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Title: A Dictionary of Austral English
Author: Edward Morris
* A Project Gutenberg Australia eBook *
eBook No.: 0900231h.html
Language: English
Date first posted: March 2009
Date most recently updated: March 2009

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A Dictionary of Austral English


Edward Morris



with those Aboriginal-Australian and Maori words which have become incorporated in the language and the commoner scientific words that have had their origin in Australasia


Edward E. Morris M.A., Oxon.

Professor of English, French and German Languages and Literatures in the University of Melbourne.



      First undertaken to help O.E.D.
      The Standard Dictionary

      Not a Slang Dictionary

      1. Altered English
      2. Words quite new to the language:--
         (a) Aboriginal Australian
         (b) Maori

       Is Austral English a corruption?






       1. Of Scientific Names
       2. General

* * * * *



About a generation ago Mr. Matthew Arnold twitted our nation with the fact that "the journeyman work of literature" was much better done in France--the books of reference, the biographical dictionaries, and the translations from the classics. He did not especially mention dictionaries of the language, because he was speaking in praise of academies, and, as far as France is concerned, the great achievement in that line is Littre and not the Academy's Dictionary. But the reproach has now been rolled away--nous avons change tout cela--and in every branch to which Arnold alluded our journeyman work is quite equal to anything in France.

It is generally allowed that a vast improvement has taken place in translations, whether prose or verse. From quarter to quarter the Dictionary of National Biography continues its stately progress. But the noblest monument of English scholarship is The New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, founded mainly on the materials collected by the Philological Society, edited by Dr. James Murray, and published at the cost of the University of Oxford. The name New will, however, be unsuitable long before the Dictionary is out of date. Its right name is the Oxford English Dictionary ('O.E.D.'). That great dictionary is built up out of quotations specially gathered for it from English books of all kinds and all periods; and Dr. Murray several years ago invited assistance from this end of the world for words and uses of words peculiar to Australasia, or to parts of it. In answer to his call I began to collect; but instances of words must be noted as one comes across them, and of course they do not occur in alphabetical order. The work took time, and when my parcel of quotations had grown into a considerable heap, it occurred to me that the collection, if a little further trouble were expended upon it, might first enjoy an independent existence. Various friends kindly contributed more quotations: and this Book is the result.

In January 1892, having the honour to be President of the Section of "Literature and the Fine Arts" at the Hobart Meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, I alluded to Dr. Murray's request:

A body like this Section, composed of men from different parts of scattered colonies, might render valuable help in organising the work of collecting authorities for our various peculiar words and usages. Twenty or thirty men and women, each undertaking to read certain books with the new dictionary in mind, and to note in a prescribed fashion what is peculiar, could accomplish all that is needed. Something has been done in Melbourne, but the Colonies have different words and uses of words, and this work is of a kind which might well extend beyond the bounds of a single city. At first it may seem as if our words were few, as if in the hundred years of Australian life few special usages have arisen; but a man with a philological turn of mind, who notes what he hears, will soon find the list grow. Some philologers speak, not perhaps very satisfactorily, of being "at the fountains of language": we can all of us testify to the birth of some words within our own memory, but the origin of these, if not noted, will in time be lost. There are many other words which the strictest cannot condemn as slang, though even slang, being the speech of the people, is not undeserving of some scientific study; words, for instance, which have come into the language from the Aborigines, and names of animals, shrubs, and flowers. It might even be possible, with sufficient co-operation, to produce an Australian dictionary on the same lines as the New English Dictionary by way of supplement to it. Organisation might make the labour light, whilst for many it would from its very nature prove a pleasant task.

These suggestions were not carried out. Individuals sent quotations to Oxford, but no organisation was established to make the collection systematic or complete, and at the next meeting of the Association the Section had ceased to exist, or at least had doffed its literary character.

At a somewhat later date, Messrs. Funk and Wagnall of New York invited me to join an "Advisory Committee on disputed spelling and pronunciation." That firm was then preparing its Standard Dictionary, and one part of the scheme was to obtain opinions as to usage from various parts of the English-speaking world, especially from those whose function it is to teach the English Language. Subsequently, at my own suggestion, the firm appointed me to take charge of the Australian terms in their Dictionary, and I forwarded a certain number of words and phrases in use in Australia. But the accident of the letter A, for Australian, coming early in the alphabet gives my name a higher place than it deserves on the published list of those co-operating in the production of this Standard Dictionary; for with my present knowledge I see that my contribution was lamentably incomplete. Moreover, I joined the Editorial Corps too late to be of real use. Only the final proofs were sent to me, and although my corrections were reported to New York without delay, they arrived too late for any alterations to be effected before the sheets went to press. This took the heart out of my work for that Dictionary. For its modernness, for many of its lexicographical features, and for its splendid illustrations, I entertain a cordial admiration for the book, and I greatly regret the unworthiness of my share in it. It is quite evident that others had contributed Australasian words, and I must confess I hardly like to be held responsible for some of their statements. For instance--

"Aabec. An Australian medicinal bark said to promote perspiration."

I have never heard of it, and my ignorance is shared by the greatest Australian botanist, the Baron von Mueller.

"Beauregarde. The Zebra grass-parrakeet of Australia. From F. beau, regarde. See BEAU n. and REGARD."

As a matter of fact, the name is altered out of recognition, but really comes from the aboriginal budgery, good, and gar, parrot.

"Imou-pine. A large New Zealand tree. . . . called red pine by the colonists and rimu by the natives."

I can find no trace of the spelling "Imou." In a circular to New Zealand newspapers I asked whether it was a known variant. The New Zealand Herald made answer--"He may be sure that the good American dictionary has made a misprint. It was scarcely worth the Professor's while to take notice of mere examples of pakeha ignorance of Maori."

"Swagman. [Slang, Austral.] 1. A dealer in cheap trinkets, etc. 2. A swagger."

In twenty-two years of residence in Australia, I have never heard the former sense.

"Taihoa. [Anglo-Tasmanian.] No hurry; wait."

The word is Maori, and Maori is the language of New Zealand, not of Tasmania.

These examples, I know, are not fair specimens of the accuracy of the Standard Dictionary, but they serve as indications of the necessity for a special book on Australasian English.


In the present day, when words are more and more abbreviated, a "short title" may be counted necessary to the welfare of a book. For this reason "Austral English" has been selected. In its right place in the dictionary the word Austral will be found with illustrations to show that its primary meaning, "southern," is being more and more limited, so that the word may now be used as equivalent to Australasian.

"Austral" or "Australasian English" means all the new words and the new uses of old words that have been added to the English language by reason of the fact that those who speak English have taken up their abode in Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Hasty inference might lead to the remark that such addition is only slang, but the remark is far from being accurate; probably not one-tenth of the new vocabulary could fairly be so classified. A great deal of slang is used in Australasia, but very much less is generated here than is usually believed. In 1895 a literary policeman in Melbourne brought out a small Australian Slang Dictionary. In spite of the name, however, the compiler confesses that "very few of the terms it contains have been invented by Australians." My estimate is that not one word in fifty in his little book has an Australian origin, or even a specially Australian use.

The phrase "Australasian English" includes something much wider than slang. Those who, speaking the tongue of Shakspeare, of Milton, and of Dr. Johnson, came to various parts of Australasia, found a Flora and a Fauna waiting to be named in English. New birds, beasts and fishes, new trees, bushes and flowers, had to receive names for general use. It is probably not too much to say that there never was an instance in history when so many new names were needed, and that there never will be such an occasion again, for never did settlers come, nor can they ever again come, upon Flora and Fauna so completely different from anything seen by them before. When the offshoots of our race first began to settle in America, they found much that was new, but they were still in the same North Temperate zone. Though there is now a considerable divergence between the American and the English vocabulary, especially in technical terms, it is not largely due to great differences in natural history. An oak in America is still a Quercus, not as in Australia a Casuarina. But with the whole tropical region intervening it was to be expected that in the South Temperate Zone many things would be different, and such expectation was amply fulfilled. In early descriptions of Australia it is a sort of commonplace to dwell on this complete variety, to harp on the trees that shed bark not leaves, and the cherries with the stones outside. Since the days when "Adam gave names to all cattle and to the fowl of the air and to every beast of the field" never were so many new names called for. Unfortunately, names were not given by the best educated in the community, but often by those least qualified to invent satisfactory names: not by a linguist, a botanist, an ornithologist, an ichthyologist, but by the ordinary settler. Even in countries of old civilisation names are frequently conferred or new words invented, at times with good and at times with unsatisfactory results, by the average man, whom it is the modern fashion to call "the man in the street." Much of Australasian nomenclature is due to "the man in the bush" --more precise address not recorded. Givers of new names may be benefactors to their language or violators of its purity and simplicity, but in either case they are nearly always, like the burial-place of Moses, unknown.


Of Australasian additions to the English language there are two main sources, which correspond to the twofold division of them into new words and new uses of old words.

1. Altered English.

The commoner origin of Australasian English words is the turning and twisting of an already existing English name. The settler saw a fruit somewhat like a cherry. Though he knew well that it was not a cherry, he christened it the "native cherry." It may here be remarked that the prefix native is not a satisfactory distinguishing adjective. Native bear, native cherry, may teach the young Australian that the bear and the cherry so named are not as the bear of the Arctic Regions or the cherry of Europe. But in the British Museum the label does not help much. The settler heard a bird laugh in what he thought an extremely ridiculous manner, its opening notes suggesting a donkey's bray--he called it the "laughing jackass." His descendants have dropped the adjective, and it has come to pass that the word "jackass" denotes to an Australian something quite different from its meaning to other speakers of our English tongue. The settler must have had an imagination. Whip-bird, or Coach-whip, from the sound of the note, Lyre-bird from the appearance of the outspread tail, are admirable names.

Another class of name brought the Australian word nearer to its English use. "Robin" for instance is applied to birds of various species not known in Europe. Bird-names, fish-names, plant-names, are sometimes transferred to new species, sometimes to a new genus, sometimes to an entirely different Natural Order, bearing a resemblance to the original, either real or fancied, as for instance "Magpie." It is hardly necessary to dwell longer on this point, for almost every page of the Dictionary bears witness to it.

2. Words new to the Language.

(a) Aboriginal Australian.

Many of the new Australasian words are taken from the languages of the aborigines, often with considerable alteration due to misunderstanding. Such words are either Australian or Maori. Whilst in New Zealand careful attention has been paid by competent scholars to the musical Maori language, it can hardly be claimed that the Australian family of languages has ever been scientifically studied, though there is a heap of printed material--small grammars and lists of words--rudis indigestaque moles. There is no doubt that the vocabularies used in different parts of Australia and Tasmania varied greatly, and equally little doubt that the languages, in structure and perhaps originally in vocabulary, were more or less connected. About the year 1883, Professor Sayce, of Oxford, wrote a letter, which was published in The Argus, pointing out the obligation that lay upon the Australian colonies to make a scientific study of a vanishing speech. The duty would be stronger were it not for the distressing lack of pence that now is vexing public men. Probably a sum of L300 a year would suffice for an educated inquirer, but his full time for several years would be needed. Such an one should be trained at the University as a linguist and an observer, paying especial attention to logic and to Comparative Philology. Whilst the colonies neglect their opportunities, and Sibylla year by year withdraws her offer, perhaps "the inevitable German" will intervene, and in a well-arranged book bring order out of the chaos of vocabularies and small pamphlets on the subject, all that we have to trust to now.

The need of scientific accuracy is strong. For the purposes of this Dictionary I have been investigating the origin of words, more or less naturalised as English, that come from aboriginal Australian, in number between seventy and a hundred. I have received a great deal of kind assistance, many people taking much trouble to inform me. But there is a manifest lack of knowledge. Many supplied me with the meanings of the words as used in English, but though my appeal was scattered far and wide over Australia (chiefly through the kindness of the newspapers), few could really give the origin of the words. Two amongst the best informed went so far as to say that Australian words have no derivation. That doctrine is hard to accept. A word of three syllables does not spring complete from the brain of an aboriginal as Athene rose fully armed from the head of Zeus.

It is beyond all doubt that the vocabularies of the Aborigines differed widely in different parts. Frequently, the English have carried a word known in one district to a district where it was not known, the aboriginals regarding the word as pure English. In several books statements will be found that such and such a word is not Aboriginal, when it really has an aboriginal source but in a different part of the Continent. Mr. Threlkeld, in his Australian Grammar, which is especially concerned with the language of the Hunter River, gives a list of "barbarisms," words that he considers do not belong to the aboriginal tongue. He says with perfect truth-"Barbarisms have crept into use, introduced by sailors, stockmen, and others, in the use of which both blacks and whites labour under the mistaken idea, that each one is conversing in the other's language." And yet with him a "barbarism" has to be qualified as meaning "not belonging to the Hunter District." But Mr. Threlkeld is not the only writer who will not acknowledge as aboriginal sundry words with an undoubted Australian pedigree.

(b) Maori.

The Maori language, the Italian of the South, has received very different treatment from that meted out by fate and indifference to the aboriginal tongues of Australia. It has been studied by competent scholars, and its grammar has been comprehensively arranged and stated. A Maori Dictionary, compiled more than fifty years ago by a missionary, afterwards a bishop, has been issued in a fourth edition by his son, who is now a bishop. Yet, of Maori also, the same thing is said with respect to etymology. A Maori scholar told me that, when he began the study many years ago, he was warned by a very distinguished scholar not to seek for derivations, as the search was full of pitfalls. It was not maintained that words sprang up without an origin, but that the true origin of most of the words was now lost. In spite of this double warning, it may be maintained that some of the origins both of Maori and of Australian words have been found and are in this book recorded.

The pronunciation of Maori words differs so widely from that of Australian aboriginal names that it seems advisable to insert a note on the subject.

Australian aboriginal words have been written down on no system, and very much at hap-hazard. English people have attempted to express the native sounds phonetically according to English pronunciation. No definite rule has been observed, different persons giving totally different values to represent the consonant and vowel sounds. In a language with a spelling so unphonetic as the English, in which the vowels especially have such uncertain and variable values, the results of this want of system have necessarily been very unsatisfactory and often grotesque. Maori words, on the other hand, have been written down on a simple and consistent system, adopted by the missionaries for the purpose of the translation of the Bible. This system consists in giving the Italian sound to the vowels, every letter--vowel and consonant--having a fixed and invariable value. Maori words are often very melodious. In pronunciation the best rule is to pronounce each syllable with a nearly equal accent.

Care has been taken to remember that this is an Australasian English and not a Maori Dictionary; therefore to exclude words that have not passed into the speech of the settlers. But in New Zealand Maori is much more widely used in the matter of vocabulary than the speech of the aborigines is in Australia, or at any rate in the more settled parts of Australia; and the Maori is in a purer form. Though some words and names have been ridiculously corrupted, the language of those who dwell in the bush in New Zealand can hardly be called Pigeon English, and that is the right name for the "lingo" used in Queensland and Western Australia, which, only partly represented in this book, is indeed a falling away from the language of Bacon and Shakspeare.


In many places in the Dictionary, I find I have used the expression "the law of Hobson-Jobson." The name is an adaptation from the expression used by Col. Yule and Mr. Burnell as a name for their interesting Dictionary of Anglo-Indian words. The law is well recognised, though it has lacked the name, such as I now venture to give it. When a word comes from a foreign language, those who use it, not understanding it properly, give a twist to the word or to some part of it from the hospitable desire to make the word at home in its new quarters, no regard, however, being paid to the sense. The most familiar instance in English is crayfish from the French ecrevisse, though it is well known that a crayfish is not a fish at all. Amongst the Mohammedans in India there is a festival at which the names of "Hassan" and "Hosein" are frequently called out by devotees. Tommy Atkins, to whom the names were naught, converted them into "Hobson, Jobson." That the practice of so altering words is not limited to the English is shown by two perhaps not very familiar instances in French, where "Aunt Sally" has become ane sale, "a dirty donkey," and "bowsprit" has become beau pre, though quite unconnected with "a beautiful meadow." The name "Pigeon English" is itself a good example. It has no connection with pigeon, the bird, but is an Oriental's attempt to pronounce the word "business." It hardly, however, seems necessary to alter the spelling to "pidjin."

It may be thought by some precisians that all Australasian English is a corruption of the language. So too is Anglo-Indian, and, pace Mr. Brander Matthews, there are such things as Americanisms, which were not part of the Elizabethan heritage, though it is perfectly true that many of the American phrases most railed at are pure old English, preserved in the States, though obsolete in Modern England; for the Americans, as Lowell says, "could not take with them any better language than that of Shakspeare." When we hear railing at slang phrases, at Americanisms, some of which are admirably expressive, at various flowers of colonial speech, and at words woven into the texture of our speech by those who live far away from London and from Oxford, and who on the outskirts of the British Empire are brought into contact with new natural objects that need new names, we may think for our comfort on the undoubted fact that the noble and dignified language of the poets, authors and preachers, grouped around Lewis XIV., sprang from debased Latin. For it was not the classical Latin that is the origin of French, but the language of the soldiers and the camp-followers who talked slang and picked words up from every quarter. English has certainly a richer vocabulary, a finer variety of words to express delicate distinctions of meaning, than any language that is or that ever was spoken: and this is because it has always been hospitable in the reception of new words. It is too late a day to close the doors against new words. This Austral English Dictionary merely catalogues and records those which at certain doors have already come in.


The Dictionary thus includes the following classes of Words, Phrases and Usages; viz.--

(1) Old English names of Natural Objects--Birds, Fishes, Animals, Trees, Plants, etc.--applied (in the first instance by the early settlers) either to new Australian species of such objects, or to new objects bearing a real or fancied resemblance to them--as Robin, Magpie, Herring, Cod, Cat, Bear, Oak, Beech, Pine, Cedar, Cherry, Spinach, Hops, Pea, Rose.

(2) English names of objects applied in Australia to others quite different-as Wattle, a hurdle, applied as the name of the tree Wattle, from whose twigs the hurdle was most readily made; Jackass, an animal, used as the name for the bird Jackass; Cockatoo, a birdname, applied to a small farmer.

(3) Aboriginal Australian and Maori words which have been incorporated unchanged in the language, and which still denote the original object--as Kangaroo, Wombat, Boomerang, Whare, Pa, Kauri.

(4) Aboriginal Australian and Maori words which have been similarly adopted, and which have also had their original meaning extended and applied to other things--as Bunyip, Corrobbery, Warrigal.

(5) Anglicised corruptions of such words--as Copper-Maori, Go-ashore, Cock-a-bully, Paddy-melon, Pudding-ball, Tooky-took.

(6) Fanciful, picturesque, or humorous names given to new Australasian Natural Objects--as Forty-spot, Lyre-bird, Parson-bird, and Coach-whip (birds); Wait-a-while (a tangled thicket); Thousand-jacket, Jimmy Low, Jimmy Donnelly, and Roger Gough (trees); Axe-breaker, Cheese-wood, and Raspberry Jam (timbers); Trumpeter, Schnapper and Sergeant Baker (fishes); Umbrella-grass and Spaniard (native plants), and so on.

(7) Words and phrases of quite new coinage, or arising from quite new objects or orders of things--as Larrikin, Swagman, Billy, Free-selector, Boundary-rider, Black-tracker, Back-blocks, Clear-skin, Dummyism, Bushed.

(8) Scientific names arising exclusively from Australasian necessities, chiefly to denote or describe new Natural Orders, Genera, or Species confined or chiefly appertaining to Australia--as Monotreme, Petrogale, Clianthus, Ephthianura, Dinornis, Eucalypt, Boronia, Ornithorhynchus, Banksia.

(9) Slang (of which the element is comparatively small)-- as Deepsinker, Duck-shoving, Hoot, Slushy, Boss-cockie, On-the-Wallaby.


With certain exceptions, this Dictionary is built up, as a Dictionary should be, on quotations, and these are very copious. It may even be thought that their number is too large. It is certainly larger, and in some places the quotations themselves are much longer, than could ever be expected in a general Dictionary of the English Language. This copiousness is, however, the advantage of a special Dictionary. The intention of the quotations is to furnish evidence that a word is used as an English word; and many times the quotation itself furnishes a satisfactory explanation of the meaning. I hope, however, I shall not be held responsible for all the statements in the quotations, even where attention is not drawn to their incorrectness. Sundry Australasian uses of words are given in other dictionaries, as, for instance, in the parts already issued of the Oxford English Dictionary and in The Century, but the space that can be allotted to them in such works is of necessity too small for full explanation. Efforts have been made to select such quotations as should in themselves be interesting, picturesque, and illustrative. In a few cases they may even be humorous.

Moreover, the endeavour has been constant to obtain quotations from all parts of the Australasian Colonies--from books that describe different parts of Australasia, and from newspapers published far and wide. I am conscious that in the latter division Melbourne papers predominate, but this has been due to the accident that living in Melbourne I see more of the Melbourne papers, whilst my friends have sent me more quotations from books and fewer from newspapers.

The quotations, however, are not all explanatory. Many times a quotation is given merely to mark the use of a word at a particular epoch. Quotations are all carefully dated and arranged in their historical order, and thus the exact chronological development of a word has been indicated. The practice of the 'O.E.D.' has been followed in this respect and in the matter of quotations generally, though as a rule the titles of books quoted have been more fully expressed here than in that Dictionary. Early quotations have been sought with care, and a very respectable antiquity, about a century, has been thus found for some Australasian words. As far as possible, the spelling, the stops, the capitals, and the italics of the original have been preserved. The result is often a rich variety of spelling the same word in consecutive extracts.

The last decade has been a very active time in Australian science. A great deal of system has been brought into its study, and much rearrangement of classification has followed as the result. Both among birds and plants new species have been distinguished and named: and there has been not a little change in nomenclature. This Dictionary, it must be remembered, is chiefly concerned with vernacular names, but for proper identification, wherever possible, the scientific name is added. In some cases, where there has been a recent change in the latter, both the new and the older names are recorded.


The less-known birds, fishes, plants, and trees are in many cases not illustrated by quotations, but have moved to their places in the Dictionary from lists of repute. Many books have been written on the Natural History of Australia and New Zealand, and these have been placed under contribution. Under the head of Botany no book has been of greater service than Maiden's Useful Native Plants. Unfortunately many scientific men scorn vernacular names, but Mr. Maiden has taken the utmost pains with them, and has thereby largely increased the utility of his volume. For Tasmania there is Mr. Spicer's Handbook of Tasmanian Plants; for New Zealand, Kirk's Forest Flora and Hooker's Botany.

For Australian animals Lydekker's Marsupials and Monotremes is excellent; especially his section on the Phalanger or Australian Opossum, an animal which has been curiously neglected by all Dictionaries of repute. On New Zealand mammals it is not necessary to quote any book; for when the English came, it is said, New Zealand contained no mammal larger than a rat. Captain Cook turned two pigs loose; but it is stated on authority, that these pigs left no descendants. One was ridden to death by Maori boys, and the other was killed for sacrilege: he rooted in a tapu burial-place. Nevertheless, the settlers still call any wild-pig, especially if lean and bony, a "Captain Cook."

For the scientific nomenclature of Australian Botany the Census of Australian Plants by the Baron von Mueller (1889) is indispensable. It has been strictly followed. For fishes reliance has been placed upon Tenison Woods' Fishes and Fisheries of New South Wales (1882), on W. Macleay's Descriptive Catalogue of Australian Fishes (Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales, vols. v. and vi.), and on Dr. Guenther's Study of Fishes. For the scientific nomenclature of Animal Life, the standard of reference has been the Tabular List of all the Australian Birds by E. P. Ramsay of the Australian Museum, Sydney (1888); Catalogue of Australian Mammals by J. O. Ogilby of the Australian Museum, Sydney (1892); Catalogue of Marsupials and Monotremes, British Museum (1888); Prodromus to the Natural History of Victoria by Sir F. McCoy. Constant reference has also been made to Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales, Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of Victoria and Tasmania, and to the journal of the Field Naturalist Club of Victoria.

The birds both in Australia and New Zealand have been handsomely treated by the scientific illustrators. Gould's Birds of Australia and Buller's Birds of New Zealand are indeed monumental works. Neither Gould nor Sir Walter Buller scorns vernacular names. But since the days of the former the number of named species of Australian birds has largely increased, and in January 1895, at the Brisbane Meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, a Committee was appointed to draw up a list of vernacular bird-names. By the kindness of a member of this Committee (Mr. A. J. Campbell of Melbourne) I was allowed the use of a list of such vernacular names drawn up by him and Col. Legge for submission to the Committee.


The example of The Century has been followed in the inclusion of sundry scientific names, especially those of genera or Natural Orders of purely Australasian objects. Although it is quite true that these can hardly be described as Australasian English, it is believed that the course adopted will be for the general convenience of those who consult this Dictionary.

Some of these "Neo-Latin" and "Neo-Greek" words are extraordinary in themselves and obscure in their origin, though not through antiquity. In his Student's Pastime, at p. 293, Dr. Skeat says "Nowhere can more ignorant etymologies be found than in works on Botany and 'scientific' subjects. Too often, all the science is reserved for the subject, so that there is none to spare for explaining the names."

A generous latitude has also been taken in including some words undoubtedly English, but not exclusively Australasian, such as Anabranch, and Antipodes, and some mining and other terms that are also used in the United States. Convenience of readers is the excuse. Anabranch is more frequently used of Australian rivers than of any others, but perhaps a little pride in tracking the origin of the word has had something to do with its inclusion. Some words have been inserted for purposes of explanation, e.g. Snook, in Australasia called Barracouta, which latter is itself an old name applied in Australasia to a different fish; and Cavally, which is needed to explain Trevally.


There remains the pleasant duty of acknowledging help. Many persons have given me help, whose names can hardly be listed here. A friend, an acquaintance, or sometimes even a stranger, has often sent a single quotation of value, or an explanation of a single word. The Editors of many newspapers have helped not a little by the insertion of a letter or a circular. To all these helpers, and I reckon their number at nearly 200, I tender my hearty thanks.

Various officers of the Melbourne Public Library, and my friend Mr. Edward H. Bromby, the Librarian of this University, have rendered me much assistance. I have often been fortunate enough to obtain information from the greatest living authority on a particular subject: from the Baron von Mueller, from Sir Frederick M'Coy, or from Mr. A. W. Howitt. [Alas! since I penned this sentence, the kind and helpful Baron has been taken from us, and is no longer the greatest living authority on Australian Botany.] My friend and colleague, Professor Baldwin Spencer, a most earnest worker in the field of Australian science, gave many hours of valuable time to set these pages right in the details of scientific explanations. Mr. J. G. Luehmann of Melbourne has kindly answered various questions about Botany, and Mr. A. J. North, of Sydney, in regard to certain birds. Mr. T. S. Hall, of the Biological Department of this University, and Mr. J. J. Fletcher, of Sydney, the Secretary of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales, have rendered me much help. The Rev. John Mathew, of Coburg, near Melbourne, has thrown much light on aboriginal words. The Rev. E. H. Sugden, Master of Queen's College in this University, has furnished a large number of useful quotations. His name is similarly mentioned, honoris causa, in Dr. Murray's Preface to Part I. of the 'O. E. D.' Mr. R. T. Elliott of Worcester College, Oxford, has given similar help. The Master himself,--the Master of all who engage in Dictionary work,--Dr. Murray, of Oxford, has kindly forwarded to me a few pithy and valuable comments on my proof-streets. He also made me a strong appeal never to pass on information from any source without acknowledgment. This, the only honest course, I have striven scrupulously to follow; but it is not always easy to trace the sources whence information has been derived.

When gaps in the sequence of quotations were especially apparent on the proofs, Mr. W. Ellis Bird, of Richmond, Victoria, found me many illustrative passages. For New Zealand words a goodly supply of quotations was contributed by Miss Mary Colborne-Veel of Christchurch, author of a volume of poetry called The Fairest of the Angels, by her sister, Miss Gertrude Colborne-Veel, and by Mr. W. H. S. Roberts of Oamaru, author of a little book called Southland in 1856. In the matter of explanation of the origin and meaning of New Zealand terms, Dr. Hocken of Dunedin, Mr. F. R. Chapman of the same city, and Mr. Edward Tregear of Wellington, author of the Maori Polynesian Dictionary, and Secretary of the Polynesian Society, have rendered valuable and material assistance. Dr. Holden of Bellerive, near Hobart, was perhaps my most valued correspondent. After I had failed in one or two quarters to enlist Tasmanian sympathy, he came to the rescue, and gave me much help on Tasmanian words, especially on the Flora and the birds; also on Queensland Flora and on the whole subject of Fishes. Dr. Holden also enlisted later the help of Mr. J. B. Walker, of Hobart, who contributed much to enrich my proofs. But the friend who has given me most help of all has been Mr. J. Lake of St. John's College, Cambridge. When the Dictionary was being prepared for press, he worked with me for some months, very loyally putting my materials into shape. Birds, Animals, and Botany he sub-edited for me, and much of the value of this part of the Book, which is almost an Encyclopaedia rather than a Dictionary, is due to his ready knowledge, his varied attainments, and his willingness to undertake research.

To all who have thus rendered me assistance I tender hearty thanks. It is not their fault if, as is sure to be the case, defects and mistakes are found in this Dictionarv. But should the Book be received with public favour, these shall be corrected in a later edition.


The University, Melbourne,
February 23, 1897



Ait.  .  .  .  Aiton.
Andr. .  .  .  Andrews.

B. and L.   .  Barere and L.
Bail. .  .  .  Baillon.
Bechst.  .  .  Bechstein.
Benth.   .  .  Bentham.
Bl.   .  .  .  Bleeker.
Bodd. .  .  .  Boddaert

Bp.      )
         )  .  Bonaparte.
Bonap.   )

R. Br.   .  .  Robert Brown
Brong.   .  .  Brongniart.

Cab.  .  .  .  Cabanis.
Carr. .  .  .  Carriere.
Castln.  .  .  Castelnau.
Cav.  .  .  .  Cavanilles.
Corr. .  .  .  Correa.

Cunn.    )
         )  .  A. Cunningham
A. Cunn. )

Cuv.  .  .  .  Cuvier.

De C. .  .  .  De Candolle.
Dec.  .  .  .  Decaisne.
Desf. .  .  .  Desfontaines.
Desm. .  .  .  Desmarest.
Desv. .  .  .  Desvaux.
De Tarrag.  .  De Tarragon
Diet. .  .  .  Dietrich.
Donov.   .  .  Donovan.
Drap. .  .  .  Drapiez.
Dryand.  .  .  Dryander.

Endl. .  .  .  Endlicher.

Fab.  .  .  .  Fabricius.
Forsk.   .  .  Forskael.
Forst.   .  .  Forster.
F. v. M. .  .  Ferdinand von Mueller

G. Forst.   .  G. Forster.
Gaertn.  .  .  Gaertner.
Gaim. .  .  .  Gaimard.
Garn. .  .  .  Garnot.
Gaud.    .  .  Gaudichaud.
Geoff.   .  .  Geoffroy.
Germ.    .  .  Germar.
Gmel.    .  .  Gmelin.
Guich.   .  .  Guichenot.
Gunth.   .  .  Guenther.

Harv.    .  .  Harvey.
Hasselq. .  .  Hasselquin.
Haw.  .  .  .  Haworth.
Hens.    .  .  Henslow.
Herb.    .  .  Herbert.
Homb.    .  .  Hombron.
Hook.    .  .  J. Hooker.
Hook. f. .  .  Hooker fils.
Horsf.   .  .  Horsfield.

Ill.  .  .  .  Illiger.

Jacq. .  .  .  Jacquinot.
Jard. .  .  .  Jardine.

L. and S.   .  Liddell and Scott.

Lab.     )
         )  .  Labillardiere.
Labill.  )

Lacep.   .  .  Lacepede.
Lath. .  .  .  Latham.
Lehm.    .  .  Lehmann.
Less.    .  .  Lesson.
L'herit. .  .  L'Heritier.
Licht.   .  .  Lichtenstein.
Lindl.   .  .  Lindley.
Linn. .  .  .  Linnaeus.

Macl. .  .  .  Macleay.
McC.  .  .  .  McCoy.
Meissn.  .  .  Meissner.
Menz.    .  .  Menzies.
Milne-Ed.   .  Milne-Edwards.
Miq.  .  .  .  Miquel.

Parlat.  .  .  Parlatore.
Pers. .  .  .  Persoon.

Plan.    )
         )  .  Planchol.
Planch.  )

Poir.   .  .  Poiret.

Q.    .  .  .  Quoy.

Rafll.   .  .  Raffles.
Rein. .  .  .  Reinwardt.
Reiss.   .  .  Reisseck.

Rich.    )
         )  .  Richardson.

Roxb.    .  .  Roxburgh

Sal.  .  .  .  Salvadori.
Salisb.  .  .  Salisbury.
Schau.   .  .  Schauer.

Schl.    )
         )  .  Schlechten

Selb. .  .  .  Selby.
Ser.  .  .  .  Seringe.
Serv. .  .  .  Serville.
Sieb. .  .  .  Sieber.
Sm.   .  .  .  Smith.
Sol.  .  .  .  Solander.
Sow.  .  .  .  Sowerby.
Sparrm.  .  .  Sparrman.
Steph.   .  .  Stephan.
Sundev.  .  .  Sundevall.

Sw.      )
         )  .  Swainson.
Swains.  )

Temm.    .  .  Temminck.
Thunb.   .  .  Thunberg.
Tul.  .  .  .  Tulasne.

V. and H.   .  Vigors and Horsfield.
Val.  .  .  .  Valenciennes.
Vent. .  .  .  Ventenat.
Vieill.  .  .  Vieillot.
Vig.  .  .  .  Vigors.

Wagl. .  .  .  Wagler.
Water.   .  .  Waterhouse.
Wedd. .  .  .  Weddell.
Willd.   .  .  Willdenow.

Zimm. .  .  .  Zimmermann.


q.v.  quod vide, which see.

i.q.  idem quod, the same as.

ibid. ibidem, in the same book.

i.e.  id est, that is.

sc.   scilicet, that is to say.

s.v. sub voce, under the word.

cf.   confer, compare.

n.       noun,

adj.     adjective.

v.       verb.

prep.    preposition.

interj.  interjection.

sic, "thus," draws attention to some peculiarity of
            diction or to what is believed to be a mistake.

N.O.     Natural Order.

sp.      a species,

spp.     various species.

A square bracket [ ] shows an addition to a quotation by way
of  comment.

O.E.D.   "Oxford English Dictionary," often formerly quoted
          as "N.E.D." or "New English Dictionary."



Absentee, n. euphemistic term for a convict.
The word has disappeared with the need for it.

1837.  Jas. Mudie, 'Felonry of New South Wales,' p. vii.:

"The ludicrous and affected philanthropy of the present
Governor of the Colony, in advertising runaway convicts under
the soft and gentle name of absentees, is really
unaccountable, unless we suppose it possible that his
Excellency as a native of Ireland, and as having a
well-grounded Hibernian antipathy to his absentee countrymen,
uses the term as one expressive both of the criminality of the
absentee and of his own abhorrence of the crime."

Acacia, n. and adj. a genus of shrubs or
trees, N.O. Leguminosae.  The Australian species often
form thickets or scrubs, and are much used for hedges.  The
species are very numerous, and are called provincially by
various names, e.g.  "Wattle," "Mulga," "Giddea," and "Sally,"
an Anglicized form of the aboriginal name Sallee (q.v.).
The tree peculiar to Tasmania, Acacia riceana, Hensl.,
N.O. Leguminosae, is there called the Drooping

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i.
p. 202:

"We possess above a hundred and thirty species of the acacia."

1839.  Dr. J. Shotsky, quoted in 'Sydney Morning Herald,' Aug. 5,
p. 5, col. 2:

"Yet, Australian sky and nature awaits and merits real artists
to portray it.  Its gigantic gum and acacia trees, 40 ft. in
girth, some of them covered with a most smooth bark, externally
as white as chalk. .. ."

1844.  L. Leichhardt, Letter in 'Cooksland,' by J. D. Lang, p. 91:

"Rosewood Acacia, the wood of which has a very agreeable violet
scent like the Myal Acacia (A. pendula) in Liverpool

1846.  C. P. Hodgson, 'Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 149:

"The Acacias are innumerable, all yielding a famous bark for
tanning, and a clean and excellent gum."

1869.  Mrs. Meredith, 'A Tasmanian Memory,' p. 8:

"Acacias fringed with gold."

1877.  F. v. Mueller, 'Botanic Teachings,' p. 24:

"The name Acacia, derived from the Greek, and indicative of a
thorny plant, was already bestowed by the ancient naturalist
and physician Dioscorides on a Gum-Arabic yielding
North-African Acacia not dissimilar to some Australian species.
This generic name is so familiarly known, that the appellation
'Wattle' might well be dispensed with.  Indeed the name Acacia
is in full use in works on travels and in many popular writings
for the numerous Australian species . . .  Few of any genera of
plants contain more species than Acacia, and in Australia it is
the richest of all; about 300 species, as occurring in our
continent, have been clearly defined."

Acrobates, n. the scientific name of the
Australian genus of Pigmy Flying-Phalangers, or, as they
are locally called, Opossum-Mice.  See Opossum-Mouse,
Flying-Mouse, Flying-Phalanger, and Phalanger.  The
genus was founded by Desmarest in 1817.
(Grk. 'akrobataes, walking on tiptoe.)

AEpyprymnus, n.  the scientific name of the genus
of the Rufous Kangaroo-Rat.  It is the tallest and
largest of the Kangaroo-Rats (q.v.).  (Grk. 'aipus,
high, and prumnon, the hinder part.)

Ailuroedus, n. scientific name for the genus of
Australian birds called Cat-birds (q.v.).  From
Grk. 'ailouros, a cat, and 'eidos, species.

Ake, n. originally Akeake, Maori name for either
of two small trees, (1) Dodonaea viscosa, Linn., in New
Zealand; (2) Olearia traversii, F. v. M., in the Chatham
Islands.  Ake is originally a Maori adv.  meaning
"onwards, in time."  Archdeacon Williams, in his 'Dictionary of
New Zealand Language,' says Ake, Ake, Ake,
means " for ever and ever." (Edition 182.)

1820.  'Grammar and Vocabulary of Language of New Zealand' (Church
Missionary Society), p.133:

"Akeake, paulo post futurum"

1835.  W. Yale, 'Some Account of New Zealand,' p. 47:

"Aki, called the Lignum vitae of New Zealand."

1851.  Mrs. Wilson, 'New Zealand,' p. 43:

"The ake and towai . . . are almost equal, in point of colour,
to rosewood."

1883.  J. Hector, 'Handbook to New Zealand,' p. 131:

"Ake, a small tree, 6 to 12 feet high.  Wood very hard,
variegated, black and white; used for Maori clubs; abundant in
dry woods and forests."

Alarm-bird, n.  a bird-name no longer used in
Australia.  There is an African Alarm-bird.

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. vi. pl. 9:

"Lobivanellus lobatus (Lath.), Wattled Pewit, Alarm Bird of
the Colonists."

Alectryon, n. a New Zealand tree and flower,
Alectryon excelsum, De C., Maori name Titoki
(q.v.); called also the New Zealand Oak, from the
resemblance of its leaves to those of an oak.  Named by
botanists from Grk. 'alektruown, a cock.

1872.  A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' I. 7, p. 16:

"The early season could not yet
Have ripened the alectryon's beads of jet,
Each on its scarlet strawberry set."

Alexandra Palm, n. a Queensland tree,
Ptychosperma alexandrae, F. v. M.  A beautifully marked
wood much used for making walking sticks.  It grows 70 or 80
feet high.

Alluvial, n. the common term in Australia and
New Zealand for gold-bearing alluvial soil.  The word is also
used adjectivally as in England.

1889.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Robbery under Arms,' p. 403:

"The whole of the alluvial will be taken up, and the Terrible
Hollow will re-echo with the sound of pick and shovel."

Ambrite (generally called ambrit), n.
Mineral [from amber + ite, mineral formative, 'O.E.D.'], a
fossil resin found in masses amidst lignite coals in various
parts of New Zealand.  Some identify it with the resin of
Dammara australis, generally called Kauri gum

1867.  F. von Hochstetter, 'New Zealand,' p. 79:

"Although originating probably from a coniferous tree related
to the Kauri pine, it nevertheless has been erroneously taken
for Kauri gum."--[Footnote]: "It is sufficiently characterised
to deserve a special name ; but it comes so near to real
amber that it deserves the name of Ambrite."

[This is the earliest use of the word.]

Anabranch, n. a branch of a river which leaves
it and enters it again. The word is not Australian, though it
is generally so reckoned.  It is not given in the 'Century,'
nor in the 'Imperial,' nor in 'Webster,' nor in the 'Standard.'
The 'O.E.D.' treats Ana as an independent word, rightly
explaining it as anastomosing, but its quotation from
the 'Athenaeum' (1871), on which it relies,is a misprint.  For
the origin and coinage of the word, see quotation 1834.  See
the aboriginal name Billabong.

1834.  Col.Jackson, 'Journal of Royal Geographical Society,' p. 79:

"Such branches of a river as after separation re-unite, I would
term anastomosing-branches; or, if a word might be
coined, ana-branches, and the islands they form,
branch-islands.  Thus, if we would say, 'the river in
this part of its course divides into several
ana-branches,' we should immediately understand the
subsequent re-union of the branches to the main trunk."

Col. Jackson was for a while Secretary and Editor of the
Society's Journal.  In Feb. 1847 he resigned that position, and
in the journal of that year there is the following amusing
ignorance of his proposed word--

1847.  'Condensed Account of Sturt's Exploration in the
Interior of Australia--Journal of the Royal Geographical
Society,' p. 87:

"Captain Sturt proposed sending in advance to ascertain the
state of the Ana branch of the Darling, discovered by Mr. Eyre
on a recent expedition to the North."

No fewer than six times on two pages is the word
anabranch printed as two separate words, and as if
Ana were a proper name.  In the Index volume it appears
"Ana, a branch of the Darling."

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 35:

"The river itself divided into anabranches which . . . made the
whole valley a maze of channels."

1865.  W. Howitt, 'Discovery in Australia,' vol. i. p. 298:

"What the Major calls, after the learned nomenclature of
Colonel Jackson, in the 'Journal of the Geographical Society,'
anabranches, but which the natives call billibongs, channels
coming out of a stream and returning into it again."

1871.  'The Athenaeum,' May 27, p. 660 (' O.E.D.'):

"The Loddon district is called the County of Gunbower,
which means, it is said, an ana branch [sic]."

1890. Rolf Boldrewood, 'Squatter's Dream,' p. 48:

"A plain bordering an ana-branch sufficient for water."

Anchorwing, n. a bird-name, Falco
melanogenys, Gould.  The Black-cheeked Falcon, so called
because of the resemblance of the wings outspread in flight to
the flukes of an anchor.

Anguillaria, n. one of the vernacular names
used for the common Australian wild flower, Anguillaraa
australis, R. Br., Wurmbsea dioica, F. v. M.,
N.O. Liliaceae.  The name Anguillarea is from the
administrator of the Botanic Gardens of Padua, three centuries
ago.  There are three Australian forms, distinguished by Robert
Brown as species.  The flower is very common in the meadows in
early spring, and is therefore called the Native Snow
Drop.  In Tasmania it is called Nancy.

1835. Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' 67:

"Spotted Anguillaria.  Nancy.  The little lively white flower
with blue spots in the centre, about 2 inches high, that
everywhere enlivens our grassy hills in spring, resembling the
Star of Bethlehem."

1878.  W. R. Guilfoyle, 'Australian Botany,' p. 83:

"Native Snowdrop.  Anguillaria Australis.  The earliest
of all our indigenous spring-flowering plants. . . .  In early
spring our fields are white with the flowers of this pretty
little bulbous-rooted plant."

Ant-eater, n.
(1) i.q. Ant-eating-Porcupine. See Echidna.
(2) The Banded Ant-eater (q.v.).

Ant-eater, Banded. See Banded Ant-eater.

Antechinornys, n. scientific name for the genus
with the one species of Long legged Pouched-Mouse
(q.v.). (Grk. 'anti, opposed to, 'echivos,
hedgehog, and mus, mouse, sc. a mouse different to the
hedgehog.)  It is a jumping animal exclusively insectivorous.

Antipodes, n. properly a Greek word, the plural
of 'antipous, lit. "having feet opposed."  The
ancients, however, had no knowledge of the southern hemisphere.
Under the word perioikos, Liddell and Scott explain that
'antipodes meant "those who were in opposite parallels
and meridians."  The word Antipodes was adopted into the
Latin language, and occurs in two of the Fathers, Lactantius
and Augustine.  By the mediaeval church to believe in the
antipodes was regarded as heresy.  'O.E.D.' quotes two examples
of the early use of the word in English.

1398.  'Trevisa Barth. De P. R.,' xv. lii. (1495), p. 506:

"Yonde in Ethiopia ben the Antipodes, men that have theyr fete
ayenst our fete."

1556.  'Recorde Cast. Knowl.,' 93:

"People . . . called of the Greeks and Latines also
'antipodes, Antipodes, as you might say
Counterfooted, or Counterpasers."

Shakspeare uses the word in five places, but, though he knew
that this "pendent world" was spherical, his Antipodes were not
Australasian.  In three places he means only the fact that it
is day in the Eastern hemisphere when it is night in England.

'Midsummer Night's Dream,' III. ii. 55:

                          "I'll believe as soon
This whole earth may be bored, and that the moon
May thro' the centre creep and so displease
His brother's noontide with the Antipodes."

'Merchant of Venice,' V. 127:

"We should hold day with the Antipodes
If you would walk in absence of the sun."

'Richard II.,' III. ii. 49:

"Who all this while hath revell'd in the night,
 Whilst we were wandering with the Antipodes."

In 'Henry VI.,' part 3, I. iv. 135, the word more clearly
designates the East:

"Thou art as opposite to every good
 As the Antipodes are unto us,
 Or as the South to the Septentrion." [sc. the North.]

But more precise geographical indications are given in 'Much
Ado,' II. i. 273, where Benedick is so anxious to avoid
Beatrice that he says--

"I will go on the slightest errand now to the Antipodes that
you can devise to send me on. I will fetch you a tooth-picker
now from the farthest inch of Asia; bring you the length of
Prester John's foot; fetch you a hair of the great Kam's beard;
do you any embassage to the Pygmies rather than hold three
words conference with this harpy."

Now the Pygmies lived on the Upper Nile, near Khartoum,
Prester John in India, and the great Kam (Khan) in Tartary.

The word Antipodes in modern use is applied rather to
places than to people. Geographically, the word means a place
exactly opposite on the surface of the globe, as Antipodes
Island (Eastward of New Zealand), which is very near the
opposite end of the diameter of the globe passing through
London.  But the word is often used in a wider sense, and the
whole of Australasia is regarded as the Antipodes of Great

The question is often asked whether there is any singular to
the word Antipodes, and 'O.E.D.' shows that antipode is
still used in the sense of the exact opposite of a
person. Antipod is also used, especially playfully. The
adjectives used are Antipodal and Antipodean.

1640.  Richard Brome [Title]:

"The Antipodes; comedy in verse."  [Acted in 1638, first
printed 4t0. 1640.]

Ant-orchis, n. an Australian and Tasmanian
orchid, Chiloglottis gunnii, Lind.

Apple and Apple-tree, n. and
adj.  The names are applied to various indigenous trees,
in some cases from a supposed resemblance to the English fruit,
in others to the foliage of the English tree. The varieties

Black or Brush Apple--
  Achras australis, R. Br.

Emu A.--
  Owenia acidula, F. v. M.; called also Native
  Nectarine and Native Quince.
  Petalostigma quadriloculare, F. v. M.; called also
  Crab-tree, Native Quince, Quinine-tree

Kangaroo A.--
  See Kangaroo Apple.

Mooley A. (West N.S.W. name)--
  Owenia acidula, F. v. M.

Mulga A.--
  The Galls of Acacia aneura, F. v. M.

Oak A.--
  Cones of Casuarina stricta, Ait.

Rose A.--
  Owenia cerasifera, F. v. M.

1820.  John Oxley, 'Journal of Two Expeditions into the Interior
of New South Wales,' p. 187:

"The blue gum trees in the neighbourhood were extremely fine,
whilst that species of Eucalyptus, which is vulgarly called the
apple-tree . . . again made its appearance. . . ."

1827.  Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean Society,'
 vol. xv. p. 260:

"It builds its nest of sticks lined with grass in
Iron-bark and Apple-trees (a species of

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,'
      vol. i. p. 200:

"The apple-trees resemble the English apple only in leaf."

1830.  R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 195:

"In looking down upon the rich flats below, adjoining the
stream, I was perpetually reminded of a thriving and rich
apple-orchard.  The resemblance of what are called apple-trees
in Australia to those of the same name at home is so striking
at a distance in these situations, that the comparison could
not be avoided, although the former bear no fruit, and do not
even belong to the same species."

1846.  C. P. Hodgson, 'Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 52:

"I have heard of men employed in felling whole apple-trees
(Angophera lanceolata) for the sheep."

1846.  J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. ii. c.
iv. p. 132;

"Red Apple, Quonui, affects salt grounds."

1847.  J. D. Lang, 'Phillipsland,' p. 256:

"The plains, or rather downs, around it (Yass) are thinly but
most picturesquely covered with 'apple-trees,' as they are
called by the colonists, merely from their resemblance to the
European apple-tree in their size and outline, for they do not
resemble it in producing an edible fruit."

1850.  J. B. Clutterbuck, 'Port Phillip in 1849,' p. 32:

"The musk-plant, hyacinth, grass-tree, and kangaroo apple-tree
are indigenous."

1852.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes' (edition 1855), p. 219:

"Pomona would indignantly disown the apple-tree, for there is
not the semblance of a pippin on its tufted branches."

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 113:

"Sandy apple-tree flats, and iron-bark ridges, lined the creek
here on either side."

1896.  H. Lawson, 'When the World was Wide,' p. 158:

"The desolate flats where gaunt apple-trees rot."

Apple-berry, n. the fruit of an Australian
shrub, Billardiera scandens, Smith,
N.O. Pittosporeae, called by children "dumplings."

1793.  J. E. Smith, 'Specimen of Botany of New Holland,' pp. 1, 3:

"Billardiera scandens.  Climbing Apple Berry. .  . .
The name Billardiera is given it in honour of James Julian la
Billardiere, M.D., F.M.L.S., now engaged as botanist on board
the French ships sent in search of M. de la Peyrouse."

Apple-gum, n.  See Gum.

Apple-scented gum, n.  See Gum.

Apteryx, n. [Grk. 'a privative and
pterux, a wing.] A New Zealand bird about the size of
a domestic fowl, with merely rudimentary wings.See Kiwi.

1813.  G. Shaw, 'Naturalist's Miscellany.' c. xxiv. p. 1058

"The Southern Apteryx."

1848.  W. Westgarth, 'Australia Felix,' p. 137:

"The present Apterix or wingless bird of that country (New

1851.  'Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van
Diemen's Land,' vol. i. p. 300 [Letter from Rev. W. Colenso,
Waitangi, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand, Sept. 4, 1850:

"You enquire after an Apteryx.  How delighted should I
be to succeed in getting you one.  Three years ago Owen
expressed a similar wish, and I have repeatedly tried, but
failed.  Yet here they still are in the mountain forests,
though, doubtless, fast hastening towards extinction.  I saw
one in its wild state two years ago in the dense woods of the
interior; I saw it clearly. . . .  Two living specimens were
lately taken by the Acheron, steamer, to Sydney, where they
died; these were obtained at the Bay of Islands, where also I
once got three at one time.  Since then I have not been able to
obtain another, although I have offered a great price for one.
The fact is, the younger natives do not know how to take them,
and the elder ones having but few wants, and those fully
supplied, do not care to do so.  Further, they can only be
captured by night, and the dog must be well trained to be of

1874.  F. P. Cobbe, in 'Littell's Age,' Nov. 7, p. 355

"We have clipped the wings of Fancy as close as if she were
an Apteryx.'

Arbutus, Native, n.  See Wax-Cluster.

Ardoo, n.  See Nardoo.

Artichoke, n. name given to the plant
Astelia Alpina, R. Br., N.O. Liliaceae.

Ash, n. The name, with various epithets, is
applied to the following different Australasian trees--

Black Ash--
  Nephelium semiglaucum, F. v. M.,
  N.O. Sapindaceae; called also Wild Quince.

Black Mountain A.-- Eucalyptus leucoxylon, F. v. M.,
  N.O. Myrtaceae.

Blue A.--
  Elaeodendron australe, Vent., N.O. Celastrinae.

Blueberry A.-- Elaeocarpus holopetalus, F. v. M.,
  N.O. Tiliaceae.

Brush Apple-- Acronychia baueri, Schott. (of Illawarra,

Crow's A.--
  Flindersia australis, R. Br., N.O. Meliaceae.

Elderberry A. (of Victoria)--
  Panax sambucifolius, Sieb., N.O. Araliaceae.

Illawarra A.--
  Elaeocarpus kirtonia, F. v. M., N.O. Tiliaceae.

Moreton Bay A.--
  Eucalyptus tessellaris, Hook., N.O. Myrtaceae.

Mountain A. (see Mountain Ash).

New Zealand A. (see Titoki).

Pigeonberry A.--
  Elaeocarpus obovatus, G. Don., N.O. Tiliaceae.

Red A.--
  Alphitonia excelsa, Reiss, N.O. Rhamnaceae.

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 75:

"The Moreton Bay Ash (a species of Eucalyptus). ..was
here also very plentiful."

Assigned, past part. of verb to assign,
to allot.  Used as adj. of a convict allotted to a
settler as a servant.  Colloquially often reduced to "signed."

1827.  'Captain Robinson's Report,' Dec. 23:

"It was a subject of complaint among the settlers, that their
assigned servants could not be known from soldiers, owing to
their dress; which very much assisted the crime of

1837.  J. D. Lang, 'New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 31

"The assigned servant of a respectable Scotch family residing
near Sydney."

1845.  R. Howitt, 'Australia,' p. 75:

"Of the first five persons we saw to Van Diemen's Land, four
were convicts, and perhaps the fifth.  These were the assigned
servants of the pilot."

1848.  W. Westgarth, 'Australia Felix,' p. 324:

"Under the old practice, the convicts, as soon as they arrived
from Britain, were assigned among the various applicants.  The
servant thus assigned was bound to perform diligently, from
sunrise till sunset, all usual and reasonable labour."

Assignee, n. a convict assigned as a servant.  The
word is also used in its ordinary English sense.

1843.  'Penny Cyclopaedia,' vol. xxv. p. 139, col. 2:

"It is comparatively difficult to obtain another
assignee,--easy to obtain a hired servant."

1848.  W. Westgarth, 'Australia Felix,' p. 324:

"Any instance of gross treatment disqualified him for the
future as an assignee of convict labour."

Assignment, n. service as above.

1836.  C. Darwin, 'Journal of Researches' (1890),
c. xix. p. 324:

"I believe the years of assignment are passed away with
discontent and unhappiness."

1852.  John West, 'History of Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 126:

"That form of service, known as assignment, was established by
Governor King in 1804."

1861.  T. McCombie, 'Australian Sketches,' p. 117:

"The assignment system was then in operation, and such as
obtained free grants of land were allowed a certain proportion
of convicts to bring it into cultivation."

Asthma Herb, Queensland, n.  Euphorbia
pilulifera, Linn. As the name implies, a remedy for asthma.
The herb is collected when in flower and carefully dried.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 183:

"This plant, having obtained some reputation in Australasia in
certain pulmonary complaints, has acquired the appellation to
the Colonies of 'Queensland Asthma Herb'.  Nevertheless, it is
by no means endemic in Australasia, for it is a common tropical

Aua, n. Maori name for a New Zealand fish,
Agonostoma forsteri, Bleek.  Another Maori name is
Makawhiti; also called Sea-Mullet and sometimes
Herring; (q.v.).  It is abundant also in Tasmanian
estuaries, and is one of the fishes which when dried is called
Picton Herring (q.v.).  See also Maray and
Mullet.  Agonostoma is a genus of the family
Mugilidae or Grey-Mullets.

Aurora australis, n. the Southern equivalent
for Aurora borealis.

1790.  J. White, 'Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 214:

"Sept. 5, 1788.  About half after six in the evening, we saw an
Aurora Australis, a phenomenon uncommon in the southern

Austral, adj.  "Belonging to the South,
Southern. Lat. Australis, from auster,
south-wind."  ('O.E.D.')  The word is rarely used in Australasia
in its primary sense, but now as equivalent to Australian or

1823.  Wentworth's Cambridge poem on 'Australasia':

"And grant that yet an Austral Milton's song,
Pactolus-like, flow deep and rich along,
An Austral Shakespeare rise, whose living page
To Nature true may charm in every age;
And that an Austral Pindar daring soar,
Where not the Theban Eagle reach'd before."

1825.  Barron Field, 'First Fruits of Australian Poetry,' Motto in
Geographical Memoir of New South Wales, p. 485:

"I first adventure.  Follow me who list;
And be the second Austral harmonist."
Adapted from Bishop Hall.

1845.  R. Howitt, 'Australia,' p. 184:

"For this, midst Austral wilds I waken
  Our British harp, feel whence I come,
Queen of the sea, too long forsaken,
Queen of the soul, my spirit's home."--Alien Song.

1855.  W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 43:

"Every servant in this Austral Utopia thinks himself a

1868.  C. Harpur, 'Poems' (ed. 1883), p. 215:

"How oft, in Austral woods, the parting day
Has gone through western golden gates away."

1879.  J. B. O'Hara, 'Songs of the South,' p. 127:

"What though no weird and legendary lore
Invests our young, our golden Austral shore
With that romance the poet loves too well,
When Inspiration breathes her magic spell."

1894.  Ernest Favenc [Title]:

"Tales of the Austral Tropics."

1896.  [Title]:

"The Austral Wheel--A Monthly Cycling Magazine, No. 1, Jan."

1896.  'The Melburnian,' Aug. 28, p. 53

"Our Austral Spring."  [Title of an article describing Spring in

Australasia, n. (and its adjectives), name
"given originally by De Brosses to one of his three divisions
of the alleged Terra australis." ('O.E.D.')  Now used as
a larger term than Australian, to include the continent of
Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, Fiji and islands.  For
peculiar use of the name for the Continent in 1793, see

1756.  Charles de Brosses, 'Histoire des Navigations aux Terres
Australes,' tom. i. p. 80:

"On peut de meme diviser le monde austral inconnu en trois
portions. .. .L'une dans l'ocean des Indes au sud de l'Asie que
j'appellerai par cette raison australasie."

1766.  Callander, 'Terra Australis,' i. p. 49 (Translation of
de Brosses)('O.E.D.):

"The first [division] in the Indian Ocean, south of Asia, which
for this reason we shall call Australasia."

1802.  G. Shaw, 'Zoology,' iii. p. 506 ('O.E.D.'):

"Other Australasian snakes."

1823.  Subject for English poem at Cambridge University:


[The prize (Chancellor's Medal) was won by Winthrop Mackworth
Praed.  William Charles Wentworth stood second.] The concluding
lines of his poem are:

"And Australasia float, with flag unfurl'd,
A new Britannia in another world."

1846.  C. P. Hodgson, 'Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 77:

"How far had these ideas been acted upon by the Colonists of
Austral Asia?" [sic.]

1852.  J. West, 'History of Tasmania,' vol. 1.  p. 109:

"'The Austral-Asiatic Review,' by Murray, also made its
appearance [in Hobart] in February, 1828."

1855.  Tennyson, 'The Brook,' p. 194:

"                         Katie walks
By the long wash of Australasian seas
Far off, and holds her head to other stars,
And breathes in converse seasons."

[Altered in Edition of 1894 to "breathes in April-autumns."]

1857.  Daniel Bunce [Title]:

"Australasiatic reminiscences."

1864.  'The Australasian,' Oct. 1, First Number [Title]:

"The Australasian."

1880.  Alfred R. Wallace [Title]:

"Australasia."  [In Stanford's 'Compendium of Geography and

1881.  David Blair [Title]:

"Cyclopaedia of Australasia."

1890.  E. W. Hornung, 'Bride from the Bush,' p. 29:

"It was neither Cockney nor Yankee, but a nasal blend of both:
it was a lingo that declined to let the vowels run alone, but
trotted them out in ill-matched couples, with discordant and
awful consequences; in a word, it was Australasiatic of the
worst description."

1890.  'Victorian Consolidated Statutes,' Administration and
p.obate Act, Section 39:

"'Australasian Colonies,' shall mean all colonies for the time
being on the main land of Australia. ..and shall also include
the colonies of New Zealand, Tasmania and Fiji and any other
British Colonies or possessions in Australasia now existing or
hereafter to be created which the Governor in Council may from
time to time declare to be Australasian Colonies within the
meaning of this Act."

1895.  Edward Jenks [Title]:

"History of the Australasian Colonies."

1896.  J. S. Laurie [Title]:

"The Story of Australasia."

Australia, n., and Australian,
adj.  As early as the 16th century there was a belief in
a Terra australis (to which was often added the epithet
incognita), literally "southern land," which was
believed to be land lying round and stretching outwards from
the South Pole.

In 'Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of
Australasia,' Sydney, Jan. 1892, is printed a paper read at the
Geographical Congress at Berne, by E. Delmar Morgan, on the
'Early Discovery of Australia.'  This paper is illustrated by
maps taken from 'Nordenskiold's Atlas.'  In a map by Orontius
Finoeus, a French cosmographer of Provence, dated 1531, the
Terra australis is shown as "Terra Australis recenter
inventa, sed nondum plene cognita."  In Ortelius' Map, 1570, it
appears as "Terra Australis nondum cognita."  In Gerard
Mercator's Map, 1587, as "Terra Australis" simply.

In 1606 the Spaniard Fernandez de Quiros gave the name of
Terra Australis del Espiritu Santo to land which he
thought formed part of the Great Southland.  It is in fact one
of the New Hebrides.

The word "Australian " is older than "Australia"
(see quotations, 1693 and 1766).  The name Australia was
adapted from the Latin name Terra Australis.  The
earliest suggestion of the word is credited to Flinders, who
certainly thought that he was inventing the name.  (See
quotation, 1814.)  Twenty-one years earlier, however, the word
is found (see quotation, 1793); and the passage containing it
is the first known use of the word in print.  Shaw may thus be
regarded as its inventor.  According to its title-page, the
book quoted is by two authors, the Zoology, by Shaw and
the Botany by Smith.  The Botany, however, was
not published.  Of the two names--Australia and
Australasia--suggested in the opening of the quotation,
to take the place of New Holland, Shaw evidently favoured
Australia, while Smith, in the 'Transactions of the
Linnaean Society,' vol. iv. p. 213 (1798), uses
Australasia for the continent several times.  Neither
name, however, passed then into general use.  In 1814, Robert
Brown the Botanist speaks of "Terra Australis," not of
"Australia." "Australia" was reinvented by Flinders.

Quotations for " Terra Australis"--

1621.  R. Burton, 'Anatomy of Melancholy' (edition 1854), p. 56:

"For the site, if you will needs urge me to it, I am not fully
resolved, it may be in Terra Australis incognita, there
is room enough (for of my knowledge, neither that hungry
Spaniard nor Mercurius Britannicus have yet discovered half of

Ibid. p. 314:

"Terra Australis incognita. ..and yet in likelihood it
may be so, for without all question, it being extended from the
tropic of Capricorn to the circle Antarctic, and lying as it
doth in the temperate zone, cannot choose but yield in time
some flourishing kingdoms to succeeding ages, as America did
unto the Spaniards."

Ibid. p. 619:

"But these are hard-hearted, unnatural, monsters of men,
shallow politicians, they do not consider that a great part of
the world is not yet inhabited as it ought, how many colonies
into America, Terra Australis incognita, Africa may be

Early quotations for "Australian"

1693.  'Nouveau Voyage de la Terre Australe, contenant les
Coutumes et les Moeurs des Australiens, etc.'  Par Jaques
Sadeur [Gabriel de Foigny].

[This is a work of fiction, but interesting as being the first
book in which the word Australiens is used.  The next
quotation is from the English translation.]

1693.  'New Discovery, Terra Incognita Australis,' p. 163

"It is easy to judge of the incomparability of the Australians
with the people of Europe."

1766.  Callander, 'Terra Australis' (Translation of De Brosses),
c. ii.  p. 280:

"One of the Australians, or natives of the Southern World,
whom Gonneville had brought into France."

Quotations for "Australia"

1793.  G. Shaw and I. E. Smith, 'Zoology and Botany of New
Holland,' p. 2:

"The vast Island or rather Continent of Australia, Australasia,
or New Holland, which has so lately attracted the particular
attention of European navigators and naturalists, seems to
abound in scenes of peculiar wildness and sterility; while the
wretched natives of many of those dreary districts seem less
elevated above the inferior animals than in any other part of
the known world; Caffraria itself not excepted; as well as less
indued with the power of promoting a comfortable existence by
an approach towards useful arts and industry.  It is in these
savage regions however that Nature seems to have poured forth
many of her most highly ornamented products with unusual

1814.  M. Flinders, 'Voyage to Terra Australis,' Introduction,
p. iii. and footnote:

"I have . . . ventured upon the readoption of the original
Terra Australis, and of this term I shall hereafter make
use, when speaking of New Holland [sc. the West] and New
South Wales, in a collective sense; and when using it in the
most extensive signification, the adjacent isles, including
that of Van Diemen, must be understood to be comprehended."
[Footnote]: "Had I permitted myself any innovation upon the
original term, it would have been to convert it into Australia;
as being more agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation to the
names of the other great portions of the earth."

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,'
vol. i. p. 9:

"New South Wales (or Australia, as we colonials say)."

1839.  C. Darwin, 'Naturalist's Voyage' (ed.  1890), p. 328:

"Farewell, Australia!  You are a rising child, and doubtless
some day will reign a great princess in the South; but you are
too great and ambitious for affection, yet not great enough for
respect.  I leave your shores without sorrow or regret."

1852.  A Liverpool Merchant [Title]:

"A Guide to Australia and the Gold Regions."

1873.  A. Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,' c. viii. (new
ed.)  p. 152:

"The colonies are determined to be separate.  Australia is a
term that finds no response in the patriotic feeling of any
Australian. . . .  But this will come to an end sooner or later.
The name of Australia will be dearer, if not greater, to
Australian ears than the name of Great Britain."

[Mr. Trollope's prophecy has come true, and the name of
Australia is now dearer to an Australian than the name of his
own separate colony.  The word "Colonial" as indicating
Australian nationality is going out of fashion.  The word
"Australian" is much preferred.]

1878.  F. P. Labilliere, 'Early History of the Colony of
Victoria,' vol. i. p. 184:

"In a despatch to Lord Bathurst, of April 4th, 1817, Governor
Macquarie acknowledges the receipt of Captain Flinders's charts
of 'Australia.'  This is the first time that the name of
Australia appears to have been officially employed.  The
Governor underlines the word. . . .  In a private letter to
Mr. Secretary Goulbourn, M.P., of December 21st, 1817, [he]says
. . . 'the Continent of Australia, which, I hope, will be the
name given to this country in future, instead of the very
erroneous and misapplied name hitherto given it of New Holland,
which, properly speaking, only applies to a part of this
immense Continent.'"

1883.  G. W. Rusden, 'History of Australia,' vol. i. p. 64:

"It is pleasant to reflect that the name Australia was selected
by the gallant Flinders; though, with his customary modesty, he
suggested rather than adopted it."

1895.  H. M. Goode, 'The Argus,' Oct. 15, p. 7, col. 4:

"Condemning the absurd practice of using the word 'Colonial' in
connection with our wines, instead of the broader and more
federal one, 'Australian.'  In England our artists, cricketer,
scullers, and globe-trotters are all spoken of and acknowledged
as Australians, and our produce, with the exception of wine, is
classed as follows:--Australian gold and copper, Australian
beef and mutton, Australian butter, Australian fruits, &c."

Ibid. p. 14:

"Merops or Bee-Eater.  A tribe [of birds] which appears to be
peculiarly prevalent in the extensive regions of Australia."

Australian flag, n.  Hot climate and country
work have brought in a fashion among bushmen of wearing a belt
or leather strap round the top of trousers instead of braces.
This often causes a fold in the shirt protruding all round from
under the waistcoat, which is playfully known as "the
Australian flag."  Slang.

Australioid and Australoid, adj. like
Australian, sc. aboriginal--a term used by ethnologists.  See

1869.  J. Lubbock, 'Prehistoric Times,' vol. xii. p. 378:

"The Australoid type contains all the inhabitants of Australia
and the native races of the Deccan."

1878.  E. B. Tylor, 'Encyclopaedia Britannica,' vol. ii. p. 112:

"He [Professor Huxley] distinguishes four principal types of
mankind, the Australioid, Negroid, Mongoloid, and Xanthochroic,
adding a fifth variety, the Melanochroic.  The special points
of the Australioid are a chocolate-brown skin, dark brown or
black eyes, black hair (usually wavy), narrow (dolichocephalic)
skull, brow-ridges strongly developed, projecting jaw, coarse
lips and broad nose.  This type is best represented by the
natives of Australia, and next to them by the indigenous tribes
of Southern India, the so-called coolies."

Austral Thrush, n.  See Port-Jackson

Avocet, n. a well-known European bird-name.
The Australian species is the Red-necked A., Recurvirostra
nova-hollandiae, Vieill.

Aweto, n. Maori name for a
vegetable-caterpillar of New Zealand.  See quotation.

1889.  E. Wakefield, 'New Zealand after Fifty Years,' p. 81:

". . . the aweto, or vegetable-caterpillar, called by
the naturalists Hipialis virescens.  It is a perfect
caterpillar in every respect, and a remarkably fine one too,
growing to a length in the largest specimens of three and a
half inches and the thickness of a finger, but more commonly to
about a half or two-thirds of that size. . . .  When
full-grown, it undergoes a miraculous change.  For some
inexplicable reason, the spore of a vegetable fungus
Sphaeria Robertsii, fixes itself on its neck, or between
the head and the first ring of the caterpillar, takes root and
grows vigorously . . . exactly like a diminutive bulrush from 6
to 10 inches high without leaves, and consisting solely of a
single stem with a dark-brown felt-like head, so familiar in
the bulrushes . . . always at the foot of the rata."

1896.  A. Bence Jones, in 'Pearson's Magazine,' Sept., p. 290:

"The dye in question was a solution of burnt or powdered resin,
or wood, or the aweto, the latter a caterpillar, which,
burrowing in the vegetable soil, gets a spore of a fungus
between the folds of its neck, and unable to free itself, the
insect's body nourishes the fungus, which vegetates and
occasions the death of the caterpillar by exactly filling the
interior of the body with its roots, always preserving its
perfect form.  When properly charred this material yielded a
fine dark dye, much prized for purposes of moko."  [See

Axe-breaker, n. name of a tree, Notelaea
longifolia, Vent., N.O. Jasmineae.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 579:

"Axe-breaker.  Wood hard, close-grained and firm.  Its
vernacular name emphasizes its hardness."


Baal, or Bail, interj. and adv.
"An aboriginal expression of disapproval."  (Gilbert Parker,
Glossary to 'Round the Compass in Australia,' 1888.)  It was
the negative in the Sydney dialect.

1893.  J. F. Hogan, 'Robert Lowe,' p. 271, quoting from 'The
Atlas' (circa 1845):

"Traces, however, of the Egyptian language are discoverable
among the present inhabitants, with whom, for instance, the
word 'Bale' or 'Baal' is in continual use . . . ."  [Evidently
a joke.]

Babbler, n. a bird-name.  In Europe, "name
given, on account of their harsh chattering note, to the
long-legged thrushes."  ('O.E.D.')  The group "contains a great
number of birds not satisfactorily located elsewhere, and has
been called the ornithological waste-basket." ('Century.')  The
species are--

The Babbler--
  Pomatostomus temporalis, V. and H.

Chestnut-crowned B.--
  P. ruficeps, Hart.

Red-breasted B.--
  P. rubeculus, Gould.

White-browed B.--
  P. superciliosus, V. and H.

Back-blocks, n.  (1) The far interior of
Australia, and away from settled country.  Land in Australia is
divided on the survey maps into blocks, a word confined, in
England and the United States, to town lands.

(2) The parts of a station distant from the frontage

1872.  Anon. 'Glimpses of Life in Victoria,' p. 31:

". . . we were doomed to see the whole of our river-frontage
purchased. . . .  The back blocks which were left to us were
insufficient for the support of our flocks, and deficient in
permanent water-supply. . . ."

1880.  J. Mathew, Song--'The Bushman':

"Far, far on the plains of the arid back-blocks
A warm-hearted bushman is tending his flocks.
There's little to cheer in that vast grassy sea:
But oh! he finds pleasure in thinking of me.
How weary, how dreary the stillness must be!
But oh! the lone bushman is dreaming of me."

1890.  E. W. Horning, 'A Bride from the Bush,' p. 298:

"'Down in Vic' you can carry as many sheep to the acre as acres
to the sheep up here in the 'backblocks.'"

1893.  M. Gaunt, 'English Illustrated, 'Feb., p. 294:

"The back-blocks are very effectual levellers."

1893.  Haddon Chambers, 'Thumbnail Sketches of Australian
Life,' p. 33

"In the back-blocks of New South Wales he had known both hunger
and thirst, and had suffered from sunstroke."

1893.  'The Australasian,' Aug. 12, p. 302, col. 1:

"Although Kara is in the back-blocks of New South Wales, the
clothes and boots my brother wears come from Bond Street."

Back-block, adj. from the interior.

1891.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Sydneyside Saxon,' vol. xii. p. 215:

"'What a nice mare that is of yours!' said one of the
back-block youngsters."

Back-blocker, n. a resident in the back-blocks.

1870.  'The Argus,' March 22, p. 7, col. 2

"I am a bushman, a back blocker, to whom it happens about once
in two years to visit Melbourne."

1892.  E. W. Hornung, 'Under Two Skies,' p. 21:

"As for Jim, he made himself very busy indeed, sitting on his
heels over the fire in an attitude peculiar to back-blockers."

Back-slanging, verbal n.  In the back-blocks
(q.v.) of Australia, where hotels are naturally scarce and
inferior, the traveller asks for hospitality at the
stations (q.v.) on his route, where he is always made
welcome.  There is no idea of anything underhand on the part of
the traveller, yet the custom is called back-slanging.

Badger, n.  This English name has been
incorrectly applied in Australia, sometimes to the Bandicoot,
sometimes to the Rock-Wallaby, and sometimes to the Wombat.  In
Tasmania, it is the usual bush-name for the last.

1829.  'The Picture of Australia,' p. 173:

"The Parameles, to which the colonists sometimes give
the name of badger. . . ."

1831.  Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 265:

"That delicious animal, the wombat (commonly known at that
place [Macquarie Harbour] by the name of badger, hence
the little island of that name in the map was so called, from
the circumstance of numbers of that animal being at first found
upon it)."

1850.  James Bennett Clutterbuck, M.D., 'Port Phillip in 1849,'
p. 37:

"The rock Wallaby, or Badger, also belongs to the family of the
Kangaroo; its length from the nose to the end of the tail is
three feet; the colour of the fur being grey-brown."

1875.  Rev. J. G. Wood, 'Natural History,' vol. i. p. 481:

"The Wombat or Australian Badger as it is popularly called by
the colonists. . . ."

1891.  W. Tilley, 'Wild West of Tasmania,' p. 8:

"With the exception of wombats or 'badgers,' and an occasional
kangaroo . . . the intruder had to rely on the stores he carried
with him."

ibid. p. 44:

"Badgers also abound, or did until thinned out by hungry

Badger-box, n. slang name for a roughly-
constructed dwelling.

1875.  'Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania,'
September, p. 99 ['Port Davey in 1875,' by the Hon. James Reid
Scott, M.L.C.]:

"The dwellings occupied by the piners when up the river are of
the style known as 'Badger-boxes,' in distinction from huts,
which have perpendicular walls, while the Badger-box is like an
inverted V in section.  They are covered with bark, with a
thatch of grass along the ridge, and are on an average about 14
x 10 feet at the ground, and 9 or 10 feet high."

Bail, n. "A framework for securing the head of
a cow while she is milked." ('O.E.D.')

This word, marked in 'O.E.D.' and other Dictionaries as
Australian, is provincial English.  In the 'English Dialect
Dictionary,' edited by Joseph Wright, Part I., the word is
given as used in "Ireland, Northamptonshire, Norfolk, Suffolk,
Hampshire and New Zealand."  It is also used in Essex.

1872.  C. H. Eden, 'My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 83:

"In every milking yard is an apparatus for confining a cow's
head called a 'bail.'  This consists of an upright standiron,
five feet in height, let into a framework, and about six inches
from it another fixed at the heel, the upper part working
freely in a slit, in which are holes for a peg, so that when
the peg is out and the movable standiron is thrown back, there
is abundance of room for a cow's head and horns, but when
closed, at which time the two standirons are parallel to each
other and six inches apart, though her neck can work freely up
and down, it is impossible for her to withdraw her head . . ."

1874.  W. M. B., 'Narrative of Edward Crewe,' p. 225:

"The former bovine female was a brute to manage, whom it would
have been impossible to milk without a 'bail.'  To what man or
country the honour of this invention belongs, who can tell?  It
is in very general use in the Australian colonies; and my
advice to any one troubled with a naughty cow, who kicks like
fury during the process of milking, is to have a bail
constructed in their cow-house."

Bail up, v.  (1) To secure the head of a cow in a
bail for milking.

(2) By transference, to stop travellers in the bush, used of
bushrangers.  The quotation, 1888, shows the method of
transference.  It then means generally, to stop.  Like the
similar verb, to stick up (q.v.), it is often used
humorously of a demand for subscriptions, etc.

1844.  Mrs. Chas. Meredith, 'Notes and Sketches of New South
Wales,' p. 132:

"The bushrangers . . . walk quickly in, and 'bail up,' i.e.
bind with cords, or otherwise secure, the male portion."

1847.  Alex. Marjoribanks, 'Travels in New South Wales,' p. 72:

". . . there were eight or ten bullock-teams baled up by three
mounted bushrangers.  Being baled up is the colonial phrase for
those who are attacked, who are afterwards all put together,
and guarded by one of the party of the bushrangers when the
others are plundering."

1855 W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. ii. p. 309:

"So long as that is wrong, the whole community will be wrong,--
in colonial phrase, 'bailed up' at the mercy of its own

1862.  G. T. Lloyd, 'Thirty-three Years in Tasmania and Victoria,'
p. 192:

"'Come, sir, immediately,' rejoined Murphy, rudely and
insultingly pushing the master; 'bail up in that corner, and
prepare to meet the death you have so long deserved.'"

1879.  W. J. Barry, 'Up and Down,' p. 112:

"She bailed me up and asked me if I was going to keep my
promise and marry her."

1880.  W. Senior, 'Travel and Trout,' p. 36:

"His troutship, having neglected to secure a line of retreat,
was, in colonial parlance, 'bailed up.'"

1880.  G. Walch, 'Victoria in 1880,' p.133:

"The Kelly gang . . . bailed up some forty residents in the local
public house."

1882.  A. J. Boyd, 'Old Colonials,' p. 76:

"Did I ever get stuck-up?  Never by white men, though I have
been bailed up by the niggers."

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' p. 105:

"A little further on the boar 'bailed up' on the top of a

1888.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Robbery under Arms,' p. 368:

"One of the young cows was a bit strange with me, so I had to
shake a stick at her and sing out 'Bail up' pretty rough before
she'd put her head in.  Aileen smiled something like her old
self for a minute, and said, 'That comes natural to you now,
Dick, doesn't it ?'  I stared for a bit and then burst out
laughing.It was a rum go, wasn't it?  The same talk for cows
and Christians.  That's how things get stuck into the talk in a
new country.  Some old hand like father, as had been assigned
to a dairy settler, and spent all his mornings in the cow-yard,
had taken to the bush and tried his hand at sticking up people.
When they came near enough of course he'd pop out from behind a
tree, with his old musket or pair of pistols, and when he
wanted 'em to stop, 'Bail up, d-- yer,' would come a deal
quicker and more natural-like to his tongue than 'Stand.'  So
'bail up' it was from that day to this, and there'll have to be
a deal of change in the ways of the colonies, and them as come
from 'em before anything else takes its place between the man
that's got the arms and the man that's got the money."

Bailing-up Pen, n. place for fastening up cattle.

1889.  R. M. Praed, 'Romance of Station,' vol. i. c. ii.
['Eng. Dial. Dict.']:

"Alec was proud of the stockyard and pointed out . . . the
superior construction of the 'crush,' or branding lane, and the
bailing-up pen."

Bald-Coot, n. a bird-name, Porphyrio
melanotus, Temm.; Blue, P. bellus, Gould.  The
European bald-coot is Fulica atra.

Ballahoo, n. a name applied to the
Garfish (q.v.) by Sydney fishermen.  The word is West
Indian, and is applied there to a fast-sailing schooner; also
spelled Bullahoo and Ballahou.

Balloon-Vine n. Australian name for the common
tropical weed, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Linn.,
N.O. Sapindaceae: called also Heart-seed,
Heart-pea, and Winter-cherry.  It is a climbing
plant, and has a heart-shaped scar on the seed.

Balsam of Copaiba Tree, n.  The name is applied
to the Australian tree, Geijera salicifolia, Schott,
N.O. Rutaceae, because the bark has the odour of the
drug of that name.

Bamboo-grass, n. an Australian cane-like grass,
Glyceria ramigera, F. v. M. ; also called Cane
Grass.  Largely used for thatching purposes.  Stock eat the
young shoots freely.

Banana, n.  There are three species native to
Queensland, of which the fruit is said to be worthless--

  Musa Banksii, F. v. M.
  M. Hillii, F. v. M.
  M. Fitzalani, F. v. M., N.O. Scitamineae.

The Bananas which are cultivated and form a staple
export of Queensland are acclimatized varieties.

Banana-land, n. slang name for Queensland,
where bananas grow in abundance.

Banana-lander, n. slang for a Queenslander (see

Banded Ant-eater, n. name given to a small
terrestrial and ant-eating marsupial, Myrmecobius
fasciatus, Waterh, found in West and South Australia.  It
is the only species of the genus, and is regarded as the most
closely allied of all living marsupials to the extinct
marsupials of the Mesozoic Age in Europe.  It receives its name
banded from the presence along the back of a well-marked series
of dark transverse bands.

1871.  G. Krefft, 'Mammals of Australia':

"The Myrmecobius is common on the West Coast and in the
interior of New South Wales and South Australia: the
Murrumbidgee River may be taken as its most eastern boundary."

1893.  A. R. Wallace, 'Australasia,' p. 340:

"Thus we have here [W. Australia] alone the curious little
banded ant-eater (Myrmecobius fasciatus), which presents
the nearest approach in its dentition to the most ancient known
mammals whose remains are found in the oolite and Trias of the
Mesozoic epoch."

Banded-Kangaroo, i.q. Banded-Wallaby.  See
Lagostrophus and Wallaby.

Banded-Wallaby, n. sometimes called
Banded-Kangaroo.  See Lagostrophus and

Bandicoot, n. an insect-eating marsupial
animal; family, Peramelidae; genus, Perameles.
"The animals of this genus, commonly called Bandicoots
in Australia, are all small, and live entirely on the ground,
making nests composed of dried leaves, grass and sticks, in
hollow places.  They are rather mixed feeders; but insects,
worms, roots and bulbs, constitute their ordinary diet."
('Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 9th edit., vol. xv. p. 381.)  The
name comes from India, being a corruption of Telugu
pandi-kokku, literally "pig-dog," used of a large rat
called by naturalists Mus malabaricus, Shaw, Mus
giganteus, Hardwicke; Mus bandis coota, Bechstein.
The name has spread all over India.  The Indian animal is very
different from the Australian, and no record is preserved to
show how the Anglo-Indian word came to be used in Australia.
The Bandicoots are divided into three genera--the True
Bandicoots (genus Perameles, q.v.), the Rabbit
Bandicoots (genus Peragale, q.v.), and the
Pig-footed Bandicoots (q.v.) (genus Choeropus,
q.v.).  The species are--

Broadbent's Bandicoot--
 Perameles broadbenti, Ramsay.

Cockerell's B.--
  P. cockerelli, Ramsay.

Common Rabbit B.--
  Peragale lagotis, Reid.

Desert B.--
  P. eremiana, Spencer.

Doria's B.--
  Perameles dorerana, Quoy & Gaim.

Golden B.--
  P. aurata, Ramsay.

Gunn's B.--
  P. gunni, Gray.

Less Rabbit B.--
  Peragale minor, Spencer.

Long-nosed B.--
  Perameles nasuta, Geoffr.

Long-tailed B.--
  P. longicauda, Peters & Doria.

North-Australian B.--
  P. macrura, Gould.

Port Moresby B.--
  P. moresbyensis, Ramsay.

Raffray's B.--
  P. rafrayana, Milne-Edw.

Short-nosed B.--
  P. obesula, Shaw.

Striped B.--
  P. bougainvillii, Quoy & Gaim.

White-tailed Rabbit B.--
  P. lesicura. Thomas.

Pig-footed B.--
 Choeropus castanotis, Gray.

1802.  D.  Collins, 'Account of New South Wales',
vol. ii. p. 188 (Bass's Diary at the Derwent, January 1799):

"The bones of small animals, such as opossums, squirrels,
kangooroo rats, and bandicoots, were numerous round their
deserted fire-places."

1820.  W. C. Wentworth, 'Description o New South Wales,' p. 3:

"The animals are, the kangaroo, native dog (which is a smaller
species of the wolf), the wombat, bandicoot, kangaroo-rat,
opossum, flying squirrel, flying fox, etc. etc."

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i.
p. 316

"The bandicoot is about four times he size of a rat, without
a tail, and burrows in the ground or in hollow trees."

1832.  Bischoff, 'Van Diemen's Land,' vol. ii. p. 28:

"The bandicoot is as large as a rabbit.  There are two kinds,
the rat and the rabbit bandicoot."

1845.  R. Howitt, 'Australia,' p. 233:

"The common people are not destitute of what Wordsworth calls
'the poetry of common speech,' many of their similes being very
forcibly and naturally drawn from objects familiarly in sight
and quite Australian.  'Poor as a bandicoot,' 'miserable as a
shag on a rock.'"

Ibid. p. 330:

"There is also a rat-like animal with a swinish face, covered
with ruddy coarse hair, that burrows in the ground--the
bandicoot.  It is said to be very fine eating."

1845.  J. O. Balfour, 'Sketch of New South Wales,' p. 26:

"The bandicoot is the size of a large rat, of a dark brown
colour; it feeds upon roots, and its flesh is good eating.
This animal burrows in the ground, and it is from this habit,
I suppose, that when hungry, cold, or unhappy, the Australian
black says that he is as miserable as the bandicoot."

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals, p. 92:

"The bandicoots are good eating even for Europeans, and in my
opinion are the only Australian mammals fit to eat.  They
resemble pigs, and the flesh tastes somewhat like pork."

Bangalay, n. a Sydney workmen's name for the
timber of Eucalyptus botrioides, Smith.  (See
Gum.)  The name is aboriginal, and by workmen is always
pronounced Bang Alley.

Bangalow, n. an ornamental feathery-leaved
palm, Ptychosperma elegans, Blume, N.O. Palmeae.

1851.  J. Henderson, 'Excursions in New South Wales,' vol. ii.

"The Bangalo, which is a palm. . .  The germ, or roll of young
leaves in the centre, and near the top, is eaten by the
natives, and occasionally by white men, either raw or boiled.
It is of a white colour, sweet and pleasant to the taste."

1884.  W. R. Guilfoyle, 'Australian Botany,' p. 23:

"The aborigines of New South Wales and Queensland, and
occasionally the settlers, eat the young leaves of the cabbage
and bangalo palms."

1886.  H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 193:

You see he was bred in a bangalow wood,
And bangalow pith was the principal food
His mother served out in her shanty."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 592:

"Bangalow. . . .  The small stems sometimes go under the name
of 'Moreton Bay Canes.'  It is a very ornamental,
feathery-leaved palm."

Bang-tail muster.  See quotation.

1887.  W. S. S. Tyrwhitt, 'The New Churn in the Queensland Bush,'
p. 61:

"Every third or fourth year on a cattle station, they have what
is called a 'bang tail muster'; that is to say, all the cattle
are brought into the yards, and have the long hairs at the end
of the tail cut off square, with knives or sheep-shears. . .
The object of it is. .  .to find out the actual number of
cattle on the run, to compare with the number entered on the
station books."

