to heap obloquy upon reformers, and to pour contempt on
every one, who, possessing the courage to abandon the beaten track, has
dared to mark out a course for himself. No age has been more remarkable
for this, than the one in which it was the fortune of Roger Williams to
live. It was an age which has been variously denominated, according as
the different views and feelings of men have conducted them to different
conclusions respecting it; but of whatever other appellation it shall be
thought deserving, it is plain, we can incur no censure for calling it
the age of slander. Neither the patriotism of Milton, nor his immortal
genius, could gain for him any general applause while living, or protect
him, when dead, from the assaults of calumny.

"An erroneous judgment respecting general uniformity in matters of
religion, united with a belief that the Civil Magistrate ought to
_enforce_ uniformity, being a peculiarity of the leading sectaries of his
age; it could not be expected that Roger Williams, the bold and steady
declaimer against the union of the sword with the surplice, and the
advocate of the doctrine, that every man may be supposed to have a
conscience of his own--should escape the misrepresentations and vengeance
of numerous adversaries; accordingly, we find him calumniated by the
clergy, and exiled by the magistracy.

"Time, however, the destroyer of all things except the memory of the
just, has robbed of all efficacy the reproaches to which Roger Williams
was exposed. Strange as the fact would seem to those who composed the
court which banished Roger Williams, his doctrines have been gradually
gaining ground, from the time his generation died away, up to the present
hour: they have obtained very nearly the united suffrages of the three
most enlightened and powerful nations of the earth. The standard which
was raised in the forests and amid the savages of Rhode-Island, now
floats over the peaceful dwellings of forty-three millions, and is
destined, from fair indications, soon to wave over a happy and regenerate
world.

"Under these circumstances, so favorable to its reception, we
congratulate the public, and especially the citizens of Rhode-Island, on
the appearance of this Memoir of Roger Williams. The author, the Rev.
Professor Knowles, is well known to the public, as an esteemed clergyman
and popular writer. His judgment and taste are conspicuous in the Memoir
of Mrs. Judson; but in drawing the character of Roger Williams, he has
established a claim to a high stand among Christian biographers. In that
class of writers, he appears a rare example of one who can state facts
without exaggeration, who can censure without severity, and commend
without extravagance. Christian biographers of the present day, in their
anxiety to present an attractive picture, seem to forget that they
undertake to exhibit the character of a frail mortal--permitting their
imaginations to dwell on what they suppose the truly ineffable purity of
a departed spirit, rather than fixing their judgment on what that spirit
was, in its actual human imperfection. This has wrought in the public
taste, no little disgust at an ancient and useful mode of instruction.
From this blemish, however, the work under review is entirely free. The
public will not fail to admire the generous candor with which Mr. Knowles
censures those of whom the nature of his work obliged him to speak, no
less than the good sense which restrained him from unqualified eulogy of
Williams.

"We have heard it objected to his Memoir, by some who seemed not to
observe how deeply the character of Roger Williams is involved in the
early history of New England, that his biographer has gone too much into
detail. We see no room for censure in this respect; although, on a first
view of the subject, we did lament the _necessity_ which led to the
discussion and insertion of so much, aside from the direct purposes of
biography. But after deliberate reflection, we are persuaded that Mr.
Knowles has performed for the public a service, which on account of that
very necessity, will be esteemed the more valuable. In accounting for the
banishment of Williams, he has given us, in a popular form, a faithful
view of the true causes of the religious persecutions which clouded the
early history of Massachusetts.

"Our expectations concerning the work before us are fully realized. Our
ardent desire that something definite and authentic should be published
respecting the truly venerable personage, who, as an exile for the cause
of 'freedom to worship God,' first trod our soil, is gratified. A tribute
of gratitude is due to him, who, amid other engagements, has cleared away
the clouds, which, for five or six generations, have hung over an injured
and an illustrious name."

----------

_From the Philadelphia Religious Narrator._

"This is a considerable book, containing 438 pages, and being withal
abundantly supplied with the most valuable matter in relation to the
subject discussed. It embraces much preliminary and collateral history,
and affords a correct view of the state of religious society in those
early days to which we now look back with curiosity and wonder. Professor
Knowles has executed a difficult task, with manifest care and
discrimination; and we may say, to the satisfaction of all judicious
readers. It is a record of facts and sentiments, exhibiting the state of
opinion on the doctrine of toleration in the times referred to,
describing the early settlement of New England, the Indian tribes which
then held the country, and the contemporary condition of the mother
country. The original letters of Roger Williams breathe an excellent
spirit, and are characterized by great force and energy of mind. We are
of opinion, that few additions to the present mass of literary articles
are more valuable than the work now before us. We recommend it to general
patronage and attention."