Banker, n. a river full up to the top of the
banks.  Compare Shakspeare: "Like a proud river, peering o'er
his bounds." ('King John,' III. i. 23.)

1888.  Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol, iii. p. 175

"The Murrumbidgee was running a 'banker'--water right up to the

1890.  Lyth, 'Golden South,' c. vii. p. 52:

"The driver stated that he had heard the river was 'a banker.'"

1896.  H. Lawson, 'When the World was Wide,' p. 45:

"The creeks were bankers, and the flood
 Was forty miles round Bourke."

Ibid.  p. 100:

"Till the river runs a banker,
 All stained with yellow mud."

Banksia, n. "A genus of Australian shrubs with
umbellate flowers,--now cultivated as ornamental shrubs in
Europe." ('O.E.D.')  Called after Mr. Banks, naturalist of the
Endeavour, afterwards Sir Joseph Banks.  The so-called
Australian Honeysuckle (q.v.).  See also

1790.  J. White, 'Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 221:

"The different species of banksia.  The finest new genus
hitherto found in New Holland has been destined by Linnaeus,
with great propriety, to transmit to posterity the name of Sir
Joseph Banks, who first discovered it in his celebrated voyage
round the world."

1798.  D. Collins, 'Account of English Colony in New South
Wales,' p. 557:

"A few berries, the yam and fern root, the flowers of the
different banksia, and at times some honey, make up the whole
vegetable catalogue."

1829.  Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of the Linnaean
Society,' vol. xv. p. 312:

"Scrubs where the different species of banksia are found, the
flowers of which I (Mr. Caley) have reason to think afford it
sustenance during winter."

1833.  C. Sturt, 'South Australia,' vol. ii. c. ii. p. 30:

"Some sandhills . . . crowned by banksias."

1845.  J. Q. Balfour, 'Sketch of New South Wales,' p. 39:

"Many different species of banksia grow in great plenty in the
neighbourhood of Sydney, and from the density of their foliage
are very ornamental."

1846.  L. Leichhardt, quoted by J. D. Lang, 'Cooksland,' p. 331:

"The table-land is covered by forests of stringy-bark, of
melaleuca-gum, and banksia."

1851.  'Quarterly Review,' Dec., p. 40:

"In this they will find an extremely rich collection of
bottle-brush-flowered, zigzag-leaved, grey-tinted, odd-looking
things, to most eyes rather strange than beautiful,
notwithstanding that one of them is named Banksia
speciosa.  They are the 'Botany Bays' of old-fashioned
gardeners, but are more in the shrub and tree line than that of
flowering pots.  Banksia Solandei will remind them to
turn to their 'Cook's Voyages' when they get home, to read how
poor Dr. Solander got up a mountain and was heartily glad to get
down again."

1877.  F. v. Mueller, 'Botanic Teachings,' p. 46:

"The banksias are of historic interest, inasmuch as the genus
was dedicated already by the younger Linne in 1781 to Sir
Joseph Banks, from whom the Swedish naturalist received
branchlets of those species, which in Captain Cook's first
voyage more than 100 years ago (1770) were gathered by Banks at
Botany-Bay and a few other places of the east coast of

1887.  J. Bonwick, 'Romance of the Wool Trade,' p. 228:

"A banksia plain, with its collection of
bottle-brush-like-flowers, may have its charms for a botanist,
but its well-known sandy ground forbids the hope of good

Baobab, n. a tree, native of Africa,
Adansonia digitata.  The name is Ethiopian. It has been
introduced into many tropical countries.  The Australian
species of the genus is A. gregorii, F. v. M., called also
Cream of Tartar or Sour Gourd-tree,
Gouty-stem (q.v.), and Bottle-tree (q.v.).

Barber, or Tasmanian Barber, n. a name
for the fish Anthias rasor, Richards., family
Percidae; also called Red-Perch.  See
Perch.  It occurs in Tasmania, New Zealand, and Port
Jackson.  It is called Barber from the shape of the
praeoperculum, one of the bones of the head.  See

1841.  John Richardson, 'Description of Australian Fish,' p. 73:

"Serranus Rasor.-- Tasmanian Barber. . . .  The
serrature of the preoperculum is the most obvious and general
character by which the very numerous Serrani are connected with
each other . . . The Van Diemen's Land fish, which is described
below, is one of the 'Barbers,' a fact which the specific
appellation rasor is intended to indicate; the more
classical word having been previously appropriated to another
species. . .  Mr. Lempriere states that it is known locally as
the 'red perch or shad.'"

[Richardson also says that Cuvier founded a subdivision of the
Serrani on the characters of the scales of the jaws,
under the name of 'les Barbiers,' which had been previously
grouped by Block under the title Anthias.]

Barcoo-grass, n. an Australian grass,
Anthistiria membranacea, Lindl.  One of the best pasture
grasses in Queensland, but growing in other colonies also.

Barcoo Rot, n. a disease affecting inhabitants
of various parts of the interior of Australia, but chiefly
bushmen.  It consists of persistent ulceration of the skin,
chiefly on the back of the hands, and often originating in

It is attributed to monotony of diet and to the cloudless
climate, with its alternations of extreme cold at night and
burning heat by day.  It is said to be maintained and
aggravated by the irritation of small flies.

1870.  E. B. Kennedy, 'Four Years in Queensland,' p. 46:

"Land scurvy is better known in Queensland by local names,
which do not sound very pleasant, such as 'Barcoo rot,'
'Kennedy rot,' according to the district it appears in.  There
is nothing dangerous about it; it is simply the festering of
any cut or scratch on one's legs, arms or hands. . .  They take
months to heal. . .  Want of vegetables is assigned as the

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 58:

"In Western Queensland people are also subject to bad sores on
the hand, called Barcoo-rot."

Barcoo Vomit, n. a sickness occurring in
inhabitants of various parts of the high land of the interior
of Australia.  It is characterized by painless attacks of
vomiting, occurring immediately after food is taken, followed
by hunger, and recurring as soon as hunger is satisfied.

The name Barcoo is derived from the district traversed
by the river Barcoo, or Cooper, in which this complaint and the
Barcoo Rot are common.  See Dr. E. C. Stirling's 'Notes
from Central Australia,' in 'Intercolonial Quarterly Journal of
Medicine and Surgery,' vol.  i. p. 218.

Bargan, n. a name of the Come-back
Boomerang (q.v.).  (Spelt also barragan.)

1892.  J. Fraser, 'Aborigines of New South Wales,' p. 70:

"The 'come-back' variety (of boomerang) is not a fighting
weapon.  A dialect name for it is bargan, which word may be
explained in our language to mean 'bent like a sickle or
crescent moon.'"

Barking Owl, n. a bird not identified, and not
in Gould (who accompanied Leichhardt).

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition, p. 47:

"The glucking-bird and the barking-owl were heard throughout
the moonlight night."

Barrack, v. to jeer at opponents, to interrupt
noisily, to make a disturbance; with the preposition "for," to
support as a partisan, generally with clamour.  An Australian
football term dating from about 1880.  The verb has been ruled
unparliamentary by the Speaker in the Victorian Legislative
Assembly.  It is, however, in very common colloquial use.  It
is from the aboriginal word borak (q.v.), and the sense
of jeering is earlier than that of supporting, but jeering at
one side is akin to cheering for the other.  Another suggested
derivation is from the Irish pronunciation of "Bark," as
(according to the usually accepted view) "Larrikin" from
"larking." But the former explanation is the more probable.
There is no connection with soldiers' "barracks;" nor is it
likely that there is any, as has been ingeniously suggested,
with the French word baragouin, gibberish.

1890.  'Melbourne Punch,' Aug. 14, p. 106, col. 3:

"To use a football phrase, they all to a man 'barrack' for the
British Lion."

1893.  'The Age,' June 17, p. 15, col. 4:

"[The boy] goes much to football matches, where he barracks,
and in a general way makes himself intolerable."

1893.  'The Argus,' July 5, p. 9, col. 4, Legislative Assembly:

"Mr. Isaacs:. . .  He hoped this 'barracking' would not
be continued."  [Members had been interrupting him.]

1893.  'The Herald' (Melbourne), Sept. 9, p. 1, col. 6:

"He noticed with pleasure the decrease of disagreeable
barracking by spectators at matches during last season.
Good-humoured badinage had prevailed, but the spectators had
been very well conducted."

Barracker, n. one who barracks (q.v.).

1893.  'The Age,' June 27, p. 6, col. 6:

"His worship remarked that the 'barracking' that was carried on
at football matches was a mean and contemptible system, and was
getting worse and worse every day.  Actually people were afraid
to go to them on account of the conduct of the crowd of
'barrackers.'  It took all the interest out of the game to see
young men acting like a gang of larrikins."

1894.  '"The Argus,' Nov. 29, p. 4, col. 9:

"The 'most unkindest cut of all' was that the Premier, who was
Mr.  Rogers's principal barracker during the elections, turned
his back upon the prophet and did not deign to discuss his

Barracks, n. a building on a station with rooms
for bachelors.

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'A Colonial Reformer,' p. 100

"A roomy, roughly-finished building known as the 'barracks.'
. . . .  Three of the numerous bedrooms were tenanted by young
men, . . . neophytes, who were gradually assimilating the love
of Bush-land."

Barracouta, or Barracoota, n. The
name, under its original spelling of Barracuda, was
coined in the Spanish West Indies, and first applied there to a
large voracious fish, Sphyraena pecuda, family
Sphyraenidae.  In Australia and New Zealand it is
applied to a smaller edible fish, Thyrsites atun,
Cuv. and Val., family Trichiuridae, called Snook
(q.v.) at the Cape of Good Hope.  It is found from the Cape of
Good Hope to New Zealand.

1845.  'Voyage to Port Philip,' p. 40:

"We hook the barracuda fish."

1882.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Fishes of New South Wales,'
p. 69:

"Sphyrenidae.  The first family is the barracudas, or
sea-pike."  [Footnote]: "This name is no doubt the same as
Barracouta and is of Spanish origin.  The application of it to
Thyrsites atun in the Southern seas was founded on some
fancied resemblance to the West Indian fish, which originally
bore the name, though of course they are entirely different."

(2) The word is used as a nickname for an inhabitant of Hobart;
compare Cornstalk.

Barramunda, n. a fish, i.q. Burramundi

Basket-Fence, n. Local name for a stake-hedge.
See quotation.

1872.  G. S. Baden-Powell, 'New Homes for the Old Country,' p. 208:

"For sheep, too, is made the 'basket fence.'  Stakes are driven
in, and their pliant 'stuff' interwoven, as in a stake hedge in

Bastard Dory and John Dory (q.v.), spelt also
Dorey, n. an Australian fish, Cyttus australis,
family Cyttidae; the Australian representative of
Zeus faber, the European "John Dory," and its close
relative, is called Bastard Dorey in New Zealand, and
also Boar-fish (q.v.).

1880.  Guenther, 'Study of Fishes,' p. 387:

"Histiopterus. . . .The species figured attains to a
length of twenty inches, and is esteemed as food.  It is known
at Melbourne by the names of 'Boar-fish' or 'Bastard Dorey'
(fig.), Histiopterus recurvirostris."

Bastard Trumpeter, n. a fish.  See Morwong,
Paper-fish, and Trumpeter.  In Sydney it is
Latris ciliaris, Forst., which is called Moki in
New Zealand; in Victoria and Tasmania, L. forsteri,

1883.  'Royal Commission on the Fisheries of Tasmania,' p. 35:

"The bastard trumpeter (Latris Forsteri). . . .Scarcely
inferior to the real trumpeter, and superior to it in abundance
all the year round, comes the bastard trumpeter. . .  This fish
has hitherto been confounded with Latris ciliaris
(Forst.); but, although the latter species has been reported as
existing in Tasmanian waters, it is most probably a mistake:
for the two varieties (the red and the white), found in such
abundance here, have the general characters as shown
above. . .  They must be referred to the Latris Forsteri
of Count Castelnau, which appears to be the bastard trumpeter
of Victorian waters."

Bat-fish, n. The name in England is given to a
fish of the family Maltheidae.  It is also applied to
the Flying Gurnard of the Atlantic and to the Californian
Sting-ray.  In Australia, and chiefly in New South Wales, it is
applied to Psettus argenteus, Linn., family
Carangidae, or Horse Mackerels.  Guenther says that the
"Sea Bats," which belong to the closely allied genus
Platax, are called so from the extraordinary length of
some portion of their dorsal and anal fins and of their

Bathurst Bur, n. Explained in quotation.

1855.  W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 261:

"The Bathurst bur (Xanthium spinosuzn), a plant with
long triple spines like the barbary, and burs which are ruinous
to the wool of the sheep--otherwise, itself very like a
chenopodium, or good-fat-hen."

Bats-wing-coral, n. the Australian wood
Erythrina vespertilio, Bentham, N.O. Leguminosae.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 426:

"Batswing Coral. . . .The wood is soft, and used by the
aborigines for making their 'heilamans,' or shields.  It is
exceedingly light and spongy, and of the greatest difficulty to
work up to get anything like a surface for polishing."

Bauera, n. a shrub, Bauera rubioides,
Andr., N.O. Saxifrageae, the Scrub Vine, or
Native Rose; commonly called in Tasmania "Bauera,"and
celebrated for forming impenetrable thickets in conjunction
with "cutting grass," Cladium psittacorum, Labill.

1835.  Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 70:

"Bauera rubiaefolia.  Madder leaved Bauera.  A pretty little
plant with pink flowers.  This genus is named after the
celebrated German draughtsman, whose splendid works are yet
unrivalled in the art, especially of the Australian plants
which he depicted in his voyage round New Holland with
Capt. Flinders in the Investigator."

1888.  R. M. Johnston, 'Geology of Tasmania,' Intro. p. vi.:

"The Bauera scrub . . . is a tiny, beautiful shrub . . . Although
the branches are thin and wiry, they are too tough and too much
entangled in mass to cut, and the only mode of progress often
is to throw one's self high upon the soft branching mass and
roll over to the other side.  The progress in this way is slow,
monotonous, and exhausting."

1891.  'The Australasian,' April 4, p. 670, col. 2:

"Cutting-grass swamps and the bauera, where a dog can't hardly
Stringy-bark country, and blackwood beds, and lots of it broken
 by snow."

1891.  W. Tilley, 'Wild West of Tasmania,' p. 7:

"Interposing the even more troublesome Bauera shrub; whose
gnarled branches have earned for it the local and expressive
name of 'tangle-foot' or 'leg ropes.'  [It] has been named by
Spicer the 'Native Rose.'"

Beal, Bool, or Bull, n. a sweet
aboriginal drink.

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i.:

"A good jorum of bull (washings of a sugar bag)" [given
to aborigines who have been working].

1839.  T. L. Mitchell, 'Three Expeditions,' vol. ii. p. 288:

"The flowers are gathered, and by steeping them a night in
water the natives made a sweet beverage called 'bool.'"

1878.  R. Brough Smyth, 'Aborigines of Victoria,' vol. i.  p. 210:

"In the flowers of a dwarf species of banksia
(B. ornata) there is a good deal of honey, and this was
got out of the flowers by immersing them in water.  The water
thus sweetened was greedily swallowed by the natives.  The
drink was named beal by the natives of the west of
Victoria, and was much esteemed."

Beal (2), n. i.q. Belar (q.v.).

Bean, Queensland, or Leichhardt, or
Match-box, n. Entada scandens, Benth.,
N.O. Leguminosae.  Though this bean has two Australian
names, it is really widely distributed throughout the tropics.
A tall climbing plant; the seeds are used for match-boxes.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 425:

"The seeds are about two inches across, by half-an-inch thick,
and have a hard woody and beautifully polished shell, of a dark
brown or purplish colour.  These seeds are converted into
snuff-boxes, scent-bottles, spoons, etc., and in the Indian
bazaars they are used as weights.  ('Treasury of Botany.')  In
the colonies we usually see the beans of this plant mounted
with silver, as match-boxes.  The wood itself is soft, fibrous,
and spongy."

Bean-Tree, n. called also Moreton Bay
Chestnut, Castanospermum australe, Cunn. and Fraser,
N.O. Leguminosae; a tall tree with red flowers and large
seed-pods.  The timber of young specimens has beautiful dark

Bear, Native, n. the colonists' name for an
animal called by the aborigines Koala, Koolah, Kool-la, and
Carbora (Phascolarctus cinereus).  It is a tree-climbing
marsupial, about two feet in length, like a small bear in its
heavy build.  Its food is the young leaves of the Eucalyptus,
and it is said that the Native Bear cannot be taken to England
because it would die on board ship, owing to there being no
fresh gum leaves.  The writers are incorrect who call the
animal a sloth.

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i.
p. 317

"Our coola (sloth or native bear) is about the size of an
ordinary poodle dog, with shaggy, dirty-coloured fur, no tail,
and claws and feet like a bear, of which it forms a tolerable
miniature.  It climbs trees readily and feeds upon their

1846.  G. H. Haydon, 'Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 57:

"The bear (phascolomys) of the colonists is in reality a
species of sloth, and partakes of all the characteristics of
that animal; it is of the marsupial order, and is found chiefly
in the neighbourhood of thickly timbered high land; its flesh
is used by the aborigines for food, but is tough and
unpalatable; its usual weight is from eight to twelve pounds."
[Note: Phascolomys is the name of the Wombat, not the

1854.  G. H. Hayden, 'The Australian Emigrant,' p. 126:

"The luckless carbora fell crashing through the
branches."  [Footnote] "The native name of an animal of the
sloth species, but incorrectly called by the colonists a bear."

1855.  W. Blandowski, 'Transactions of Philosophical Society of
Victoria,' vol. i. p. 68:

"The koala or karbor (Phascolarctus cinereus) frequents
very high trees, and sits in places where it is most sheltered
by the branches. . . .  Its fur is of the same colour as the
bark . . . like the cat has the power of contracting and
expanding the pupil of the eye . . . .  Its skin is remarkably
thick . . . dense woolly fur . . . .  The natives aver that the
koala never drinks water."

1865.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'History of the Discovery and
Exploration of Australia,' vol. i. p. 448:

"They were soon entirely out of provisions, but found a sort of
substitute by living on the native bear (Phascolarctus
cinereus), which was plentiful even in the forests."

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 214:

"Look, high up in the branches of that tall tree is a native
bear!  It sits motionless.  It has something the appearance of
a solemn old man.  How funny his great ears and Roman nose
look!  He sits on the branch as if it was a chair, holding with
hand-like claws the surrounding twigs."

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 9:

"We learned that a koala or native bear (Phascolarctus
cinereus) was sitting on a tree near the but of a
shepherd . . . not a dangerous animal.  It is called 'native
bear,' but is in no wise related to the bear family.  It is an
innocent and peaceful marsupial, which is active only at night,
and sluggishly climbs the trees, eating leaves and sleeping
during the whole day.  As soon as the young has left the pouch,
the mother carries it with her on her back.  The Australian
bear is found in considerable numbers throughout the eastern
part of the continent, even within the tropical circle."

Bearded Lizard, n. See Jew Lizard.

Beardie, or Beardy, n. a fish.  In
Scotland the name is applied to the Bearded Loach,
Nemachilus barbatus, of Europe; in New South Wales the
name is given to the fish Lotella marginata, Macl., of
the family Gadidae, or Cod-fishes, which is also called
Ling (q.v.).

Beaver-rat, n. an aquatic rodent, something
like the English water-rat, genus Hydromys.

1864.  'Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van Diemen's Land'
[paper by Morton Allport], p. 62:

"Common to both fresh and brackish water is the yellow bellied
beaver-rat or musk-rat (Hydromys chrysogaster)."

Beech, n. There is only one true Beech in
Australia, Fagus cunninghamii, Hook,
N.O. Cupuliferae; but the name is applied to many other
kinds of Australian trees, viz.--

(1) Simply to

Cryptocarya glaucescens, R. Br., N.O. Laurineae,
called also Black Sassafras, White Laurel, She Beech, and Black

Flindersia australis, R. Br., N.O. Meliaceae,
called also Flindosa Ash, Crow's Ash, and Rasp-pod, and
invariably Myrtle to Tasmania.

Gmelina leichhardtii, F. v. M., N.O. Verbenaceae.

Monotoca elliptica, R. Br., N.O. Epacrideae.

Phyllanthus ferdinandi, Muell. and Arg., N.O.
Euphorbiaceae, called also Pencil Cedar in Southern
New South Wales.

Schizomeria ovata, D. Don, N.O. Saxifrageae,
called also Corkwood, Light-wood, Coachwood, and White Cherry.

Trochocarpa laurina, R. Br., N.O. Epacrideae,
called also Brush Cherry, and Brush Myrtle.

(2) With various epithets the name is also used as follows--

Evergreen Beech--

Fagus cunninghamii, Hook, N.O. Cupuliferae,
called also Myrtle and Negro-head Beech.

Flindosy B.--

Flindersia schottiana, F. v. M., N.O. Meliaceae,
called also Ash and Stave-wood.

Indian B.--

Pongamia glabra, Vent., N.O. Leguminosae,  B. Fl.

Mountain B.--

Lomatia longifolia, R. Br., N.O. Proteaceae.

Native B.--

Callicoma serratifolia, Andr., N.O. Saxifragiae,
"one of the trees called by the early colonists 'Black Wattle,'
from the fancied resemblance of the flowers to those of some of
the wattles." (Maiden, p. 389.)

Negro-head B., i.q.  Evergreen B. (q.v. supra).

Queensland B.--

Gmelina leichhardtii , F. v. M., N.O. Verbenaceae,
a tall valuable timber-tree.

Red B.--

Tarrietia trifoliata, F. v. M., N.O. Sterculiaceae.

She B.--

Cryptocazya obovata, R. Br., H.0. Laurineae, B. Fl.,
called also Bastard Sycamore.

White B.--

Elaeocarpus kirtoni, F. v. M., N.O. Tiliaceae,
called also Mountain Ash.

(3) In New Zealand, there are six species of true beeches, which
according to Kirk are as follows--

Blair's B.--

Fagus blairii, T. Kirk.

Entire-leaved B.--

F. solandri, Hook. f.

Mountain B.--

F. cliffortioides, Hook. f.

Pointed-leaved B.--

F. apiculata, Colenso.

Silver B.--

F.  Menziesii, Hook.  f.

Tooth-leaved B.--

F. fusca, Hook. f.

All these, however, are commonly called Birches.

See also the words Ash, Myrtle, Sassafras.

Bee-eater, n. a bird-name.  The European
Bee-eater is Merops apiaster; the Australian species is
Merops ornatus, Lath.  The bird was called
"M. phrygius, the Embroidered Merops," by Shaw.

1793.  G. Shaw, 'Zoology [and Botany] of New Holland,' p. 14:

"Specific character.--Black Merops varied with yellow.  The
bird figured in its natural size on the present plate is a
species of Merops or Bee-eater; a tribe which appears to be
peculiarly prevalent in the extensive regions of Australia,
since more birds of this genus have been discovered than of any
other, except the very numerous one of Psittacus."

[The birds, however, have been since this date further
differentiated, and are now all classed in other genera, except
the present species.]

1790.  J. White, 'Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 144:

"The wattled bee-eater, of which a plate is annexed, fell in
our way during the course of the day. . . .  Under the eye,
on each side, is a kind of wattle of an orange colour. . .
This bird seems to be peculiar to New Holland."

Ibid. p. 190:

"We this day shot a knob-fronted bee-eater (see plate annexed).
This is about the size of a black-bird." [Description follows.]

Beef-wood, n. the timber of various Australian
trees, especially of the genus Casuarina, and some of
the Banksias; often used as a synonym of She-oak (q.v.).
The name is taken from the redness of the wood.

1826.  J. Atkinson, 'Agriculture and Grazing in New South Wales,'
p. 31:

"The wood is well known in England by the names of Botany Bay
wood, or beef wood.The grain is very peculiar, but the wood is
thought very little of in the colony; it makes good shingles,
splits, in the colonial phrase, from heart to bark . . ."

1833.  C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' vol. i. c. i. p. 22:

"They seemed to be covered with cypresses and beef-wood."

1846.  C. Holtzapffel, 'Turning,' vol. i. p. 74:

"Beef wood.  Red-coloured woods are sometimes thus named, but
it is generally applied to the Botany-Bay oak."

1852.  G. C. Munday, 'Our Antipodes' (edition 1855), p. 219:

"A shingle of the beef-wood looks precisely like a raw

1856.  Capt. H. Butler Stoney, 'A Residence in Tasmania,' p. 265:

"We now turn our attention to some trees of a very different
nature, Casuarina stricta and quadrivalvis,
commonly called He and She oak, and sometimes known by the name
of beef-wood, from the wood, which is very hard and takes a
high polish, exhibiting peculiar maculae spots and veins
scattered throughout a finely striated tint . . ."

1868.  Paxton's 'Botanical Dictionary,' p. 116:

"Casuarinaceae,or Beefwoods.  Curious branching, leafless trees
or shrubs, with timber of a high order, which is both hard and
heavy, and of the colour of raw beef, whence the vulgar name."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants.' (See 'Index of
vernacular names.')

Belar, n. (various spellings, Belah, billa,
beela, beal), an aboriginal name for the tree Casuarina
glauca.  The colonists call the tree Bull-oak, probably
from this native name.

1862.  H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 18:

"A voice in the beela grows wild in its wail."

1868.  J. A. B., 'Meta,' p. 19:

"With heartfelt glee we hail the camp,
And blazing fire of beal."

[Footnote]: "Aboriginal name of the gum-tree wood."

1874.  W. H. L. Ranken, 'Dominion of Australia,' c. vi. p. 110:

"These scrubs . . . sometimes crown the watersheds as 'belar.'"

Bell-bird, n. name given to several birds,
their note, like the tinkling of a bell.  In Australia,
a Honey-eater, Myzantha melanophrys, Gould ('Birds of
Australia,' vol. iv. pl. 80), the 'Australian Bell-bird' (the
same bird as Myzantha flavirostris, V. and H.), chiefly
found in New South Wales; also Oreoica gutturalis, Gould
(vol. ii. pl.  81), the 'Bell-bird' of Western Australia; and
Oreoica cristata, Lewin.  In New Zealand, Anthornis
melanura, Sparrm., chief Maori names, Korimako
(q.v.)  in North, and Makomako in South.  Buller gives
ten Maori names.  The settlers call it Moko (q.v.).
There is also a Bell-bird in Brazil.

1774.  J. Hawkesworth, 'Voyages,' vol. ii. p. 390 [Journal of
Jan. 17, 1770):

"In the morning we were awakened by the singing of the birds;
the number was incredible, and they seemed to strain their
throats in emulation of each other.  This wild melody was
infinitely superior to any that we had ever heard of the same
kind; it seemed to be like small bells most exquisitely tuned,
and perhaps the distance, and the water between, might be no
small advantage to the sound.  Upon enquiry we were informed
that the birds here always began to sing about two hours after
midnight, and continuing their music till sunrise were, like
our nightingales, silent the rest of the day."

[This celebrated descriptive passage by Dr. Hawkesworth is
based upon the following original from 'Banks's Journal,' which
now, after an interval of 122 years, has just been published in
London, edited by Sir J. D. Hooker.]

1770.  J. Banks, 'Journal,' Jan. 17 (edition 1896):

"I was awakened by the singing of the birds ashore, from whence
we are distant not a quarter of a mile.  Their numbers were
certainly very great.  They seemed to strain their throats with
emulation, and made, perhaps, the most melodious wild music I
have ever heard, almost imitating small bells, but with the
most tunable silver sound imaginable, to which, maybe, the
distance was no small addition.  On inquiring of our people, I
was told that they had observed them ever since we had been
here, and that they began to sing about one or two in the
morning, and continue till sunrise, after which they are silent
all day, like our nightingales."

1802.  G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,'
c. viii. p. 84:

"The cry of the bell-bird seems to be unknown here."

1827.  Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean
Society,' vol. xv. p. 319:

"Mr. Caley thus observes on this bird: 'Dell-bird or Bell-bird.
So called by the colonists.  It is an inhabitant of bushes,
where its disagreeable noise (disagreeable at least to me) [but
not to the poets] may be continually heard; but nowhere more so
than on going up the harbour to Paramatta, when a little above
the Flats.'"

1835.  T. B. Wilson, 'Voyage Round the World,' p. 259:

"During the night, the bell bird supplied, to us, the place of
the wakeful nightingale . . . a pleasing surprise, as we had
hitherto supposed that the birds in New Holland were not formed
for song."

1839.  E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' p. 23:

"Every bough seemed to throng with feathered musicians: the
melodious chimes of the bell-bird were specially distinct."

1845.  R. Howitt, 'Australia,' p. 102:

"Look at the bell-bird's nest, admire the two spotted salmon
coloured eggs."

Ibid. ('Verses written whilst we lived in tents'), p. 171:

"Through the Eucalyptus shade,
Pleased could watch the bell-bird's flutter,
Blending with soft voice of waters
The delicious tones they utter."

1846.  Lady Martin, 'Bush journey, 1846, Our Maoris,' p. 93:

"We did hear the birds next morning as Captain Cook had
described --first the bell-bird gave its clear, full note, and
then came such a jargoning as made one's heart glad."

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. ii. pl. 81:

"Oreoica gutturalis, Gould.  Crested Oreoica.
Bell-bird, Colonists of Swan River [Western
Australia]. . .  I find the following remarks in my note-book--
'Note, a very peculiar piping whistle, sounding like
weet-weet-weet-weet-oo, the last syllable fully drawn
out and very melodious. . . .  In Western Australia, where the
real Bell-bird is never found, this species has had that
appellation given to it,--a term which must appear ill-applied
to those who have heard the note of the true Bell-bird of the
brushes of New South Wales, whose tinkling sound so nearly
resembles that of a distant sheep-bell as occasionally to
deceive the ears of a practised shepherd."

1866.  Lady Barker, 'Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 93:

"Every now and then we stood, by common consent, silent and
almost breathless, to listen to the bell-bird, a dingy little
fellow, nearly as large as a thrush with the plumage of a
chaffinch, but with such a note!  How can I make you hear its
wild, sweet, plaintive tone, as a little girl of the party said
'just as if it had a bell in its throat;' but indeed it would
require a whole peal of silver bells to ring such an exquisite

1868.  F. Napier Broome, 'Canterbury Rhymes,' second edition, p. 108:

"Where the bell-bird sets solitudes ringing,
Many times I have heard and thrown down
My lyre in despair of all singing."

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 21:

"Listen to the bell-bird.  Ping, ping, sounds through the vast
hushed temple of nature."

1883.  G. W. Rusden, 'History of Australia,' vol. i. p. 81:

"The bell-bird, with metallic but mellow pipe, warns the
wanderer that he is near water in some sequestered nook."

1886.  H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 8:

"And softer than slumber and sweeter than singing,
The notes of the bell-bird are running and ringing."

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 85:

"Anthornis melanura.  Chatham Island Bell-bird
(A. Melanocephala), the Bell-bird--so-called from the
fanciful resemblance of one of its notes to the distant tolling
of a bell."

1889.  Prof. Parker, 'Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,' p. 119:

"Bell-bird, Korimako,or Makomako (Anthornis melanura),
is still common in many parts of the South Island--e.g. in the
neighbourhood of Dunedin; but has almost disappeared from the
North Island.  Its song is remarkably fine."

1893.  W. P. Reeves, 'The Passing of the Forest,' 'Review of
Reviews,' Feb. 1893, p. 45:

"Gone are the forest birds, arboreal things,
Eaters of honey, honey-sweet in song;
The tui, and the bell-bird--he who sings
That brief rich music one would fain prolong.'

1896.  G. A. Keartland, 'Horne Expedition in Central
Australia,' Part II., Zoology, Aves, p. 74:

"In the north they [Oreoica] are frequently called
'Bell-birds,' but bear no resemblance to Manorhina
melanophrys in plumage, shape, or note.  The Oreoica is
such an accomplished ventriloquist that it is difficult to

Bell-bottomed, adj. a particular fashion of
trouser affected by the larrikin (q.v.).

1891.  'The Argus,' Dec. 5, p. 13, col. 2:

"Can it be that the pernicious influence of the House is
gradually tingeing the high priests of the bell-bottomed
ballottee with conservatism!"

Bell-Frog, Golden, n. See Golden Bell-Frog.

Bell-topper, n. The ordinary Australian name
for the tall silk-hat.

1860.  W. Kelly, 'Life in Victoria,' p. 268 [Footnote]:

"Bell-topper was the derisive name given by diggers to old
style hat, supposed to indicate the dandy swell."

Benjamin, n. a husband, in Australian

1870.  Chas. H. Allen, 'A Visit to Queensland and her Goldfields,'
p. 182:

"There are certain native terms that are used by the whites
also as a kind of colonial slang, such as 'yabber,' to talk;
'budgeree,' good; 'bale,' no; 'yan,' to go; 'cabon,' much; and
so on.

"With the black people a husband is now called a 'benjamin,'
probably because they have no word to their own language to
express this relationship."

Benjamin-Tree, n. also called Weeping
Fig in Queensland, Ficus benjaminea, Linn.,
N.O. Urticaceae.

Bent-grass.  n. See Grass.

1835.  Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 65:

"Agrostis virginica.  Virginian Agrostis, or Bent-grass.
. . .  Many species of this genus go under the general name of
Bent-grass.  Their roots spread along among light and sandy
soil in which they generally grow with joints like the Squitch
or Couch grass of England."

Berigora, n. aboriginal name for a bird of
genus Falco, from beri, claw, and gora,
long.  See Hawk

1827.  Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol.
xv. p. 185:

"The native name of this bird which we have adopted as its
specific name, is Berigora.  It is called by the
settlers Orange-speckled Hawk."

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' I. i.  pl. 11:

"Hieracidea berigora. Brown Hawk.  Berigora, Aborigines
of New South Wales.  Orange-speckled Hawk of the Colonists."

Berley, n. term used by Australian fishermen
for ground bait. It is probably of aboriginal origin.

1882.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods,
'Fish and Fisheries of New South Wales,' p. 75:

"With hook and line along the rocks of our sea-coast these
fishes are caught, but the bait should be crabs.  It is usual
to wrench legs and shell off the back, and cast them out for

1896.  'Badminton Magazine,' August, p. 201:

"I would signal to the sharks by opening and washing out a few
of the largest fish at the boat's head, sometimes adding bait
chopped small to serve for what Australian fishermen call

Betcherrygah, n. bird-name, Melopsittacus
undulatus, Shaw.  See Budgerigar.

Bettongia, n. the scientific name of the genus
of Prehensile-tailed Kangaroo-Rats, whose aboriginal name
is Bettong.  They are the only ground-dwelling
marsupials with prehensile tails, which they use for carrying
bunches of grasses and sticks.  See Kangaroo-Rat.

Biddy-biddy, or Biddybid, n. a
corruption of Maori name piripiri.  It is a kind of bur.

1880.  T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open, 'New Zealand Country Journal,'
vol. xii. p. 95:

"Piri-piri (acaena sanguisorbe) by settlers has been
converted or corrupted into biddy-biddy; a verb has been formed
on it, which is in very constant use for a good part of the
year at least.  To biddy, is to rid one of burrs, as 'I'll just
biddy my clothes before I come in.'  Small birds are
occasionally found in a wretched state of discomfort in which
they appear a moving mass of burrs.  Parroquets, pipets, and
the little white-eyes, have been found victims suffering from
these tenacious burrs of the piri-piri, just moving little
brown balls unable to fly till picked up and released from
their bonds."

1896.  'Otago Witness,' Jan. 23, vol. ii. p. 36:

"Yes, biddybids detract very materially from the value of the
wool, and the plant should not be allowed to seed where sheep
are depastured.  They are not quite so bad as the Bathurst
burr, but they are certainly in the same category."

Biddy, v. See Biddy-biddy, n.

Bidgee Widgee, n. name given to a Tasmanian
Bur (q.v.).

Bidyan Ruffe, n. a fresh-water fish of New
South Wales, Therapon richardsonii, Castln., family
Percidae.  Mr. J. Douglas Ogilby, Assistant Zoologist at
the Australian Museum, Sydney, says in a letter "The Bidyan
Ruffe of Sir Thomas Mitchell is our Therapon ellipticus,
Richards (T. richardsonii, Castln.).  Found in all the
rivers of the Murray system, and called Kooberry by the
natives."  It is also called the Silver Perch and
sometimes Bream.

1838.  T. L. Mitchell, 'Three Expeditions,' vol. i. p. 95 [Note]:

"Bidyan is the aboriginal name."

Ibid. vol. i. p. 135:

"Abundance of that which the men commonly called bream
(Cernua bidyana), a very coarse but firm fish, which
makes a groaning noise when taken out of the water."

Big-head, n. a fish.  The name is used locally
for various fishes; in Australia it is Eleotris
nudiceps, Castln., family Gobiidae, a river fish.
Of the genus Eleotris, Guenther says that as regards
form they repeat almost all the modifications observed among
the Gobies, from which they differ only in having the ventral
fins non-coalescent.  See Bull-head (2).

Billabong, n. an effluent from a river,
returning to it, or often ending in the sand, in some cases
running only in flood time.

In the Wiradhuri dialect of the centre of New South Wales, East
coast, billa means a river and bung dead.  See
Bung.  Billa is also a river in some Queensland
dialects, and thus forms part of the name of the river
Belyando.  In the Moreton Bay dialect it occurs in the form
pill , and in the sense of 'tidal creek.'  In the
'Western Australian Almanack' for 1842, quoted in J. Fraser's
'Australian Language,' 1892, Appendix, p. 50, Bilo is
given for River.

 Billabong is often regarded as a synonym for
Anabranch (q.v.); but there is a distinction.  From the
original idea, the Anabranch implies rejoining the
river; whilst the Billabong implies continued separation
from it; though what are called Billabongs often do

1862.  W. Landsborough, 'Exploration of Australia,' p. 30:

"A dried-up tributary of the Gregory, which I named the

[Footnote]: "In the south, such a creek as the Macadam is
termed a billy-bonn [sic], from the circumstance of the
water carrier returning from it with his pitcher (billy)
empty (bong, literally dead)."

1865.  W. Howitt, 'Discovery in Australia, vol. i. p. 298:

"What the Major calls, after the learned nomenclature of
Colonel Jackson, in the 'Journal of the Geographical Society,'
anabranches, but which the natives call billibongs, channels
coming out of a stream and returning into it again."

1880.  P. J. Holdsworth, 'Station Hunting on the Warrego:'

"In yon great range may huddle billabongs."

1888.  D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 25:

"What a number of swallows skim about the 'billabongs' along
the rivers in this semi-tropical region."

1893.  'The Argus,' April 8, p. 4, col. 1:

"Let's make a start at once, d'ye hear; I want to get over to
the billabong by sunrise."

Billet, n. an appointment, a position; a very
common expression in Australia, but not confined to Australia;
adapted from the meaning, "an official order requiring the
person to whom it is addressed to provide board and lodging for
the soldier bearing it." ('O.E.D.')

1890.  E. W. Hornung, 'A Bride from the Bush,' p. 267:

"If ever she went back to Australia, she'd remember my young
man, and get him a good billet."

Billy, n. a tin pot used as a bushman's kettle.
The word comes from the proper name, used as abbreviation for
William.  Compare the common uses of 'Jack,' 'Long Tom,'
'Spinning Jenny.'  It came into use about 1850.  It is not used
in the following.

1830.  R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 48:

"He then strikes a light and makes a fire to boil his kettle
and fry his bacon."

About 1850, the billy superseded the quart-pot (q.v.),
chiefly because of its top-handle and its lid.  Another
suggested derivation is that billy is shortened from
billycan, which is said to be bully-can (sc.
Fr. bouili).  In the early days "boeuf bouilli"
was a common label on tins of preserved meat in ship's stores.
These tins, called "bully-tins," were used by diggers and
others as the modern billy is (see quotation 1835).  A third
explanation gives as the origin the aboriginal word
billa (river or water).

1835.  T. B. Wilson, 'Voyage Round the World,' p. 238:

"An empty preserved meat-canister serving the double purpose of
tea-kettle and tea-pot."

[The word billy is not used, but its origin is

1857.  W. Howitt, 'Tallangetta,' vol. i. p. 202:

"A tin pan bearing the familiar name of a billy."

1871 J. J. Simpson, 'Recitations,' p. 5:

"He can't get a billy full for many a mile round."

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 41:

"A billy (that is a round tin pitcher with a lid) in his hand."

1889.  Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. iv. p. 69:

"A tin can, which the connoisseurs call for some reason or
other a 'billy.'"

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Squatter's Dream,' p. 24:

"A very black camp-kettle, or billy, of hot tea."

1892.  'The Australasian,' April 9, p. 707, col. 4:

"How we praised the simple supper
   (we prepared it each in turn),
And the tea! Ye gods! 'twas nectar.
   Yonder billy was our urn."

Billy-can, n. a variation of the above, more
used by townsmen than bushmen.

1892.  'The Australasian,' April 9, p. 707, col. 4:

"But I said, 'Dear friend and brother, yonder billy-can is
mine; You may confiscate the washing that is hanging on the
line, You may depredate the larder, take your choice of pot and
pan; But, I pray thee, kind sundowner, spare, oh spare, my

Bingy [g soft], n. stomach or belly.
Aboriginal.  The form at Botany Bay was bindi; at Jervis
Bay, binji.

1851.  Rev. David Mackenzie, 'Ten Years in Australia,' p. 140:

"They lay rolling themselves on the ground, heavily groaning in
pain, and with their hands rubbing their bellies, exclaiming,
'Cabonn buggel along bingee' (that is, I am very sick in the

Birch, n. In New Zealand, the trees called
birches are really beeches (q.v.), but the term birch is
used very vaguely; see quotation 1889. In Tasmania, the name is
applied to Dodonaea ericifolia, Don., N.O.

1853.  J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 125:

"White-birch of Nelson and Otago (from colour of bark),
Black-heart Birch of Wellington, Fagus solandri, Hook, a
lofty, beautiful ever-green tree, 100 feet high.  Black-birch
(Tawhai) of Auckland and Otago (from colour of bark), Red-birch
of Wellington and Nelson (from colour of timber), Fagus
fusca, N.O. Cupuliferae, a noble tree 60 to 90 feet high."

1889.  T. Kirk, 'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 91:

"Like all small-leaved forest trees it [Fagus solandri,
Hook. f.] is termed 'birch' by the bushman. . . .  It is not
too much to say that the blundering use of common names in
connection with the New Zealand beeches, when the timber has
been employed in bridges and constructive works, has caused
waste and loss to the value of many thousands of pounds."

Bird-catching Plant, n. a New Zealand shrub or
tree, Pisonia brunoniana, Endl.,
N.O. Nyctagineae; Maori name, Parapara.

1883.  R. H. Govett, 'Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,'
vol. xvi.  Art. xxviii. p. 364::

"A Bird-killing Tree. . . .  In a shrub growing in my father's
garden at New Plymouth, two Silver-eyes (Zosterops) and
an English Sparrow had been found with their wings so glued by
the sticky seed-vessels that they were unable to move, and
could only fly away after having been carefully washed."

1889.  T. Kirk, 'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 293:

"It is sometimes termed the 'birdcatching plant' by settlers
and bushmen . . .  It will always be a plant of special
interest, as small birds are often found captured by its viscid
fruits, to which their feathers become attached as effectively
as if they were glued."

Bird's-nest fungus, n. a small fungus of the
genus Cyathus, four species of which occur in

Bitter-Bark, n. an Australian tree,
Petalostigma quadrilo culare, F. v. M.,
N.O. Euphorbiacea.  Called also Crab-tree, Native
Quince, Emu apple, and Quinine-tree.  The bark
contains a powerful bitter essence, which is used medicinally.
The name is also applied to Tabernaemontana orientalis,
R. Br., N.O. Apocyneae, and to Alstonia
constricta, F. v. M., N.O. Aporynacece, which is also
called Feverbark.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 204:

"Bitter Bark.  This small tree has an intensely bitter bark,
and a decoction of it is sometimes sold as 'bitters."

Bitter-Leaf, n. a Tasmanian name for the
Native Hop. See Hops and Hopbush.

Bittern, n. bird-name well known in England.
The Australian species are--

The Bittern--

Botaurus paeciloptilus, Wagl.

Black B.--

Butoroides flavicollis, Lath.

Green B.--

B. javanica, Horsfield.

Little B.--

Ardetta pusilla, Vieill.

Blackberry, Native, or Bramble, n.
called also Raspberry.  Three species of the genus
Rubus occur in Queensland--Rubus moluccanus,
Linn., R. parvifolius, Linn., R.

rosifolius, Smith, N.O. Rosaceae See also

Blackbird, n. "A cant name for a captive negro,
or Polynesian, on board a slave or pirate ship." ('O.E.D.') But
no instance is given of its use for a negro.

1871.  'Narrative of the Voyage of the Brig Carl' [pamphlet]

"They were going to take a cruise round the islands
'black-bird' catching."

1872.  'The Argus,' Dec. 21, Supplement, p. 2, col. 1 [Chief
Justice's charge in the case of the 'Carl Outrage']:

"They were not going pearl-fishing but blackbird-hunting.  It
is said you should have evidence as to what blackbird-hunting
meant.  I think it is a grievous mistake to pretend to
ignorance of things passing before our eyes everyday.  We may
know the meaning of slang words, though we do not use them.  Is
there not a wide distinction between blackbird-hunting and a
legitimate labour-trade, if such a thing is to be carried on?
What did he allude to?  To get labourers honestly if they could,
but, if not, any way?"

1881.  'Chequered Career,' p.188 ('O.E.D.')

"The white men on board know that if once the 'blackbirds'
burst the hatches . . . they would soon master the ship."

Black-birding, n. kidnapping natives of South
Sea islands for service in Queensland plantations.

1871.  'Narrative of the Voyage of the Brig Carl' [pamphlet]:

"All the three methods, however, of obtaining labour in the
South Seas--that which was just and useful, that which was of
suspicious character, and that which was nothing, more or less,
than robbery and murder--were in use the same time, and all
three went by the same general slang term of 'blackbirding,' or
'blackbird catching.'"

1872.  Rev. H. S. Fagan, 'The Dark Blue' (Magazine), June,
p. 437:

"Well, you see how it is that C is not safe, even though he is
a missionary bishop, after A has made the name of missionary an
offence by his ingenious mode of 'black-birding.'"

1892.  Gilbert Parker, 'Round the Compass in Australia,' p. 78:

"In the early days of sugar-planting there may have been
black-birding, but it was confined to a very few, and it is
done away with altogether now."

Black-birding, adj.

1883.  'The Academy,' Sept. 8, p. 158 ('O.E.D.')

"[He] slays Bishop Patteson by way of reprisal for the
atrocities of some black-birding crew."

Blackboy, n. a grass-tree.  Name applied to all
species of the genus Xanthorroea, but especially to
X. preissii, Endl., N.O. Liliaceae.  Compare

1846.  J. L. Stokes, 'Discovery in Australia,' ii. 4, 132:

"Black Boy . . . gum on the spear, resin on the trunk."

Ibid. ii. 12, 280 [Note]

"These trees, called blackboys by the colonists, from the
resemblance they bear in the distance to natives."

1873.  A. Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 92:

"Gas admirably fitted for domestic purposes had been extracted
from the shrub called the 'blackboy.'  I regret to state that
the gas . . . is not . . . at present known in the colony."

1886.  R. Henty, 'Australiana,' p. 15:

"The common grass-tree or 'blackboy,' so called from its long
dark stem and dark seed head (when dry)."

1896.  'The Australasian,' Feb. 15, p. 313 (with an

"The Blackboy trees are a species of grass-tree or
Xanthorrhoea, exuding a gummy substance used by the
blacks for fastening glass and quartz-barbs to their spears.
Many years ago, when coal was scarce in Western Australia, an
enterprising firm . . . erected a gas-making plant, and
successfully lit their premises with gas made from the

1896.  Modern:

A story is told of a young lady saying to a naval officer:--
"I was this morning watching your ship coming into harbour,
and so intently that I rode over a young blackboy."  The officer
was shocked at her callousness in expressing no contrition.

Black-Bream, n. an Australian fish,
Chrysophrys australis, Gunth., family Sparidae,
or Sea-Breams; called in Tasmania Silver-Bream, the fish
there called Black-Bream being another of the
Sparidae, Girella tricuspidata, Cuv. and Val.
See Tarwhine and Black-fish.

1882.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Fish of New South Wales,' p. 42:

"Chrysophrys comprises the tarwhine and black-bream of
the Sydney fishermen. . . .  We have two species in
Australia. . . .  The black-bream, C. australis,
Gunth., and the tarwhine, C. sarba, Forsk. . . .
The Australian bream is as common on the south as on the east
coast.  It affords excellent sport to anglers in Victoria."

Blackbutt, n. Eucalyptus pilularis, Smith,
Victoria; E. regnans, F. v. M., New South Wales; a timber
tree, a gum.  Another name is Flintwood.  The lower part
of the trunk is black.

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 49:

"The range . . . having with the exception of the Blackbutt all
the trees . . . of Moreton Bay."

1863.  M. K. Beveridge, 'Gatherings among Gum-trees,' p. 86:

"'Tis there the 'blackbut' rears its head."

1894.  'Melbourne Museum Catalogue, Economic Woods,' p. 30:

"A tree of considerable size. . .  The bark smooth and falling
off in flakes upward, and on the branches."

1897.  'The Age,' Feb. 22, p. 5, col. 3:

"Mr. Richards stated that the New South Wales black butt and
tallow wood were the most durable and noiseless woods for
street-paving, as well as the best from a sanitary point of

Black-Cod, n. a New Zealand fish, Notothenia

Blackfellow, n. an aboriginal Australian.

1846.  J. L. Stokes, 'Discovery in Australia,' i.  4, 74:

"The native Miago . . . appeared delighted that these 'black
fellows,' as he calls them, have no throwing sticks."

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 9:

"The well-known tracks of blackfellows are everywhere visible."

1871.  Dingo, 'Australian Rhymes,' p. 14:

"Wurragaroo loved Wangaraday
 In a blackfellow's own peculiar way."

Black-Fern, n.  The Tasmanian species so called
is Athyrium australe, Presl., N.O. Polypodeae.

Black-fish, n. The name is given, especially in
Sydney, to the sea-fishes Girella simplex, Richards (see
Ludrick), and Girella tricuspidata, Cuv. and
Val.; also to a fresh-water fish all over Australia,
Gadopsis marmoratus, Richards.  G. marmoratus is
very common in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, and
parts of Tasmania.  There are local varieties.  It is much
esteemed as a food fish, but is, like all mud fishes, rich and
oily.  Girella belongs to the family Sparida, or
Sea-Breams, and Gadopsis to the Gadopsidae, a
family allied to that containing the Cod fishes.  The name was
also formerly applied to a whale.

1853.  C. St. Julian and E. K. Silvester, 'Productions,
Industry, and Resources of New South Wales,' p. 115:

"There is a species of whale called by those engaged in the
south sea fishing the Black-fish or Black-whale,
but known to the naturalist as the Southern Rorqual, which the
whalemen usually avoid."

1888.  D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 100

"Nothing is better eating than a properly cooked black-fish.
The English trout are annihilating them, however."

Black-Line. See Black-War.

Black-Perch, n. a river fish of New South Wales.
Therapon niger, Castln., family Percidae.
A different fish from those to which the name is applied
elsewhere.  See Perch.

Black-and-white Ringed Snake.  See under Snake.

Black Rock-Cod, n.  an Australian fish, chiefly
of New South Wales, Serranus daemeli, Gunth.; a
different fish from the Rock-Cod of the northern
hemisphere.  The Serrani belong to the family Percidae,
and are commonly called "Sea-perches."

1882.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Fish of New South Wales,'
p. 33:

"The genus Serranus comprises most of the fishes known
as 'rock cod.'. . .  One only is sufficiently useful as an
article of food to merit notice, and that is the 'black rock
cod' (Serranus damelii, Guenther), without exception the
very best of all our fishes."

Black-Snake.  See under Snake.

Black-Swan. See Swan.

Black Thursday, the day of a Victorian conflagration,
which occurred on Feb. 6, 1851.  The thermometer was 112
degrees in the shade.  Ashes from the fire at Macedon, 46 miles
away, fell in Melbourne.  The scene forms the subject of the
celebrated picture entitled "Black Thursday," by William
Strutt, R.B.A.

1859.  Rev. J. D. Mereweather, 'Diary of a Working Clergyman in
Australia,' p. 81:

"Feb. 21 . . . Dreadful details are reaching us of the great
bush fires which took place at Port Phillip on the 6th of this
month . . . .  Already it would seem that the appellation of
'Black Thursday' has been given to the 6th February, 1851, for
it was on that day that the fires raged with the greatest

1889.  Rev. J. H. Zillman, 'Australian Life,' p. 39:

"The old colonists still repeat the most terrible stories of
Black Thursday, when the whole country seemed to be on fire.
The flames leaped from tree to tree, across creeks, hills, and
gullies, and swept everything away.  Teams of bullocks in the
yoke, mobs of cattle and horses, and even whole families of
human beings, in their bush-huts, were completely destroyed,
and the charred bones alone found after the wind and fire had

Black-Tracker, n. an aboriginal employed in
tracking criminals.

1867.  'Australia as it is,' pp. 88-9:

"The native police, or 'black trackers,' as they are sometimes
called, are a body of aborigines trained to act as policemen,
serving under a white commandant--a very clever expedient for
coping with the difficulty . . . of hunting down and discovering
murderous blacks, and others guilty of spearing cattle and
breaking into huts . . ."

1870.  'The Argus,' March 26, p. 5, col. 4:

"The troopers, with the assistance of two black trackers,
pursued the bushrangers . . ."

1870.  Ibid. April 13, p. 6, col. 7:

. . . two members of the police force and a black tracker . . .
called at Lima station . . ."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. xvii. p. 165:

"Get the black-trackers on the trail."

1893.  'The Argus,' April 8, p. 4, col. 3 .

"Only three weeks before he had waddied his gin to death for
answering questions put to her by a blacktracker, and now he
advanced to Charlie . . . and said,. . .  'What for you come alonga
black fella camp?'"

1896.  'The Argus,' March 30, p. 6, col. 9:

"About one hundred and fifty horsemen have been out to-day in
addition to the local police.  The black-trackers arrived by
the train last night, and commenced work this morning."

Black-Trevally.  See Trevally.

Black-War, or Black-Line, a military
operation planned in 1830 by Governor Arthur for the capture
of the Tasmanian aborigines.  A levy en masse of the
colonists was ordered.  About 5000 men formed the "black line,"
which advanced across the island from north to south-east, with
the object of driving the tribes into Tasman's Peninsula.  The
operation proved a complete failure, two blacks only being
captured at a cost to the Government of L 30,000.

1835.  H. Melville, 'History of Van Diemen's Land,' p. 103:

"The parties forming the 'black line,' composed, as they were,
of a curious melange of masters and servants, took their
respective stations at the appointed time.  As the several
parties advanced, the individuals along the line came closer
and closer together --the plan was to keep on advancing slowly
towards a certain peninsula, and thus frighten the Aborigines
before them, and hem them in."

1852.  J. West, 'History of Tasmania,' vol, ii. p. 54:

"Thus closed the Black War.  This campaign of a month supplied
many adventures and many an amusing tale, and, notwithstanding
the gravity of his Excellency, much fun and folly . . . .  Five
thousand men had taken the field.  Nearly L 30,000 had been
expended, and probably not much less in time and outlay by the
settlers, and two persons only were captured."

Black Wednesday, n. a political phrase for a
day in Victoria (Jan. 9, 1878), when the Government without
notice dismissed many Civil Servants, including heads of
departments, County Court judges and police magistrates, on the
ground that the Legislative Council had not voted the money for
their salaries.

1878.  'Melbourne Punch,' May 16, vol. xlvi. p. 195 [Title of

"In Memoriam.  Black Wednesday, 9th January 1878."

1896.  'The Argus,' [Sydney telegram] Aug. 18, p. 6, col. 4:

"The times in the public service at present reminded him of
Black Wednesday in Victoria, which he went through.  That
caused about a dozen suicides among public servants.  Here it
had not done so yet, but there was not a head of a department
who did not now shake in his shoes."

Blackwood, n. an Australian timber, Acacia
melanoxylon, R. Br.; often called Lightwood; it is
dark in colour but light in weight.

1828.  'Report of Van Diemen's Land Company,' Bischoff, 'Van
Diemen's Land, 1832,' p. 118

"Without a tree except a few stumps of blackwood."

1884.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' p. 21:

"Grassy slopes thickly timbered with handsome Blackwood trees."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 359:

"Called 'Blackwood' on account of the very dark colour of the
mature wood."

1894.  'Melbourne Museum Catalogue, Economic Woods,' p. 4:

"Blackwood, Lightwood--rather frequent on many rich river-flats
. . .  .It is very close-grained and heavy, and is useful for
all purposes where strength and flexibility are required."

Bladder Saltbush, n. a Queensland shrub,
Atriplex vesicarium, Heward, N.O. Salsolaceae.
The Latin and vernacular names both refer to "the bladdery
appendage to fruiting perianth."  (Bailey.) See

Blandfordia, n. the scientific name of the
Gordon-Lily (see under Lily).  The plant was
named after George, Marquis of Blandford, son of the second
Duke of Marlborough.  The Tasmanian aboriginals called the
plant Remine, which name has been given to a small port
where it grows in profusion on the west coast.

Bleeding-Heart, n. another name for the
Kennedya (q.v.).

1896.  'The Melburnian,' Aug. 28, p. 53:

"The trailing scarlet kennedyas, aptly called the 'bleeding-
heart' or 'coral-pea,' brighten the greyness of the sandy
peaty wastes."

Blight.  See Sandy-blight.

Blight-bird, n. a bird-name in New Zealand for
the Zosterops (q.v.).  Called also Silver-eye
(q.v.), Wax-eye, and White-eye (q.v.).  It is
called Blight-bird because it eats the blight on trees.

1882.  T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 130:

"The white-eye or blight-bird, with cheerful note, in crowded
flocks, sweeps over the face of the country, and in its
progress clears away multitudes of small insect pests."

1885.  A. Hamilton, 'Native Birds of Petane, Hawke's Bay,'
'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,' vol. xviii. p. 125:

"Zosterops lateralis, white-eye, blight-bird.  One of
our best friends, and abundant in all parts of the district."

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' (2nd ed.)
      vol. i. p. 82:

"By the settlers it has been variously designated as Ring-eye,
Wax-eye, White-eye, or Silver-eye, in allusion to the beautiful
circlet of satiny-white feathers which surrounds the eyes; and
quite as commonly the 'Blightbird' or 'Winter-migrant.' . . .
It feeds on that disgusting little aphis known as American
blight, which so rapidly covers with a fatal cloak of white the
stems and branches of our best apple-trees; it clears our early
cabbages of a pestilent little insect, that left unchecked
would utterly destroy the crop; it visits our gardens and
devours another swarming parasite that covers our roses."

Blind Shark, or Sand Shark,
n. i.q. Shovel-nose (q.v.).

1882.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods 'Fish and Fisheries of New
South Wales, p. 97:

"Rhinobatus granulatus or shovel-nose, which is properly
speaking a Ray, is called here the blind or sand shark, though,
as Mr.  Hill remarks, it is not blind.  He says 'that it
attains the length of from 6 to 7 feet, and is also harmless,
armed only with teeth resembling small white beads secured
closely upon a cord; it however can see tolerably well, and
searches on sandy patches for crustaceae and small shell fish.'"

1886.  J. Douglas-Ogilby, 'Catalogue of the Fishes of New South
Wales,' p. 5:

"Rhinobatus Granulatus . . . I have not seen a New South Wales
example of this fish, which appears to have been confounded
with the following by writers on the Australian fauna.
Rhinobatus Bongainvillei, Muell and Heule,
Habitat Port Jackson. Shovel-nosed Ray of Sydney

Blind-your-Eyes, n. another name for the
Milky Mangrove.  See Mangrove.

doing the block, v. lounging in the
fashionable promenade.  In Melbourne, it is Collins Street,
between Elizabeth and Swanston Streets.  In Sydney, "The Block"
is that portion of the city bounded by King, George, Hunter,
and Pitt Streets.  It is now really two blocks, but was all in
one till the Government purchased the land for the present Post
Office, and then opened a new street from George to Pitt
Street.  Since then the Government, having purchased more land,
has made the street much wider, and it is now called Martin's

1869.  Marcus Clarke, 'Peripatetic Philosopher,' (in an Essay on
'Doing the Block') (reprint), p. 13:

"If our Victorian youth showed their appreciation for domestic
virtues, Victorian womanhood would 'do the Block' less

1872.  'Glimpses of Life in Victoria by a Resident,' p. 349:

"A certain portion of Collins street, lined by the best
drapers' and jewellers' shops, with here and there a bank or
private office intervening, is known as 'the Block,' and is the
daily resort of the belles and beaux. . . ."

1875.  R. and F. Hill, 'What We Saw in Australia,' p. 267:

"To 'do the block' corresponds in Melbourne to driving in Hyde

1876.  Wm. Brackley Wildey, 'Australasia and the Oceanic Region,'
p. 234:

"The streets are thronged with handsome women, veritable
denizens of the soil, fashionably and really tastefully
attired, 'doing the block,' patrolling Collins-street, or
gracefully reclining in carriages. . . ."

1890.  Tasma, 'In her Earliest Youth,' p. 126:

"You just do as I tell you, and we'll go straight off to town
and 'do the block.'"

1894.  'The Herald' (Melbourne), Oct. 6, p. 6, col. 1:

"But the people doing the block this morning look very nice."

Block, on the.(1) On the promenade above referred to.

1896.  'The Argus,' July 17, p. 4. col. 7:

" We may slacken pace a little now and again, just as the busy
man, who generally walks quickly, has to go slowly in the crowd
on the Block."

(2) Term in mining, fully explained in 'The Miner's Right,'
chapters vii. and viii.

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'The Miner's Right,' p. 86:

"I declare the Liberator Lead to be 'on the block.'"

'Extract from Mining Regulation 22' (Ibid. p. 77):

"The ground shall be open for taking up claims in the block

Blood-bird, n. name given to the Sanguineous
Honey-eater.  See Honey-eater.

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl. 63:

"Myzomela sanguinolenta, Sanguineous Honey-eater.
Blood-bird of the Colonists of New South Wales."

Blood-sucker, n. popular name for certain
species of Lizards belonging to the genus Amphibolurus
(Grammatophora).  Especially applied to A. muricata,

1852.  Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 37:

"Another description of lizard is here vulgarly called the
'bloodsucker.' "

1890.  F. McCoy, 'Prodromus of the Natural History of Victoria,'
Dec. 12, pl. cxi.:

"Why the popular name of 'Bloodsucker' should be so universally
given to this harmless creature by the Colonists (except on the
locus a non lucendo principle) I cannot conceive."

1890.  A. H. S. Lucas, 'Handbook of the Australasian Association
for the Advancement of Science,' Melbourne, p. 70:

"Two species of 'blood sucker' so absurdly designated."

Blood-wood, or Blood-tree, n. a name
applied, with various epithets, to many of the Gum-trees
(q.v.), especially to--(1) Eucalyptus corymbosa, Smith,
sometimes called Rough-barked bloodwood; (2) E. eximia,
Schauer, Mountain or Yellow bloodwood; (3) Baloghia
lucida, Endl., N.O. Euphorbiaceae, called Brush
Bloodwood.  The sap is blood-red, running copiously when cut
across with a knife.

1827.  Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean
Society,' vol. xv. p. 271:

"The natives tell me it breeds in the winter in Mun'ning-trees
or Blood-trees of the colonists (a species of Eucalyptus)."

1847.  L.Leichhardt,' Overland Expedition,' p. 292:

"The bergue was covered with fine bloodwood trees,
stringy-bark, and box."

1892.  A. J. North, 'Proceedings of Linnaean Society,' New South
Wales, vol. vii. series 2, p. 396:

"I traced her to a termite nest in a bloodwood tree
(Eucalyptus corymbosa)."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' 448:

"It [E. eximia] is called 'bloodwood,' partly because
kino exudes in the concentric circles of the wood . . . partly
because its fruits are in shape very similar to those of
E. corymbosa."

Blow, n. stroke of the shears in sheep-shearing.

1890.  'The Argus,' September 20, p. 13, col. 7:

"The shearers must make their clip clean and thorough.  If it
be done so incompetently that a 'second blow' is needed, the
fleece is hacked."

Blow,/2/ n. braggadocio, boasting.

1890.  Lyth, 'Golden South,' viii. p. 71:

"Is there not very much that the Australian may well be proud
of, and may we not commend him for a spice of blow?"

1891.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Sydney-Side Saxon,' p. 77:

"He can walk as fast as some horses can trot, cut out any beast
that ever stood on a camp, and canter round a cheese-plate.
This was a bit of blow."

1893.  'The Australasian,' Aug. 12, p. 102, col. 1:

"Now Digby Holland will think it was mere Australian blow."

Blow, v. to boast; abbreviated from the phrase
"to blow your own trumpet."  The word is not Australian though
often so regarded.  It is common in Scotland and in the United

1873.  A. Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 387:

"The blast of the trumpet as heard in Victoria is louder than
all the blasts--and the Melbourne blast beats all the other
blowing of that proud colony.  My first, my constant, my
parting advice to my Australian cousins is contained in two
words, 'don't blow.'"

Blower, n. a boaster.  (See Blow, v.)

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood,' A Colonial Reformer,' p. 411:

"A regular Sydney man thinks all Victorians are blowers and

Blowing, verbal n. boasting.

1873.  A. Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 387:

"A fine art much cultivated in the colonies, for which the
colonial phrase of 'blowing' has been created."

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. ii. p. 9:

"Blowing (that is, talking loudly and boastingly on any and
every subject)."

1885.  R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 45:

"He was famous for 'blowing' in Australian parlance . . .
of his exploits."

Bluebell, n. The name is given in Tasmania
to the flower Wahlenbergia gracilis, De C., N.O.

Blueberry, n. i.q. Native Currant
(q.v.).  The name is also given to Dianella longifolia,
R. Br., N.O. Liliaceae.

Blueberry Ash, n. a Victorian tree,
Elaeocarpus holopetalus, F. v. M.

1894.  'Melbourne Museum Catalogue, Economic Woods,' p. 15:

"Blueberry Ash or Prickly Fig.  A noble tree, attaining a
height of 120 feet.  Wood pale, fine-grained; exquisite for
cabinet work."

Blue-bush, n. an Australian forage plant,
a kind of Salt-bush, Kochia pyrainidata, Benth,
N.O. Chenopodiaceae.

1876.  W. Harcus. 'South Australia,' p. 124:

"[The country] would do splendidly for sheep, being thickly
grassed with short fine grass, salt and blue bush, and geranium
and other herbs."

Blue-Cod, n. name given to a New Zealand fish,
Percis colias, family Trachinidae.  Called also
in New Zealand Rock-Cod (q.v.).  The fish is of a
different family from the Cod of the northern

Blue-creeper, n. name given to the creeper,
Comesperma volubile, Lab., N.O. Campanulaceae.

Blue-eye, n. a bird name.  The Blue faced
Honey-eater (q.v.).

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl. 68:

"Entomyza cyanotis, Swains.  Blue-faced Entomyza.
Blue-eye of the colonists."

Blue-fish, n. name given in Sydney to
Girella cyanea, of the family Sparidae, or
Sea-Breams.  It is different from the Blue-fish of the
American coasts, which is of the family Carangidae.

Blue-Groper, n. a fish of New South Wales and
Tasmania, Cossyphus gouldii, one of the Labridae
or Wrasses, often called Parrot-Fish in Australia.
Called also Blue-head in Tasmania.  Distinct from the
fish called the Groper (q.v).

Blue-gum, n.  See under Gum. It is an
increasing practice to make a single word of this compound, and
to pronounce it with accent on the first syllable, as
'wiseman,' 'goodman.'

Blue-head, n. Tasmanian name for the fish
called the Blue-Groper (q.v.)

Blue Lobelia, n.  The indigenous species in
Tasmania which receives this name is Lobelia gibbosa,
Lab., N.O. Campanulaceae.

Blue-pointer, n. a name given in New South
Wales to a species of Shark, Lamna glauca, Mull. and
Heule, family Lamnidae, which is not confined to

1882.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Fish of New South Wales,'
p. 95:

"On the appearance of a 'blue pointer' among boats fishing for
schnapper outside, the general cry is raised, 'Look out for the
blue pointer.' . . .  These are high swimming fishes, and may
be readily seen when about pushing their pursuits; the
beautiful azure tint of their back and sides, and independent
manner they have of swimming rapidly and high among the boats
in search of prey, are means of easy recognition, and they
often drive the fishermen away."

Bluestone, n. a kind of dark stone of which many
houses and public buildings are built.

1850.  'The Australasian' (Quarterly), Oct. [Footnote], p. 138:

"The ancient Roman ways were paved with polygonal blocks of a
stone not unlike the trap or bluestone around Melbourne."

1855.  R. Brough Smyth, 'Transactions of Philosophical Society,
Victoria,' vol. i. p. 25:

"The basalt or 'bluestone,' which is well adapted to structural
purposes, and generally obtains where durability is desired."

1883.  J. Hector, 'Handbook to New Zealand,' p. 62:

"Basalts, locally called 'bluestones,' occur of a quality
useful for road-metal, house-blocks, and ordinary rubble

1890.  'Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania,' p. xx.
[Letter from Mr. S. H. Wintle]:

"The newer basalts, which in Victoria have filled up so
extensively Miocene and Pliocene valleys, and river channels,
are chiefly vesicular Zeolitic dolerites and
anaemesites, the former being well represented by the
light-coloured Malmsbury 'bluestone' so extensively employed in
buildings in Melbourne."

Blue-tongued Lizard, n. name given to
Tiliqua nigroluteus, Gray, a common Australian and
Tasmanian lizard belonging to the family Scincidae.
The name is derived from its blue-coloured tongue, and on
account of its sluggish habits it is also often called the
Sleepy lizard.

1887.  F. McCoy, 'Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria,' Dec. 14,
pl. 131:

"Not uncommon about Melbourne, where it is generally called the
'Blue-tongued Lizard,' or 'Sleepy Lizard.'"

Blue-wing, n. a sportsman's name (as in England)
for the bird called the Shoveller (q.v.).

Bluey, n. (1) A blue blanket commonly used by
swagmen in Australia.  He wraps his bundle in it, and the whole
is called a Swag (q.v.).  To hump bluey means to
go on the tramp, carrying a swag on the back.

(2) In the wet wildernesses of Western Tasmania a rough shirt
or blouse is made of this material, and is worn over the coat
like an English smock-frock.  Sailors and fishermen in England
call it a "Baltic shirt."

1890.  'The Argus,' Aug. 16, p. 13, col. 2:

"We shall have to hump bluey again."

1891.  R. Wallace, 'Rural Economy and Agriculture of Australia
and New Zealand,' p. 73:

"'Humping bluey' is for a workman to walk in search of work."

1891.  W. Tilley, 'The Wild West of Tasmania,' p. 29:

"Leehan presents an animated scene . . . .  Heavily laden
drays, pack-horses and mules, form constant processions
journeying from Dundas or Trial; miners with their swags,
surveyors in their 'blueys' . . . all aid effectively in the

Board, n. term used by shearers.  See quotation.

1893.  'The Herald' (Melbourne), Dec. 23, p. 6, col. 1:

"'The board' is the technical name for the floor on which the
sheep are shorn."

With a full board, with a full complement of shearers.

1894.  'The Herald,' Oct. 6, p. 1. Col. 2:

"The secretary of the Pastoralists' Association . . . reports
that the following stations have started shearing with full

Boar-fish, n. a name applied in England to
various dissimilar fishes which have projecting snouts.
('Century.') In New Zealand it is given to Cyttus
australis, family Cyttidae, which is related to the
John Dory (q.v.).  This name is sometimes applied to it,
and it is also called Bastard Dory (q.v.).  In Melbourne
the Boar-fish is Histiopterus recurvirostris,
family Percidae, and Pentaceropsis
recurvirostris, family Pentacerotidae.
Mrs. Meredith, in 'Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' 1880 (pl. vi.),
figures Histiopterus recurvirostris with the vernacular
name of Pig-faced Lady.  It is a choice edible fish.

Boil down, v. to reduce a statement to its
simplest form; a constant term amongst pressmen.  Over the
reporters' table in the old 'Daily Telegraph' office
(Melbourne) there was a big placard with the words-"Boil it
down."  The phrase is in use in England.  'O.E.D.'  quotes
'Saturday Review,' 1880.  The metaphor is from the numerous
boiling-down establishments for rendering fat sheep into
tallow.  See quotation, 1878.

1878.  F. P. Labilliere, 'Early History of the Colony of
Victoria,' vol. ii. p. 330:

"The first step which turned the tide of ill-fortune was the
introduction of the system of boiling down sheep.  When stock
became almost worthless, it occurred to many people that, when
a fleece of wool was worth from half-a-crown to three shillings
in England, and a sheep's tallow three or four more, the value
of the animal in Australia ought to exceed eighteenpence or two
shillings.  Accordingly thousands of sheep were annually boiled
down after shearing . . . until . . . the gold discovery; and
then 'boiling down,' which had saved the country, had to be
given up. . . .  The Messrs. Learmonth at Buninyong . . . found
it answered their purpose to have a place of their own, instead
of sending their fat stock, as was generally done, to a public
'boiling down' establishment."

1895.  'The Argus,' Aug. 17, p. 8, col. 2:

"Boiled down, the matter comes to this."

Bonduc Nuts, n. a name in Australia for the
fruit of the widely distributed plant Caesalpina
bonducella, Flem., N.O. Leguminosae.  Called
Molucca Beans in Scotland and Nicker Nuts

Bonito, n. Sir Frederick McCoy says that the
Tunny, the same fish as the European species Thynnus
thynnus, family Scombridae, or Mackerels, is called
Bonito, erroneously, by the colonists and fishermen. The
true Bonito is Thynnus pelamys, Linn., though the
name is also applied to various other fishes in Europe, the
United States, and the West Indies.

Bony-Bream, i.q. Sardine (q.v.).

Boobook, n. an owl.  Ninox boobook (see
Owl); Athene boobook (Gould's 'Birds of
Australia,' vol.i. pl. 32)."  From cry or note of bird.  In the
Mukthang language of Central Gippsland, BawBaw, the mountain in
Gippsland, is this word as heard by the English ear."
(A. W. Howitt.)  In South Australia the word is used for a

1827.  Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean
Society,' vol. xv. p. 188:

"The native name of this bird, as Mr. Caley informs us, is
Buck'buck.  It may be heard nearly every night during winter,
uttering a cry, corresponding with that word. . . .The lower
order of the settlers in New South Wales are led away by the
idea that everything is the reverse in that country to what it
is in England : and the cuckoo, as they call this bird, singing
by night, is one of the instances which they point out."

1894.  'The Argus,' June 23, p. 11, col. 4:

"In most cases--it may not be in all--the familiar call, which
is supposed to sound like 'More-pork,' is not the mopoke (or
podargus) at all, but the hooting of a little rusty red
feather-legged owl, known as the Boobook.  Its double note is
the opposite of the curlew, since the first syllable is dwelt
upon and the second sharp.  An Englishman hearing it for the
first time, and not being told that the bird was a 'more-pork,'
would call it a night cuckoo."

Booby, n. English bird-name.  Used in Australia
for the Brown-Gannet.  See Gannet.

Boobyalla, or Boobialla, n. the
aboriginal name for the tree Acacia longifolia, Willd.,
N.O. Leguminosae, also called Native Willow.  A
river in Tasmania bears the name of Boobyalla, the tree being
plentiful on the coast.

1835.  Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p63:

"Acacia sophora.  Sophora podded Acacia or Booby-aloe.
This species forms a large shrub on the sand-hills of the

1843.  J. Backhouse, 'Narrative of a Visit to the Australian
Colonies,' p. 59:

"The sandbanks at the mouth of Macquarie Harbour are covered
with Boobialla, a species of Acacia, the roots of which
run far in the sand."

1855.  J.  Milligan, 'Vocabulary of Dialects of the Aboriginal
Tribes of Tasmania,' 'Proceedings of the Royal Society of
Tasmania,' vol. iii. p. 238:

"Wattle tree--seaside. (Acacia Maritinia) Boobyallah."

1861.  Mrs. Meredith, 'Over the Straits,' vol. ii. p. 62:

"Boobyalla bushes lay within the dash of the ceaseless spray."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 359:

"Boobyalla . . . an excellent tree for binding coast-sands."

1894.  'Melbourne Museum Catalogue, Economic Woods,' p. 4:

"On the coast it is known by the native name, Boobyalla."

Boomah, or Boomer, n. name of a very
large kangaroo, Macropus giganteus, Shaw.  The spelling
"boomah" seems due to a supposed native origin.  See
quotation, 1872, the explanation in which is probably
erroneous.  It is really from the verb to boom, to rush with

1830.  Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 110:

"Snapped the boomah's haunches, and he turned round to offer

1833.  Lieut. Breton, 'Excursions in New South Wales, Western
Australia, and Van Diemen's Land,' p. 251:

"Boomah.  Implies a large kangaroo."

Ibid. p. 254:

"The flying gin (gin is the native word for woman or female)
is a boomah, and will leave behind every description of dog."

1852.  Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 244:

"The Great or Forest Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), the
'Forester' of the Colonists. . . .The oldest and heaviest male
of the herd was called a 'Boomer,' probably a native term."

1853.  J. West, 'History of Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 325:

"The forester (Macropus major, Shaw), the male being
known by the name of 'boomer,' and the young female by that of
'flying doe,' is the largest and only truly gregarious

1854.  G. H. Haydon, 'The Australian Emigrant,' p. 124:

"It was of an old man kangaroo,a regular boomer."

1855.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes,' p. 169:

"An officer from Van Diemen's Land told me that he had once
killed in that colony a kangaroo of such magnitude, that, being
a long way from home, he was unable, although on horseback, to
carry away any portion except the tail, which alone weighed
thirty pounds.  This species is called the boomah, and stands
about seven feet high."

1857.  W. Howitt, 'Tallangetta,' vol. i. p. 47:

"Sometimes starting a grand boomah, or great red kangaroo."

1862.  F. J. Jobson, 'Australia,' c. v. p. 124:

"Some of the male kangaroos, called 'boomers,' were described
as being four or five feet high."

1864.  J. Rogers, 'New Rush,' p. 55:

"The Boomer starts, and ponders
 What kind of beasts we be."

1867.  W. Richardson, 'Tasmanian Poems,' p. 26:

"The dogs gather round a 'boomer' they've got."

1872.  Mrs. E. Millett, 'An Australian Parsonage,' p. 195:

"A tall old Booma, as the natives call the male
kangaroo, can bring his head on a level with the face of a man
on horseback. . . .  A kangaroo's feet are, in fact, his
weapons of defence with which, when he is brought to bay, he
tears his antagonists the dogs most dreadfully, and instances
are not wanting of even men having been killed by a large old
male.  No doubt this peculiar method of disposing of his
enemies has earned him the name of Booma, which in the
native language signifies to strike."

1888.  D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 16:

"As he plunged into the yellow waters, the dogs were once more
by his side, and again the 'boomer' wheeled, and backed against
one of the big trees that stud these hollows."

Applied generally to something very large.

1885.  'Australasian Printers' Keepsake,' p. 76:

"When the shades of evening come,
 I choose a boomer of a gum."

Boomerang, n. a weapon of the Australian
aborigines, described in the quotations.  The origin of the
word is by no means certain.  One explanation is that of
Mr. Fraser in quotation, 1892.  There may perhaps be an
etymological connection with the name woomera (q.v.),
which is a different weapon, being a throwing stick, that is,
an instrument with which to throw spears, whilst the
boomerang is itself thrown; but the idea of throwing is
common to both.  In many parts the word is pronounced by the
blacks bummerang.  Others connect it with the aboriginal word
for "wind," which at Hunter River was burramaronga, also
boomori.  In New South Wales and South Queensland there
is a close correspondence between the terms for wind and

1827.  Captain P. P. King, 'Survey of Intertropical and West
Coasts of Australia,' vol. i. p. 355:

"Boomerang is the Port Jackson term for this weapon, and may
be retained for want of a more descriptive name."

1830.  R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 108:

"We gambolled all the way up, throwing small pieces of bark at
each other, after the manner of the native youths, who practise
this with a view of strengthening their arms, and fitting them
for hurling a curious weapon of war called a 'bomering,' which
is shaped thus:"

Ibid. p. 280:

"Around their loins was the opossum belt, in one side of which
they had placed their waddies, with which they meant to break
the heads of their opponents, and on the other was the
bomering, or stick, with which they threw their spears."

[This is a confusion between boomerang and
woomera (q.v.).  Perhaps Mr. Dawson wrote the second
word, and this is a misprint.]

1839.  Major T. L. 'Mitchell, 'Three Expeditions into the
Interior of Eastern Australia,' vol. ii. p. 348:

"The bommereng, or their usual missile, can be thrown by a
skilful hand, so as to rise upon the air, and thus to deviate
from the usual path of projectiles, its crooked course being,
nevertheless, equally under control."

1845.  R.  Howitt, 'Australia,' p. 186:

"The admirable dexterity with which they fling the bomerangs.
To our thinking the thrower was only sending the instrument
along the ground, when suddenly, after spinning along it a
little way, it sprung up into the air, performing a circle, its
crescent shape spinning into a ring, constantly spinning round
and round, until it came and fell at his feet."

1845.  O. Wendell Holmes, 'Modest Request' (in Poems):

"Like the strange missile which the Australian throws,
 Your verbal boomerang slaps you on the nose."

1849.  J. P. Townsend, 'Rambles in New South Wales,' p. 39:

"This instrument, called a bommereng, is made of wood, and is
much like the blade of a scimitar.  I believe it has been
introduced into England as a plaything for children."

1850.  J. B. Clutterbuck, 'Port Phillip in 1849,' p. 57:

"The boomerang is an extraordinary missile, formed in the shape
of a crescent, and when propelled at an object, apparently
point blank, it turns in any direction intended by the
thrower, so that it can actually be directed in this manner
against a person standing by his side.  The consummate art
visible in its unnatural-looking progression greatly depends
upon the manner in which it is made to rebound from the ground
when thrown."

1865.  W. Howitt, 'Discovery in Australia,' vol. ii. p. 107;

"He [Sir Thomas Mitchell] applied to the screw propeller the
revolving principle of the boomerang of the Australian

1867.  G. G. McCrae, 'Balladeadro,' p. 25:

"While circling thro' the air there sang
 The swift careering boomerang."

1888.  A. Seth, 'Encyclopaedia Britannica,' vol. xxiv. p. 530,
col. 2:

"He [Archbishop Whately] was an adept in various savage sports,
more especially in throwing the boomerang."

1889.  P. Beveridge, 'Aborigines of Victoria and Riverina,' p. 49:

"Boomerang: a thin piece of wood, having the shape of a
parabola, about eighteen inches or two feet long from point to
point, the curve being on the thin side.  Of the broad sides of
the missile one is slightly convex, the other is flat.  The
thin sides are worked down finely to blunt edges.  The peculiar
curve of the missile gives it the property of returning to the
feet of the thrower.  It is a dangerous instrument in a melee.
Of course the wood from which it is made is highly seasoned by
fire.  It is therefore nearly as hard as flint."

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 49:

[A full description of the use of the boomerang is given,
with illustrations.]

"The boomerang is a curved, somewhat flat, and slender weapon,
made from a hard and heavy wood, Brigalow (Acacia
excelsa), or Myall (Acacia pendula), but the best
one I found was made of a lighter kind of wood.  The curving of
the boomerang, which often approaches a right angle, must be
natural, and in the wood itself.  One side is perfectly flat,
and the other slightly rounded.  The ends are pointed."

1890.  G. W. Rusden, 'Proceedings, Royal Colonial Institute,' vol.
xxii. p. 62:

"You hardly ever see an allusion in the English Press to the
boomerang which does not refer to it as a weapon of war which
returns to the thrower, whereas the returning boomerang is not
a weapon of war, and the boomerang which is a weapon of war
does not return to the thrower.  There are many kinds of
boomerang--some for deadly strife, some for throwing at game,
and the returning boomerang, which is framed only for
amusement.  If a native had no other missile at hand, he would
dispatch it at a flight of ducks.  Its circular course,
however, makes it unfit for such a purpose, and there is a
special boomerang made for throwing at birds.  The latter keeps
a straight course, and a native could throw it more than two
hundred yards."

1892.  J. Fraser, 'The Aborigines of New South Wales,' p. 69:

"The name bumarang has always hitherto been written boomerang;
but, considered etymologically, that is wrong, for the root of
it is buma--strike, fight, kill; and -ara, -arai, -arang, are
all of them common formative terminations."

1893.  'The Argus,' July 1, p. 8, col. 7:

"'I tell you, sir,' said Mr. Healy at an Irish political
meeting, 'that there are at the present moment crystallizing
in this city precedents which will some day come home to
roost like a boomerang.'"

Boongary, n. the tree-kangaroo of North
Queensland, a marsupial tree-climber, about the size of a large
wallaby, Dendrolagus lumholtzii, Collett.  A native
name.  Bangaray = Red Kangaroo, in Governor Hunter's
vocabulary of the Port Jackson dialect (1793).

1890.  C.  Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 226:

"The tree-kangaroo is without comparison a better-proportioned
animal than the common kangaroo.  The fore-feet, which are
nearly as perfectly developed as the hind-feet, have large
crooked claws, while the hind-feet are somewhat like those of a
kangaroo, though not so powerful.  The sole of the foot is
somewhat broader and more elastic on account of a thick layer
of fat under the skin.  In soft ground its footprints are very
similar to those of a child.  The ears are small and erect, and
the tail is as long as the body of the animal.  The skin is
tough, and the fur is very strong and beautiful. . . .  Upon
the whole the boongary is the most beautiful mammal I have seen
in Australia.  It is a marsupial, and goes out only in the
night.  During the day it sleeps in the trees, and feeds on the

Bora, n. a rite amongst the aborigines of
eastern Australia; the ceremony of admitting a young black to
the rights of manhood.  Aboriginal word.

The word bur, given by Ridley, means not only girdle but
'circle.'  In the man-making ceremonies a large circle is made
on the ground, where the ceremonies take place.

1875.  W. Ridley, 'Kamilaroi,' p. 24:

"Girdle--bor or bur.  Hence Bora, the ceremony of initiation
into manhood, where the candidate is invested with the belt of

1885.  R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 24:

"The great mystery of the Blacks is the Bora--a ceremony at
which the young men found worthy receive the rank of warriors."

1892.  J. Fraser, 'Aborigines of New South Wales,' p. 6:

"These ceremonies are . . . called the Bora."

Borage, Native, n. a plant, Pollichia
zeylanica, F. v. M., N.O. Boragineae.  The so-called
Native Borage is not endemic to Australia.  In India it
is used as a cure for snake bites.

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 124:

"The native borage (Trichodesina zeylanica, R. Br.)."

Borak, n. aboriginal word of New South Wales,
meaning banter, chaff, fun at another's expense.  (See
quotation, 1845.)  Prior to 1870 the word was much in use on
the stations in New South Wales.  About 1870 Victorian farmers'
sons took shearing work there, and brought back the word with
them.  It was subsequently altered to barrack (q.v.).

1845.  C. Griffith, 'Present State and Prospects of the Port
Phillip District of New South Wales,' p. 162:

"The following is a specimen of such eloquence:--'You
pilmillally jumbuck, plenty sulky me, plenty boom, borack
gammon,' which, being interpreted, means--'If you steal my
sheep I shall be very angry, and will shoot you and no

1856.  W. W. Dobie, 'Recollections of a Visit to Port Phillip,
Australia, in 1852-55' p. 93:

". . . he gravely assured me that it was 'merrijig' (very
good), and that 'blackfellow doctor was far better than
whitefellow doctor.'  In proof of which he would say, 'Borak
you ever see black fellow with waddie (wooden) leg.
Bungalallee white fellow doctor cut him leg, borak black
fellow stupid like it that."

1885.  'Australasian Printers' Keepsake,' p. 75:

"On telling him my adventures, how Bob in my misery had 'poked
borack' at me. . . ."

1888.  Alfred J.Chandler,' Curley' in 'Australian Poets,'
1788-1888, ed. Sladen, p. 100:

"Here broke in Super Scotty, 'Stop
 Your borak, give the bloomin' man a show.'"

1893.  'The Argus,' Aug. 26, p. 13, col. 1:

"It does not do for a man whose mission it is to wear stuff and
a horse-hair wig to 'poke borak' at that venerable and
eminently respectable institution--the law, and still worse is
it for a practising barrister to actually set to work, even in
the most kindly spirit, to criticise the judges, before whom at
any moment he may be called upon to plead."

Borboby, n. i.q. Corrobbery (q.v.), but
the word is rare.

1890.  Carl Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals' [Title of illustration],
p. 122:

"A warrior in great excitement just before Borboby commences."

Boree, n. aboriginal name for the tree
Acacia pendula, A. Cunn., N.O. Leguminosae; a
variety of Myall, probably from Queensland aboriginal
word Booreah, fire.  It would be preferred by black or
white man as firewood over any other timber except
giddea (q.v.).

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 363:

"Weeping, or true myall.  It is sometimes called bastard gidgee
in Western New South Wales.  Called boree by aboriginals, and
often boree, or silver-leaf boree, by the colonists of Western
New South Wales.  Nilyah is another New South Wales name."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Squatter's Dream,' iii. p. 30:

"Myall and boree belts of timbers."

1893.  'The Times,' [Reprint] 'Letters from Queensland,' p. 60:

"The timber, of course, when seen close at hand is strange.
Boree and gidyah, coolibah and whitewood, brigelow, mulgah, and
myall are the unfamiliar names by which you learn to recognise
the commonest varieties."

Borer, n. name applied to an Australian insect.
See quotation.

1876.  W. Harcus, 'South Australia,' p. 110:

"There is another destructive insect called the 'borer,' not
met with near the sea-coast, but very active and mischievous
inland, its attacks being chiefly levelled against timber.
This creature is about the size of a large fly."

Boronia, n. scientific and vernacular name of a
genus of Australian plants, certain species of which are noted
for their peculiar fragrance.  The genus is especially
characteristic of West Australia, to which out of fifty-nine
species thirty-three are confined, while only five are known in
Tasmania.  Boronia belongs to the N.O. Rutaceae.

1835.  Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 72:

"Boronia variabilis.  A beautiful little heath-like
plant growing about the Cascade and other hills round about
Hobart Town. . . .  This genus is named after Borone, an
Italian servant of the late Dr.  Sibthorp, who perished at
Athens. . . .Another species found in Van Diemen's Land is the
Lemon plant of the mountains."

1896.  'The Melburnian,' vol. xxii., No. 3, August 28, p. 53:

"Winter does not last for ever, and now at each street corner
the scent of boronia and the odour of wattle-blossom greet us
from baskets of the flower-girl."

Boss-cockie, n. a slang name in the bush for a
farmer, larger than a Cockatoo (see Cockatoo, n. 2), who
employs other labour as well as working himself.

Botany Bay, n. lying to the south of the
entrance to Port Jackson, New South Wales, the destination of
the first two shiploads of convicts from England.  As a matter
of fact, the settlement at Botany Bay never existed.  The
"First Fleet," consisting of eleven sail under Governor
Phillip, arrived at Botany Bay on January 18, 1788.  The
Governor finding the place unsuitable for a settlement did not
land his people, but on January 25 removed the fleet to Port
Jackson.  On the next day (January 26) he landed his people at
Sydney Cove, and founded the city of Sydney.  The name,
however, citing to popular imagination, and was used sometimes
as the name of Australia.  Seventy years after Governor
Phillip, English schoolboys used "go to Botany Bay" as an
equivalent to "go to Bath."  Captain Cook and his naturalists,
Banks and Solander, landed at Botany Bay, and the name was
given (not at first, when the Bay was marked Stingray, but a
little later) from the large number of plants collected there.

1770.  'Captain Cook's Original Journal,' ed. by Wharton, 1893,
p. 247:

"6 May. . . .The great quantity of plants Mr. Banks and Dr.
Solander found in this place occasioned my giving it the Name
of Botany Bay."

1789.  [Title]:

"The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay," published in

1789.  Captain Watkin Tench [Title]: "A Narrative of the
Expedition to Botany Bay," published in London.

1793 G.  Barrington [Title]:

"Voyage to Botany Bay," [published in London.]

This was the popular book on the new settlement, the others
being high priced.  As Lowndes says, "A work of no authority,
but frequently printed."  Barrington, the pickpocket, whose
name it bears, had nothing to do with it.  It was pirated from
Phillip, Collins, etc.  It went through various editions and
enlargements to 1810 or later.  After 1795 the name was altered
to 'Voyage to New South Wales.'

1798.  D.  Collins, 'Account of the English Colony in New South
Wales,' vol. i. p. 502:

"The word 'Botany Bay' became a term of reproach that was
indiscriminately cast on every one who resided in New South

1840.  Thos. Hood, 'Tale of a Trumpet:

                      "The very next day
She heard from her husband at Botany Bay."

1851.  Rev. David Mackenzie, 'Ten Years in Australia,' p. 50:

". . . a pair of artificially black eyes being the Botany Bay
coat of arms."

1852.  J. West, 'History of Tasmania,' Vol. ii. p. 91:

"Some gentlemen, on a visit to a London theatre, to draw the
attention of their friends in an opposite box, called out
cooey; a voice in the gallery answered 'Botany Bay!'"

1894.  'Pall Mall Budget,' May 17, p. 20, col. 1:

"The owner of the ship was an ex-convict in Sydney--then called
Botany Bay--who had waxed wealthy on the profits of rum, and
the 'shangai-ing' of drugged sailors."

Botany-Bay Greens, n. a vegetable common to all
the colonies, Atriplex cinereum, Poir, N.O.

1810.  G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' p. 263:

"Botany Bay greens are abundant; they much resemble sage in
appearance; and are esteemed a very good dish by the

1834.  Ross, 'Van Diemen's Land Annual,' p. 134:

"I do not think it necessary to enter upon any description of
the Barilla shrubs (Atriplex halimus, Rhagodur
billardiera; and Salicornia arbuscula), which, with
some others, under the promiscuous name of Botany Bay greens,
were boiled and eaten along with some species of seaweed, by
the earliest settlers, when in a state of starvation."

1835.  Ibid. p. 69:

"Atriplex Halimus. Barrilla. Botany Bay Greens.  This is the
plant so common on the shores of Cape Barren and other islands
of the Straits, from which the alkaline salt is obtained and
brought up in boats to the soap manufactory at Hobart Town.  It
has been set down as the same plant that grows on the coast of
Spain and other parts of Europe."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 9:

"Once used as a pot-herb in New South Wales.  Leichhardt used a
species of Atriplex as a vegetable, and spoke very
highly of it."

Botany-Bay Oak, or Botany-Bay Wood,
n. a trade name in England for the timber of
Casuarina. See Beef-wood.

Bottle-brush, n. name given to various species
of Callistemon and Melaleuca,
N.O. Myrtaceae; the Purple Bottle-brush is
Melaleuca squamea, Lab. The name is also more rarely
given to species of Banksia, or Honeysuckle
(q.v.).  The name bottle-brush is from the resemblance
of the large handsome blossoms to the brush used to clean out

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 359:

"Red Bottle-brush. The flowers of some species of
Callistemon are like bottle-brushes in shape."

Bottle-Gourd, n. an Australian plant,
Lagenaria vulgaris, Ser., N.O. Cucurbitaceae.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 192:

"Bottle Gourd.  This plant, so plentiful along the tropical
coast of Queensland, is said to be a dangerous poison.  It is
said that some sailors were killed by drinking beer that had
been standing for some time in a bottle formed of one of these
fruits. (F. M. Bailey.)"

Bottle-Swallow, n. a popular name for the bird
Lagenoplastis ariel, otherwise called the Fairy
Martin.  See Martin.  The name refers to the bird's
peculiar retort shaped nest.  Lagenoplashs is from the
Greek lagaenos, a flagon, and plautaes, a modeller.
The nests are often constructed in clusters under rocks or the
eaves of buildings.  The bird is widely distributed in
Australia, and has occurred in Tasmania.

Bottle-tree, n. an Australian tree, various
species of Sterculia, i.q. Kurrajong (q.v.).  So
named from its appearance.  See quotations.

1846.  C. P. Hodgson, 'Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 264:

"The sterculia, or bottle-tree, is a very singular curiosity.
It generally varies in shape between a soda-water and port-wine
bottle, narrow at the basis, gradually widening at the middle,
and tapering towards the neck."

1848.  L. Leichhardt, Letter in 'Cooksland, by J. D. Lang,
p. 91:

"The most interesting tree of this Rosewood Brush is the true
bottle-tree, a strange-looking unseemly tree, which swells
slightly four to five feet high, and then tapers rapidly into a
small diameter; the foliage is thin, the crown scanty and
irregular, the leaves lanceolate, of a greyish green; the
height of the whole tree is about forty-five feet."

1865.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'History of the Discovery and
Exploration of Australia,' vol. i. p. 127:

"It was on this range (Lat. 26 degrees, 42') that Mitchell saw
the bottle-tree for the first time.  It grew like an enormous
pear-shaped turnip, with only a small portion of the root in
the ground."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 60:

"A 'Kurrajong.'  The 'Bottle-tree' of N.E. Australia, and also
called 'Gouty-stem,' on account of the extraordinary shape of
the trunk.  It is the 'Binkey' of the aboriginals.

"The stem abounds in a mucilaginous substance resembling pure
tragacanth, which is wholesome and nutritious, and is said to
be used as an article of food by the aborigines in cases of
extreme need.  A similar clear jelly is obtainable by pouring
boiling water on chips of the wood."

Bottom, n. in gold-mining, the old river-bed
upon which the wash-dirt rests, and upon which the richest
alluvial gold is found; sometimes called the gutter.

1887.  H. H. Hayter, 'Christmas Adventure,' p. 5:

"We reached the bottom, but did not find gold."

Bottom, v. to get to the bedrock, or clay,
below which it was useless to sink (gold-mining).

1858.  T.  McCombie, 'History of Victoria,' c. xv. p. 219:

"In their anxiety to bottom their claims, they not seldom threw
away the richest stuff."

Boundary-rider, n. a man who rides round the
fences of a station to see that they are in order.

1890.  E. W. Hornung, 'A Bride from the Bush,' p. 279:

"A boundary-rider is not a 'boss' in the Bush, but he is an
important personage in his way.  He sees that the sheep in his
paddock draw to the water, that there is water for them to draw
to, and that the fences and gates are in order.  He is paid
fairly, and has a fine, free, solitary life."

1892.  'Scribner's Magazine,' Feb., p. 147:

"The manager's lieutenants are the 'boundary-riders,' whose
duty it is to patrol the estate and keep him informed upon
every portion of it."

Bower-bird n. Australian bird.  See quotation,
1891.  See Ptilonorhynchinae.  The following are the

Fawn-breasted Bower-bird--
 Chlamydoderea cerviniventris, Gould.

Golden B.--

 Prionodura newtoniana, De Vis.

Great B.--

 Chlambydodera nuchalis, Gould ('Birds of Australia,'
vol.iv. pl. 9).

Queensland B.--

 C. orientalis, Gould.

Satin B.--

 Ptilonorhynchus violaceus, Vieillot.

Spotted B.--

 Chlamydodera maculata, Gould (ibid. pl. 8).

Yellow-spotted B.--

 C. gutttata, Gould.

And the Regent-bird (q.v.).

1845.  R. Howitt, 'Australia,' p. 140:

"The same person had the last season found, to his surprise,
the playhouse, or bower, of the Australian satin bower-bird."

1888.  D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 28:

"Any shred of glass or metal which arrests the eye or reflects
the rays of the sun is a gem in the bower-bird's collection,
which seems in a sense to parody the art decorations of a
modern home."

1891.  'Guide to Zoological Gardens, Melbourne':

"In one is a representation of the playing place of the spotted
bowerbird.  These bowers are quite independent of the birds'
nests, which are built on neighbouring trees.  They first
construct a covered passage or bower about three feet long, and
near it they place every white or bright object they can find,
such as the bleached bones of animals, pieces of white or
coloured stone, feathers, shells, etc., etc.; the feathers they
place on end.  When these curious playing places were first
discovered, they were thought to be made by the native women
for the amusement of their children.  More than a bushel of
small pieces of bleached bones or shells are often found at one
of these curious sporting places.  Sometimes a dozen or more
birds will assemble, and they delight in chasing each other
through the bower and playing about it."

Box, Box-tree, Box-gum,
n. The name is applied to many Eucalypts, and to
a few trees of the genus Tristania, as given below, all
of the N.O. Myrtaceae, chiefly from the qualities of
their timber, which more or less resembles "Boxwood."  Most of
these trees also bear other vernacular names, and the same tree
is further often described vernacularly as different kinds of
Box.  China-, Heath-, and Native-Box (q.v. below)
are of other Natural Orders and receive their names of
Box from other reasons.  The following table is compiled
from Maiden:--

Bastard Box--
 Eucalyptus goniocalyx, F. v. M.;
 E. largiflorens, F. v. M. (called also Cooburn);
 E. longifolia, Link.; E. microtheca, F. v. M.;
 E. polyanthema, F. v. M.; E. populifolia,
 Hook. (called also Bembil or Bimbil Box and Red Box);
 Tristania conferta, R. Br.;
 T. laurana, R. Br., all of the N.O. Myrtaceae.

Black Box--
 Eucalyptus obliqua, L'Herit.;
 E. largiflorens, F. v. M.;
 E. microtheca, F. v. M.

Brisbane Box---
 Tristania conferta, R. Br.

Broad-leaved Box--
 Eucalyptus acmenoides, Schau.

Brown Box--
 Eucalyptus polyanthema, Schau.

Brush Box--
 Tristania conferta, R. Br.

China Box-- Murraya exotica, Linn., N.O. Rutaceae
 (not a tree, but a perfume plant, which is found also in India
 and China).

Dwarf, or Flooded Box-- Eucalyptus microtheca,
 F. v. M. (Also called Swamp Gum, from its habit of growing on
 land inundated during flood time.  An aboriginal name for the
 same tree is goborro.)

Grey Box--
 Eucalyptus goniocalyx, F. v. M.;
 E. hemiphloia, F. v. M.;
 E. largiflorens, F. v. M.;
 E. polyanthema, Schau.;
 E. saligna, Smith.

Gum-topped Box--
 Eucalyptus hemiphloia, F. v. M.

Heath Box-- Alyxia buxifolia, R. Br.,
N.O. Apocyneae (called also Tonga-beanwood,
owing to its scent)

Iron-bark Box--
 Eucalyptus obliqua, L'Herit.

Narrow-leaved Box--
 Eucalyptus microtheca, F. v. M.

Native Box-- Bursaria spinosa, Cav.,
 N.O. Pittosporeae.  (Called also Box-thorn
 and Native-Olive.  It is not a timber-tree but a forage-
plant.   See quotation, 1889.)

Poplar Box--
 Eucalyptus populifolia, Hook.

Red Box--
 Eucalyptus populifolia, Hook.;
 E. polyanthema, Schau.;
conferta, R. Br.

Thozet's Box--
 Eucalyptus raveretiana, F. v. M.

White Box--
 Eucalyptus hemiphloia, F. v. M.;
 E. odorata, Behr.;
 E. populifolia, Hook.;
 Tristania conferta, R. Br.

Yellow Box--
 Eucalyptus hemiphloia, F. v. M.
 E. largiflorens, F. v. M.
 E. melliodora, A. Cunn.

1820.  John Oxley, 'Two Expeditions,' p. 126:

"The country continued open forest land for about three miles,
the cypress and the bastard-box being the prevailing timber;
of the former many were useful trees."

1838.  T. L. Mitchell, 'Three Expeditions, vol. ii. p. 55:

"The small kind of tree . . . which Mr. Oxley, I believe, terms
the dwarf-box, grows only on plains subject to inundation
. . . .  It may be observed, however, that all permanent waters
are invariably surrounded by the 'yarra.'  These peculiarities
are only ascertained after examining many a hopeless hollow,
where grew the 'goborro' only; and after I had found my sable
guides eagerly scanning the 'yarra' from afar, when in search
of water, and condemning any view of the 'goborro' as hopeless
during that dry season."

[See Yarra, a tree.]

1865.  W. Howitt, 'Discovery in Australia,' vol. ii. p. 6:

"Belts of open forest land, principally composed of the
box-tree of the colonists, a species of eucalyptus (in no
respect resembling the box of Europe)."

1877.  F. v. Mueller, 'Botanic Teachings,' p. 15:

"The Honey-Eucalypt (Eucalyptus melliodora).  This tree
passes by the very unapt vernacular name Yellow Box-tree,
though no portion of it is yellow, not even its wood, and
though the latter resembles the real boxwood in no way
whatever.  Its systematic specific name alludes to the odour of
its flowers, like that of honey, and as the blossoms exude much
nectar, like most eucalypts, sought by bees, it is proposed to
call it the small-leaved Honey-Eucalypt, but the Latin name
might as easily be conveyed to memory, with the advantage of
its being a universal one, understood and used by all nations."

1881.  A.C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 46:

"Poor country, covered with ti-tree, box, and iron-bark
saplings, with here and there heavy timber growing on
sour-looking ridges."

1888.  D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 7:

"The clumps of box-gums clinging together for sympathy."

1888.  J. Howlett Ross, 'Laureate of the Centaurs,' p. 41:

"Box shrubs which were not yet clothed with their creamy-white
plumes (so like the English meadowsweet)."

1889.  P. Beveridge, 'Aborigines of Victoria and Riverina,'
p. 59:

"These spears are principally made from a tall-growing box (one
of the eucalypts) which often attains to an altitude of over
100 feet; it is indigenous to the north-western portion of the
colony, and to Riverina; it has a fine wavy grain, consequently
easily worked when in a green state.  When well seasoned,
however, it is nearly as hard as ebony."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 121:

"Native box is greedily eaten by sheep, but its thorny
character preserves it from extinction upon sheep-runs: usually
a small scrub, in congenial localities it developes into a
small tree."

Box, n. See succeeding verb.

1872.  C. H. Eden, 'My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 67:

"Great care must of course be taken that no two flocks come
into collision, for a 'box,' as it is technically called,
causes an infinity of trouble, which is the reason that the
stations are so far apart."

Box, v. to mix together sheep that ought to be
kept separate apparently from "to box" in the sense of to shut
up in narrow limits ('O.E.D.' v. i. 5); then to shut up
together and so confuse the classification; then the sense of
shutting up is lost and that of confusion remains.

1881.  A.C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 253:

"All the mobs of different aged lambs which had been hitherto
kept apart were boxed up together."

1889.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Robbery under Arms,' p. 356:

"After they'd got out twenty or thirty they'd get boxed, like a
new hand counting sheep, and have to begin all over again."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'A Colonial Reformer,' p. 84:

"At nightfall, the fifteen flocks of sheep were all brought in,
and 'boxed,' or mixed together, to Ernest's astonishment."

1890.  Tasma, 'In her Earliest Youth,' p. 166:

"He must keep tally when the sheep are being counted or
draughted, I'm not sure which, and swear--no, he needn't
swear--when they get boxed."

1896.  A. B. Paterson, 'Man from Snowy River,' p. 54:

"But the travelling sheep and the Wilga sheep were boxed on the
   Old Man Plain.
 'Twas a full week's work ere they drafted out and hunted them off

Boxer, n. This word means in Australia the
stiff, low-crowned, felt hat, called a billy-cock or
bowler.  The silk-hat is called a bell-topper

1897.  'The Argus,' Jan. 9, p. 14, col. 2:

"And will you wear a boxer that is in a battered state ?
 I wonder, will you--now that you're a knight?"

Box-wood, n. a New Zealand wood, Olea
lanceolata, Hook., N.O. Jasminea (Maori name,
Maire).  Used by the 'Wellington Independent' (April 19,
1845) for woodcuts, and recommended as superior to box-wood for
the purpose.  See also Box, n.

Boyla, n. aboriginal word for a sorcerer.

1865.  W. Howitt, 'Discovery in Australia,' vol. i. p. 384:

"The absolute power of boylas or evil sorcerers . . . he
chanted gloomily:--

  Oh, wherefore would they eat the muscles?
  Now boylas storm and thunder make.
  Oh, wherefore would they eat the muscles ?"

Bramble, Native, n. See Blackberry.

Bread, Native, n. a kind of fungus.  "The
sclerotium of Polyporus mylitta, C. et M.  Until quite
recently the sclerotium was known, but not the fructification.
It was thought probable that its fruit would be ascomycetous,
and on the authority of Berkeley it was made the type of a
genus as Mylitta Australis.  It is found throughout
Eastern Australia and Tasmania.  The aborigines ate it, but to
the European palate it is tough and tasteless, and probably as
indigestible as leather."  (L. Rodway.)

1843.  James Backhouse, 'Narrative of a Visit to the Australian
Colonies,' p. 40:

"Natural Order.  Fungi. . . . Mylitta Australis.  Native
Bread.  This species of tuber is often found in the Colony,
attaining to the size of a child's head: its taste somewhat
resembles boiled rice.  Like the heart of the Tree-fern, and
the root of the Native Potato, cookery produces little change."

1848.  'Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van
Diemen's Land,' vol. i. p. 157:

"11th October, 1848 . . . Specimens of the fungus known
as 'native bread,' Mylitta Australis, lay upon the
table.  A member observed that this substance, grated and made
into a pudding with milk alone, had been found by him very
palatable.  Prepared in the same way, and combined with double
its weight of rice or sago, it has produced a very superior
dish.  It has also been eaten with approval in soup, after the
manner of truffle, to which it is nearly allied."

1857.  Dr. Milligan, in Bishop Nixon's 'Cruise of the Beacon,'
p. 27:

"But that which afforded the largest amount of solid and
substantial nutritious matter was the native bread, a
fungus growing in the ground, after the manner of the truffle,
and generally so near the roots of trees as to be reputed

1896.  'Hobart Mercury,' Oct.  30, p. 2, last col.:

"A large specimen of 'native bread,' weighing 12 lb., has been
unearthed on Crab Tree farm in the Huon district, by
Mr. A. Cooper.  It has been brought to town, and is being
examined with interest by many at the British Hotel.  It is one
of the fungi tribe that forms hard masses of stored food for
future use."

Breadfruit-tree, name given by the explorer Leichhardt
to the Queensland tree, Gardenia edulis, F. v. M.,
N.O. Rubiaceae.

Breakaway, n.(1) A bullock that leaves the

1893.  'The Argus,' April 29, p. 4, col. 4:

"The smartest stock horse that ever brought his rider up within
whip distance of a breakaway or dodged the horns of a sulky
beast, took the chance."

(2) The panic rush of sheep, cattle, or other animals at the
sight or smell of water.

1891:  "The Breakaway," title of picture by Tom Roberts at
Victorian Artists' Exhibition.

Bream, n. The name is applied in Australia to
various species of Chrysophrys, family Sparidae,
and to other fishes of different families.  The
Black-Bream (q.v.) is C. australis, Gunth.
The Bony-Bream is also called the Sardine (q.v.).
The Silver-Bream (q.v.) or White-Bream is
Gerres ovatus, Gunth., family Percidae.  The
Red-Bream is a Schnapper (q.v.) one year old.  The
popular pronunciation is Brim, and the fishes are all
different from the various fishes called Bream in the
northern hemisphere.  See also Tarwhine and

Brickfielder, n. (1) Originally a Sydney name
for a cold wind, blowing from the south and accompanied by
blinding clouds of dust; identical with the later name for the
wind, the Southerly Buster (q.v.).  The brickfields lay
to the south of Sydney, and when after a hot wind from the west
or north-west, the wind went round to the south, it was
accompanied by great clouds of dust, brought up from the
brickfields.  These brickfields have long been a thing of the
past, surviving only in "Brickfield Hill," the hilly part of
George Street, between the Cathedral and the Railway Station.
The name, as denoting a cold wind, is now almost obsolete, and
its meaning has been very curiously changed and extended to
other colonies to denote a very hot wind.  See below (Nos. 2
and 3), and the notes to the quotations.

1833.  Lieut. Breton, R.N., 'Excursions in New South Wales and
Van Diemen's Land,' p. 293:

"It sometimes happens that a change takes place from a hot wind
to a 'brickfielder,' on which occasions the thermometer has
been known to fall, within half an hour, upwards of fifty
degrees!  That is to say, from above 100 degrees to 50
degrees!  A brickfielder is a southerly wind, and it takes its
local name from the circumstances of its blowing over, and
bringing into town the flames [sic] of a large brick-field: it
is nearly as detestable as a hot wind."

[Lieut. Breton must have had a strong imagination.  The
brickfields, at that date, were a mile away from the town, and
the bringing in of their flames was an impossibility.
Perhaps, however, the word is a misprint for fumes; yet
even then this earliest quotation indicates part of the source
of the subsequent confusion of meaning.  The main
characteristic of the true brickfielder was neither
flames nor fumes,--and certainly not heat,--but
choking dust.]

1839.  W. H. Leigh, 'Reconnoitering Voyages, Travels, and
Adventures in the new Colony of South Australia,' etc., p. 184:

"Whirlwinds of sand come rushing upon the traveller, half
blinding and choking him,--a miniature sirocco, and decidedly
cousin-german to the delightful sandy puffs so frequent at Cape
Town.  The inhabitants call these miseries 'Brickfielders,' but
why they do so I am unable to divine; probably because they are
in their utmost vigour on a certain hill here, where bricks are

[This writer makes no allusion to the temperature of the wind,
whether hot or cold, but lays stress on its especial
characteristic, the dust.  His comparison with the sirocco
chiefly suggests the clouds of sand brought by that wind from
the Libyan Desert, with its accompanying thick haze and
darkness ('half blinding and choking'), rather than its
relaxing warmth.]

1844.  John Rae, 'Sydney Illustrated,' p. 26:

"The 'brickfielder' is merely a colonial name for a violent
gust of wind, which, succeeding a season of great heat, rushes
in to supply the vacuum and equalises the temperature of the
atmosphere; and when its baneful progress is marked, sweeping
over the city in thick clouds of brick-coloured dust (from the
brickfields), it is time for the citizens to close the doors
and windows of their dwellings, and for the sailor to take more
than half his canvas in, and prepare for a storm."

[Here the characteristic is again dust from the
brickfields, as the origin of the name, with cold as an

1844.  Mrs.Meredith, 'Notes and Sketches of New South Wales,'
p. 44:

"These dust winds are locally named 'brickfielders,' from the
direction in which they come" [i.e.  from neighbouring
sandhills, called the brickfields].

[Here dust is the only characteristic observed, with the
direction of the wind as the origin of its name.]

1845.  J. O. Balfour, 'Sketch of New South Wales,' p. 4:

"The greatest peculiarity in the climate is what is called by
colonists a brickfielder.  This wind has all the
characteristics of a sirocco in miniature . . . .  Returning
home, he discovers that the house is full of sand; that the
brickfielder has even insinuated itself between the leaves of
his books; at dinner he will probably find that his favourite
fish has been spoiled by the brickfielder.  Nor is this all;
for on retiring to rest he will find that the brickfielder has
intruded even within the precincts of his musquito curtains."

[Here again its dust is noted as the distinguishing
feature of the wind, just as sand is the distinguishing feature
of the 'sirocco' in the Libyan Desert, and precipitated
sand,--'blood rain' or 'red snow,'--a chief character of the
sirocco after it reaches Italy.]

1847.  Alex. Marjoribanks, 'Travels in New South Wales,' p. 61:

"The hot winds which resemble the siroccos in Sicily are,
however, a drawback . . . but they are almost invariably
succeeded by what is there called a 'brickfielder,' which is a
strong southerly wind, which soon cools the air, and greatly
reduces the temperature."

[Here the cold temperature of the brickfielder is described,
but not its dust, and the writer compares the hot wind
which precedes the brickfielder with the sirocco.  He in fact
thinks only of the heat of the sirocco, but the two preceding
writers are thinking of its sand, its thick haze, its quality
of blackness and its suffocating character,--all which
applied accurately to the true brickfielder.]

1853.  Rev. H. Berkeley Jones, 'Adventures in Australia in 1852
and 1853,' p. 228:

"After the languor, the lassitude, and enervation which some
persons experience during these hot blasts, comes the
'Brickfielder,' or southerly burster."

[Cold temperature noticed, but not dust.]

1853.  'Fraser's Magazine,' 48, p. 515:

"When the wind blows strongly from the southward, it is what
the Sydney people call a 'brickfielder'; that is, it carries
with it dense clouds of red dust or sand, like brick dust,
swept from the light soil which adjoins the town on that side,
and so thick that the houses and streets are actually hidden;
it is a darkness that may be felt."

[Here it is the dust, not the temperature, which
determines the name.]

(2) The very opposite to the original meaning,--a severe hot
wind.  In this inverted sense the word is now used, but not
frequently, in Melbourne and in Adelaide, and sometimes even in
Sydney, as the following quotations show.  It will be noted
that one of them (1886) observes the original prime
characteristic of the wind, its dust.

1861.  T. McCombie,' Australian Sketches,' p. 79:

"She passed a gang of convicts, toiling in a broiling

1862.  F. J. Jobson, 'Australia with Notes by the Way,' p. 155:

"The 'brickfielders' are usually followed, before the day
closes, with 'south-busters' [sic.]."

1886.  F. Cowan, 'Australia, a Charcoal Sketch':

"The Buster and Brickfielder: austral red-dust blizzard;
and red-hot Simoom."

This curious inversion of meaning (the change from cold to hot)
may be traced to several causes.  It may arise--

(a) From the name itself.  People in Melbourne and Adelaide,
catching at the word brickfielder as a name for a
dusty wind, and knowing nothing of the origin of the
name, would readily adapt it to their own severe hot north
winds, which raise clouds of dust all day, and are described
accurately as being 'like a blast from a furnace,' or 'the
breath of a brick-kiln.'  Even a younger generation in Sydney,
having received the word by colloquial tradition, losing its
origin, and knowing nothing of the old brickfields, might apply
the word to a hot blast in the same way.

(b) From the peculiar phenomenon.--A certain cyclonic change of
temperature is a special feature of the Australian coastal
districts.  A raging hot wind from the interior desert (north
wind in Melbourne and Adelaide, west wind in Sydney) will blow
for two or three days, raising clouds of dust; it will be
suddenly succeeded by a 'Southerly Buster' from the
ocean, the cloud of dust being greatest at the moment of
change, and the thermometer falling sometimes forty or fifty
degrees in a few minutes.  The Sydney word brickfielder
was assigned originally to the latter part--the dusty
cold change.  Later generations, losing the finer distinction,
applied the word to the whole dusty phenomenon,and ultimately
specialized it to denote not so much the extreme dustiness of
its later period as the more disagreeable extreme heat of its
earlier phase.

(c) From the apparent, though not real, confusion of terms, by
those who have described it as a 'sirocco.'--The word
sirocco (spelt earlier schirocco, and in Spanish
and other languages with the sh sound, not the s)
is the Italian equivalent of the Arabic root sharaga,
'it rose.'  The name of the wind, sirocco, alludes in
its original Arabic form to its rising, with its cloud of sand,
in the desert high-lands of North Africa.  True, it is defined
by Skeat as 'a hot wind,' but that is only a part of its
definition. Its marked characteristic is that it is
sand-laden, densely hazy and black, and therefore
'choking,' like the brickfielder.  The not unnatural
assumption that writers by comparing a brickfielder with
a sirocco, thereby imply that a brickfielder is a
hot wind, is thus disposed of by this characteristic, and by
the notes on the passages quoted.  They were dwelling only on
its choking dust, and its suffocating qualities,--'a
miniature sirocco.'  See the following quotations on this
character of the sirocco:--

1841.  'Penny Magazine,' Dec. 18, p. 494:

"The Islands of Italy, especially Sicily and Corfu, are
frequently visited by a wind of a remarkable character, to
which the name of sirocco, scirocco, or schirocco, has been
applied.  The thermometer rises to a great height, but the air
is generally thick and heavy . . . .  People confine themselves
within doors; the windows and doors are shut close, to prevent
as much as possible the external air from entering; . . . but a
few hours of the tramontane, or north wind which
generally succeeds it, soon braces them up again. [Compare this
whole phenomenon with (b) above.]  There are some peculiar
circumstances attending the wind. . . .  Dr. Benza, an Italian
physician, states:--'When the sirocco has been impetuous and
violent, and followed by a shower of rain, the rain has carried
with it to the ground an almost impalpable red micaceous sand,
which I have collected in large quantities more than once in
Sicily. . . .  When we direct our attention to the island of
Corfu, situated some distance eastward of Sicily, we find the
sirocco assuming a somewhat different character. . . .  The
more eastern sirocco might be called a refreshing breeze
[sic]. . . .  The genuine or black sirocco (as it is called)
blows from a point between south-east and south-south-east.'"

1889.  W. Ferrell, 'Treatise on Winds,' p. 336:

"The dust raised from the Sahara and carried northward by the
sirocco often falls over the countries north of the
Mediterranean as 'blood rain,' or as 'red snow,' the moisture
and the sand falling together. . . .The temperature never rises
above 95 degrees."

1889.  'The Century Dictionary,' s.v. Sirocco:

"(2) A hot, dry, dust-laden wind blowing from the highlands of
Africa to the coasts of Malta, Sicily and Naples. . . .  During
its prevalence the sky is covered with a dense haze."

(3) The illustrative quotations on brickfielder, up to
this point, have been in chronological consecutive order.  The
final three quotations below show that while the original true
definition and meaning, (1), are still not quite lost, yet
authoritative writers find it necessary to combat the modern
popular inversion, (2).

1863.  Frank Fowler, 'The Athenaeum,' Feb. 21, p. 264, col. 1:

"The 'brickfielder' is not the hot wind at all; it is but
another name for the cold wind, or southerly buster, which
follows the hot breeze, and which, blowing over an extensive
sweep of sandhills called the Brickfields, semi-circling
Sydney, carries a thick cloud of dust (or 'brickfielder')
across the city."

[The writer is accusing Dr. Jobson (see quotation 1862, above)
of plagiarism from his book 'Southern Lights and Shadows.']

1890.  Lyth, 'Golden South,' vol. ii. p. 11:

"A dust which covered and penetrated everything and everywhere.
This is generally known as a 'brickfielder.'"

1896.  'Three Essays on Australian Weather,' 'On Southerly
Buster,' by H. A. Hunt, p. 17:

"In the early days of Australian settlement, when the shores of
Port Jackson were occupied by a sparse population, and the
region beyond was unknown wilderness and desolation, a great
part of the Haymarket was occupied by the brickfields from
which Brickfield Hill takes its name.  When a 'Southerly
Burster' struck the infant city, its approach was always
heralded by a cloud of reddish dust from this locality, and in
consequence the phenomenon gained the local name of
'brickfielder.'  The brickfields have long since vanished, and
with them the name to which they gave rise, but the wind
continues to raise clouds of dust as of old under its modern
name of 'Southerly Burster."

Bricklow, n. obsolete form of Brigalow

Brigalow, n. and adj. Spellings various.
Native name, Buriargalah.  In the Namoi dialect in New
South Wales, Bri or Buri is the name for
Acacia pendula, Cunn.; Buriagal, relating to the
buri; Buriagalah == place of the buri tree.  Any
one of several species of Acacia, especially
A. harpophylla, F. v. M., H.O. Leguminosae.  J. H.
Maiden ('Useful Native Plants,' p. 356, 1889) gives its uses

"Wood brown, hard, heavy, and elastic; used by the natives for
spears, boomerangs, and clubs.  The wood splits freely, and is
used for fancy turnery.  Saplings used as stakes in vineyards
have lasted twenty years or more.  It is used for building
purposes, and has a strong odour of violets.'

1846.  L. Leichhardt, quoted by J. D. Lang, 'Cooksland,'
p. 312:

"Almost impassable bricklow scrub, so called from the bricklow
(a species of acacia)."

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 4:

"The Bricklow Acacia, which seems to be identical with the
Rosewood Acacia of Moreton Bay; the latter, however, is a fine
tree, 50 to 60 feet high, whereas the former is either a small
tree or a shrub.  I could not satisfactorily ascertain the
origin of the word Bricklow, but as it is well understood and
generally adopted by all the squatters between the Severn River
and the Boyne, I shall make use of the name.  Its long,
slightly falcate leaves, being of a silvery green colour, give
a peculiar character to the forest, where the tree
abounds."--[Footnote]: "Brigaloe Gould."

1862.  H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 79:

"Good-bye to the Barwan and brigalow scrubs."

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 190:

"Now they pass through a small patch of Brigalow scrub.  Some
one has split a piece from a trunk of a small tree.  What a
scent the dark-grained wood has!"

1889.  Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia;' vol. iv. p. 69:

"There exudes from the Brigalow a white gum, in outward
appearance like gum-arabic, and even clearer, but as a
'sticker' valueless, and as a 'chew-gum' disappointing."

1892.  Gilbert Parker, 'Round the Compass in Australia,' p. 23:

"The glare of a hard and pitiless sky overhead, the infinite
vista of saltbush, brigalow, stay-a-while, and mulga, the
creeks only stretches of stone, and no shelter from the
shadeless gums."

Brill, n. a small and very bony rhomboidal fish
of New Zealand, Pseudorhombus scaphus, family
Pleuronectidae.  The true Brill of Europe is
Rhombus levis.

Brisbane Daisy, n. See Daisy, Brisbane.

Bristle-bird, n. a name given to certain
Australian Reed-warblers.  They are--Sphenura
brachyptera, Latham; Long-tailed
B.--S. longirostris, Gould; Rufous-headed
B.--S. broadbentii, McCoy.  See Sphenura.

1827.  Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean Society,'
vol. xv. p. 232:

"He (Mr. Caley) calls it in his notes 'Bristle Bird.'"

Broad-leaf, n. a settlers' name for
Griselinia littoralis, Raoul; Maori name,

1879.  W. N. Blair, 'Building Materials of Otago,' p. 155:

"There are few trees in the [Otago] bush so conspicuous or so
well known as the broad-leaf. . . .  It grows to a height of
fifty or sixty feet, and a diameter of from three to six; the
bark is coarse and fibrous, and the leaves a beautiful deep
green of great brilliancy."

1879.  J. B. Armstrong, 'Transactions of New Zealand
Institute,' vol. xii. Art. 49, p. 328:

"The broadleaf (Griselinia littoralis) is abundant in
the district [of Banks' Peninsula], and produces a hard red
wood of a durable nature."

1882.  T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 103:

"The rough trunks and limbs of the broadleaf."

Broker, n. Australian slang for a man
completely ruined, stonebroke.

1891.   'The Australasian,' Nov. 21, p. 1014:

"We're nearly 'dead brokers,' as they say out here.  Let's
harness up Eclipse and go over to old Yamnibar."

Bronze-wing, n. a bird with a lustrous
shoulder, Phaps chalcoptera, Lath.  Called also
Bronze-wing Pigeon.

1790.  J. White, 'Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 145:

"One of the gold-winged pigeons, of which a plate is annexed.
[Under plate, Golden-winged Pigeon.]  This bird is a curious
and singular species remarkable for having most of the feathers
of the wing marked with a brilliant spot of golden yellow,
changing, in various reflections of light, to green and
copper-bronze, and when the wing is closed, forming two bars of
the same across it."

1832.  J. Bischoff, 'Van Diemen's Land,' vol. ii. p. 31:

"The pigeons are by far the most beautiful birds in the island;
they are called bronze-winged pigeons."

1857.  W. Howitt, 'Tallangetta,' vol. ii. p. 57:

"Mr. Fitzpatrick followed his kangaroo hounds, and shot his
emus, his wild turkeys, and his bronze-wings."

1865.  'Once a Week.' 'The Bulla-Bulla Bunyip.'

"Hours ago the bronze-wing pigeons had taken their evening
draught from the coffee-coloured water-hole beyond the
butcher's paddock, and then flown back into the bush to roost
on 'honeysuckle' and in heather."

1872.  C. H. Eden, 'My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 122:

"Another most beautiful pigeon is the 'bronze-wing,' which is
nearly the size of the English wood-pigeon, and has a
magnificent purply-bronze speculum on the wings."

1888.  D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 33:

"Both the bronze-wing and Wonga-Wonga pigeon are hunted so
keenly that in a few years they will have become extinct in

1893.  'The Argus,' March 25, p. 4, col. 6:

"Those who care for museum studies must have been interested in
tracing the Australian quail and pigeon families to a point
where they blend their separate identities in the partridge
bronze-wing of the Central Australian plains.  The eggs mark
the converging lines just as clearly as the birds, for the
partridge-pigeon lays an egg much more like that of a quail
than a pigeon, and lays, quail fashion, on the ground."

Brook-Lime, n. English name for an aquatic
plant, applied in Australia to the plant Gratiola
pedunculata, R. Br., N.O. Scrophularinae.  Also
called Heartsease.

Broom, n. name applied to the plant
Calycothrix tetragona, Lab., N.O. Myrtaceae.

Broom, Native, n. an Australian timber,
Viminaria denudala, Smith, N.O. Leguminosae.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 612:

"Native broom.  Wood soft and spongy."

Broom, Purple, n. a Tasmanian name for
Comesperma retusum, Lab., N.O. Polygaleae.

Brown Snake, n. See under Snake.

Brown-tail, n. bird-name for the Tasmanian
Tit.   See Tit.

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iii, pl. 54:

"Acanthiza Diemenensis, Gould.  Brown-tail, colonists of
Van Diemen's Land."

Brown Tree-Lizard, n. of New Zealand,
Naultinus pacificus.

Browny or Brownie, n. a kind of
currant loaf.

1890.  E. D. Cleland, 'The White kangaroo,' p. 57:

"Cake made of flour, fat and sugar, commonly known as

1890.  'The Argus,' Sept. 20, p. 13, col. 57:

"Four o'clock.  'Smoke O!' again with more bread and brownie
(a bread sweetened with sugar and currants)."

1892.  Gilbert Parker, 'Round the Compass,' p. 36:

"Roast mutton and brownie are given us to eat."

Brumby, Broombie (spelling various), n.  a wild
horse.  The origin of this word is very doubtful.  Some claim
for it an aboriginal, and some an English source.  In its
present shape it figures in one aboriginal vocabulary, given in
Curr's 'Australian Race' (1887), vol. iii. p. 259. At p. 284,
booramby is given as meaning "wild" on the river Warrego
in Queensland.  The use of the word seems to have spread from
the Warrego and the Balowne about 1864.  Before that date, and
in other parts of the bush ere the word came to them, wild
horses were called clear-skins or scrubbers,
whilst Yarraman (q.v.) is the aboriginal word for a
quiet or broken horse.  A different origin was, however, given
by an old resident of New South Wales, to a lady of the name of
Brumby, viz.  "that in the early days of that colony, a
Lieutenant Brumby, who was on the staff of one of the
Governors, imported some very good horses, and that some of
their descendants being allowed to run wild became the
ancestors the wild horses of New South Wales and Queensland."
Confirmation of this story is to be desired.

1880.  'The Australasian,' Dec. 4, p. 712, col. 3:

"Passing through a belt of mulga, we saw, on reaching its edge,
a mob of horses grazing on the plains beyond.  These our guide
pronounced to be 'brumbies,' the bush name here [Queensland]
for wild horses."

1888.  Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. ii. p. 176:

"The wild horses of this continent known all over it by the
Australian name of 'brumbies.'"

Ibid. p. 178:

"The untamed and 'unyardable' scrub brumby."

1888.  R. Kipling, 'Plain Tales from the Hills,' p. 160:

"Juggling about the country, with an Australian larrikin; a
'brumby' with as much breed as the boy. . . .  People who lost
money on him called him a 'brumby.'"

1888.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Robbery under Arms.' p. 67:

"The three-cornered weed he rode that had been a 'brumbee.'"

1895.  'Chambers' Journal,' Nov. 2, Heading 'Australian Brumbie

"The brumbie horse of Australia, tho' not a distinct equine
variety, possesses attributes and qualities peculiar to itself,
and, like the wild cattle and wild buffaloes of Australia, is
the descendant of runaways of imported stock."

1896.  'Sydney Morning Herald,' (Letter from 'J. F. G.,' dated
Aug. 24):

"Amongst the blacks on the Lower Balonne, Nebine, Warrego, and
Bulloo rivers the word used for horse is 'baroombie,' the 'a'
being cut so short that the word sounds as 'broombie,' and as
far as my experience goes refers more to unbroken horses in
distinction to quiet or broken ones ('yarraman')."

1896.  H. Lawson, 'When the World was Wide,' p. 156:

"Yet at times we long to gallop where the reckless bushman rides
 In the wake of startled brumbies that are flying for their

Brush, n. at first undergrowth, small trees, as
in England; afterwards applied to larger timber growth and
forest trees.  Its earlier sense survives in the compound
words; see below.

1820.  Oxley, 'New South Wales' ('O.E.D.'):

"The timber standing at wide intervals, without any brush or

1833.  C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' (2nd ed.) vol. i. p. 62:

"We journeyed . . . at one time over good plains, at another
through brushes."

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. i. Introd. p. 77:

"Jungle, or what in New South Wales would be called brush."

Ibid. vol. v. Pl. 59:

"Those vast primeval forests of New South Wales to which the
colonists have applied the name of brushes."

1853.  Chas. St. Julian and Edward K. Silvester, 'The
Productions, Industry, and Resources of New South Wales,'
p. 20:

"What the colonists term 'brush' lands are those covered with
tall trees growing so near each other and being so closely
matted together by underwood, parasites, and creepers, as to be
wholly impassable."

1883.  G. W. Rusden, 'History of Australia,' vol. i. p. 67,

"Brush was allotted to the growth of large timber on alluvial
lands, with other trees intermixed, and tangled vines.  The
soil was rich, and 'brushland' was well understood as a
descriptive term.  It may die away, but its meaning deserves to
be pointed out."

Brush-Apple, n. See Apple.

Brush-Bloodwood, n.  See Bloodwood.

Brush-Cherry, n. an Australian tree,
Trochocarpa laurina, R. Br., and Eugenia
myrtifolia, Simms.  Called also Brush-Myrtle.

Brush-Deal, n. a slender Queensland tree,
Cupania anacardioides, A. Richard.  See Brush,

Brusher, n. a Bushman's name, in certain parts,
for a small wallaby which hops about in the bush or scrub with
considerable speed.  "To give brusher," is a phrase derived
from this, and used in many parts, especially of the interior
of Australia, and implies that a man has left without paying
his debts.  In reply to the question "Has so-and-so left the
township?  "the answer, "Oh yes, he gave them brusher," would
be well understood in the above sense.

Brush-Kangaroo, n. another name for the
Wallaby (q.v.).

1802.  G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' c. viii.
p. 273:

"A place . . . thickly inhabited by the small brush-kangaroo."

1830.  'Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society,' i. 29:

"These dogs . . . are particularly useful in catching the
bandicoots, the small brush kangaroo, and the opossum."

1832.  J. Bischoff, 'Van Diemen's Land,' c. ii. p. 28:

"The brush-kangaroo . . . frequents the scrubs and rocky hills."

1884.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c. iii. p. 24:

"Violet was so fast that she could catch the brush-kangaroo
(the wallaby) within sight."

Brush-Myrtle, i.q. Brush-Cherry (q.v.)

Brush-Turkey, n. See Turkey.

Brush-Turpentine, n. another name for the tree
Syncarpia leptopetala, F. v. M., N.O. Myrtaceae,
called also Myrtle (q.v.).

Bubrush, n.  See Wonga and Raupo.

Buck, v.  Used "intransitively of a horse, to
leap vertically from the ground, drawing the feet together like
a deer, and arching the back.  Also transitively to buck off."
('O.E.D.')  Some say that this word is not Australian, but all
the early quotations of buck and cognate words are
connected with Australia.  The word is now used freely in the
United States; see quotation, 1882.

1870.  E. B. Kennedy, 'Four Years in Queensland,' p. 193:

"Having gained his seat by a nimble spring, I have seen a man
(a Sydney native) so much at his ease, that while the horse has
been 'bucking a hurricane,' to use a colonial expression, the
rider has been cutting up his tobacco and filling his pipe,
while several feet in the air, nothing to front of him
excepting a small lock of the animal's mane (the head being
between its legs), and very little behind him, the stern being
down; the horse either giving a turn to the air, or going
forward every buck."

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 131:

"'Well,' said one, 'that fellow went to market like a bird.'
'Yes,' echoed another, 'Bucked a blessed hurricane.'  'Buck a
town down,' cried a third.  'Never seed a horse strip himself
quicker,' cried a fourth."

1882.  Baillie-Grohman, 'Camps in the Rockies,' ch. iv. p. 102

"There are two ways, I understand, of sitting a bucking horse
. . . one is 'to follow the buck,' the other 'to receive the

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' p. 55:

"The performance is quite peculiar to Australian horses, and no
one who has not seen them at it would believe the rapid
contortions of which they are capable.  In bucking, a horse
tucks his head right between his fore-legs, sometimes striking
his jaw with his hind feet.  The back meantime is arched like a
boiled prawn's; and in this position the animal makes a series
of tremendous bounds, sometimes forwards, sometimes sideways
and backwards, keeping it up for several minutes at intervals
of a few seconds."

Buck, n. See preceding verb.

1868.  Lady Barker, 'Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 224:

"I never saw such bucks and jumps into the air as she [the
mare] performed."

1886.  H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 206:

"For, mark me, he can sit a buck
 For hours and hours together;
 And never horse has had the luck
 To pitch him from the leather."

Bucker, Buck-jumper, n. a horse given
to bucking or buck-jumping.

1853.  H. Berkeley Jones, 'Adventures in Australia in 1852 and
1853,' [Footnote] p. 143:

"A 'bucker' is a vicious horse, to be found only in Australia."

1884.  'Harper's Magazine,' July, No. 301, p. 1 ('O.E.D.'):

"If we should . . . select a 'bucker,' the probabilities are
that we will come to grief."

1893.  Haddon Chambers, 'Thumbnail Sketches of Australian Life,'
p. 64:

"No buck jumper could shake him off."

1893.  Ibid. p. 187:

"'Were you ever on a buck-jumper?' I was asked by a friend,
shortly after my return from Australia."

Buck-jumping, Bucking, verbal nouns.

1855.  W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 43:

"At length it shook off all its holders, and made one of those
extraordinary vaults that they call buck-jumping."

1859.  H. Kingsley, 'Geoffrey Hamlyn,' vol. ii. p. 212:

"That same bucking is just what puzzles me utterly."

1859.  Rev. J. D. Mereweather, 'Diary of a Working Clergyman in
Australia and Tasmania, kept during the years 1850-1853,'
p. 177:

"I believe that an inveterate buckjumper can be cured by
slinging up one of the four legs, and lunging him about
severely in heavy ground on the three legs.  The action they
must needs make use of on such an occasion somewhat resembles
the action of bucking; and after some severe trials of that
sort, they take a dislike to the whole style of thing.  An
Irishman on the Murrumbidgee is very clever at this schooling.
It is called here 'turning a horse inside out.'"

1885.  Forman (Dakota), item 26, May 6, 3 ('O.E.D.'):

"The majority of the horses there [in Australia] are vicious
and given to the trick of buck jumping." [It may be worth while
to add that this is not strictly accurate.]

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'A Colonial Reformer,' p. 94:

"'I should say that buck jumping was produced in this country
by bad breaking,' said Mr. Neuchamp oracularly.  'Don't you
believe it, sir.  Bucking is like other vices--runs in the

Buck-shot, n. a settlers' term for a
geological formation.  See quotation.

1851.  'The Australasian Quarterly,' p. 459:

"The plain under our feet was everywhere furrowed by Dead
men's graves, and generally covered with the granulated
lava, aptly named by the settlers buck-shot, and found
throughout the country on these trappean 'formations.
Buck-shot is always imbedded in a sandy alluvium,
sometimes several feet thick."

Buddawong, n. a variation of Burrawang

1877.  Australie, 'The Buddawong's Crown,' 'Australian Poets,'
1788-1888, ed. Sladen, p. 39:

"A Buddawong seed-nut fell to earth,
   In a cool and mossy glade,
 And in spring it shot up its barbed green swords,
   Secure 'neath the myrtle's shade.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 And the poor, poor palm has died indeed.
   But little the strangers care,
 'There are zamias in plenty more,' they say,
   But the crown is a beauty rare."

Budgeree, adj. aboriginal word for good, which
is common colloquially in the bush.  See Budgerigar.

1793.  J.Hunter, 'Port Jackson,' p. 195:

"They very frequently, at the conclusion of the dance, would
apply to us . . . for marks of our approbation . . . which we
never failed to give by often repeating the word
boojery, good; or boojery caribberie, a good

Budgerigar, or Betcherrygah, n.
aboriginal name for the bird called by Gould the Warbling
Grass-parrakeet; called also Shell-parrot and
Zebra- Grass-parrakeet.  In the Port Jackson dialect
budgeri, or boodgeri, means good, excellent.  In
'Collins' Vocabulary' (1798), boodjer-re = good.  In New South
Wales gar is common as first syllable of the name for
the white cockatoo, as garaweh.  See Galah.  In
the north of New South Wales kaar= white cockatoo.  The
spelling is very various, but the first of the two above given
is the more correct etymologically.  In the United States it is
spelt beauregarde, derived by 'Standard' from French
beau and regarde, a manifest instance of the law
of Hobson -Jobson.

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 297:

"The betshiregah (Melopsittacus Undulatus, Gould) were
very numerous."

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. v. Pl. 44:

"Melopsittacus Undulatus.  Warbling Grass-Parrakeet.
Canary Parrot--colonists.  Betcherrygah--natives of
Liverpool Plains."

1857.  Letter, Nov.17, in 'Life of Fenton J. A. Hort' (1896), vol.
i. p. 388:

"There is also a small green creature like a miniature
cockatoo, called a Budgeragar, which was brought from
Australia.  He is quaint and now and then noisy, but not
on the whole a demonstrative being."

1857.  W. Howitt, 'Tallangetta,' vol. i. p. 48:

"Young paroquets, the green leeks, and the lovely speckled

1865.  Lady Barker, 'Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 7:

"I saw several pairs of those pretty grass or zebra parroquets,
which are called here by the very inharmonious name of

2890.  Lyth, 'Golden South,' c. xiv. p. 127:

"The tiny budgeriegar, sometimes called the shell parrot."

Bugle, n. name given to the Australian plant
Ajuga australis, R. Br., N.O. Labiatae.

Bugler, n. a name given in Tasmania to the fish
Centriscus scolopax, family Centriscidae; called
in Europe the Trumpet-fish, Bellows-fish, the
latter name being also used for it in Tasmania.  The structure
of the mouth and snout suggests a musical instrument, or,
combined with the outline of the body, a pair of bellows.  The
fish occurs also in Europe.

Bugong, or Bogong, or Bougong,
n. an Australian moth, Danais limniace, or
Agrotis spina, eaten by the aborigines.

1834.  Rev. W. B. Clarke, 'Researches in the Southern Gold Fields
of New South Wales' (second edition), p. 228:

"These moths have obtained their name from their occurrence on
the 'Bogongs' or granite mountains.  They were described by my
friend Dr. Bennett in his interesting work on 'New South
Wales,' 1832-4, as abundant on the Bogong Mountain, Tumut
River.  I found them equally abundant, and in full vigour, in
December, coming in clouds from the granite peaks of the
Muniong Range.  The blacks throw them on the fire and eat

1859.  H. Kingsley, 'Geoffrey Hamlyn,' p. 355:

"The westward range is called the Bougongs.  The blacks during
summer are in the habit of coming thus far to collect and feed
on the great grey moths (bougongs) which are found on the

1871.  'The Athenaeum,' May 27, p. 660:

"The Gibbs Land and Murray districts have been divided into the
following counties: . . .  Bogong (native name of grubs and

1878.  R. Brough Smyth, 'The Aborigines of Victoria,'
vol. i. p. 207

"The moths--the Bugong moths(Agrolis suffusa) are
greedily devoured by the natives; and in former times, when
they were in season, they assembled in great numbers to eat
there, and they grew fat on this food." [Also a long footnote.]

1890.  Richard Helms, 'Records of the Australian Museum,'
vol. i.  No. 1:

"My aim was to obtain some 'Boogongs,' the native name for the
moths which so abundantly occur on this range, and no doubt
have given it its name."

1896.  'Sydney Mail,' April 4, Answers to Correspondents:

"It cannot be stated positively, but it is thought that the
name of the moth 'bogong' is taken from that of the mountain.
The meaning of the word is not known, but probably it is an
aboriginal word."

Bull-a-bull, or Bullybul, n. a child's
corruption of the Maori word Poroporo (q.v.), a
flowering shrub of New Zealand.  It is allied to the
Kangaroo-Apple (q.v.).

1845.  'New Plymouth's National Song,' in Hursthouse's 'New
Zealand,' p. 217:

"And as for fruit, the place is full
 Of that delicious bull-a-bull."

Bullahoo, n. See Ballahoo.

Bull-ant, n. contracted and common form of the
words Bull-dog Ant (q.v.).

Bull-dog Ant, n. (frequently shortened to
Bull-dog or Bull-ant), an ant of large size with
a fierce bite.  The name is applied to various species of the
genus Myrmecia, which is common throughout Australia and

1878.  Mrs.  H. Jones, 'Long Years in Australia,' p. 93:

"Busy colonies of ants (which everywhere infest the
country). . .  One kind is very warlike--the 'bull-dog':
sentinels stand on the watch, outside the nest, and in case of
attack disappear for a moment and return with a whole army of
the red-headed monsters, and should they nip you, will give you
a remembrance of their sting never to be forgotten."

1888.  Alleged 'Prize Poem,' Jubilee Exhibition:

"The aborigine is now nearly extinct,
 But the bull-dog-ant and the kangaroo rat
 Are a little too thick--I think."

1896.  A. B. Paterson, 'Man from Snowy River,' p. 142:

"Where the wily free-selector walks in armour-plated pants,
 And defies the stings of scorpion and the bites of bull-dog

Bull-dog Shark, i.q.  Bull-head (1) (q.v.).

Bull-head, n. The name is applied to many
fishes of different families in various parts of the world,
none of which are the same as the following two.  (1) A shark
of Tasmania and South Australia of small size and harmless,
with teeth formed for crushing shells, Heterodontus
phillipi , Lacep., family Cestraciontidae; also
called the Bull-dog Shark, and in Sydney, where it is
common, the Port-Jackson Shark : the aboriginal name was
Tabbigan.  (2) A freshwater fish of New Zealand,
Eleotris gobioides, Cuv.and Val., family
Gobiidae.  See Bighead.

Bulln-Bulln, n. an aboriginal name for the
Lyre-bird (q.v.).  This native name is imitative.  The most
southerly county in Victoria is called Buln-Buln; it is
the haunt of the Lyre-bird.

1857.  D. Bunce, 'Travels with Leichhardt in Australia,' p. 70:

"We afterwards learned that this was the work of the Bullen
Bullen, or Lyre-bird, in its search for large worms, its
favourite food."

1871.   'The Athenaeum,' May 27, p. 660:

"The Gipps Land and Murray districts have been divided into the
following counties: . . . Buln Buln (name of Lyre-bird)."

Bull-Oak, n. See Oak.

Bullocky, n. and adj. a bullockdriver."
In the bush all the heavy hauling is done with bullock-drays.
It is quite a common sight up the country to see teams of a
dozen and upwards."  (B. and L.)

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. xii. p. 121:

"By George, Jack, you're a regular bullocky boy."

Bull-puncher, or Bullock-puncher,
n. slang for a bullockdriver.  According to Barrere and
Leland's 'Slang Dictionary,' the word has a somewhat different
meaning in America, where it means a drover.  See Punch.

1872.  C. N. Eden, 'My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 49:

"The 'bull-puncher,' as bullock-drivers are familiarly called."

1873.  J. Mathew, song 'Hawking,' in 'Queenslander,' Oct. 4:

"The stockmen and the bushmen and the shepherds leave the station,
 And the hardy bullock-punchers throw aside their occupation."

1889.  Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. iv. p. 143:

"These teams would comprise from five to six pairs of bullocks
each, and were driven by a man euphoniously termed a
'bull-puncher.'  Armed with a six-foot thong, fastened to a
supple stick seven feet long. . . ."

Bull-rout, n. a fish of New South Wales,
Centropogon robustus, Guenth., family

1882.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Fish of New South Wales,'
p. 48:

"It emits a loud and harsh grunting noise when it is
caught. . . .  The fisherman knows what he has got by the noise
before he brings his fish to the surface. . . .  When out of the
water the noise of the bull-rout is loudest, and it spreads its
gills and fins a little, so as to appear very formidable. . . .
The blacks held it in great dread, and the name of bull-rout
may possibly be a corruption of some native word."

Bull's-eye, n. a fish of New South Wales,
Priacanthus macracanthus, Cuv.and Val.
Priacanthus, says Guenther, is a percoid fish with short
snout, lower jaw and chin prominent, and small rough scales all
over them and the body generally.  The eye large, and the
colour red, pink, or silvery.

1884.  E. P. Ramsay, 'Fisheries Exhibition Literature,' vol. v.
p. 311:

"Another good table-fish is the 'bull's-eye,' a beautiful
salmon-red fish with small scales. . . .  At times it enters
the harbours in considerable numbers; but the supply is

Bulls-wool, n. colloquial name for the inner
portion of the covering of the Stringybark-tree (q.v.).
This is a dry finely fibrous substance, easily disintegrated by
rubbing between the hands.  It forms a valuable tinder for
kindling a fire in the bush, and is largely employed for that
purpose.  It is not unlike the matted hair of a bull, and is
reddish in colour, hence perhaps this nickname, which is common
in the Tasmanian bush.

Bully, n. a Tasmanian fish, Blennius
tasmanianus, Richards., family Blennidae.

Bulrush, n.  See Wonga and Raupo.

Bung, to go, v. to fail, to become bankrupt.
This phrase of English school-boy slang, meaning to go off with
an explosion, to go to smash (also according to Barrere and
Leland still in use among American thieves), is in very
frequent use in Australia.  In Melbourne in the times that
followed the collapse of the land-boom it was a common
expression to say that Mr. So-and-so had "gone bung," sc. filed
his schedule or made a composition with creditors; or that an
institution had "gone bung," sc. closed its doors, collapsed.
In parts of Australia, in New South Wales and Queensland, the
word "bung" is an aboriginal word meaning "dead," and even
though the slang word be of English origin, its frequency of
use in Australia may be due to the existence of the aboriginal
word, which forms the last syllable in Billabong (q.v.),
and in the aboriginal word milbung blind, literally,

(a) The aboriginal word.

1847.  J. D. Lang, 'Cooksland,' p. 430:

"A place called Umpie Bung, or the dead houses."
[It is now a suburb of Brisbane, Humpy-bong.]

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. ii. p. 175
[in Blacks' pigeon English]:

"Missis bail bong, ony cawbawn prighten.  (Missis not dead,
only dreadfully frightened.)"

1882.  A. J. Boyd, 'Old Colonials,' p. 73:

"But just before you hands 'im [the horse] over and gets
the money, he goes bong on you" (i.e. he dies).

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' p: 142:

"Their [the blacks'] ordinary creed is very simple.  'Directly
me bung (die) me jump up white feller,' and this seems to be
the height of their ambition."

1895.  'The Age,' Dec. 21, p. 13, col. 6:

"'Then soon go bong, mummy,' said Ning, solemnly.

'Die,' corrected Clare.  You mustn't talk blacks' language.'

'Suppose you go bong,' pursued Ning reflectively, 'then you go
to Heaven.'"

(b) The slang word.

1885.  'Australian Printers' Keepsake,' p. 40:

"He was importuned to desist, as his musical talent had
'gone bung,' probably from over-indulgence in confectionery."

1893.  'The Argus,' April 15 (by Oriel), p. 13, col. 2:

"Still change is humanity's lot.  It is but the space of a day
 Till cold is the damask cheek, and silent the eloquent tongue,
 All flesh is grass, says the preacher, like grass it is withered
 And we gaze on a bank in the evening, and lo, in the morn
  'tis bung."

1893.  Professor Gosman, 'The Argus,' April 24, p. 7, col. 4:

"Banks might fail, but the treasures of thought could never go

1893.  'The Herald' (Melbourne), April 25, p. 2, col. 4:

"Perhaps Sydney may supply us with a useful example.  One
member of the mischief-making brotherhood wrote the words 'gone
bung' under a notice on the Government Savings Bank, and he was
brought before the Police Court charged with damaging the
bank's property to the extent of 3d.  The offender offered the
Bench his views on the bank, but the magistrates bluntly told
him his conduct was disgraceful, and fined him L 3 with costs,
or two months' imprisonment."

Bunga or Bungy, n. a New Zealand
settlers' corruption of the Maori word punga (q.v.).

Bunt, n. a Queensland fungus growing on wheat,
fetid when crushed.  Tilletia caries, Tul.,
N.O. Fungi.

Bunya-Bunya, n. aboriginal word.  [Bunyi
at heads of Burnett, Mary, and Brisbane rivers, Queensland;
baanya, on the Darling Downs.]  An Australian tree,
Araucaria bidwillii, Hooker, with fruit somewhat like
Bertholletia excelsa, N.O. Coniferae.
Widgi-Widgi station on the Mary was the head-quarters for the
fruit of this tree, and some thousands of blacks used to
assemble there in the season to feast on it; it was at this
assembly that they used to indulge in cannibalism ; every third
year the trees were said to bear a very abundant crop.  The
Bunya-Bunya mountains in Queensland derive their name from this

1843.  L. Leichhardt, Letter in 'Cooksland, by J. D. Lang,
p. 82:

"The bunya-bunya tree is noble and gigantic, and its
umbrella-like head overtowers all the trees of the bush."

1844.  Ibid. p. 89:

"The kernel of the Bunya fruit has a very fine aroma,
and it is certainly delicious eating."

1844.  'Port Phillip Patriot,' July 25:

"The Bunya-Bunya or Araucaria on the seeds of which
numerous tribes of blacks are accustomed to feed."

1879.  W. R. Guilfoyle, 'First Book of Australian Botany,' p. 58:

"A splendid timber tree of South Queensland, where it forms
dense forests, one of the finest of the Araucaria tribe,
attaining an approximate height of 200 feet.  The Bunya-Bunya
withstands drought better than most of the genus, and
flourishes luxuriantly in and around Melbourne."

1887.  J. Mathew, in Curr's 'Australian Race,' vol. iii. p. 161:

[A full account.]  "In laying up a store of bunyas, the blacks
exhibited an unusual foresight.  When the fruit was in season,
they filled netted bags with the seeds, and buried them."

1889.  Hill, quoted by J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 7:

"The cones shed their seeds, which are two to two and a half
inches long by three-quarters of an inch broad; they are sweet
before being perfectly ripe, and after that resemble roasted
chestnuts in taste.  They are plentiful once in three years,
and when the ripening season arrives, which is generally in the
month of January, the aboriginals assemble in large numbers
from a great distance around, and feast upon them.  Each tribe
has its own particular set of trees, and of these each family
has a certain number allotted, which are handed down from
generation to generation with great exactness.  The bunya is
remarkable as being the only hereditary property which any of
the aborigines are known to possess, and it is therefore
protected by law.  The food seems to have a fattening effect on
the aborigines, and they eat large quantities of it after
roasting it at the fire."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 377:

"The 'Bunya-bunya' of the aboriginals--a name invariably
adopted by the colonists."

1892.  J. Fraser, 'Aborigines of New South Wales,' p. 50:

"The Bunya-bunya tree, in the proper season, bears a fir cone
of great size--six to nine inches long-and this, when roasted,
yields a vegetable pulp, pleasant to eat and nutritious."

1893.  'Sydney Morning Herald,' Aug. 19, p. 7, col. 1:

"There is a beautiful bunya-bunya in a garden just beyond, its
foliage fresh varnished by the rain, and toning from a rich
darkness to the very spring tint of tender green."

Bunyip, n. (1) the aboriginal name of a
fabulous animal.  See quotations.  For the traditions of the
natives on this subject see Brough Smyth, 'Aborigines of
Victoria,' vol. i. p. 435.

1848.  W. Westgarth, 'Australia Felix,' p. 391:

"Certain large fossil bones, found in various parts of
Australia Felix, have been referred by the natives, when
consulted on the subject by the colonists, to a huge animal of
extraordinary appearance, called in some districts the Bunyup,
in others the Kianpraty, which they assert to be still alive.
It is described as of amphibious character, inhabiting deep
rivers, and permanent water-holes, having a round head, an
elongated neck, with a body and tail resembling an ox.  These
reports have not been unattended to, and the bunyup is said to
have been actually seen by many parties, colonists as well as
aborigines. . . .[A skull which the natives said was that of a
'piccinini Kianpraty' was found by Professor Owen to be that of
a young calf.  The Professor] considers it all but impossible
that such a large animal as the bunyup of the natives can be
now living in the country.  [Mr. Westgarth suspects] it is only
a tradition of the alligator or crocodile of the north."

1849.  W. S. Macleay, 'Tasmanian journal,' vol. iii. p. 275:

"On the skull now exhibited at the Colonial Museum of Sydney as
that of the Bunyip."

1855.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes,' p. 214:

"Did my reader ever hear of the Bunyip (fearful name to the
aboriginal native!) a sort of 'half-horse, half-alligator,'
haunting the wide rushy swamps and lagoons of the interior?"

1859.  H. Kingsley, 'Geoffrey Hamlyn,' p. 258:

"The river is too deep, child, and the Bunyip lives in the
water under the stones."

1865.  'Once a Week,' Dec. 31, p. 45, The Bulla Bulla Bunyip':

"Beyond a doubt, in 'Lushy Luke's' belief, a Bunyip had taken
temporary lodgings outside the town.  This bete noire of
the Australian bush Luke asserted he had often seen in bygone
times.  He described it as being bigger than an elephant, in
shape like a 'poley' bullock, with eyes like live coals, and
with tusks like a walrus's.  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

"What the Bunyip is, I cannot pretend to say, but I think it is
highly probable that the stories told by both old bushmen and
blackfellows, of some bush beast bigger and fiercer than any
commonly known in Australia, are founded on fact.  Fear and the
love of the marvellous may have introduced a considerable
element of exaggeration into these stories, but I cannot help
suspecting that the myths have an historical basis."

1872.  C. Gould, 'Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society
of Tasmania,' 1872, p. 33:

"The belief in the Bunyip was just as prevalent among the
natives in parts hundreds of miles distant from any stream in
which alligators occur. . . .  Some other animal must be sought
for." . . .  [Gould then quotes from 'The Mercury' of April 26,
1872, an extract from the 'Wagga Advertiser']: "There really is
a Bunyip or Waa-wee, actually existing not far from us . . . in
the Midgeon Lagoon, sixteen miles north of Naraudera . . . I
saw a creature coming through the water with tremendous
rapidity . . . .  The animal was about half as long again as an
ordinary retriever dog, the hair all over its body was jet
black and shining, its coat was very long."  [Gould cites other
instances, and concludes that the Bunyip is probably a seal.]

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 202:

"In the south-eastern part of Australia the evil spirit of the
natives is called Bunjup, a monster which is believed to
dwell in the lakes.  It has of late been supposed that this is
a mammal of considerable size that has not yet been discovered
. . .  is described as a monster with countless eyes and
ears. . . .  He has sharp claws, and can run so fast that it is
difficult to escape him.  He is cruel, and spares no one either
young or old."

1894.  'The Argus,' June 23, p. 11, col. 4:

"The hollow boom so often heard on the margin of reedy swamps
--more hollow and louder by night than day--is the mythical
bunyip, the actual bittern."

(2) In a secondary sense, a synonym for an impostor.

1852.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes' (edition 1855), p. 214:

"One advantage arose from the aforesaid long-deferred discovery
--a new and strong word was adopted into the Australian
vocabulary: Bunyip became, and remains a Sydney synonoyme for
impostor, pretender, humbug, and the like.  The black
fellows, however, unaware of the extinction, by superior
authority, of their favourite loup-garou, still continue
to cherish the fabulous bunyip in their shuddering

1853.  W. C. Wentworth--Speech in August quoted by Sir Henry
Parkes in 'Fifty Years of Australian History' (1892),
vol. i. p. 41:

"They had been twitted with attempting to create a mushroom, a
Brummagem, a bunyip aristocracy; but I need scarcely observe
that where argument fails ridicule is generally resorted to for

Burnet, Native, n.  The name is given in
Australia to the plant Acaena ovina, Cunn.,
N.O. Rosaceae.

Burnett Salmon, n. one of the names given to
the fish Ceratodus forsteri, Krefft.  See

Burnt-stuff, n. a geological term used by miners.
See quotation.

1853.  Mrs. Chas. Clancy, 'Lady's Visit to Gold Diggings,' p. 112:

"The top, or surface soil, for which a spade or shovel is used,
was of clay.  This was succeeded by a strata almost as hard as
iron--technically called 'burnt-stuff'--which robbed the pick
of its points nearly as soon as the blacksmith had steeled them
at a charge of 2s. 6d. a point."

Bur, n. In Tasmania the name is applied to
Acaena rosaceae, Vahl., N.O. Rosaceae.

Burramundi, or Barramunda, n. a
fresh-water fish, Osteoglossum leichhardtii, Guenth.,
family Osteoglossidae, found in the Dawson and Fitzroy
Rivers, Queensland.  The name is also incorrectly applied by
the colonists to the large tidal perch of the Fitzroy River,
Queensland, Lates calcarifer, Guenth., a widely
distributed fish in the East Indies, and to Ceratodus
forsteri, Krefft, family Sirenidae, of the Mary and
Burnett Rivers, Queensland.  Burramundi is the aboriginal name
for O. leichhardtii.  The spelling barramunda is
due to the influence of barracouta (q.v.).  See

1873.  A. Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,'
vol. i. p. 189:

"There is a fish too at Rockhampton called the burra mundi,--
I hope I spell the name rightly,--which is very commendable."

1880.  Guenther, 'Study of Fishes,' p. 357:

"Ceratodus. . . .  Two species, C. forsteri and
C. miolepis, are known from fresh-waters of
Queensland. . . .  Locally the settlers call it 'flathead,'
'Burnett or Dawson salmon,' and the aborigines 'barramunda,' a
name which they apply also to other largescaled fresh-water
fishes, as the Osteoglossum leichhardtii. . . .  The
discovery of Ceratodus does not date farther back than
the year 1870."

1882.  W. Macleay, 'Descriptive Catalogue of Australian fishes'
('Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales,'
vol. vi. p. 256):

"Osteoglossum leichhardtii, Gunth. Barramundi of the
aborigines of the Dawson River."

1892.  Baldwin Spencer, 'Proceedings of the Royal Society
of Victoria,' vol. iv.  [Note on the habits of Ceratodus

"It has two common names, one of which is the 'Burnett Salmon'
and the other the 'Barramunda" . . . the latter name . . . is
properly applied to a very different form, a true teleostean
fish (Osteoglossum leichhardtii) which is
found . . . further north . . . in the Dawson and
Fitzroy . . . Mr. Saville Kent states that the Ceratodus is much
prized as food.  This is a mistake, for, as a matter of fact,
it is only eaten by Chinese and those who can afford to get
nothing better."

Burrawang, or Burwan, n. an Australian
nut-tree, Macrozamia spiralis, Miq.

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i.
p. 221:

"The burwan is a nut much relished by our natives, who prepare
it by roasting and immersion in a running stream, to free it
from its poisonous qualities."

1851.  J. Henderson, 'Excursions in New South Wales,' vol. ii.
p. 238

"The Burrowan, which grows in a sandy soil, and produces
an inedible fruit, resembling the pine-apple in appearance."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 41:

"Burrawang nut, so called because they used to be, and are to
some extent now, very common about Burrawang, N.S.W.  The nuts
are relished by the aboriginals.  An arrowroot of very good
quality is obtained from them."

Bush, n. Not originally an Australian
application.  "Recent, and probably a direct adoption of the
Dutch Bosch, in colonies originally Dutch" ('O.E.D.'),
[quoting (1780) Forster, in 'Phil. Trans.' lxxi. 2, "The common
Bush-cat of the Cape;" and (1818) Scott, 'Tapestr. Chamber,'
"When I was in the Bush, as the Virginians call it"].
"Woodland, country more or less covered with natural wood
applied to the uncleared or untitled districts in the British
Colonies which are still in a state of nature, or largely so,
even though not wooded; and by extension to the country as
opposed to the towns." ('O.E.D.')

1830.  R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 48:

"I have spent a good deal of my time in the woods, or bush, as
it is called here.'

1836.  Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 85:

"With the exception of two or three little farms, comprising
about 20 or 30 acres of cultivation, all was 'bush' as it is
colonially called.  The undergrowth was mostly clear, being
covered only with grass or herbs, with here and there some low

1837.  J. D. Lang, 'New South Wales,' vol. i. p. 253:

"His house was well enough for the bush, as the country is
generally termed in the colony."

1855.  From a letter quoted in Wathen's 'The Golden Colony,'
p. 117:

"'The Bush,' when the word is used in the towns, means all the
uninclosed and uncultivated country . . . when in the country,
'the Bush' means more especially the forest.  The word itself
has been borrowed from the Cape, and is of Dutch origin."

1857.  'The Argus,' Dec. 14, p. 5, col. 7:

"'Give us something to do in or about Melbourne, not away in
the bush,' says the deputation of the unemployed."

1861.  T. McCombie,' Australian Sketches,' p. 123:

"At first the eternal silence of the bush is oppressive, but a
short sojourn is sufficient to accustom a neophyte to the new
scene, and he speedily becomes enamoured of it."

1865.  J. F. Mortlock, 'Experiences of a Convict,' p. 83:

"The 'bush,' a generic term synonymous with 'forest' or
'jungle,' applied to all land in its primaeval condition,
whether occupied by herds or not."

1872.  A. McFarland, 'Illawarra and Manaro,' p. 113:

"All the advantages of civilized life have been surrendered
for the bush, its blanket and gunyah."

1873.  A. Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,'
vol. i. p. 250:

"The technical meaning of the word 'bush.'  The bush is the
gum-tree forest, with which so great a part of Australia is
covered, that folk who follow a country life are invariably
said to live in the bush.  Squatters who look after their own
runs always live in the bush, even though their sheep are
pastured on plains.  Instead of a town mouse and a country
mouse in Australia, there would be a town mouse and a bush
mouse; but mice living in the small country towns would still
be bush mice."

Ibid. c. xx. p. 299:

"Nearly every place beyond the influence of the big towns is
called 'bush,' even though there should not be a tree to be
seen around."

1883.  G. W. Rusden, 'History of Australia,' vol. i. p. 67, n.:

"Bush was a general term for the interior.  It might be thick
bush, open bush, bush forest, or scrubby bushterms which
explain themselves."

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' p. 40:

"The first thing that strikes me is the lifeless solitude of
the bush. . . .  There is a deep fascination about the freedom
of the bush."

1890.  E. W. Hornung [Title]:

"A Bride from the Bush."

1896.  'Otago Daily Times,' Jan. 27, p. 2, col. 5:

"Almost the whole of New South Wales is covered with bush.
It is not the bush as known in New Zealand.  It is rather
a park-like expanse, where the trees stand widely apart,
and where there is grass on the soil between them."

Bush, adj. or in composition, not always
easy to distinguish, the hyphen depending on the fancy of the

1836.  Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 75:

"The round trundling of our cart wheels, it is well known, does
not always improve the labours of Macadam, much less a bush

1848.  Letter by Mrs. Perry, given in Canon Goodman's 'Church
in Victoria, during Episcopate of Bishop Perry,'p. 75:

"A hard bush sofa, without back or ends."

1849.  J. Sidney, 'Emigrants' Journal, and Travellers'
Magazine,' p. 40 (Letter from Caroline Chisholm):

"What I would particularly recommend to new settlers is
'Bush Partnership'--Let two friends or neighbours agree
to work together, until three acres are cropped, dividing the
work, the expense, and the produce--this partnership will grow
apace; I have made numerous bush agreements of this kind . . .
I never knew any quarrel or bad feeling result from these
partnerships, on the contrary, I believe them calculated to
promote much neighbourly good will; but in the association of a
large number of strangers, for an indefinite period, I have no

1857.  W. Westgarth, 'Victoria,' c. xi. p. 250:

"The gloomy antithesis of good bushranging and bad bush-roads."

[Bush-road, however, does not usually mean a made-road through
the bush, but a road which has not been formed, and is in a
state of nature except for the wear of vehicles upon it, and
perhaps the clearing of trees and scrub.]

1864.  'The Reader,' April 2, p. 40, col. 1 ('O.E.D.'):

"The roads from the nascent metropolis still partook mainly of
the random character of 'bush tracks.'"

1865.  W. Hewitt, 'Discovery in Australia,' vol. ii. p. 211:

"Dr. Wills offered to go himself in the absence of any more
youthful and, through bush seasoning, qualified person."

1880.  'Blackwood's Magazine,' Feb., p. 169 [Title]:

"Bush-Life in Queensland."

1881.  R. M. Praed, 'Policy and Passion,' c. i. p. 59:

"The driver paused before a bush inn."

[In Australia the word "inn" is now rare.  The word "hotel"
has supplanted it.]

1889.  Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. iv.p. 3:

"Not as bush roads go.  The Australian habit is here followed
of using 'bush' for country, though no word could be more
ludicrously inapplicable, for there is hardly anything on the
way that can really be called a bush."

1894.  'Sydney Morning Herald' (exact date lost):

"Canada, Cape Colony, and Australia have preserved the old
significance of Bush--Chaucer has it so--as a territory on
which there are trees; it is a simple but, after all, a kindly
development that when a territory is so unlucky as to have no
trees, sometimes, indeed, to be bald of any growth whatever,
it should still be spoken of as if it had them."

1896.  Rolf Boldrewood, in preface to 'The Man from Snowy

"It is not easy to write ballads descriptive of the bushland
of Australia, as on light consideration would appear."

1896.  H. Lawson, 'While the Billy boils,' p. 104:

"About Byrock we met the bush liar in all his glory.  He was
dressed like--like a bush larrikin.  His name was Jim."

Bush-faller, n. one who cuts down timber in the

1882.  'Pall Mall Gazette,' June 29, p. 2, col. 1:

"A broken-down, deserted shanty, inhabited once, perhaps, by
rail-splitters or bush-fallers." ['O.E.D.,' from which this
quotation is taken, puts (?) before the meaning; but "To fall"
is not uncommon in Australia for "to fell."]

Bush-fire, n. forests and grass on fire in hot

1868.  C. Dilke, 'Greater Britain,' vol. ii. part iii. c. iii.
p. 32:

"The smoke from these bush-fires extends for hundreds of miles
to sea."

1884.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c. xxii. p. 156:

"A reserve in case of bush-fires and bad seasons."

Bush-lawyer, n. (1) A Bramble.
See Lawyer.

(2) Name often used for a layman who fancies he knows all about
the law without consulting a solicitor.  He talks a great deal,
and 'lays down the law.'

1896.  H. G. Turner, 'Lecture on J. P. Fawkner':

"For some years he cultivated and developed his capacity for
rhetorical argument by practising in the minor courts of law in
Tasmania as a paid advocate, a position which in those days,
and under the exceptional circumstances of the Colony, was not
restricted to members of the legal profession, and the term
Bush Lawyer probably takes its origin from the practice of this

Bush-magpie, n.  an Australian bird, more
commonly called a Magpie (q.v.).

1888.  Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. ii. p. 235:

". . . the omnipresent bush-magpie.  Here he may warble all the
day long on the liquid, mellifluous notes of his Doric flute,
fit pipe indeed for academic groves . . . sweetest and brightest,
most cheery and sociable of all Australian birds."

Bushman, n. (1) Settler in the bush.
Used to distinguish country residents from townsfolk.

1852.  'Blackwood's Magazine,' p. 522 ('O.E.D.'):

"Where the wild bushman eats his loathly fare."

1880.  J. Mathew, song, 'The Bushman:'

"How weary, how dreary the stillness must be!
 But oh! the lone bushman is dreaming of me."

1886.  Frank Cowan: 'Australia; a Charcoal Sketch':

"The bushman . . . Gunyah, his bark hovel; Damper,
his unleavened bread baked in the ashes; Billy, his
tea-kettle, universal pot and pan and bucket; Sugar-bag,
his source of saccharine, a bee-tree; Pheasant, his
facetious metaphoric euphism for Liar, quasi Lyre-bird; Fit
for Woogooroo, for Daft or Idiotic; Brumby, his
peculiar term for wild horse; Scrubber, wild ox;
Nuggeting, calf-stealing; Jumbuck, sheep, in
general; an Old-man, grizzled wallaroo or kangaroo;
Station, Run, a sheep- or cattle-ranch; and
Kabonboodgery--an echo of the sound diablery for ever in
his ears, from dawn to dusk of Laughing Jackass and from dusk
to dawn of Dingo--his half-bird -and-beast-like vocal
substitute for Very Good. . . ."

1896.  H.Lawson, 'While the Billy boils,' p. 71:

"He was a typical bushman, . . . and of the old bush school;
one of those slight active little fellows, whom we used to see
in cabbage-tree hats, Crimean shirts, strapped trousers, and
elastic-side boots."

(2) One who has knowledge of the bush, and is skilled in its
ways.  A "good bushman" is especially used of a man who can
find his way where there are no tracks.

1868.  J. Bonwick, 'John Batman, Founder of Victoria,' pp. 78, 79:

"It is hardly likely that so splendid a bushman as Mr. Batman
would venture upon such an expedition had he not been well.
In fact a better bushman at this time could not be met with."

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. ii. p. 3:

"The worst bushman had to undertake the charge of the camp,
cook the provisions, and look after the horses, during the
absence of the rest on flying excursions."

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' p. 40:

"Very slight landmarks will serve to guide a good bushman,
for no two places are really exactly alike."

1891.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Sydney-side Saxon,' p. 78:

"One of the best bushmen in that part of the country: the men
said he could find his way over it blindfold, or on the darkest
night that ever was."

(3) Special sense.  See quotation.

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 80:

"Some were what is termed, par excellence, bushmen--that
is, men who split rails, get posts, shingles, take contracts
for building houses, stockyards, etc.--men, in fact, who work
among timber continually, sometimes felling and splitting,
sometimes sawing."

Bushmanship, n. knowledge of the ways of the

1882.  A. J. Boyd, 'Old Colonials,' p. 261:

"A good laugh at the bushmanship displayed."

Bushranger, n. one who ranges or traverses the
bush, far and wide; an Australian highwayman; in the early days
usually an escaped convict.  Shakspeare uses the verb 'to
range' in this connection.

"Then thieves and robbers range abroad unseen
 In murders and in outrage, boldly here."
                  ('Richard II.,' III. ii. 39.)

"Ranger" is used in modern English for one who protects
and not for one who robs; as 'the Ranger' of a Park.

1806.  May 4, 'Sydney Gazette' or 'New South Wales Advertiser,
given in 'History of New South Wales,' p. 265:

"Yesterday afternoon, William Page, the bushranger repeatedly
advertised, was apprehended by three constables."

1820.  W. C. Wentworth, 'Description of New South Wales,'
p. 166:

[The settlements in Van Diemen's Land have] "been infested for
many years past by a banditti of runaway convicts, who have
endangered the person and property of every one. . . .  These
wretches, who are known in the colony by the name of
bushrangers. . ."

1820.  Lieut. Chas. Jeffreys, 'Van Dieman's [sic] Land,' p. 15:

"The supposition . . . rests solely on the authority of the Bush
Rangers, a species of wandering brigands, who will be elsewhere

1838.  T. L. 'Mitchell, 'Three Expeditions,' vol. i. p. 9:

"Bushrangers, a sub-genus in the order banditti, which happily
can now only exist there in places inaccessible to the mounted

1845.  R. Howitt, 'Australia,' p. 81:

"This country [Van Diemen's Land] is as much infested as New
South Wales with robbers, runaway convicts, or, as they are
termed, Bush-rangers."

1861.  T. McCombie, 'Australian Sketches,' p. 77:

"The whole region was infested by marauding bands of
bush-rangers, terrible after nightfall."

1887.  J. F. Hogan, 'The Irish in Australia, p. 252:

"Whilst he was engaged in this duty in Victoria, a band
of outlaws--'bushrangers' as they are colonially termed--
who had long defied capture, and had carried on a career
of murder and robbery, descended from their haunts in
the mountain ranges."

Bush-ranging, n. the practice of the Bushranger

1827.  'Captain Robinson's Report,' Dec. 23

"It was a subject of complaint among the settlers, that their
assigned servants could not be known from soldiers, owing to
their dress; which very much assisted the crime of

Bush-scrubber, n. a bushman's word for a boor,
bumpkin, or slatternly person.  See Scrubber.

1896.  Modern.  Up-country manservant on seeing his new

"My word! a real lady! she's no bush-scrubber!"