----------

MEMOIR OF THE REV. WILLIAM STAUGHTON, D. D.
By Rev. S. W. Lynd, A. M. of Cincinnati, Ohio.
Embellished with a Likeness.

The thousands still living, who have listened with rapture to the
messages of salvation that flowed from his lips, those gentlemen, who
have been trained up by his hand for usefulness in society, and
especially those whose gifts in the church he aided and cherished by his
instructions, as well as the Christian and literary public, will review
his life with peculiar satisfaction.

By particular request, the Rev. Dr. Sharp, of this city, has supplied the
publishers with an interesting Introductory Letter addressed to the
Editor, expressing his approbation of the work, and containing several
pleasing reminiscences of the late Dr. Staughton.

We highly value his testimony to the desirableness and importance of the
Memoir of his much esteemed tutor and friend, and sincerely thank him for
the striking facts which he relates in his well-written Introduction.

----------

_The Baptist Register of last month contains the following Notice._

"We have been very much interested in the perusal of the Memoir of this
devoted, talented man. And it is doubted whether any one, friendly to
vital religion, can become conversant with the contents of this work
without forming new resolutions to follow closely the pious examples, so
conspicuous in the life of Dr. Staughton. Mr. Lynd has done justice to
the memory of a man, whose praise was in all the churches, and has
displayed that peculiar talent as a biographer, which is creditable to
himself, and which greatly enhances the value of the work. We sincerely
recommend this volume to the attention of the Christian public, as being
well calculated to encourage a spirit of piety and self-denial."

----------

AN EXAMINATION OF PROFESSOR STUARTON BAPTISM.
By Henry J. Ripley, Professor of Biblical Literature in the Newton
Theological Institution.

A writer in the last Watchman says of this work:--"It is a work of rare
excellence. It meets, in the name of the Lord, and with perfect
self-possession, the late gigantic effort to quiet the consciences of
theological students and others in neglecting to return to the divinely
instituted practice of the primitive churches. It evinces an accurate and
extensive knowledge of the subject; and it presents, in a neat duodecimo
volume of 154 pages, the most complete view of it that I have ever seen.

"Throughout this Examination we have a lovely example of theological
controversy, conducted with a becoming zeal for the truth, and, at the
same time, with Christian dignity and kindness. The work ought to be read
by all who wish either to know what baptism is, or to be acquainted with
the present state of that part of the baptismal controversy of which it
treats. The pious general reader, as well as the critical scholar and the
theologian, will find in it much to interest and benefit him; for
Professor Ripley has judiciously endeavored to make himself intelligible
to all, so far as the nature of the discussion permitted."

The publishers of this work are every day receiving commendations in its
favor. It is, indeed, true, that Mr. Ripley in this work displays the
research and erudition of the scholar, and has brightened and honored the
armor of controversy, by the Christian spirit with which he writes.

----------

THE COMPLETE WORKS OF REV. ANDREW FULLER,

Published in two large octavo volumes, on a fair bourgoeis type and fine
paper, at the very reasonable price of six dollars. The cost of the
former edition (fourteen dollars) precluded many students from
replenishing their libraries; and they are now gratified in being able to
possess a work so replete with _doctrinal_ arguments and _practical_
religion. No Christian can read Fuller without having his impulses to
action quickened--and every student ought to _study_ him, if he wishes to
arm himself against the attempts of every enemy.

Andrew Gunton Fuller, the Editor of the work, in his Preface says,--The
present edition not only contains a great number of valuable pieces,
which had been before unavoidably omitted, but also a portion of original
manuscript, part of which is woven into the Memoir, and part inserted in
the last volume."

President Chapin, in an able review, says:--

"Though for thirty years we have been conversant with the writings of Mr.
Fuller, yet we must say, that this revision of them has greatly
heightened them in our estimation. And viewing them in the light we do,
we cannot but indulge the belief, that they will, for ages yet to come,
continue to enlighten and bless the church of Christ."

Professor Knowles, of the Newton Theological Institution, says,--

"He was the champion of the whole great host of God's elect. He defended
the fundamental doctrines of the faith; and every heart which loves those
doctrines must rejoice to witness his courage and his success. It was a
good service to the community, to collect the works of Fuller into a form
so attractive and cheap as that in which these volumes appear."

----------

MALCOM'S BIBLE DICTIONARY, stereotyped and enlarged.
Fifth edition. With an elegant Frontispiece and Map of Palestine.

Four large editions of this popular book have been rapidly published; and
it has been highly recommended by above twenty Associations, Conventions,
Periodicals, &c.



THE END



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