Bush-telegraph, n. Confederates of bushrangers
who supply them with secret information of the movements of the

1878.  'The Australian,' vol. i. p. 507:

"The police are baffled by the false reports of the
confederates and the number and activity of the bush

1893.  Kenneth Mackay, 'Out Back,' p. 74:

"A hint dropped in this town set the bush telegraphs riding in
all directions."

Bushwoman, n.  See quotation.

1892.  'The Australasian,' April 9, p. 707, col. 1:

"But who has championed the cause of the woman of the bush--
or, would it be more correct to say bushwoman, as well as
bushman?--and allowed her also a claim to participate in the
founding of a nation?"

Bush-wren, n.  See Wren.

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 108:

[A full description.]

Bushed, adj., quasi past participle,
lost in the bush; then, lost or at a loss.

1661.  T. McCombie, 'Australian Sketches,' p. 115:

"I left my seat to reach a shelter, which was so many miles
off, that I narrowly escaped being 'bushed.'"

1865.  W. Howitt, 'Discovery in Australia,' vol. i. p. 283:

"The poor youth, new to the wilds, had, in the expressive
phrase of the colonials, got bushed, that is, utterly
bewildered, and thus lost all idea of the direction that he
ought to pursue."

1885.  R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 29:

"I get quite bushed in these streets."

1896.  'The Argus,' Jan. 1, p. 4, col. 9:

"The Ministry did not assume its duty of leading the House, and
Mr. Higgins graphically described the position of affairs by
stating that the House was 'bushed;' while Mr. Shiels compared
the situation to a rudderless ship drifting hither and

Bustard, n. "There are about twenty species,
mostly of Africa, several of India, one of Australia, and three
properly European."  ('Century.')  The Australian variety is
Eupodotis australis, Gray, called also Wild
Turkey, Native Turkey, and Plain Turkey.  See

Buster, Southerly, n. The word is a corruption
of 'burster,' that which bursts.  A sudden and violent squall
from the south.  The name, used first in Sydney, has been
adopted also in other Australian cities.  See Brickfielder.

1863.  F. Fowler, in 'Athenaeum,' Feb. 21, p. 264, col. 1:

"The cold wind or southerly buster which . . . carries a thick
cloud of dust . . . across the city."

1878.  'The Australian,' vol. i. p. 587:

"Southerly Busters by 'Ironbark.'"

1886.  F. Cowan, 'Australia, a Charcoal Sketch':

"The Buster and Brickfielder: austral red-dust blizzard;
and red-hot Simoom."

1889.  Rev. J. H. Zillmann, 'Australian Life,' p. 40:

"Generally these winds end in what is commonly called a
'southerly buster.'  This is preceded by a lull in the hot
wind; then suddenly (as it has been put) it is as though a
bladder of cool air were exploded, and the strong cool
southerly air drives up with tremendous force.  However
pleasant the change of temperature may be it is no mere pastime
to be caught in a 'southerly buster,' but the drifting rain
which always follows soon sets matters right, allays the dust,
and then follows the calm fresh bracing wind which is the more
delightful by contrast with the misery through which one has
passed for three long dreary days and nights."

1893.  'The Australasian,' Aug.  12, p. 302, col. 1:

"You should see him with Commodore Jack out in the teeth
of the 'hard glad weather,' when a southerly buster sweeps
up the harbour."

1896.  H. A.Hunt, in 'Three Essays on Australian Weather'
(Sydney), p. 16:

An Essay on Southerly Bursters, . . . with Four Photographs
and Five Diagrams."

[Title of an essay which was awarded the prize of L 25 offered
by the Hon. Ralph Abercrombie.]

Butcher, n. South Australian slang for a long
drink of beer, so-called (it is said) because the men of a
certain butchery in Adelaide used this refreshment regularly;
cf. "porter" in England, after the drink of the old London

Butcher-bird, n. The name is in use elsewhere,
but in Australia it is applied to the genus Cracticus.
The varieties are--

The Butcher-bird--
 Cracticus torquatus, Lath.; formerly
 C. destructor, Gould.

Black B.--
 C. quoyi, Less.

Black-throated B.--
 C. nigrigularis, Gould.

Grey B. (Derwent Jackass)--
 C. cinereus, Gould (see Jackass).

Pied B.--
 C. picatus, Gould.

Rufous B.--
 C. rufescens, De Vis.

Silver-backed B.--
 C. argenteus, Gould.

Spalding's B.--
 C. spaldingi, Masters.

White-winged B.--
 C. leucopterus, Cav.

The bird is sometimes called a Crow-shrike.

1827.  Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean Society,'
vol. xv. p. 213:

"Mr. Caley observes--Butcher-bird.  This bird used frequently
to come into some green wattle-trees near my house, and in wet
weather was very noisy; from which circumstance it obtained the
name of 'Rain-bird.'"

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. ii. Pl. 52:

"Cracticus Destructor.  Butcher Bird, name given by
colonists of Swan River, a permanent resident in New South
Wales and South Australia.  I scarcely know of any Australian
bird so generally dispersed."

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' p. 50:

"Close to the station one or two butcher-birds were piping
their morning song, a strange little melody with not many
notes, which no one who has heard it will ever forget."

Buttercup, n. The familiar English flower is
represented in Australia and Tasmania by various species of
Ranunculus, such as R. lappaceus, Sm.,
N.O. Ranunculaceae.

Butter-fish, n. a name given in Australia to
Oligorus mitchellii, Castln. (see Murray Perch);
in Victoria, to Chilodactylus nigricans, Richards.  (see
Morwong); in New Zealand, to Coridodax pullus,
Forst., called also Kelp-fish.  The name is in allusion
to their slippery coating of mucus.  See Kelp-fish.

1850.  J. B. Clutterbuck, 'Port Phillip,' vol. iii. p. 44:

"In the bay are large quantities of . . . butter-fish."

1880.  Guenther, 'Study of Fishes,' p. 533:

"The 'butter-fish,' or 'kelp-fish' of the colonists of New
Zealand (C. pullus), is prized as food, and attains to a
weight of four or five pounds."

Butterfly-conch, n. Tasmanian name for a marine
univalve mollusc, Voluta papillosa, Swainson.

Butterfly-fish, n. a New Zealand sea-fish,
Gasterochisma melampus, Richards., one of the
Nomeidae.  The ventral fins are exceedingly broad and
long, and can be completely concealed in a fold of the abdomen.
The New Zealand fish is so named from these fins; the European
Butterfly-fish, Blennius ocellaris, derives its name
from the spots on its dorsal fin, like the eyes in a peacock's
tail or butterfly's wing.

Butterfly-Lobster, n. a marine crustacean, so
called from the leaf-like expansion of the antennae.  It is
"the highly specialized macrourous decapod Ibacus
Peronii."  (W. A. Haswell.)

1880.  Mrs. Meredith, 'Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 248:

"Those curious crustaceans that I have heard called 'butterfly
lobsters'. . . the shell of the head and body (properly known
as the carapace) expands into something like wing-forms,
entirely hiding the legs beneath them."

Butterfly-Plant, n. a small flowering plant,
Utricularia dichotoma, Lab., N.O. Leutibularina.

Button-grass, n.  Schaenus
sphaerocephalus, Poiret, N.O. Cyperaceae.  The grass
is found covering barren boggy land in Tasmania, but is not
peculiar to Tasmania.  So called from the round shaped flower
(capitate inflorescence), on a thin stalk four or five feet
long, like a button on the end of a foil.

Buzzard, n. an English bird-name applied in
Australia to Gypoictinia melanosternon, Gould, the
Black-breasted Buzzard.


Cabbage Garden, a name applied to the colony of
Victoria by Sir John Robertson, the Premier of New South Wales,
in contempt for its size.

1889.  Rev. J. H. Zillmann, 'Australian Life,' p. 30:

"'The cabbage garden,' old cynical Sir John Robertson, of New
South Wales, once called Victoria, but a garden
notwithstanding.  Better at any rate 'the cabbage garden' than
the mere sheep run or cattle paddock."

Cabbage-Palm, n. same as Cabbage-tree
(1) (q.v.).

Cabbage-tree, n (1)Name given to various palm
trees of which the heart of the young leaves is eaten like the
head of a cabbage.  In Australia the name is applied to the fan
palm, Livistona inermis, R. Br., and more commonly to
Livistona australis, Martius.  In New Zealand the name
is given to various species of Cordyline, especially to
Cordyline indivisa.  See also Flame-tree (2).

1769.  'Capt. Cook's Journal,' ed. Wharton (1893), p. 144:

"We likewise found one Cabage Tree which we cut down for the
sake of the cabage."

1802.  G.Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' p. 60:

"Even the ships crews helped, except those who brought the
cabbage trees."

1846.  J. L. Stokes, 'Discovery in Australia,' vol. ii. c. iv.
p. 132:

"Cabbage-tree . . . grew in abundance."

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 72:

"Several of my companions suffered by eating too much of the

1865.  W. Howitt, 'Discovery in Australia,' vol. i. p. 414:

"Clumps of what the people of King George's Sound call

1867.  F. Hochstetter, 'New Zealand,' p. 240:

"There stands an isolated 'cabbage-tree' (Ti of the natives;
Cordyline Australis) nearly thirty feet high, with
ramified branches and a crown of luxuriant growth."

(2) A large, low-crowned, broad-brimmed hat, made out of the
leaves of the Cabbage-tree (Livistona).

1802.  G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' 335:

"This hat, made of white filaments of the cabbage-tree,
seemed to excite the attention of the whole party."

1852.  G. F. P., 'Gold Pen and Pencil Sketches,' xv.:

"With scowl indignant flashing from his eye,
 As though to wither each unshaven wretch,
 Jack jogs along, nor condescends reply,
 As to the price his cabbage-tree might fetch."

1864.  'Once a Week,' Dec. 31, p. 45, The Bulla Bulla Bunyip':

"Lushy Luke endeavoured to sober himself by dipping his head in
the hollowed tree-trunk which serves for the water-trough of an
up-country Australian inn.  He forgot, however, to take off his
'cabbage-tree' before he ducked, and angry at having made a
fool of himself, he gave fierce orders, in a thick voice, for
his men to fall in, shoulder arms, and mark time."

1865.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'History of the Discovery
and Exploration of Australia,' vol. i. pp. 160, 161:

"The cabbage-palm was also a new species, called by Mr. Brown
the Livistonia inermis.  It was abundant; but the
cabbage (the heart of the young budding leaves) too small to be
useful as an article of food, at least to a ship's company.
But the leaves were found useful.  These dried and drawn into
strips were plaited into hats for the men, and to this day the
cabbage-tree hat is very highly esteemed by the Australians, as
a protection from the sun, and allowing free ventilation."
[Note]: "A good cabbage-tree hat, though it very much resembles
a common straw hat, will fetch as much as L3."

1878.  'The Australian,' vol. i. p. 527:

". . . trousers, peg-top shaped, and wore a new cabbage-tree

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 33:

"A brand-new cabbage-tree hat protected his head."

Cabbage-tree Mob, and Cabbagites, obsolete
Australian slang for modern Larrikins (q.v)., because
wearing cabbage-tree hats.

1852.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes '(edition 1855), p. 17:

"There are to be found round the doors of the Sydney Theatre a
sort of 'loafers' known as the Cabbage-tree mob,--a
class who, in the spirit of the ancient tyrant, one might
excusably wish had but one nose in order to make it a bloody
one. . . .  Unaware of the propensities of the cabbagites he
was by them furiously assailed."

Cad, n.  name in Queensland for the Cicada

1896.  'The Australasian,' Jan. 11, p. 76, col. 1:

"From the trees sounds the shrill chirp of large green cicada
(native cads as the bushmen call them)."

Caddie, n. a bush name for the slouch-hat or
wide-awake.  In the Australian bush the brim is generally
turned down at the back and sometimes all round.

Cadet, n. term used in New Zealand,
answering to the Australian Colonial Experience,
or jackaroo (q.v.).

1866.  Lady Barker, 'Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 68:

"A cadet, as they are called--he is a clergyman's son learning
sheepfarming under our auspices."

1871.  C. L. Money, 'Knocking About in New Zealand,' p. 6:

"The military designation of cadet was applied to any young
fellow who was attached to a sheep or cattle station in the
same capacity as myself.  He was 'neither flesh nor fowl nor
good red herring,' neither master nor man.  He was sent to work
with the men, but not paid."

Caloprymnus, n. the scientific name of the
genus called the Plain Kangaroo-Rat.
(Grk. kalos, beautiful, and prumnon, hinder
part.)  It has bright flanks.  See Kangaroo-Rat.

Camp, n. (1) A place to live in, generally
temporary; a rest.

1885.  H.  Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' pp. 46, 47:

" I was shown my camp, which was a slab but about a hundred
yards away from the big house. . . .  I was rather tired, and
not sorry for the prospect of a camp."

(2) A place for mustering cattle.

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' p. 64:

"All about the run, at intervals of fire or six miles, are
cattle-camps, and the cattle that belong to the surrounding
districts are mustered on their respective camps."

1896.  A. B. Paterson, 'Man from Snowy River,' p. 26:

"There was never his like in the open bush,
 And never his match on the cattle-camps."

(3) In Australia, frequently used for a camping-out expedition.
Often in composition with "out," a camp-out.

1869.  'Colonial Monthly,' vol. iv.p. 289:

"A young fellow with even a moderate degree of sensibility must
be excited by the novelty of his first 'camp-out' in the
Australian bush."

1880.  R. H. Inglis, 'Australian Cousins,' p. 233:

"We're going to have a regular camp; we intend going to Port
Hocking to have some shooting, fishing, and general diversion."

(4) A name for Sydney and for Hobart, now long obsolete,
originating when British military forces were stationed there.

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. ii.
p. 70:

"It is the old resident--he who still calls Sydney, with its
population of twelve thousand inhabitants, the
camp,--that can appreciate these things: he who still
recollects the few earth-huts and solitary tents scattered
through the forest brush surrounding Sydney Cove (known
properly then indeed by the name of 'The Camp')."

1852.  Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 193:

"Living during the winter in Hobarton, usually called 'the
camp,' in those days."

Camp, v. (1) Generally in composition with
"out," to sleep in the open air, usually without any covering.
Camping out is exceedingly common in Australia owing to the
warmth of the climate and the rarity of rain.

1867.  Lady Barker, 'Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 125:

"I like to hear of benighted or belated travellers when they
have had to 'camp out,' as it is technically called."

1875.  R. and F. Hill, 'What we saw in Australia,' p. 208:

"So the Bishop determined to 'camp-out' at once where a good
fire could be made."

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. ii. p. 43:

"There is room here for fifty, rolled up on the floor; and
should that fail them, there is no end of other places; or the
bush, as a fall back, where, indeed, some of them prefer
camping as it is."

1891.  'The Australasian,' Nov. 14, p. 963, col. 1: 'A Lady in
the Kermadecs':

"For three months I 'camped out' there alone, shepherding a
flock of Angoras."

(2) By extension, to sleep in any unusual place, or at an
unusual time.

1893.  'Review of Reviews' (Australasian ed. ), March, p. 51:

"The campaign came to an abrupt and somewhat inglorious close,
Sir George Dibbs having to 'camp' in a railway carriage, and
Sir Henry Parkes being flood-bound at Quirindi."

1896.  Modern:

"Visitor,--'Where's your Mother?'  'Oh, she's camping.'" [The
lady was enjoying an afternoon nap indoors.]

(3) To stop for a rest in the middle of the day.

1891.  Mrs. Cross (Ada Cambridge), 'The Three Miss Kings,'
p. 180:

"We'll have lunch first before we investigate the caves--if
it's agreeable to you.  I will take the horses out, and we'll
find a nice place to camp before they come."

(4) To floor or prove superior to.  Slang.

1886.  C. H. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 207:

"At punching oxen you may guess
 There's nothing out can camp him.
 He has, in fact, the slouch and dress,
 Which bullock-driver stamp him."

Camphor-wood, n. an Australian timber; the wood
of Callitris (Frenea) robusta, Cunn.,
N.O. Coniferae.  Called also Light, Black, White,
Dark, and Common Pine, as the wood varies much in
its colouring.  See Pine.

Canajong, n.  Tasmanian aboriginal name for
the plants called Pig-faces (q.v.).

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 44:

"Pig-faces.  It was the canajong of the Tasmanian
aboriginal.  The fleshy fruit is eaten raw by the aborigines:
the leaves are eaten baked."

Canary, n. (1) A bird-name used in New Zealand
for Clitonyx ochrocephala, called also the
Yellow-head.  Dwellers in the back-blocks of Australia
apply the name to the Orange-fronted Ephthianura
(E. aurifrons, Gould), and sometimes to the
White-throated Gerygone (Gerygone albigularis).

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 56:

"Clitonyx Ochrocephala.  Yellow-head.  'Canary' of the

(2) Slang for a convict.  See quotations.  As early as 1673,
'canary-bird' was thieves' English for a gaol-bird.

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. ii.
p. 117:

"Convicts of but recent migration are facetiously known by the
name of canaries, by reason of the yellow plumage in
which they are fledged at the period of landing."

1870.  T. H. Braim, 'New Homes,' c. ii. p. 72:

"The prisoners were dressed in yellow-hence called 'canary

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. vi. p. 49:

"Can't you get your canaries off the track here for about
a quarter of an hour, and let my mob of cattle pass ?"

Candle-nut, n. The name is given in Queensland
to the fruit of Aleurites moluccana, Willd.,
N.O. Euphorbiaceae.  The nuts are two or more inches
diameter.  The name is often given to the tree itself, which
grows wild in Queensland and is cultivated in gardens there
under the name of A. triloba, Forst.  It is not endemic
in Australia, but the vernacular name of Candle-nut is
confined to Australia and the Polynesian Islands.

1883.  F. M. Bailey, 'Synopsis of Queensland Flora,' p. 472:

"Candle-nut.  The kernels when dried and stuck on a reed are
used by the Polynesian Islanders as a substitute for candles,
and as an article of food in New Georgia.  These nuts resemble
walnuts somewhat in size and taste.  When pressed they yield a
large proportion of pure palatable oil, used as a drying-oil
for paint, and known as country walnut-oil and artists' oil."

Cane-grass, n. i.q. Bamboo-grass

Cape-Barren Goose, n. See Goose.

1852.  Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 114,

"The 'Cape Barren Goose' frequents the island from which it
takes its name, and others in the Straits.  It is about the
same size as a common goose, the plumage a handsome mottled
brown and gray, somewhat owl-like in character."

[Cape Barren Island is in Bass Strait, between Flinders Island
and Tasmania.  Banks Strait flows between Cape Barren Island
and Tasmania.  The easternmost point on the island is called
Cape Barren.]

Cape-Barren Tea, n. a shrub or tree, Correa
alba, Andr., N.O. Rutaceae.

1834.  Ross, 'Van Diemen's Land Annual,' p. 134:

"Leptospermum lanigerum, hoary tea-tree; Acacia
decurrens, black wattle; Correa alba, Cape Barren
tea.  The leaves of these have been used as substitutes for tea
in the colony."

Cape Lilac, n. See Lilac.

Cape Weed, n. In Europe, Roccella
tinctoria, a lichen from the Cape de Verde Islands, from
which a dye is produced.  In New Zealand, name given to the
European cats-ear, Hypaechoris radicata.  In Australia
it is as in quotation below.  See 'Globe Encyclopaedia,' 1877

1878.  W. R. Guilfoyle, 'First Book of Australian Botany,'
p. 60:

"Cape Weed.  Cryptostemma Calendulaceum.  (Natural
Order, Compositae.)  This weed, which has proved such
a pest in many parts of Victoria, was introduced from the Cape
of Good Hope, as a fodder plant.  It is an annual, flowering
in the spring, and giving a bright golden hue to the fields.
It proves destructive to other herbs and grasses, and though
it affords a nutritious food for stock in the spring, it dies
off in the middle of summer, after ripening its seeds, leaving
the fields quite bare."

Caper-tree, n. The Australian tree of this name
is Capparis nobilis, F. v. M., N.O. Capparideae.
The Karum of the Queensland aboriginals.  The fruit is
one to two inches in diameter.  Called also Grey Plum or
Native Pomegranate.  The name is also given to
Capparis Mitchelli, Lindl.  The European caper is
Capparis spinosa, Linn.

1894.  'Melbourne Museum Catalogue, Economic Woods,' p. 10:

"Native Caper Tree or Wild Pomegranate.  Natural Order,
Capparideae. Found in the Mallee Scrub.  A small tree.
The wood is whitish, hard, close-grained, and suitable for
engraving, carving, and similar purposes.  Strongly resembles

Captain Cook, or Cooker, n. New
Zealand colonists' slang.  First applied to the wild pigs of
New Zealand, supposed to be descended from those first
introduced by Captain Cook; afterwards used as term of reproach
for any pig which, like the wild variety, obstinately refused
to fatten.  See Introduction.

1879.  W. Quin, 'New Zealand Country Journal,' vol. iii. p. 55:

"Many a rare old tusker finds a home in the mountain gorges.
The immense tusks at Brooksdale attest the size of the wild
boars or Captain Cooks, as the patriarchs are generally named."

1894.  E. Wakefield, 'New Zealand after Fifty Years,' p. 85:

"The leanness and roughness of the wild pig gives it quite a
different appearance from the domesticated variety; and hence a
gaunt, ill-shaped, or sorry-looking pig is everywhere called in
derision a 'Captain Cook.'"

Carbora, n. aboriginal name for (1) the
Native Bear.  See Bear.

(2) A kind of water worm that eats into timber between high and
low water on a tidal river.

Cardamom, n. For the Australian tree of this
name, see quotation.

1890.  C. Lumholtz,' Among Cannibals,' p. 96:

"The Australian cardamom tree." [Footnote]: "This is a
fictitious name, as are the names of many Australian plants and
animals.  The tree belongs to the nutmeg family, and its real
name is Myristica insipida.  The name owes its
existence to the similarity of the fruit to the real cardamom.
But the fruit of the Myristica has not so strong and
pleasant an odour as the real cardamom, and hence the tree is
called insipida."

Carp, n. The English fish is of the family
Cyprinidae.  The name is given to different fishes in
Ireland and elsewhere.  In Sydney it is Chilodactylus
fuscus, Castln., and Chilodactylus macropterus,
Richards.; called also Morwong (q.v.).  The Murray
Carp is Murrayia cyprinoides, Castln., a percoid
fish.  Chilodactylis belongs to the family
Cirrhitidae, in no way allied to Cyprinidae,
which contains the European carps.  Cirrhitidae, says
Guenther, may be readily recognized by their thickened
undivided lower pectoral rays, which in some are evidently
auxiliary organs of locomotion, in others, probably, organs of

Carpet-Shark, n. i.q. Wobbegong (q.v.)

Carpet-Snake, n. a large Australian snake with
a variegated skin, Python variegata, Gray.  In
Whitworth's 'Anglo-Indian Dictionary,' 1885 (s.v.), we are told
that the name is loosely applied (sc. in India) to any kind of
snake found in a dwelling-house other than a cobra or a dhaman.
In Tasmania, a venomous snake, Hoplocephalus curtus,
Schlegel.  See under Snake.

Carrier, n. a local name for a water-bag.

1893.  A. F. Calvert, 'English Illustrated,' Feb., p. 321:

"For the water-holders or 'carriers' (made to fit the bodies of
the horses carrying them, or to 'ride easily' on

Carrot, Native, (1) Daucus brachiatus, Sieb.,
N.O. Umbelliferae.  Not endemic in Australia.

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 64:

"The native carrot . . . was here withered and in seed."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 124:

"Native carrot.  Stock are very fond of this plant when young.
Sheep thrive wonderfully on it where it is plentiful.  It is a
small annual herbaceous plant, growing plentifully on sandhills
and rich soil; the seeds, locally termed 'carrot burrs,' are
very injurious to wool, the hooked spines with which the seeds
are armed attaching themselves to the fleece, rendering
portions of it quite stiff and rigid.  The common carrot
belongs, of course, to this genus, and the fact that it is
descended from an apparently worthless, weedy plant, indicates
that the present species is capable of much improvement by

(2) In Tasmania Geranium dissectum, Linn., is also
called "native carrot."

Cascarilla, Native, n. an Australian timber,
Croton verreauxii, Baill., N.O. Euphorbiaceae.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 408:

"Native cascarilla.  A small tree; wood of a yellowish colour,
close-grained and firm."

Cassowary, n. The word is Malay, the genus
being found in "the Islands in the Indian Archipelago."
('O.E.D.')  The Australian variety is Casuarius
australis, Waller.  The name is often erroneously applied
(as in the first two quotations), to the Emu (q.v.), which is
not a Cassowary.

1789.  Governor Phillip, 'Voyage,' c. xxii. p. 271:

"New Holland Cassowary.  [Description given.] This bird is not
uncommon to New Holland, as several of them have been seen
about Botany Bay, and other parts. . . .  Although this bird
cannot fly, it runs so swiftly that a greyhound can scarcely
overtake it.  The flesh is said to be in taste not unlike

1802.  G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,'
c. xi. p. 438:

"The cassowary of New South Wales is larger in all respects
than the well-known bird called the cassowary."

1869.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia' (Supplement):

"Casuarius Australis, Wall., Australian Cassowary,
sometimes called Black Emu."

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 73:

"One day an egg of a cassowary was brought to me; this bird,
although it is nearly akin to the ostrich and emu, does not,
like the latter, frequent the open plains, but the thick
brushwood.  The Australian cassowary is found in Northern
Queensland from Herbert river northwards, in all the large
vine-scrubs on the banks of the rivers, and on the high
mountains of the coasts."

Ibid. p. 97.

"The proud cassowary, the stateliest bird of Australia
. . . this beautiful and comparatively rare creature.'"

1891.  'Guide to Zoological Gardens, Melbourne':

"The Australian cassowary. . . .  They are somewhat shorter
and stouter in build than the emu."

Casuarina, n. the scientific name of a large
group of trees common to India, and other parts lying between
India and Australasia, but more numerous in Australia than
elsewhere, and often forming a characteristic feature of the
vegetation. They are the so-called She-oaks (q.v.).  The
word is not, however, Australian, and is much older than the
discovery of Australia.  Its etymology is contained in the
quotation, 1877.

1806.  'Naval Chronicles,' c. xv. p. 460:

"Clubs made of the wood of the Casuarina."

1814.  R. Brown, 'Botany of Terra Australis,' in M. Flinders'
'Voyage to Terra Australis,' vol. ii. p. 571:

"Casuarinae.  The genus Casuarina is certainly not
referable to any order of plants at present established
. . . it may be considered a separate order. . . .  The maximum
of Casuarina appears to exist in Terra Australis, where it
forms one of the characteristic features of the vegetation."

1855.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes,' p. 160:

"The dark selvage of casuarinas fringing its bank."

1861.  T. McCombie, 'Australian Sketches,' p. 10:

"The vegetation assumed a new character, the eucalyptus and
casuarina alternating with the wild cherry and honeysuckle."

1877.  F. v. Mueller, 'Botanic Teachings,' p. 34:

"The scientific name of these well-known plants is as
appropriate as their vernacular appellation is odd and
unsuited.  The former alludes to the cassowary (Casuarius), the
plumage of which is comparatively as much reduced among birds,
as the foliage of the casuarinas is stringy among trees.  Hence
more than two centuries ago Rumph already bestowed the name
Casuarina on a Java species, led by the Dutch colonists, who
call it there the Casuaris-Boom.  The Australian vernacular
name seems to have arisen from some fancied resemblance of the
wood of some casuarinas to that of oaks, notwithstanding the
extreme difference of the foliage and fruit; unless, as
Dr. Hooker supposes, the popular name of these trees and shrubs
arose from the Canadian 'Sheack.'"

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 397:

"From a fancied resemblance of the wood of casuarinas to that
of oak, these trees are called 'oaks,' and the same and
different species have various appellations in various parts."

1890.  C. Lumholtz; 'Among Cannibals,' p. 33:

"Along its banks (the Comet's) my attention was drawn to a
number of casuarinas--those leafless, dark trees, which always
make a sad impression on the traveller; even a casual observer
will notice the dull, depressing sigh which comes from a grove
of these trees when there is the least breeze.'"

Cat-bird, n. In America the name is given to
Mimus carolinensis, a mocking thrush, which like the
Australian bird has a cry resembling the mewing of a cat.  The
Australian species are--

The Cat-bird--
 Ailuraedus viridis, Lath.

Spotted C.--
 Ailuraedus maculosus, Ramsay.
 Pomatostomus rubeculus, Gould.

Tooth-billed C.--
 Scenopaeus dentirostris, Ramsay.

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl. 11:

"Its loud, harsh and extraordinary note is heard; a note which
differs so much from that of all other birds, that having been
once heard it can never be mistaken.  In comparing it to the
nightly concert of the domestic cat, I conceive that I am
conveying to my readers a more perfect idea of the note of this
species than could be given by pages of description.  This
concert, like that of the animal whose name it bears, is
performed either by a pair or several individuals, and nothing
more is required than for the hearer to shut his eyes from the
neighbouring foliage to fancy himself surrounded by London
grimalkins of house-top celebrity."

1888.  D.Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 36:

"One of the most peculiar of birds' eggs found about the Murray
is that of the locally-termed 'cat-bird,' the shell of which is
veined thickly with dark thin threads as though covered with a
spider's web."

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals.' p. 96:

"The cat-bird (AEluraedus maculosus), which makes its
appearance towards evening, and has a voice strikingly like the
mewing of a cat."

1893.  'The Argus,' March 25:

"Another quaint caller of the bush is the cat-bird, and its
eggs are of exactly the colour of old ivory."

1896.  G. A. Keartland, 'Horne Expedition in Central Australia,'
pt. ii. Zoology, p. 92:

"Their habit of mewing like a cat has gained for them the local
cognomen of cat-birds."

Cat-fish, n. The name is applied in the Old
World to various fishes of the family Siluridae, and
also to the Wolf-fish of Europe and North America.  It arises
from the resemblance of the teeth in some cases or the
projecting "whiskers" in others, to those of a cat.  In
Victoria and New South Wales it is a fresh-water fish,
Copidoglanis tandanus, Mitchell, brought abundantly to
Melbourne by railway.  It inhabits the rivers of the Murray
system, but not of the centre of the continent.  Called also
Eel-fish and Tandan (q.v.).  In Sydney the same
name is applied also to Cnidoglanis megastoma, Rich.,
and in New Zealand Kathetostoma monopterygium.
Cnidoglanis and Cnidoglanis are Siluroids, and
Kathetostoma is a"stargazer," i.e. a fish having eyes
on the upper surface of the head, belonging to the family

1851.  J. Henderson, 'Excursions in New South Wales,' vol. ii.
p. 207:

"The Cat-fish, which I have frequently caught in the McLeay,
is a large and very ugly animal.  Its head is provided with
several large tentacatae, and it has altogether a disagreeable
appearance.  I have eat its flesh, but did not like it."

1880.  Mrs. Meredith, 'Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 213

"Mr. Frank Buckland . . . writing of a species of rock-fish,
says--'I found that it had a beautiful contrivance in the
conformation of its mouth.  It has the power of prolongating
both its jaws to nearly the extent of half-an-inch from their
natural position.  This is done by a most beautiful bit of
mechanism, somewhat on the principle of what are called 'lazy
tongs.'  The cat-fish possesses a like feature, but on a much
larger scale, the front part of the mouth being capable of
being protruded between two and three inches when seizing

Cat, Native, n. a small carnivorous marsupial,
of the genus Dasyurus.  The so-called native cat is not
a cat at all, but a marsupial which resembles a very large rat
or weasel, with rather a bushy tail.  It is fawn-coloured or
mouse-coloured, or black and covered with little white spots; a
very pretty little animal.  It only appears at night, when it
climbs fences and trees and forms sport for moonlight shooting.
Its skin is made into fancy rugs and cloaks or mantles.

The animal is more correctly called a Dasyure (q.v.).
The species are--

Black-tailed Native Cat
 Dasyurus geoffroyi, Gould.

Common N.C. (called also Tiger Cat, q.v.)--
 D. viverrimus, Shaw.

North Australian N.C.--
 D. hallucatus, Gould.

Papuan N.C.--
 D. albopienetatus, Schl.

Slender N.C.--
 D. gracilis, Ramsay.

Spotted-tailed N.C. (called also Tiger Cat)--
 D. maculatus, Kerr.

1880.  Mrs. Meredith, 'Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 67:

"The native cat is similar [to the Tiger Cat; q.v.] but
smaller, and its for is an ashy-grey with white spots.
We have seen two or three skins quite black, spotted with white,
but these are very rare."

1885.  H. H.Hayter, 'Carboona,' p. 35:

"A blanket made of the fur-covered skins of the native cat."

1894.  'The Argus,' June 23, p. 11, col. 4:

"The voices of most of our night animals are guttural and
unpleasing.  The 'possum has a throaty half-stifled squeak,
the native cat a deep chest-note ending with a hiss and easily
imitated." [See Skirr.]

Catholic Frog, n. name applied to a frog living
in the inland parts of New South Wales, Notaden
bennettii, Guenth., which tides over times of drought in
burrows, and feeds on ants.  Called also "Holy Cross Toad."
The names are given in consequence of a large cross-shaped
blackish marking on the back.

1801.  J. J. Fletcher, 'Proceedings of the Linnaean Society,
New South Wales,' vol. vi. (2nd series), p. 265:

"Notaden bennettii, the Catholic frog, or as I have
heard it called the Holy Cross Toad, I first noticed in January
1885, after a heavy fall of rain lasting ten days, off and on,
and succeeding a severe drought."

Cat's Eyes, n.  Not the true Cat's-eye,
but the name given in Australia to the opercula of Turbo
smaragdus, Martyn, a marine mollusc.  The operculum is the
horny or shelly lid which closes the aperture of most spiral
shell fish.

Cat's-head Fern, n. Aspidium aculeatum, Sw.:

1880. Mrs. Meredith, 'Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 220:

"The cat's-head fern; though why that name was given to it I
have not the remotest idea. . . .  It is full of beauty--the
pinnules so exquisitely formed and indented, and gemmed beneath
with absolute constellations of Spori Polystichum

Catspaw, n. a Tasmanian plant, Trichinium
spathulatum, Poir., N.O. Amarantaceae.

Cat's Tail, n. See Wonga.

Cattle-bush, n. a tree, Atalaya
hemiglauca, F. v. M., N.O. Sapindacea.
It is found in South Australia, New South Wales,
and Queensland, and is sometimes called Whitewood.

1889.  J. H.  Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 117:

"Cattle-bush . . .  The leaves of this tree are eaten by stock,
the tree being frequently felled for their use during seasons
of drought."

Cattle-duffer, n.  a man who steals cattle
(usually by altering their brands).  See also Duffer.

1886.  'Melbourne Punch,' July 15, Cartoon Verses:

"Cattle-duffers on a jury may be honest men enough,
 But they're bound to visit lightly sins in those
   who cattle duff."

Cattle-racket, n.  Explained in quotation.

1852.  'Settlers and Convicts; or Recollections of Sixteen
Years' Labour in the Australian Backwoods,' p. 294:

"A Cattle-racket.  The term at the head of this chapter was
originally applied in New South Wales to the agitation of
society which took place when some wholesale system of plunder
in cattle was brought to light.  It is now commonly applied to
any circumstance of this sort, whether greater or less, and
whether springing from a felonious intent or accidental."

Caustic-Creeper, n. name given to Euphorbia
drummondii, Boiss., N.O. Euphorbiaceae.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 127:

"Called 'caustic-creeper' in Queensland.  Called 'milk-plant'
and 'pox-plant' about Bourke.  This weed is unquestionably
poisonous to sheep, and has recently (Oct. 1887) been reported
as having been fatal to a flock near Bourke, New South
Wales. . . .  When eaten by sheep in the early morning, before
the heat of the sun has dried it up, it is almost certain to be
fatal.  Its effect on sheep is curious.  The head swells to an
enormous extent, becoming so heavy that the animal cannot
support it, and therefore drags it along the ground; the ears
suppurate. (Bailey and Gordon.)"

Caustic-Plant, or Caustic-Vine,
n. Sarcostemma australis, R. Br., N.O.
Asclepiadea.  Cattle and sheep are poisoned by eating it.

Cavally, n. the original form of the Australian
fish-name Trevally (q.v.).  The form Cavally is
used to Europe, but is almost extinct in Australia; the form
Trevally is confined to Australia.

Cedar, n. The true Cedar is a Conifer
(N.O. Coniferae) of the genus Cedrus, but the
name is given locally to many other trees resembling it in
appearance, or in the colour or scent of their wood.  The New
Zealand Cedar is the nearest approach to the true
Cedar, and none of the so-called Australian
Cedars are of the order Coniferae.  The following
are the trees to which the name is applied in Australia:--

Bastard Pencil Cedar--
 Dysoxylon rfum, Benth., N.O. Meliaceae.

Brown C.--
 Ehretia acuminata, R. Br., N.O. Asperifoliae.

Ordinary or Red C.-- Cedrela australis, F. v. M.
 Cedrela toona, R. Br., N.O. Meliaceae.
[C. toona is the "Toon" tree of India: its timber is
known in the English market as Moulmein Cedar; but the Baron
von Mueller doubts the identity of the Australian Cedar with
the "Toon" tree; hence his name australis.]

Pencil C.--
 Dysoxylon Fraserianum, Benth., N.O. Meliaceae.

Scrub White C.-- Pentaceras australis, Hook. and Don.,
 N.O. Rutacea.

White C.--
 Melia composita, Willd., N.O. Meliaceae.

Yellow C.--
 Rhus rhodanthema, F. v. M., N.O. Anacardiacae.

In Tasmania, three species of the genus Arthrotaxis are
called Cedars or Pencil Cedars; namely, A. cupressoides,
Don., known as the King William Pine; A. laxifolza,
Hook., the Mountain Pine; and A. selaginoides, Don., the
Red Pine.  All these are peculiar to the island.

In New Zealand, the name of Cedar is applied to Libocedrus
bidwillii, Hook., N.O. Coniferae; Maori name,

1838.  T. L. Mitchell, 'Three Expeditions, vol. i. p. 328:

"The cedar of the colony (Cedrela toona, R. Br.), which
is to be found only in some rocky gullies of the coast range."

1883.  F. M. Bailey, 'Synopsis of Queensland Flora,' p. 63:

"Besides being valuable as a timber-producing tree, this red
cedar has many medicinal properties.  The bark is spoken of as
a powerful astringent, and, though not bitter, said to be a
good substitute for Peruvian bark in the cure of remitting and
intermitting fevers."

1883.  J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 123:

"Pahautea, Cedar.  A handsome conical tree sixty to eighty feet
high, two to three feet in diameter.  In Otago it produces a
dark-red, freeworking timber, rather brittle . . . frequently
mistaken for totara."

Celery, Australian, or Native,
n. Apium australe, Thon.  Not endemic
in Australia.  In Tasmania, A. prostratum, Lab.,
N.O. Umbelliferae.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 7:

"Australian Celery.  This plant may be utilised as a culinary
vegetable. (Mueller.)  It is not endemic in Australia."

Celery-topped Pine.  n. See Pine.  The
tree is so called from the appearance of the upper part of the
branchlets, which resemble in shape the leaf of the garden

1889.  T. Kirk, 'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 9:

"The tanekaha is one of the remarkable 'celery-topped pines,'
and was discovered by Banks and Solander during Cook's first

Centaury, Native, n. a plant, Erythraea
australis, R. Br., N.O. Gentianeae.  In New South
Wales this Australian Centaury has been found useful in
dysentery by Dr. Woolls.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 175:

"Native centaury . . . is useful as a tonic medicine, especially
in diarrhoea and dysentery.  The whole plant is used and is
pleasantly bitter.  It is common enough in grass-land, and
appears to be increasing in popularity as a domestic remedy."

Centralia, n. a proposed name for the colony
South Australia ,(q.v.).

1896.  J. S. Laurie, 'Story of Australasia,' p. 299:

"For telegraphic, postal, and general purposes one word is
desirable for a name--e.g. why not Centralia; for West
Australia, Westralia; for New South Wales, Eastralia?"

Cereopsis, n. scientific name of the genus
of the bird peculiar to Australia, called the Cake Barren
Goose.  See Goose.  The word is from Grk.
kaeros, wax, and 'opsis, face, and was given
from the peculiarities of the bird's beak.  The genus is
confined to Australia, and Cereopsis novae-hollandiae
is the only species known. The bird was noticed by the early
voyagers to Australia, and was extraordinarily tame when first

Channel-Bill, n. name given to a bird
resembling a large cuckoo, Scythrops novae-hollandiae,
Lath.  See Scythrops.

Cheesewood, n. a tree, so-called in Victoria (it
is also called Whitewood and Waddywood in Tasmania),
Pittosporum bicolor, Hook., N.O. Pittosporeae.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 588:

"Cheesewood is yellowish-white, very hard, and of uniform
texture and colour.  It was once used for clubs by the
aboriginals of Tasmania.  It turns well, and should be tested
for wood engraving. ('Jurors' Reports, London International
Exhibition of 1862.')  It is much esteemed for axe-handles,
billiard-cues, etc."

Cherry, Herbert River, n. a Queensland tree,
Antidesma dallachyanum, Baill., N.O. Euphorbiaceae.
The fruit is equal to a large cherry in size, and has a sharp acid

Cherry, Native, n. an Australian tree,
Exocarpus cupressiformis, R. Br.,
N.O. Santalaceae.

1801.  'History of New South Wales' (1818), p. 242:

"Of native fruits, a cherry, insipid in comparison of the
European sorts, was found true to the singularity which
characterizes every New South Wales production, the stone being
on the outside of the fruit."

1830.  R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 411:

"The shrub which is called the native cherry-tree appears like
a species of cyprus, producing its fruit with the stone united
to it on the outside, the fruit and the stone being each about
the size of a small pea.  The fruit, when ripe, is similar in
colour to the Mayduke cherry, but of a sweet and somewhat
better quality, and slightly astringent to the palate,
possessing, upon the whole, an agreeable flavour."

1852.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes' (edition 1851, p. 219:

"The cherry-tree resembles a cypress but is of a tenderer
green, bearing a worthless little berry, having its stone or
seed outside, whence its scientific name of exocarpus."

1855.  W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 33:

"We also ate the Australian cherry, which has its stone, not on
the outside, enclosing the fruit, as the usual phrase would
indicate, but on the end with the fruit behind it.  The
stone is only about the size of a sweet-pea, and the fruit only
about twice that size, altogether not unlike a yew-berry, but
of a very pale red.  It grows on a tree just like an arbor
vitae, and is well tasted, though not at all like a cherry in

1877.  F. v. Mueller, 'Botanic Teachings,' p. 40:

"The principal of these kinds of trees received its generic
name first from the French naturalist La Billardiere, during
D'Entrecasteaux's Expedition.  It was our common Exocarpus
cupressiformis, which he described, and which has been
mentioned so often in popular works as a cherry-tree, bearing
its stone outside of the pulp.  That this crude notion of the
structure of the fruit is erroneous, must be apparent on
thoughtful contemplation, for it is evident at the first
glance, that the red edible part of our ordinary exocarpus
constitutes merely an enlarged and succulent fruit-stalklet
(pedicel), and that the hard dry and greenish portion,
strangely compared to a cherry-stone, forms the real fruit,
containing the seed."

1889.  J. H. 'Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 30:

"The fruit is edible.  The nut is seated on the enlarged
succulent pedicel.  This is the poor little fruit of which so
much has been written in English descriptions of the
peculiarities of the Australian flora.  It has been likened to
a cherry with the stone outside (hence the vernacular name) by
some imaginative person."

1893.  'Sydney Morning Herald,' Aug. 19, p. 7, col. 1:

"Grass-trees and the brown brake-fern, whips of native cherry,
and all the threads and tangle of the earth's green russet
vestment hide the feet of trees which lean and lounge between
us and the water, their leaf heads tinselled by the light."

Cherry-picker, n. bird-name.  See quotation.

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. p. 70:

"Melithreptus Validirostris, Gould.  Strong-billed
Honey-eater [q.v.].  Cherry-picker, colonists of Van Diemen's

Chestnut Pine, n.  See Pine.

Chewgah-bag, n. Queensland aboriginal
pigeon-English for Sugar-bag (q.v.).

Chinkie, n. slang for a Chinaman. "John,"
short for John Chinaman, is commoner.

1882.  A. J. Boyd, 'Old Colonials,' p. 233:

"The pleasant traits of character in our colonialised 'Chinkie,'
as he is vulgarly termed (with the single variation 'Chow')."

Chock-and-log, n. and adj. a particular
kind of fence much used on Australian stations.  The
Chock is a thick short piece of wood laid flat, at
right-angles to the line of the fence, with notches in it to
receive the Logs, which are laid lengthwise from
Chock to Chock, and the fence is raised in four
or five layers of this chock-and-log to form, as it
were, a wooden wall.  Both chocks and logs are rough-hewn or
split, not sawn.

1872.  G. S. Baden-Powell,'New Homes for the Old Country,' p. 207:

"Another fence, known as 'chock and log,' is composed of long
logs, resting on piles of chocks, or short blocks of wood."

1890.  'The Argus.' Sept.  20, p. 13, col. 5:

"And to finish the Riverine picture, there comes a herd of
kangaroos disturbed from their feeding-ground, leaping through
the air, bounding over the wire and 'chock-and-log' fences like
so many india-rubber automatons."

Choeropus, n. the scientific name for the genus
of Australian marsupial animals with only one known species,
called the Pigfooted-Bandicoot (q.v.), and see
Bandicoot.  (Grk. choiros, a pig,
and pous, foot.)  The animal is about the size
of a rabbit, and is confined to the inland parts of Australia.

Christmas, n. and adj.  As Christmas
falls in Australasia at Midsummer, it has different
characteristics from those in England, and the word has
therefore a different connotation.

1852.  Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' p. 184:

"Sheep-shearing in November, hot midsummer weather at
Christmas, the bed of a river the driest walk, and corn
harvest in February, were things strangely at variance
with my Old-World notions."

1896.  H. Lawson, 'When the World was Wide,' p. 164:

"One Christmas time when months of drought
 Had parched the western creeks,
 The bush-fires started in the north
 And travelled south for weeks."

Christmas-bush, n. an Australian tree,
Ceratopetalum gummiferum, Smith,
N.O. Saxifrageae.  Called also Christmas-tree
(q.v.), and Officer-bush.

1888.  Mrs. McCann, 'Poetical Works,' p. 226:

"Gorgeous tints adorn the Christmas bush with a crimson blush."

Christmas-tree, n. In Australia, it is the same
as Christmas-bush (q.v.).  In New Zealand, it is
Metrosideros tomentosa, Banks, N.O. Myrtaceae;
Maori name, Pohutukawa (q.v.).

1867.  F. Hochstetter, 'New Zealand,' p. 240:

"Some few scattered Pohutukaua trees (Metrosideros
tomentosa), the last remains of the beautiful vegetation
. . .  About Christmas these trees are full of charming purple
blossoms; the settler decorates his church and dwelling with
its lovely branches, and calls the tree 'Christmas-tree'! "

1888.  D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 186:

"The Christmas-tree is in a sense the counterpart of the holly
of the home countries.  As the scarlet berry gives its ruddy
colour to Christmas decorations in 'the old country,' so here
the creamy blossoms of the Christmas-tree are the only shrub
flowers that survive the blaze of midsummer."

1889.  E. H. and S. Featon, 'New Zealand Flora,' p. 163:

"The Pohutukawa blossoms in December, when its profusion of
elegant crimson-tasselled flowers imparts a beauty to the
rugged coast-line and sheltered bays which may fairly be called
enchanting.  To the settlers it is known as the
'Christmas-tree,' and sprays of its foliage and flowers are
used to decorate churches and dwellings during the festive
Christmastide.  To the Maoris this tree must possess a weird
significance, since it is related in their traditions that at
the extreme end of New Zealand there grows a Pohutukawa from
which a root descends to the beach below.  The spirits of the
dead are supposed to descend by this to an opening, which is
said to be the entrance to 'Te Reinga.'"

Chucky-chucky, n. aboriginal Australian name
for a berry; in Australia and New Zealand, the fruit of species
of Gaultheria.  See Wax Cluster.

1885.  R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 146:

"To gather chucky-chuckies--as the blacks name that most
delicious of native berries."

1891.  T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' 'New Zealand Country
Journal,' vol. xv. p. 198:

"When out of breath, hot and thirsty, how one longed for a
handful of chuckie-chucks.  In their season how good we used to
think these fruits of the gaultheria, or rather its
thickened calyx.  A few handfuls were excellent in quenching
one's thirst, and so plentifully did the plant abound that
quantities could soon be gathered.  In these rude and simple
days, when housekeepers in the hills tried to convert carrots
and beet-root into apricot and damson preserves, these notable
women sometimes encouraged children to collect sufficient
chuckie-chucks to make preserve.  The result was a jam of a
sweet mawkish flavour that gave some idea of a whiff caught in
passing a hair-dresser's shop."

Chum, n. See New Chum.

Chy-ack, v. simply a variation of the English
slang verb, to cheek.

1874.  Garnet Walch, 'Adamanta,' Act ii. sc. ii. p. 27:

"I've learnt to chi-ike peelers."

[Here the Australian pronunciation is also caught.  Barere and
Leland give "chi-iked (tailors), chaffed unmercifully," but
without explanation.]

1878.  'The Australian,' vol. i. p. 742 :

"The circle of frivolous youths who were yelping at and
chy-acking him."

1894.  E. W. Hornung, 'Boss of Taroomba,' p. 5:

"It's our way up here, you know, to chi-ak each other and our
visitors too."

Cicada, n. an insect.  See Locust.

1895.  G. Metcalfe, 'Australian Zoology,' p. 62:

"The Cicada is often erroneously called a locust. . . .  It is
remarkable for the loud song, or chirruping whirr, of the males
in the heat of summer; numbers of them on the hottest days
produce an almost deafening sound."

Cider-Tree, or Cider-Gum, n. name given
in Tasmania to Eucalyptus gunnii, Hook.,
N.O. Myrtaceae.  See Gum.

1830.  Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 119:

"Specimens of that species of eucalyptus called the cider-tree,
from its exuding a quantity of saccharine liquid resembling
molasses. . . .  When allowed to remain some time and to
ferment, it settles into a coarse sort of wine or cider, rather
intoxicating if drank to any excess."

City, n.  In Great Britain and Ireland the word
City denotes "a considerable town that has been,
(a) an episcopal seat,
(b) a royal burgh, or
(c) created to the dignity, like Birmingham, Dundee, and Belfast,
by a royal patent.  In the United States and Canada, a
municipality of the first class, governed by a mayor and
aldermen, and created by charter." ('Standard.')
In Victoria, by section ix. of the Local Government Act, 1890,
54 Victoria, No. 1112, the Governor-in-Council may make orders,

"To declare any borough, including the city of Melbourne and
the town of Geelong, having in the year preceding such
declaration a gross revenue of not less than twenty thousand
pounds, a city."

Claim, n. in mining, a piece of land
appropriated for mining purposes: then the mine itself.
The word is also used in the United States.  See also
Reward-claim and Prospecting-claim.

1858.  T. McCombie, 'History of Victoria,' c. xiv. p. 213:

"A family named Cavanagh . . . entered a half-worked claim."

1863.  H. Fawcett, 'Political Economy,' pt. iii. c. vi.
p. 359 ('O.E.D.'):

"The claim upon which he purchases permission to dig."

1887.  H. H. Hayter, 'Christmas Adventure,' p. 3:

"I decided . . . a claim to take up."

Clay-pan, n.  name given, especially in the dry
interior of Australia, to a slight depression of the ground
varying in size from a few yards to a mile in length, where the
deposit of fine silt prevents the water from sinking into the
ground as rapidly as it does elsewhere.

1875.  John Forrest, 'Explorations in Australia,' p. 260:

"We travelled down the road for about thirty-three miles over
stony plains; many clay-pans with water but no feed."

1896.  Baldwin Spencer, 'Horne Expedition in Central Australia,'
Narrative, vol. i. p. 17:

"One of the most striking features of the central area and
especially amongst the loamy plains and sandhills, is the
number of clay-pans.  These are shallow depressions, with no
outlet, varying in length from a few yards to half a mile,
where the surface is covered with a thin clayey material, which
seems to prevent the water from sinking as rapidly as it does
in other parts."

Clean-skins, or Clear-skins,
n. unbranded cattle or horses.

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 206:

"These clean-skins, as they are often called, to distinguish
them from the branded cattle."

1884.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c. xv. p. 109:

"Strangers and pilgrims, calves and clear-skins, are separated
at the same time."

1889.  Rev. J. H. Zillmann, 'Australian Life,' p. 82:

"'Clear-skins,' as unbranded cattle were commonly called, were
taken charge of at once."

1893.  'The Argus,' April 29, p.4, col. 4:

"As they fed slowly homeward bellowing for their calves, and
lowing for their mates, the wondering clean-skins would come up
in a compact body, tearing, ripping, kicking, and moaning,
working round and round them in awkward, loblolly canter."

Clearing lease, n. Explained in quotation.

1846.  J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. i. c. x.
p. 321:

"[They] held a small piece of land on what is called a clearing
lease--that is to say, they were allowed to retain possession
of it for so many years for the labour of clearing the land."

Clematis, n. the scientific and vernacular name
of a genus of plants belonging to the
N.O. Ranunculaceae.  The common species in Australia is
C. aristata, R. Br.

1834.  Ross, 'Van Diemen's Land Annual,' p. 124:

"The beautiful species of clematis called
aristata, which may be seen in the months of November
and December, spreading forth its milk-white blossoms over the
shrubs . . . in other places rising up to the top of the highest

Clianthus, n. scientific name for an
Australasian genus of plants, N.O. Leguminosae,
containing only two species--in Australia, Sturt's Desert
Pea (q.v.), C. dampieri; and in New Zealand, the
Kaka-bill (q.v.), C. puniceus.  Both species are
also called Glory-Pea, from Grk. kleos, glory,
and anthos, a flower.

1892.  'Otago Witness,' Nov.24, 'Native Trees':

"Hooker says the genus Clianthus consists of the
Australian and New Zealand species only, the latter is
therefore clearly indigenous.  'One of the most beautiful
plants known' (Hooker).  Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. Solandel
found it during Cook's first voyage."

Climbing-fish, n. i.q. Hopping-fish

Climbing-Pepper, n. See Pepper.

Clitonyx, n. the scientific name of a genus of
New Zealand birds, including the Yellow-head (q.v.) and
the White-head (q.v.); from Greek klinein, root
klit, to lean, slant, and 'onux, claw.  The genus
was so named by Reichenbach in 1851, to distinguish the New
Zealand birds from the Australian birds of the genus
Orthonyx (q.v.), which formerly included them both.

Clock-bird, n. another name for the Laughing
Jachass.  See Jackass.

Clock, Settlers', n. i.q. Clock-bird,

Cloudy-Bay Cod, n. a New Zealand name for the
Ling (q.v.).  See also Cod.

Clover-Fern, n. another name for the plant
called Nardoo (q.v.).

Clover, Menindie, n. an Australian fodder
plant, Trigonella suavissima, Lind.,
N.O. Leguminoseae.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 143:

'From its abundance in the neighbourhood of Menindie, it is
often called Menindie-clover.'  It is the 'Australian shamrock'
of Mitchell.  This perennial, fragrant, clover-like plant is a
good pasture herb."

Clover-Tree, n. a Tasmanian tree, called also
Native Laburnun. See under Laburnum.

Coach, n. a bullock used as a decoy to catch
wild cattle.  This seems to be from the use of coach as the
University term for a private tutor.

1874.  W. H. L. Ranken, 'Dominion of Australia,' c. vi. p. 110:

"To get them [sc. wild cattle] a party of stockmen take a small
herd of quiet cattle, 'coaches.'"

Coach, v. to decoy wild cattle or horses with
tame ones.

1874.  W. H. L. Ranken, 'Dominion of Australia,' c. vi. p. 121:

"Here he [the wild horse] may be got by 'coaching' like wild

Coach-whip Bird, n. Psophodes crepitans,
V. and H. (see Gould's 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iii. pl. 15);
Black-throated C.B., P. nigrogularis, Gould.  Called also
Whipbird and Coachman.

1827.  Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean Society,'
vol. xv. p. 330:

"This bird is more often heard than seen. It inhabits bushes.
The loud cracking whip-like noise it makes (from whence the
colonists give it the name of coachwhip), may be heard from a
great distance."

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. ii.
p. 158:

"If you should hear a coachwhip crack behind, you may
instinctively start aside to let the mail pass; but
quickly find it is only our native coachman with his spread-out
fantail and perked-up crest, whistling and cracking out his
whip-like notes as he hops sprucely from branch to branch."

1844.  Mrs. Meredith, 'Notes and Sketches of New South Wales,'
p. 137:

"Another equally singular voice among our feathered friends was
that of the 'coachman,' than which no title could be more
appropriate, his chief note being a long clear whistle, with a
smart crack of the whip to finish with."

1845.  R. Howitt, 'Australia,' p. 177:

"The bell-bird, by the river heard;
 The whip-bird, which surprised I hear,
 In me have powerful memories stirred
 Of other scenes and strains more dear;
 Of sweeter songs than these afford,
 The thrush and blackbird warbling clear."
                       --Old Impressions.

1846.  G. H.  Haydon, 'Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 71:

"The coach-whip is a small bird about the size of a sparrow,
found near rivers.  It derives its name from its note, a slow,
clear whistle, concluded by a sharp jerking noise like the
crack of a whip."

1855.  W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. ii. p. 76:

"The whip-bird, whose sharp wiry notes, even, are far more
agreeable than the barking of dogs and the swearing of

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 24:

"That is the coach-whip bird.  There again.
Whew-ew-ew-ew-whit.  How sharply the last note sounds."

1887.  R. M. Praed, 'Longleat of Kooralbyn,' c. vi. p. 54:

"The sharp st--wt of the whip-bird . . . echoed through the

1888.  James Thomas, 'May o' the South,' 'Australian Poets
1788-1888' (ed. Sladen), p. 552:

"Merrily the wagtail now
 Chatters on the ti-tree bough,
 While the crested coachman bird
'Midst the underwood is heard."

Coast, v. to loaf about from station to

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Squatter's Dream,' xxv. 295:

"I ain't like you, Towney, able to coast about without a job
of work from shearin' to shearin'."

Coaster, n. a loafer, a Sundowner

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Squatter's Dream,' viii. 75:

"A voluble, good-for-nothing, loafing impostor, a regular

Cobb, n. sometimes used as equivalent to a
coach.  "I am going by Cobb."  The word is still used, though
no Mr. Cobb has been connected with Australian coaches for many
years.  See quotation.

1861.  T. McCombie, 'Australian Sketches,' p. 184:

"Mr. Cobb was an American, and has returned long ago to his
native country.  He started a line of conveyances from
Melbourne to Castlemaine some time after the gold discoveries.
Mr. Cobb had spirit to buy good horses, to get first-class
American coaches, to employ good Yankee whips, and in a couple
of years or so he had been so extensively patronised that he
sold out, and retired with a moderate fortune."  [But the
Coaching Company retained . . . the style of Cobb & Co.]

1879 (about). 'Queensland Bush Song':

"Hurrah for the Roma Railway!
   Hurrah for Cobb and Co.!
 Hurrah, hurrah for a good fat horse
   To carry me Westward Ho!"

Cobbler, n. (1) The last sheep, an Australian
shearing term.  (2) Another name for the fish called the
Fortescue (q.v.)

1893.  'The Herald' (Melbourne), Dec. 23, p. 6, col. 1:

"Every one might not know what a 'cobbler' is.  It is the last
sheep in a catching pen, and consequently a bad one to shear,
as the easy ones are picked first.  The cobbler must be taken
out before 'Sheep-ho' will fill up again.  In the harvest field
English rustics used to say, when picking up the last sheaf,
'This is what the cobbler threw at his wife.'  'What?'  'The
last,' with that lusty laugh, which, though it might betray 'a
vacant mind,' comes from a very healthy organism."

Cobblers-Awl, n. bird-name.  The word is a
provincial English name for the Avocet.  In Tasmania,
the name is applied to a Spine-Bill (q.v.) from the
shape of its beak.

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl. 61:

"Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris, Lath., Slender-billed
Spine-bill.  Cobbler's Awl, Colonists of Van Diemen's
Land.  Spine-bill, Colonists of New South Wales."

Cobbler's Pegs, name given to a tall erect annual
weed, Erigeron linifolius, Willd.,
N.O. Compositae and to Bidens pilosus, Linn.,
N.O. Compositae.

Cobbra, n. aboriginal word for head, skull.
[Kabura or Kobbera, with such variations as
Kobra, Kobbera, Kappara, Kopul, from Malay Kapala, head: one of
the words on the East Coast manifestly of Malay
origin.--J. Mathew.  Much used in pigeon converse with
blacks. 'Goodway cobra tree' = 'Tree very tall.']  Collins,
'Port Jackson Vocabulary,' 1798 (p. 611), gives 'Kabura,
ca-ber-ra.'  Mount Cobberas in East Gippsland has its name from
huge head-like masses of rock which rise from the summit.

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 31:

"The black fellow who lives in the bush bestows but small
attention on his cobra, as the head is usually called in the
pigeon-English which they employ."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. xiii. p. 134:

"I should be cock-sure that having an empty cobbra, as the
blacks say, was on the main track that led to the grog-camp."

Cock-a-bully, n. a popular name for the New
Zealand fish Galaxias fasciatus, Gray, a corruption of
its Maori name Kokopu (q.v.).

1896.  'The Australasian,' Aug. 28, p. 407, col. 3:

"During my stay in New Zealand my little girl caught a fish
rather larger than an English minnow.  Her young companions
called it a 'cock-a bully.'  It was pretty obvious to scent
a corruption of a Maori word, for, mark you, cock-a-bully has
no meaning.  It looks as if it were English and full of meaning.
Reflect an instant and it has none.  The Maori name for the
fish is 'kokopu'"

Cockatiel, -eel, n. an arbitrary
diminutive of the word Cockatoo, and used as another name for
the Cockatoo-Parrakeet, Calopsitta novae-hollandiae,
and generally for any Parrakeet of the genus Calopsitta.

Cockatoo, n. (1) Bird-name.  The word is Malay,
Kakatua. ('O.E.D.')  The varieties are--

Banksian Cockatoo--
 Calyptorhynchus banksii, Lath.

Bare-eyed C.--
 Cacatua gymnopis, Sclater.

Black C.--
 Calyptorhynchus funereus, Shaw.

Blood-stained C.--
 Cacatua sanguinea, Gould.

Dampier's C.--
 Licmetis pastinator, Gould.

Gang-gang C.-- Callocephalon galeatum, Lath.  [See

Glossy C.--
 Calyptorhynchus viridis, Vieill.

Long-billed C.--
 Licmetis nasicus, Temm.  [See Corella.]

Palm C.--
 Microglossus aterrimus, Gmel.

Pink C.--
 Cacatua leadbeateri, V. & H. (Leadbeater, q.v.).

Red-tailed C.--
 Calyptorhynchus stellatus, Wagl.

Rose-breasted C.-- Cacatua roseicapilla, Vieill.  [See
 Galah.  Gould calls it Cocatua eos.

White C.--
 Cacatua galerita, Lath.

White-tailed C.--
 Calyptorhynchus baudinii, Vig.

See also Parrakeet.

1839.  T. L. Mitchell, 'Three Expeditions, vol. ii. p. 62:

"We saw to-day for the first time on the Kalare, the redtop
cockatoo (Plyctolophus Leadbeateri)."

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' c. viii. p. 272:

"The rose-breasted cockatoo (Cocatua eos, Gould) visited
the patches of fresh burnt grass."

Ibid. p. 275:

"The black cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus Banksii) has been
much more frequently observed of late."

1857.  Daniel Bunce, 'Australasiatic Reminiscences,' p. 175:

"Dr. Leichhardt caught sight of a number of cockatoos; and,
by tracking the course of their flight, we, in a short time,
reached a creek well supplied with water."

1862.  G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,'
c. ix. p. 331:

"White cockatoos and parroquets were now seen."

1890.  'Victorian Statutes, Game Act, Third Schedule':

"Black Cockatoos.  Gang-gang Cockatoos.  [Close season.] From
the 1st day of August to the 10th day of December next
following in each year."

1893.  'The Argus,' March 25, p.4, col. 6:

"The egg of the blood-stained cockatoo has not yet been
scientifically described, and the specimen in this collection
has an interest chiefly in that it was taken [by Mr. A. J.
Campbell] from a tree at Innamincka waterholes, not far from
the spot where Burke the explorer died."

(2) A small farmer, called earlier in Tasmania a
Cockatooer (q.v.).  The name was originally given in
contempt (see quotations), but it is now used by farmers
themselves.  Cocky is a common abbreviation.  Some people
distinguish between a cockatoo and a
ground-parrot, the latter being the farmer on a very
small scale.  Trollope's etymology (see quotation, 1873) will
not hold, for it is not true that the cockatoo scratches the
ground.  After the gold fever, circa 1860, the selectors
swarmed over the country and ate up the substance of the
squatters; hence they were called Cockatoos.  The word
is also used adjectivally.

1863.  M. K. Beveridge, 'Gatherings among the Gum-trees,'
p. 154:

"Oi'm going to be married
 To what is termed a Cockatoo--
 Which manes a farmer."

1867.  Lady Barker, 'Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 110:

"These small farmers are called cockatoos in Australia by the
squatters or sheep-farmers, who dislike them for buying up the
best bits on their runs; and say that, like a cockatoo, the
small freeholder alights on good ground, extracts all he can
from it, and then flies away, to 'fresh fields and pastures
new.' . . .  However, whether the name is just or not, it is a
recognised one here; and I have heard a man say in answer to a
question about his usual 'occupation, 'I'm a cockatoo.'"

1873.  A. Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,'
vol. ii. p. 135:

"The word cockatoo in the farinaceous colony has become so
common as almost to cease to carry with it the intended
sarcasm. . . .  It signifies that the man does not really
till his land, but only scratches it as the bird does."

1882.  A. J. Boyd, 'Old Colonials,' p. 32:

"It may possibly have been a term of reproach applied to the
industrious farmer, who settled or perched on the resumed
portions of a squatter's run, so much to the latter's rage and
disgust that he contemptuously likened the farmer to the
white-coated, yellow-crested screamer that settles or perches
on the trees at the edge of his namesake's clearing."

1889.  'Cornhill Magazine,' Jan., p. 33:

"'With a cockatoo' [Title].  Cockatoo is the name given
to the small, bush farmer in New Zealand."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. xliii. p. 377:

"The governor is a bigoted agriculturist; he has contracted
the cockatoo complaint, I'm afraid."

1893, 'The Argus,' June 17, p. 13, col. 4:

"Hire yourself out to a dairyman, take a contract with a
rail-splitter, sign articles with a cockatoo selector;
but don't touch land without knowing something about it."

Cockatoo, v. intr. (1) To be a farmer.

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Squatter's Dream,' c. xx. p. 245:

"Fancy three hundred acres in Oxfordshire, with a score or two
of bullocks,and twice as many black-faced Down sheep.  Regular

(2) A special sense--to sit on a fence as the bird sits.

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'A Colonial Reformer,' c. xviii. p. 224:

"The correct thing, on first arriving at a drafting-yard, is to
'cockatoo,' or sit on the rails high above the tossing

Cockatooer, n. a variant of Cockatoo
(q.v.), quite fallen into disuse, if quotation be not a nonce

1852.  Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 137:

"A few wretched-looking huts and hovels, the dwellings of
'cockatooers,' who are not, as it might seem, a species of
bird, but human beings; who rent portions of this forest
. . . on exorbitant terms . . . and vainly endeavour to exist
on what they can earn besides, their frequent compulsory
abstinence from meat, when they cannot afford to buy it, even
in their land of cheap and abundant food, giving them some
affinity to the grain-eating white cockatoos."

Cockatoo Fence, n. fence erected by small

1884.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c. xxii. p. 155:

"There would be roads and cockatoo fences . . . in short, all
the hostile emblems of agricultural settlement."

1890.  Lyth, 'Golden South,' c. xiv. p. 120:

"The fields were divided by open rails or cockatoo fences, i.e.
branches and logs of trees laid on the ground one across the
other with posts and slip-rails in lieu of gates."

Cockatoo Bush, n. i.q.  Native Currant

Cockatoo Orchis, n. a Tasmanian name for the
Orchid, Caleya major, R. Br.

Cock-eyed Bob, a local slang term in Western Australia
for a thunderstorm.

1894.  'The Age,' Jan. 20, p. 13, col. 4:

"They [the natives of the northwest of Western Australia] are
extremely frightened of them [sc. storms called Willy
Willy, q.v.], and in some places even on the approach of an
ordinary thunderstorm or 'Cock-eyed Bob,' they clear off to the
highest ground about."

Cockle, n.  In England the name is given to a
species of the familiar marine bivalve mollusc, Cardium.
The commonest Australian species is Cardium
tenuicostatum, Lamarck, present in all extra-tropical
Australia.  The name is also commonly applied to members of the
genus Chione.

Cock-Schnapper, n. a fish; the smallest kind of
Schnapper (q.v.).  See also Count-fish.

1882.  Rev. I. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Fish of New South Wales,'
p. 41:

"The usual method of estimating quantity for sale by the
fisherman is, by the schnapper or count-fish, the school-fish,
and squire, among which from its metallic appearance is the
copper head or copper colour, and the red bream.  Juveniles
rank the smallest of the fry, not over an inch or two in
length, as the cock-schnapper.  The fact, however, is now
generally admitted that all these are one and the same genus,
merely in different stages of growth."

Cod, n. This common English name of the
Gadus morrhua is applied to many fishes in Australia of
various families, Gadoid and otherwise.  In Melbourne it is
given to Lotella callarias, Guenth., and in New South
Wales to several fishes of the genus Serranus.
Lotella is a genus of the family Gadidae, to
which the European Cod belongs; Serranus is a Sea perch
(q.v.).  See Rock Cod, Black Rock Cod, Red Rock Cod, Black
Cod, Elite Cod, Red Cod, Murray Cod, Cloudy Bay Cod, Ling,
Groper, Hapuku, and Haddock.

Coffee-Bush, n.  a settlers' name for the New
Zealand tree the Karamu (q.v.).  Sometimes called also

Coffer-fish, n. i.q. Trunk-fish (q.v.).

Coffee Plant, or Coffee Berry, n. name
given in Tasmania to the Tasmanian Native Holly (q.v.).

Colonial Experience, n. and used as
adj. same as cadet (q.v.) in New Zealand;
a young man learning squatting business, gaining his colonial
experience.  Called also jackaroo (q.v.).

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'A Colonial Reformer,' p. 95:

"You're the first 'colonial experience' young fellow that it
ever occurred to within my knowledge."

Colonial Goose, n. a boned leg of mutton
stuffed with sage and onions.  In the early days the sheep was
almost the sole animal food.  Mutton was then cooked and served
in various ways to imitate other dishes.

Colour, n. sc. of gold.  It is sometimes used
with 'good,' to mean plenty of gold: more usually, the 'colour'
means just a little gold, enough to show in the dish.

1860.  Kelly, 'Life in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 222:

". . . they had not, to use a current phrase, 'raised the

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood.  'Miner's Right,' c. xiv. p. 149:

"This is the fifth claim he has been in since he came here,
and the first in which he has seen the colour."

1891.  W. Lilley, 'Wild West of Tasmania,' p. 14:

"After spending a little time there, and not finding more than
a few colours of gold, he started for Mount Heemskirk."

Convictism, n. the system of transportation of
convicts to Australia and Van Diemen's Land, now many years

1852.  J. West, 'History of Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 309:

"May it remain nailed to the mast until these colonies are
emancipated from convictism."

1864.  'Realm,' Feb. 24, p.4 ('O.E.D.'):

"No one who has not lived in Australia can appreciate the profound
hatred of convictism that obtains there."

1880.  G. Sutherland, 'Tales of Goldfields,' p. 16:

"They preferred to let things remain as they were, convictism

Coobah, n. an aboriginal name for the tree
Acacia salicina, Lindl., N.O.Leguminosae.  See
Acacia.  The spellings vary, and sometimes begin with a K.

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Squatter's Dream,' v. 46:

"A deep reach of the river, shaded by couba trees and

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. xxviii. p. 400:

"The willowy coubah weeps over the dying streamlet."

Coo-ee, or Cooey, n. and
interj.  spelt in various ways.  See quotations.  A call
borrowed from the aborigines and used in the bush by one
wishing to find or to be found by another.  In the vocabulary
of native words in 'Hunter's Journal,' published in 1790, we
find "Cow-ee = to come."

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 23:

"In calling to each other at a distance, the natives make use
of the word Coo-ee, as we do the word Hollo,
prolonging the sound of the coo, and closing that of the
ee with a shrill jerk. . . .  [It has] become of general
use throughout the colony; and a newcomer, in desiring an
individual to call another back, soon learns to say
'Coo-ee' to him, instead of Hollo to him."

1830.  R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 162:

"He immediately called 'coo-oo-oo' to the natives at the fire."

1836.  Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 84:

"There yet might be heard the significant 'cooy' or
'quhy,' the true import of which was then unknown to our ears."

1839.  T. L. Mitchell, 'Three Expeditions,' p. 46:

"Although Mr. Brown made the woods echo with his 'cooys.'"
[See also p. 87, note.]

1845.  Clement Hodgkinson, 'Australia from Port Macquarie to
Moreton Bay,' p. 28:

"We suddenly heard the loud shrill couis of the natives."

1846.  C. P. Hodgson, 'Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 231:

"Their cooieys are not always what we understand by the word,
viz., a call in which the first note is low and the second
high, uttered after sound of the word cooiey.  This is a note
which congregates all together and is used only as a simple

1852.  J. West, 'History of Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 91:

"Like the natives of New South Wales, they called to each other
from a great distance by the cooey; a word meaning 'come
to me.'  The Sydney blacks modulated this cry with successive
inflexions; the Tasmanian uttered it with less art.  It is a
sound of great compass.  The English in the bush adopt it: the
first syllable is prolonged; the second is raised to a higher
key, and is sharp and abrupt."

1862.  W. Landsborough, 'Exploration of Australia,' [Footnote]
p. 24:

"Coo-oo-oo-y is a shrill treble cry much used in the
bush by persons wishful to find each other.  On a still night
it will travel a couple of miles, and it is thus highly
serviceable to lost or benighted travellers."

1869.  J. F. Townend, 'Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 155:

"The jingling of bells round the necks of oxen, the cooey of
the black fellow . . . constituted the music of these desolate

1873.  J. B. Stephens, 'Black Gin,' p. 82:

"Hi! . . . cooey! you fella . . . open 'im lid."

1880.  Fison and Howitt, 'Kamilaroi and Kurnai,' p. 183:

"A particular 'cooee' . . . was made known to the young men
when they were initiated."

1880.  G. Sutherland, 'Tales of the Goldfields,' p. 40:

"From the woods they heard a prolonged cooee, which evidently
proceeded from some one lost in the bush."

1885.  R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 276:

"Two long farewell coo-ees, which died away in the silence of
the bush."

1890.  E. W. Hornung, 'A Bride from the Bush,' p. 184:

"The bride encircled her lips with her two gloved palms,
and uttered a cry that few of the hundreds who heard it ever
forgot--'coo-ee!'  That was the startling cry as nearly as
it can be written.  But no letters can convey the sustained
shrillness of the long, penetrating note represented by the
first syllable, nor the weird, die-away wail of the second.
It is the well-known bushcall,the 'jodel' of the black fellow."

Cooee, within, adv. within easy distance.

1887.  G. L. Apperson, in 'All the Year Round,' July 30, p. 67,
col. 1 ('O.E.D.'):

"A common mode of expression is to be 'within cooey' of a
place.  . . .  Now to be 'within cooey' of Sydney is to be
at the distance of an easy journey therefrom."

1893.  'The Herald' (Melbourne), June 26, p. 2, col. 6:

"Witness said that there was a post-office clock 'within
coo-ee,' or within less than half-a-mile of the station."

1896.  H. Lawson, 'When the World was Wide,' p. 80:

"Just to camp within a cooey of the Shanty for the night."

Cooee, v.intr. to utter the call.

1830.  R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 81:

"Our sable guides 'cooed' and 'cooed' again, in their usual
tone of calling to each other at a distance."

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition, p. 115:

"Brown cooyed to him, and by a sign requested him to wait for

1847.  J. D. Lang, 'Phillipsland,' p. 85 [Footnote]:

"Cooey is the aboriginal mode of calling out to any person at a
distance, whether visible or not, in the forest.  The sound is
made by dwelling on the first syllable, and pronouncing the
second with a short, sharp, rising inflexion.  It is much
easier made, and is heard to a much greater distance than the
English holla! and is consequently in universal use
among the colonists. . . .  There is a story current in the
colony of a party of native-born colonists being in London, one
of whom, a young lady, if I recollect aright, was accidentally
separated from the rest, in the endless stream of pedestrians
and vehicles of all descriptions, at the intersection of Fleet
Street with the broad avenue leading to Blackfriars Bridge.
When they were all in great consternation and perplexity at the
circumstance, it occurred to one of the party to cooey,
and the well-known sound, with its ten thousand Australian
associations, being at once recognised and responded to, a
reunion of the party took place immediately, doubtless to the
great wonderment of the surrounding Londoners, who would
probably suppose they were all fit for Bedlam."

1848.  W. Westgarth, 'Australia Felix,' p. 90:

"They [the aborigines] warily entered scrubs, and called out
(cooyed) repeatedly in approaching water-holes, even when yet
at a great distance."

1852.  J. West, 'History of Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 91:

"A female, born on this division of the globe, once stood at
the foot of London Bridge, and cooyed for her husband, of whom
she had lost sight, and stopped the passengers by the novelty
of the sound; which however is not unknown in certain
neighbourhoods of the metropolis.  Some gentlemen, on a visit
to a London theatre, to draw the attention of their friends in
an opposite box, called out cooey; a voice in the gallery
answered 'Botany Bay!'"

1880 (circa). 'Melbourne Punch,' [In the days of long trains]:

"George, there's somebody treading on my dress; cooee to the
bottom of the stairs."

Coo-in-new, n. aboriginal name for "a useful
verbenaceous timber-tree of Australia, Gmelina
leichhardtii, F. v. M.  The wood has a fine silvery grain,
and is much prized for flooring and for the decks of vessels,
as it is reputed never to shrink after a moderate seasoning."
('Century.')  Usually called Mahogany-tree (q.v.).

Coolaman or Kooliman, n. an aboriginal
word, Kamilaroi Dialect of New South Wales.  [W. Ridley,
'Kamilaroi,' p. 25, derives it from Kulu, seed, but it
is just as likely from Kolle, water.--J. Mathew.]  A
hollowed knot of a tree, used as a seed vessel, or for holding
water.  The word is applied to the excrescence on the tree as
well as to the vessel; a bush hand has been heard to speak of a
hump-backed man as 'cooliman-backed.'

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 269:

"Three koolimans (vessels of stringy bark) were full of honey
water, from one of which I took a hearty draught."

1863.  M. K. Beveridge, 'Gatherings among the Gum-trees,'
p. 37:

"And the beautiful Lubrina
    Fetched a Cooliman of water."

[In Glossary.] Cooliman, a hollow knot of a tree for holding

186.  W. Howitt, 'Discovery in Australia, vol. ii. p. 24:

"Koolimans, water vessels. . .  The koolimans were made of the
inner layer of the bark of the stringy-bark tree."

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. ii. p. 185:

"Coolaman, native vessel for holding water."

1885.  Mrs. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 76:

"Cooliman, a vessel for carrying water, made out of the bark
which covers an excrescence peculiar to a kind of gum-tree."

Cooper's-flag, n. another name in New Zealand
for Raupo (q.v.).

Coopers-wood, n. the timber of an Australian
tree, Alphitonia excelsa, Reiss, N.O. Rhamneae.
The wood becomes dark with age, and is used for coopers' staves
and various purposes.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 373:

"Variously called Mountain-ash, Red-ash, Leather-jacket,
and Coopers-wood."

Coordaitcha.  See Kurdaitcha.

Coot, n. common English birdname; the
Australian species is Fulica australis, Gould.
See also Bald-Coot.

Copper-head, n. See under Snake.

Copper Maori.  This spelling has been influenced by
the English word Copper, but it is really a corruption
of a Maori word.  There is a difference of opinion amongst
Maori scholars what this word is.  Some say Kapura, a
common fire used for cooking, in contradistinction to a
'chief's fire,' at which he sat, and which would not be allowed
to be defiled with food.  Others say Kopa.  The Maori
word Kopa was (1) adj. meaning bent, (2)
n. angle or corner, and (3) the native
oven, or more strictly the hole scooped out for the oven.

1888.  T. Pine, 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,' 'A
local tradition of Raukawa,' vol. xxi. p. 417:

"So they set to work and dug holes on the flat, each hole about
2 ft. across and about 1 1/2 ft. deep, and shaped something
like a Kopa Maori."

1889.  H. D. M. Haszard, ibid.  'Notes on some Relics of
Cannibalism,' vol. xxii. p. 104:

"In two distinct places, about four chains apart, there were a
number of Kapura Maori, or native ovens, scattered about
within a radius of about forty feet."

Coprosma, n. scientific and vernacular
name fora large genus of trees and shrubs of the order
Rubiaceae.  From the Greek kopros, dung,
on account of the bad smell of some of the species.
See quotation.  The Maori name is Karamu (q.v.).
Various species receive special vernacular names,
which appear in their places in the Dictionary.

1889.  T. Kirk, 'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 110:

"Corosma comprises about forty species, of which at
least thirty are found in New Zealand, all of which are
restricted to the colony except C. pumila, which extends
to Australia.  Five species are found in Australia, one of
which is C. pumila mentioned above.  A few species occur
in the Pacific, Chili, Juan Fernandez, the Sandwich Islands,

Coral, n. See Batswing-Coral.

Coral-Fern, n. name given in Victoria to
Gleichenia circinata, Swartz, called in Bailey's list
Parasol-Fern.  See Fern.

Coral-Flower, n. a plant, Epacris
(q.v.), Epacris microphylla, R. Br.,
N.O. Epacrideae.

Coral-Pea, n. another name for the Kennedya

1896.  'The Melburnian,' Aug.  28, p. 53:

"The trailing scarlet kennedyas, aptly called the
'bleeding-heart' or 'coral pea,' brighten the greyness of the
sandy, peaty wastes."

Coranderrk, n. the aboriginal name for the
Victorian Dogwood (q.v.).  An "aboriginal station," or
asylum and settlement for the remaining members of the
aboriginal race of Victoria, is called after this name because
the wood grew plentifully there.

Cordage-tree, n. name given in Tasmania to a
Kurrajong (q.v.).  The name Sida pulchella has
been superseded by Plagianthus sidoides, Hook.

1835.  Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 108:

"Sida pulchella.  Handsome Sida.  Currijong or cordage tree of
Hobart Town. . . .  The bark used to be taken for tying up post
and rail fences, the rafters of huts, in the earlier periods of
the colony, before nails could be so easily procured."

Corella, n. any parrot of the genus
Nymphicus; the word is dim. of late Lat. cora =
korh, a girl, doll, etc.  The Australian Corella is
N. novae-hollandiae, and the name is also given to
Licmetus nasicus, Temm, the Long-billed Cockatoo
(q.v.).  It is often used indiscriminately by bird-fanciers for
any pretty little parrot, parrakeet, or cockatoo.

Cork-tree, n. See Bat's-wing Coral.

Corkwood, n. a New Zealand tree, Entelea
arborescens, R. Br., N.O. Tiliaceae.  Maori name,

1889.  T. Kirk, 'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 45:

"The whau . . . is termed corkwood by the settlers on account
of its light specific gravity."

Cormorant, n. common English bird-name.
In Australia the name is applied to the following birds:--

Black Cormorant--
 Graculus novae-hollandiae, Steph.

Little C.--
 G. melanoleucus, Vieill.

Little-black C.--
 G. stictocephalus, Bp. .

Pied C.--
 G. varius, Gm.

White-breasted Cormorant--
 G. leucogaster, Gould.

White-throated C.--
 G. brevirostris, Gould.

Cornstalk, n. a young man or a girl born
and bred in New South Wales, especially if tall and big.

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,'
vol. ii. p. 116:

"The colonial-born, bearing also the name of cornstalks (Indian
corn), from the way in which they shoot up."

1834.  Geo. Benett, 'Wanderings in New South Wales,' vol. i.
p. 341:

"The Australian ladies may compete for personal beauty and
elegance with any European, although satirized as 'Cornstalks,'
from the slenderness of their forms."

1849.  J. P. Townsend, 'Rambles in New South Wales,' p. 68:

"Our host was surrounded by a little army of 'cornstalks.'. . .
The designation 'cornstalk' is given because the young people
run up like the stems of the Indian corn."

1869.  W. R. Honey, 'Madeline Clifton,' Act III. sc. v. p. 30:

"Look you, there stands young cornstalk."

1878.  'The Australian,' vol. i. p. 526:

"If these are the heroes that my cornstalk friends worship
so ardently, they must indeed be hard up for heroes."

1893.  Haddon Chambers, 'Thumbnail Sketches of Australian Life,'
p. 217:

"While in the capital I fell in with several jolly cornstalks,
with whom I spent a pleasant time in boating, fishing, and
sometimes camping out down the harbour."

Correa, n. the scientific name of a genus of
Australian plants of the N.O. Rutaceae, so named after
Correa de Serra, a Portuguese nobleman who wrote on rutaceous
plants at the beginning of the century.  They bear scarlet or
green and sometimes yellowish flowers, and are often called
Native Fuchsias (q.v.), especially C. speciosa, Andrews,
which bears crimson flowers.

1827.  R. Sweet, 'Flora Australasica,' p. 2:

"The genus was first named by Sir J. E. Smith in compliment to
the late M. Correa de Serra, a celebrated Portuguese botanist."

1859.  H. Kingsley, 'Geoffrey Hamlyn,' p. 384:

"The scarlet correa lurked among the broken quartz."

1877.  F. v. Mueller, 'Botanic Teachings,' p. 70:

"With all wish to maintain vernacular names, which are not
actually misleading, I cannot call a correa by the common
colonial name 'native fuchsia,' as not the slightest structural
resemblance and but little habitual similarity exists between
these plants; they indeed belong to widely different orders."


"All Correas are geographically restricted to the south-eastern
portion of the Australian continent and Tasmania, the genus
containing but few species."

1880.  Mrs. Meredith, 'Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 23:

"I see some pretty red correa and lilac." [Footnote]: "Correa
speciosa, native fuchsia of Colonies."

Corrobbery, n. This spelling is nearest to the
accepted pronunciation, the accent falling on the second
syllable.  Various spellings, however, occur,
viz.--Corobbery, Corrobery, Corroberry, Corroborree,
Corrobbory, Corroborry, Corrobboree, Coroboree, Corroboree,
Korroboree, Corroborri, Corrobaree, and Caribberie.
To these Mr. Fraser adds Karabari (see quotation, 1892),
but his spelling has never been accepted in English.  The word
comes from the Botany Bay dialect.

[The aboriginal verb (see Ridley's 'Kamilaroi and other
Australian Languages,' p. 107) is korobra, to dance; in the
same locality boroya or beria means to sing; probably koro is
from a common Australian word for emu.--J. Mathew.]

(1) An aboriginal name for a dance, sacred, festive, or

1793.  Governor Hunter, 'Port Jackson, p. 195:

"They very frequently, at the conclusion of the dance, would
apply to us . . . for marks of our approbation . . . which we
never failed to give by often repeating the word boojery,
good; or boojery caribberie, a good dance."

1830.  R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 280:

"Dancing with their corrobery motion."

Ibid. p. 311:

"With several corrobery or harlequin steps."

1833.  C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' vol. ii. c. iii. p. 55:

"They hold their corrobbores (midnight ceremonies)."

1836.  C. Darwin, 'Journal of the Voyage of the Beagle' (ed. 1882),
c. xix. p. 450:

"A large tribe of natives, called the white cockatoo men,
happened to pay a visit to the settlement while we were there.
These men as well as those of the tribe belonging to King
George's Sound, being tempted by the offer of some tubs of rice
and sugar were persuaded to hold a 'corrobery' or great dancing
party."  [Description follows.]

1838.  T. L. Mitchell, 'Three Expeditions,' vol. ii. p. 4:

"There can be little doubt that the corrobboree is the medium
through which the delights of poetry and the drama are enjoyed
in a limited degree, even by these primitive savages of New

1844.  Mrs. Meredith. 'Notes and Sketches of New South Wales,'
p. 91:

"Great preparations were made, as for a grand corrobory, or
festival, the men divesting themselves of even the portions of
clothing commonly worn, and painting their naked black bodies
in a hideous manner with pipe-clay.  After dark, they lit their
fires, which are small, but kept blazing with constant
additions of dry bark and leaves, and the sable gentry
assembled by degrees as they completed their evening toilette,
full dress being painted nudity.  A few began dancing in
different parties, preparatory to the grand display, and the
women, squatting on the ground, commenced their strange
monotonous chant, each beating accurate time with two
boomerangs.  Then began the grand corrobory, and all the men
joined in the dance, leaping, jumping, bounding about in the
most violent manner, but always in strict unison with each
other, and keeping time with the chorus, accompanying their
wild gesticulations with frightful yells, and noises.  The
whole 'tableau' is fearfully grand!  The dark wild forest
scenery around--the bright fire-light gleaming upon the savage
and uncouth figures of the men, their natural dark hue being
made absolutely horrible by the paintings bestowed on them,
consisting of lines and other marks done in white and red
pipe-clay, which gives them an indescribably ghastly and
fiendish aspect--their strange attitudes, and violent
contortions and movements, and the unearthly sound of their
yells, mingled with the wild and monotonous wail-like chant of
the women, make altogether a very near approach to the horribly
sublime in the estimation of most Europeans who have witnessed
an assembly of the kind."

1846.  G. H. Haydon, 'Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 103:

"They have no instrument of music, the corobery's song being
accompanied by the beating of two sticks together, and by the
women thumping their opossum rugs.'"

1847.  J. D. Lang, 'Cooksland,' p. 447 [Footnote]:

"These words, which were quite as unintelligible to the natives
as the corresponding words in the vernacular language of the
white men would have been, were learned by the natives, and are
now commonly used by them in conversing with Europeans, as
English words.  Thus corrobbory, the Sydney word for a
general assembly of natives, is now commonly used in that sense
at Moreton Bay; but the original word there is
yanerwille.  Cabon, great; narang, little;
boodgeree, good; myall, wild native, etc. etc.,
are all words of this description, supposed by the natives [of
Queensland] to be English words, and by the Europeans to be
aboriginal words of the language of that district."

[The phrase "general assembly" would rise naturally in the mind
of Dr. Lang as a Presbyterian minister; but there is no
evidence of anything parliamentary about a corrobbery.]

1848.  W. Westgarth, 'Australia Felix,' p. 78:

"The exact object or meaning of their famous corrobboree or
native dance, beyond mere exercise and patience, has not as yet
been properly ascertained; but it seems to be mutually
understood and very extensively practised throughout Australia,
and is generally a sign of mutual fellowship and good feeling
on the part of the various tribes."

1849.  J. P. Townsend, 'Rambles in New South Wales,' p. 100:

"When our blacks visited Sydney, and saw the military paraded,
and heard the bands, they said that was 'white fellows'

185.  E. Stone Parker, 'Aborigines of Australia,' p. 21:

"It is a very great mistake to suppose . . . that there is any
kind of religious ceremony connected with the ordinary
corrobory. . . .  I may also remark that the term corrobory is
not a native word."

[It is quite certain that it is native, though not known to
Mr. E. Stone Parker.]

1862.  G. T. Lloyd, 'Thirty-three Years in Tasmania and
Victoria,' p. 49:

[In Tasmania] "the assembling of the tribes was always
celebrated by a grand corroboree, a species of bestial
bal masque.  On such occasions they presented a most
grotesque and demon-like appearance, their heads, faces, and
bodies, liberally greased were besmeared alternately with clay
and red ochre; large tufts of bushy twigs were entwined around
their ankles, wrists, and waists; and these completed their

1879.  J. D. Woods, 'Native Tribes of South Australia,'
Introduction, pp. xxxii. and xxxiii.:

"The principal dance is common all over the continent, and
'corrobboree' is the name by which it is commonly known.  It is
not quite clear what a corrobboree is intended to signify.
Some think it a war-dance--others that it is a representation
of their hunting expeditions--others again, that it is a
religious, or pagan, observance; but on this even the blacks
themselves give no information."

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 41:

"The good fortune to witness a korroboree, that is a
festive dance by the natives in the neighbourhood."

1892.  J. Fraser, 'The Aborigines of New South Wales,' p. 21:

"'Karabari' is an aboriginal name for those dances which our
natives often have in the forests at night.  Hitherto the name
has been written corrobboree, but etymologically it should be
karabari, for it comes from the same root as 'karaji,' a wizard
or medicine-man, and 'bari' is a common formative in the native
languages.  The karabari has been usually regarded as a form of
amusement . . . these dances partake of a semi-religious

[Mr. Fraser's etymology is regarded as far-fetched.]

(2) The song that accompanied the dance.

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 323:

"I feared he might imagine we were afraid of his incantations,
for he sang most lamentable corroborris."

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 68:

". . . listen to the new corroborree.  Great numbers arrive;
the corroborree is danced night after night with the utmost
enthusiasm. . . .These corroborrees travel for many hundreds of
miles from the place where they originated. . . .These
composers [of song and dance] pretend that the Spirit of Evil
originally manufactured their corroborree."

1889.  Rev. J. H. Zillman, 'Australian Life,' p. 132:

"The story was a grand joke among the blacks for many a day.
It became, no doubt, the theme for a 'corroberee,' and Tommy
was always after a hero amongst his countrymen."

(3) By transference, any large social gathering or public

1892.  'Saturday Review,' Feb.' 13, p. 168, col. 2:

"A corrobory of gigantic dimensions is being prepared for
[General Booth's] reception [in Australia]." ('O.E.D.')

1895.  Modern:

"There's a big corrobbery on to-night at Government House,
and you can't get a cab for love or money."

(4) By natural transference, a noise, disturbance, fuss
or trouble.

1874.  Garnet Walch, 'Adamanta,' Act II. sc. ii. p. 27:

"How can I calm this infantile corroboree?"

1885.  H. O. Forbes, 'Naturalist's Wanderings,' p. 295:

"Kingfishers . . . in large chattering corrobories in the tops
of high trees."

1888.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Robbery under Arms,' p. 242:

"The boy raises the most awful corroboree of screams and howls,
enough for a whole gang of bushrangers, if they went in for
that sort of thing."

1897.  'The Herald,' Feb.  15, p. i, col. 1:

"Latest about the Cretan corroboree in our cable messages this
evening.  The situation at the capital is decidedly
disagreeable.  A little while ago the Moslems threw the
Christians out and took charge.  Now the last report is that
there is a large force of Christians attacking the city and
quite ready, we doubt not, to cut every Moslem throat that
comes in the way."

Corrobbery, v. (1) To hold a corrobbery.

1830.  R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 61:

"They began to corrobery or dance.

(p. 206): They 'corroberried,' sang, laughed, and screamed."

1885.  R. M. Pried, 'Australian Life,' p. 22:

"For some time the district where the nut [bunya] abounds
is a scene of feasting and corroboreeing."

(2) By transference to animals, birds, insects, etc.

1846.  C. P. Hodgson, 'Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 257:

"The mosquitoes from the swamps corroboreed with unmitigated

1871.  C. Darwin, 'Descent of Man' (2nd ed. 1885), p. 406:

"The Menura Alberti [see Lyrebird] scratches for
itself shallow holes, or, as they are called by the natives,
corroborying places, where it is believed both sexes assemble."

(3) To boil; to dance as boiling water does.

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 43:

"'Look out there! 'he continued; 'quart-pot corroborree,'
springing up and removing with one hand from the fire one of
the quart-pots, which was boiling madly, while with the other
he dropped in about as much tea as he could hold between his
fingers and thumb."

Ibid. p. 49:

"They had almost finished their meal before the new quart
corroborreed, as the stockman phrased it."

Corypha-palm, n. an obsolete name for
Livistona inermis, now called Cabbage-tree

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 49:

"The bottle-tree and the corypha-palm were frequent."

Cottage, n.  a house in which all the rooms are
on the ground-floor.  An auctioneer's advertisement often
runs--"large weatherboard cottage, twelve rooms, etc.," or
"double-fronted brick cottage."  The cheapness of land caused
nearly all suburban houses in Australia to be built without
upper storeys and detached.

Cotton-bush, n. name applied to two trees
called Salt-bush (q.v.).  (1) Bassia bicornis,
Lindl.  (2) Kochia aphylla, R. Br.,
N.O. Salsolaceae.  S. Dixon (apud Maiden, p. 132)
thus describes it--

"All kinds of stock are often largely dependent on it during
protracted droughts, and when neither grass nor hay are
obtainable I have known the whole bush chopped up and mixed
with a little corn, when it proved an excellent fodder for

1876.  W. Harcus, 'South Australia,' p. 126:

"This is a fine open, hilly district, watered, well grassed,
and with plenty of herbage and cotton-bush."

Cotton-shrub, n. a name given in Tasmania to the
shrub Pimelea nivea, Lab., N.O. Thymeleae.

Cotton-tree, n. an Australian tree, Hibiscus
teliaceus, Linn., N.O. Malvaceae.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 624:

"The fibre of the bark [cotton-tree] is used for nets and
fishing-lines by the aborigines."

Cotton-wood, n. the timber of an Australian
tree, Bedfordia salicina, De C., N.O. Compositae.
Called Dog-wood (q.v.) in Tasmania.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p.386:

"The 'dog-wood' of Tasmania, and the 'cotton-wood' of Southern
New South Wales, on account of the abundant down on the leaves.
A hard, pale-brown, well-mottled wood, said by some to be good
for furniture.  It emits a foetid smell when cut."

Coucal, n. a bird-name, "mentioned probably for
the first time in Le Vaillant's 'Oiseaux d'Afrique,' beginning
about 1796; perhaps native African.  An African or Indian
spear-headed cuckoo: a name first definitely applied by Cuvier
in 1817 to the birds of the genus Centropus."
('Century.')  The Australian species is Centropus
phasianellus, Gould, or Centropus phasianus, Lath.
It is called also Swamp-pheasant (q.v.), and

Count-fish, n. a large Schnapper
(q.v.). See Cock-Schnapper.

1874.  'Sydney Mail,' 'Fishes and Fishing in New South Wales':

"The ordinary schnapper or count fish implies that all of a
certain size are to count as twelve to the dozen, the shoal or
school-fish eighteen or twenty-four to the dozen, and the
squire, thirty or thirty-six to the dozen--the latter just
according to their size, the redbream at per bushel."

Count-muster, n. a gathering, especially of
sheep or cattle in order to count them.

1891.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'A Sydney-side Saxon,' p. 1:

"The old man's having a regular count-muster of his sons and
daughters, and their children and off side relatives-that is,
by marriage."

Cowdie, n. an early variant of Kauri
(q.v.), with other spellings.

1889.  T. Kirk, 'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 143:

"The native name 'Kauri' is the only common name in general
use.  When the timber was first introduced into Britain it was
termed 'cowrie' or 'kowdie-pine'; but the name speedily fell
into disuse, although it still appears as the common name in
some horticultural works."

Cowshorns, n. a Tasmanian orchid,
Pterostylis nutans, R. Br.

Cow-tree, n. a native tree of New Zealand.
Maori name, Karaka (q.v.).

1860.  G. Bennett, 'Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 346:

"The karaka-tree of New Zealand (Corynocarpus
laevigata), also called kopi by the natives, and cow-tree
by Europeans (from that animal being partial to its leaves),
grows luxuriantly in Sydney."

Crab, n. Of the various Australian species of
this marine crustacean, Scylla serrata alone is large
enough to be much used as food, and it is seldom caught.  In
Tasmania and Victoria, Pseudocarcinus gigas, called the
King-Crab, which reaches a weight of 20 lbs., is occasionally
brought to market.  There is only one fresh-water crab known in
Australia--Telphusa transversa.

1896.  Spencer and Hall, 'Horne Expedition in Central
Australia,' Zoology, p. 228:

"In the case of Telphusa transversa, the fresh-water
crab, the banks of certain water holes are riddled with its

Crab-hole, n. a hole leading into a pit-like
burrow, made originally by a burrowing crayfish, and often
afterwards increased in size by the draining into it of water.
The burrows are made by crayfish belonging to the genera
Engaeus and Astacopsis, which are popularly known
as land-crabs.

1848.  Letter by Mrs. Perry, given in Canon Goodman's 'Church
in Victoria, during Episcopate of Bishop Perry,' p. 72:

"Full of crab holes, which are exceedingly dangerous for the
horses.  There are holes varying in depth from one to three
feet, and the smallest of them wide enough to admit the foot of
a horse: nothing more likely than that a horse should break its
leg in one. . . .  These holes are formed by a small land-crab
and then gradually enlarged by the water draining into them."

1859.  H. Kingsley, 'Geoffrey Hamlyn,' p. 368:

"This brute put his foot in a crabhole, and came down, rolling
on my leg.''

1875.  Wood and Lapham, 'Waiting for the Mail,' p. 49:

"Across the creek we went . . . now tripping over tussocks,
now falling into crab holes."

Crab-tree, n. i.q. Bitter-bark (q.v.).

Cradle, n. common in Australia, but of
Californian origin.  "A trough on rockers in which auriferous
earth or sand is shaken in water, in order to separate and
collect the gold."  ('O.E.D.')

1849.  'Illustrated London News,' Nov. 17, p. 325, col. 1
('O.E.D.'): [This applies to California, and is before the
Australian diggings began]:

"Two men can keep each other steadily at work, the one digging
and carrying the earth in a bucket, and the other washing and
rocking the cradle."

1851.  Letter by Mrs. Perry, quoted in Canon Goodman's 'Church
in Victoria during Episcopate of Bishop Perry,' p. 171:

"The streets are full of cradles and drays packed for the

1858.  T. McCombie, 'History of Victoria,' c. xv. p. 215:

"Cradles and tin dishes to supply the digging parties."

1865.  F. H. Nixon, 'Peter Perfume,' p. 56:

"They had cradles by dozens and picks by the score."

1884.  T. Bracken, 'Lays of Maori,' p. 154:

"The music of the puddling mill, the cradle, and the tub."

Cradle, v. tr. to wash auriferous gravel in a
miner's cradle.

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. 21, p. 197:

"The laborious process of washing and 'cradling' the ore."

Crake, n. common English bird-name.  The
Australian varieties are--

Little Crake--
 Porzana palustris, Gould.

Spotless C.--
 P. tabuensis, Gmel.

Spotted C.--
 P. fluminea, Gould.

White-browed C.--
 P. cinereus, Vieill.

See also Swamp-crake.

Cranberry, Native, n.  called also
Ground-berry; name given to three Australian shrubs.
(1) Styphelia (formerly Lissanthe) humifusa,
Persoon, N.O. Epacrideae.

1834.  J. Ross, 'Van Diemen's Land Annual,' p. 133:

"Astroloma humifusum.  The native cranberry has a fruit
of a green, reddish, or whitish colour, about the size of a
black currant, consisting of a viscid apple-flavoured pulp
inclosing a large seed; this fruit grows singly on the trailing
stems of a small shrub resembling juniper, bearing beautiful
scarlet blossoms in autumn."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 8:

"Commonly called 'ground-berry.'  In Tasmania the fruits are
often called native cranberries.  The fruits of these dwarf
shrubs are much appreciated by school-boys and aboriginals.
They have a viscid, sweetish pulp, with a relatively large
stone.  The pulp is described by some as being apple-flavoured,
though I have always failed to make out any distinct flavour."

(2) Styphelia sapida, F. v. M., N.O. Epacrideae.

1866.  'Treasury of Botany,' p. 688 ('O.E.D.'):

"Lissanthe sapida, a native of South-eastern Australia,
is called the Australian Cranberry, on account of its
resemblance both in size and colour to our European cranberry,
Vaccinium Oxyconos."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 39:

"Native cranberry.  The fruit is edible.  It is something like
the cranberry of Europe both in size and colour, but its flesh
is thin, and has been likened to that of the Siberian crab.
[Found in] New South Wales."

(3) Pernettya tasmanica, Hook., N.O. Ericeae
(peculiar to Tasmania).

Crane, n. common English bird-name.  In
Australia used for (1) the Native-Companion (q.v.), Grus
australianus, Gould; (2) various Herons, especially in New
Zealand, where the varieties are--Blue Crane (Matuku),
Ardea sacra, Gmel.; White Crane (Kotuku), Ardea
egretta, Gmel.  See Kotuku and Nankeen Crane.
The Cranes and the Herons are often popularly confused.

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. vi. pl. 53:

"Ardea Novae-Hollandiae, Lath., White-fronted Heron, Blue
Crane of the colonists.  Herodias Jugularis, Blue Reef
Heron, Blue Crane, colonists of Port Essington."

1848.  Ibid. pl. 58:

"Herodias Immaculata, Gould [later melanopus], Spotless
Egret, White Crane of the colonists."

1890.  'Victorian Consolidated Statutes, Game Act,' 3rd

"[Close Season.]  All Birds known as Cranes such as Herons,
Egrets, &c.  From First day of August to Twentieth day of
December following in each year."

Craw-fish, n. a variant of Crayfish

Crawler, n. that which crawls; used specially
in Australia of cattle.

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'A Colonial Reformer,' p. 217:

"Well-bred station crawlers, as the stockmen term them from
their peaceable and orderly habits."

Cray-fish, n. The Australasian Cray-fish
belong to the family Parastacidae, the members of which
are confined to the southern hemisphere, whilst those of the
family Potamobiidae are found in the northern
hemisphere.  The two families are distinguished from one
another by, amongst other points of structure, the absence of
appendages on the first abdominal segment in the
Parastacidae.  The Australasian cray-fishes are
classified in the following genera--Astacopsis, found in
the fresh waters of Tasmania and the whole of Australia;
Engaeus, a land-burrowing form, found only in Tasmania
and Victoria; Paranephrops, found in the fresh waters of
New Zealand; and Palinurus, found on the coasts of
Australia and New Zealand.  The species are as follows :--

(1) The Yabber or Yabbie Crayfish.  Name given to the
commonest fresh-water Australian Cray-fish, Astacopsis
bicarinatus, Gray.  This is found in waterholes, but not
usually in running streams, over the greater part of the
continent, and often makes burrows in the ground away from
water, and may also do great damage by burrowing holes through
the banks of dams and reservoirs and water-courses, as at
Mildura.  It was first described as the Port Essington

1845.  Gray, in E. J. Eyre's 'Expeditions into Central
Australia,' vol. i. p. 410:

"The Port Essington Cray fish.  Astacus bicarinatus."

1885.  F. McCoy, 'Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria,'
Dec. 2, pl. 29:

"They are commonly known about Melbourne by the native name of
Yabber or Yabbie."

(2) The Murray Lobster or the Spiny Cray-fish.  Name
given to the largest Australian fresh-water Cray-fish,
Astacopsis serratus, Shaw, which reaches a length of
over twelve inches, and is found in the rivers of the Murray
system, and in the southern rivers of Victoria such as the
Yarra, the latter being distinguished as a variety of the
former and called locally the Yarra Spiny Cray-fish.

1890.  F. McCoy, 'Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria,'
Dec. 8, pl. 160: "

Our plate 160 illustrates a remarkable variety of the typical
A. serratus of the Murray, common in the Yarra and its
numerous affluents flowing southwards."

(3) The Tasmanian Cray-fish.  Name given to the large
fresh-water Cray-fish found in Tasmania, Astacopsis
franklinii; Gray.

(4) The Land-crab.  Name applied to the burrowing
Cray-fish of Tasmania and Victoria, Engaeus fossor,
Erich., and other species.  This is the smallest of the
Australian Cray-fish, and inhabits burrows on land, which it
excavates for itself and in which a small store of water is
retained.  When the burrow, as frequently happens, falls in
there is formed a Crab-hole (q.v.).

1892.  G. M. Thomson, 'Proceedings of the Royal Society of
Tasmania,' p. 2:

"Only four of the previously described forms are fresh-water
species, namely: Astacopsis franklinii and
A. tasmanicus, Engaeus fossor and
E. cunicularius, all fresh-water cray fishes."

(5) New Zealand Fresh-water Cray-fish.  Name applied to
Paranephrops zealandicus, White, which is confined to
the fresh water of New Zealand.

1889.  T. J. Parker, 'Studies in Biology' (Colonial Museum and
Geological Survey Department, New Zealand), p. 5:

"Paranephrops which is small and has to be specially collected
in rivers, creeks or lakes."

(6) Sydney Cray-fish.  Name given to the large
salt-water Cray-fish, rarely called Craw-fish, or Spiny
Lobster, found along the Sydney coast, Palinurus
huegeli, Heller.

1890.  F. McCoy, 'Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria,'
Dec. 16, pl. 159:

"This species, which is the common Sydney Craw-fish, is easily
distinguished from the southern one, the P. Lalandi,
which is the common Melbourne Craw-fish."

(7) Southern Rock-Lobster or Melbourne Crayfish.  Name
given to the large salt-water Cray-fish, sometimes called
Craw-fish, found along the southern coast and common in the
Melbourne market, Palinurus lalandi, Lam.

1890.  F. McCoy, 'Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria,'
Dec. 15, pl. 150:

"I suggest the trivial name of Southern Rock Lobster for this
species, which abounds in Victoria, Tasmania and New Zealand,
as well as the Cape of Good Hope . . . does not appear to have
been noticed as far north as Sydney."

The name Craw-fish is merely an ancient variant of
Cray-fish, though it is said by Gasc, in his French
Dictionary, that the term was invented by the London
fishmongers to distinguish the small Spiny Lobster,
which has no claws, from the common Lobster, which has
claws.  The term Lobster, in Australia, is often applied
to the Sydney Cray-fish (see 7, above).

Creadion, n. scientific name given by Vieillot
in 1816 to a genus of birds peculiar to New Zealand, from Greek
kreadion, a morsel of flesh, dim. of kreas,
flesh.  Buller says, "from the angle of the mouth on each side
there hangs a fleshy wattle, or caruncle, shaped like a
cucumber seed and of a changeable bright yellow colour."
('Birds of New Zealand,' 1886, vol. i. p. 18.)  The
Jack-bird (q.v.) and Saddle-back (q.v.) are the
two species.

1855.  Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui,' p. 404:

"Family Sturnidae--Tieki (Creadion Carunculatus).
This is a beautiful black bird with a chestnut band across the
back and wings; it has also a fleshy lappet on either side of
the head.  The tieki is considered a bird of omen: if
one flies on the right side it is a good sign; if on the left,
a bad one."

Cream of Tartar tree, n. i.q.  Baobab

Creek, n. a small river, a brook, a branch of
a river.  "An application of the word entirely unknown in Great
Britain." ('O.E.D.')  The 'Standard Dictionary' gives, as a use
in the United States, "a tidal or valley stream, between a
brook and a river in size."  In Australia, the name brook is
not used.  Often pronounced crick, as in the United States.

Dr. J. A.H. Murray kindly sends the following note:--"Creek
goes back to the early days of exploration.  Men sailing up the
Mississippi or other navigable river saw the mouths of
tributary streams, but could not tell with out investigation
whether they were confluences or mere inlets, creeks.  They
called them creeks, but many of them turned out to be running
streams, many miles long--tributary rivers or rivulets.  The
name creek stuck to them, however, and thus became
synonymous with tributary stream, brook."

1793.  Governor Hunter, 'Voyage,' p. 516:

"In the afternoon a creek obliged them to leave the banks of
the river, and go round its head, as it was too deep to cross:
having rounded the head of this creek. . ."

1802.  G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' p. 228:

"They met with some narrow rivers or creeks."

1809.  Aug. 6, 'History of New South Wales' (1818), p. 327:

"Through Rickerby's grounds upon the riverside and those of the
Rev. Mr. Marsden on the creek."

1826.  Goldie, in Bischoff's 'Van Diemen's Land' (1832), p. 162:

"There is a very small creek which I understand is never dry."

1848.  W. Westgarth, 'Australia Felix,' p. 17:

"The creeks and rivers of Australia have in general a
transitory existence, now swollen by the casual shower, and
again rapidly subsiding under the general dryness and heat of
the climate."

1854.  'Bendigo Advertiser,' quoted in 'Melbourne Morning
Herald,' May 29:

"A Londoner reading of the crossing of a creek would naturally
imagine the scene to be in the immediate neighbourhood of the
coast, instead of being perhaps some hundreds of miles in the
interior, and would dream of salt water, perriwinkles and
sea-weed, when he should be thinking of slimy mud-holes, black
snakes and gigantic gum-trees."

1861.  Mrs. Meredith, 'Over the Straits,' c. iv. p. 134:

"The little rivulet, called, with that singular pertinacity for
error which I have so often noticed here, 'the creek.'"

1865.  Lady Barker, 'Station Life in, New Zealand,' p. 29:

"The creek, just like a Scotch burn, hurrying and tumbling down
the hillside to join the broader stream in the valley."

1870.  P. Wentworth, 'Amos Thorne,' i. p. 11:

"A thirsty creek-bed marked a line of green."

1872.  C. H. Eden, 'My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 39:

"In the rivers, whether large watercourses, and dignified by
the name of 'river,' or small tributaries called by the less
sounding appellation 'creeks."

1887.  Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. i. p. 41:

"Generally where the English language is spoken a creek means a
small inlet of the sea, but in Australia a creek is literally
what it is etymologically, a crack in the ground.  In dry
weather there is very little water; perhaps in the height of
summer the stream altogether ceases to run, and the creek
becomes a string of waterholes; but when the heavens are
opened, and the rain falls, it reappears a river."

Creeklet, n. diminutive of Creek.

1884.  T. Bracken, 'Lays of Maori,' p. 91:

"One small creeklet day by day murmurs."

Creeper, n. The name (sc. Tree-creeper)
is given to several New Zealand birds of the genus
Certhiparus, N.O. Passeres.  The Maori names are
Pipipi, Toitoi, and Mohona.

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 51:

"Certhiparus Novae Zelandiae, Finsch.  New Zealand
Creeper." [A full description.]

Cronk, adj.  Derived from the German
krank--sick or ill.

(1) A racing term used of a horse which is out of order and not
"fit" for the contest; hence transferred to a horse whose owner
is shamming its illness and making it "run crooked" for the
purpose of cheating its backers.

(2) Used more generally as slang, but not recognized in Barere
and Leland's 'Slang Dictionary.'

1893.  'The Herald' (Melbourne), July 4, p. 2, col. 7:

"He said he would dispose of the cloth at a moderate figure
because it was 'cronk.'  The word 'cronk,' Mr. Finlayson
explained, meant 'not honestly come by.'"

Crow, n. common English bird-name.  The
Australian species is--White-eyed, Corvus coronoides
V. and H.  In New Zealand (Maori name, Kokako) the name
is used for the Blue-wattled Crow, Glaucopis wilsoni and
for the (N. island) Orange-wattled, G. cinerea, Gmel.
(S. island).

Crow-shrike, n.  Australian amalgamation of two
common English bird-names.  The Crow-shrikes are of
three genera, Strepera, Gymnorrhima, and
Cracticus.  The varieties of the genus Strepera are--

Black Crow-shrike--
 Strepera fuliginosa, Gould.

Black-winged C.--
 S. melanoptera, Gould.

Grey C.--
 S. cuneicaudata, Vieill.

Hill C.--
 S. arguta, Gould.

Leaden C.--
 S. plumbea, Gould.

Pied C.--
 S. graculina, White.

Birds of the genus Gymnorrhina are called Magpies
(q.v.).  Those of the genus Cracticus are called
Butcher-birds (q.v.).

Crush, n. a part of a stockyard.  See

1872.  C. H. Eden, 'My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 69:

"A crush, which is an elongated funnel, becoming so narrow
at the end that a beast is wedged in and unable to move."

1891.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'A Sydney-side Saxon,' p. 87:

"There were some small yards, and a 'crush,' as they call it,
for branding cattle."

Cuckoo, n. common English bird-name.
The Australian birds to which it is applied are--

Black-eared Cuckoo--
 Mesocalius osculans, Gould.

Bronze C.--
 Chalcoccyx plagosus, Lath.

Brush C.--
 Cacomantis insperatus.
 [Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl.87.]

Chestnut-breasted C.--
 C. castanei-ventris, Gould.

Fantailed C.--
 C. flabelliformis, Lath.

Little-bronze C.--
 Chalcoccyx malayanus, Raffles.

Narrow-billed bronze C.--
 C. basalis, Hors.

Oriental C.--
 Cuculus intermedius, Vahl.

Pallid C.--
 Cacomantis pallidus and C. canorus, Linn.

Square-tailed C.--
 C. variolosus, Hors.

Whistling-bronze C.--
 Chalcoccyx lucidus, Gmel.

In New Zealand, the name is applied to Eudynamis
taitensis (sc. of Tahiti) Sparm., the Long-tailed Cuckoo;
and to Chrysococcyx lucidus, Gmel., the Shining Cuckoo.
The name Cuckoo has sometimes been applied to the
Mopoke (q.v.) and to the Boobook (q.v.).  See
also Pheasant-cuckoo.

1855.  G. W. Rusden, 'Moyarra,' Notes, p. 30:

"The Australian cuckoo is a nightjar, and is heard only by night."

1868.  W. Carleton, 'Australian Nights,' p. 19:

"The Austral cuckoo spoke
 His melancholy note, 'Mopoke.'"

1889.  Prof.  Parker, 'Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,'
p. 118:

"There are two species of the Longtailed Cuckoo (Eudynamis
taitensis), and the beautiful Bronze or Shining Cuckoo
(Chrysococcyx lucidus).  They are both migratory birds.
The Long-tailed Cuckoo spends its winter in some of the Pacific
islands, the Shining Cuckoo in Australia."

Cuckoo-shrike, n. This combination of two
common English bird-names is assigned in Australia to the

Barred Cuckoo-shrike
 Graucalus lineatus, Swains.

Black-faced C.--
 G. melanops, Lath.

Ground C.--
 Pteropodocys phasianella, Gould.

Little C.--
 Graucalus mentalis, Vig. and Hors.

Small-billed C.--
 G. parvirostris, Gould.

White-bellied C.--
 G. hyperleucus, Gould.

Cucumber-fish, n. i.q. Grayling (q.v.).

Cucumber-Mullet, n. i.q. Grayling

Cultivation paddock, n. a field that has been
tilled and not kept for grass.

1853.  Chas. St. Julian and Ed. K. Silvester, 'The Productions,
Industry, and Resources of New South Wales,' p. 170:

"Few stations of any magnitude are without their 'cultivation
paddocks,' where grain and vegetables are raised . . ."

1860.  A Lady, 'My Experiences in Australia,' p. 173:

"Besides this large horse paddock, there was a space cleared of
trees, some twenty to thirty acres in extent, on the banks of
the creek, known as the 'Cultivation Paddock,' where in former
days my husband had grown a sufficient supply of wheat for home

1893.  'The Argus,' June 17, p. 13, col. 4:

"How any man could have been such an idiot as to attempt to
make a cultivation paddock on a bed of clay passed all my

Curlew, n. common English bird-name.
The Australian species is Numenius cyanopus, Vieill.
The name, however, is more generally applied to AEdicnemus
grallarius, Lath.

1862.  H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 43:

"They rend the air like cries of despair,
 The screams of the wild curlew."

1872.  C. H. Eden, 'My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 18:

"Truly the most depressing cry I ever heard is that of the
curlew, which you take no notice of in course of time; but
which to us, wet, weary, hungry, and strange, sounded most

1890.  'Victorian Statutes, Game Act, Third Schedule':

"Southern Stone Plover or Curlew."

1894.  'The Argus,' June 23, p.  11, col. 4:

"The calling of the stone plover.  It might as well be a curlew
at once, for it will always be a curlew to country people.  Its
first call, with the pause between, sounds like 'Curlew'--that
is, if you really want it to sound so, though the blacks get
much nearer the real note with 'Koo-loo,' the first syllable
sharp, the second long drawn out."

1896.  Dr. Holden, of Hobart, 'Private letter,' Jan.:

"There is a curlew in Australia, closely resembling the English
bird, and it calls as that did over the Locksley Hall
sand-dunes; but Australians are given to calling AEdicnemus
grallarius Latham (our Stone Plover), the 'curlew,' which
is a misnomer.  This also drearily wails, and after dark."

Currajong or Currijong, i.q. Kurrajong

Currant, Native, n. The name is given to
various shrubs and trees of the genus Coprosma,
especially Coprosma billardieri, Hook.,
N.O. Rubiare(e; also to Leucopogon richei, Lab.,
N.O. Epacrideae, various species of Leptomeria,
N.O. Santalaceae, and Myoporum serratum, R. Br.,
N.O. Myoporineae.  The names used for
M. serratum, chiefly in South Australia, are
Blueberry Tree, Native Juniper, Native
Myrtle, Palberry, and Cockatoo Bush.

See also Native Plum.

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i.
p. 220:

"Our native currants are strongly acidulous, like the
cranberry, and make an excellent preserve when mixed with
the raspberry."

1834.  Ross, 'Van Diemen's Land Annual,' p. 133:

"Leucopogon lanceolatum.  A large bush with numerous
harsh leaves, growing along the sea shore, with some other
smaller inland shrubs of the same tribe, produces very small
white berries of a sweetish and rather herby flavour.  These
are promiscuously called white or native currants in the

["The insignificant and barely edible berries of this shrub are
said to have saved the life of the French botanist Riche, who
was lost in the bush on the South Australian coast for three
days, at the close of the last century." (Maiden.)  The plant
is now called L. Richei.]

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 19:

"Native Currant. . . .  This plant bears a small round drupe,
about the size of a small pea.  Mr. Backhouse states that (over
half a century ago) when British fruits were scarce, it was
made into puddings by some of the settlers of Tasmania, but the
size and number of the seeds were objectionable."

Currant, Plain, n. See Plain Currant.

Currency, n. (1) Name given especially to early
paper-money in the Colonies, issued by private traders and of
various values, and in general to the various coins of foreign
countries, which were current and in circulation.  Barrington,
in his 'History of New South Wales '(1802), gives a table of
such specie.

1824.  Edward Curr, 'Account of the Colony of Van Diemen's Land,'

"Much of this paper-money is of the most trifling description.
To this is often added 'payable in dollars at 5s. each.'  Some
. . .  make them payable in Colonial currency."

[p. 69, note]: "25s. currency is about equal to a sovereign."

1826.  Act of Geo. IV., No. 3 (Van Diemen's Land):

"All Bills of Exchange, Promissory Notes . . . as also all
Contracts and Agreements whatsoever which shall be drawn and
circulated or issued, or made and entered into, and shall be
therein expressed . . . to be payable in Currency, Current
Money, Spanish Dollars . . . shall be . . . Null and Void."

1862.  Geo. Thos. Lloyd, 'Thirty-three years in Tasmania and
Victoria,' p. 9:

"Every man in business . . . issued promissory notes, varying
in value from the sum of fourpence to twenty shillings, payable
on demand.  These notes received the appellation of paper
currency. . . .  The pound sterling represented twenty-five
shillings of the paper-money."

(2) Obsolete name for those colonially-born.

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. ii.
(Table of Contents):

"Letter XXI.--Currency or Colonial-born

Ibid. p. 33:

"Our colonial-born brethren are best known here by the name of
Currency, in contradistinction to Sterling, or
those born in the mother-country.  The name was originally
given by a facetious paymaster of the 73rd Regiment quartered
here--the pound currency being at that time inferior to the
pound sterling."

1833.  H. W. Parker, 'Rise, Progress, and Present State of Van
Diemen's Land,' p. 18:

"The Currency lads, as the country born colonists in the
facetious nomenclature of the colony are called, in
contradistinction to those born in the mother country."

1840.  Martin's 'Colonial Magazine,' vol. iii. p. 35:

"Currency lady."

1849.  J. P. Townsend, 'Rambles in New South Wales,' p. 68:

"Whites born in the colony, who are also called 'the currency';
and thus the 'Currency Lass' is a favourite name for colonial
vessels."  [And, it may be added, also of Hotels.]

1852.  Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 6:

"A singular disinclination to finish any work completely, is a
striking characteristic of colonial craftsmen, at least of the
'currency' or native-born portion.  Many of them who are
clever, ingenious and industrious, will begin a new work,
be it ship, house, or other erection, and labour at it most
assiduously until it be about two-thirds completed, and then
their energy seems spent, or they grow weary of the old
occupation, and some new affair is set about as busily as the
former one."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'A Colonial Reformer,' p. 35:

"English girls have such lovely complexions and cut out us poor
currency lasses altogether."

Ibid. p. 342:

"You're a regular Currency lass . . . always thinking about

Cushion-flower, n. i.q. Hakea laurina,
R. Br. See Hakea.

Cut out, v. (1) To separate cattle from the
rest of the herd in the open.

1873.  Marcus Clarke, 'Holiday Peak, &c.,' p. 70:

"The other two . . . could cut out a refractory bullock with
the best stockman on the plains."

1884.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c. x. p. 72:

"We . . . camped for the purpose of separating our cattle,
either by drafting through the yard, or by 'cutting out' on

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' p. 70:

"Drafting on the camp, or 'cutting out' as it is generally
called, is a very pretty performance to watch, if it is well

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Squatter's Dream,' c. ii. p. 13:

"Tell him to get 'Mustang,' he's the best cutting-out horse."

1893.  'The Argus,' April 29, p. 4. col. 4:

"A Queenslander would have thought it was as simple as going on
to a cutting-out camp up North and running out the fats."

(2) To finish shearing.

1890.  'The Argus,' Sept.  20, p. 13, col. 6:

"When the stations 'cut out,' as the term for finishing is,
and the shearers and rouseabout men leave."

Cutting-grass, n. Cladium psittacorum,
Labill., N.O. Cyperaceae.  It grows very long narrow
blades whose thin rigid edge will readily cut flesh if
incautiously handled; it is often called Sword-grass.

1858.  T. McCombie 'History of Victoria,' vol. i. p. 8:

"Long grass, known as cutting-grass between four and five feet
high, the blade an inch and a half broad, the edges exquisitely

1891.  W. Tilley, 'Wild West of Tasmania,' p. 42:

"Travelling would be almost impossible but for the button
rush and cutting grass, which grow in big tussocks out of
the surrounding bog."

1894.  'The Age,' Oct. 19, p. 5, col. 8:

"'Cutting grass' is the technical term for a hard, tough grass
about eight or ten inches high, three-edged like a bayonet,
which stock cannot eat because in their efforts to bite it off
it cuts their mouths."


Dabchick, n. common English bird-name.  The New
Zealand species is Podiceps rufipectus.  There is no
species in Australia.

Dacelo, n. Name given by "W. E. Leach, 1816.
An anagram or transposition of Lat. Alcedo, a
Kingfisher."  ('Century.')  Scientific name for the
Jackass (q.v.).

Dactylopsila, n. the scientific name of the
Australian genus of the Striped Phalanger, called locally the
Striped Opossum; see Opossum.  It has a long bare
toe. (Grk. daktulos, a finger, and psilos, bare.)

Daisy, Brisbane, n. a Queensland and New South
Wales plant, Brachycome microcarpa, F. v. M.,
N.O. Compositae.

Daisy, Native, n. a Tasmanian flower,
Brachycome decipiens, Hook., N.O. Compositae.

Daisy Tree, n. two Tasmanian trees, Astur
stellulatus, Lab., and A. glandulosus, Lab.,
N.O. Compositae.  The latter is called the

Dam, n.  In England, the word means a barrier
to stop water in Australia, it also means the water so stopped,
as 'O.E.D.' shows it does in Yorkshire.

1873.  Marcus Clarke, 'Holiday Peak, &c.,' p. 76:

"The dams were brimming at Quartz-borough, St. Roy reservoir
was running over."

1892.  'Scribner's Magazine,' Feb., p. 141:

"Dams as he calls his reservoirs scooped out in the hard soil."

1893.  'The Leader,' Jan. 14:

"A boundary rider has been drowned in a dam."

1893.  'The Times,' [Reprint] 'Letters from Queensland,' p. 68:

"At present few stations are subdivided into paddocks smaller
than 20,000 acres apiece.  If in each of these there is but one
waterhole or dam that can be relied upon to hold out in
drought, sheep and cattle will destroy as much grass in
tramping from the far corners of the grazing to the drinking
spot as they will eat.  Four paddocks of 5,000 acres each, well
supplied with water, ought to carry almost double the number of

1896.  'The Argus,' March 30, p. 6, col. 9:

"[The murderer] has not since been heard of.  Dams and
waterholes have been dragged . . . but without result."

Dammara, n. an old scientific name of the
genus, including the Kauri Pine (q.v.).  It is from the
Hindustani, damar, 'resin.'  The name was applied to the
Kauri Pine by Lambert in 1832, but it was afterwards
found that Salisbury, in 1805, had previously constituted the
genus Agathis for the reception of the Kauri Pine
and the Dammar Pine of Amboyna.  This priority of claim
necessitated the modern restoration of Agathis as the
name of the genus.

Damper, n. a large scone of flour and water
baked in hot ashes; the bread of the bush, which is always
unleavened.  [The addition of water to the flour suggests a
more likely origin than that given by Dr. Lang.  See quotation,

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. ii.
p. 190

"The farm-men usually make their flour into flat cakes, which
they call damper, and cook these in the ashes . . ."

1833.  C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,'
vol. ii. c. viii. p. 203:

"I watched the distorted countenances of my humble companions
while drinking their tea and eating their damper."

1845.  J. O. Balfour, 'Sketches of New South Wales,' p. 103:

"Damper (a coarse dark bread)."

1846.  G. H. Haydon, 'Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 122:

"I must here enlighten my readers as to what 'damper' is.  It
is the bread of the bush, made with flour and water kneaded
together and formed into dough, which is baked in the ashes,
and after a few months keeping is a good substitute for bread."

[The last clause contains a most extraordinary statement--
perhaps a joke.  Damper is not kept for months, but is
generally made fresh for each meal.  See quotation, 1890,

1847.  J. D. Lang, 'Cooksland,' p. 122:

 "A cake baked in the ashes, which in Australia is usually
styled a damper."  [Footnote]: "This appellation is said to
have originated somehow with Dampier, the celebrated

1867.  F. Hochstetter, 'New Zealand,' p. 284:

"'Damper' is a dough made from wheat-flour and water without
yeast, which is simply pressed flat, and baked in the ashes;
according to civilized notions, rather hard of digestion, but
quite agreeable to hungry woodmen's stomachs."

1872.  C. H. Eden, 'My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 20:

"At first we had rather a horror of eating damper, imagining it
to be somewhat like an uncooked crumpet.  Experience, however,
showed it to be really very good.  Its construction is simple,
and is as follows.  Plain flour and water is mixed on a sheet
of bark, and then kneaded into a disc some two or three inches
thick to about one or two feet in diameter, great care to avoid
cracks being taken in the kneading.  This is placed in a hole
scraped to its size in the hot ashes, covered over, and there
left till small cracks caused by the steam appear on the
surface of its covering.  This is a sign that it is nearly
done, and in a few minutes the skilful chef will sound it over
with his "Wedges of damper (or bread baked in hot ashes) were
cut from time to time from great circular flat loaves of that
palatable and wholesome but somewhat compressed-looking bread."

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 32:

"Damper is the name of a kind of bread made of wheat flour and
water.  The dough is shaped into a flat round cake, which is
baked in red-hot ashes.  This bread looks very inviting, and
tastes very good as long as it is fresh, but it soon becomes
hard and dry."

Damson, Native, n. called also Native Plum,
an Australian shrub, Nageia spinulosa, F. v. M.,
N.O. Coniferae.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 53:

"Native Damson or Native Plum.  This shrub possesses edible
fruit, something like a plum, hence its vernacular names.  The
Rev. Dr. Woolis tells me that, mixed with jam of the Native
Currant (Leptomeria acida), it makes a very good

Dandelion, Native, n. a flowering plant,
Podolepis acuminata, R. Br., N.O. Compositae.

Daphne, Native, n. an Australian timber,
Myoporum viscorum, R. Br., N.O. Myoporineae;
called also Dogwood and Waterbush.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 575:

"Native Daphne. . . .  Timber soft and moderately light, yet
tough.  It is used for building purposes.  It dresses well, and
is straight in the grain."

Darling Pea, n. an Australian plant,
Swainsonia galegifolia, R. Br., N.O. Leguminosae;
i.q. Indigo Plant (q.v.).  See also Poison-bush.
The Darling Downs and River were named after General (later Sir
Ralph) Darling, who was Governor of New South Wales from
Dec. 19, 1825 to Oct. 21, 1831.  The "pea" is named from one of

Darling Shower, n. a local name in the interior
of Australia, and especially on the River Darling, for a dust
storm, caused by cyclonic winds.

Dart, n. (1) Plan, scheme, idea [slang].
It is an extension of the meaning--"sudden motion."

1887.  J. Farrell, 'How: he died,' p. 20:

"Whose 'dart' for the Looard
 Was to appear the justest steward
 That ever hiked a plate round."

1890. 'The Argus,' Aug. 9, p. 4, col. 2:

"When I told them of my 'dart,' some were contemptuous,
others incredulous."

1892.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Nevermore,' p. 22:

"Your only dart is to buy a staunch horse with a tip-cart."

(2) Particular fancy or personal taste.

1895.  Modern:

"'Fresh strawberries eh!--that's my dart,' says the bushman
when he sees the fruit lunch in Collins-street."

Darter, n. common English name for birds of the
genus Plotus.  So called from the way it "darts" upon
its prey.  The Australian species is Plotus novae-
hollandiae, Gould.

Dasyure, and Dasyurus, n. the
scientific name of the genus of Australian animals called
Native Cats.  See under Cat.  The first form is
the Anglicized spelling and is scientifically used in
preference to the misleading vernacular name.  From the Greek
dasus, thick with hair, hairy, shaggy, and 'oura,
tail.  They range over Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea, and the
adjacent islands.  Unlike the Thylacine and Tasmanian
Devil (q.v.), which are purely terrestrial, the
Dasyurus are arboreal in their habits, while they are
both carnivorous and insectivorous.

The Thylacine, Tasmanian Devil, Pouched Mice, and Banded
Ant-eater have sometimes been incorrectly classed as
Dasyures, but the name is now strictly allotted to the
genus Dasyurus, or Native Cat.

Date, Native, n. a Queensland fruit,
Capparis canescens, Banks, N.O. Capparideae.
The fruit is shaped like a pear, and about half an inch
in its largest diameter.  It is eaten raw by the aborigines.

Deadbeat, n. In Australia, it means a man "down
on his luck," "stone-broke," beaten by fortune.  In America,
the word means an impostor, a sponge.  Between the two uses the
connection is clear, but the Australian usage is logically the

Dead-bird, n. In Australia, a recent slang
term, meaning "a certainty."  The metaphor is from
pigeon-shooting, where the bird being let loose in front of a
good shot is as good as dead.

Dead-finish, n. a rough scrubtree.

(1)Albizzia basaltica, Benth., N.O. Leguminosae.

(2) Acacia farnesiana, Willd.,
N.O. Leguminosae. See quotation, 1889.

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia', p. 272:

"On the eastern face of the coast range are pine, red cedar,
and beech, and on the western slopes, rose-wood, myall,
dead-finish, plum-tree, iron-wood and sandal-wood, all woods
with a fine grain suitable for cabinet-making and fancy work."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 355:

"Sometimes called by the absurd name of 'Dead Finish.'  This
name given to some species of Acacia and Albizzia, is on
account of the trees or shrubs shooting thickly from the
bottom, and forming an impenetrable barrier to the traveller,
who is thus brought to a 'dead finish' (stop)"

1893.  'The Times,' [Reprint] 'Letters from Queensland,' p. 60:

"The hawthorn is admirably represented by a brush commonly
called 'dead finish.'"  [p. 61]: "Little knolls are crowned
with 'dead finish' that sheep are always glad to nibble."

Dead-wood Fence, n. The Australian fence, so
called, is very different from the fence of the same name in
England.  It is high and big, built of fallen timber, logs
and branches.  Though still used in Australia for fencing runs,
it is now usually superseded by wire fences.

1852.  Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 157:

"A 'dead-wood fence,' that is, a mass of timber four or five
feet thick, and five or six high, the lower part being formed
of the enormous trunks of trees, cut into logs six or eight
feet long, laid side by side, and the upper portion consisting
of the smaller branches skilfully laid over, or stuck down and

1872.  G. Baden-Powell, 'New Homes for the Old Country,' p. 207:

"A very common fence is built by felling trees round the space
to be enclosed, and then with their stems as a foundation,
working up with the branches, a fence of a desirable height."

Deal, Native, n. an Australian timber,
Nageia elata, F. v. M., N.O. Coniferae.
For other vernacular names see quotation.

1869.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 589:

"Pine, white pine, called she-pine in Queensland; native deal,
pencil cedar.  This tree has an elongated trunk, rarely
cylindrical; wood free from knots, soft, close, easily worked,
good for joiners' and cabinet-work; some trees afford planks of
great beauty.  (Macarthur.) Fine specimens of this timber have
a peculiar mottled appearance not easily described, and often
of surpassing beauty."

[See also Pine.]

December, n. a summer month in Australia.
See Christmas.

1885.  J. Hood, 'Land of the Fern,' p. 34:

"Warm December sweeps with burning breath
 Across the bosom of the shrinking earth."

Deepsinker, n. (1) The largest sized tumbler;
(2) the long drink served in it.  The idea is taken from
deep-sinking in a mining shaft.

1897.  'The Argus,' Jan. 15, p. 6, Col 5:

"As athletes the cocoons can run rings round the beans; they
can jump out of a tumbler--whether medium, small, or deepsinker
is not recorded."

Deep Yellow-Wood, n. Rhus rhodanthema,
F. v. M., N.O. Anacardiaceae.  A tree with spreading head;
timber valuable.  See Yellow-Wood.

Deferred Payment, n. a legal phrase.  "Land on
deferred payment"; "Deferred payment settler"; "Pastoral
deferred payment."  These expressions in New Zealand have
reference to the mode of statutory alienation of Crown lands,
known in other colonies as conditional sale, etc., i.e.  sale
on time payment, with conditions binding the settler to erect
improvements, ending in his acquiring the fee-simple.  The
system is obsolete, but many titles are still incomplete.

Dell-bird, n. another name for the
Bell-bird (q.v.).

Dendrolagus, n. the scientific name of the
genus of Australian marsupials called Tree-Kangaroos
(q.v.).  (Grk. dendron, a tree, and lagows, a
hare.)  Unlike the other kangaroos, their fore limbs are nearly
as long as the hinder pair, and thus adapted for arboreal life.
There are five species, three belong to New Guinea and two to
Queensland; they are the Queensland Tree-Kangaroo,
Dendrolagus lumholtzi; Bennett's T.-k.,
D. bennettianus; Black T.-k., D. ursinus : Brown
T.-k., D. inustus; Doria's T.-k., D. dorianus.
See Kangaroo.

Derry, n. slang.  The phrase "to have a down
on" (see Down) is often varied to "have a derry on."
The connection is probably the comic-song refrain, "Hey derry
down derry."

1896.  'The Argus,' March 19, p. 5, col. 9:

"Mr. Croker: Certainly.  We will tender it as evidence.
(To the witness.) Have you any particular 'derry' upon this
Wendouree?--No; not at all.  There are worse vessels knocking
about than the Wendouree."

Dervener, n. See quotation,
and Derwenter.

1896.  'The Argus,' Jan. 2, p. 3, col. 4, Letters to the

"'Dervener.'--An expression used in continental Australia for a
man from the Derwent in Tasmania.  Common up till 1850 at
least.--David Blair."

Ibid. Jan. 3, p. 6, col. 6:

"With respect to 'dervener,' the word was in use while the blue
shirt race existed [sc. convicts], and these people did not
become extinct until after 1860.--Cymro-Victoria."

Derwenter, n. a released convict from Hobart
Town, Tasmania, which is on the River Derwent.

1884.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c. xx. p. 140:

"An odd pair of sawyers, generally 'Derwenters,' as the
Tasmanian expirees were called."

Desert Lemon, n. called also Native
Kumquat, Atalantia glauca, Hook.,
N.O. Rutacea.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 8:

"The native kumquat or desert lemon.  The fruit is globular,
and about half an inch in diameter.  It produces an agreeable
beverage from its acid juice."

Desert-Oak, n. an Australian tree, Casuarina
decaisneana, F. v. M.  See Casuarina and Oak.

1896.  Baldwin Spencer, 'Horne Expedition in Central
Australia,' Narrative, p. 49:

"We had now amongst these sandhills come into the region of the
'Desert Oak' (Casuarina Decaisneana).  Some of the trees
reach a height of forty or fifty feet, and growing either
singly or in clumps form a striking feature amongst the thin
sparse scrub. . . .  The younger ones resemble nothing so much
as large funeral plumes.  Their outlines seen under a blazing
sun are indistinct, and they give to the whole scene a curious
effect of being 'out of focus.'"

Devil, Tasmanian, n. an animal, Sarcophilus
ursinus, Harris.  Formerly, but erroneously, referred to
the genus Dasyurus (q.v.), which includes the Native
Cat (see under Cat): described in the quotations.

1832.  J. Bischoff, 'Van Diemen's Land,' vol. ii. p. 29:

"The devil, or as naturalists term it, Dasyurus ursinus,
is very properly named."

1853.  J. West, 'History of Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 323:

"The devil (Dasyurus ursinus, Geoff.), about the size of
a bull terrier, is an exceedingly fierce and disgusting-looking
animal, of a black colour, usually having one white band across
the chest, and another across the back, near the tail.  It is a
perfect glutton, and most indiscriminate in its feeding."

1862.  F. J. Jobson, 'Australia,' c. vii. p. 186:

"Dasyurus ursinus--a carnivorous marsupial.  Colonists
in Tasmania, where only it exists . . . called it the 'devil,'
from the havoc it made among their sheep and poultry."

1891.  'Guide to Zoological Gardens, Melbourne':

"In the next division is a pair of Tasmanian devils
(Dasyurus ursinus); these unprepossessing-looking brutes
are hated by every one in Tasmania, their habitat, owing to
their destructiveness amongst poultry, and even sheep.  They
are black in colour, having only a white band across the chest,
and possess great strength in proportion to their size."

Devil's Guts, n. The name is given in Australia
to the Dodder-Laurel (see Laurel), Cassytha
filiformis, Linn., N.O. Lauraceae.  In Tasmania the
name is applied to Lyonsia straminea, R. Br., N.O.

1862.  W. Archer, 'Products of Tasmania,' p. 41:

"Lyonsia (Lyonsia straminea, Br.).  Fibres of the bark
fine and strong.  The lyonsia is met with, rather sparingly, in
dense thickets, with its stems hanging like ropes among the

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'useful Native Plants,' p. 14:

"This and other species of Cassythia are called
'dodder-laurel.'  The emphatic name of 'devil's guts' is
largely used.  It frequently connects bushes and trees by
cords, and becomes a nuisance to the traveller."  [This plant
is used by the Brahmins of Southern India for seasoning their
buttermilk.  ('Treasury of Botany.')]

Ibid. p. 162:

"It is also used medicinally."

Devil-on-the-Coals, n. a Bushman's name for
a small and quickly-baked damper.

1862.  Rev. A. Polehampton, 'Kangaroo Land,' p. 77:

"Instead of damper we occasionally made what is colonially
known as 'devils on the coals.' . . .  They are convenient when
there is not time to make damper, as only a minute or so is
required to bake them.  They are made about the size of a
captain's biscuit, and as thin as possible, thrown on the
embers and turned quickly with the hand."

Diamond Bird, n. a bird-name.  In the time of
Gould this name was only applied to Pardalotus
punctatus, Temm.  Since that time it has been extended to
all the species of the genus Pardalotus (q.v.).  The
broken colour of the plumage suggested a sparkling jewel.

1827.  Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean Society,'
vol. xv. p. 238:

"We are informed by Mr. Caley that this species is called
diamond bird by the settlers, from the spots on its body.
By them it is reckoned as valuable on account of its skin."

Diamond Snake, n. In Queensland and New South
Wales, Pythonon spilotes, Lacep.; in Tasmania,
Hoplocephalus superhus, Gray, venomous.  See under

Digger, n. a gold-miner.  The earliest mines
were alluvial.  Of course the word is used elsewhere, but in
Australia it has this special meaning.

1852.  Title:

"Murray's Guide to the Gold Diggings.--The Australian Gold
Diggings; where they are, and how to get at them; with letters
from Settlers and Diggers telling how to work them.  London:
Stewart & Murray) 1852."

1853.  Valiant, 'Letter to Council,' given in McCombie's
'History of Victoria' (1853), c. xvi. p. 248:

"It caused the diggers, as a body, to pause in their headlong

1855.  W. Howitt, 'Land, Labour, and Gold,'
vol. ii. p. 148, Letter xxx:

"Buckland River, January 29th, 1854.  The diggers here are a
very quiet and civil race, at the same time that they are a
most active and laborious one. . . .  The principal part of
the diggers here are from the Ovens."

1864.  J. Rogers, 'New Rush,' pt. ii. p. 31:

"Drink success to the digger's trade,
 And break up to the squatter's."

1896.  H. Lawson, 'While the Billy boils,' p. 148:

"His Father's Mate had always been a general favourite with the
diggers and fossickers, from the days when he used to slip out
first thing in the morning and take a run across the frosty
flat in his shirt."

Digger's Delight, n. a flower, Veronica
perfoliata, R. Br., N.O. Scrophularaneae, described
in quotations.

1878.  W. R. Guilfoyle, 'First Book of Australian Botany,' p. 64:

"Digger's Delight, Veronica perfoliata,
N.O. Scrophularineae.  A pretty, blue-flowering shrub,
with smooth stem-clasping leaves; found in the mountainous
districts of Victoria and New South Wales, and deriving its
common name from a supposition that its presence indicated
auriferous country.  It is plentiful in the elevated cold
regions of Australia."

1888.  D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 147:

"Such native flowers as the wild violet, the shepherd's purse,
or the blue-flowered 'digger's delight.'  This latter has come,
perhaps, with the seeds from some miner's holding amongst the
iron-barks in the gold country, and was once supposed to grow
only on auriferous soils.  When no one would think of digging
for gold in this field, the presence of the flower is, perhaps,
as reliable an indication of a golconda underneath as the
reports and information on the strength of which many mining
companies are floated."

Diggerdom, n. collective noun, the diggers.

1855.  W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 43:

"Diggerdom is gloriously in the ascendant here."

Diggeress, n. a digger's wife.

1855.  W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 43:

"The digger marching off, followed by his diggeress, a tall,
slim young woman, who strode on like a trooper. . . .  Open
carriages driving about, crowded with diggers and their

1864.  J. Rogers, 'New Rush,' pt. ii. p. 36:

"I'm tir'd of being a diggeress,
 And yearn a farmer's home to grace."

Diggings, n. a place where gold-mining is
carried on.  The word is generally regarded as singular.
Though common in Australia, it is very old, even in the sense
of a place where digging for gold is carried on.

1769.  De Foe's 'Tour of Great Britain,' i. 39 ('O.E.D.'):

"King Henry VIII. was induced to dig for Gold.  He was
disappointed, but the Diggings are visible at this Day."

1852.  J. Morgan, 'Life and Adventures of William Buckley'
(published at Hobart), p. 183 [quoting from the 'Victoria
Commercial Review,' published at Melbourne, by
Messrs. Westgarth, Ross, & Co., under date September 1, 1851]:

"The existence of a 'goldfield' was not ascertained until May
last. . . .  Numbers of persons are daily 'prospecting'
throughout this Colony and New South Wales in search of
gold. . . .In Victoria, as well as in New South Wales, regular
'diggings' are now established."

1852.  Murray, 'The Australian Gold Diggings: where they are
and how to get at them,' p. 1;

"It cannot but be acceptable to the crowds of intending
colonists and gold seekers, to present them with a picture of
the 'Progress of the Diggins,' [sic] drawn by the diggers."

1858.  T. McCombie, 'History of Victoria,' c. xv. p. 234:

"Immigrants who had not means to start to the diggings."

1870.  J. O. Tucker, 'The Mute,' p. 48:

"Ye glorious diggings 'neath a southern clime!
 I saw thy dawn."

['Ye,' 'thy.'  Is this singular or plural?]

1887.  H. H. Hayter, 'Christmas Adventure,' p. i:

"Fryer's creek, a diggings more than 90 miles from Melbourne."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. vii. p. 71:

"It was a goldfield and a diggings in far-away Australia."

Dilli, later Dilly-bag, n. an
aboriginal word, coming from Queensland, for a bag made either
of grasses or of fur twisted into cord.  Dhilla is the
term for hair in Kabi dialect, Mary River, Queensland.
Dirrang and jirra are corresponding words in the
east of New South Wales.  The aboriginal word dilli has
been tautologically increased to dilly-bag, and the word
is used by bushmen for a little bag for odds-and-ends, even
though made of calico or holland.

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 90:

"In their 'dillis' (small baskets) were several roots or

Ibid. p. 195:

"A basket (dilli) which I examined was made of a species of

1885.  R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 34:

"I learned too at the camp to plait dilly-bags."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. xvii. p. 210:

"Mayboy came forward dangling a small dilly-bag."

1896.  A.J. North, 'Report of Australian Museum,' p. 26:

"Dilly-bag (partly wool and partly grass)."

Dingle-bird, n. a poetical name for the
Australian Bell-bird (q.v.).

1870.  F. S. Wilson, 'Australian Songs,' p. 30:

"The bell-like chimings of the distant dingle-bird."

1883.  C. Harpur, 'Poems,' p. 78:

"I . . . list the tinkling of the dinglebird."

Dingo, n. the native dog of Australia, Canis
dingo.  "The aborigines, before they obtained dogs from
Europeans, kept the dingo for hunting, as is still done by
coast tribes in Queensland.  Name probably not used further
south than Shoalhaven, where the wild dog is called Mirigang."
(A. W. Howitt.)

1790.  J. White, 'Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 280:

[A dingo or dog of New South Wales.  Plate.  Description by J.
Hunter.]  "It is capable of barking, although not so readily as
the European dogs; is very ill-natured and vicious, and snarls,
howls, and moans, like dogs in common.  Whether this is the
only dog in New South Wales, and whether they have it in a wild
state, is not mentioned; but I should be inclined to believe
they had no other; in which case it will constitute the wolf of
that country; and that which is domesticated is only the wild
dog tamed, without having yet produced a variety, as in some
parts of America."

1798.  D. Collins, 'Account of English Colony in New South
Wales,' p. 614 [Vocab.]:

"Jungo---Beasts, common name.

1820.  W. C. Wentworth, 'Description of New South Wales,' p. 62:

"The native dog also, which is a species of the wolf, was
proved to be fully equal in this respect [sport] to the fox;
but as the pack was not sufficiently numerous to kill these
animals at once, they always suffered so severely from their
bite that at last the members of the hunt were shy in allowing
the dogs to follow them."

1834.  L. E. Threlkeld, 'Australian Grammar,' p. 55:

"Tigko---a bitch."

1852.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes '(1855), p. 153:

"I have heard that the dingo, warragal or native dog, does not
hunt in packs like the wolf and jackal."

1860.  William Story, 'Victorian Government Prize Essays,' p. 101:

"The English hart is so greatly superior, as an animal of
chase, to that cunning poultry thief the fox, that I trust
Mister Reynard will never be allowed to become an Australian
immigrant, and that when the last of the dingoes shall have
shared the fate of the last English wolf, Australian Nimrods
will resuscitate, at the antipodes of England, the sterling old
national sport of hart hunting, conjointly with that of African
boks, gazelles, and antelopes, and leave the fox to their
English cousins, who cannot have Australian choice."

1872.  C. H. Eden, 'My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 103:

"In the neighbourhood of Brisbane and other large towns where
they have packs, they run the dingoes as you do foxes at home."

1880.  Garnet Walch, 'Victoria in 1880,' p. 113:

"The arms of the Wimmera should be rabbit and dingo, 'rampant,'
supporting a sun, 'or, inflamed.'"

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 71:

"Dingoes, the Australian name for the wild dogs so destructive
to sheep.  They were . . . neither more nor less than wolves,
but more cowardly and not so ferocious, seldom going in large
packs.  They hunted kangaroos when in numbers, or driven to it
by hunger; but usually preferred smaller and more easily
obtained prey, as rats, bandicoots, and 'possums."

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 38:

"On the large stations a man is kept whose sole work it is to
lay out poison for the dingo.  The black variety with white
breast generally appears in Western Queensland along with the

1891.  'Guide to Zoological Gardens, Melbourne':

"The dingo of northern Australia can be distinguished from his
brother of the south by his somewhat smaller size and
courageous bearing.  He always carries his tail curled over his
back, and is ever ready to attack any one or anything; whilst
the southern dingo carries his tail low, slinks along like a
fox, and is easily frightened.  The pure dingo, which is now
exceedingly rare in a wild state, partly through the agency of
poison, but still more from the admixture of foreign breeds, is
unable to bark, and can only express its feelings in long-drawn
weird howls."

1894.  'The Argus,' June 23, p. l1, col. 4:

"Why is the first call of a dingo always apparently miles away,
and the answer to it--another quavering note slightly more
shrill--so close at hand?  Is it delusion or distance?"

Dinornis, n. the scientific name given by
Professor Owen to the genus of huge struthious birds of the
post-Pliocene period, in New Zealand, which survive in the
traditions of the Maoris under the name of Moa (q.v.).
From the Greek deinos, terrible, and 'ornis,

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. Intro.
p. xviii:

"The specimens [fossil-bones] transmitted . . . were confided
to the learned Professor [Owen] for determination; and these
materials, scanty as they were, enabled him to define the
generic characters of Dinornis, as afforded by the bones
of the hind extremity."

Ibid. p. xxiv:

"Professor Owen had well-nigh exhausted the vocabulary of terms
expressive of largeness by naming his successive discoveries
ingens, giganteus, crassus, robustus, and
elephantopus, when he had to employ the superlative
Dinornis maximus to distinguish a species far exceeding
in stature even the stately Dinornis giganteus.  In this
colossal bird . . . some of the cervical vertebrae almost equal
in size the neck-bones of a horse!  The skeleton in the British
Museum . . . measures 11 feet in height, and . . . some of these
feathered giants attained to a still greater stature."

Dipper, n. a vessel with a handle at the top of
the side like a big tin mug.  That with which one dips.  The
word is not Australian, but is of long standing in the United
States, where it is used as a name for the constellation of the
Great Bear.

1893.  'Australasian Schoolmaster,' Feb.:

"These answers have not the true colonial ring of the
following, which purports to be the remark of the woman of
Samaria: 'Sir, the well is very deep, and you haven't got
a dipper.'"

Dips, n. Explained in quotation.

1859.  G. Bunce, 'Travels with Leichhardt,' p. 161:

". . . Dr. Leichhardt gave the party a quantity of dough boys,
or as we called them, dips. . ."

[p. 171]: "In this dilemma, Dr. Leichhardt ordered the cook to
mix up a lot of flour, and treated us all to a feed of dips.
These were made as follows:--a quantity of flour was mixed up
with water, and stirred with a spoon to a certain consistency,
and dropped into a pot of boiling water, a spoonful at a time.
Five minutes boiling was sufficient, when they were eaten with
the water in which they were boiled."

Dirt, n. In Australia, any alluvial deposit in
which gold is found; properly Wash-dirt.  The word is
used in the United States.  See quotation, 187.

1853.  Mrs. Chas.  Clancy, 'Lady's Visit to the Gold Diggings,'
p. 109:

"And after doing this several times, the 'dirt,' of course,
gradually diminishing, I was overjoyed to see a few bright

1857.  Borthwick, 'California,' [Bartlett, quoted in 'O.E.D.']
p. 120:

"In California, 'dirt' is the universal word to signify the
substance dug; earth, clay, gravel, or loose slate.  The miners
talk of rich dirt and poor dirt, and of stripping off so many
feet of 'top dirt' before getting to 'pay-dirt,' the latter
meaning dirt with so much gold in it that it will pay to dig it
up and wash it."

1870.  J. O. Tucker, 'The Mute,'p. 40:

"Others to these the precious dirt convey,
 Linger a moment till the panning's through."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. xiv. p. 142:

"We were clean worked out . . . before many of our neighbours
at Greenstone Gully, were half done with their dirt."

Ibid. c. xviii. p. 177:

"We must trust in the Oxley 'dirt' and a kind Providence."

Dish, n. and adj. a small and rough
vessel in which gold is washed.  The word is used in the United

1890.  'Goldfields of Victoria,' p. 17:

"I have obtained good dish prospects after crudely crushing up
the quartz."

Dishwasher, n. an old English bird-name for the
Water-Wagtail; applied in Australia to Seisura inquieta,
Lath., the Restless Fly-catcher (q.v.).  Seisura
is from Grk. seiein (to shake), and 'oura (a
tail), being thus equal in meaning to Wagtail.  Also called
Dishlick, Grinder, and Razor-grinder (q.v.).

1827.  Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of the Linnaean
Society,' vol. xv. p. 250:

"This bird is called by the colonists Dishwasher.  It is very
curious in its actions.  In alighting on the stump of a tree it
makes several semi-circular motions, spreading out its tail,
and making a loud noise somewhat like that caused by a
razor-grinder when at work."

Distoechurus, n. the scientific name of the
genus of the New Guinea Pentailed-Phalanger, or so-called
Opossum-mouse (q.v.).  It has a tail with the long hairs
arranged in two opposite rows, like the vanes of a
feather.(Grk. distoichos, with two rows, and
'oura, a tail.)

Diver, n. common bird-name used in Australia
for a species of Grebe.

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. vii. pl. 80:

"Podiceps australis, Gould; Australian Tippet Grebe;
Diver of the Colonists."

Doctor, n. word used in the South Australian
bush for "the cook."

1896.  'The Australasian,' June 13, p. 1133, col. 1:

"'The doctor's in the kitchen, and the boss is in the shed;
   The overseer's out mustering on the plain;
  Sling your bluey down, old boy, for the clouds are overhead,
   You are welcome to a shelter from the rain.'"

Dodder Laurel, n. i.q. Devil's Guts

Dog-fish, n.  The name belongs to various
fishes of distinct families, chiefly sharks.  In Australia,
it is used for the fish Scyllium lima, family
Scylliidae.  In New South Wales it is Scyllium
maculatum, Bl.  The Sprite Dog-fish of New Zealand
is Acanthias maculatus, family Spinacidae.  The
Spotted Dog-fish of New South Wales is Scyllium
anale.  The Dusky Dogfish of New South Wales is
Chiloscyllium modestum, Gunth., and there are others
in Tasmania and Australia.

Dogleg, adj. applied to a primitive kind of
fence made of rough timber.  Crossed spars, which are the
doglegs, placed at intervals, keep in place a low rail resting
on short posts, and are themselves fixed by heavy saplings
resting in the forks above.

1875.  R. and F. Hill, 'What we saw in Australia,' p. 61:

". . . we made acquaintance with the 'dog's leg' fence.
This is formed of bare branches of the gum-tree laid obliquely,
several side by side, and the ends overlapping, so that they
have somewhat the appearance that might be presented by the
stretched-out legs of a crowd of dogs running at full speed.
An upright stick at intervals, with a fork at the top, on which
some of the cross-branches rest, adds strength to the

1888.  D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 13:

"While the primaeval 'dog-leg' fence of the Victorian bush,
or the latter-day 'chock and log' are no impediments in the path
of our foresters." [sc. kangaroos; see Forester.]

1888.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Robbery under Arms,' p. 71:

"As we rode up we could see a gunyah made out of boughs, and a
longish wing of dog leg fence, made light but well put

Dog's Tongue, n. name given to the plant
Cynoglossum suaveolens, R. Br., N.O. Asperifoliae.

Dogwood, n. various trees and their wood; none
of them the same as those called dogwood in the Northern
Hemisphere, but their woods are used for similar purposes, e.g.
butchers' skewers, fine pegs, and small pointed wooden
instruments.  In Australia generally, Jacksonia
scoparia, R. Br., also Myoporum platycarpum, R. Br.
In Tasmania, Bedfordia salicina, De C.,
N.O. Compositae, which is also called Honeywood,
and in New South Wales, Cottonwood (q.v.), and the two
trees Pomaderris elliptica, Lab., and P. apetala,
Lab., N.O. Rhamnaceae, which are called respectively
Yellow and Bastard Dogwood.  See also
Coranderrk.  In parts of Tasmania, Pomaderris
apetala, Lab., N.O. Rhamn/ac?/eae, is also called
Dogwood, or Bastard Dogwood.

1836.  Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 16:

"There is a secluded hollow of this kind near Kangaroo Bottom,
near Hobart Town, where the common dogwood of the colony
(pomaderris apetala) has sprung up so thick and tall, that Mr.
Babington and myself having got into it unawares one day, had
the greatest difficulty imaginable to get out after three or
four hours' labour.  Not one of the plants was more than six
inches apart from the others, while they rose from 6 to 12
yards in height, with leaves at the top which almost wholly
excluded the light of the sun."

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 11:

"Iron-bark ridges here and there, with spotted gum, with
dogwood (Jacksonia) on a sandy soil."  (p. 20): "A
second creek, with running water, which from the number of
dogwood shrubs (Jacksonia), in the full glory of their
golden blossoms, I called 'Dogwood Creek.'"

1894.  'Melbourne Museum Catalogue--Economic Woods,' p. 46:

"Native dogwood, a hard, pale-brown, well-mottled wood; good
for turnery."

Dogwood Poison-bush, n. a New South Wales name;
the same as Ellangowan Poison-bush (q.v.).

Dollar, n. See Holy Dollar.

Dollar-bird, n. name given to the Roller
(q.v.).  See quotations.

1827.  Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean Society,'
vol. xv. p. 202:

"The settlers call it dollar-bird, from the silver-like spot on
the wing."

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia;' vol. ii. pl. 17:

"Eurystomus Australis, Swains., Australian Roller.
Dollar Bird of the Colonists.  During flight the white spot in
the centre of each wing, then widely expanded, shows very
distinctly, and hence the name of Dollar Bird.'"

1851.  I. Henderson, 'Excursions in New South Wales,' vol. ii.
p. 183:

"The Dollar-bird derives its name from a round white spot the
size of a dollar, on its wing.  It is very handsome, and flies
in rather a peculiar manner.  It is the only bird which I have
observed to perform regular migrations; and it is strange that
in such a climate any one should do so.  But it appears that
the dollar-bird does not relish even an Australian winter.
It is the harbinger of spring and genial weather."

Dollar-fish n. a name often given formerly to
the John Dory (q.v.), from the mark on its side.  See
quotation, 1880.  The name Dollar-fish is given on the
American coasts to a different fish.

1880.  Guenther, 'Study of Fishes,' p. 451:

"The fishermen of Roman Catholic countries hold this fish in
special respect, as they recognize in a black round spot on its
side the mark left by the thumb of St. Peter, when he took the
piece of money from its mouth."

1882.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Fish of New South Wales,'
p. 62:

"The dory has been long known, and when the currency of the
colony was in Mexican coin it was called a 'dollar-fish.'"

Dorca-Kangaroo, n. See Dorcopsis and

Dorcopsis, n. the scientific name of a genus of
little Kangaroos with pretty gazelle-like faces.
(Grk. dorkas, a gazelle, and 'opsis, appearance.)
They are called Dorca-Kangaroos, and are confined to New
Guinea, and form in some respects a connecting link between
Macropus and the Tree-Kangaroo (q.v.).  There are
three species--the Brown Dorca Kangaroo, Dorcopsis
muelleri; Grey D., D. luctuosa, Macleay's D.,
D. macleayi. See Kangaroo (e).

Dottrel, n. formerly Dotterel, common
English bird-name, applied in Australia to Charadrius
australis, Gould.

Black-fronted Dottrel--
 Charadrius nigrifrons, Temm.

Double-banded D.--
 C. bicincta, Jord. and Selb.

Hooded D.--
 C. monacha, Geoff.

Large Sand D.--
 C. (AEgialitis) geoffroyi, Wag.

Mongolian Sand D.--
 C. (AEgialitis) mongolica, Pallas.

Oriental D.--
 C. veredus, Gould.

Red-capped Dottrel--
 Charadrius ruficapilla, Temm.; called also

Red-necked D.--
 C. (AEgialitis) mastersi, Ramsay.

Ringed D.--
 C. hiaticula, Linn. [See also Red-knee.]

Dove, n. a well-known English bird-name,
applied in Australia to the--

Barred-shouldered Dove--
 Geopelia humeralis, Temm.

Ground D.--
 G. tranquilla, Gould.

Little D.--
 G. cuneata, Lath.  [See also Ground-dove.]

Dove-Petrel, n. a well-known English bird-name.
The species in the-Southern Seas are--

 Prion turtur, Smith.

Banks D.-P.--
 P. banksii, Smith.

Broad-billed D.-P.--
 P. vittata, Forst.

Fairy D.-P.--
 P. ariel, Gould.

Dover, n. a clasp knife, by a maker of that
name, once much used in the colonies.

1878.  'The Australian,' vol. i. p. 418:

"In plates and knives scant is the shepherd's store,
 'Dover' and pan are all, he wants no more."

1893.  April 15, 'A Traveller's Note':

"'So much a week and the use of my Dover' men used to say in
making a contract of labour."

1894.  'Bush Song' [Extract]:

"Tie up the dog beside the log,
 And come and flash your Dover."

Down, n. a prejudice against, hostility to;
a peculiarly Australian noun made out of the adverb.

1856.  W. W. Dobie, 'Recollections of a Visit to Port Philip,'
p. 84:

". . . the bushranger had been in search of another squatter,
on whom 'he said he had a down'. . ."

1884.  J. W. Bull, 'Early Life in South Australia,' p. 179:

"It was explained that Foley had a private 'down' on them,
as having stolen from him a favourite kangaroo dog."

1889.  Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia, vol. iv. p. 180:

"They [diggers] had a 'dead down' on all made dishes."

1893.  Professor Gosman, 'The Argus,' April 24, p. 7, col. 4:

"That old prejudice in the minds of many men to the effect that
those who represented the churches or religious people had a
regular down upon freedom of thought."

1893.  'The Age,' June 24, p. 5, col. 1:

"Mr. M. said it was notorious in the department that one of the
commissioners had had 'a down' on him."

1893.  R. L. Stevenson, 'Island Nights' Entertainments,' p. 46:

"'They have a down on you,' says Case.  'Taboo a man because
they have a down on him'' I cried.  'I never heard the like.'"

Down, adv. "To come, or be down," is the phrase
used in Australian Universities for to be "plucked," or
"ploughed," or "spun," i.e., to fail in an examination.  It has
been in use for a few years, certainly not earlier than 1886.
The metaphor is either taken from a fall from a horse, or
perhaps from the prize-ring.  The use has no connection with
being "sent down," or "going down," at Oxford or Cambridge.

Draft, v. to separate and sort cattle.  An
adaptation of the meaning "to select and draw off for
particular service," especially used of soldiers.

1884.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c. vi. p. 46:

"I should like to be drafting there again."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'The Squatter's Dream,' p. 2:

"There were those cattle to be drafted that had been brought
from the Lost Waterhole."

Draft, n. a body of cattle separated from the
rest of the herd.

1884.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c. ii. p. 22:

"A draft of out-lying cattle rose and galloped off."

Drafter, n. a man engaged in drafting cattle.

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. xviii. p. 227:

"They behave better, though all the while keeping the drafters
incessantly popping at the fence by truculent charges."

Drafting-gate, n. gate used in separating
cattle and sheep into different classes or herds.

1890.  'The Argus,' Aug. 16, p. 4, col. 7:

"But the tent-flap seemed to go up and down quick as a

Drafting-stick, n. a stick used in drafting

1884.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c. x. p. 72:

"We . . . armed ourselves with drafting-sticks and resolutely
faced it."

Drafting-yard, n. a yard for drafting cattle.

1890.  'The Argus,' Aug. 16, p. 13, col. 1:

"There were drafting-yards and a tank a hundred yards off,
but no garden."

Dray, n. an ordinary cart for goods.  See
quotation, 1872.

1833.  C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' vol. i. Intro. p. xlix:

"They send their produce to the market . . . receiving supplies
for home consumption on the return of their drays or carts from

1872.  C. H. Eden, "My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 31:

"A horse dray, as known in Australia, is by no means the
enormous thing its name would signify, but simply an ordinary
cart on two wheels without springs."  [There are also

1886.  H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 41:

"One told by camp fires when the station drays
 Were housed and hidden, forty years ago."

Dromicia, n. the scientific name of the
Australian Dormouse Phalangers, or little
Opossum- or Flying-Mice, as they are locally
called.  See Opossum, Opossum-mouse, and
Phalanger.  They are not really the "Flying"-Mice or
Flying-phalanger, as they have only an incipient parachute, but
they are nearly related to the Pigmy Petaurists (q.v.)
or small Flying-Phalangers.  (Grk. dromikos, good
at running, or swift.)

Drongo, n. This bird-name was "given by Le
Vaillant in the form drongeur to a South African bird
afterwards known as the Musical Drongo, Dicrurus
musicus, then extended to numerous . . . fly-catching,
crow-like birds."  ('Century.')  The name is applied in
Australia to Chibia bracteata, Gould, which is called
the Spangled Drongo.

1895.  W. 0. Legge, 'Australasian Association for the
Advancement of Science' (Brisbane), p. 448:

"There being but one member of the interesting Asiatic genus
Drongo in Australia, it was thought best to characterize
it simply as the Drongo without any qualifying term."

Drop, n. (Slang.) To "have the drop on" is to
forestall, gain advantage over, especially by covering with a

It is curious that while an American magazine calls this phrase
Australian (see quotation), the 'Dictionary of Slang'--one
editor of which is the distinguished American, Godfrey
C. Leland--says it is American.  It is in common use in

1894.  'Atlantic Monthly,' Aug., p. 179.

"His terrible wife, if we may borrow a phrase from Australia,
'had the drop on him' in every particular."

Drooping Acacia, n. See Acacia.

Drove, v. to drive travelling cattle or sheep.

1890.  A. J. Vogan, 'Black Police,' p. 334:

"I don't know how you'd be able to get on without the 'boys' to
muster, track, and drove."

1896.  A. B. Paterson, 'Man from Snowy River' [Poem 'In the
Droving Days'], p. 95:

"For though lie scarcely a trot can raise,
 He can take me back to the droving days."

Drum, n. a bundle; more usually called
a swag (q.v.).

1866.  Wm. Starner, 'Recollections of a Life of Adventure,'
vol. i. p. 304

". . . and 'humping his drum' start off for the diggings to
seek more gold."

1872.  C. H. Eden, 'My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 17:

"They all chaffed us about our swags, or donkeys, or drums,
as a bundle of things wrapped in a blanket is indifferently

1886.  Frank Cowan, 'Australia, Charcoal Sketch,' p. 31:

"The Swagman: bed and board upon his back--or, having humped
his drum and set out on the wallaby . . ."

Drummer, n. a New South Wales name for the fish
Girella elevata, Macl., of the same family as the
Black-fish (q.v.).

Dry-blowing, n. a Western Australian term in

1894.  'The Argus,' March 28, p. 5, col. 5:

"When water is not available, as unfortunately is the case at
Coolgardie, 'dry blowing' is resorted to.  This is done by
placing the pounded stuff in one dish, and pouring it slowly at
a certain height into the other.  If there is any wind blowing
it will carry away the powdered stuff; if there is no wind the
breath will have to be used.  It is not a pleasant way of
saving gold, but it is a case of Hobson's choice.  The
unhealthiness of the method is apparent."

Duboisine, n. an alkaloid derived from the
plant Duboisia myoposides, N.O. Sofanaceae, a
native of Queensland and New South Wales.  It is used in
medicine as an application to the eye for the purpose of
causing the pupil to dilate, in the same way as atropine, an
alkaloid obtained from the belladonna plant in Europe, has long
been employed.  Duboisine was discovered and introduced into
therapeutics by a Brisbane physician.

Duck, n. the well-known English name of the
birds of the Anatinae, Fuligulinae, and other series,
of which there are about 125 species comprised in about 40 genera.
The Australian genera and species are---

Blue-billed Duck--
 Erismatura australis, Gould.

Freckled D.--
 Stictonetta naevosa, Gould.

Mountain D. (the Shel-drake, q.v.).

Musk D. (q.v.)--
 Biziura lobata, Shaw.

Pink-eared D., or Widgeon (q.v.)--
 Malacorhynchus membranaceus, Lath.

Plumed Whistling D.--
 Dendrocygna eytoni, Gould.

Whistling D.--
 D. vagans, Eyton. [Each species of the
 Dendrocygna called also by sportsmen Tree-duck.]

White-eyed D., or Hard-head (q.v.)--
 Nyroca australis, Gould.

Wild D.--
 Anas superciliosa, Gmel.

Wood D. (the Maned Goose; see Goose).

The following is a table of the ducks as compiled by Gould nearly
fifty years ago.

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. vii:


Anas superciliosa, Gmel.
 Australian Wild Duck                   . . .  9

Anas naevosa, Gould,
 Freckled Duck                          . . . 10

Anas punctata, Cuv.
 Chestnut-breasted Duck                 . . . 11

Spatula Rhyncotis,
 Australian Shoveller                   . . . 12

Malacorhynchus membranaceus,     . . . 13
 Membranaceous Duck

Dendrocygna arcuata,
 Whistling Duck (q.v.)                  . . . 14

Leptolarsis Eytoni, Gould,
 Eyton's Duck                           . . . 15

Nyroca Australis, Gould,
 White-eyed Duck                        . . . 16

Erismatura Australis,
 Blue-billed Duck                       . . . 17

Biziura lobata,
 Musk Duck                              . . . 18

The following is Professor Parker's statement of the New Zealand

1889.  Prof.  Parker, 'Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,'
p. 117:

"There are eleven species of Native Ducks belonging to nine
genera, all found elsewhere, except two--the little Flightless
Duck of the Auckland Islands (genus Nesonetta) and the
Blue Mountain Duck (Hymenolaemus).  Among the most
interesting of the non-endemic forms, are the Paradise Duck or
Sheldrake (Casarca variegata), the Brown Duck (Anas
chlorotis), the Shoveller or Spoonbill Duck (Rhynchaspis
variegata), and the Scaup or Black Teal (Fuligula

Duckbill, n. See Platypus.  Sometimes
also called Duckmole.

Duckmole, n. See Platypus.

1825.  Barron Field, 'First Fruits of Australian Poetry,'
in 'Geographical Memoirs of New South Wales,' p. 496:

"When sooty swans are once more rare,
 And duck-moles the museum's care."

[Appendix :  "Water or duck-mole."]

1875.  Schmidt, 'Descent and Darwinism,' p. 237:

"The Ornithorhyncus or duck-mole of Tasmania."

Duck-shoving, and Duckshover, n.
a cabman's phrase.

In Melbourne, before the days of trams, the wagonette-cabs used
to run by a time-table from fixed stations at so much
(generally 3d.) a passenger.  A cabman who did not wait
his turn on the station rank, but touted for passengers up and
down the street in the neighbourhood of the rank, was termed a

1870.  D. Blair, 'Notes and Queries,' Aug. 6, p. 111:

"Duck-shoving is the term used by our Melbourne cabmen to
express the unprofessional trick of breaking the rank, in order
to push past the cabman on the stand for the purpose of picking
up a stray passenger or so."

1896.  'Otago Daily Times,' Jan. 25, p. 3, col. 6:

"The case was one of a series of cases of what was technically
known as 'duck shoving,' a process of getting passengers which
operated unfairly against the cabmen who stayed on the licensed
stand and obeyed the by-law."

Dudu, n. aboriginal name for a pigeon,
fat-breasted, and very good eating.

1852.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes' (3rd ed. 1855), c. vii.
p. 170:

"In the grassland, a sort of ground pigeon, called the dudu,
a very handsome little bird, got up and went off like a
partridge, strong and swift, re-alighting on the ground, and
returning to cover."

Duff, v. to steal cattle by altering the

1869.  E. Carton Booth, 'Another England,' p. 138:

"He said there was a 'duffing paddock' somewhere on the Broken
River, into which nobody but the owner had ever found an
entrance, and out of which no cattle had ever found their
way--at any rate, not to come into their owner's
possession. . . .  The man who owned the 'duffing paddock'
was said to have a knack of altering cattle brands . . ."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Squatter's Dream,' c. xiv. p. 162:

"I knew Redcap when he'd think more of duffing a red heifer
than all the money in the country."

1891.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'A Sydneyside Saxon,' p. 95:

"As to the calves I'm a few short myself, as I think that
half-caste chap of yours must have 'duffed.'"

Duffer, n. a cattle stealer,
i.q. Cattle-duffer (q.v.).

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. xxv. p. 352:

"What's a little money . . . if your children grow up duffers
and planters?"

Duffer2, n. a claim on a mine which turns out
unproductive, called also shicer (q.v.).  [This is only
a special application of the slang English, duffer, an
incapable person, or a failure.  Old English Daffe, a

1861.  T. McCombie, 'Australian Sketches,' p. 193:

"It was a terrible duffer anyhow, every ounce of gold got from
it cost L 20 I'll swear."

1864.  J Rogers, 'New Rush,' p. 55:

"Tho' duffers are so common
 And golden gutters rare,
 The mining sons of woman
 Can much ill fortune bear."

1873.  A.Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 291:

"A shaft sunk without any produce from it is a duffer. . . .
But of these excavations the majority were duffers.  It is the
duffering part of the business which makes it all so sad.So
much work is done from which there is positively no return."

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' p. 266:

"The place is then declared to be a 'duffer,' and abandoned,
except by a few fanatics, who stick there for months and

1891.  'The Australasian,' Nov. 21, p. 1014:

"Another duffer!  Rank as ever was bottomed!  Seventy-five feet
hard delving and not a colour!"

Duffer out, v.  A mine is said to duffer out,
when it has ceased to be productive.

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' p. 279:

"He then reported to the shareholders that the lode had
'duffered out,' and that it was useless to continue working."

1889.  Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. iv. p. 73:

"Cloncurry has, to use the mining parlance, duffered out."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. vi. p. 58:

"'So you're duffered out again, Harry,' she said."

Dugong Oil, n. an oil obtained in Australia,
from Halicore dugong, Gmel., by boiling the superficial
fat.  A substitute for cod-liver oil.  The dugongs are a genus
of marine mammals in the order Sirenia.
H. dugong inhabits the waters of North and North-east
Australia, the southern shores of Asia, and the east coast of
Africa.  The word is Malay.

Dug-out, n. a name imported into New Zealand
from America, but the common name for an ordinary Maori canoe.

Duke Willy, n. See Whistling Dick.

Dummy, n. (1) In Australia, when land was
thrown open for selection (q.v.), the squatters who had
previously the use of the land suffered.  Each squatter
exercised his own right of selection.  Many a one also induced
others to select nominally for themselves, really for the
squatter.  Such selector was called a dummy.  The law then
required the selector to swear that he was selecting the land
for his own use and benefit.  Some of the dummies did not
hesitate to commit perjury.  Dictionaries give "dummy,
adj. fictitious or sham."  The Australian noun is an
extension of this idea.  Webster gives "(drama) one who
plays a merely nominal part in any action, sham character."
This brings us near to the original dumby, from
dumb, which is radically akin to German dumm,

1866.  D. Rogerson, 'Poetical Works, p. 23:

"The good selectors got most of the land,
 The dummies being afraid to stand."

1866.  H. Simcox, 'Rustic Rambles, p. 21:

"See the dummies and the mediums,
 Bagmen, swagmen, hastening down."

1872.  A. McFarland, 'Illawarra and Manaro,' p. 125:

"Since free selection was introduced, a good many of the
squatters (they say, in self-defence) have, in turn, availed
themselves of it, to secure 'the eyes' or water-holes of the
country, so far as they could by means of 'dummies,' and other

1879.  R. Niven, 'Fraser's Magazine,' April, p. 516:

"This was the, in the colony, well-known 'dummy' system.  Its
nature may be explained in a moment.  It was simply a swindling
transaction between the squatter on the one hand and some
wretched fellow on the other, often a labourer in the
employment of the squatter, in which the former for a
consideration induced the latter to personate the character of
a free selector, to acquire from the State, for the purpose of
transferring to himself, the land he most coveted out of that
thrown open for selection adjoining his own property."

1892.  'Scribner's Magazine,' Feb. p. 140:

"By this device the squatter himself, all the members of the
family, his servants, shepherds, boundary-riders, station-hands
and rabbiters, each registered a section, the dummies duly
handing their 'selection' over to the original holder for a
slight consideration."

(2) Colloquial name for the grip-car of the Melbourne trams.
Originally the grip-car was not intended to carry passengers:
hence the name.

1893.  'The Herald' (Melbourne), p. 5, col. 5:

"Linked to the car proper is what is termed a dummy."

1897.  'The Argus,' Jan. 2, p. 7, col. 5:

"But on the tramcar, matters were much worse.  The front seat
of the dummy was occupied by a young Tasmanian lady and her
cousin, and, while one portion of the cart struck her a
terrible blow on the body, the shaft pinned her by the neck
against the front stanchion of the dummy."

Dummy, v. to obtain land in the way above

1873.  A.Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,' c. vi. p. 101:

"Each partner in the run has purchased his ten thousand,
and there have been many Mrs. Harrises.  The Mrs. Harris system
is generally called dummying--putting up a non-existent
free-selector--and is illegal.  But I believe no one will deny
that it has been carried to a great extent."

1896.  'The Champion' (Melbourne), Jan. 11:

"The verb 'to dummy' and the noun 'dummyism' are purely
Australian, quotations to illustrate the use of which can be
obtained from 'Hansard,' the daily papers, and such works as
Epps' monograph on the 'Land Tenure Systems of Australasia.'"

Dummyism, n. obtaining land by
misrepresentation. See Dummy, n.

1875.  'The Spectator' (Melbourne), June 19, p. 8, col. 2:

"'Larrikinism' was used as a synonym for 'blackguardism,'
and 'dummyism' for perjury."

1876.  'The Argus,' Jan. 26, p. 6, col. 6:

"Mr. Bent thought that a stop should be put to all selection
and dummyism till a land law was introduced."

1887.  J. F. Hogan, 'The Irish in Australia, p. 98:

"This baneful and illegal system of land-grabbing is known
throughout the colonies by the expressive name of 'dummyism,'
the persons professing to be genuine selectors, desirous of
establishing themselves on the soil, being actually the agents
or the 'dummies of the adjoining squatters."

Dump, n. a small coin formerly used in
Australia and Tasmania.  Its history is given in the
quotations.  In England the word formerly meant a heavy
leaden counter; hence the expression, "I don't care a dump."
See Holy Dollar.

1822.  'Hobart Town Gazette,' December 14:

"Government Public Notice.--The Quarter Dollars, or 'Dumps,'
struck from the centre of the Spanish Dollar, and issued by
His Excellency Governor Macquarie, in the year 1813, at One
Shilling and Threepence each, will be exchanged for Treasury
Bills at Par, or Sterling money."

1823.  'Sydney Gazette,' Jan. ['Century']:

"The small colonial coin denominated dumps have all been called
in.  If the dollar passes current for five shillings the dump
lays claim to fifteen pence value still in silver money."

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i.
p. 44

"He only solicits the loan of a 'dump,' on pretence of treating
his sick gin to a cup of tea."

Ibid. p. 225:

"The genuine name of an Australian coin, in value
1s. 3d."

1852.  J. West, 'History of Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 141:

"Tattered promissory notes, of small amount and doubtful
parentage, fluttered about the colony; dumps, struck out from
dollars, were imitated by a coin prepared without requiring
much mechanical ingenuity."

1870.  T. H. Braim, 'New Homes,' c. iii. p. 131:

"The Spanish dollar was much used.  A circular piece was struck
out of the centre about the size of a shilling, and it was
called a 'dump.'"

1879.  W. J. Barry, 'Up and Down,' p. 5:

"The coin current in those days (1829) consisted of ring-
dollars and dumps, the dump being the centre of the dollar
punched out to represent a smaller currency."

1893.  'The Daily News' (London), May 11, p. 4:

"The metallic currency was then [1819-25] chiefly Spanish
dollars, at that time and before and afterwards the most widely
disseminated coin in the world, and they had the current value
of 5s.  But there were too few of them, and therefore
the centre of them was cut out and circulated under the name of
'dumps' at 1s. 3d. each, the remainder of the
coin--called by way of a pun, 'holy dollars'--still retaining
its currency value of 5s."

Dump, v. to press closely; applied to wool.
Bales are often marked "not to be dumped."

1872.  C. H. Eden, 'My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 98:

"The great object of packing so close is to save carriage
through the country, for however well you may do it, it is
always re-pressed, or 'dumped,' as it is called, by hydraulic
pressure on its arrival in port, the force being so great as to
crush two bales into one."

1875.  R. and F. Hill, 'What we saw in Australia,' p. 207:

"From the sorting-tables the fleeces are carried to the
packing-shed; there, by the help of machinery, they are pressed
into sacks, and the sacks are then themselves heavily pressed
and bound with iron bands, till they become hard cubes.  This
process is called 'dumping.'"

Dumplings, n. i.q. Apple-berry (q.v.).

Dundathee, or Dundathu Pine, n. the
Queensland species (Agathis robusta, Sal.) of the
Kauri Pine (q.v.); and see Pine.

Dungaree-Settler, n. Now obsolete.  See

1852.  Anon, 'Settlers and Convicts; or, Recollections of
Sixteen Years' Labour in the Australian Backwoods,' p. 11:

"The poor Australian settler (or, according to colonist
phraseology, the Dungaree-settler; so called from their
frequently clothing themselves, their wives, and children
in that blue Indian manufacture of cotton known as
Dungaree) sells his wheat crop."

Dunite, n. an ore in New Zealand, so called
from Dun mountain, near Nelson.

1883.  J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 56:

"Chrome ore.  This ore, which is a mixture of chromic iron and
alumina, is chiefly associated with magnesian rock, resembling
olivine in composition, named Dunite by Dr. Hochstetter."

Dust, n. slang for flour.

1893.  Dec. 12, 'A Traveller's Note':

"A bush cook said to me to-day, we gave each sundowner a
pannikin of dust."

Dwarf-box, n. Eucalyptus microtheca,
F. v. M. See Box.  This tree has also many other names.
See Maiden's 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 495.

1833.  C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' vol. i. c. i. p. 22:

"Dwarf-box and the acacia pendula prevailed along the plains."


Eagle, n. There are nine species of the true
Eagle, all confined to the genus Haliaetus, such as the
Baldheaded Eagle (H. leucocephalus), the national emblem
of the United States.  ('Century.')  In Australia the name is
assigned to--

Little Eagle--
 Aquila morphnoides, Gould.

Wedge-tailed E. (Eagle-hawk)--
 A. audax, Lath.

Whistling E.--
 Haliaetus sphenurus, Vieill.

White-bellied Sea E.--
 H. leucogaster, Gmel.

White-headed Sea E.--
 Haliaster girrenera, Vieill.

Eaglehawk, n. an Australian name for the bird
Uroaetus, or Aquila audax, Lath.  The name was
applied to the bird by the early colonists of New South Wales,
and has persisted.  In 'O.E.D.' it is shown that the name was
used in Griffith's translation (1829) of Cuvier's 'Regne
Animal' as a translation of the French aigle-autour,
Cuvier's name for a South American bird of prey of the genus
Morphnus, called Spizaetus by Vieillot; but it is
added that the word never came into English use.  See
Eagle.  There is a town in Victoria called Eaglehawk.
The Bendigo cabmen make the name a monosyllable, "Glawk."

1834.  L. E. Threlkeld, 'Australian Grammar, p. 56:

"The large eaglehawk, which devours young kangaroos, lambs,

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. i. pl. 1:

"Aquila Fucosa, Cuv., [now A. audax, Lath.]
Wedge-tailed eagle.  Eaglehawk, Colonists of New South Wales."

1863.  B. A. Heywood, 'Vacation Tour at the Antipodes,' p. 106:

"We knew it was dying, as two large eaglehawks were hovering
about over it."

1880.  Fison and Howitt, 'Kamilaroi and Kurnai,' p. 251:

"The hair of a person is tied on the end of the throwing-stick,
together with the feathers of the eagle hawk."

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia', p. 106:

"Since the destruction of native dogs and eagle-hawks by the
squatters, who stocked the country with sheep, the kangaroos
have not a single natural enemy left."

1888.  D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 35:

"On the New South Wales side of the river the eagle-hawk is
sometimes so great a pest amongst the lambs that the settlers
periodically burn him out by climbing close enough to the nest
to put a fire-stick in contact with it."

Eagle-hawking, n. bush slang: plucking wool off
dead sheep.

Eagle-Ray, n. name belonging to any large
Ray of the family Myliobatidae; the New Zealand
species is Myliobatis nieuhofii.

Eastralia, n. recent colloquial name, fashioned
on the model of Westralia (q.v.), used in West Australia
for the Eastern Colonies.  In Adelaide, its application seems
confined to New South Wales.

Ebony, n. a timber.  The name is applied in
Australia to two species of Bauhinia,
B. carronii, F. v. M., and B. hookeri, F. v. M.,
N.O. Leguminosae.  Both are called Queensland or Mountain

Echidna, n. a fossorial Monotreme, in general
appearance resembling a Porcupine, and often called Spiny
Ant-eater or Porcupine, or Porcupine
Ant-eater.  The body is covered with thick fur from which
stiff spines protrude; the muzzle is in the form of a long
toothless beak; and the tongue is very long and extensile, and
used largely for licking up ants; the feet are short, with
strong claws adapted for burrowing.  Like the Marsupials, the
Echidna is provided with a pouch, but the animal is oviparous,
usually laying two eggs at a time, which are carried about in
the pouch until the young ones are hatched, when they are fed
by a secretion from mammary glands, which do not, however, as
in other mammals, open on to a nipple.  The five-toed Echidnas
(genus Echidna) are found in New Guinea, Australia, and
Tasmania, while the three-toed Echidnas (genus
Proechidna) are confined to New Guinea.  The species
are--Common E., Echidna aculeata, Shaw; Bruijn's E.,
Proechidna bruijni, Peters and Doria; Black-spined E.,
Proechidna nigro-aculeata, Rothschild.  The name is from
Grk. 'echidna, an adder or viper, from the shape of the
long tongue.

1832.  J. Bischoff, 'Van Diemen's Land,' c. ii. p. 29:

"The native porcupine or echidna is not very common."

1843.  J.Backhouse, 'Narrative of a Visit to the Australian
Colonies,' p. 89:

"The Porcupine of this land, Echidna hystrix, is a squat
species of ant-eater, with short quills among its hair: it
conceals itself in the day time among dead timber in the hilly

1851.  'Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van
Diemen's Land,' vol. i. p. 178:

"Mr. Milligan mentioned that one of the Aborigines of Tasmania
reports having often discovered the nest of the Echidna
Setosa, porcupine or ant eater, of the colony; that on
several occasions one egg had been found in it, and
never more: this egg has always been found to contain a
foetus or chick, and is said to be round, considerably
less than a tennis ball, and without a shell.  The mother is
said to sit continuously (for a period not ascertained) in the
manner of the common fowl over the eggs; she does not leave the
young for a considerable time after having hatched it; at
length, detaching it from the small teat, she moves out
hurriedly and at long intervals in quest of food, the young one
becoming, at each successive return, attached to the
nipple. . .  The Platypus (Ornithorhyncus paradoxus) is
said to lay two eggs, having the same external membranous
covering, but of an oblong shape."

1860.  G. Bennett,' Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australasia,'
p. 147:

"The Porcupine Ant-eater of Australia (Echidna hystrix)
(the native Porcupine or Hedgehog of the colonists), and the
Ornithorhynchus, to which it is allied in internal
organization, form the only two genera of the order

1888.  Cassell's' Picturesque Australasia,' vol. ii. p. 230:

"Among the gigantic boulders near the top he may capture the
burrowing ant-eating porcupine, though if perchance he place it
for a moment in the stoniest ground, it will tax all his
strength to drag it from the instantaneous burrow in which it
will defiantly embed itself."

1892.  A.Sutherland, 'Elementary Geography of British Colonies,'
p. 273:

"The echidna is an animal about a foot or 18 inches long,
covered with spines like a hedgehog.  It lives chiefly upon
ants.  With its bill, which is like a duck's but narrower, it
burrows into an ant's-hill, and then with its long, whip-like,
sticky tongue, draws the ants into its mouth by hundreds."

1894.  R. Lydekker, 'Marsupialia and Monotremata,' p. 247:

"In order to enable them to procure with facility their food
of ants and their larvae, echidnas are provided with very large
glands, discharging into the mouth the viscid secretion which
causes the ants to adhere to the long worm-like tongue when
thrust into a mass of these insects, after being exposed by the
digging powers of the claws of the echidna's limbs. . .  .
When attacked they roll themselves into a ball similar to the

Echu, n. the name of an Australian bird
which has not been identified.  The word does not occur
in the ornithological lists.

1862.  H. C. Kendall, 'Poems--Evening Hymn,' p. 53:

"The echu's songs are dying with the flute-bird's mellow tone."

1896.  'The Australasian,' Jan. 11, p. 73, col. 1:

"'Yeldina' (Rochester) writes--While I was on the Murray, a few
days before Christmas last, some miles below Echuca, my
attention was attracted to the melancholy note, as of a bird
which had lost its mate, calling ee-k-o-o, e-e-koo, which was
repeated several times, after which a pause, then ee-koo,
ee-ko, coolie, coolie, ee-koo.  This happened in the scrub at
sunset, and came, I think, from a bird smaller than the
Australian minah, and of a greenish yellowish hue, larger, but
similar to the members of the feathered tribe known to young
city 'knights of the catapult' as greenies.  It was while
returning to camp from fishing that I noticed this bird, which
appeared of solitary habits."

"'Crossbolt' (Kew) writes--The echu is probably identical with
a handsome little bird whose peculiar cry 'e-e-choo' is
familiar to many bush ramblers.  It is the size of a small
wood-swallow; black head, back, wings, and tail more or less
blue-black; white throat; neck and breast light to rich
brown. The female is much plainer, and would scarcely be
recognized as the mate of the former.  The melodious 'e-e-choo'
is usually answered from a distance, whether by the female or a
rival I cannot say, and is followed by a prolonged warbling."

Eel, n. The kinds present in Australia are--

Common Eel--
 Anguilla australis, Richards.

Conger E.--
 Conger labiatus, Castin., and
 Gonorhynchus grayi, Richards.

Green E. (New South Wales)--
 Muroena afra, Bl.

Silver E.--
 Muroenesox cinereus, Forsk.; also called the Sea-eel
  (New South Wales).
 Conger wilsoni, Castln. (Melbourne).

The New Zealand Eels are--

Black Eel--
 Anguilla australis, Richards.

Conger E.--
 Conger vulgaris, Cuv.

Sand E.--
 Gonorynchus grayi, Richards.

Serpent E.--
 Ophichthys serpens, Linn.

Silver E.--
 Congromuroena habenata, Richards.

Tuna E.--
 Anguilla aucklandii, Richards.

The Sand Eel does not belong to the Eel family, and is only
called an Eel from its habits.

Eel-fish, n. Plotosus tandanus,
Mitchell.  Called also Catfish (q.v.), and Tandan

1838.  T. L. Mitchell, 'Three Expeditions,' vol. i. pl. 5,
p.. 44 and 95 [Note]:

 "Plotosus tandanus, tandan or eel-fish.  Tandan is the
aboriginal name."

Egret, n. an English bird-name.  The following
species are present in Australia, some being European and
others exclusively Australian--

Lesser Egret--
 Herodias melanopus, Wagl.

Little E.--
 H. garzetta, Linn.

Pied E.--
 H. picata, Gould.

Plumed Egret--
 H. intermedia, v. Hasselq.

White E.--
 H. alba, Linn.

Elder, n.  See next word.

Elderberry, Native, n. The two Australian
species of the Elder are Sambucus gaudichaudiana, De C.,
and S. xanthocarpa, F. v. M., N.O. Caprifoliaceae.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 56:

"Native elderberry.  The fruit of these two native elders is
fleshy and sweetish, and is used by the aborigines for food."

Elephant-fish, n. a fish of New Zealand, South
Australian, and Tasmanian waters, Callorhynchus
antarcticus, Lacep., family Chimaeridae.  "It has
a cartilaginous prominence of the snout, ending in a cutaneous
flap" (Gunth.), suggesting a comparison with an elephant's
trunk.  Called also King of the Herrings (q.v.).

1802.  G. Barrington, 'Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 388:

"The sea affords a much greater plenty, and at least as great
a variety as the land; of these the elephant fish were very
palatable food."

Ellangowan Poison-bush, n. a Queensland name
for Myoporum deserti, Cunn., N.O. Myoporinae,;
called "Dogwood Poison-bush" in New South Wales.  Ellangowan is
on the Darling Downs in Queensland.  Poisonous to sheep, but
only when in fruit.

Emancipatist, and Emancipist, n. (the
latter, the commoner), an ex-convict who has served out his
sentence.  The words are never used now except historically.

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,'
vol. ii. p. 118:

"Emigrants who have come out free from England, and
emancipists, who have arrived here as convicts, and have
either been pardoned or completed their term of servitude."

1830.  R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 302:

"Men who had formerly been convicts, but who, after their
period of servitude had expired, were called 'emancipists.'"

1837.  Jas. Mudie, 'Felonry of New South Wales,' p. vii:

"The author begs leave to record his protest against the abuse
of language to the misapplication of the terms
emancipists and absentees to two portions of the
colonial felonry.  An emancipist could not be understood to
mean the emancipated but the emancipator.  Mr. Wilberforce may
be honoured with the title of emancipist; but it is as absurd
to give the same appellation to the emancipated felons of New
South Wales as it would be to bestow it upon the emancipated
negroes of the West Indies."

1845.  J. O. Balfour, 'Sketch of New South Wales,' p. 69:

"The same emancipist will, however, besides private charity, be
among the first and greatest contributors to a new church."

1852.  'Fraser's Magazine,' vol. xlvi. p. 135:

"The convict obtained his ticket-of-leave . . . became an
emancipist . . . and found transportation no punishment."

Emu, n. an Australian bird, Dromaius
novae-hollandiae, Lath.  There is a second species, Spotted
Emu, Dromaius irroratus, Bartlett.  An earlier, but now
unusual, spelling is Emeu.  Emeus is the
scientific name of a New Zealand genus of extinct struthious
birds.  The word Emu is not Australian, but from the
Portuguese Ema, the name first of the Crane, afterwards
of the Ostrich.  Formerly the word Emu was used in
English for the Cassowary, and even for the American Ostrich.
Since 1885 an Emu has been the design on the twopenny
postage stamp of New South Wales.

1613.  'Purchas Pilgrimmage,' pt. I. Vol v. c. xii. p. 430

"The bird called Emia or Eme is admirable."

1774.  Oliver Goldsmith, 'Natural History,' vol. iii. p. 69,
 Book III. c. v. [Heading]

"The Emu."

1788.  'History of New South Wales' (1818), p. 53:

"A bird of the ostrich genus, but of a species very different
from any other in the known world, was killed and brought
in. Its length was between seven and eight feet; its flesh was
good and thought to resemble beef.  It has obtained the name of
the New South Wales Emu."

1789.  Captain W. Tench, 'Expedition to Botany Bay,' p. 123:

"The bird which principally claims attention is a species of
ostrich, approaching nearer to the emu of South America than
any other we know of."

1793 Governor Hunter, 'Voyage,' p. 69:

"Some were of opinion that it was the emew, which I think is
particularly described by Dr. Goldsmith from Linneus: others
imagined it to be the cassowary, but it far exceeds that bird
in size . . . two distinct feathers grew out from every

1802.  D. Collins, 'Account of English Colony in New South Wales,'
vol. ii. p. 307:

"These birds have been pronounced by Sir Joseph Banks, of whose
judgment none can entertain a doubt, to come nearer to what is
known of the American ostrich than to either the emu of India
or the ostrich of Africa."

1804.  'Rev. R. Knopwood's Diary' (J. J. Shillinglaw--
'Historical Records of Port Phillip,' 1879), p. 115:

[At the Derwent] 26 March, 1804--"They caught six young emews
[sic], about the size of a turkey, and shot the old mother."

1832.  J. Bischof, 'Van Diemen's Land,' p. 165:

"We saw an emu track down the side of a hill."

1846.  J. L. Stokes, 'Discovery in Australia,' vol. i. c. ix.

"The face of the emu bears a most remarkable likeness to that
of the aborigines of New South Wales."

1846.  C. P. Hodgson, 'Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 160:

"They will pick up anything, thimbles, reels of cotton, nails,
bullets indiscriminately: and thus the proverb of 'having the
digestion of an emu' has its origin."

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. vi. pl. I:

"Dromaius Novae Hollandiae.  The Emu.  New Holland
Cassowary.--'Governor Phillips' Voyage, 1789.'"

1850.  J. B. Clutterbuck, 'Port Phillip in 1849,' p. 42:

"The emu strides with such rapidity over the plains as to
render its capture very difficult even by the swiftest

1872.  C. H. Eden, "My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 52:

"A couple of grave-looking emus.  These wobble away at an
ungainly but rapid pace directly they sight us, most probably
vainly pursued by the dray dogs which join us farther on, weary
and unsuccessful--indeed the swiftest dog finds an emu as much
as he can manage."

1878.  A. Newton, in 'Encyclopedia Britannica' (9th edit.),
vol. viii. p. 173:

"Next to the ostrich the largest of existing birds, the common
emeu. . .''

1881.  A.C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 210:

". . . points out two emus to John. . . .  They resemble
ostriches, but are not so large, and the tail droops more.
. . .  John can distinguish every point about them, from their
black cast-iron looking legs, to the bare neck and small head,
with its bright eye and strong flat beak."

1890.  'Victorian Statutes--Game Act, Third Schedule':

"Emu.  [Close Season.]  From the 14th day of June to the 20th
day of December following in each year."

1893.  'The Argus,' March 25,p. 4, col. 5:

"The chief in size is the egg of the cassowary, exactly like
that of the emu except that the colour is pale moss green
instead of the dark green of the emu."

Emu-Apple, n. See Apple.

Emu-Bush, n. an Australian shrub, Eremophila
longifolia, F. v. M., N.O. Myoporineae.

1875.  T. Laslett, 'Timber and Timber Trees,' p. 206:

"Emu-tree.  A small Tasmanian tree; found on low marshy ground
used for turners' work."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 317:

"Emu-bush.  Owing to emus feeding on the seeds of this and
other species.  Heterodendron oleaefolium, Desf."

Ibid. p. 132:

"The seeds, which are dry, are eaten by emus."

Emu-Wren, n. a bird-name.  See Malurus.

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iii. pl. 31:

"Stipituras Malachurus, Less.  Emu Wren. The decomposed
or loose structure of these [tail] feathers, much resembling
those of the emu, has suggested the colonial name of Emu-Wren
for this species, an appellation singularly appropriate,
inasmuch as it at once indicates the kind of plumage with which
the bird is clothed, and the Wren-like nature of its habits."

1860.  G. Bennett, 'Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 213:

"The delicate little emeu wren."

1865.  Lady Barker (letter from 'Melbourne), 'Station Life in
New Zealand,' p. 8:

"Then there is the emu-wren, all sad-coloured, but quaint, with
the tail-feathers sticking up on end, and exactly like those of
an emu, on the very smallest scale, even to the peculiarity of
two feathers growing out of the same little quill."

Eopsaltria, n. scientific name for the genus
of Australian birds called Shrike-Robins (q.v.).  (Grk.
'aeows, dawn, and psaltria, a female harper.)

Epacris, n. scientific name of the typical
genus of the order Epacrideae, a heath-like flower
of which there are twenty- five species, mostly Australian.
From Greek 'epi, upon, and 'akron, top (the
flowers  grow in spikes at the top of the plant).
In Australia they are frequently confused with and called

Ephthianura, n. scientific name of a genus
of very small Australian birds, anglicized as Ephthianure.
For species see quotation, 1848.  A fourth species has been
discovered since Gould's day, E. crocea, Castln. and
Ramsay, which inhabits Northern Australia.  The name was first
given by Gould, in the 'Proceedings of the Zoological Society
of 1837,' p. 148, as a genus novum.  The origin of the
word is not certain, but as the tail is unusually small,
it is suggested that the name is from the Greek 'oura, tail,
and Homeric imperfect 3rd person sing. 'ephthien,
wasted away, from phthiow (= phthinow).
[The word occurs Iliad xviii. 446.]
//phthio is ONLY in Homer!!  Iliad AND Odyssey GJC//

1848.  J. Gould,' Birds of Australia,' vol. iii. pl. 64:

"Ephthianura Albifrons, White-fronted Ephthianura,"
pl. 65.  "Aurifrons, Gould, Orange-fronted E.," pl. 66.
"Tricolor, Gould, Tricoloured E.'"

1890.  'Victorian Statutes--Game Act, Third Schedule':

"Close season.--Ephthianuras.  The whole year."

Escapee, n. one who has escaped.  Especially
used of French convicts who escape from New Caledonia.  The
word is formed on the model of absentee, refugee, etc.,
and is manifestly influenced by Fr. e/chappe/.
Escaper is the historical English form.  (See Bible, 2
Kings ix. 15, margin.)  //He means, of course, the so-called
Authorised Version" which reads, ftn. 5: "let no escaper go,
etc."  Even though the Revised Version was published in
1885. GJC//

1880.  'Melbourne Argus,' July 22, p. 2, col. 3 ('O.E.D.'):

"The ten New Caledonia escapees . . . are to be handed over to
the French consul."

Eucalyn, n. a sugar obtained, together with
laevulose, by fermentation of melitose (q.v.) with
yeast, or by boiling it with dilute acids.

Eucalypt, n. shortened English form of
Eucalyptus used especially in the plural, Eucalypts.
Eucalypti sounds pedantic.

1880.  T. W. Nutt, 'Palace of Industry,' p. 11:

"Stems of the soaring eucalypts that rise
 Four hundred friendly feet to glad the skies."

1887.  J. F. Hogan, 'The Irish in Australia,' p. 126:

"There is no unmixed good, it is said, on this mundane sphere,
and the evil that has accompanied the extensive settlement of
Gipps Land during recent years is to be found in the widespread
destruction of the forests, resulting in a disturbance of the
atmospheric conditions and the banishment of an ever-active
agent in the preservation of health, for these eucalypts, or
gum-trees, as they are generally called, possess the peculiar
property of arresting fever-germs and poisonous exhalations.
They have been transplanted for this especial purpose to some
of the malaria-infested districts of Europe  and America, and
with pronounced success.  Australia, to which they are
indigenous, has mercilessly hewn them down in the past, but is
now repenting of its folly in that respect, and is replanting
them at every seasonable opportunity."

1892.  A. Sutherland, 'Elementary Geography of British
Colonies,' p. 270:

"Throughout the whole of Australia the prevailing trees are
eucalypts, known generally as gum-trees on account of the gum
which they secrete, and which may be seen standing like big
translucent beads on their trunks and branches."

Eucalyptene, n. the name given by Cloez to a
hydrocarbon obtained by subjecting Eucalyptol (q.v.) to
dehydration by phosphorus pentoxide.  The same name has also
been given by other chemists to a hydrocarbon believed to occur
in eucalyptus oil.

Eucalyptian, adj. playfully formed; not in
common use.

1870.  A. L. Gordon, 'Bush Ballads,' p. 8:

"Gnarl'd, knotted trunks Eucalyptian
 Seemed carved, like weird columns Egyptian,
 With curious device--quaint inscription
   And hieroglyph strange."

Eucalyptic, adj. full of gumtrees.

1873.  J. Brunton Stephens, 'Black Gin, etc.,' p.6:

"This eucalyptic cloisterdom is anything but gay."

Eucalyptol, n. a volatile oil of camphor-like
smell, extracted from the oil of Eucalyptus globulus,
Labill., E. amygdalina, Labill., etc.  Chemically
identical with cineol, got from other sources.

Eucalyptus, n. the gum tree.  There are 120
species, as set forth in Baron von Mueller's 'Eucalyptographia,
a Descriptive Atlas of the Eucalypts of Australia.'  The name
was first given in scientific Latin by the French botanist
L'Heritier, in his Sertum Anglicum, published in 1788.
From the Greek 'eu, well, and kaluptein, to cover.
See quotation, 1848. N.O. Myrtaceae.  The French now say
Eucalyptus; earlier they called it l'acajou de la
nouvelle Hollande.  The Germans call it Schoenmutze.
See Gum.

1823.  Sidney Smith, 'Essays,' p. 440:

"A London thief, clothed in Kangaroo's skins, lodged under
the bark of the dwarf eucalyptus, and keeping sheep, fourteen
thousand miles from Piccadilly, with a crook bent into the
shape of a picklock, is not an uninteresting picture."

1833.  C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' vol. i. c. ii. p. 80:

"A large basin in which there are stunted pines and eucalyptus

1848.  W. Westgarth, 'Australia Felix,' p. 132:

"The scientific term Eucalyptus has been derived from the
Greek, in allusion to a lid or covering over the blossom,
which falls off when the flower expands, exposing a four-celled
capsule or seed-vessel."

1851.  G. W. Rusden, 'Moyarra,' canto i. p. 8:

"The eucalyptus on the hill
 Was silent challenge to his skill."

1879.  'Temple Bar,' Oct., p. 23 ('0. E. D.'):

"The sombre eucalypti . . . interspersed here and there by
their dead companions."

1886.  J. A. Froude, 'Oceana,' p. 118:

"At intervals the bush remained untouched, but the universal
eucalyptus, which I had expected to find grey and monotonous,
was a Proteus it shape and colour, now branching like an oak
or a cork tree, now feathered like a birch, or glowing like
an arbutus with an endless variety of hue--green, orange,
and brown."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right, c. v. p. 46:

"A lofty eucalyptus . . . lay with its bared roots sheer athwart
a tiny watercourse."

Euro, n. one of the aboriginal names for
a Kangaroo (q.v.); spelt also Yuro.

1885.  Mrs. Praed, 'Head Station,' p. 192:

"Above and below . . . were beetling cliffs, with ledges
and crannies that afforded foothold only to yuros and

Exclusionist, n. and adj.  See

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,'
vol. ii. pp. 118-19:

". . .  one subdivision of the emigrant class alluded to, is
termed the exclusionist party, from their strict
exclusion of the emancipists from their society."

Exileism, n. a word of same period as
Exiles (q.v.).

1893.  A. P. Martin, 'Life of Lord Sherbrooke,' vol. i. p. 381:

"A gentleman who was at this time engaged in pastoral pursuits
in New South Wales, and was therefore a supporter of exileism.'"

Exiles, n. euphemistic name for convicts.  It
did not last long.

1847, A. P. Martin, 'Life of Lord Sherbrooke' (1893),
 vol. i. p. 378:

"The cargoes of criminals were no longer to be known as
'convicts,' but (such is the virtue in a name!) as 'exiles.'
It was, as Earl Grey explained in his despatch of Sept 3, 1847,
'a scheme of reformatory discipline.'"

1852.  G. B. Earp, 'Gold Colonies of Australia,' p. 100:

"The convict system ceased in New South Wales in 1839; but
'exiles' as they were termed, i.e. men who had passed their
probation at home, were forwarded till 1843."

Expiree, n. a convict whose term of sentence
had expired.

1852.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes' (ed.  1885), p. 107:

"A hireling convict - emancipist, expiree, or ticket of leave."

Expiree, adj.  See preceding.

1847.  J. D. Lang, 'Cooksland,' p. 271:

"Very many of their servants, being old hands or expiree
convicts from New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land, are
thoroughly unprincipled men."

1883.  E. M. Curr, 'Recollections of Squatting in
 Victoria' (1841-1351), p. 40:

"Hiring men in Melbourne in 1841 was not by any means an
agreeable job, as wages were high, and labourers (almost all
old gaol-birds and expiree convicts) exceedingly independent
and rowdy."


Fairy Gardens, n. a miner's term, explained
in quotation.

1852.  F. Lancelott, 'Australia, as it is', vol. ii. p. 221:

"On the south-eastern portion of this county is the world-famed
Burra  Burra copper mine. . . .  Some of the cuttings are
through solid blocks of ore, which brilliantly glitter as you
pass with a lighted candle, while others are formed in veins
of malachite, and from their rich variegated green appearance
are not inaptly called by the miners 'Fairy gardens.'"

Fake-mucker, n. a Tasmanian name for the
Dusky Robin (Petroica vittata).  See

Falcon, n. English bird-name.  The Australian
species are--

Black Falcon--
  Falco subniger, Gray.

Black-cheeked F.--
 F. melanogenys, Gould.

Grey F.--
 F. hypoleucus, Gould.

Little F.--
 F. lunulatus, Lath.

See also Nankeen-Hawk.

Fantail, n. bird-name applied in England to a
pigeon; in Australia and New Zealand, to the little birds of
the genus Rhipidura (q.v.).  It is a fly-catcher.  The
Australian species are--

Rhipidura albiscapa, Gould.

Black-and-White Fantail (called also the Wagtail,
 R. tricolor, Vieill.

Dusky F.--
 R. diemenensis, Sharpe.

Northern F.--
 R. setosa, Quoy and Gaim.

Pheasant F.--
 Rhipidura phasiana, De Vis.

Rufous F.--
 R. rufifrons, Lath.

Western F.--
 R. preissi, Cab.

White-tailed F.--
 R. albicauda, North.

Wood F.--
 R. dryas, Gould.

The New Zealand species are--

Black F.--
 Rhipidura fuliginosa, Sparrm.  (Tiwaiwaka).

Pied F.--
 R. flabellifera, Gmel.  (Piwakawaka).

In Tasmania, the R. diemenensis is called
the Cranky Fantail, because of its antics.

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Journal,' vol. ii. p. 80:

"We also observed the . . . fantailed fly-catcher

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 69:

"The Red Fantail, ever flitting about with broadly expanded
tail, and performing all manner of fantastic evolutions,
in its diligent pursuit of gnats and flies, is one of the most
pleasing and attractive objects in the New Zealand forest.  It
is very tame and familiar."

Farinaceous City, or Village, n. a
playful name for Adelaide.  The allusion is to wheat being the
leading export of South Australia.

1873.  A. Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,'
 vol. ii. p. 184:

"[Adelaide] has also been nicknamed the Farinaceous City.
A little gentle ridicule is no doubt intended to be conveyed
by the word."

Fat-cake, n. ridiculous name sometimes
applied to Eucalyptus leucoxylon, F. v. M., according to
Maiden ('Useful Native Plants,' p. 471).

Fat-hen, n. a kind of wild spinach.
In England the name is applied to various plants of thick

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 40:

"The fat-hen (Atriplex) . . ."

1872.  C. H. Eden, 'My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 120:

"Another wild vegetable brew in the sandy beds of the rivers
and creeks, called 'fat-hen.'  It was exactly like spinach,
and not only most agreeable but also an excellent anti-scorbutic,
a useful property, for scurvy is not an unknown thing in the bush
by any means."

1881.  A.C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 156:

"Boiled salt junk, with fat-hen (a kind of indigenous

1889.  J. M. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 16:

"Chenopodium murale, Linn., Australian spinach.
Bentham considers this may have been introduced."

Felonry, n. See quotation.

1837.  Jas. Mudie, 'Felonry of New South Wales,' p. 6:

"The author has ventured to coin the word felonry,
as the appellative of an order or class of persons in New South
Wales--an order which happily exists in no other country in the
world.  A legitimate member of the tribe of appellatives . . .
as peasantry, tenantry, yeomanry, gentry."

1858.  T. McCombie, 'History of Victoria,' c. xv. p. 24:

"The inundation of the Australian colonies with British

1888.  Sir C. Gavan Duffy, 'Contemporary Review,' vol. liii.
p.14 ['Century']:

"To shut out the felonry of Great Britain and Ireland."

Ferns.  The following list of Australian ferns is
taken from 'The Fern World of Australia,' by F. M. Bailey of
Brisbane (1881), omitting from his list all ferns of which the
vernacular and scientific names coincide with the names of
ferns elsewhere.

Bat's-wing Fern--
 Pteris incisa, Thunb.

Black Tree F. of New Zealand--
 Cyathea medullaris, Sw.

Blanket F.--
 Grammitis rutaefolia, R. Br.

Braid F.--
 Platyzoma microphyllum, R. Br.

Caraway F.--
 Athyrium umbrosum, J. Sm.

Curly F.--
 Cheilanthes tenuifolia, Sw.

Deer's-tongue F.--
 Acrostichum conforme, Sw.

Ear F.--
 Pteris falcata, R. Br.

Elk's-horn F.--
 Platycerium alcicorne, Desv.

Fan F.--
 Gleichenia flabellata, R. Br.

Golden Swamp F.--
 Acrostichum aureum, Linn.

Grass-leaved F. (q.v.)--
 Vittaria elongata, Sw.

*Hare's-foot F.--
 F. Davallia pyxidata, Cav.

Jersey F.--
 Grammitis leptophylla, Sw.

*Lady F.--
 Aspidium aculeatum, Sw.

*Maiden-hair F.--
 Adiantum, spp.

Meadow-rue Water F.--
 Ceratoptoris thalictroides, Brong.

Parasol F.--
 Gleichenia circinata, Sw.

Pickled-cabbage F.--
 Lomaria capensis, Willd.

Potato F. (q.v.)--
 Marattia fraxinea, Sm.

Prickly F. (q.v.)--
 Alsophila australis, R. Br.

Prickly-tree Fern--
 Alsophila leichhardtiana, F. v. M.

Ribbon F.--
 Ophioglossum pendulum, Linn.

Shiny F.--
 Polypodium aspidoides, Bail.

Snake's-tongue F.--
 Lygodium, spp.

The following are not in Baileys List:

Parsley F.--
 Cheilanthes tenuifolia, Sw.  (Name Parsley applied to a
  different Fern elsewhere.)

Sword F.--
 Grammitis australis, R. Br.

Umbrella F., Tasmanian name for Fan F. (q.v.).

Other ferns not in this list appear elsewhere.  See also
* Elsewhere the name is applied to a different species.

Fern-bird, n. a New Zealand bird of
the genus Sphenoecus.  Also called Grass-bird,
and New Zealand Pipit.  There are three species--

The Fern-bird--
 Sphenoecus punctatus, Gray.

Chatham Island F.-b.--
 S. rufescens, Buller.

Fulvous F.-b.--
 S. fulvus, Gray.

1885.  'Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,'
vol. xviii. p. 125:

"The peculiar chirp of the fern bird is yet
to be heard among the tall fern."

1885.  A. Hamilton, 'Native Birds of Petane, Hawke's Bay':

"Fern-bird.  The peculiar chirp of this lively little bird is
yet to be heard among the tall fern, though it is not so
plentiful as in days gone by."

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 59:

"Fern Bird . . . This recluse little species is one of our
commonest birds, but is oftener heard than seen.  It frequents
the dense fern of the open country and the beds of Raupo."

Fern-tree, n. Name applied to various
species of ferns which grow to a large size, the stem in the
fully grown plant reaching often a height of many feet before
the leaves are given off.  Such Tree-ferns clothe the sides of
deep and shady gullies amongst the hills, and give rise to what
are known as Fern-tree gullies, which form a very
characteristic feature of the moister coastal Ranges of many
parts of Australia.  The principal Fern-trees or
Tree-ferns, as they are indiscriminately called, of
Australia and Tasmania are--

 Dicksonia antarctica, Lab.;
 Alsophila australis, R. Br.;
 Todea africana, Willd.;
 Cyathea cunninghami, J. Hook.;
 Alsophila excelsa, R. Br.;

the last named, however, not occurring in Tasmania or Victoria.

1836.  Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 164:

"We entered a beautiful fern-tree grove, that also concealed
the heavens from view, spreading like a plantation or cocoa-nut
tree orchard, but with far more elegance and effect."

1839.  C. Darwin, 'Voyage of Beagle' (ed. 1890), p. 177:

"Tree-ferns thrive luxuriantly in Van Diemen's Land (lat. 45
degrees), and I measured one trunk no less than six feet in
circumference.  An arborescent fern was found by Forster in New
Zealand in 46 degrees, where orchideous plants are parasitical
on the trees.  In the Auckland Islands, ferns, according to
Dr. Dieffenbach, have trunks so thick and high that they may be
almost called tree-ferns."

1857.  F. R. Nixon (Bishop of Tasmania), 'Cruise of the Beacon,'
p. 26:

"With these they [i.e. the Tasmanian Aborigines] mingled the
core or pith of the fern trees, Cibotium Bollardieri
and Alsophila Australis (of which the former is rather
astringent and dry for a European palate, and the latter,
though more tolerable, is yet scarcely equal to a Swedish

1870.  S. H. Wintle, 'Fragments of Fern Fronds,' p. 39:

"Where the feet of the mountains are bathed by cool fountains,
 The green, drooping fern trees are seen."

1878.  William Sharp, 'Australian Ballads,' 'Canterbury Poets'
 (Scott, 1888), pp. 180-81:

"The feathery fern-trees make a screen,
 Where through the sun-glare cannot pass--
 Fern, gum, and lofty sassafras."

"Under a feathery fern-tree bough
 A huge iguana lies alow."

1884.  R. L. A. Davies, 'Poems and Literary Remains,' p. 83:

"There were mossy fern-trees near me,
 With their graceful feathered fronds,
 Which they slowly waved above me,
 Like hoar magicians' wands."

1893.  A.R. Wallace, 'Australasia,' vol. i. p. 53:

"Here are graceful palms rising to 70 or even 100 feet; the
Indian fig with its tortuous branches clothed with a drapery
of curious parasites; while graceful tree ferns, 30 feet high,
flourish in the damp atmosphere of the sheltered dells."

Fern-tree Gully.  See Fern-tree and Gully.

Fever-bark, n. another name for Bitter-bark

Fibrous Grass, n. a Tasmanian grass
(see Grass), Stipa semiibarbata, R. Br.,
N.O. Gramineae.

1862.  W. Archer, 'Products of Tasmania,' p. 41:

"Fibrous grass (Stipa semibarbata, Br.).  After the seed
has ripened the upper part of the stem breaks up into fibre,
which curls loosely and hangs down waving in the wind."

Fiddle-back, n. name given in
Australia to the beetle, Schizorrhina australasiae.

Fiddler, n. a New South Wales and Victorian
name for a species of Ray, Trygonorhina fasciata,
Mull. and Heule, family Rhinobatidae.

Fig-bird, n. a bird-name.
Sphecotheres maxillaris, Lath.; Yellow bellied,
S. flaviventris, Gould.  S. maxillaris is also
called Mulberry-bird (q.v.).

Fig-eater, n. a bird, i.q. Grape-eater

Fig-tree, n. The name is applied in
Australia to the following species:--

Blue Fig--
 Elaeocarpus grandis, F. v. M., N.O. Tiliaceae.

Clustered F.--
 Ficus glomerata, Willd., N.O. Urticaceae.

Moreton Bay F.--
 P. macrophylla, Desf., N.O. Urticaciae //sic.  check//.

Prickly F.--
 Elaeocarpus holopetalus, F. v. M.,
 N.O. Tiliaceae.

Purple F., or White F., or Rough-leaved F., or Flooded F.
 [Clarence River]--
 Ficus scabra, G. Forst., N.O. Urticaciae.

Ribbed F.--
 F. pleurocarpa, F. v. M., N.O. Urticaciae.

Rusty F., or Narrow-leaved F. [or Port Jackson]--
 F. rubiginosa, Desf., N.O. Urticaciae;
 called also Native Banyan.

1862.  H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p.119:

"And I forget how lone we sit beneath this old fig-tree."

1870.  F. S. Wilson, 'Australian Songs,' p. 115:

"The fig-tree casts a pleasant shade
 On the straggling ferns below."

1882.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 537:

"Moreton Bay fig.  This noble-looking tree has a wood which
is sometimes used, though it is very difficult to season."

[It is a handsome evergreen with dark leaves, larger than
those of a horse-chestnut, much used as an ornament in street
and gardens, especially in Sydney and Adelaide.  The fig is
not edible.]

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right, c. 44, p. 380:

"The . . . venerable church with its alleys of araucaria
and Moreton Bay fig-trees."

File-fish, n. name given in New
Zealand to the fish Monacanthus rudis, Richards, family
Sclerodermi; in New South Wales to species of the genus
Balistes.  The first of the spines of the dorsal fin is
roughened in front like a file.  Balistes maculatus is
the "Spotted File-fish" of Sydney.  It is closely allied to the
genus Monacanthus, called Leather-jacket (q.v.),
which is much more numerously represented in Australasia.

Finch, n. a bird-name, first applied in
Australia, in 1848, by Gould, to the genus Poephila
(Grass-lover), and since extended to other genera of birds.
The species are--

Banded Finch--
 Stictoptera bichenovii, Vig. and Hors.

Black-ringed F.--
 S. annulosa, Gould.

Black-rumped F.--
 Poephila atropygialis, Diggles.

Black-throated F.--
 P. cincta, Gould.

Chestnut-breasted F.--
 Munia castaneothorax, Gould.

Chestnut-eared F.--
 Taeniopygia castanotis, Gould.

Crimson F.--
 Neochmia phaeton, Homb. and Jacq.

Fire-tailed F.--
 Zonaeginthus bellus, Lath.

Gouldian F.--
 Poephila gouldiae, Gould.

Long-tailed F.--
 P. acuticauda, Gould.

Masked F.--
 P. personata, Gould.

Painted F.--
 Emblema picta, Gould.

Plum-head F.--
 Aidemosyne modesta, Gould.

Red-browed F.--
 AEgintha temporalis, Lath.

Red-eared F.--
 Zonaeginthus oculatus, Quoy and Gaim.

Red-tailed F.--
 Bathilda ruficauda, Gould.

Scarlet-headed F.--
 Poephila mirabilis, Homb. and Jacq.

Spotted-sided F.--
 Staganopleura guttata, Shaw.

White-Breasted F.--
 Munia pectoralis, Gould.

White-eared F.--
 Poephila leucotis, Gould.

Yellow-rumped F.--
 Munia flaviprymna, Gould.

Fire-stick, n. name given to the
lighted stick which the Australian natives frequently carry
about, when moving from camp to camp, so as to be able to light
a fire always without the necessity of producing it by
friction.  The fire-stick may be carried in a smouldering
condition for long distances, and when traversing open grass
country, such as the porcupine-grass covered districts of the
interior, the stick is used for setting fire to the grass,
partly to destroy this and partly to drive out the game which
is hiding amongst it.  The fire-stick  (see quotations)
is also used as emblematic of the camp-fire in certain

1847.  J. D. Lang,' Cooksland,'p. 126, n.:

"When their fire-stick has been extinguished, as is sometimes
the case, for their jins or vestal virgins, who have charge of
the fire, are not always sufficiently vigilant."

1896.  F. J. Gillen, 'Horne Expedition in Central Australia,'
Anthropology, pt. iv. p. 170:

"Carrying fire-sticks, they place rings, woven of fur and
vegetable down, round the boy's neck and arms and sometimes
over and under the shoulders; the fire-sticks are then handed
to him, the lubras saying: Take care of the fire; keep to your
own camp.'"

Firetail, n. name applied in Victoria to the
bird AEgintha temporalis, Lath.; and in Tasmania to
Zonaeginthus (Estrelda) bellus, Lath.  In New South
Wales, AE. temporalis is known as the Red-head.

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iii. pl. 78:

"Estrelda Bella, Fire-tailed finch.  Fire-tail,
Colonists of Van Diemen's Land."

Fire-tree, n. a tree of New Zealand; another
name for Pohutukawa (q.v.).  For Queensland
Fire-tree, see Tulip-tree.

Fireweed, n. a name given to several weeds,
such as Senecio lautus, Sol., N.O. Compositae; so
called because they spring up in great luxuriance where the
forest has been burned off.

Fish-hawk, n. English name applied to
Pandion leucocephalus, Gould; called also the Osprey.

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. i. pl. 6:

"Pandion Leucocephalus, Gould, White-headed osprey.
Little fish hawk, Colonists of New South Wales.  Fish-hawk,
Colonists of Swan River.''

Fist, v. to use the hands.  The word is not
unknown in English in the sense of to grip. (Shakspeare, 'Cor.'
IV. v. 124)

1846.  C. P. Hodgson, 'Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 366:

"'Fist it,' a colonial expression, which may convey to the
uninitiated the idea that knives, forks, plates, etc., are
unknown in the bush; such was formerly the case, but the
march of improvement has banished this peculiar simplicity."

Five-corners, n. name given to the fruit of an
Australian tree and to the tree itself, Syphelia triflora,
Andr., N.O. Epacrideae.  There are many species of
Styphelia (q.v.), the fruit of several being edible.

1889.  J. H. Maiden,' Useful Native Plants,' p. 61:

"Five-corners.  These fruits have a sweetish pulp with a large
stone.  They form part of the food of the aboriginals, and are
much appreciated by school boys.  When from a robust plant they
are of the size of a large pea, and not at all bad eating."

1896.  H. Lawson, 'When the World was Wide,' p. 158:

"Still I see in my fancy the dark-green and blue
 Of the box-covered hills where the five-corners grew."

Flame-tree, n. The name is given in India and
elsewhere to several trees with bright scarlet, or crimson,
flowers.  In Australia, two different trees are called

 (1) A tree of Eastern Australia, with profuse bright
coral-like flowers, Brachychiton acerifolium, F. v. M.,
N.O. Sterculiaceae.

 (2) A tree of Western Australia, with brilliant
orange-coloured flowers, Nuytsia floribunda,
N.O. Loranthaceae; which is also called Tree
Mistletoe, and, locally, a Cabbage-tree.

1885.  R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 96:

"There are flame-trees showing in spring vivid patches
of crimson."

Flannel Flower, n. an Australian
flower, Actinotus helianthi, Labill.,
N.O. Compositae.  It ranges from Gippsland to Southern
Queensland, but is particularly abundant in New South Wales.
Sometimes called the Australian Edelweiss.  For the
reason of the name see quotation.

1895.  J. H. Maiden, 'Flowering Plants of New South Wales,'
p. 9:

"We only know one truly local name for this plant, and that is
the 'Flannel Flower'--a rather unpoetical designation, but a
really descriptive one, and one universally accepted.  It is,
of course, in allusion to the involucre, which looks as if it
were snipped out of white flannel.  It is also known to a few
by the name of Australian Edelweiss."

Flathead, n. name given to several Australian
marine fishes, Platycephalus fuscus, Cuv. and Val., and
other species of Platycephalus, family Cottidae.
The Red Flathead is P. bassensis, Cuv.and Val., and the
Rock F. is P. laevigatus, Cuv.and Val.  See also
Tupong and Maori-chief.

1793.  Governor Hunter, 'Voyage,' p. 410 (Aboriginal

"Paddewah, a fish called a flathead."

1832.  J. Bischoff, 'Van Diemen's Land,' c. ii. p. 32:

"The market of Hobart Town is supplied with small rock cod,
flatheads, and a fish called the perch."

Flat Pea, n. a genus of Australian flowering
plants, Platylobium, N.O. Leguminosae.

1793.  'Transactions of Linnaean Society,' vol. ii. p. 350:

"Its name I have deduced from platus, broad, and
lobos, a pod."

"P. formosum.  Orange flat-pea . . . A figure of this
. . . will soon be given in the work I have undertaken
on the botany of New Holland."

[The figure referred to will be found at p. 17 of the 'Specimen
of the Botany of New Holland.']

Flax, Native, n. The European flax is Linum
usitatissimum, N.O. Liniae.  There is a species in
Australia, Linum marginale, Cunn., N.O. Linaceae,
called Native Flax.  In New Zealand, the Phormium
is called Native Flax.  See next word.

1889.  J. M. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 626:

"'Native flax.'  Although a smaller plant than the true flax,
this plant yields fibre of excellent quality.  It is used by
the blacks for making fishing-nets and cordage."

Flax, New Zealand, n. Phormium tenax,
N.O. Liliaceae.  A plant yielding a strong fibre.
Called also, in New Zealand, Native Flax, and Flax

1807.  J. Savage, 'Some account of New Zealand,' p. 56:

"Small baskets made of the green native flax."

1845.  E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i,
p. 63:

"The plant is called Phormium tenax by naturalists.
The general native name for the plant, we are told, is 'korari,'
but each sort, and there are ten or twelve, has its distinctive
name.  Any portion of the leaf, when gathered, becomes here
'kie kie,' or literally, 'tying stuff.'  The operation of
scraping is called 'kayo,' the fibre when prepared, 'muka.'"
[Mr. Tregear says that Wakefield's statements are mistaken.]

1851.  Mrs. Wilson, 'New Zealand,' p. 23:

"His robe of glossy flax which loosely flows."

1861.  C. C. Bowen, 'Poems,' p. 57:

"And flax and fern and tutu grew
 In wild luxuriance round."

1870.  T. H. Braiui, 'New Homes,' c. viii. p. 375:

"The native flax (Phormium tenax) is found in all parts
of New Zealand; it grows to the height of about nine feet."

1872.  A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' v.3, p. 93:

"In flowing vest of silky flax, undyed."

1893.  'Murray's Handbook to New Zealand,' p. 29:

"The so-called native flax (phormium tenax)."

Flax-blade, n. the leaf of the New Zealand
Flax (q.v.).

1872.  A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' i. 5, p. 11:

"With flax-blades binding to a tree
 The Maid who strove her limbs to free."

Flax-bush, n. the bush of the New Zealand

1854.  W. Golder, 'Pigeons' Parliament,' Intro. p. v:

"I had . . . to pass a night . . . under the shade
 of a flax-bush."

1872.  A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' x. 4, p. 171:

"And the louder flax-bushes
 With their crowding and crossing
 Black stems, darkly studded
 With blossoms red-blooded."

Flax-flower, n. the flower of the New
Zealand Flax (q.v.).

1872.  A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' xiv. 3, p. 221:

                              "little isles
Where still the clinging flax-flower smiles."

Flax-leaf, n. the blade of the New Zealand
Flax (q.v.).

1884.  T. Bracken, 'Lays of Maori' p. 69:

"Zephyrs stirred the flax-leaves into tune.

Flax-lily, n. (1) An Australian fibre plant,
Dianella laevis, var.  aspera, R. Br.,
N.O. Liliaceae.  (2) Phormium tenax.  See
Flax, New Zealand.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 621:

"Flax-lily.  The fibre is strong, and of a silky texture.
The aboriginals formerly used it for making baskets, etc.
All the colonies except Western Australia."

Flindosa, and Flindosy, n. two trees
called Beech (q.v.).

Flintwood, n. another name for Blackbutt
(q.v.), Eucalyptus pillularis.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 502:

"From the great hardness of the wood it is often known as

Flounder, n. The Flounders in Australia are--

In Sydney, Pseudorhombus russelli, Gray; in Melbourne,
Rhombosolea victoriae, Castln.; in New Zealand and
Tasmania, R. monopus, Gunth. Maori name, Patiki; family
Pleuronectidae.  They are all excellent eating.

1876.  P. Thomson, 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,'
vol. ix. art. lxvii., p. 487:

"Patiki (flounder).  Flounders are in the market all the year."

Flower-pecker, n. bird-name used elsewhere,
but in Australia assigned to Dicaeum hirundinaceum, Lath.

Flowering Rush, n. name given to the rush or reed,
Xyris operculata, Lab., N.O. Xyrideae.

Flute-bird, n. another name for the bird
Gymnorrhina tibicen, Lath.  Called also Magpie

1862.  H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 53:

"The flute-bird's mellow tone."

Fly-catcher, n. bird-name used elsewhere.
The Australian species are--

Black-faced Flycatcher--
 Monarcha melanopsis, Vieill.

Blue F.--
 Myiagra concinna, Gould.

Broad-billed F.--
 M. latirostris, Gould.

Brown F. [called also Jacky Winter (q.v.)]
 Micraeca fascinans, Lath.

Leaden F.--
 Myiagra rubecula, Lath.

Lemon-breasted F.--
 Micraeca flavigaster, Gould.

Lesser Brown F.--
 M. assimilis, Gould.

Little F.--
 Seisura nana, Gould.

Pale F.--
 Micraeca pallida.

Pearly F.--
 Monarcha canescens, Salvad.

Pied Fly-catcher--
 Arses kaupi, Gould.

Restless F.--
 Seisura inquieta, Lath.  [called also Razor-
 grinder, q.v., and Dishwasher, q.v.]

Satin F.--
 Myiagra nitida, Gould [called Satin-robin, q.v.,
 in Tasmania]

Shining F.--
 Piezorhynchus nitidus, Gould.

Spectacled F.--
 P. gouldi, Gray.

White-bellied F.--
 P. albiventris, Gould.

White-eared F.--
 P. leucotis, Gould.

Yellow-breasted F.--
 Machaerhynchus flaviventer, Gould.

1790.  J. White, 'Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 161:

"We this day caught a yellow-eared fly-catcher (see annexed
plate).  This bird is a native of New Holland." [Description

Fly-eater, n. the new vernacular name for the Australian
birds of the genus Gerygone (q.v.), and see Warbler.
The species are--

Black-throated Fly-eater--
 Gerygone personata, Gould.

Brown F.--
 G. fusca, Gould.

Buff-breasted F.--
 G. laevigaster, Gould.

Green-backed F.--
 G. chloronota, Gould.

Large-billed F.--
 G. magnirostris, Gould.

Southern F.--
 G. culicivora, Gould.

White-throated F.--
 G. albogularis, Gould.

Yellow-breasted F.--
 G. flavida, Ramsay.

1895.  W. O. Legge, 'Australasian Association for the
Advancement of Science '(Brisbane), p. 447:

"[The habits and habitats of the genus as] applied to
Gerygone suggested the term Fly-eater, as
distinguished from Fly-catcher, for this aberrant and
peculiarly Australasian form of small Fly-catchers, which not
only capture their food somewhat after the manner of
Fly-catchers, but also seek for it arboreally."

Flyer, n. a swift kangaroo.

1866.  T. McCombie, 'Australian Sketches,' second series,
p. 172:

"I may here state that the settlers designate the old kangaroos
as 'old men' and 'old women,' the full-grown animals are named
'flyers,' and are swifter than the British hare."

Flying-Fox, n. a gigantic Australian bat,
Pteropus poliocephalus, Temm.  It has a fetid odour and
does great damage to fruits, and is especially abundant in New
South Wales, though often met with in Victoria.  Described, not
named, in first extract.

1793.  Governor Hunter, 'Voyage,' p. 507:

"The head of this bat strongly resembles that of a fox, and
the wings of many of them extend three feet ten inches. . . .
[Description of one domesticated.] . . .  They are very fat,
and are reckoned by the natives excellent food. . . .  It was
supposed more than twenty thousand of them were seen within the
space of one mile."

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i.
p. 315:

"One flying fox is an immense bat, of such a horrific
appearance, that no wonder one of Cook's honest tars should
take it for the devil when encountering it in the woods."

1830.  R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 310:

". . . a flying fox, which one of them held in his hand.  It
was, in fact, a large kind of bat, with the nose resembling in
colour and shape that of a fox, and in scent it was exactly
similar to it.  The wing was that of a common English bat, and
as long as that of a crow, to which it was about equal in the
length and circumference of its body."

1849.  J. P. Townsend, 'Rambles in New South Wales,' p. 97:

"Some of the aborigines feed on a large bat popularly called
'the flying fox.' . .  We found the filthy creatures, hanging
by the heels in thousands, from the higher branches of the

1863.  B. A. Heywood, 'Vacation Tour at the Antipodes,' p. 102:

"The shrill twitter of the flying fox, or vampire bat, in the
bush around us."

1871.  Gerard Krefft, 'Mammals of Australia':

"The food on which the 'Foxes' principally live when garden
fruit is not in season, consists of honey-bearing blossoms and
the small native figs abounding in the coast-range scrubs. . . .
These bats are found on the east coast only, but during very
dry seasons they occur as far west as the neighbourhood of

1881.  A.C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. ii. p. 20:

"A little further on they came to a camp of flying foxes.
The huge trees on both sides of the river are actually black
with them.  The great bats hang by their hooked wings to every
available branch and twig, squealing and quarrelling.
The smell is dreadful.  The camp extends for a length of three
miles.  There must be millions upon millions of them."

Flying-Mouse, n. See Opossum-mouse
and Flying-Phalanger.

Flying-Phalanger, n. included in the class
of Phalanger (q.v.).  The "flying" Phalangers "have
developed large parachute-like expansions of skin from the
sides of the body, by means of which they are able to take long
flying leaps from bough to bough, and thus from tree to tree.
While the great majority of the members of the family are
purely vegetable feeders, . . .  a few feed entirely or partly
on insects, while others have taken to a diet of flesh."
(R. Lydekker.)

They include the so-called Flying-Squirrel,
Flying-Mouse, etc.  There are three genera--

 Acrobates (q.v.), called the Flying-Mouse,
 and Opossum-Mouse (q.v.).

 Petauroides commonly called the Taguan, or
 Taguan Flying-Squirrel.

 Petaurus (q.v.), commonly called the Flying

The species are--

Lesser F.-Ph.--
 Petaurus breviceps.

Papuan Pigmy F.-Ph.--
 Acrobates pulchellus (confined to Northern Dutch New

Pigmy F.-Ph.--
 A. pygmaeuss.

Squirrel F.-Ph.--
 Petaurus sciureus.

Taguan F.-Ph.--
 Petauroides volans.

Yellow-bellied F.-Ph.--
 P. australis.

Flying-Squirrel, n. popular name for a
Flying-Phalanger, Petaurus sciureus, Shaw, a marsupial
with a parachute-like fold of skin along the sides by which he
skims and floats through the air.  The name is applied to
entirely different animals in Europe and America.

1789.  Governor Phillip, 'Voyage to Botany Bay,' c. xv. p. 151:

"Norfolk Island flying squirrel."  [With picture.]

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i.:

"The flying squirrels are of a beautiful slate colour, with
a fur so fine that, although a small animal, the hatters here
give a quarter dollar for every skin."

1849.  J. P. Townsend, 'Rambles in New South Wales,' p. 37:

"The squeal and chirp of the flying squirrel."

1850.  R. C. Gunn, 'Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van
 Diemen's Land,' vol. i. p. 253:

"In the year 1845 I drew the attention of the Tasmanian Society
to the interesting fact that the Petaurus sciureus, or
Flying Squirrel, of Port Phillip, was becoming naturalized in
Van Diemen's Land. . . .  No species of Petaurus is
indigenous to Tasmania. . . .  It does not appear from all that
I can learn, that any living specimens of the Petaurus
schireus were imported into Van Diemen's Land prior to
1834; but immediately after the settlement of Port Phillip,
in that year, considerable numbers of the flying squirrel were,
from their beauty, brought over as pets by the early visitors."

1851.  J. B. Clutterbuck, 'Port Phillip in 1849,' p. 78:

"The flying squirrel, another of the opossum species of the
marsupial order, is a beautiful little creature, and disposed
over the whole of the interior of New South Wales: its fur is
of a finer texture than that of the opossum."

1855.  W. Blandowski, 'Transactions of Philosophical Society of
Victoria,' vol. i. p. 70:

"The common flying squirrel (Petaurus sciureus) is very
plentiful in the large gum trees near the banks of a creek or
river, and appears to entertain a peculiar aversion to the high

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 90:

"Flying squirrel."


"The marsupial flying phalanger is so called by the

Fly-Orchis, n. name applied in Tasmania to the
orchid, Prasophyllum patens, R. Br.

Forest, n. See quotation.

1839.  T. L. Mitchell, 'Three Expeditions into the Interior of
Eastern Australia,' vol i. p. 71 [Footnote]:

"A 'forest' means in New South Wales an open wood with grass.
The common 'bush' or 'scrubb' consists of trees and saplings,
where little grass is to be found."

[It is questionable whether this fine distinction still exists.]

Forester, n. the largest Kangaroo, Macropus
giganteus, Zimm.

1832.  J. Bischoff, 'Van Diemen's Land,' vol. ii. p. 27:

"There are three or four varieties of kangaroos; those most
common are denominated the forester and brush kangaroo."

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 423:

"I called this river the 'Red Kangaroo River,' for in
approaching it we first saw the red forester of Port

1862.  H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 67:

"And the forester snuffing the air
 Will bound from his covert so dark."

1880.  Mrs. Meredith, 'Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 15:

"We have never had one of the largest kind--the Forester
Kangaroo (Macropus gigantes)--tame, for they have been
so hunted and destroyed that there are very few left in
Tasmania, and those are in private preserves, or very remote
out-of-the-way places, and rarely seen. . . .  The aborigines
called the old father of a flock a Boomer.  These were often
very large: about five feet high in their usual position, but
when standing quite up, they were fully six feet . . .  and
weighing 150 or 200 pounds."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. xix. p. 181:

"The dogs . . . made for them as if they had been a brace of
stray foresters from the adjacent ranges."

Forest-Oak, n. See Oak.

Forget-me-not, n. The species of this familiar flower is
Myosotis australis, R. Br., N.O. Asperifoliae.

Fortescue, or 40-skewer, n. a fish of
New South Wales, Pentaroge marmorata, Cuv. and Val.,
family Scorpaenidae; called also the Scorpion,
and the Cobbler.  All its names allude to the thorny
spines of its fins.  The name Fortescue is an adaptation
of Forty-skewer by the law of Hobson-Jobson.

1882.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Fish of New South Wales,'
p. 49:

"Of this fish Mr. Hill says: The scorpion or Fortescue, as
these fish are popularly termed by fishermen, have been known
for a long time, and bear that name no doubt in memory of the
pain they have hitherto inflicted; and for its number and array
of prickles it enjoys in this country the alias
'Forty-skewer' or 'Fortescure.' "

1896.  F. G. Aflalo, 'Natural History of Australia,' p. 228:

"Fortescue is a terrible pest, lurking among the
debris in the nets and all but invisible, its spines
standing erect in readiness for the unwary finger.  And so
intense is the pain inflicted by a stab, that I have seen a
strong man roll on the ground crying out like a madman."

Forty-legs, n. name given to a millipede,
Cermatia smithii.

Forty-spot, n. name for a bird,
a Pardalote (q.v.).  Pardalote itself means
spotted "like the pard."  See also Diamond-bird.

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. ii. pl. 37:

"Pardalotus quadragintus, Gould, Forty-spotted
pardalote.  Forty-spot, Colonists of Van Diemen's Land."

1896.  'The Australasian,' Aug. 28, p. 407, col. 5:

"'Lyre bird' is obvious; so, too, is 'forty-spot'; only one
wonders why the number 40 was pitched upon.  Was it a guess?
Or did the namer first shoot the bird and count?"

Fossick, v. intrans. to dig, but with special
meanings.  Derived, like fosse, a ditch, and
fossil, through French from Lat. fossus, perfect
part. of fodere, to dig.  Fossicking as
pres. part., or as verbal noun, is commoner than the other
parts of the verb.

(1) To pick out gold.

1852.  W. H. Hall, 'Practical Experiences at the Diggings in
Victoria,' p. 16:

"Or fossicking (picking out the nuggets from the interstices
of the slate formation) with knives and trowels."

(2) To dig for gold on abandoned claims or in waste-heaps.

1865.  F.  H. Nixon, 'Peter Perfume,' p. 59:

"They'll find it not quite so 'welly good'
 As their fossicking freak at the Buckland."

1873.  A.Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,' c. xix. p. 286:

"Here we found about a dozen Chinamen 'fossicking' after gold
amidst the dirt of the river, which had already been washed by
the first gold-seekers."

1880.  G. Sutherland, 'Tales of Goldfields,' p. 22:

"He commenced working along with several companions at surface
digging and fossicking."

1894.  'The Argus,' March 14, p. 4, col. 6:

"The easiest and simplest of all methods is 'fossicking.'  An
old diggings is the place for this work, because there you will
learn the kind of country, formation, and spots to look for
gold when you want to break new ground.  'Fossicking' means
going over old workings, turning up boulders, and taking the
clay from beneath them, exploring fissures in the rock, and
scraping out the stuff with your table knife, using your pick
to help matters.  Pulling up of trees, and clearing all soil
from the roots, scraping the bottoms of deserted holes, and
generally keeping your eye about for little bits of ground
left between workings by earlier miners who were in too great
a hurry looking after the big fish to attend much to small fry."

(3) To search for gold generally, even by stealing.

1861.  T. McCombie, 'Australian Sketches,' p. 60:

"A number of idle and disorderly fellows had introduced a
practice which was termed 'fossicking.' . . .  In the dead
hours of midnight they issued forth, provided with wax tapers,
and, entering upon the ground, stole the auriferous earth."

(4) To search about for anything, to rummage.

1870.  S. Lemaitre, 'Songs of Goldfields,' p. 14:

"He ran from the flat with an awful shout
 Without waiting to fossick the coffin lid out."

1890.  'The Argus,' Aug. 2, p. 4, col. 3:

"Half the time was spent in fossicking for sticks."

1891.  'The Argus,' Dec. 19, p. 4, col. 2:

"I was . . . a boy fossicking for birds' nests in the gullies."

1893.  'The Australasian,' Jan. 14:

"The dog was fossicking about."

Fossicker, n. one who fossicks, sc. works
among the tailings of old gold-mines for what may be left.

1853.  C. Rudston Read, 'What I heard, saw, and did at the
Australian Gold Fields,' p. 150:

"The man was what they called a night fossicker, who
slept, or did nothing during the day, and then went round at
night to where he knew the claims to be rich, and stole the
stuff by candle-light."

1861.  T. McCombie, 'Australian Sketches,' p. 87:

"I can at once recognize the experienced 'fossickers,' who
know well how to go to work with every chance in their favour."

1864.  J. Rogers, 'New Rush,' pt. ii. p. 32:

"Steady old fossickers often get more
 Than the first who open'd the ground."

1869.  R. Brough Smyth, 'Goldfields of Victoria,' p. 612:

"A fossicker is to the miner as is the gleaner to the reaper;
he picks the crevices and pockets of the rocks."

1891.  'The Australasian,' Nov. 21, p. 1015:

"We had heard that, on this same field, years after its total
abandonment, a two hundred ounce nugget had been found by a
solitary fossicker in a pillar left in an old claim."

1891.  'The Argus,' Dec. 19, p. 4, col. 2:

"The fossickers sluiced and cradled with wonderful cradles of
their own building."

Four-o'clock, n. another name for the
Friar-bird (q.v.).

Free-select, v. to take up land under the Land
Laws.  See Free-selector.  This composite verb, derived
from the noun, is very unusual.  The word generally used is
to select.

1884.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c. xix. p. 134:

"Everything which he could have needed had he proceeded to
free-select an uninhabited island."

Free-selection, n. (1) The process of selecting
or choosing land under the Land Laws, or the right to choose.
Abbreviated often into Selection. See

1865.  'Ararat Advertiser' [exact date lost]:

"He was told that the areas open for selection were not on the
Geelong side, and one of the obliging officials placed a plan
before him, showing the lands on which he was free to choose a
future home.  The selector looked vacantly at the map, but at
length became attracted by a bright green allotment, which at
once won his capricious fancy, indicating as it did such
luxurious herbage; but, much to his disgust, he found that 'the
green lot' had already been selected.  At length he fixed on a
yellow section, and declared his intention of resting satisfied
with the choice.  The description and area of land chosen were
called out, and he was requested t0 move further over and pay
his money.  'Pay?' queried the fuddled but startled bona
fide, 'I got no money (hic), old 'un, thought it was free
selection, you know.'"

1870.  T. H. Braim, 'New Homes,' ii. 87:

"A man can now go and make his free selection before survey of
any quantity of land not less than 40 nor more than 320 acres,
at twenty shillings an acre."

1878.  'The Australian,' vol. i. p. 743:

"You may go to nine stations out of ten now without hearing
any talk but 'bullock and free-selection.'"

1880.  G. Sutherland, 'Tales of Goldfields,' p. 82:

"His intention . . .  was to take up a small piece of land
under the system of 'free-selection.'"

1884.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c. xx. p. 162:

"This was years before the free-selection discovery."

(2) Used for the land itself, but generally in the abbreviated
form, Selection.

1887.  R. M. Praed, 'Longleat of Kooralbyn,' vol. vi, p. 56:

"I've only seen three females on my selection since I took it
up four years last November."

Free-selector, n. (abbreviated often to
Selector), one who takes up a block of Crown land under
the Land Laws and by annual payments acquires the freehold.
[320 acres to Victoria, 640 in New South Wales.]

1864.  J. Rogers, 'New Rush,' pt. i. p. 21:

"Free selectors we shall be
 When our journey's end we see."

1866.  'Sydney Morning Herald,' Aug. 9:

"The very law which the free selector puts in force against the
squatter, the squatter puts in force against him; he selected
upon the squatter's run, and the squatter selects upon his
grazing right."

1873.  Ibid. p. 33:

"Men who select small portions of the Crown lands by means of
land orders or by gradual purchase, and who become freeholders
and then permanently wedded to the colony."

1873.  A. Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 33:

"The condition of the free-selector--that of ownership of a
piece of land to be tilled by the owner--is the one which the
best class of immigrants desire."

1875.  'Melbourne Spectator,' June 12, p. 70, col. 2:

"A public meeting of non-resident selectors has been held at

1884.  Marcus Clarke, 'Memorial Volume,' p. 85:

"A burly free selector pitched his tent in my Home-Station
paddock and turned my dam into a wash."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. xii. p. 116:

"No, no; I've kept free-selectors out all these years,
and as long as I live here I'll do so still."

Freezer, n. a sheep bred and raised in order
that its mutton may be frozen and exported.

1893.  J. Hotson, Lecture in 'Age,' Nov.30, p. 7, col. 2:

"In the breeding of what are in New Zealand known as 'freezers'
there lies a ready means of largely increasing the returns from
our land."

Fresh-water Herring, n. In Sydney, the fish is
Clupea richmondia, Macl.  Elsewhere in Australia, and in
Tasmania, it is another name for the Grayling (q.v.).

Fresh-water Perch, n. name given in Tasmania to
the fish Microperca tasmaniae.

Friar-bird, n. an Australian bird, of the genus
called Philemon, but originally named
Tropidorhynchus (q.v.).  It is a honey-eater, and is
also called Poor Soldier and other names; see quotation,
1848.  The species are--

 Philemon corniculatus, Lath.  [Called also
 Leather-head, q.v.]

Helmeted F.--
 P. buceroides, Swains.

Little F.--
 P. sordidus, Gould.

Silvery-crowned F.--
 P. argenticeps, Gould.

Yellow-throated F.-
 P. citreogularis, Gould.

Western F.--
 P. occidentalis, Ramsay.

1798.  D. Collins, 'Account of English Colony in New South
Wales,' p. 615 (Vocab.):

"Wirgan,--bird named by us the friar."

1827.  Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean Society,'
 vol. xv. p. 324:

"Friar,--a very common bird about Paramatta, called by
the natives 'coldong:' It repeats the words 'poor
soldier' and 'four o'clock' very distinctly."

1845.  'Voyage to Port Phillip,' p. 53:

"The cheerful sedge-wren and the bald-head friar,
 The merry forest-pie with joyous song."

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl. 58:

"Tropidorhynchus Corniculatus, Vig. and Hors.

"From the fancied resemblance of its notes to those words,
it has obtained from the Colonists the various names of 'Poor
Soldier,' 'Pimlico,' 'Four o'clock,' etc.  Its bare head and
neck have also suggested the names of 'Friar Bird,' 'Monk,'
'Leather Head,' etc."

1855.  W. Blandowski, 'Transactions of the Philosophical Society
of Victoria,' vol. i. p. 64:

"The Tropidorhynchus corniculatus is well known to the
colonists by the names 'poor soldier,' 'leather-headed
jackass,' 'friar-bird,' etc.  This curious bird, in common with
several other varieties of honey-eaters, is remarkable on
account of its extreme liveliness and the singular resemblance
of its notes to the human voice."

Frilled-Lizard, n.  See quotation.

1875, G. Bennett, 'Proceedings of Royal Society of Tasmania,'
p. 56:

"Notes on the Chlamydosaurus or frilled-lizard of
Queensland (C. Kingii.) "

Frogsmouth, n. an Australian bird; genus
Podargus, commonly called Mopoke (q.v.).  The
mouth and expression of the face resemble the appearance of a
frog.  The species are--

Freckled Frogsmouth--
 Podargus phaloenoides, Gould.

Marbled F.--
 P. marmoratus, Gould.

Plumed F.--
 P. papuensis, Quoy and Gaim.

Tawney F.--
 P. strigoides, Lath.

1895.  W. O. Legge, 'Australasian Association for the
 Advancement of Science' (Brisbane), p. 447:

"The term 'Frogsmouth' is used in order to get rid of that very
objectionable name Podargus, and as being allied to the
other genera Batrachostomus and Otothrix of the
family Steatorninae in India.  It is a name well suited
to the singular structure of the mouth, and presumably better
than the mythical title of 'Goatsucker.'  'Night-hawk,'
sometimes applied to the Caprimulginae, does not accord
with the mode of flight of the genus Podargus."

Frontage, n. land along a river or creek, of
great importance to a station.  A use common in Australia, not
peculiar to it.

1844.  'Port Phillip Patriot,' July i8, p. 3, col. 7:

". . . has four miles frontage to the Yarra Yarra."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Squatter's Dream,' c. iii. p. 29:

"Jack was piloted by Mr. Hawkesbury through the 'frontage'
and a considerable portion of the 'back' regions of Gondaree."

Frost-fish, n. name given in Australia and New
Zealand to the European Scabbard-fish, Lepidopus
caudatus, White.  The name is said to be derived from the
circumstance that the fish is found alive on New Zealand
sea-beaches on frosty nights.  It is called the
Scabbard-fish in Europe, because it is like the shining
white metal sheath of a long sword.  Lepidopus belongs
to the family Trichiuridae, it reaches a length of five
or six feet, but is so thin that it hardly weighs as many
pounds.  It is considered a delicacy in New Zealand.

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 51:

"The frost-fish . . . the most delicately flavoured of all New
Zealand fishes, is an inhabitant of deep water, and on frosty
nights, owing probably to its air-bladders becoming choked, it
is cast up by the surf on the ocean-beach."

Fruit-Pigeon, n. The name is given to numerous
pigeons of the genera Ptilinopus and Carpophaga.
In Australia it is assigned to the following birds:--

Allied Fruit-Pigeon--
 Ptilinopus assimilis, Gould.

Purple-breasted F.-P.--
 P. magnifica, Temm.

Purple-crowned F.-P.--
 P. superbus, Temm.

Red-crowned F.-P.--
 P. swainsonii, Gould.

Rose-crowned F.-P.--
 P. ewingii Gould.

White-headed F.-P.--
 Columba leucomela, Temm.

And in New Zealand to Carpophaga novae-zealandiae, Gmel.
(Maori name, Kereru Kuku, or Kukupa.)

Fryingpan-Brand, n. a large brand used by
cattle-stealers to cover the owner's brand.  See Duffer
and Cattle-Duffer.

1857.  Frederic De Brebant Cooper, 'Wild Adventures in
Australia,' p. 104:

". . .  This person was an 'old hand,' and got into some
trouble on the other side (i.e. the Bathurst side) by using a
'frying-pan brand.'  He was stock-keeping in that quarter, and
was rather given to 'gulley-raking.'  One fine day it appears
he ran in three bullocks belonging to a neighbouring squatter,
and clapt his brand on the top of the other so as to efface

Fuchsia, Native, n. The name is applied to
several native plants.

(1) In Australia and Tasmania, to various species of Correa
 (q.v.), especially to Correa speciosa, And., N.O.

(2) In Queensland, to Eremophila maculata, F. v. M.,
N.O. Myoporineae.

(3) In New Zealand, to Fuchsia excorticata, Linn.,
N.O. Onagrariae.  (Maori name, Kotukutuktu, q.v.).
See also Tooky-took and Konini.

1860.  Geo. Bennett, 'Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australasia,'
pp. 371-2:

"The Correa virens, with its pretty pendulous blossoms (from
which it has been named the 'Native Fuchsia'), and the Scarlet
Grevillea (G. coccinea) are gay amidst the bush flowers."

1880.  Mrs.Meredith, 'Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 23:

"I see some pretty red correa and lilac."
[Footnote]: "Correa speciosa--native fuchsia of Colonies."

1883.  F. M. Bailey, 'Synopsis of Queensland Flora,' p. 374:

"E. maculata.  A . . . shrub called native fuchsia, and
by some considered poisonous, by others a good fodder bush."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 126:

"E. maculata. . . .  Called 'Native Fuchsia' in parts
of Queensland."

1892.  'Otago Witness,' Nov. 24, 'Native Trees':

"A species of native fuchsia that is coming greatly into favour
is called [Fuchsia] Procumbens.  It is a lovely pot plant, with
large pink fruit and upright flowers."

Full up of, adj. (slang), sick and tired of.
"Full on," and "full of," are other forms.

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. xxiii. p. 213:

"She was 'full up' of the Oxley, which was a rowdy,
disagreeable goldfield as ever she was on."

Furze, Native, n. a shrub, Hakea ulcina,
R. Br.  See Hakea.

Futtah, n. a settlers' corruption of the Maori
word Whata (q.v.).

1895.  W.S. Roberts, 'Southland in 1856,'p. 28:

"These stores were called by the Europeans futters,--but
the Maori name was Whata."

1896.  'Southland Daily News,' Feb. 3:

"'Futtah is familiar as 'household words.'  There were always
rats in New Zealand--that is, since any traditions of its
fauna existed.  The original ones were good to eat.
They were black and smooth in the hair as the mole of the Old
Country, and were esteemed delicacies.  They were always
mischievous, but the Norway rat that came with the white man
was worse.  He began by killing and eating his aboriginal
congener, and then made it more difficult than ever to keep
anything eatable out of reach of his teeth.  Human ingenuity,
however, is superior to that of most of the lower animals, and
so the 'futtah' came to be--a storehouse on four posts, each of
them so bevelled as to render it impossible for the cleverest
rat to climb them.  The same expedient is to-day in use on
Stewart Island and the West Coast --in fact, wherever properly
constructed buildings are not available for the storage of
things eatable or destructible by the rodents in question."


Galah, n. a bird.(The accent is now placed
on the second syllable.)  Aboriginal name for the Cacatua
roseicapilla, Vieill., the Rose-breasted
Cockatoo. See Cockatoo.  With the first syllable
compare last syllable of Budgerigar (q.v.)

1890.  'The Argus,' Sept.  20, p. 13, col. 5:

"They can afford to screech and be merry, as also the grey,
pink-crested galahs, which tint with the colours of the evening
sky a spot of grass in the distance."

1890.  Lyth, 'Golden South,' c. xiv. p. 127:

"The galahs, with their delicate grey and rose-pink plumage,
are the prettiest parrots."

1891.  Francis Adams, 'John Webb's End,' p. 191:

"A shrieking flock of galahs, on their final flight before they
settled to roost, passed over and around him, and lifting up
his head, he saw how all their grey feathers were flushed with
the sunset light, their coloured breasts deepening into darkest
ruby, they seemed like loosed spirits."

Gallows, n. Explained in quotation.  Common
at all stations, where of course the butchering is done on
the premises.

1866.  Lady Barker, 'Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 64:

"The gallows, a high wooden frame from which the carcases of
the butchered sheep dangle."

Gang-gang, or Gan-gan, n. the
aboriginal word for the bird Callocephalon galeatum,
Lath., so called from its note; a kind of cockatoo, grey with a
red head, called also Gang-gang Cockatoo.  See

1833.  C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' vol. i. Intro.
p. xxxviii:

"Upon the branches the satin-bird, the gangan, and various
kinds of pigeons were feeding."

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. v. pl. 14:

"Callocephalon Galeatum, Gang-gang Cockatoo, Colonists
of New South Wales."

Gannet, n. the English name for the Solan
Goose and its tribe.  The Australian species are--

The Gannet--
 Sula serrator, Banks.

Brown G. (called also Booby)--
 S. leucogastra, Bodd.

Masked G.--
 S. cyanops, Sunder.

Red-legged G.--
 S. piscator, Linn.

The species in New Zealand is Dysporus serrator, Grey;
 Maori name, Takapu.

Garfish, n. In England the name is applied to
any fish of the family Belonidae.  The name was
originally used for the common European Belone vulgaris.
In Melbourne the Garfish is a true one, Belone ferox,
Gunth., called in Sydney "Long Tom."  In Sydney, Tasmania, and
New Zealand it is Hemirhamphus intermedius, Cantor.; and
in New South Wales, generally, it is the river-fish
H. regularis, Gunth., family Sombresocidae.  Some
say that the name was originally "Guard-fish," and it is still
sometimes so spelt.  But the word is derived from xGar,
in Anglo-Saxon, which meant spear, dart, javelin, and the
allusion is to the long spear-like projection of the fish's
jaws.  Called by the Sydney fishermen Ballahoo, and in
Auckland the Piper (q.v.).

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 288:

"Charley brought me . . . the head bones of a large

1849.  Anon., 'New South Wales: its Past, Present, and Future
Condition,' p. 99:

"The best kinds of fish are guard, mullet, and schnapper."

1850.  Clutterbuck, 'Port Phillip,' c. iii. p. 44:

"In the bay are large quantities of guard-fish."

1875.  'Spectator' (Melbourne), June I9, p. 81, col.1:

"Common fish, such as trout, ruffies, mullet, garfish."

1882.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Fish of New South Wales,'
p. 83:

"Of the garfishes we have four species known to be found on our
coasts.  One, Hemirhamphus regularis, is the favourite
breakfast fish of the citizens of Sydney. H. melanochir,
or 'river garfish,' is a still better fish, but has become very
scarce.  H. argentcus, the common Brisbane species
. . . and H. commersoni."

Gastrolobium, n. scientific name of a genus of
Australian shrubs, N.O. Leguminosae, commonly known as
Poison Bushes (q.v.).  The species are--

 Gastrolobium bilobum, R. Br.
 G. callistachys, Meissn.
 G. calycium, Benth.
 G. obovatum, Benth.
 G. oxylobioides, Benth.
 G. spinosum, Benth.
 G. trilobum, Benth.

All of which are confined to Western Australia.  The species
Gastrolobium grandiflorum, F. v. M. (also called
Wall-flower), is the only species found out of Western
Australia, and extends across Central Australia to Queensland.
All the species have pretty yellow and purple flowers.  The
name is from the Greek gastaer, gastros, the belly,
and lobion, dim. of lobos, "the capsule or pod
of leguminous plants."  ('L. & S.')

Geebung, or Geebong, n. aboriginal
name for the fruit of various species of the tree
Persoonia, and also for the tree itself,
N.O. Proteaceae.

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i.
p. 221:

"The jibbong is another tasteless fruit, as well as the five
corners, much relished by children."

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition, p. 478:

"We gathered and ate a great quantity of gibong (the ripe fruit
of Persoonia falcata)."

1852.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes,' c. vi,. p. 176, 3rd
edition 1855:

"The geebung, a native plum, very woolly and tasteless."

1885.  R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 113:

"We gathered the wild raspberries, and mingling them with
geebongs and scrub berries, set forth a dessert."

1885.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Robbery under Arms,' p. 255:

"You won't turn a five-corner into a quince, or a geebung into
an orange."

1889.  J. M. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 584:

"A 'geebung' (the name given to the fruits of Persoonias,
and hence to the trees themselves)."

Gerygone, n. scientific and vernacular name of
a genus of small warblers of Australia and New Zealand; the new
name for them is Fly-eater (q.v.).  In New Zealand they
are called Bush-warblers, Grey-warblers, etc.,
and they also go there by their Maori name of Riro-riro.
For the species, see Fly-eater and Warbler.  The
name is from the Greek gerugonae, "born of sound," a word
used by Theocritus.

1895.  W. O. Legge, 'Australasian Association for the
Advancement of Science' (Brisbane), p. 447:

"[The habits and habitats of the genus] Gerygone
suggested the term Fly-eater, as distinguished from
Fly-catcher, for this aberrant and peculiarly
Australasian form of small Fly-catchers, which not only capture
their food somewhat after the manner of Fly-catchers, but also
seek for it arboreally."

Ghilgai, n. an aboriginal word used by white
men in the neighbourhood of Bourke, New South Wales, to denote
a saucer-shaped depression in the ground which forms a natural
reservoir for rainwater.  Ghilgais vary from 20 to 100
yards in diameter, and are from five to ten feet deep.  They
differ from Claypans (q.v.), in being more regular in
outline and deeper towards the centre, whereas Claypans
are generally flat-bottomed.  Their formation is probably due
to subsidence.

Giant-Lily, n. See under Lily.

Giant-Nettle, i.q. Nettle-tree (q.v.).

Gibber, n. an aboriginal word for a stone.
Used both of loose stones and of rocks.  The G is hard.

1834.  L. E. Threlkeld, 'Australian Grammar,' p. x.  [In a list
of 'barbarisms']:

"Gibber, a stone."

[Pace Mr. Threlkeld, the word is aboriginal, though not
of the dialect of the Hunter District, of which he is speaking.]

1852.  'Settlers and Convicts; or Recollections of Sixteen Years'
Labour in the Australian Backwoods,' p. 159:

"Of a rainy night like this he did not object to stow himself
by the fireside of any house he might be near, or under the
'gibbers' (overhanging rocks) of the river. . . ."

1890.  A .J. Vogan, 'Black Police,' p. 338:

"He struck right on top of them gibbers (stones)."

1894.  Baldwin Spencer, in 'The Argus,' Sept. 1, p. 4, col. 2:

"At first and for more than a hundred miles [from Oodnadatta
northwards], our track led across what is called the gibber
country, where the plains are covered with a thin layer of
stones--the gibbers--of various sizes, derived from the breaking
down of a hard rock which forms the top of endless low,
table-topped hills belonging to the desert sandstone

Gibber-gunyah, n. an aboriginal cave-dwelling.
See Gibber and Gunyah, also Rock-shelter.

1852.  'Settlers and Convicts; or, Recollections of Sixteen
Years' Labour in the Australian Backwoods,' p. 211:

"I coincided in his opinion that it would be best for us to
camp for the night in one of the ghibber-gunyahs.  These are
the hollows under overhanging rocks."

1863.  Rev. R. W. Vanderkiste, 'Lost, but not for Ever,' p. 210:

"Our home is the gibber-gunyah,
  Where hill joins hill on high,
 Where the turrama and berrambo
  Like sleeping serpents lie."

1891.   R. Etheridge, jun., 'Records of the Australian Museum,'
vol. i. no. viii. p. 171:

"Notes on Rock Shelters or Gibba-gunyahs at Deewhy Lagoon."

Giddea, Gidya, or Gidgee, adj.
aboriginal word of New South Wales and Queensland for--

(1) a species of Acacia, A. homalophylla, Cunn.  The
original meaning is probably small, cf. gidju,
Warrego, Queensland, and kutyo, Adelaide, both meaning

(2) A long spear made, from this wood.

1878.  'Catalogue of Objects of Ethno-typical Art in National
Gallery, Melbourne,' p. 46:

"Gid-jee.  Hardwood spear, with fragments of quartz set
in gum on two sides and grass-tree stem. Total length, 7 feet 8

1885.  R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 51:

"Gidya scrubs."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 357:

"A. homalophylla.  A 'Spearwood.'  Called 'Myall'
in Victoria. . . .  Aboriginal names are . . . Gidya, Gidia,
or Gidgee (with other spellings in New South Wales and
Queensland).  This is the commonest colonial name . . . much
sought after for turner's work on account of its solidity and
fragrance. . . .  The smell of the tree when in flower is
abominable, and just before rain almost unbearable."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. xvii. p. 211:

"I sat . . . watching the shadows of the gydya trees lengthen,
ah! so slowly."

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 37:

"Kind of scrub, called by the colonists gydya-scrub, which
manifests itself even at a distance by a very characteristic,
but not agreeable odour, being especially pungent after rain."

1896.  Baldwin Spencer, 'Home Expedition in Central Australia,'
Narrative, p. 22:

"We camped beside a water-pool on the Adminga Creek, which is
bordered for the main part by a belt of the stinking acacia, or
giddea (A. homalophylla).  When the branches are freshly
cut it well deserves the former name, as they have a most
objectionable smell."

Gill-bird, n. an occasional name for the
Wattle-bird (q.v.).

1896.  'Menu' for October 15:

 "Gill-bird on Toast."

Gin, n. a native word for an aboriginal woman,
and used, though rarely, even for a female kangaroo.  See
quotation 1833.  The form gun (see quotation 1865) looks
as if it had been altered to meet gunae, and of course
generate is not derived from gunae, though it may be a
distant relative.  In 'Collins's Vocabulary' occurs "din, a
woman."  If such a phonetic spelling as djin had been
adopted, as it well might have been, to express the native
sound, where would the gunae theory have been?

1798.  D. Collins, 'Account of English Colony in New South
Wales,' Vocabulary, p. 612:

"Din--a woman."

1830.  R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 152:

"A proposition was made by one of my natives to go and steal a
gin (wife)."

Ibid.  p. 153:

"She agrees to become his gin."

1833.  Lieut. Breton, R.N., 'Excursions in New South Wales,'
p. 254:

"The flying gin (gin is the native word for woman or female) is
a boomall, and will leave behind every description of dog."

1834.  L. E. Threlkeld, 'Australian Grammar,' p. x:

"As a barbarism [sc. not used on the Hunter], jin--a wife."

1845.  J. O. Balfour, 'Sketch of New South Wales,' p. 8:

"A gin (the aboriginal for a married woman)."

1846.  C. P. Hodgson, 'Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 367:

"Gin, the term applied to the native female blacks; not from
any attachment to the spirit of that name, but from some (to
me) unknown derivation."

1846.  J. L. Stokes, 'Discovery in Australia,' vol. I. c. iv.
p. 74:

"Though very anxious to . . . carry off one of their 'gins,'
or wives . . . he yet evidently holds these north men in great

1847.  J. D. Lang, 'Cooksland,'p. 126, n.:

"When their fire-stick has been extinguished, as is sometimes
the case, for their jins or vestal virgins, who have charge of
the fire, are not always sufficiently vigilant."

1852.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes' (edition 1855), p. 98:

"Gins--native women--from gune, mulier, evidently!"

1864.  J. Rogers, 'New Rush,' pt. 2, p. 46:

"The females would be comely looking gins,
 Were not their limbs so much like rolling-pins."

1865.  S. Bennett, 'Australian Discovery,' p. 250:

"Gin or gun, a woman.  Greek gunae and derivative words
in English, such as generate, generation, and the like."

1872.  C. H. Eden, 'MY Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 118:

"The gins are captives of their bow and spear, and are brought
home before the captor on his saddle.  This seems the orthodox
way of wooing the coy forest maidens. . . .  All blacks are
cruel to their gins."

1880.  J. Brunton Stephens, 'Poems' [Title]:

"To a black gin."

1885.  R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 23:

"Certain stout young gins or lubras, set apart for the purpose,
were sacrificed."

Ginger, Native, n. an Australian tree,
Alpinia caerulea, Benth., N.O. Scitamineae.
The globular fruit is eaten by the natives.

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 296:

"Fresh green leaves, especially of the so-called native ginger
(Alpinia caerulea)."

Give Best, v. Australian slang, meaning to
acknowledge superiority, or to give up trying at anything.

1883.  Keighley, 'Who are You?' p. 87:

"But then--the fact had better be confessed, I went to work
and gave the schooling best."

1887.  J. Farrell, 'How he Died,' p. 80:

"Charley gave life best and died of grief."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. xviii. p. 174:

"It's not like an Englishman to jack up and give these fellows

Globe-fish, n. name given to the fish
Tetrodon hamiltoni, Richards., family
Gymnodontes.  The Spiny Globe-fish is
Diodon.  These are also called Toad-fish (q.v.),
and Porcupine-fish (q.v.).  The name is applied to other
fish elsewhere.

Glory Flower, or Glory Pea,
i.q. Clianthus (q.v.).

Glory Pea, i.q. Clianthus (q.v.).

Glucking-bird, n. a bird so named by
Leichhardt, but not identified.  Probably the Boobook
(q.v.), and see its quotation 1827; see also under
Mopoke quotation, Owl, 1846.

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 23:

"The musical note of an unknown bird, sounding like 'gluck
gluck' frequently repeated, and ending in a shake . . . are
heard from the neighbourhood of the scrub."

Ibid. p. 29:

"The glucking bird--by which name, in consequence of its note,
the bird may be distinguished--was heard through the night."

Ibid. p. 47:

"The glucking-bird and the barking owl were heard throughout
the moonlight nights."

Ibid. pp. 398, 399:

"During the night, we heard the well-known note of what we
called the 'Glucking bird,' when we first met with it in the
Cypress-pine country at the early part of our expedition.  Its
re-appearance with the Cypress-pine corroborated my supposition,
that the bird lived on the seeds of that tree."

Glue-pot, n. part of a road so bad that the
coach or buggy sticks in it.

1892.  'Daily News,' London (exact date lost):

"The Bishop of Manchester [Dr. Moorhouse, formerly Bishop of
Melbourne], whose authority on missionary subjects will not be
disputed, assures us that no one can possibly understand the
difficulties and the troubles attendant upon the work of a
Colonial bishop or clergyman until he has driven across almost
pathless wastes or through almost inaccessible forests, has
struggled through what they used to call 'glue-pots,' until he
has been shaken to pieces by 'corduroy roads,' and has been in
the midst of forests with the branches of trees falling around
on all sides, knowing full well that if one fell upon him he
would be killed."

Goai, n. common name in southern island of New
Zealand for Kowhai (q.v.), of which it is a corruption.
It is especially used of the timber of this tree, which is
valuable for fencing.  The change from K to G
also took place in the name Otago, formerly spelt Otakou.

1860.  John Blair, 'New Zealand for Me,':

"The land of the goai tree, mapu, and pine,
 The stately totara, and blooming wild vine."

1863.  S. Butler, 'First Year in Canterbury Settlement,' p. 104:

"I remember nothing but a rather curiously shaped gowai-tree."

Goanna, Guana, and Guano, n.
popular corruptions for Iguana, the large Lace-lizard
(q.v.), Varanus varius, Shaw.  In New Zealand, the word
Guano is applied to the lizard-like reptile Sphenodon
punctatum.  See Tuatara.  In Tasmania, the name is
given to Taliqua schincoides, White, and throughout
Australia any lizard of a large size is popularly called a
Guana, or in the bush, more commonly, a Goanna.
See also Lace-lizard.

1802.  G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' c. viii.
p. 285:

"Among other reptiles were found . . . some brown guanoes."

1830.  R. Dawson, 'Present state of Australia,' p. 118:

"At length an animal called a guana (a very large species of
lizard) jumped out of the grass, and with amazing rapidity ran,
as they always do when disturbed, up a high tree."

1864.  J. Ropers, 'New Rush,' p. 6:

"The shy guana climbs a tree in fear."

1891.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'A Sydney-side Saxon,' p. 99:

"A goanna startled him, and he set to and kicked the front of
the buggy in."

1896.  H. Lawson, 'When the World was Wide,' p. 139:

"And the sinister 'gohanna,' and the lizard, and the snake."

Go-ashore, n. an iron pot or cauldron, with
three iron feet, and two ears, from which it was suspended by
a wire handle over the fire.  It is a corruption of the Maori
word Kohua (q.v.), by the law of Hobson-Jobson.

1849.  W. Tyrone Power, 'Sketches in New Zealand with Pen and
Pencil,' p. 160:

"Engaged in the superintendence of a Maori oven, or a huge
gipsy-looking cauldron, called a 'go-ashore.'"

1877.  An Old Colonist, 'Colonial Experiences,' p. 124:

"A large go-ashore, or three-legged pot, of the size and shape
of the cauldron usually introduced in the witch scene in

1879.  C. L. Innes, 'Canterbury Sketches,' p. 23:

"There was another pot, called by the euphonious name of a
'Go-ashore,' which used to hang by a chain over the fire.
This was used for boiling."

Goborro, n. aboriginal name for Eucalyptus
microtheca, F. v. M.  See Dwarf-box, under Box.

Goburra, and Gogobera, n. variants
of Kookaburra (q.v.).

Goditcha.  See Kurdaitcha.

Godwit, n. the English name for birds of the
genus Limosa.  The Australian species are--

Black-tailed G.,--
 Limosa melanuroides, Gould;

Barred-rumped G.,--
 L. uropygialis, Gould.

Gogobera, and Goburra, n. variants of
Kookaburra (q.v.).

Gold-.  The following words and phrases compounded
with "gold" are Australian in use, though probably some are
used elsewhere.

Gold-bearing, verbal adj. auriferous.

1890.  'Goldfields of Victoria,' p. 13:

"A new line of gold-bearing quartz."

Gold-digging, verbal n. mining or digging for

1880.  G. Sutherland, 'Tales of Gold.  fields,' p. 36:

"There were over forty miners thus playing at gold-digging
in Hiscock's Gully."

Gold-digger, n.

1852.  J. Bonwick [Title]:

"Notes of a Gold-digger."

Gold-fever, n. the desire to obtain gold by
digging.  The word is more especially applied to the period
between 1851 and 1857, the early Australian discovery of gold.
The term had been previously applied in a similar way to the
Californian excitement in 1848-49.  Called also Yellow

1888.  A. J. Barbour, 'Clara,' c. ix. p. 13:

"The gold fever coursed through every vein."

Gold-field, n. district where mining for gold
is carried on.

1858.  T. McCombie, 'History of Victoria, c. xv. p. 215:

"All were anxious to get away for the gold fields."

1880.  G. Sutherland, [Title] 'Tales of Goldfields,' p. 19:

"Edward Hargreaves, the discoverer of the Australian goldfields
. . . received L15,000 as his reward."

Gold-founded, part. adj. founded as the result
of the discovery of gold.

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. ix. p. 91:

"I rode up the narrow street, serpentine in construction, as in
all gold-founded townships."

Gold-hunter, n. searcher after gold.

1852.  G. S. Rutter [Title]:

 "Hints to Gold-hunters."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. v. p. 48:

"I was not as one of the reckless gold-hunters with which
the camp was thronged."

Gold-mining, verbal n.

1852.  J. A.Phillips [Title]:

"Gold-mining; a Scientific Guide for Australian Emigrants."

1880.  G. Sutherland, 'Tales of Goldfields,' p. 23:

"He had already had quite enough of gold-mining."

Gold-seeking, adj.

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. xv. p. 150:

"The great gold-seeking multitude had swelled . . . to the
population of a province."

Golden Bell-Frog, n. name applied to a large
gold and green frog, Hyla aurea, Less., which, unlike
the great majority of the family Hylidae to which it
belongs, is terrestrial and not arboreal in its habits, being
found in and about water-holes in many parts of Australia.

1881.   F. McCoy, 'Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria,'
Dec. 6, pl. 53:

"So completely alike was the sound of the Bell-frogs in an
adjoining pond at night to the noise of the men by day."

Golden-chain, n. another name for the

Golden-eye, n. the bird Certhia
lunulatu, Shaw; now called Melithreptus lunulatus,
Shaw, and classed as White-naped Honey-eater (q.v.).

1827.  Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean Society,'
vol. xv. p. 315:

"'This bird,' Mr. Caley says, 'is called Golden-eye by the
settlers.  I shot it at Iron Cove, seven miles from Sydney,
on the Paramatta road.'"

Golden-Perch, n. a fresh-water fish of
Australia, Ctenolates ambiguus, Richards., family
Percidae, and C. christyi, Castln.; also called
the Yellow-belly.  C. ambiguus is common in the
rivers and lagoons of the Murray system.

Golden-Rosemary, n. See Rosemary.

Golden-Wattle, n. See Wattle.

1896.  'The Argus,' July 20, p. 5, col. 8:

"Many persons who had been lured into gathering armfuls
of early wattle had cause to regret their devotion to the
Australian national bloom, for the golden wattle blossoms
produced unpleasant associations in the minds of the wearers
of the green, and there were blows and curses in plenty.
In political botany the wattle and blackthorn cannot grow
side by side."

1896.  'The Melburnian,' Aug. 28, p. 53:

"The last two weeks have been alive with signs and tokens,
saying 'Spring is coming, Spring is here.'  And though this
may not be the 'merry month of May,' yet it is the time of
glorious Golden Wattle,--wattle waving by the river's bank,
nodding aloft its soft plumes of yellow and its gleaming golden
oriflamme, or bending low to kiss its own image in the brown
waters which it loves."

Goodenia, n. the scientific and popular name of
a genus of Australian plants, closely resembling the
Gentians; there are many species.  The name was given by
Sir James Smith, president of the Linnaean Society, in 1793.
See quotation.

1793.  'Transactions of the Linn.can Society,' vol. ii. p. 346:

"I [Smith] have given to this . . . genus the name of Goodenia,
in honour of . . . Rev. Dr. Goodenough, treasurer of
this Society, of whose botanical merits . . . example of
Tournefort, who formed Gundelia from Gundelscheimer."

[Dr. Goodenough became Bishop of Carlisle; he was the
grandfather of Commodore Goodenough.]

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 188:

"A species of Goodenia is supposed to be used by the
native gins to cause their children to sleep on long journeys,
but it is not clear which is used."

Goodletite, n. scientific name for a matrix in
which rubies are found.  So named by Professor Black of
Dunedin, in honour of his assistant, William Goodlet, who was
the first to discover the rubies in the matrix, on the west

1894.  'Grey River Argus,' September:

"Several sapphires of good size and colour have been found,
also rubies in the matrix--Goodletite."

Goondie, n. a native hut.  Gundai = a
shelter in the Wiradhuri dialect.  It is the same word as
Gunyah (q.v.).

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. xvii. p. 204:

"There were a dozen 'goondies' to be visited, and the inmates
started to their work."

Goose, n. English bird-name.  The Australian
species are--

Cape Barren Goose--
 Cereopsis novae-hollandiae, Lath.  [Gould ('Birds of
Australia,' vol. vii. pl. 1) calls it the Cereopsis Goose, or
Cape Barren Goose of the Colonists.]

Maned G. (or Wood-duck, q.v.)--
 Branta jubata, Lath.

Pied G.--
 Anseranus melanoleuca, Lath.
  Called also Magpie-Goose and Swan-Goose.

1843.  J. Backhouse, 'Narrative of a Visit to the Australian
 Colonies,' p. 75:

"Five pelicans and some Cape Barren Geese were upon the beach
of Preservation Island [Bass Strait]."

Goose-teal, n. the English name for a very
small goose of the genus Nettapus.  The Australian
species are--

  Nettapus pulchellus, Gould;

 N. albipennis, Gould.

Gooseberry-tree, Little, n. name given to the
Australian tree Buchanania mangoides, F. v. M., N.O.

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition, p. 479:

"My companions had, for several days past, gathered the unripe
fruits of Coniogeton arborescens, R. Br., which, when
boiled, imparted an agreeable acidity to the water. . . .  When
ripe, they became sweet and pulpy, like gooseberries. . . .
This resemblance induced us to call the tree 'the little
gooseberry-tree.'  "

Gordon Lily, n. See under Lily.

Gouty-stem, n. the Australian
Baobab-tree (q.v.), Adansonia gregori, F. v. M.
According to Maiden (p. 60), Sterculia rupestris,
Benth., is also called Gouty-stem, on account of the
extraordinary shape of the trunk.  Other names of this tree are
the Sour-gourd, and the Cream-of-tartar tree.

1846.  J. L. Stokes, 'Discovery in Australia,' vol. II. c. iii.
p. 115:

"The gouty-stem tree . . . bears a very fragrant white flower, not
unlike the jasmine." [Illustration given at p. 116.]

1865.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'History of the Discovery and
Exploration of Australia,' vol. i. p. 2S9 [Note]:

"This tree is distinguished by the extraordinary swollen
appearance of the stem, which looks as though the tree were
diseased or the result of a freak of nature.  The youngest as
well as the oldest trees have the same deformed appearance, and
inside the bark is a soft juicy pulp instead of wood, which is
said to be serviceable as an article of food.  The stem of the
largest tree at Careening Bay was twenty-nine feet in girth; it
is named the Adansonia digitata.  A species is found in
Africa.  In Australia it occurs only on the north coast."

Government, n. a not unusual contraction of
"Government service," used by contractors and working men.

Government men, n. an obsolete euphemistic name
for convicts, especially for assigned servants (q.v.).

1846.  G. H. Haydon, 'Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 122:

"Three government men or convicts."

1852.  J. West, 'History of Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 127:

"Government men, as assigned servants were called."

Government stroke, n. a lazy style of doing
work, explained in quotations.  The phrase is not dead.

1856.  W. W. Dobie, 'Recollections of a Visit to Port Phillip,'
p. 47:

"Government labourers, at ten shillings a-day, were breaking
stones with what is called 'the Government stroke,' which is a
slow-going, anti-sweating kind of motion. . . ."

1873.  A. Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,' c. ix.  [near
end]  p. 163:

"In colonial parlance the government stroke is that light and
easy mode of labour--perhaps that semblance of labour--which no
other master will endure, though government is forced to put up
with it."

1893.  'Otago Witness,' December 2r, p. 9, col. 1:

"The government stroke is good enough for this kind of job."

1897.  'The Argus,' Feb.  22, p. 4, col. 9:

"Like the poor the unemployed are always with us, but they have
a penchant for public works in Melbourne, with a good daily pay
and the 'Government stroke' combined."

Grab-all, n. a kind of net used for marine
fishing near the shore.  It is moored to a piece of floating
wood, and by the Tasmanian Government regulations must have a
mesh of 2 1/4 inches.

1883.  Edward O. Cotton, 'Evidence before Royal Commission on
the Fisheries of Tasmania,' p. 82:

"Put a graball down where you will in 'bell-rope' kelp, more
silver trumpeter will get in than any other fish."

1883.  Ibid. p. xvii:

"Between sunrise and sunset, nets, known as 'graballs,' may be

Grammatophore, n. scientific name for "an
Australian agamoid lizard, genus Grammatophora."

Grape, Gippsland, n. called also Native
Grape.  An Australian fruit tree, Vitis hypoglauca,
F. v. M., N.O. Viniferae; called Gippsland Grape in

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 66:

"Native grape; Gippsland grape.  This evergreen climber yields
black edible fruits of the size of cherries.  This grape would
perhaps be greatly improved by culture.  (Mueller.)"

Grape, Macquarie Harbour, or Macquarie Harbour
Vine (q.v.), n. name given to the climbing shrub
Muehlenbeckia adpressra, Meissn. N.O. Polygonaceae.
Called Native Ivy in Australia.  See under Ivy.

Grape-eater, n. a bird, called formerly
Fig-eater, now known as the Green-backed
White-eye (q.v.), Zosterops gouldi, Bp.

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl. 82:

"Zosterops chloronotus, Gould, Green-backed Z.;
Grape and Fig-eater, Colonists of Swan River."

Grass, n. In Australia, as elsewhere, the name
Grass is sometimes given to plants which are not of the
natural order Gramineae, yet everywhere it is chiefly to
this natural order that the name is applied.  A fair proportion
of the true Grasses common to many other countries in
the world, or confined, on the one hand to temperate zones, or
on the other to tropical or sub-tropical regions, are also
indigenous to Australia, or Tasmania, or New Zealand, or
sometimes to all three countries.  In most cases such grasses
retain their Old World names, as, for instance,
Barnyard- or Cock-spur Grass (Panicum
crus-galli, Linn.); in others they receive new Australian
names, as Ditch Millet (Paspalum scrobitulatum,
F. v. M.), the 'Koda Millet' of India; and still again certain
grasses named in Latin by scientific botanists have been
distinguished by a vernacular English name for the first time
in Australia, as Kangaroo Grass (Anhistiria
ciliata, Linn.), which was "long known before Australia
became colonized, in South Asia and all Africa" (von Muller),
but not by the name of the Kangaroo.

Beyond these considerations, the settlers of Australia, whose
wealth depends chiefly on its pastoral occupation, have
introduced many of the best Old-World pasture grasses (chiefly
of the genera Poa and Festuca), and many
thousands of acres are said to be "laid down with English
grass."  Some of these are now so wide-spread in their
acclimatization, that the botanists are at variance as to
whether they are indigenous to Australia or not; the Couch
Grass, for instance (Cynodon dactylon, Pers.), or
Indian Doub Grass, is generally considered to be an
introduced grass, yet Maiden regards it as indigenous.

There remain, "from the vast assemblage of our grasses, even
some hundred indigenous to Australia" (von Muller), and a like
number indigenous to New Zealand, the greater proportion of
which are endemic.  Many of these, accurately named in Latin
and described by the botanists, have not yet found their
vernacular equivalents; for the bushman and the settler do not
draw fine botanical distinctions.  Maiden has classified and
fully described 158 species as "Forage Plants," of which over
ninety have never been christened in English.  Mr. John
Buchanan, the botanist and draughtsman to the Geographical
Survey of New Zealand, has prepared for his Government a
'Manual of the Indigenous Grasses of New Zealand,' which
enumerates eighty species, many of them unnamed in English, and
many of them common also to Australia and Tasmania.  These two
descriptive works, with the assistance of Guilfoyle's Botany
and Travellers' notes, have been made the basis of the
following list of all the common Australian names applied to
the true Grasses of the N.O. Gramineae.  Some of
them of very special Australian character appear also elsewhere
in the Dictionary in their alphabetical places, while a few
other plants, which are grasses by name and not by nature,
stand in such alphabetical place alone, and not in this list.
For facility of comparison and reference the range and habitat
of each species is indicated in brackets after its name; the
more minute limitation of such ranges is not within the scope
of this work.  The species of Grass present in
Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand are--

1. Alpine Rice Grass--
 Ehrharta colensoi, Cook.  (N.Z.)

2. Alpine Whorl G.--
 Catabrosa antarctica, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

3. Bamboo G.--
 Glyceria ramigera, F. v. M. (A.)
  Called also Cane Grass.
 Stipa verticillata, Nees.(A.)

4. Barcoo G. (of Queensland)--
 Anthistiria membranacea, Lindl. (A.)
  Called also Landsborough Grass.

5. Barnyard G.--
 Panicum crus-galli, Linn. (A., not endemic.)
  Called also Cockspur Grass.

6. Bayonet G.--
  Aciphylla colensoi.(N.Z.)
   Called also Spear-Grass (see 112), and
  Spaniard (q.v.).

7. Bent G.--Alpine--
 Agrostis muellerii, Benth. (A., N.Z., not endemic.)
 Deyeuxia setifolia, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

8. Bent G.--Australian--
 Deyeuxia scabra, Benth. (A., T., N.Z.)

9. Bent G.--Billardiere's--
 D. billardierii, R. Br. (A., T., N.Z.)

10.  Bent G.--Brown--
 Agrostis carina, Linn. (N.Z.)

11. Bent G.--Campbell Island--
 A. antarctica, Hook. f.  (N.Z.)

12. Bent G.--Dwarf Mountain--
 A. subululata, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

13. Bent G.--Oat-like--
 Deyeuxia avenoides, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

14. Bent G.--Pilose--
 D. pilosa, Rich. (N.Z.)

15. Bent G.--Slender--
 Agrostis scabra, Willd. (A., T., N.Z.)

16. Bent G.--Spiked--
 Deyeuxia quadriseta, R. Br.  (A., T., N.Z.)
 Called also Reed Grass.

17. Bent G.--Toothea--
 D. forsteri, Kunth. (A., T., N.Z.)

18. Bent G.--Young's--
 D. youngii, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

19. Blady G.--
 Ipperata arundinacea, Cyr. (A.)

20. Blue G.--
 Andropogon annulatus, Forst. (A.)
 A. pertusus, Willd. (A.)
 A. sericeus, R. Br. (A.)

21. Brome G.--Seaside.--
 8romus arenarius, Labill. (A., N.Z.)
  Called also Wild Oats.

22. Canary G.--
 Phalaris canariensis. (A.)

23. Cane G.--
 (i.q. Bamboo Grass.  See 3.)

24. Chilian G.--
 (i.q. Rat--tailed Grass.  See 97.)

25. Cockspur G.--
 (i.q. Barnyard Grass.  See 5.)

26. Couch G.--
 Cynodon dactylon, Pers. (A., not endemic.)
  Called also Indian Doub Grass.

27. Couch G.--Native--
 Distichlys maritima, Raffinesque. (A.)

28. Couch G.--Water--
 (i.q. Seaside Millet.  See 50.)

29. Feather G.--
 (Several species of Stipa.  See 101.)

30. Fescue G.--Hard--
 Festuca duriuscula, Linn. (Australasia, not endemic.)

31. Fescue G.--Poa-like--
 F. scoparia, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

32. Fescue G.--Sandhill--
 F. littoralis, R. Br., var. triticoides,
 Benth. (A., T., N.Z.)

33. Fescue G.--Sheeps'--
 F. ovina, Linn. (A., T.)

34. Finger G.--Cocksfoot--
 Panicum sanguinale, Linn. (A., not endemic.)
  Called also Hairy Finger Grass, and Reddish Panic

35. Finger G.--Egyptian--
 Eleusine aegyptica, Pers. (A., not endemic.)

36. Finger G.--Hairy--
 (i.q .Cocksfoot Finger Grass.  See 33.)

37. Foxtail G.--
 (i.q. Knee jointed Foxtazl Grass.  See 42.)

38. Hair G.--Crested--
 Koeleria cristata, Pers. (A., T., N.Z.)

39. Hair G.--Turfy--
 Deschampia caespitosa, Beavo.  (N.Z., not endemic.)

40. Holy G.--
 Hierochloe alpina, Roem. & Schult.  (Australasia, not

41. Indian Doub G.--
 (i.q. Couch Grass.  See 26.)

42. Kangaroo G. (A., T., not endemic)--
 Andropogon refractus, R. Br.
 Anthistiria avenacea, F. v. M. (Called also Oat
 A. ciliata, Linn. (Common K.G.)
 A. frondosa, R. Br. (Broad-leaved K.G.)

43. Knee-jointed Fox-tail G.--
 Alopecurus geniculatus, Linn. (Australasia, not

44. Landsborough G.--
 (i.q. Barcoo Grass.  See 4.)

45. Love G.--Australian--
 Eragrostis brownii, Nees. (A.)

46. Manna G.--
 Glyceria fluitans, R. Br. (A.,T.)

47. Millet--Australian--
 Panicum decompositum, R. Br. (A., not endemic.)
  Called also Umbrella Grass.

48. Millet--Ditch--
 Paspalum scrobitulatum, F. v. M. (A., N.Z., not endemic.)
  The Koda Millet of India.

49. Millet--Equal-glumed--
 Isachne australis, R. Br. (A., N.Z., not endemic.)

50. Millet-Seaside--
 Paspalum distichum, Burmann. (A., N.Z., not endemic.)
  Called also Silt Grass, and Water Couch Grass.

51. Mitchell G.--
 Astrebla elymoides, F. v. M. (A., True Mitchell
 A. pectinata, F. v. M. (A.)
 A. tritzcoides, F. v. M. (A.)

52.  Mouse G.--
 (i.q.) Longhaired Plume Grass.  See 72.)

53.  Mulga G.--
 Danthonia racemosa, R. Br. (A.)
 Neurachnea Mitchelliana, Nees. (A.)

54. New Zealand Wind G.--
 Apera arundinacea, Palisot. (N.Z., not endemic.)

55. Oat G.--
 Anthistiria avenacea, F. v. M. (Called also Kangaroo
  Grass.  See 41.)

56. Oat G.--Alpine--
 Danthonia semi-annularis, R. Br., var. alpina.

57. Oat G.--Buchanan's--
 D. buchanii; Hook. f. (N.Z.)

58. Oat G.--Few-flowered--
 D. pauciflora, R. Br. (A., T., N.Z.)

59. Oat G.--Hard--
 D. pilosa, R. Br., var. stricta. (N.Z.)

60. Oat G.--Naked--
 D. nuda, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

61. Oat G.--New Zealand--
 D. semi-annularis, R. Br. (A., T., N.Z.)

62. Oat G.--Purple-awned--
 D. pilosa, R. Br. (A., T., N.Z.)

63. Oat G.--Racemed--
 D. pilosa, R. Br., var. racemosa. (N.Z.)

64. Oat G.--Shining--
 Trisetum antarcticum, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

65. Oat G.--Sheep--
 Danthonia semi-annularis, R. Br., var. gracilis.(N.Z.)

66. Oat G.--Spiked--
 Trisetum subspicatum, Beauv. (Australasia, not

67. Oat G.--Thompson's Naked--
 Danthonia thomsonii (new species).

68. Oat G.--Wiry-leaved--
 D. raoulii, Steud, var. Australis, Buchanan. (N.Z.)

69. Oat G.--Young's--
  Trisetum youngii, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

70. Panic G.--Reddish--
 (i.q. Cocksfoot Finger-Grass.  See 34.)

71. Panic G.--Slender--
 Oplismenus salarius, var. Roem. and Schult. (A., N.Z.,
  not endemic.)

72. Paper G.--Native--
 Poa caespitosa, Forst. (A., T., N.Z.)
  Called also Wiry Grass, Weeping Polly,
  and Tussock Poa Grass; and, in New Zealand,
  Snow Grass.

73.  Plume G.--Long-haired--
 Dichelachne crinita, Hook. f. (A., T., N.Z.)

74. Plume G.--Short-haired--
 D. sciurea, Hook. f. (A., T., N.Z.)

75. Poa G.--Auckland Island--
 Poa foliosa, Hook. f., var. a. (N.Z.)

76. Poa G.--Brown-flowered--
 P. lindsayi, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

77. Poa G.--Brown Mountain
 P. mackayi (new species).  (N.Z.)

78. Poa G.--Colenso's--
 P. colensoi, Hook. f.(N.Z.) 79.

79. Poa G.--Common Field--
 P. anceps, Forst., var. b, foliosa, Hook. f.

80. Pea G.--Dense-flowered
 P. anceps, Forst., var. d, densiflora,
  Hook. f. (N.Z.)

81. Poa G.--Dwarf--
 P. pigmaea (new species). (N.Z.)

82. Pea G.--Hard short-stemmed--
 P. anceps, Forst., var. c, brevicalmis,
  Hook. f. (N.Z.)

83.  Poa G.--Kirk's--
 P. kirkii (new species). (N.Z.)

84. Poa G.--Large-flowered--
 P. foliosa, Hook. f., var. B. (N.Z.)

85. Poa G.--Little--
 P. exigua, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

86. Poa G.--Minute--
 P, foliosa, Hook. f., var. C. (N.Z.)

87. Poa G.--Minute Creeping--
 P. pusilla, Berggren. (N.Z.)

88. Pea G.--Nodding Plumed--
 P. anceps, Forst., var. A, elata,
  Hook. f. (N.Z.)

89. Poa G.--One-flowered--
 P. unifora (new species). (N.Z.)

90.  Poa G.--Short-glumed--
 P. breviglumus, Hook. f.(N.Z.)

91. Poa G.--Slender--
 P. anceps, Forst., var. E, debilis, Kirk,
  Ms. (N.Z.)

92. Poa G.--Small Tussock--
 P. intemedia (new species). (N.Z.)

93.  Poa G.--Tussock--
 P. caespitosa, Forst. (A., T., N.Z.  See 71.)

94. Poa G.--Weak-stemmed--
 Eragrostis imbebecilla, Benth.  (A., N.Z.)

95. Poa G.--White-flowered--
 Poa sclerophylla, Berggren. (N.Z.)

96. Porcupine G. (q.v.)--
 Triodia (various species).

97. Rat-tailed G.--
 Sporobulus indicus, R. Br. (A., N.Z., not endemic.)
    Called also Chilian Grass.
 Ischaeum laxum, R. Br. (A.)

98. Reed G.--
 Pragmites communis, Trin. (N.Z.  See 16.)

99. Rice G.--
 Leersia hexandria, Swartz. (A.)

100.  Rice G.--Bush--
 Microtaena avenacea, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

101. Rice G.--Knot-jointed--
 M. polynoda, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

102. Rice G.--Meadow--
 M. stipoides, R. Br. (A.,T., N.Z.)
  Called also Weeping Grass.

103. Roly-Poly G.--
 Panicum macractinum, Benth. (A.)

104. Rough-bearded G.--
 Echinopogon ovatus, Palisot. (A., T., N.Z.)

105. Sacred G.--
 Hierochloe redolens, R. Br. (Australasia, not endemic.)
   Called also Scented Grass, and Sweet-scented

106. Scented G.--
 Chrysopogon parviforus, Benth. (A.)  See also 105.

107. Seaside Brome G.--
 (i.q. Brome Grass.  See 21.)

108. Silt G.--
 (i.q. Seaside Millet.  See 50.)

109. Seaside Glumeless G.--
 Gymnostychum gracile, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

110. Snow G. (q.v.)--
 (i.q. Paper Grass.  See 72.) (N.Z.)

111. Spear G. (q.v.)--
 Aciphylla colensoi. (N.Z.)
  Called also Spaniard (q.v.).
 Heteropogon contortus, Roem. and Shult. (N.Z.),
  and all species of Stipa (A., T.).

112. Spider G.--
 Panicum divaricatissimum, R. Br. (A.)

113. Spinifex G. (q.v.)--
 Spinifex hirsutus, Labill. (A., T., N.Z., not endemic.)
  Called also Spiny Rolling Grass.

114. Star G.--Blue--
 Chloris ventricosa, R. Br. (A.)

115. Star G.--Dog's Tooth--
 C. divaricata, R. Br. (A.)

116. Star G.--Lesser--
 C. acicularis, Lindl. (A.)

117. Sugar G.--
 Pollinia fulva, Benth.(A.)

118. Summer G.--
 (i.q. Hairy-Finger Grass.  See 36.)

119. Sweet G.--
 Glyceria stricta, Hook. f. (A., T., N.Z.)

120.  Sweet-scented G.--
 (i.q. Sacred Grass.  See 105.)

121. Traveller's G. (N.O. Aroideae).--
 (i.q. Settlers' Twine, q.v.)

122. Tussock G.--
 (See 93 and 72.)

123. Tussock G.-- Broad-leaved Oat--
 Danthonia flavescens, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

124. Tussock G.--Erect Plumed--
 Arundo fulvida, Buchanan. (N.Z.) Maori name,
  Tot-toi (q.v.).

125. Tussock G.--Narrow-leaved Oat--
 Danthonia raoulii, Steud. (N.Z.)

126. Tussock G.--Plumed--
 Arundo conspicua, A. Cunn. (N.Z.) Maori name,
 Toi-toi (q.v.).

127. Tussock G.--Small-flowered Oat--
 Danthonia cunninghamii, Hook. f. (N.Z.)

128. Petrie's Stipa G.--
 Stipa petriei (new species).  See 101. /?111?/ (N.Z.)

129. Umbrella G.--
 (i.q. Australian Millet.  See 47.)

130. Wallaby G.--
 Danthonia penicileata, F. v. M. (A., N.Z.)

131. Weeping G.--
 (i.q. Meadow Rice Grass.  See 102.)

132.  Weeping Polly G.--
 (i.q. Paper Grass.  See 72.)

133. Wheat G.--Blue--
 Agropyrum scabrum, Beauv. (A., T., N.Z.)

134. Wheat G.--Short-awned--
 Triticum multiflorum, Banks and Sol. (N.Z.)

135. White-topped G.--
 Danthonia longifolia, R. Br. (A.)

136. Windmill G.--
 Chloris truncata, R. Br. (A.)

137. Wire G.--
 Ehrharta juncea, Sprengel; a rush-like grass of hilly
  country. (A., T., N.Z.)
 Cynodon dactylum, Pers.; so called from its knotted,
  creeping, wiry roots, so difficult to eradicate in gardens
  and other cultivated land.  (Not endemic.)  See 26.

138. Wiry G.--.
 (i.q. Paper Grass.  See 72.)

139. Wiry Dichelachne G.--
 Stipa teretefolia, Steud.  (A., T., N.Z.)

140. Woolly-headed G.--
 Andropogon bombycinus, R. Br. (A.)

141. Vandyke G.--
 Panicum flavidum, Retz. (A.)

Grass-bird, n. In New Zealand, Sphenoeacus
//sic. otherwhere Sphenaeacus GJC// punctatus, Gray, the
same as Fern-bird (q.v.); in Australia, Megalurus
(Sphenaeacus) gramineus, Gould.

Grass-leaved Fern, n. Vittaria elongata,
Swartz, N.O. Filices.

1883.  F. M. Bailey, 'Synopsis of Queensland Flora,' p. 693:

"Grass-leaved fern. . . .  Frond varying in length from a few
inches to several feet, and with a breadth of from one to five
lines. . . .  This curious grass-like fern may be frequently
seen fringing the stems of the trees in the scrubs of tropical
Queensland, in which situation the fronds are usually very

Grass-Parrakeet, n. a bird of the genus
Euphema.  The Australian species are--

Blue-winged Parrakeet
 Euphema aurantia, Gould.

Bourke's P.--
 E. bourkii, Gould.

 E. elegans, Gould.

Orange-bellied P.--
 E. chrysogastra, Lath.

Orange-throated P.--
 E. splendida, Gould.

Red-shouldered P.--
 E. pulchella, Shaw.

Warbling Grass-P.--
  Gould's name for Budgerigar (q.v.).

See also Rock-Parrakeet (Euphema petrophila, Gould),
which is sometimes classed as a Grass-Parrakeet.

Grass-tree, n. (2) The name applied to trees
of the genus Xanthorrhoea, N.O. Liliaceae, of which
thirteen species are known in Australia.  See also

(2) In New Zealand Pseudopanax crassifolium, Seemann,
N.O. Araleaceae.  When young, this is the same as
Umbrella-tree, so called from its appearance like the
ribs of an umbrella.  When older, it grows more straight and
is called Lancewood (q.v.).

(3) In Tasmania, besides two species of Xanthorrhoea
the Grass-tree of the mainland, the Richea
dracophylla, R. Br., N.O. Epacrideae, found on Mount
Wellington, near Hobart, is also known by that name, whilst
the Richea pandanifolia, Hook., found in the South-west
forests, is called the Giant Grass-tree.  Both these are
peculiar to the island.

(4) An obsolete name for Cordyline australis, Hook.,
N.O. Liliaceae, now more usually called Cabbage-
 tree (q.v.).

1802.  D. Collins, 'Account of New South Wales,'
 vol. ii. p. 153:

"A grass tree grows here, similar in every respect to that
about Port Jackson."

1830. R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 347:

"Yielding frequently a very weak and sour kind of grass,
interspersed with a species of bulrush called grass-trees,
which are universal signs of poverty.":

1833. C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' Vol II. c. iii. p. 54:

"The grass-tree is not found westward of the mountains."

1839. T. L. Mitchell, 'Three Expeditions,' vol. ii. p. 303:

"We approached a range of barren hills of clay slate, on which
grew the grass-tree (Xanthorhoea) and stunted eucalypti."

1862.  H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 74:

"The shimmering sunlight fell and kissed
 The grass-tree's golden sheaves."

1867.  F. Hochstetter, 'New Zealand,' p. 132:

"Here and there, in moist places, arises isolated the
'grass-tree' or 'cabbage-tree' (Ti of the natives; Cordyline

1874.  Garnet Walch, 'Head over Heels,' p. 80:

"The grass-trees in front, blame my eyes,
 Seemed like plumes on the top of a hearse."

1877.  F. v. Mueller, 'Botanic Teachings,' p. 119:

"How strikingly different the external features of plants may
be, though floral structure may draw them into congruity, is
well demonstrated by our so-called grass-trees, which pertain
truly to the liliaceous order.  These scientifically defined
as Xanthorhoeas from the exudation of yellowish sap, which
indurates into resinous masses, have all the essential notes
of the order, so far as structure of flowers and fruits is
concerned, but their palm-like habit, together with cylindric
spikes on long and simple stalks, is quite peculiar, and
impresses on landscapes, when these plants in masses are
occuring, a singular feature."

1879.  A. R. Wallace, 'Australasia' (ed. 1893), p. 52:

"The grass trees (Xanthorrhoea) are a peculiar feature
to the Australian landscape.  From a rugged stem, varying from
two to ten or twelve feet in height, springs a tuft of drooping
wiry foliage, from the centre of which rises a spike not unlike
a huge bulrush.  When it flowers in winter, this spike becomes
covered with white stars, and a heath covered with grass trees
then has an appearance at once singular and beautiful."

1882.  A. Tolmer, 'Reminiscences,' vol, ii. p. 102:

"The root of the grass-tree is pleasant enough to eat, and
tastes something like the meat of the almond-tree; but being
unaccustomed to the kind of fare, and probably owing to the
empty state of our stomachs, we suffered severely from

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' p. 43:

"Grass-trees are most comical-looking objects.  They have a
black bare stem, from one to eight feet high, surmounted by a
tuft of half rushes and half grass, out of which, again, grows
a long thing exactly like a huge bullrush.  A lot of them
always grow together, and a little way off they are not unlike
the illustrations of Red-Indian chiefs in Fenimore Cooper's

1889. T. Kirk, 'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 59:

"It [Pseudopanax crassifolium, the Horoeka] is
commonly called lance-wood by the settlers in the North Island,
and grass-tree by those in the South.  This species was
discovered during Cook's first voyage, and it need cause no
surprise to learn that the remarkable difference between the
young and mature states led so able a botanist as Dr. Solander
to consider them distinct plants."

1896.  Baldwin Spencer.  'Horne Expedition in Central
Australia,' Narrative, p. 98:

"As soon as the came upon the Plains we found ourselves in a
belt of grass trees belonging to a species not hitherto
described (X. Thorntoni). . . .  The larger specimens
have a stem some five or six feet high, with a crown of long
wiry leaves and a flowering stalk, the top of which is fully
twelve feet above the ground."

[Compare Blackboy and Maori-head.

Grayling, n. The Australian fish of that name
is Prototroctes maroena, Gunth.  It is called also the
Fresh-water Herring, Yarra Herring (in
Melbourne), Cucumber-Fish, and Cucumber-Mullet.
The last two names are given to it from its smell.  It closely
resembles the English Grayling.

1880.  W. Senior, 'Travel and Trout,' p. 93:

"These must be the long-looked-for cucumber mullet, or fresh-
water herring. . . .  'The cucumber mullet,' I explain,
'I have long suspected to be a grayling.'"

1882.  Rev._I. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Fish of New South Wales,'
p. 109:

"Though not a fish of New South Wales, it may be as well
to mention here the Australian grayling, which in character,
habits, and the manner of its capture is almost identical with
the English fish of that name.  In shape there is some
difference between the two fish. . . .  A newly caught fish
smells exactly like a dish of fresh-sliced cucumber.  It is
widely distributed in Victoria, and very abundant in all the
fresh-water streams of Tasmania. . . .  In Melbourne it goes by
the name of the Yarra herring.  There is another species in New

1889.  Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. iv. p. 206:

"The river abounds in delicious grayling or cucumber fish,
rather absurdly designated the 'herring' in this [Deloraine]
and some other parts of the colony [Tasmania]."

Grebe, n. common English bird-name, of the
genus Podiceps.  The species known in Australia are--

Black-throated Grebe--
 Podiceps novae-hollandiae, Gould.

Hoary-headed G.--
 P. nestor, Gould.

Tippet G.--
 P. cristataes, Linn.

But Buller sees no reason for separating P. cristatus
from the well-known P. cristatus of Europe.  Some of
the Grebes are sometimes called Dabchicks (q.v.).

1888. W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 285:

"The Crested Grebe is generally-speaking a rare bird in both

Greenhide, n. See quotation.  Greenhide
is an English tannery term for the hide with the hair on before

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 27:

"Drivers, who walked beside their teams carrying over their
shoulders a long-handled whip with thong of raw salted hide,
called in the colony 'greenhide.'"

Greenie, n. a school-boys' name for Ptilotis
penicillata, Gould, the White-plumed Honey-eater.

1896. 'The Australasian,' Jan. 11, p. 73, col. 1:

"A bird smaller than the Australian minah, and of a greenish
yellowish hue, larger, but similar to the members of the
feathered tribe known to young city 'knights of the catapult'
as greenies."

1897.  A. J. Campbell (in 'The Australasian,'Jan. 23), p. 180,
col. 5:

"Every schoolboy about Melbourne knows what the 'greenie'
is--the white-plumed honey-eater (P. penicillata).  The
upper-surface is yellowish-grey, and the under-surface brownish
in tone.  The white-plumed honey-eater is common in Victoria,
where it appears to be one of the few native birds that is not
driven back by civilisation.  In fact, its numbers have
increased in the parks and gardens in the vicinity of

Green-leek, n. an Australian Parrakeet.  See

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. v. pl. 15:

"Polytelis Barrabandi, Wagl., Barraband's Parrakeet;
Green-leek of the colonists of New South Wales."

1855.  R. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 123:

"We observed m the hollow trees several nests of the little
green paroquet,--here, from its colour, called the leek."

Green Lizard, n. sometimes called the
Spotted Green Lizard, a New Zealand reptile,
Naultinus elegans, Gray.

Green Oyster, n. name given in Queensland to
the sea-weed Ulva lactuca, Linn., N.O. Algae.
From being frequently found attached to oysters, this is
sometimes called "Green Oyster."  (Bailey.)  See Oyster.

Greenstone, n. popular name of Nephrite
(q.v.).  Maori name, Pounamu (q.v.).

1859.  A.S. Thomson, 'Story of New Zealand,' p. 140:

"The greenstone composing these implements of war is called
nephrite by mineralogists, and is found in the Middle Island of
New Zealand, in the Hartz, Corsica, China and Egypt.  The most
valuable kind is clear as glass with a slight green tinge."

1889.  Dr. Hocken, 'Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,'
p. 181:

 "This valued stone--pounamu of the natives--nephrite, is found
on the west coast of the South Island.  Indeed, on Captain
Cook's chart this island is called 'T'Avai Poenammoo'--Te wai
pounamu, the water of the greenstone."

1892.  F. R. Chapman, 'The Working of Greenstone by the Maoris'
(New Zealand Institute), p. 4:

"In the title of this paper the word 'greenstone' occurs, and
this word is used throughout the text.  I am quite conscious
that the term is not geologically or mineralogically correct;
but the stone of which I am writing is known by that name
throughout New Zealand, and, though here as elsewhere the
scientific man employs that word to describe a totally
different class of rock, I should run the risk of being
misunderstood were I to use any other word for what is under
that name an article of commerce and manufacture in New
Zealand.  It is called 'pounamu' or 'poenamu' by the Maoris,
and 'jade,' 'jadeite,' or 'nephrite' by various writers,
while old books refer to the 'green talc' of the Maoris."

Green-tops, n. Tasmanian name for the Orchid,
Pterostylis pedunculata, R. Br.

Green-tree Ant, n. common Queensland Ant.

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 294:

"It was at the lower part of the Lynd that we first saw the
green-tree ant; which seemed to live in small societies in rude
nests between the green leaves of shady trees."

Green Tree-snake, n.  See under Snake.

Grevillea, n. a large genus of trees of
Australia and Tasmania, N.O. Proteaceae, named in honour
of the Right Hon. Charles Francis Greville, Vice-President
of the Royal Society of London.  The name was given by Robert
Brown in 1809.  The 'Century' Dictionary gives Professor
Greville as the origin of the name but "Professor Robert
K. Greville of Edinburgh was born on the 14th Dec., 1794,
he was therefore only just fourteen years old when the genus
Grevillea was established."  ('Private letter from Baron
F. von Mueller.')

1851.  'Quarterly Review,' Dec., p. 40:

"Whether Dryandra, Grevillea, Hakea, or the other
Proteaceae, all may take part in the same glee--

"It was a shrub of orders grey
 Stretched forth to show his leaves."

1888.  Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia, vol. iii. p. 138:

"Graceful grevilleas, which in the spring are gorgeous with
orange-coloured blossoms."

Grey-jumper, n. name given to an Australian
genus of sparrow-like birds, of which the only species is
Struthidea cinerea, Gould; also called
Brachystoma and Brachyporus.

Grey Nurse, n. a New South Wales name for a
species of Shark, Odontaspis americanus, Mitchell,
family Lamnidae, which is not confined to Australasia.

Gridironing, v. a term used in the province of
Canterbury, New Zealand.  A man purchased land in the shape of
a gridiron, knowing that nobody would take the intermediate
strips, which later he could purchase at his leisure.  In other
provinces free-selection (q.v.) was only allowed after survey.

Grinder, n. See Razor-grinder and

Groper, n. a fish.  In Queensland, Oligorus
terrae-reginae, Ramsay; in New Zealand, O. gigas,
"called by the Maoris and colonists 'Hapuku,'"
(Guenther)--a large marine species.  Oligorus is a genus
of the family Percidae, and the Murray-Cod (q.v.)
and Murray Perch (q.v.) belong to it.  There is a fish
called the Grouper or Groper of warm seas quite distinct
from this one.  See Cod, Perch, Blue-Groper and

Ground-berry, i.q. Cranberry (q.v.).:

Ground-bird, n. name given in Australia to any
bird of the genus Cinclosoma.  The species are--

Chestnut-backed Ground-bird--
 Cinclosoma castaneonotum, Gould.

Chestnut-breasted G.-b.--
 C. castaneothorax, Gould.

Cinnamon G.-b.--
 C. cinnamomeum, Gould.

Northern, or Black-vented G.-b.--
 C. marginatum, Sharpe.

Spotted G.-b.--
 C. punctatum, Lath., called by Gould Ground-Dove

Ground-Dove, n. (1) Tasmanian name
for the Spotted Ground-bird (q.v.).

1848. J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iv. pl. 4:

"Cinclosoma punctatum, Vig. and Horsf., Spotted
Ground-thrush.  In Hobart Town it is frequently exposed for
sale in the markets with bronze-wing pigeons and wattle-birds,
where it is known by the name of ground-dove . . . very
delicate eating."

(2) The name is given by Gould to three species of Geopelia.

1848. J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. v. pls. 72, 73, 74:

"Geopelia humeralis, Barred-shouldered Ground-dove"
 (pl. 72);

"G. tranquilla" (pl. 73);

"G. cuneata, Graceful Ground-dove" (pl. 74).

Ground-Lark, n. (1) In New Zealand, a bird also
called by the Maori names, Pihoihoi and Hioi.

1888. W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 63:

"Anthus Novae Zelandiae, Gray, New Zealand Pipit;
Ground-Lark of the Colonists."

(2) In Australia, the Australian Pipit (Anthus
australis) is also called a Ground-lark.

1848. J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iii. pl. 73:

"Anthus Australis, Vig. and Horsf., Australian Pipit.
The Pipits, like many other of the Australian birds, are
exceedingly perplexing."

Ground-Parrakeet, n. See Parrakeet and

Ground-Parrot, n. (1) The bird Psittacus
pulchellus, Shaw.  For the Ground Parrot of New Zealand,
see Kakapo.

1793.  G. Shaw, 'Zoology [and Botany] of New Holland,' p. 10:

"Long-tailed green Parrot, spotted with black and yellow,. . .
the Ground Parrot."

1827.  Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean Society,'
vol. xv. p. 278:

"The settlers call it ground-parrot.  It feeds upon the ground."

Ibid. p. 286:

"What is called the ground-parrot at Sydney inhabits the scrub
in that neighbourhood."

1859.  H. Kingsley, 'Geoffrey Hamlyn,' p. 298:

"The ground-parrot, green, with mottlings of gold and black,
rose like a partridge from the heather, and flew low."

(2) Slang name for a small farmer.  See Cockatoo,
n. (2).

Ground-Thrush, n. name of birds found all over
the world.  The Australian species are--

 Geocincla lunulata, Lath.

Broadbent Ground-Thrush--
 G. cuneata.

Large-billed G.--
 G. macrorhyncha, Gould.

Russet-tailed G.--
 G. heinii, Cab.

Grub, v. to clear (ground) of the roots.  To
grub has long been English for to dig up by the roots.  It is
Australian to apply the word not to the tree but to the land.

1852.  Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 185:

"Employed with others in 'grubbing' a piece of new land which
was heavily timbered."

1868.  Mrs. Meredith, 'Tasmanian Memory of 1834,' p. 10:

"A bit of land all grubbed and clear'd too."

Guana, or Guano, n. i.q. Goanna

Guard-fish, n. Erroneous spelling of
Garfish (q.v.).

Gudgeon, n. The name is given in New South
Wales to the fish Eleotris coxii, Krefft, of the family
of the Gobies.

Guitar Plant, a Tasmanian shrub, Lomatia
tinctoria, R. Br., N.O. Proteaceae.

Gull, n. common English name for a sea-bird.
The Australian species are--

Long-billed Gull--
 Larus longirostris, Masters.

Pacific G.--
 L. pacificus, Lath.

Silver G.--
 L. novae-hollandiae, Steph.

Torres-straits G.--
 L. gouldi, Bp.

Gully, n. a narrow valley.  The word is very
common in Australia, and is frequently used as a place name.
It is not, however, Australian.  Dr.Skeat ('Etymological
Dictionary') says, "a channel worn by water."  Curiously
enough, his first quotation is from 'Capt. Cook's Third
Voyage,' b. iv. c. 4.  Skeat adds, "formerly written
gullet: 'It meeteth afterward with another gullet,'
i.e. small stream.  Holinshed, 'Description of Britain,' c. 11:
F. goulet, 'a gullet . . .  a narrow brook or deep gutter of
water.'  (Cotgrave.)  Thus the word is the same as gullet."
F. goulet is from Latin gula.  Gulch is the word
used in the Pacific States, especially in California.

1773.  'Hawkesworth's Voyages,' vol. iii. p. 532--Captain Cook's
First Voyage, May 30, 1770:

"The deep gullies, which were worn by torrents from the hills."

1802.  D. Collins, 'Account of New South Wales,' vol. ii.
p. 214:

"A man, in crossing a gully between Sydney and Parramatta, was,
in attempting to ford it, carried away by the violence of the
torrent, and drowned."

1862.  H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 17:

"The gums in the gully stand gloomy and stark."

1867.  A.L. Gordon, 'Sea-spray, etc.,' p. 134:

"The gullies are deep and the uplands are steep."

1875.  Wood and Lapham, 'Waiting for the Mail,' p. 16:

"The terrible blasts that rushed down the narrow gully, as if
through a funnel."

Gully-raker, n. a long whip.

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 40:

"The driver appealing occasionally to some bullock or other by
name, following up his admonition by a sweeping cut of his
'gully-raker,' and a report like a musket-shot."

Gum, or Gum-tree, n. the popular name
for any tree of the various species of Eucalyptus.  The
word Gum is also used in its ordinary English sense of
exuded sap of certain trees and shrubs, as
e.g. Wattle-gum (q.v.) in Australia, and
Kauri-gum (q.v.) in New Zealand.  In America, the
gum-tree usually means "the Liquidambar styraciflua,
favourite haunt of the opossum and the racoon, whence the
proverbial possum up a gum-tree."  ('Current
Americanisms,' s.v. Gum)

The names of the various Australian Gum-trees are as follows--

Apple Gum, or Apple-scented Gum--
 Eucalyptus stuartiana, F. v. M.

Bastard G.--
 Eucalyptus gunnii, Hook.

Bastard Blue G.--
 E. leucoxylon, F. v. M. (South Australia).

Bastard White G.--
 E. gunnii, Hook. (South Australia);
 E. radiata (Tasmania).

Black G.--
 E. stellulata, Sieb.

Black-butted G.--
 E. pillularis, Smith (Victoria);
 E. regnans, F. v. M. (New South Wales).
   See Blackbutt.

Blue G. [see also Blue-Gum]
 E. botryoides, Smith (New South Wales);
 E. diversicolor, F. v. M. [Karri];
 E. globulus, Labill.;
 E. goniocalyx, F. v. M.;
 E. leucoxylon, F. v. M. (South Australia) [Ironbark];
 E. saligna, Smith;
 E. tereticornis, Smith;
 E. viminalis, Labill.  (West New South Wales).

Botany Bay G,--
 E. resinifera, Smith.

Brittle G.--
 E. haemastonza, Smith;
 E. micrantha, Smith.

Brown G.--
 E. robusta, Smith.

Cabbage G.--
 E. sieberiana, F. v. M.  (Braidwood, New South Wales).

Cider G.--
 E. gunnii, Hook.  (Tasmania).

Citron-scented G.--
 E. maculata, Hook.

Creek G.--
 E. rostrata, Schlecht (West New South Wales).

Curly White G.--
 E. radiata (Tasmania).

Dark Red G.--
 E. rostrata, Schlecht.

Desert G.--
 E. eudesmoides, F. v. M. (Central Australia);
 E. gracilis, F. v. M.

 Drooping G.--
 E. pauciflora, Sieb.  (Drooping Gum in Tasmania is
 E. risdoni, Hook., N.O. Myrtaceae; the tree is
  peculiar to Tasmania);
 E. viminalis, Labill.  (New South Wales).

Flood, or Flooded G.--
 E. gunnii, Hook.  (Bombala, New South Wales);
 E. microtheca, F. v. M. (Carpentaria and Central
 E. rostrata, Schlecht;
 E. saligna, Smith;
 E. tereticornis, Smith (New South Wales).

Fluted G.-
 E. salubris, F. v. M.

Forest G.--
 E. rostrata, Schlecht (South Australia).

Giant G.--
 E. amygdalina, Labill.

Gimlet G.--
 E. salubris, F. v. M.

Green G.--
 E. stellulata, Sieb. (East Gippsland).

Grey G.--
 E. crebra, F. v. M.;
 E. goniocalyx, F. v. M. (New South Wales, east of
   Dividing range);
 E. punctata, De C. (South Coast of New South Wales);
 E. raveretiana, F.v.M;
 E. resinifera, Smith;
 E. saligna, Smith (New South Wales);
 E. tereticornis, Smith (New South Wales);
 E. viminalis, Labill (Sydney);

Honey-scented G.--
 E. melliodora, Cunn.

Iron G.--
 E. raveretiana, F. v. M.

Lemon-scented, or Lemon G.--
 E. citriodora, Hook. f.

Lead G.--
 E. stellulata, Cunn.

Mallee G.--
 E. dumosa (generally called simply Mallee, q.v.).

Mountain G.--
 E. tereticornis, Smith (South New South Wales).

Mountain White G.--
 E. pauciflora, Sieb. (Blue Mountains).

Nankeen G.--
 E. populifolia, Hook. (Northern Australia).

Olive Green G.--
 E. stellulata, Cunn. (Leichhardt's name).

Pale Red G.--
 E. rostrata, Schlecht.

Peppermint G.--
 E. viminalis, Labill.

Poplar-leaved G.--
 E. polyanthema, Schau.

Red G.--
 E. amygdalina, Labill. (Victoria);
 E. calophylla, R. Br.;
 E. gunnii, Hook. (Bombala);
 E. melliodora, Cunn. (Victoria);
 E. odorata, Behr (South Australia);
 E. punctata, De C.;
 E. resinifera, Smith;
 E. rostrata, Schlecht;
 E. stuartiana, F. v. M. (Tasmania);
 E. tereticornis, Smith (New South Wales).

Ribbon G.--
 E. amygdalina, Labill.  Ribbony G.
 E. viminalis, Labill.

Risdon G.--
 E. amygdalina, Labill.

River G.--
 E. rostrata, Schlecht (New South Wales, Queensland,
  and Central Australia).

River White G.--
 E. radiata.

Rough-barked, or Rough G.--
 E. botryoides, Smith (Illawarra).

Rusty G.--
 E. eximia, Schau.

Scribbly G.--
 E. haemastoma, Smith.

Scribbly Blue G.--
 E. leucoxylon, F. v. M. (South Australia).

Scrub G.--
 E. cosmophylla, F. v. M.

Slaty G.--
 E. saligna, Smith (New South Wales);
 E. tereticornis, Smith (New South Wales and
 E. largiflorens, F. v. M.

Spotted G.--
 E. capitellata, Smith (New England);
 E. goniocalyx, F. v. M.;
 E. haemastonza, Smith;
 E. maculata, Hook.

Sugar G.--
 E. corynocalyx, F. v. M.;
 E. gunnii, Hook.

Swamp G.--
 E. gunnii, Hook.;
 E. microtheca, F. v. M.;
 E. pauciflora, Sieb.;
 E. viminalis, Labill. (Tasmania).

Weeping G.--
 E. pauciflora, Sieb. (Tasmania);
 E. viminalis, Labill. (New South Wales).

White G.--
 E. amygdalina, Labill.;
 E. gomphocephala, De C. (Western Australia);
 E. goniocalyx, F. v. M. ; E. haemastoma, Smith;
 E. hemiphloia, F. v. M. (Sydney);
 E. leucoxylon, F. v. M. (South Australia);
 E. pauciflora, Sieb.;
 E. populifolia, Hook. (Queensland);
 E. radiata (New South Wales);
 E. redunca, Schau. (Western Australia);
 E. robusta, Schlecht. (South Australia);
 E. saligna, Smith (New South Wales);
 E. stellulata, Cunn.;
 E. stuartiana, F. v. M. (Victoria);
 E. viminalis, Labill.

White Swamp G.--
 E. gunnii, Hook. (South Australia).

Yellow G.--
 E. punctata, De C.

York G.--
 E. foecunda, Schau. (Western Australia).

This list has been compiled by collating many authorities.  But
the following note on Eucalyptus amygdalina (from
Maiden's 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 429) will illustrate the
difficulty of assigning the vernacular names with absolute
accuracy to the multitudinous species of Eucalyptus--

"Eucalyptus amygdalina, Labill.,
Syn. E. fissilis, F. v. M.; E. radiata, Sieb.;
E. elata, Dehn.; E. tenuiramis, Miq.;
E. nitida, Hook, f.; E. longifolia, Lindl. ;
E. Lindleyana, DC.; and perhaps E. Risdoni, Hook,
f.; E. dives, Schauer.--This Eucalypt has even more
vernacular names than botanical synonyms.  It is one of the
'Peppermint Trees' (and variously 'Narrow-leaved Peppermint,'
'Brown Peppermint,' 'White Peppermint,' and sometimes
'Dandenong Peppermint'), and 'Mountain Ashes' of the Dandenong
Ranges of Victoria, and also of Tasmania and Southern New South
Wales.  It is also called 'Giant Gum' and 'White Gum.'  In
Victoria it is one of the 'Red Gums.'  It is one of the New
South Wales 'Stringybarks,' and a 'Manna Gum.'  Because it is
allied to, or associated with, 'Stringybark,' it is also known
by the name of 'Messmate.' . . .  A variety of this gum
(E. radiata) is called in New South Wales 'White Gum' or
'River White Gum.' .  .  . A variety of E. amygdalina
growing in the south coast district of New South Wales, goes by
the name of 'Ribbon Gum,' in allusion to the very thin, easily
detachable, smooth bark.  This is also E. radiata probably.  A
further New South Wales variety goes by the name of 'Cut-tail'
in the Braidwood district.  The author has been unable to
ascertain the meaning of this absurd designation.  These
varieties are, several of them, quite different in leaves,
bark, and timber, and there is no species better than the
present one to illustrate the danger in attempting to fit
botanical names on Eucalypts when only the vernacular names are

Various other trees not of the genus Eucalyptus are also
sometimes popularly called Gums, such as, for instance--

Broad-leaved Water Gum--
 Tristania suavolens, Smith.

Orange G.--
 Angophora lanceolata, Cave.

Water G.--
 Callistemon lanceolatus, DeC.
 Tristania laurina, R. Br.
 T. neriifolia, R. Br.

And others.

In addition to this, poets and descriptive writers sometimes
apply epithets, chiefly denoting colour or other outward
appearance, which are not names of distinct species, such as
Cinnamon, Morrell, Salmon, Cable, Silver,
etc. [See quotation under Silver Gum.]

1642. Abel Tasman, 'Journal of the Voyage to the Unknown
Southland' (Translation by J. B. Walker in 'Abel J. Tasman: His
Life, etc.'  1896)

[Under date Dec. 2, 1642, after describing the trees at Fredrik
Hendrik's Bay (now Blackman's Bay, Forestier's Peninsula,
Tasmania) 2 to 21/2 fathoms thick, 60 to 65 feet to the first
branch, and with steps 5 feet apart cut in them, Tasman says
that they found] "a little gum, fine in appearance, which drops
out of the trees, and has a resemblance to gum lac (gomma

1770.  'Captain Cook's Journal' (ed.  Wharton, 1893), p. 245:

"May 1st.--We found two sorts of gum, one sort of which is like
gum dragon, and is the same, I suppose, Tasman took for gum
lac; it is extracted from the largest tree in the woods.

"May 6th.--The biggest trees are as large or larger than our
oaks in England, and grow a good deal like them, and yield a
reddish gum; the wood itself is heavy, hard, and black like
Lignum vitae."

1788.  Governor Phillip (Despatch, May 15) in 'Historical
Records of New South Wales', vol. i. pt. ii. p. 128:

"What seeds could be collected are sent to Sir Joseph Banks, as
likewise the red gum taken from the large gum-tree by tapping,
and the yellow gum which is found on the dwarf palm-tree."

1789.  Captain Watkin Tench, 'Narrative of the Expedition to
Botany Bay,' p. 119:

"The species of trees are few, and . . . the wood universally
of so bad a grain, as almost to preclude the possibility of
using it. . . .  These trees yield a profusion of thick red gum
(not unlike the Sanguis draconis)."

1790.  J. White, 'Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 231:

"The red gum-tree, Eucalyptus resinifera.  This is a
very large and lofty tree, much exceeding the English oak in

1793.  Governor Hunter, 'Voyage,' p. 69:

"I have likewise seen trees bearing three different kinds of
leaves, and frequently have found others, bearing the leaf of
the gum-tree, with the gum exuding from it, and covered with
bark of a very different kind."

1820.  W. C. Wentworth, 'Description of New South Wales,' p. 66:

"Full-sized gums and iron barks, alongside of which the
loftiest trees in this country would appear as pigmies, with
the beefwood tree, or, as it is generally termed, the forest
oak, which is of much humbler growth, are the usual timber."

1827. P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i.
p. 200:

"The gum-trees are so designated as a body from producing a
gummy resinous matter, while the peculiarities of the bark
usually fix the particular names of the species--thus the blue,
spotted, black-butted, and woolly gums are so nominated from
the corresponding appearance of their respective barks; the red
and white gums, from their wood; and the flooded gums from
growing in flooded land."

1846.  J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,'
vol. II. c. iii. p. 108:

"The silvery stems of the never-failing gum-trees."

1857.  H. Parkes, 'Murmurs of Stream,' p. 56:

"Where now the hermit gum-tree stands on the plain's heart."

1864.  J. S. Moore, 'Spring Life Lyrics,' p. 114:

"Amid grand old gums, dark cedars and pines."

1873.  A.Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,' c. xiii. p. 209:

"The eternal gum-tree has become to me an Australian crest,
giving evidence of Australian ugliness.  The gum-tree is
ubiquitous, and is not the loveliest, though neither is it by
any means the ugliest, of trees."

1877. F. v. Muller, 'Botanic Teachings,' p. 7:

"The vernacular name of gum-trees for the eucalypts is as
unaptly given as that of most others of our native plants,
on which popular appellations have been bestowed.  Indeed our
wattles might far more appropriately be called gum-trees than
the eucalypts, because the former exude a real gum (in the
chemical meaning of the word); whereas the main exudation from
the stems and branches of all eucalypts hardens to a kino-like
substance, contains a large proportion of a particular tannin
(kino-tannic acid), and is to a great extent or entirely
soluble in alcohol, thus very different from genuine gum."

1884.  R. L. A. Davies, 'Poems and Literary Remains,' p. 176:

"Golden, 'mid a sunlit forest,
  Stood the grand Titanic forms
  Of the conquerors of storms;
 Stood the gums, as if inspired,
 Every branch and leaflet fired
  With the glory of the sun,
 In golden robes attired,
  A grand priesthood of the sun."

1889.  P. Beveridge, 'Aborigines of Victoria and Riverina,'
p. 61:

"Nearly all the eucalyptus species exude gum, which the natives
utilise in the fabrication of their various weapons as
Europeans do glue.  The myall and mimosa also exude gum; these
the natives prefer before all other kinds when obtainable, they
being less brittle and more adhesive than any of the others."

i891.  'Guide to Zoological Gardens, Melbourne':

"This is an exact representation of the camps which were
scattered over the country not more than fifty years ago, and
inhabited by the original lords of the soil.  The beautiful
she-oak and red-gum forest that used to clothe the slopes of
Royal Park was a very favourite camping-ground of theirs, as
the gum-tree was their most regular source of food supply.  The
hollows of this tree contained the sleek and sleepy opossum,
waiting to be dragged forth to the light of day and despatched
by a blow on the head.  It was to the honey-laden blossoms of
this tree that the noisy cockatoos and parrots used to flock.
Let the kangaroo be wary and waterfowl shy, but whilst he had
his beloved gum-tree, little cared the light-hearted black."

1892. 'The Times,' [Reprint] 'Letters from Queensland,' p. 2:

"The immense extent of gum-trees stretches indefinitely,
blotting out the conception of anything but its own
lightly-timbered pasture.  It has not even the gloom and
impressiveness which we associate in England with the name
of forest land, for the trees are thinly scattered, their long
leaves hang vertically from the branches, and sunlight filters
through with sufficient force to promote the growth of the
tussocked grass beneath.  The whole would be indescribably
commonplace, but that the vastness becomes at last by its own
force impressive."

The following quotations illustrate special uses of the word in

Apple Gum--

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 283:

"On the small flats the apple-gum grew."

Ibid.  c. viii. p. 264:

"Another Eucalyptus with a scaly butt . . . but with smooth
upper trunk and cordate ovate leaves, which was also new to me;
we called it the Apple-gum."

Blue Gum--

1802.  D.Collins, 'Account of New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 235:

"The blue gum, she-oak, and cherry-tree of Port Jackson were
common here."

1832.  J. Bischoff, 'Van Diemen's Land,' p. 22:

"The Blue Gum is found in greater abundance; it is a
loose-grained heavy wood."

1851.  James Mitchell, 'Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van
Diemen's Land,' p. 125:

"The name blue gum appears to have been derived from the bluish
gray colour of the whole plant in the earliest stages of its
growth, which is occasioned by a covering of dust or bloom
similar to that upon the sloe or damson."

1884.  R. L. A. Davies, 'Poems and Literary Remains,' p. 199:

"I love to see the blue gums stand Majestically tall;
 The giants of our southern woods,
  The loftiest of all."

Black-butted Gum--

1833.  C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' vol. II. c. viii. p. 236:

"One species . . . resembling strongly the black-butted gum."

Cable Gum--

1846.  J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. II. c. iv.
p. 132:

"Cable-gum . . . like several stems twisted together, abundant
in interior."

Cider Gum (or Cider Tree)--

1830.  Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 119:

"That species of eucalyptus called the cider tree, from
its exuding a quantity of saccharine liquid resembling
molasses.  Streaks of it were to be seen dripping down the bark
in various parts, which we tasted, and found very palatable.
The natives have a method at the proper season of grinding
holes in the tree, from which the sweet juice flows
plentifully, and is collected in a hole at the root.  We saw
some of these covered up with a flat stone, doubtless to
prevent the wild animals from coming to drink it.  When allowed
to remain some time, and to ferment, it settles into a coarse
sort of wine or cider, rather intoxicating."

Cinnamon Gum--

1893.  'Sydney Morning Herald,' Aug. 19, p. 7, col. 1:

"A forest only fit for urban gnomes these twisted trunks.  Here
are no straight and lofty trees, but sprawling cinnamon gums,
their skin an unpleasing livid red, pock-marked; saplings in
white and chilly grey, bleeding gum in ruddy stains, and
fire-black boles and stumps to throw the greenery into bright

Drooping Gum--

1846.  J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. II. c. xii.
p. 387:

"The trees, which grew only in the valleys, were small kinds
of banksia, wattles and drooping gums."

Flooded Gum--

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 7:

"Large flooded gum-trees (but no casuarinas) at the low banks
of the lagoons."

Lemon-scented Gum--

1860.  G. Bennett, 'Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 265:

"Among the Eucalypti or gum-trees growing in New South
Wales, a species named the lemon-scented gum-tree,
Eucalyptus citriodora, is peculiar to the Wide Bay
district, in the northern part of the colony."

Mountain Gum--

1833.  C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' vol. I. c. iii, p. 118:

"The cypresses became mixed with casuarina, box and

Red Gum [see also Red-gum]--

1802. G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,'
c. xi. p. 461:

"The red gum-tree.  This is a very large and lofty tree,
much exceeding the English oak in size."

1846.  G. H. Haydon, 'Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 33:

"Red gum, a wood which has of late years been exported to
England in great quantities; it has all the properties of

1868.  W. Carleton, 'Australian Nights,' p. 14:

"While she, the younger, went to fill
 Her red-gum pitcher at the rill."

1870.  J. O. Tucker, 'The Mute,' etc., p. 85:

"Then the dark savage 'neath the red gum's shade
 Told o'er his deeds."

1890. 'The Argus,' June 14, p. 4, col. I

"Those of the leaden hue are red gums."

Rough Gum--

1833.  C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' vol. I. c. iii. p. 118:

"The rough-gum abounded near the creek."

Rusty Gum--

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 48:

"The range was openly timbered with white gum, spotted gum,
Iron-bark, rusty gum and the cypress pine."

Salmon Gum--

1893.  'The Australasian,' Aug. 3, p. 252, col. 4:

"The chief descriptions are salmon, morrel and white gums, and
gimlet-wood.  The bark of the salmon gum approaches in colour
to a rich golden brown, but the satin-like sheen on it has the
effect of making it several shades lighter, and in the full
glare of the sun it is sufficiently near a rich salmon tint to
justify its name."

Silver Gum--

1888.  D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 113:

"When so many of our Australian trees were named 'gums,' a
distinguishing prefix for each variety was clearly necessary,
and so the words red, blue, yellow, white and scarlet, as
marking some particular trait in the tree, have come into
everyday use.  Had the pioneer bush botanist seen at least one
of those trees at a certain stage in its growth, the term
'silver gum' would have found expression."

Spotted Gum--

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 11:

"Ironbark ridges here and there with spotted gum . . .
diversified the sameness."

Swamp Gum--

1853.  'Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van
Diemen's Land,' vol. ii, p. 132 [James Mitchell, On the
Strength of Timber, etc., read Nov.12, 1851]:

"The Swamp Gum grows to the largest size of any of this family
in Van Diemen's Land.  Its growth is nearly twice as rapid as
that of the Blue Gum: the annular layers are sometimes very
large; but the bark, and the whole tree indeed, is so like the
Blue Gum, as not to be easily distinguished from it in outward
appearance.  It grows best in moist places, which may probably
have given rise to its name.  Some extraordinary dimensions
have been recorded of trees of this species.  I lately measured
an apparently sound one, and found it 21 feet in circumference
at 8 feet from the ground and 87 feet to the first branches.
Another was 18 1/2 feet in circumference at 10 feet from the
ground, and 213 feet to the highest branch or extreme top.
A third reached the height of 251 feet to the highest branch:
but I am told that these are pigmies compared to the giants of
even the Blue Gum species found in the southern districts."

1880.  Garnet Watch, 'Victoria in 1880,' p. 100:

"Groups of native trees, including the black wattle, silver
box, messmate, stringy bark, and the picturesque but less
useful swamp gum."

Water Gum--

1847.  L. Leichhhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 387:

"Long hollows surrounded with drooping tea-trees and the white

Weeping Gum--

1852.  Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 169:

"A kind of Eucalyptus, with long drooping leaves, called
the 'Weeping Gum,' is the most elegant of the family."

White Gum--

1827.  Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean
Society,' vol. xv. p, 278:

"The natives tell me that it [the ground-parrot] chiefly
breeds in a stump of a small White Gum-tree."

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 48:

"The range was openly timbered with white gum."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 471:

"E. leucoxylon, F. v. M.  The 'blue or white gum' of South
Australia and Victoria is a gum-tree with smooth bark and
light-coloured wood (hence the specific name).  The flowers and
fruit of E. leucoxylon are very similar to those of
E. sideroxylon, and in this way two trees have been
placed under one name which are really quite distinct.  Baron
Mueller points out that there are two well-marked varieties of
E. leucoxylon in Victoria.  That known as 'white-gum'
has the greater portion of the stem pale and smooth through the
outer layers of the bark falling off.  The variety known
chiefly as the 'Victorian Ironbark,' retains the whole bark on
the stem, thus becoming deeply fissured and furrowed, and very
hard and dark coloured."

Yellow Gum--

1848.  T. L. Mitchell, 'Tropical Australia,' p. 107:

"We this day passed a small group of trees of the yellow gum,
a species of eucalyptus growing only on the poor sandy soil
near Botany Bay, and other parts of the sea-coast near Sydney."

York Gum--

1846.  J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. II. c. iv.
p. 132:

"York gum . . . abundant in York on good soil."

Gum- (In Composition).  See Gum.

1862.  H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 134:

 "I said to myself in the gum-shadowed glen."

1868.  W. L. Carleton, 'Australian Nights,' p. 1:

"To see the gum-log flaming bright
 Its welcome beacon through the night."

1890.  'The Argus,' August 2, p. 4, col. 3:

"Make a bit of a shelter also.  You can always do it with
easily-got gum-boughs."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. xvii. p. 201:

"The edge of the long, black, gum-shrouded lagoon."

Gummy, n. name given to a shark of Victorian
and Tasmanian waters, Mustelus antarcticus, Gunth., and
called Hound (q.v.) in New South Wales, Victoria, and
New Zealand.  The word Gummy is said to come from the
small numerous teeth, arranged like a pavement, so different
from the sharp erect teeth of most other sharks.  The word
Hound is the Old World name for all the species of the
genus Mustelus.  This fish, says Hutton, is much eaten
by the Maoris.

Gum-sucker, n. slang for Victorian-born, not
now much used; but it is not always limited to Victorians.

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,'
vol. i. p. 201:

"The acacias are the common wattles of this country; from their
trunks and branches clear transparent beads of the purest
Arabian gum are seen suspended in the dry spring weather, which
our young currency bantlings eagerly search after and regale
themselves with."

[The practice of 'gum-sucking' is here noticed, though the word does
not occur.]

1855.  W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 24:

"If he had not been too 'cute to be bitten twice by the
over-'cute 'gumsuckers,' as the native Victorians are called."

1890.  'Quiz '(Adelaide), Dec. 26:

"Quiz will take good care that the innocent Australians are not
fooled without a warning.  Really L. and his accomplices must
look upon gumsuckers as being pretty soft."

Gunyah, n. aboriginal name for a black-fellow's
hut, roughly constructed of boughs and bark; applied also to
other forms of shelter.  The spelling varies greatly: in
Col. Mundy's book (1855) there are no fewer than four forms.
See Humpy and Gibber.  What Leichhardt saw (see
quotation 1847) was very remarkable.

1798.  D. Collins, 'Account of English Colony in New South
Wales,' in an aboriginal vocabulary of Port Jackson, p. 610:

"Go-nie--a hut."

1830.  R.Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 70:

"One of their gunyers (bark huts)."

Ibid. p. 171:

"A native encampment, consisting of eight or ten 'gunyers.'
This is the native term for small huts, which are supported
by three forked sticks (about three feet long) brought together
at the top in a triangular form: the two sides towards the wind
are covered by long sheets of bark, the third is always left
open to the wind."

1833.  C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' vol. I. c. ii. p. 78:

"We observed a fresh-made gunneah (or native hut)."

1839.  T. L. Mitchell, 'Three Expeditions into the Interior
of Eastern Australia,' c. ii. p. 35:

"Three huts, or gunyahs, consisted of a few green boughs, which
had just been put up for shelter from the rain then falling."

1845.  J. O. Balfour, 'Sketch of New South Wales,' p. 10:

"Their only habitation . . . is formed by two sheets of bark
stripped from the nearest tree, at the first appearance of a
storm, and joined together at an angle of 45 degrees.  This,
which they call a gunnya, is cut up for firewood when the
storm has passed."

1846.  C. P. Hodgson, 'Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 238:

"Behind appears a large piece of wood hooded like a 'gunnya'
or 'umpee.'"

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 290:

"We saw a very interesting camping place of the natives,
containing several two-storied gunyas."

1852.  'Settlers and Convicts; or, Recollections of Sixteen
Years' Labour in the Australian Backwoods,' p. 211:

"I coincided in his opinion that it would be best for us to
camp for the night in one of the ghibber-gunyahs.  These are
the hollows under overhanging rocks."

1852.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes,' ed. 1855, p. 164:

"A sloping sheet of bark turned from the wind--in bush lingo,
a break-weather--or in guneeahs of boughs thatched with grass."
[p. 200]: "Guneah." [p. 558]: "Gunneah." [p. 606]: "Gunyah."

1860.  G.Bennett, 'Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 114

"The name given by the natives to the burrow or habitation of
any animals is 'guniar,' and the same word is applied to our

1880.  P. J. Holdsworth, 'Station, Hunting':

                 "hunger clung
Beneath the bough-piled gunyah."

1885.  R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 19:

"The sleepy blacks came out of their gunyahs."  [p. 52]:
"A gunya of branches."

1890.  Lyth, 'Golden South,' c. ii. p. 16:

"Where this beautiful building now stands, there were only the
gunyahs or homes of the poor savages."

1890.  A. J. Vogan, 'Black Police,' p. 98:

"One of the gunyahs on the hill. . . .  The hut, which is
exactly like all the others in the group,--and for the matter of
that all within two or three hundred miles,--is built of sticks,
which have been stuck into the ground at the radius of a common
centre, and then bent over so as to form an egg-shaped cage,
which is substantially thatched on top and sides with herbage
and mud."

Gunyang, n. the aboriginal word for the
Kangaroo Apple (q.v.), though the name is more
strictly applied not to Solanum aviculare, but to
S. vescum.

1877. F. von Muller, 'Botanic Teachings,' p. 106:

"The similarity of both [S. vescum and S.
aviculare] to each other forbids to recommend
the fruit of the Gunyang as edible."

1878.  W. R. Guilfoyle, 'Australian Botany,' p. 73:

"Kangaroo Apple, Solanum aviculare. . . .  The Gunyang
(Solanum vescum) is another variety found in Victoria."

1888.  D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 222:

"A couple of tiny streams trickle across the plains to the sea,
a dwarfed ti-tree, clinging low about the ground, like the
gunyang or kangaroo apple, borders the banks."

Gurnard, n. i.q. Gurnet (q.v.).

Gurnet, n. The species of Trigla found
in British waters, called Gurnards are of the family of
Cottidae.  The word Gurnet is an obsolete or
provincial form of Gurnard, revived in Australia, and applied
to the fish Centropogon scorpoenoides, Guich., family
Scorpoenidae.  The original word Gurnard is
retained in New Zealand, and applied to the new species
Trigla kumu (kumu being the Maori name), family
Cottidae.  The Flying Gurnet is Trigla
polyommata, Richards., found on all the Australian coasts
from New South Wales to Western Australia, family
Cottidae.  It is a distinct species, not included in the
British species.  They have large pectoral fins, but are not
known to possess the power of supporting themselves in the air
like the "flying fish" which belong to other genera.  Sir
Fredk. McCoy says that Sebastes Percoides, Richards., is
called Gurnet, or Garnet-perch, by the fishermen and dealers,
as well as the more common Neosebastes scorpoenoides,
Guich., and Scorpoena panda, Richards.

Gutter, n. in Australian goldmining, "the lower
and auriferous part of the channel of an old river of the
Tertiary period " ('Century').  "The lowest portion of a lead.
A gutter is filled with auriferous drift or washdirt,
which rests on the palaeozoic bed-rock."  (Brough
Smyth, 'Glossary of Mining Terms.')

1864.  J. Rogers, 'New Rush,' p. 55:

"Duffers are so common And golden gutters rare."

1871.  J. J. Simpson, 'Recitations,' p. 23:

"Privations and hardships you all have to suffer
 Ere you can expect to get on to the gutter."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. viii. p. 81:

"If we happened to drop right down on the 'gutter' or main
course of the lead, we were all right."

1890.  'Goldfields of Victoria,' p.23:

"The Company . . . are putting in a drive to strike the old
Shakspeare gutter."

1891. 'The Australasian,' Nov. 21, p. 1015:

"Evidently both claims had been driving for a 'gutter.'  One
of them had got to the end of its tether before reaching it."

Gutter-flags, n. Flags fixed on the surface to
denote where the course of a gutter or lead underground has
been discovered."  (Brough Smyth, 'Glossary of Mining Terms.')

Gweeon, n. a stone tomahawk of the aborigines.
Gweh-un, in Mukthang language, Gippsland.  Apparently a
remnant of a term occurring along the east side of Australia;
Burgoin, New South Wales; bulgoon and
balgon, Burdekin River, Queensland; related to
balgoungo, to chop.

Gymnobelideus, n. the scientific name of the
genus confined to Australia of Squirrel Phalangers, or
Squirrel Opossums, as they have been called.  See
Opossum.  The name was given by Sir Frederick McCoy in
1867.  Only two specimens have been found, and they are in the
Melbourne Museum of Natural History.  There is only one
species, G. leadbeateri, M'Coy.  In general form they
resemble the so-called Australian Flying Squirrel
(q.v.), save for the absence of the parachute.  They have large
naked ears.  (Grk. gymnos, naked, and Latin,
belideus, the Flying-Phalanger or Squirrel.)

Gymnorrhina, n. the scientific name of the
Australian genus of Piping Crow-Shrikes, called locally
by the vernacular name of Magpies (q.v.).  They have the
nostrils and beak unfeathered.  (Grk. gymnos, naked, and
rhis, nose.)  For the species see under Magpie.


Haddock, n. The New Zealand Haddock is
Gadus australis, Hutton, Pseudophycis barbatus,
Gunth., and Merlucius gayi, Guich., or australis,
Hutton, all belonging to the family Gadidae or
Cod-fishes.  The European species of Merlucius is known
as the "Hake."

Haeremai, interj.  Maori term of welcome,
lit. come hither; haere is the verb.  It has been
colloquially adopted.

1769.  J. Hawkesworth, 'Voyages,' vol. iii. p. 229 (ed. 1785):

"When they came near enough to be heard, they waved their
hands, and called out 'Horomai.'  These ceremonies we were
told were certain signs of their friendly disposition."

1832. 'Henry Williams' Journal,' in H. Carleton's 'Life of
Henry Williams,' p. 112:

"After breakfast we went to them all; they were very glad to
see us, and gave us the usual welcome, 'Haeremai!  Haeremai!'"

1845.  E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' p. 249:

"As I ascended the steep hill with my train, scarcely any
greeting was addressed to me, no shouts of haeremai, so
universal a welcome to the stranger, were to be heard."

1863.  F. E. Maning (The Pakeha-Maori ), 'Old New
Zealand,' p. 14:

"The boat nears the shore, and now arises from a hundred voices
the call of welcome, 'Haere mai! haere mai!  hoe mai!'  Mats,
hands, and certain ragged petticoats all waving in the air in
sign of welcome.  Then a pause.  Then, as the boat came nearer,
another burst of haere mai!  But unaccustomed as I was then to
the Maori salute, I disliked the sound.  There was a wailing,
melancholy cadence that did not strike me as being the
appropriate note of welcome."

1867.  F. Hochstetter, 'New Zealand,' (English edition) p. 438:

"Rev. Mr. Chapman received me at his garden gate with a hearty
welcome, the natives shouted their friendly 'haeremai,' and ere
long we were all in comfortable shelter beneath the missionary's

1883.  F. S. Renwick, 'Betrayed,' p. 34:

"Haire mai ho! 'tis the welcome song
 Rings far on the summer air."

Hair-trigger, n. a Tasmanian name for any plant
of genus Stylidium.  Called also Trigger-plant,
and Jack in a Box (q.v.).

1852.  Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 71:

"The Stylidium, or as we named it, the 'Hair-trigger,'
is common all over the colony."

Haka, n. Maori word for a dance.

1845.  E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' p. 198:

"A haka was now performed by about one hundred and fifty men
and women.  They seated themselves in ranks in one of the
courtyards of the pa, stripped to the waist.  An old
chieftainess, who moved along the ranks with regular steps,
brandishing an ornamental spear in time to her movements, now
recited the first verse of a song in a monotonous, dirge-like
measure.  This was joined in by the others, who also kept time
by quivering their hands and arms, nodding their heads and
bending their bodies in accordance with each emphasis and

1852.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes,' c. xvi. p. 409 (3rd ed.

"I witnessed a national spectacle which was new to me--a sort
of incantation performed by women alone--the haka, I think it
is called."

1872.  A.Domett, 'Ranolf,' XV. c. vi. p. 242:

"The haka-dances, where she shone supreme."

1873.  'Appendix to Journal of House of Representatives,' G. I,
B., p. 8:

"Thursday was passed by them [the natives] in feasting and

1883.  F. S. Renwick, 'Betrayed,' p. 34:

"A rushing throng in the furious haka share."

1896.  'Otago Witness,' Jan. 23, p. 50, col. 5:

"He also received a visit from three or four hostile natives,
who, with blood-curdling yells, duly performed the indispensable

Hakea, n. the scientific name given, in honour
of Baron Hake of Hanover, to "a large Australian genus of
plants belonging to the follicular section of the
Proteaceae, tribe Grevilleae, and distinguished
from Grevillea by its axillary inflorescence and samaroid
seeds.  The species, nearly 100 in number [Maiden's index to
'Useful Native Plants' gives sixteen], are all evergreen
shrubs, or small trees, with alternate coriaceous, variously
lobed, often spiny leaves.  They are ornamental in cultivation,
and several have acquired special names--H. ulicina,
Native Furze; H. laurina, Cushion-flower;
H. acicularis (Lissosperma), Native Pear;
H. flexilis, Twine-bush."  ('Century.')

1877.  F. v. Muller, 'Botanic Teachings,' p. 50:

"Proteaceae are more extensively still represented in
Victoria by the well known genera Grevillea and Hakea, the
former dedicated to the Right Hon. C. F. Greville, of
Paddington, the latter genus named in honour of Baron Hake, of
Hanover, both having been alike patrons of horticulture at the
end of the last century."

1897.  'The Australasian,' Jan. 30, p. 226, col. 3:

"Recently, according to 'Nature,' Mr. G. M. Thomson, an eminent
authority on New Zealand botany, has shown that one of the
genera, namely Hakea, though absent at present from the islands
[of New Zealand], formerly existed there.  Plant remains were
found at St. Bathans, in a bed of clay, which have been
identified by him as Hakea.  The question of the identification
of fossil plants is always a difficult one, but as Mr. Thomson
announces that he has obtained fruit capsules and leaves there
can be but little doubt as to the correctness of his
determinations.  Hitherto the genus has been regarded as
Australian only, and about 100 species are known, of which no
less than 65 are West Australian.  It would seem then that the
Hakeas had obtained a footing in Eastern Australia before the
connection with New Zealand had disappeared, and that probably
the genus is a far older one than had been anticipated.  Why,
after finding its way to New Zealand, it should have died out
there is a question to which no answer can as yet be supplied."

Hand-fish, n. a Tasmanian fish,
Brachionichthys hirsutus, Lacep., family
Pediculati.  The name is used in the northern hemisphere
for a different fish, which is also called there the
Frog-fish and Toad-fish.  The name arises from a
fancied resemblance of the profile of the fish to a human hand.
It is also called Frog-fish and Tortoise-shell
fish.  Mrs. Meredith calls it Tortoise-shell Fish
from its colour, when figuring it in 'Tasmanian Friends and
Foes' under its former scientific name of Cheironectes
Politus.  The surface of its skin is hirsute with minute
spines, and the lobe at the end of the detached filament of the
dorsal fin--called the fintacle--hangs loose.  The scientific
names of the genus are derived from Grk. brachiown,
"the arm," and cheir, "the hand."  The armlike
pectoral fins are used for holding on to stones or seaweed.

1850. 'Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van
Diemen's Land,' Jan. 9, vol. i. p. 268:

"A little spotted fish belonging to the genus Chironectes
. . .  Mr. Champ writes thus respecting the frog fish:--
'It was found in the sea at Port Arthur by a person
who was with me, and when caught had all the appearance of
having four legs, from the position and shape of the fins; the
two longest of which, from the sort of elbow in them, and the
division into (rays) what resemble fingers, seem to form a
connecting link between fins and legs or arms.'"

1880.  Mrs.'Meredith, 'Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 249:

"It has fins like feet; one small pair where pectoral fins
usually are, and a larger pair, with absolute elbows to them,
and apparently shoulder-blades too, only those do not belong to
the fore pair of feet!  A very antipodean arrangement truly!
The markings on the body and on the delicate pellucid fins
are like tortoise-shell."

Hand, Old, n. one who has been a convict.

1861.  T. McCombie, 'Australian Sketches,' p. 141:

"The men who have been convicts are termed 'old hands';
they are mostly rude, rough men, with no moral principle or
religious feeling, and who have little sympathy for humanity."

1865.  J. O. Tucker, 'Australian Story,' c. i. p. 85:

"Reformed convicts, or, in the language of their proverbial
cant, 'old hands.'"

1865.  F. H. Nixon, 'Peter Perfume,' p. 102:

"'Boshman' in the old-hand vernacular signifies a fiddler."
["Bosh in gypsy means music and also violin." -Barrere and

1885.  J. Rae, 'Chirps by an Australian Sparrow,' p. 99:

"The old hands were quite tidy too
 With hats of cabbage-tree."

Hang up, v. to tie up a horse.

1860.  W. Kelly, 'Life in Victoria,' p. 49 [Footnote]:

"In Melbourne there are posts sunk in the ground almost
opposite every door. . . .  Fastening your horse to one
of these posts is called 'hanging him up.'"

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' p. 32:

"We got off, hung our horses up to a tree."

1890. E. W. Hornung, 'Bride from the Bush,' p. 296:

"The mail-boy is waiting impatiently in the verandah,
with his horse 'hung up' to one of the posts."

Hapalote, n. Anglicized form of Hapalotis
(Grk. hapalos, soft, and 'ous, 'owtis) ear),
a peculiar Australian genus of rodents of the mouse family.
They are called Jumping Mice, and have soft ears,
and enlarged hind limbs like the jerboa, but are not
marsupial like the kangaroo.  There are many species.

Hapu, n. Maori word for sub-tribe; sometimes
even, family.

1857.  C. Hursthouse, 'New Zealand, the Britain of the South,'
vol. i. p. 162:

"The 70,000 semi-civilised natives now in New Zealand are
divided into some dozen chief tribes, and into numerous
sub-tribes and 'harpu.'"

1873.  'Appendix to Journals of House of Representatives,'
vol. iii. G. 7, p. 87:

"Were not all your hapu present when the money was paid?  My
hapu, through whom the land Nvas claimed, were present: we
filled the room."

1882.  T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 171:

"An important structure that engaged the united labours of the

1887.  J. White, 'Ancient History of the Maori,' vol. i. p. 290:

"Each of which is subdivided again into Hapu, or smaller

1891.  Rev. J. Stacks, 'Report of Australasian Association
for the Advancement of Science,' vol. iii. sect. G. p. 378:

"On arriving in New Zealand, or Ao-tea-roa, the crews of the
colonizing fleet dispersed themselves over the length and
breadth of these islands, and formed independent tribes or
nations, each of which was divided into hapus and the hapus
into families."

Hapuku, n. Maori name for a fish, Oligorus
gigas, Gunth., called later Polyprion prognathus
(see quotation, 1895), pronounced hapuka, frequently
corrupted into habuka, the Groper (q.v.).  It is
variously called a Cod, a Perch and a
Sea-Perch.  See quotations.

1845 (about).  'New Plymouth's National Song,' Hursthouse's
'New Zealand,' p 217:

"Lowing herds on every side,
 Hapuka in every tide."

1855.  Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui, p. 411:

"Hapuku, or whapuku, commonly called the cod, but a much richer
fish in flavour: externally it more resembles the salmon, and
is known in New Holland as the dew or Jew-fish.  It attains
a large size and is considered the best fish of New Zealand."

1862.  Anon., 'From the Black Rocks on Friday,' 'All the Year
Round,' May 17, 1862, No. 160:

"A kind of codfish called by the natives whapuku or hahpuka."

1878.  P. Thomson, 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,'
vol. XI. art. lii. p. 383:

"The hapuka, or groper, was in pretty regular supply."

1880.  Guenther, 'Study of Fishes,' p. 392:

"The second (Oligorus gigas) is found in the sea, on the coast
of New Zealand, and called by the Maoris and colonists 'Hapuku'
. . .  Dr. Hector, who has had opportunities of examining it in
a fresh state, has pointed out anatomical differences from the
Murray Cod."

1880.  W. Colenso, 'Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,'
vol. XIII. art. ii. p. 46:

"A feast of good things prepared--eels, and hapuku (codfish),
and taro."

1884.  W. D. Hay, in the 'Field,' May 10, p. 637, col. 1:

"The pakirikiri(Percis colias) is the fish to which
settlers in the north of New Zealand generally give the name of

1895.  'Oxford English Dictionary' (s.v.Cod):

"In New Zealand, a serranoid fish Polyprion prognathus,
called by the Maories hapuku."

Hardhead, n, the English sportsman's name for the
ruddy duck (Erismatura rubida).  Applied by sportsmen in
Australia to the White-eyed Duck, Nyroca australis,
Gould.  See Duck.

Hardwood, n. The name is applied to many
Australian timbers something like teak, but especially to
Backhousia bancroftii, F. v. M. and Bailey,
N.O. Myrtaceae.  In Tasmania, it means any gum-timber
(Eucalyptus).  It is in constant and universal use for
building and fencing in Australia.

1888.  Candish, 'Whispering Voices,' p. 108:

"Sitting on a block of hardwood . . . is the gray-haired
forest feller."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. iii. p. 24:

"It was a hammer-like piece of hardwood above a plate of tin."

1891.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Sydney-side Saxon,' p. 93:

"A hardwood slab-door weighs a goodish deal, as any one may
find out that has to hump it a hundred yards."

Hardyhead, n. name given in Sydney to the fish
Atherina pinguis, Lacep., family Atherinidae.

Hare-Kangaroo, n. a small Kangaroo, resembling
the British hare.  Called also Hare-Wallaby.  The
scientific name is Lagorchestes (q.v.).

1871.  G. Krefft, 'Mammals of Australia':

"The Hare-kangaroos, so called from their resemblance to that
well known rodent, are the fleetest of the whole tribe, and
though they do not exceed a common hare in bulk, they can make
clear jumps of eight and ten feet high."

Hare-Wallaby, n. See Hare-Kangaroo,
Wallaby, and Lagorchestes.

Harlequin-Pigeon, n. formerly referred to
the genus Peristera, but now to the genus Phaps.
It is commonly called in the interior the "flock" pigeon.

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 296:

"Large flocks of Peristera histrionica (the harlequin-
pigeon) were lying on the patches of burnt grass on the plains."

Harmonic Thrush, n. See Port Jackson

Harpagornis, n. a scientific name for a partly
fossilised, huge raptorial bird of New Zealand.  From Greek
HARPA? harpax robbing, and 'ornis, a bird.

1878.  A. Newton, 'Encyclopaedia Britannica,' vol. iii. p. 731:

"There is a harpagornis, a bird of prey of stature sufficient
to have made the largest dinornis its quarry."

Harrier, n. English bird-name (that which
harries), assigned in New Zealand to Circus gouldii,
Bonap. (also called Swamp-hawk), and in Australia to
C. assimilis, Jard. and Selb., or C. approximans,
Bonap., called Spotted Harrier.

1888. W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 206:

"Circus Gouldi, Bonap., New Zealand harrier, or Gould's

Hat, Black, n. slang for a new immigrant.

1887.  R. M. Praed, 'Longleat of Kooralbyn,' c. xxviii. p. 277:

"Lord! if I were Mr. Dyson Maddox, I'd never let it be said
that a black hat had cut me out sweetheartin'."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. iii. p. 21:

"A 'black hat' in Australian parlance means a new arrival."

Hat, Old.  See Old-hat.

Hatter.  (1) A solitary miner--miner who works without
a mate partner: sc. one who has everything under his own hat.

1869.  Brough Smyth, 'Goldfields of Victoria,' p. 613
('Glossary of Mining Terms'):

"One who works alone.  He differs from the fossicker who rifles
old workings, or spends his time in trying abandoned washdirt.
The hatter leads an independent life, and nearly always holds a
claim under the bye-laws."

1884.  R. L. A.Davies, 'Poems and Literary Remains,' p. 267:

"Oh, a regular rum old stick; . . . he mostly works a 'hatter.'
He has worked with mates at times, and leaves them when the
claim is done, and comes up a 'hatter' again.  He's a regular
old miser."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'The Miner's Right,' p. 37:

"Instead of having to take to fossicking like so many 'hatters'
--solitary miners."

(2) By extension to other professions.

1893.  'The Herald' (Melbourne), Aug. 28, p. i. col. 7:

"He had been a burglar of the kind known among the criminal
classes as 'a hatter.'  That is to say, he burgled 'on his own
hook,' never in a gang.  He had never, he told me, burgled with
a companion."

Hatteria, n. scientific name for a genus of
reptiles containing a Lizard peculiar to New Zealand, the only
living representative of the order Rhynchocephalinae.
See Tuatara.

Hatting, quasi pres. partic., solitary mining.
See Hatter.

1891.  'The Age,' Nov. 25, p. 6, col. 7:

"Two old miners have been hatting for gold amongst the old
alluvial gullies."

Hat-tree, n. name given to a species of
Sterculia, the Bottle-trees (q.v.).

Hau-hau, n. a Maori superstition.  This
superstition arose in Taranaki in 1864, through the crazy
fancies of the chief Te Ua, who communed with angels and
interpreted the Bible.  The meaning of the word is obscure, but
it probably referred to the wind which wafted the angels to the
worshippers whilst dancing round an erect pole.  Pai Marire was
another name for the superstition, and signifies "good and
peaceful."  (See Gudgeon's 'War in New Zealand,' p. 23 sq.;
also Colenso's pamphlet on 'Kereopa,' p. 4.)

Hawk, n. This common English bird-name is
applied in Australia to many species--

 Hieracadiea orientalis, Sehl.

 Baza subcristata, Gould.

 Another name for Wedge-tailed Eagle.  (See Eagle
 and Eagle-hawk.)

 Another name for Osprey.  (See Fish-hawk.)

 Astur approximans, V. and H.

Grey Gos-H.--
 A. cinereus, Vieill.

Lesser Gos-H.--
 A. cruentus, Gould.

Lesser White Gos-H.--
 A. leucosomus, Sharpe.

Red Gos-H.--
 A. radiatus, Lath.

 Accipiter cirrhocephalus, Vieill.

Striped Brown-H.--
 Hieracidea berigora, V. and H. [See Berigora.]

Swamp-H. [See Harrier.]

White Gos-H.--
 Astur novae-hollandiae, Gm.

See also Nankeen-Hawk, and Night-Hawk.

In New Zealand, the varieties appear in the quotation,

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 206:
 [A complete description.]

1889.  Prof. Parker, 'Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,'
p. 117:

"Of the three species recognized, two, the quail-hawk (Harpa
Novae Zealandiae) and the bush-hawk (H. ferox) [or
sparrow-hawk], belong to a genus peculiar to New Zealand."
[The third is the New Zealand harrier, Circus Gouldi,
also found in Australia.]

Hazel, n. name applied in Victoria to the tree
Pomaderris apetala, Labill., N.O. Rhamnaceae.

1889.  J. H. Maiden. 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 590:

"Called 'hazel' in 'Victoria.  A tall shrub, or small tree.
The wood is excellent, of a beautiful satiny texture, and
adapted for carvers' and turners' work.  [Grows in] all the
colonies except Western Australia and Queensland."

Head, n. the rammer for crushing quartz in

1890.  'Goldfields of Victoria,' p.7:

"Forty additional heads will be shortly added to the crushing
power, bringing the battery up to sixty heads."

Head-Station, n. the principal buildings,
including the owner's or manager's house, the hut, store, etc.,
of a sheep or cattle run.

1885.  Mrs. Campbell Praed [Title]:

"The Head Station."

Heart-Pea, n. i.q. Balloon-Vine (q.v.).

Heartsease, n. i.q. Brooklime, (q.v.).

Heartseed, n. i.q. Balloon-Vine (q.v.)

Heartwood. n. See Ironwood.

Heath, n. In Tasmania, where the Epacris is of
very beautiful colour, this name is popularly used for
Epacris impressa, Labill., N.O. Epacrideae.  See

Hedgehog-Fruit, n. Popular name applied to the
fruit of Echinocarpus australis, Benth.,
N.O. Tiliaceae.  The tree is also called Maiden's
Blush (q.v.).

Hedge-Laurel, n. a name given to the tree
Mapau (q.v.), an evergreen shrub of New Zealand, of the
genus Pittosporum (q.v.).  It has dark glossy foliage
and handsome flowers, and is planted and cultivated in the form
of tall garden hedges.  See also Laurel.

Hei-tiki, n. Maori name for a neck ornament
made of greenstone (q.v.).

1835.  W. Yate, 'Account of New Zealand,' p. 151:

"The latter idea [that they are representatives of gods] was
conceived from the hei-tiki being taken off the neck, laid down
. . . and then wept and sung over."

1889.  Dr. Hocken, 'Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,'
p. 81:

"Hei means ornament for the neck.  Tiki was the creator of man,
and these are the representations of him.  By a sort of
license, they are occasionally taken to represent some renowned
ancestor of the possessor; but wooden Tikis, some of immense
size, usually represented the ancestors, and were supposed to
be visited by their spirits.  These might be erected in various
parts of a pa, or to mark boundaries, etc. The Maories cling to
them as sacred heirlooms of past generations, and with some
superstitious reverence."

Helmet-Orchis, n. This English name is applied
in Australia to the orchid Pterostylis cucullata, R. Br.

1852. Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 168:

"I also found three varieties of a singular green orchis,
of a helmet shape, growing singly, on rather tall slender

Hemp, Queensland, n. name given to the common
tropical weed Sida rhombifolia, Linn.,
N.O. Malvaceae.  Called also Paddy Lucerne, and
in other colonies Native Lucerne, and Jelly Leaf.
It is not endemic in Australia.

Hemp-bush, n. the plant Plagianthus
pulchellus, A. Gray, N.O. Halvaceae, native of Australia
and New Zealand.  Though not true hemp (cannabis), it
yields a fibre commercially resembling it.

He-Oak, n. See Oak and She-Oak.

Heron, n. common English bird-name.  The species present
in Australia are--

Ashy Reef H.--
 Demiegretta asha, Sykes.

Great-billed H.--
 Ardea sumatrana, Rafll.

Grey H.--
 A. cinerea, Linn.

Night H.--
 Nycticorax caledonicus, Lath.

Reef H.--
 Demiegretta sacra, Gmel.

White-fronted H.--
 Ardea novae-hollandiae, Lath.

White-necked H.--
 A. pacifica, Lath.

The Cranes and the Herons are often popularly confused.

1884.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' p. 11:

"There did I shoot . . . a blue crane--the Australian heron."

Herring, n. Various species of
Clupeidae, to which the European Herring belongs, are
known by this name in Australasia, and the word is also applied
to an entirely different fish, Prototroctes maraena,
Gunth., the Yarra Herring, Freshwater Herring,
Grayling (q.v.), or Cucumber-Mullet, found in the
rivers of Victoria or Tasmania.  The Clupeidae are
Clupea sagax (called also Maray, q.v., and
Pilchard), C. sundaica, C. hypselosoma
Bleek., C. novae-hollandiae, Cuv, and Val.,
C. vittata, Castln, (called the Smelt, q.v.), and
others.  In Western Australia Chatoessus erebi,
Richards., is called the Perth Herring.  See also
Picton Herring, Aua, and Sardine.

Herring-cale, n. name given in New South Wales
to the fish Olistherops brunneus, Macl., family Labridae, or

Hickory, n. The name Hickory is
originally American, and is derived from the North-American
Indian; its earliest form was Pohickery.  The tree
belongs to the genus Carya.  The wood is excellent for
gig-shafts, carriage-poles, fishing-rods, etc.  The name is
applied in Australia to various trees whose wood is suitable
for similar purposes.  In Tasmania, the name Hickory is
given to Eriostemon squameus, Labill.,
N.O. Rutacea.  Native Hickory, or Hickory-Acacia,
is Acacia leprosa, Sieb., N.O. Leguminosae, and
in the southern part of New South Wales, Acacia
melanoxylon.  (Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 358.)

1884.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c. v. p. 35:

"The beautiful umbrageous blackwood, or native hickory, one of
the handsomest trees in Australia."

Hickory-Eucalypt, n. one of the names for the
tree Eucalyptus punctata, DeC., N.O. Myrtaceae.
Called also Leather-jacket (q.v.).

Hickory-Wattle, n. a Queensland name for
Acacia aulacocarpa, Cunn., N.O. Leguminosae;
called Hickory about Brisbane.

Hielaman, n. a word of Sydney and
neighbourhood.  The initial h, now frequently used by
the natives, is not found in the earliest forms.  The
termination man is also English.  Elimang (Hunter),
e-lee-mong (Collins), hilaman (Ridley).  A narrow shield of an
aboriginal, made of bark or wood.  Notice Mr.  Grant's
remarkable plural (1881 quotation).

1798.  D. Collins, 'Account of English Colony in New South
Wales,'  p. 612:

"E-lee-mong-shield made of bark."

1834.  L. E. Threlkeld, 'Australian Grammar,' p. 5:

"As an initial, h occurs in only a few words,
such as hilaman, a 'shield.'"

Ibid. p. 10:

"As a barbarism, 'hillimung-a shield.'"

[A barbarism means with Mr. Threlkeld little more than "not
belonging to the Hunter district."]

1839.  T. L. Mitchell, 'Three Expeditions into the Interior
 of Eastern Australia,' vol. ii. p. 349:

"There is much originality in the shield or hieleman of these
people.  It is merely a piece of wood, of little thickness, and
two feet, eight inches long, tapering to each end, cut to an
edge outwards, and having a handle or hole in the middle,
behind the thickest part."

1852.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes' (edition 1355), p. 102:

"The hieleman or shield is a piece of wood, about two and a
half feet long, tapering to the ends, with a bevelled face not
more than four inches wide at the broadest part, behind which
the left hand passing through a hole is perfectly guarded."

1865.  S. Bennett, 'Australian Discovery,' p. 251:

"Hieleman, a shield.  Saxon, heilan; English, helm or helmet
(a little shield for the head)."

[This is a remarkable contribution to philological lore.  In no
dictionary is the Saxon "heilan" to be found, and a misprint
may charitably be suspected.  There is no doubt that the
h is an English Cockney addition to the aboriginal word.
It would need an ingenious fancy to connect "e-leemong" with

1873.  J. B. Stephens, 'Black Gin, etc.,' p. 26:

"No faint far hearing of the waddies banging
 Of club and heelaman together clanging,
 War shouts and universal boomeranging."

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 66:

"Nullah-nullahs, paddy-melon sticks, boomerangs, tomahawks,
and heelimen or shields lay about in every direction."

Hielaman-tree, n. another name for the
Bats-wing Coral (q.v.), Erythrina vespertilio,
Benth., N.O. Leguminosae.

1889. J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 426:

"'Heilaman [sic] tree.'  The wood is soft, and used by
the aborigines for making their 'heilamans' or shields."

Hinau, n. Maori name for the New Zealand tree,
Elaeocarpus dentatus, Vahl., N.O. Tiliaceae.

1845.  E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,'
vol. ii. p. 317:

"Another export was much talked of.  This was the bark of the
hinau, a large forest tree which abounds all over the country
near Cook's Strait.  The natives extract from this bark the
black dye for their mats."

1873.  'Catalogue of Vienna Exhibition':

"Hinau--a white wood used for turner's work."


"The natives produce the black dye for their flax-work, for
which purpose the bark is first bruised and boiled for a short
time.  When cold the flax is put into the mixture . . . it is
then steeped thoroughly for two days in red swamp mud, rich in
peroxide of iron."

1883.  J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 130:

"Hinau, a small tree about fifty feet high and eighteen inches
thick in stem, with brown bark which yields a permanent
blue-black dye, used for tanning . . . used by Maoris for
colouring mats and baskets.  Wood a yellowish brown colour and
close-grained; very durable for fencing and piles."

Hoki, n. a New Zealand fish, Coryphaenoides
novae-zelandiae.  Coryphaenoides belongs to the
family Macruridae, which are deep-sea Gadoids.  See
Tasmanian Whip-tail.

Holly, Native, n. name given in Australia to
the tree Lomatia ilicifolia, R. Br., N.O. Proteaceae,
and in Tasmania to Coprosma hirtella, Labill., N.O.
Rubiaceae; called also Coffee Plant.

Holly, Smooth, n. name given to the tree
Hedycarya angustifolia, A. Cunn.,
N.O. Monimiaceae; called also Native Mulberry.

Hollyhock-tree, n. name given to Hibiscus
splendens, Fraser, N.O. Malvaceae.

Holy City, n. a nickname for Adelaide.  See
Farinaceous City.

1875.  R. and F. Hill, 'What we Saw in Australia,' p. 264:

". . . including so many churches that we are at a loss to
understand why Adelaide should, in virtue of her supposed
superabundance, be nicknamed by her neighbours the Holy City."

Holy-cross Toad, n. See Catholic Frog.

Holy-Dollar, n. punning name for a dollar out
of which a Dump (q.v.) had been punched.

1822. 'Hobart Town Gazette,' Aug. 10 [Proclamation by Sir
Thomas Brisbane, Governor-in-Chief of New South Wales
and its dependencies, then including Van Diemen's Land]

"Whereas in the Year of our Lord 1813, it was deemed expedient
to send a Quantity of Spanish Dollars to the Colony. . . .  And
whereas His Excellency, the then Governor, thought proper to
direct, that every such Dollar, with a small circular Piece of
Silver, struck out of its Centre, should be current within this
Territory, and every part thereof, for the Sum of Five

[These were called holy (holey) dollars, or ring
dollars, though the name does not occur in the above

1857.  D. Bunce, 'Australasiatic Reminiscences,' p. 59:

"We were more particularly struck with the character and
various kinds of currency [in Tasmania in 1833].  Our first
change for a pound consisted of two dumps, two holy dollars,
one Spanish dollar, one French coin, one half-crown, one
shilling, and one sixpence."

Honey-Ant, n. name given to various species of Ants,
in which the body of certain individuals becomes enormously
distended by sweet food with which they are fed by the worker
ants, for whom this store of honey serves as a food supply.
When the side of the distended abdomen is tapped, the ant
passes the 'honey' out of its mouth, and it is then eaten.
Three species are known in Australia, Camponotus
inflatus, Lubbock; C. cowlei, Froggatt; and C.
midas, Froggatt.  The aboriginal name of the first is

1896.  W. W. Froggatt, 'Horne Expedition in Central Australia,'
pt. ii. p. 386:

"Our Australian honey ants belong to the genus Camponotus,
members of which are found to all parts of the world, and are
known as 'sugar-ants,' from their fondness for all kinds of

Honey-bird, n. See next word.

Honey-eater, n. an Australian bird, with a
tongue specially adapted for being formed into a tube for the
absorption of honey from flowers.  The name is applied to the
following species--

Banded Honey-eater--
 Myzomela pectoralis, Gould.

Black H.--
 M. nigra, Gould.

Black-chinned H.--
 Melithreptus gularis, Gould.

Black-headed H.--
 M. melanocephalus, Gould.

Blue-faced H.--
 Entomyza cyanotis, Swain.  [See Blue-eye.]

Bridled H.--
 Ptilotis frenata, Ramsay.

Broadbent H.--
 Stigmatops alboauricularis, Ramsay.

Brown H.--
 S. ocularis, Gould.

Brown-backed H.--
 Glyciphila modesta, Gray.

Brown-headed H.--
 Melithreptus brevirostrus.

Cockerill H.-
 Ptilotis cockerelli, Gould.

Crescent H.--
 Meliornis australasiana, Shaw.

Dusky H.--
 Myzomela obscura, Gould.

Fasciated H.--
 Ptilotis fasciogularis, Gould.

Fuscous H.--
 P. fusca, Gould.

Gay H.--
 Melithreptus vinitinatus, Gould.

Golden-backed H.--
 M. latior, Gould.

Helmeted H.--
 Ptilotis cassidix, Jard.

Least H.--
 Stigmatops subocularis,

Long-billed H.--
 Meliornis longirostris, Gould.

Moustached H.--
 M. mystacalis, Gould.

New Holland H.--
 M. novae-hollandiae, Lath.

Painted H.--
 Entomophila picta, Gould.

Pied H.--
 Certhionyx leucomelas, Cuv.

Red-headed Honey-eater--
 Myzomela erythrocephala, Gould.

Red-throated H.--
 Entomophila rufigularis,

Rufous-breasted H.--
 E. albigularis, Gould.

Sanguineous H.--
 Myzomela sanguineolenta, Lath.  [See Blood-bird.]

Singing H.--
 Ptilotis vittata, Cuv.

Spiny-cheeked H.--
 Acanthochaea rufigularis, Gould.

Streak-naped H.--
 Ptilotis filigera, Gould.

Striped H.--
 Plectorhyncha lanceolata, Gould.

Strong-billed H.--
 Melithreptus validirostris, Gould.  [See also Cherry

Tawny-crowned H.--
 Glyciphila fulvifrons, Lewin.

Varied H.--
 Ptilotis versicolor, Gould.

Warty-faced H.--
 Meliphaga phrygia, Lath.  (Called also the Mock
Regent-bird, q.v.)

Wattle-cheeked H.--
 Ptilotis cratitia, Gould.

White-breasted H.--
 Glyciphila fasciata, Gould.

White-cheeked H.--
 Meliornis sericea, Gould.

White-eared H.--
 Ptilotis leucotis, Lath.

White-fronted H.--
 Glyciphila albifrons, Gould.

White-gaped H.--
 Stomiopora unicolor, Gould.

White-naped H.--
 Melithreptus lunulatus, Shaw.  [See also Golden-Eye.]

White-plumed H.--
 Ptilotis penicillata, Gould.

White-quilled H.--
 Entomyza albipennis, Gould.

White-throated H.--
 Melithreptus albogularis, Gould.

Yellow H.--
 Ptilotis flavescens, Gould.

Yellow-eared H.--
 P. lewini, Swains.

Yellow-faced H.--
 P. chrysops, Lath.

Yellow-fronted H.--
 P. plumula, Gould.

Yellow-plumed H.--
 P. ornata, Gould.

Yellow-spotted H.--
 P. gracilis, Gould.

Yellow-streaked H.--
 P. macleayana, Ramsay.

Yellow-throated H.--
 P. flavicollis, Vieill.

Yellow-tinted H.--
 P. flava, Gould.

Yellow-tufted H.--
 P. auricomis, Lath.

Gould enumerated the species, nearly fifty years ago, in his
'Birds of Australia' (vol. iv.) as follows:--


Meliphaga Novae-Hollandiae, Vig. and Horsf,
 New Holland Honey-eater    ...    ...    ...     ...  23

M. longirostris, Gould, Long-billed H.     ...  24

M. sericea, Gould, White-cheeked H. ...    ...  25

M. mystacalis, Gould, Moustached H. ...    ...  26

M. Australasiana, Vig. and Horsf, Tasmanian H.  27

Glyciphila fulvifrons, Swains., Fulvous-fronted H.
                                          ...     ...  28

G. albifrons, Gould, White-fronted H.      ...  29

G. fasciata, Gould, Fasciated H.  ...      ...  30

G. ocularis, Gould, Brown H.      ...     ...   31

Ptilotis chrysotis, Yellow-eared H....    ...   32

P. sonorus, Gould, Singing H.      ...     ...  33

P. versicolor, Gould, Varied H.    ...     ...  34

P. flavigula, Gould, Yellow-throated H.    ...  35

P. leucotis, White-eared H.        ...     ...  36

P. auricomis, Yellow-tufted H.     ...     ...  37

P. cratilius, Gould, Wattle-cheeked H.     ...  38

P. ornatus, Gould, Graceful Ptilotis       ...  39

P. plumulus, Gould, Plumed P.      ...     ...  40

P. flavescens, Gould, Yellow-tinted H.     ...  41

P. flava, Gould, Yellow H.         ...     ...  42

P. penicillatus, Gould, White-plumed H.    ...  43

P. fuscus, Gould, Fuscous H.      ...      ...  44

P. chrysops, Yellow-faced H.      ...      ...  45

P. unicolor, Gould, Uniform H.    ...      ...  46

Plectorhyncha lanceolata, Gould, Lanceolate H.  47

Zanthomyza Phrygia, Swains., Warty-faced H. ..  48

Melicophila picata, Gould, Pied H. ...     ...  49

Entomophila pitta, Gould, Painted H.       ...  50

E. albogularis, Gould, White-throated H.   ...  51

E. rufogularis, Gould, Red-throated H.     ...  52

Acanthogenys rufogularis, Gould, Spiny-cheeked H.
                                                  ...  53

Anthochaera inauris, Wattled H. ...    ...  54

A. Carunculata, Wattled H.          ...    ...  55
  [Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 106.]

Myzomela sanguinolenta, Sanguineous H.     ...  63

M. erythrocephala, Gould, Red-headed H.    ...  64

M. pectoralis, Gould, Banded H.    ...     ...  65

M. nigra, Gould, Black H.          ...     ...  66

M. obscura, Gould, Obscure H.      ...     ...  67

Entomyza cyanotis, Swains., Blue-faced Entomyza 68

E. albipennis, Gould, White-pinioned H.    ...  69

Melithreptus validirostris, Gould, Strong-billed H.
                                          ...     ...  70

M. gularis, Gould, Black-throated H.       ...  71

M. lunulatus, Lunulated H.         ...     ...  72

M. brevirostris, Gould,

M. chloropsis, Gould, Swan River H.        ...  73

M. albogularis, Gould, White-throated H.
   (as well as pl. 51)                    ...     ...  74

M. melanocephalus, Gould, Black-headed H.  ...  75

Myzantha garrula, Vig. and Horsf, Garrulous H.  76

M. obscura, Gould, Sombre H.     ...       ...  77

M. lutea, Gould, Luteous H.      ...       ...  78

In the Supplement of 1869 Gould adds--


Ptilotis cassidix, Jard., Helmeted H.      ...  39

P. fasciogularis, Gould, Fasciated H.      ...  40

P. notata, Gould, Yellow-spotted H.        ...  41

P. filigera, Gould, Streaked H.            ...  42

P. Cockerelli, Gould, Cockerell's H.       ...  43

Tropidorhynchus buceroides, Helmeted H.    ...  44

[Note.--The Brush Wattle-birds, Friar-birds, Spine-bills,
and the Yellow-throated Minah, are known as Honey-eaters,
and the whole series are sometimes called Honey-birds.]

1897.  A. J. Campbell (in 'The Australasian,' Jan. 23),
p. 180, col. i:

"The honey-eaters or meliphagous birds are a peculiar and
striking feature in Australian ornithology.  As Gould points
out, they are to the fauna what the eucalypts, banksias, and
melaleucas are to the flora of Australia.  They are closely
adapted to feeding on these trees.  That great author asks:--
'What can be more plain than that the brushlike tongue is
especially formed for gathering the honey from the flower-cups
of the eucalypti, or that their diminutive stomachs are
especially formed for this kind of food, and the peculiar
insects which constitute a portion of it?'"

Honey-Eucalypt, n.  See Box-tree, Yellow.

Honey-flower, n. Lambertia formosa, Smith,
N.O. Proteaceae.

1802.  G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' c. iv.
p. 101:

"They . . . returned . . . dreadfully exhausted, having
existed chiefly by sucking the wild honey-flower and shrubs."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 37:

"'Honey-flower' or 'honeysuckle,' a plant as well known to
small boys about Sydney as to birds and insects.  It obtains
its vernacular name on account of the large quantity of a clear
honey-like liquid the flowers contain.  After sucking some
quantity the liquid generally produces nausea and headache."

Honey-plant, n. name given in Tasmania to
Richea scoparia Hook., N.O. Epacris.

Honeysuckle, n. name given to the Banksias
(q.v.); also called Bottle-brush (q.v.).
The species are--

Coast Honeysuckle--
 Banksia integrifolia, Linn.

Common H.--
 B. marginata, Cav.

Heath H.--
 B. serrata, Linn.

New Zealand H.--
 Knightia excelsa, R.Br.

Silvery H.--
 Grevillea striata, R.Br.

Tasmanian H.--
 Banksia margirata, Cav. /sic. Probably marginata/

1834.  Ross, 'Van Diemen's Land Annual,' p. 125:

"Some scattered honeysuckles, as they, are called, but which,
being specimens of a ligneous evergreen shrub (Banksia
Australis), my English reader will please not to assimilate
in his mind's eye in any respect with the woodbine."

1846.  G. H. Haydon, 'Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 84:

"The honeysuckle (Banksia integrifolia) will greatly
disappoint those who, from its name, expect to see anything
similar to the sweet-scented climbers of English hedges and
gardens--this being a tree attaining to thirty or forty feet in
height, with spiral yellow flowers.  The blossoms at the proper
seasons yield a great quantity of honey, which on a dewy
morning may be observed dropping from the flowers."

1848.  Letter by Mrs.  Perry, given in Goodman's 'Church
in Victoria during Episcopate of Bishop Perry,' p. 83:

"In the course of our journey today we passed through a thin
wood of honeysuckle trees, for, I should think, about three
miles.  They take their name from the quantity of honey
contained in the yellow cone-shaped flower, which is much
prized and sucked by the natives--the aborigines, I mean."

1852.  Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 164:

"The honeysuckle-tree (Banksia latifolia) is so
unreasonably named . . .  so very unlike any sort or species of
the sweet old flower whose name it so unfittingly bears. . . .
The blossoms form cones, which when in full bloom, are much the
size and shape of a large English teazel, and are of a greenish
yellow. . . .  The honeysuckle trees grow to about thirty feet
in height."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 10:

"Banksia, spp., N.O. Proteaceae.  The name
'honeysuckle' was applied to this genus by the early settlers,
from the fact that the flowers, when in full bloom, contain, in
a greater or lesser quantity, a sweet, honey-like liquid, which
is secreted in considerable quantities, especially after a dewy
night, and is eagerly sucked out by the aborigines."

1892.  A. Sutherland, 'Elementary Geography of British
Colonies,' p. 271:

"It [banksia] is called the 'honeysuckle' by the people of
Australia, though it has no resemblance to an English
honeysuckle.  Many of the banksias grow into stately trees."

Honeywood, n. name given in Tasmania to the tree
Bedfordia salicina, DeC., N.O. Compositae; also
there called Dogwood (q.v.).

Hoop-Pine, n. another name for the tree
Araucaria cunninghami or Moreton-Bay Pine.
See Pine.

Hoot, n. slang term for compensation, payment,
money; characteristic corruption of Maori Utu (q.v.)

1896.  'Truth' (Sydney), Jan. 12:

"There are several specimens of bush slang transplanted from
the Maori language.  'Hoot' is a very frequent synonym for
money or wage.  I have heard a shearer at the Pastoralist Union
office in Sydney when he sought to ascertain the scale of
remuneration, enquire of the gilt-edged clerk behind the
barrier, 'What's the hoot, mate?'  The Maori equivalent for
money is utu, pronounced by the Ngapuhi and other
northern tribes with the last syllable clipped, and the word is
very largely used by the kauri-gum diggers and station hands in
the North Island.  The original meaning of utu in Maori
is 'revenge.'  When the missionaries first settled in New
Zealand, they found that the savage inhabitants had no
conception of any recompense except the grim recompense of
blood.  Under Christianizing influences the natives were
induced to forego the blood-revenge for injuries, on receiving
a solatium in goods or land, and so utu came to have the
double meaning of revenge and recompense, and eventually became
recognized as the Maori word for money."

Hop-bush, n. "the name for all species of
Dodonaea" (Maiden, p. 417), N.O. Sapindaceae.

1883.  F. M. Bailey, 'Queensland Flora,' Synopsis, p. 82:

"The capsules of many Dodonaeas are used for hops,
and thus the shrubs are known as hop-bushes in Queensland."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 621:

"'Hop-bush,' called 'switch-sorrel' in Jamaica, and according
to Dr. Bennett, 'apiri' in Tahiti.  Found in all the colonies."

Hopping-fish, or Climbing-fish, n.
a fish of the north of New South Wales and of Queensland,
Periophthalmus australis, Castln., family
Gobiidae.  Called also Skipper.

1882.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Fish of New South Wales,'
p. 27:

"On the confines of the northern boundaries of New South Wales
may be seen a very remarkable Goby called the 'Hopping-fish.'
The pectoral fins are developed into regular legs, with which
the fish hops or leaps along the mud flats . . .  The eyes are
on the top of the head, and very prominent, and moreover they
can be thrust very far out of their sockets, and moved
independently of one another, thus the fish can see long
distances around, and overtake the small crabs in spite of the
long stalks to their optics.  It is a tropical form, yet it is
said to be found on the mud-flats of the Richmond River."

Hops, Native, or Wild, n. In
Australia, the fruit of the Hop-bush (see above),
Dodonaea spp.  In Tasmania, Daviesia latifolia,
R.Br., N.O. Leguminosae, and called also there

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 23:

"'Native hops,' on account of the capsules bearing some
resemblance to hops, both in appearance and taste.  In the
early days of settlement the fruits of these trees were
extensively used, yeast and beer of excellent quality being
prepared from them.  They are still so used to a small extent.
D. attenuata, A. Cunn., for instance, was largely used
in the Western District.  In times of drought cattle and sheep
eat them."

1896.  A. B. Paterson, 'Man from Snowy River,' p. 7:

"The wild-hop scrub grew thickly, and the hidden ground was full
 Of wombat-holes, and any slip was death."

Horizontal, n. a Tasmanian shrub, Anodopetalum
biglandulosum, Cunn., N.O. Saxifrageae.  Horizontal
Scrub, peculiar to the island, occurs in the western forests;
it derives its name from the direction of the growth of its
lower stems, and constitutes a tedious obstacle to the progress
of the traveller.

1888.  R. M. Johnston, 'Geology of Tasmania' [Introd. p. vii:

"The Horizontal is a tall shrub or tree. . . .  Its peculiar
habit--to which it owes its name and fame--is for the main stem
to assume a horizontal and drooping position after attaining a
considerable height, from which ascend secondary branches which
in turn assume the same horizontal habit.  From these spring
tertiary branchlets, all of which interlock, and form . . .
an almost impenetrable mass of vegetation."

1891.  'The Australasian,' April 4: "That stuff as they calls
horizontal, a mess of branches and root."

Hornerah, n. aboriginal name for a throwing-stick;
a dialectic variation of Woomera (q.v.). a nonce-use.

1830.  R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 20:

"I observed, too, that they used a stick, shaped thus __,
called the hornerah (which assists them in throwing the

Horn-Ray, n. a New Zealand and Australian
Ray, the fish Rhinobatus banksii, Mull and Heule.
In this genus of Rays the cranial cartilage is produced into a
long rostral process (Guenther): hence the name.

Horopito, n.  Maori name for the New Zealand
shrub, Drimys axillaris, Forst., N.O. Magnoliaceae;
called also Pepper-tree (q.v.).

1847.  G. F. Angas, 'Savage Life and Scenes in Australia and
New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 17:

A delicious fragrance, like that of hyacinth and jessamine
mingled, filled the warm still air with its perfume.  It arose
from the petals of a straggling shrub, with bright green
shining leaves resembling those of the nutmeg-tree; and a
profusion of rich and delicate blossoms, looking like waxwork,
and hanging in clusters of trumpet-shaped bells: I observed
every shade of colour amongst them, from pinkish white to the
deepest crimson, and the edges of the petals were irregularly
jagged all round.  The natives call this plant horopito."

Ibid. p. 75:

"The fuchsia and the horopito were also abundant."

1883.  J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand, p. 129:

"Horopito, pepper-tree, winter's bark.  A small slender evergreen
tree, very handsome.  Whole plant aromatic and stimulant; used
by the Maoris for various diseases.  Wood very ornamental in

1889.  T. Kirk, 'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 1:

"The Horopito, or pepper-tree of the settlers, is an
ornamental shrub or small tree occurring in woods, on the
margin of which it is sometimes found in great abundance."

Horse-Mackerel, n.  The name is applied in
Sydney to the fish Auxis ramsayi, Castln., family
Scombridae.  In New Zealand it is Caranx (or
Trachurus) trachurus, Cuv. and Val., which is the same
fish as the Horse-Mackerel of England.  This is called
Yellow-tail on the Australian coasts.  See Trevally.

Horseradish-tree, n. name given to Codonocarpus
cotinifolius, F. v. M., N.O. Phytolaceae.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 164:

"'Quinine-tree,' 'medicine-tree' of the interior.  Called also
'horse-radish tree' owing to the taste of the leaves.  The bark
contains a peculiar bitter, and no doubt possesses medicinal
properties.  The taste is, however, quite distinct from

Horseshoe-Fern, n. name given in New Zealand to
the fern Marattia fraxinia, Sm., called in Australia the
Potato-Fern.  See under Fern.

Hot Wind, n. an Australian meteorological
phenomenon.  See quotations, especially 1879, A. R. Wallace.
The phrase is of course used elsewhere, but its Australian use
is peculiar.  The hot wind blows from the North.
Mr. H. C. Russell, the Government Astronomer of New South
Wales, writes--"The hot wind of Australia is a circulation of
wind about the anticyclone in the rear of which, as it moves to
the east, there is a strong force of wind from north to north-
west, which blowing over the heated plains of the interior
gathers up its excessive temperature and carries it to the
southern colonies.  They seldom last more than two or three
days in Sydney, and the great heat by which they are remembered
never lasts more than a few hours of one day, and is always a
sign of the end, which is an inrush of southerly wind, the
circulation forming the front of the new incoming anticyclone."

1833.  C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' Vol. II. c. iii.
p. 66:

"This was the only occasion upon which we felt the hot winds
in the interior."

1846.  J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' Vol. II.
c. vi. p. 243:

"These squalls generally succeed the hot winds that prevail
at this season in South Australia, coming from the interior."

Footnote--"During the hot winds we observed the thermometer,
in the direct rays of the sun, to be 135 degrees."

1846.  Ibid. c. xii. p. 403:

"A hot wind set in; . . . at one time the thermometer at the
public offices [Adelaide] was 158 degrees."

1849.  C. Sturt, 'Expedition into Central Australia,' vol.
ii. p. 90:

"I sought shelter behind a large gum tree, but the blasts of
heat were so terrific that I wondered the very grass did not
take fire. . . .  Everything, both animate and inanimate, gave
way before it: the horses stood with their backs to the wind,
and their noses to the ground, without the muscular strength to
raise their heads; the birds were mute, and the leaves of the
trees, under which we were sitting, fell like a snow shower
around us.  At noon I took a thermometer, graduated to 127
degrees, out of my box, and observed that the mercury was up to
125 degrees.  Thinking that it had been unduly influenced, I
put it in the fork of a tree close to me, sheltered alike from
the wind and the sun.  In this position I went to examine it
about an hour afterwards, when I found that the mercury had
risen to the top of the instrument, and that its further
expansion had burst the bulb. . .  .  We had reached our
destination, however, before the worst of the hot wind set in."

1850.  J. B. Clutterbuck, 'Port Phillip in 1849,' p. 25:

"The immediate cause of the hot winds has given rise to much
speculation. . .  .  The favourite theory is that they are
generated in the sandy plains of the interior, which becoming
powerfully heated, pour their glowing breath upon the fertile
regions of the south."

1871.  Dingo, 'Australian Rhymes,' p. 7:

"A hot wind swift envelopes me
 In dust from foot to head."

1879.  A. R. Wallace, 'Australasia,' (1893) vol. i. p. 39:

"They are evidently produced by the sinking down to the surface
of that north-westerly current of heated air which . . . is
always passing overhead.  The exact causes which bring it down
cannot be determined, though it evidently depends on the
comparative pressure of the atmosphere on the coast and in the
interior.  Where from any causes the north-west wind becomes
more extensive and more powerful, or the sea breezes diminish,
the former will displace the latter and produce a hot wind till
an equilibrium is restored.  It is the same wind passing
constantly overhead which prevents the condensation of vapour,
and is the cause of the almost uninterrupted sunny skies of the
Australian summer."

1879.  Rev. J. H. Zillmann, 'Australian Life,' p. 40:

"Scientific men, however, tell us that those hot winds are just
what make Australia so healthy a climate--that they act as
scavengers, and without them the death-rate of the colonies
would be alarmingly great."

Hot-windy, adj.  See above.

1871.  Dingo, 'Australian Rhymes,' p. 18:

"A spell that still makes me forget
 The dust and the hot-windy weather."

Houhere, or Hohere, n. Maori name for
a New Zealand tree, Hoheria populnea, A. Cunn.,
N.O. Malvaceae; called also Lacebark (q.v.) and
xeRibbonwood (q.v.).

1883.  J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 130:

"Houhere, ribbonwood of Dunedin.  [The name is now more
general.]  An ornamental shrub-tree ten to thirty feet high.
Bark fibrous and used for cordage, and affords a demulcent
drink.  Wood splits freely for shingles, but is not durable.
. . .  Bark used for making a tapa cloth by the Maoris in olden

1889.  T. Kirk, 'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 87:

"In one or other of its varied forms the 'houhere' is found in
nearly every district in N.Z.  It is everywhere admired for its
handsome foliage, and the beauty of its pure white flowers,
which are produced in vast profusion during the early winter
months. . . .  The bark is capable of division into a number of
layers. . . .  By settlers all forms are termed 'ribbonwood,'
or less frequently 'lace-bark'--names which are applied to
other plants; they are also termed 'thousand-jacket.'"

1895.  'Longman's Geography Reader for New Zealand,' p. 231:

"The houhere is a small tree with beautiful white flowers,
and the bark splits up into thin layers which look like delicate
lace; hence the plant is called lace-bark or ribbon-wood by
the colonists."

Houi, n. Maori name for New Zealand tree,
Ribbonwood (q.v.), N.O. Malvaceae, kindred to
Hoheria, Plagianthus Betulinus, sometimes called
Howi.  In Maori, the verb houwere means to tie,
to bind: the outer bark was used for tying.

Hound, n. (sometimes Smooth Hound),
the Old World name for all the sharks of the genus
Mustelus ("the Hell-hound of the Deep"); applied
specially in New South Wales and New Zealand to the species
Mustelus antarcticus, Guenth., also called Gummy

Hovea, n. scientific name for a genus of
shrubs.  "After Anthony Pantaleon Hove, a Polish botanist.
A small genus of highly ornamental leguminous shrubs, from
Australia, having blue or purple flowers in axillary clusters,
or very short racemes, alternate simple leaves, and short
turgid pods."  ('Century.')

Huia, n.  Maori name for a New Zealand bird,
like a starling, Heteralocha acutirostris, Gould, of
limited occurrence, chiefly found in North Island; having beak
straight and short in the male, long and curved in female.  The
tail feathers are highly prized for ornament by the Maoris.

1845.  E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i.
p. 91:

"The huia is a black bird about as large as a thrush, with long
thin legs and a slender semi-circular beak, which he uses in
seeking in holes of trees for the insects on which he feeds.
In the tail are four long black feathers tipt with white.
These feathers are much valued by the natives as ornaments for
the hair on great occasions. . . .  The natives attracted the
birds by imitating the peculiar whistle, from which it takes
the name of huia."

1883.  F. S. Renwick, 'Betrayed,' p. 36:

"One snow-tipped hui feather graced his hair."

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 7:

[A full description.]

Hump, to, v. to shoulder, carry on the back;
especially, to hump the swag, or bluey, or
drum.  See Swag, Bluey, Drum.

1855.  W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 226:

"He 'humped his swag,' in digger's phrase, that is, shouldered
his pack and disappeared in the woods."

1857.  'Geelong Advertiser,' quoted in 'Argus,' Oct. 23,
p. 5, col. 3:

"The despised old chum bought his swag, 'humped it,' grumbled
of course."

1891.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Sydney-side Saxon,' p. 93:

"A hardwood slab-door weighs a goodish deal, as any one may
find out that has to hump it a hundred yards."

1893.  Haddon Chambers, 'Thumbnail Sketches of Australian
Life,' p. 224:

"I 'humped my swag'--i.e. tied my worldly possessions,
consisting of a blanket, a pannikin, and an odd pair of boots,
upon my back-and 'footed it' for the capital."

1896.  H. Lawson, 'When the World was Wide,' p. 134:

"But Bill preferred to hump his drum
 A-paddin' of the hoof."

Hump, n. a long walk with a swag on one's back.

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. 3, p. 46:

"We get a fair share of exercise without a twenty-mile hump on

Humpy, n. (1) a native hut.  The aboriginal
word is Oompi; the initial h is a Cockney addition, and the
word has been given an English look, the appearance of the huts
suggesting the English word hump.  [The forms
himbing and yamba occur along the East coast of
Australia.  Probably it is kindred with koombar, bark,
in Kabi dialect, Mary River, Queensland.]  The old convict
settlement in Moreton Bay, now broken up, was called Humpy Bong
(see Bung), sc. Oompi Bong, a dead or deserted
settlement.  The aboriginal names for hut may be thus tabulated

Gunyah  )
                 . . .      New South Wales.
Goondie )

Humpy (Oompi)    . . .      Queensland.

Mia-mia          . . .      Victoria and Western Australia.

Wurley (Oorla)   . . .      South Australia.

Whare            . . .       New Zealand.

1846.  C. P. Hodgson, 'Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 228:

"A 'gunyia' or 'umpee.'"

1873.  J. Brunton Stephens, 'Black Gin,' p. 16:

"Lo, by the 'humpy' door, a smockless Venus."

(2) Applied to a settler's house, very small and primitive.

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 133:

"To dwell in the familiar old bark 'humpy,' so full of happy
memories.  The roof was covered with sheets of bark held down
by large wooden riders pegged in the form of a square to one

1885.  R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 57:

"A lonely hut . . . and a kitchen--a smaller humpey--at the

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Squatter's Dream,' p. 247:

"He's to bed in the humpy."

1893.  Gilbert Parker, 'Pierre and his People,' p. 135:

"Shon McGann was lying on a pile of buffalo robes in a mountain
hut,--an Australian would call it a humpey."

Hungry Quartz, n. a miner's term for
unpromising Quartz (q.v.)

Huon-Pine, n. a large Tasmanian evergreen tree,
Dacrydium franklinii, Hook, N.O. Coniferae.  The
timber is prized in cabinet-work, being repellent to insects,
durable, and fairly easy to work; certain pieces are
beautifully marked, and resemble bird's-eye maple.  The Huon is
a river in the south of Tasmania, called after a French
officer.  See Pine.

1800.  J. J. Labillardiere, 'Voyage a la Recherche de la
Perouse,' tom. i., Introd. p. xi:

"Ces deux flutes recurent des noms analogues au but de
l'entreprise.  Celle que montoit le general, Dentrecasteaux,
fut nommee la Recherche, et l'autre, commandee par le major de
vaisseau, Huon Kermadec, recut le nom de l'Esperance. . . .
Bruny Dentrecasteaux [fut le] commandant de l'expedition, [et]
Labillardiere [fut le] naturaliste."

[Of these gentlemen of France and their voyage the names Bruni
Island, D'Entrecasteaux Channel, Recherche Bay, Port Esperance,
Kermandie [sic] River, Huon Island, Huon River, perpetuate the
memory in Southern Tasmania, and the Kermadec Islands in the
Southern Ocean.]

1820.  C. Jeffreys, R.N., 'Geographical and Descriptive
Delineations of the Island of Van Diemen's Land,' p. 28:

"On the banks of these newly discovered rivers, and the
harbour, grows the Huon Pine (so called from the river
of that name, where it was first found)."

1829.  'The Tasmanian Almanack,' p. 87:

"1816.  Huon pine and coal discovered at Port Davey and
Macquarie Harbour."

1832.  J. Bischoff, 'Van Diemen's Land,' Vol. ii. p. 23:

"Huon-pine is by far the most beautiful wood found in the

1852.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes,' (edition 1855) p. 515:

"Knots of the beautiful Huon pine, finer than bird's-eye maple
for ornamental furniture."

1865.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'History of the Discovery
and Exploration of Australia,' vol. i. p. 71:

"The river was named the Huon, and has since become celebrated
for the production which yields the pretty cabinet-wood known
as Huon pine."

1890.  Lyth, 'Golden South,' c. xii. p. 102:

"The huon-pine is of immense height and girth."

Hut, n. the cottage of a shepherd or a miner.
The word is English but is especially common in Australia, and
does not there connote squalor or meanness.  The "Men's Hut" on
a station is the building occupied by the male employees.

1844.  'Port Phillip Patriot,' July 11, pt. 1, c. 3:

"At the head station are a three-roomed hut, large kitchen,
wool-shed, etc."

1862.  G. T. Lloyd, 'Thirty-three Years in Tasmania,' p. 21:

"If a slab or log hut was required to be erected . . . a
cart-load of wool was pitchforked from the wasting heap,
wherewith to caulk the crevices of the rough-hewn timber

1884.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c. vi. p. 42:

"'The hut,' a substantial and commodious structure, arose in
all its grandeur."

1890.  Id. 'Miner's Right,' c. vi. p. 62:

"Entering such a hut, as it is uniformly, but in no sense of
contempt, termed--a hut being simply lower in the scale than
a cottage--you will find there nothing to shock the eye or
displease the taste."

1891.  W. Tilley, 'Wild West of Tasmania,' p. 29:

"Bark and weatherboard huts alternating with imposing hotels
and stores."

Hut-keep, v. to act as hut-keeper.

1865.  S. Sidney, 'Three Colonies of Australia,' p. 380

"At this, as well as at every other station I have called at,
a woman 'hutkeeps,' while the husband is minding the sheep."

1890.  'Melbourne Argus,' June 14th, p. 4, col. 2:

"'Did you go hut-keeping then?' 'Wrong again.  Did I go
hut-keeping?  Did you ever know a hut-keeper cook for sixty

Hut-keeper, n.  Explained in quotations.

1802.  D. Collins, 'Account of New South Wales,' vol. ii. p. 285:

"Old men, unfit for anything but to be hut-keepers who were to
remain at home to prevent robbery, while the other inhabitants
of the hut were at labour."

1846.  J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. II. c.
iii. p. 458

"My object was to obtain these heads, which the
. . . hut-keeper instantly gave."

1853.  G. Butler Earp, 'What we Did in Australia,' p. 17:

"The lowest industrial occupation in Australia, viz. a
hut-keeper in the bush . . . a station from which many of
the wealthiest flockmasters in Australia have risen."

1883.  E. M. Curr, 'Recollections of Squatting in Victoria'
(1841-1851), p. 21:

"A bush hut-keeper, who baked our damper, fried our chops."

Hyacinth, Native, n. a Tasmanian flower,
Thelymitra longifolia, R. and G. Forst.,
N.O. Orchideae.

Hyaena, n. See Thylacine,
and Tasmanian Tiger.

Hypsiprymnodon, n. the scientific name of the
genus of the Australian animal called Musk Kangaroo.
(Grk. hupsiprumnos, with a high stern.)  A very small,
rat-like, arboreal kangaroo, about ten inches long.  The strong
musky odour from which it takes its vernacular name is
perceptible in both sexes.

1874.  R. Lydekker, 'Marsupialia,' p. 73:

 "The third and last subfamily (Hypsiprymnodontidae) of the
Macropodidae is represented solely by the remarkable creature
known, from its strong scent, as the Musk-kangaroo."


Ibis, n. There are twenty-four species of this
bird distributed over all the warmer parts of the globe.  Those
present in Australasia are--

Glossy (Black, or Bay) Ibis--
 Ibis falcinellus, Linn.

Straw-necked I.--
 Geronticus spinnicollis, Jameson.

White I.--
 Threskiornis strictipennis, Gould.

Of these the last two are confined to Australia, the first is

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 155:

"All they had for supper and breakfast were a straw-coloured
ibis, a duck and a crow."

Ibid. p. 300:

"Crows were feasting on the remains of a black Ibis."

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. vi.:

"Geronticus spinicollis, straw-necked ibis (pl. 45).
This beautiful ibis has never yet been discovered out of
Australia, over the whole of which immense country it is
probably distributed."

"Threskiornis strictipennis, white ibis" (pl. 46).

"Ibis falcinellus, Linn., glossy ibis" (pl. 47).

1892.  'The Australasian,' April 9, p. 707, col. 4:

"When the hoarse-voiced jackass mocked us, and the white-winged
  ibis flew
 Past lagoons and through the rushes, far away into the blue."

Ice-Plant, n. Tasmanian name for Tetragonia
implexicoma, Hook., N.O. Ficoideae, B. Fl.  Various
species of Tetragonia are cultivated as Spinach

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 63:

"Called 'ice-plant' in Tasmania.  Baron Mueller suggests that
this plant be cultivated for spinach.  [Found in] all the
colonies except Queensland."

Identity, Old, n. phrase denoting a person well
known in a place. a term invented in Dunedin, New Zealand, in
1862, in a popular topical song, by Mr. R. Thatcher, an
improvisator.  In the song the "Old Identity," the former
resident of Dunedin, was distinguished from the "New Iniquity,"
as the people were termed who came from Australia.

1879.  W. J. Barry, 'Up and Down,' p. 197:

"The old identities were beginning to be alive to the

1894.  'Sydney Morning Herald,' Oct.:

"It is permissible to wonder about the origin of the phrase 'an
old identity.'  Surely no man, however old, can be an identity?
An entity he is, or a nonentity; an individual, a centenarian,
or an oldest inhabitant; but identity is a condition of
sameness, of being identical with something.  One can establish
one's identity with that of some one who is being sought or
sued, but once established it escapes us."

Inaka, n. a fish.  See Inanga.

Inanga or Inaka, n. (the ng
as in the word singer, not as in finger),
a New Zealand fish, Galaxias attenuatus, or
Retropinna richardsoni.  It is often called the
Whitebait and Minnow, and in Tasmania the
larger variety is called Jolly-tail.  The change
from Inanga to Inaka is a dialectal Maori
variation, answering exactly to the change from North
Island  Kainga to South Island Kaik (q.v.).

1845.  E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol.
ii. p. 100:

"This fish is called hinanga [sic.], and resembles Blackwall
white-bait in size and flavour.  Its colour is a pinkish white,
spotted with black."

1896.  'The Australasian,' Aug. 28, p. 407, col. 3:

"About the same size as this fish [the cockabully] is the
'inaka' much used for bait.  Indeed, it is called the New
Zealand whitebait.  A friend from Victoria having used this
bait, I asked him to spell the name of the fish, and he wanted
to make it like the patriarch who 'walked with God'
--Enoch-a.  The more correct shape of the Maori word is inanga;
but in the South Island 'k' often takes the place of that
distinctive Maori letter 'ng,' as 'kainga' becomes kaik;
ngaio, kaio."

Inchman, n. a Tasmanian name for the
Bull-dog Ant (q.v.), from its length, which is
sometimes nearly an inch.

Indians, pl. n. early and now obsolete name
for the Aboriginals in Australia and even for the Maoris.

1769.  J. Banks, 'Journal,' Oct. 21 (Sir J. D. Hooker
edition), p. 191:

"We applied to our friends the Indians for a passage
in one of their canoes."

[These were Maoris.]

1770.  Ibid. April 28:

"During this time, a few of the Indians who had not followed
the boat remained on the rock opposite the ship, threatening
and menacing with their pikes and swords."

[These were Australian Aboriginals.]

1825.  Barron Field, 'Geographical Memoirs of New South Wales,'
p. 437:

"Some of the Indians have also seriously applied to be allowed
convict labourers, as the settlers are, although they have not
patience to remain in the huts which our Government has built
for them, till the maize and cabbage that have been planted to
their hands are fit to gather."

1830.  'The Friend of Australia,' p. 244:

"It is the observation of some writers, that the system pursued
in Australia for educating the children of the Indians is not
attended with success.  The black children will never do any
good there, until some other plan is commenced . . ."

Indigo, Native, n. all the species of
Swainsonia, N.O. Leguminosae, are called "Native
Indigos."  See Indigo-plant.  In Tasmania, the Native
Indigo is Indigofera australis, Willd., N.O.
Leguminosae.  The plants are also called
Indigo-plant and Darling-pea (q.v.).
Swainsonia belongs to the same N.O. as Indigofera
tinctoria, which furnishes the Indigo of commerce.

1826.  J. Atkinson, 'Agriculture and Grazing in New South
Wales,' p. 24:

"Indigo brushes are not very common; the timber in these is
generally white or blackbutted gum; the ground beneath is
covered with the native indigo, a very beautiful plant,
with a light purple flower."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 140:

"The 'darling-pea' or 'indigo-plant' is a dreaded plant from
the great amount of loss it has inflicted on stockowners.  Its
effect on sheep is well known; they separate from the flock,
wander about listlessly, and are known to the shepherds as '
pea-eaters,' or 'indigo-eaters.'  When once a sheep takes to
eating this plant it seldom or never fattens, and may be said
to be lost to its owner.  The late Mr. Charles Thorn, of
Queensland, placed a lamb which had become an 'indigo-eater' in
a small paddock, where it refused to eat grass.  It, however,
ate the indigo plant greedily, and followed Mr. Thorn all over
the paddock for some indigo he held in his hand."

Indented Servants, n. same as Assigned
(q.v.) Servants.

1810.  'History of New South Wales' (1818), p. 352:

"Public Notice.  Secretary's Office, Sydney, July 21, 1810.
A ship being daily expected to arrive here from England with
female convicts, whom it is His Excellency the Governor's
intention to distribute among the settlers, as indented
servants. . . ."

Ink-plant, n. another name for the "toot,"
a New Zealand shrub, Coriaria thymifolia, N.O.
Coriarieae.  Called Ink-plant on account of its juice,
which soon turns to black.  There is also an European
Ink-plant, Coriaria myrtifolia, so that this is
only a different species.

Ironbark, n.  Early settlers gave this name
to several large Eucalypts, from the hardness of their bark,
especially to E. leucoxylon, F. v. M., and
E. resinifera, Smith.  In Queensland it is applied to
E. siderophloia, Benth.  See also Leguminous Ironbark,
and Lemon-scented Ironbark.

1802.  G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' c. viii.
p. 263:

"A species of gum-tree, the bark of which on the trunk is that
of the ironbark of Port Jackson."

1830.  R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 183:

"It was made out of a piece of bark from a tree called
ironbark (nearly as hard when dry as an English elm-board)."

1865.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'History of the Discovery
and Exploration of Australia,' vol. ii. p. 45:

"But this gradually changed to an ironbark (Eucalyptus
resinifera) and cypress-pine forest."

187.  T. Laslett, 'Timber and Timber Trees', p. 199:

"The Ironbark-tree (Eucalyptus resinifera) is . . .
widely spread over a large part of Australia. . . .  A lofty
forest tree of moderate circumference. . . .  It is believed to
have been named as above by some of the earliest Australian
settlers on account of the extreme hardness of its bark; but it
might with equal reason have been called ironwood.  The wood is
of a deep red colour, very hard, heavy, strong, extremely
rigid, and rather difficult to work . . .  used extensively in
shipbuilding and engineering works in Australia; and in this
country (England) it is employed in the mercantile navy for
beams, keelsons, and . . . below the line of flotation."

1883.  G. W. Rusden, 'History of Australia,' vol. i. p. 77:

"The ironbark (Eucalyptus sideroxylon) became from its
durability a synonym for toughness."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. xxvii. p. 248:

"The corrugated stems of the great ironbark trees stood black
and columnar."

1893.  'The Age,' May 11, p. 7, col. 3, (advt.):

"Monday, 15th May.--Supply in one or more contracts of not less
than 20 beams of 400 ironbark or box beams for cattle pits,
delivered at any station.  Particulars at the office of the
Engineer for Existing Lines."

With qualifications.  Silver-leaved--

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 65:

"The silver-leaved ironbark (Eucalyptus pulverulentus)
was here coming into blossom."


1847.  Ibid. p. 154:

"The narrow-leaved ironbark [grew] on a lighter sandy soil."

Iron hand, a term of Victorian politics.  It was a new
Standing Order introducing what has since been called the
Closure, and was first moved in the Victorian Legislative
Assembly on Jan.  27, 1876.

1876.  'Victorian Hansard,' Jan. 20, vol. xxiii. p. 2002:

"They [the Government] have dealt with the Opposition with
a velvet glove; but the iron hand is beneath, and they shall
feel it."

1884.  G. W. Rusden, 'History of Australia,' vol. iii.
p. 406:

"The cloture, or the 'iron hand,' as McCulloch's
resolution was called, was adopted in Victoria, for one

Ironheart, n. a New Zealand tree,
Metrosideros tomentosa, N.O. Myrtaceae; native
name, Pohutukawa.

1872.  A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 311:

"It was the 'downy ironheart'
    That from the cliffs o'erhanging grew,
 And o'er the alcove, every part,
   Such beauteous leaves and blossoms threw."

"Note.--This most lovely tree is common about the
northern coasts and cliffs of the North Island and the banks of
Lake Tarawera."

Ironwood, n.  The name is used of many
hard-wooded trees in various parts of the world.  The
Australian varieties are--

Ironwood (Queensland)--
 Acacia excelsa, Benth., N.O. Leguminosae;
 Melaleuca genistifolia, Smith, N.O. Myrtaceae.

Ironwood (North Queensland)--
 Myrtus gonoclada, F. v. M., N.O. Myrtaceae.

Ironwood (North New South Wales)--
 Olea paniculata, R.Br., N.O. Jasmineae.

Ironwood (Tasmania)--
 Notelaea ligustrina, Vent., N.O. Jasmineae.

Scrub Ironwood--
 Myrtus hillii, Benth., N.O. Myrtaceae.

For Ironwood of New Zealand, see Puriri.

1802.  G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' c. xii.
p. 479:

"A club of iron-wood, which the cannibals had left in the

1823.  W. B. Cramp, 'Narrative of a Voyage to India,' p. 17:

". . . they have a short club made of iron wood, called a
waday, and a scimeter made of the same wood."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 579:

"'Ironwood' and 'Heartwood' of Tasmania; 'Spurious Olive,'
'White Plum' of Gippsland.  An exceedingly hard, close-grained
wood, used for mallets, sheaves of blocks, turnery, etc.  The
heartwood yields a very peculiar figure ; it is a very fair
substitute for lignum-vitae."

Irriakura, n. an aboriginal name for the tubers
of Cyperus rotundus, Linn., N.O. Cyperaceae,
adopted by white men in Central Australia.

1896.  E. C. Stirling, 'Home Expedition in Central
Australia,' Anthropology, p. 60:

"Cyperus rotundus.  In almost every camp we saw large
quantities of the tunicated tubes of this plant, which are
generally called 'Erriakura' or 'Irriakura' by the Arunta
natives. . .  Even raw they are pleasant to the taste, having
an agreeable nutty flavour, which is much improved by the
slight roasting."

Ivory-wood, n. an Australian timber,
Siphonodon australe, Benth., N.O. Celastrinae.

Ivy, n. a child's name for the ivy-leaf
geraniums, especially the double pink-flowered one called
Madame Kruse.  In Australia the warm climate makes these all
evergreens, and they are trained over fences and walls,
sometimes to the height of twenty or thirty feet, supplanting
the English ivy in this use, and covered with masses of

Ivy, Native, an Australian plant, Muehlenbeckia
adpressa, Meissn., N.O. Polygonaceae; called also
Macquarie Harbour Vine, or Grape.  The name is
widely applied also to the acclimatised Cape Ivy, or German
Ivy (Senecio scandens).

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 46:

"'Native Ivy,' Macquarie Harbour Vine or Grape of Tasmania.
The currant-like fruits are sub-acid, and were, and perhaps
still are, used for tarts, puddings, and preserves; the leaves
taste like sorrel."

Ivy, Wild, n. an Australian creeper,
Platylobium triangulare, R. Br.,
N.O. Leguminosae.

Ivy-tree, n.  New Zealand tree, genus
Panax, N.O. Araliacae; Maori name,
Horoeka.  It is also called Lancewood (q.v.).

1883.  J. Hector, 'Handbook of New' Zealand,' p. 127:

"Horoeka, ivy-tree. an ornamental, slender, and
sparingly-branched tree.  Wood close-grained and tough."


Jabiru, n.  The word comes from Brazil, and was
first given there to the large stork Mycteria (Xenorhynchus)
Americana.  The Australian species is M. australis,
Lath.  It has the back and neck dark grey, changing on the neck
to scarlet.  There is a black-necked stork in Australia
(Xenorhynchus asiaticus), which is also called the

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 194:

"We saw a Tabiroo [sic] (Mycteria)."

1860.  G. Bennett, 'Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 195:

"In October, 1858, I succeeded in purchasing a fine living
specimen of the New Holland Jabiru, or Gigantic Crane of the
colonists (Mycteria Australis)"

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 323:

"The splendid Australian jabiru (Mycteria Australis),
and I had the good fortune to shoot on the wing a specimen of
this beautiful variety of the stork family."

Jacana, n. a Brazilian word for a bird of the
genus Parra (q.v.).  The Australian species is the
Comb-crested Jacana, Parra gallinacea, Temm.  It is also
called the Lotus-bird (q.v.).

Jack in a Box, i.q. Hair-trigger (q.v.).

1854.  'The Home Companion,' p. 554:

"When previously mentioning the elegant Stylidium
graminifolium (grass-leaved Jack-in-a-box), which may be
easily known by its numerous grassy-like radical leaves, and
pretty pink flowers, on a long naked stem, we omitted to
mention a peculiarity in it, which is said to afford much
amusement to the aborigines, who are, generally speaking, fond
of, and have a name for, many of the plants common in their own
territories.  The stigma lies at the apex of a long column,
surrounded and concealed by the anthers.  This column is
exceedingly irritable, and hangs down on one side of the
flower, until it is touched, when it suddenly springs up and
shifts to the opposite side of the blossom or calyx."

1859.  D. Bunce, 'Australasiatic Reminiscences,' p. 26:

"Stylidium (native Jack in a box).  This genus is
remarkable for the singular elasticity of the column stylis,
which support the anthers, and which being irritable, will
spring up if pricked with a pin, or other little substance,
below the joint, before the pollen, a small powder, is shed,
throwing itself suddenly over, like a reflex arm, to the
opposite side of the flower.  Hence the colonial designation of
Jack in a box."

Jack the Painter, n. very strong bush-tea, so
called from the mark it leaves round the drinker's mouth.

1855.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes,' p. 163:

"Another notorious ration tea of the bush is called Jack the
Painter--a very green tea indeed, its viridity evidently
produced by a discreet use of the copper drying-pans in its

1878.  'The Australian,' vol. i. p. 418:

"The billy wins, and 'Jack the Painter' tea
 Steams on the hob, from aught like fragrance free."

1880.  Garnet Walch, 'Victoria in 1880,' p. 113

"Special huts had to be provided for them [the sundowners],
where they enjoyed eleemosynary rations of mutton, damper,
and 'Jack the Painter.'"

Jackaroo, n. a name for a Colonial Experience
(q.v.), a young man fresh from England, learning squatting;
called in New Zealand a Cadet (q.v.).  Compare the American
"tenderfoot."  A verse definition runs:

"To do all sorts and kinds of jobs,
 Help all the men Jacks, Bills or Bobs,
      As well as he is able.
 To be neither boss, overseer, nor man,
 But a little of all as well as he can,
     And eat at the master's table."

The word is generally supposed to be a corruption (in imitation
of the word Kangaroo) of the words "Johnny Raw."  Mr. Meston,
in the 'Sydney Bulletin,' April 18, 1896, says it comes from
the old Brisbane blacks, who called the pied crow shrike
(Strepera graculina) "tchaceroo," a gabbling and
garrulous bird.  They called the German missionaries of 1838
"jackeroo," a gabbler, because they were always talking.
Afterwards they applied it to all white men.

1880.  W. Senior, 'Travel and Trout,' p. 19:

"Jackaroos--the name given to young gentlemen newly arrived
from home to gather colonial experiences."

1881.  A. C. Grant 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i.
p. 53:

"The young jackaroo woke early next morning."

[Footnote]: "The name by which young men who go to the
Australian colonies to pick up colonial experience are

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' p. 85:

"Of course before starting on their own account to work a
station they go into the bush to gain colonial experience,
during which process they are known in the colony as

1891.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'A Sydneyside Saxon,' p. 74:

"We went most of the way by rail and coach, and then a
jackaroo met us with a fine pair of horses in a waggonette.
I expected to see a first cousin to a kangaroo, when the
coachdriver told us, instead of a young gentleman learning

1894.  'Sydney Morning Herald' (date lost):

"'Jack-a-roo' is of the same class of slang; but the unlucky
fellow--often gentle and soft-handed--who does the oddwork of a
sheep or cattle station, if he finds time and heart for letters
to any who love him, probably writes his rue with a

Jackaroo, v. to lead the life of a Jackaroo.

1890.  Tasma, 'In her Earliest Youth,' p. 152:

"I've seen such a lot of those new chums, one way and another.
They knock down all their money at the first go-off, and then
there's nothing for them to do but to go and jackaroo up in

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Squatter's Dream,' c. xix. p. 239:

"A year or two more Jackerooing would only mean the consumption
of so many more figs of negro-head, in my case."

Jackass-fish, n. another Sydney name for the
Morwong (q.v.).

Jackass, Laughing, n. (1) The popular name of
an Australian bird, Dacelo gigas, Bodd, the Great Brown
Kingfisher of Australia; see Dacelo.  To an Australian
who has heard the ludicrous note of the bird and seen its
comical, half-stupid appearance, the origin of the name seems
obvious.  It utters a prolonged rollicking laugh, often
preceded by an introductory stave resembling the opening
passage of a donkey's bray.

But the name has been erroneously derived from the French
jacasse, as to which Littre gives "terme populaire.
Femme, fille qui parle beaucoup."  He adds, that the word
jacasse appears to come from jacquot, a name
popularly given to parrots and magpies, our "Poll."  The verb
jacasser means to chatter, said of a magpie.  The
quotation from Collins (1798) seems to dispose of this
suggested French origin, by proving the early use of the name
Laughing Jackass.  As a matter of fact, the French name
had already in 1776 been assigned to the bird, viz. Grand
Martin-pecheur de la Nouvelle Guinee.  [See Pierre
Sonnerat, 'Voyage a la Nouvelle Guinee' (Paris, 1776),
p. 171.]  The only possibility of French origin would be from
the sailors of La Perouse.  But La Perouse arrived in Botany
Bay on January 26, 1788, and found Captain Phillip's ships
leaving for Sydney Cove.  The intercourse between them was very
slight.  The French formed a most unfavourable idea of the
country, and sailed away on March 10.  If from their short
intercourse, the English had accepted the word Jackass,
would not mention of the fact have been made by Governor
Phillip, or Surgeon White, who mention the bird but by a
different name (see quotations 1789, 1790), or by Captain
Watkin Tench, or Judge Advocate Collins, who both mention the
incident of the French ships?

The epithet "laughing" is now often omitted; the bird is
generally called only a Jackass, and this is becoming
contracted into the simple abbreviation of Jack.  A common
popular name for it is the Settlers'-Clock.  (See
quotations--1827, Cunningham; 1846, Haydon; and 1847,
Leichhardt.)  The aboriginal name of the bird is
Kookaburra (q.v.), and by this name it is generally
called in Sydney; another spelling is Gogobera.

There is another bird called a Laughing Jackass in New
Zealand which is not a Kingfisher, but an Owl, Sceloglaux
albifacies, Kaup.  (Maori name, Whekau).  The New
Zealand bird is rare, the Australian bird very common.  The
so-called Derwent Jackass of Tasmania is a Shrike
(Cracticus cinereus, Gould), and is more properly called
the Grey Butcher-bird.  See Butcher-bird.

1789.  Governor Phillip, 'Voyage,' p. 287:

Description given with picture, but under name "Great Brown
Kingsfisher" [sic].

Ibid. p. 156:

Similar bird, with description and picture, under name "Sacred
King's Fisher."

1790.  J. White, 'Voyage to New South Wales,' p. 137:

"We not long after discovered the Great Brown King's Fisher,
of which a plate is annexed.  This bird has been described by
Mr. Latham in his 'General Synopsis of Birds,' vol. ii. p. 603.

Ibid. p. 193:

"We this day shot the Sacred King's-Fisher (see plate annexed)."

1798.  Collins, 'Account of English Colony in New South Wales,'
p. 615, (Vocabulary):

"Gi-gan-ne-gine.  Bird named by us the Laughing Jackass.
Go-con-de--inland name for it."

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i.
p. 232:

"The loud and discordant noise of the laughing jackass (or
settler's-clock, as he is called), as he takes up his roost on
the withered bough of one of our tallest trees, acquaints us
that the sun has just dipped behind the hills."

1827.  Vigors and Horsfield, 'Transactions of Linnaean
Society,' vol. xv. p. 204:

"The settlers call this bird the Laughing Jackass.  I have also
heard it called the Hawkesbury-Clock (clocks being at the
period of my residence scarce articles in the colony, there not
being one perhaps in the whole Hawkesbury settlement), for it
is among the first of the feathered tribes which announce the
approach of day."

1846.  G. H. Haydon, 'Five Years in Australia Felix,'
p. 71:

"The laughing jackass, or settler's-clock is an uncouth looking
creature of an ashen brown colour . . .  This bird is the
first to indicate by its note the approach of day, and thus it
has received its other name, the settler's clock."

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 234:

"I usually rise when I hear the merry laugh of the laughing-
jackass (Dacelo gigantea), which, from its regularity,
has not been unaptly named the settlers'-clock."

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. ii. pl. 18:

"Dacelo Gigantea, Leach, Great Brown King Fisher;
Laughing Jackass of the Colonists."

1855.  W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 58:

"You are startled by a loud, sudden cackling, like flocks of
geese, followed by an obstreperous hoo! hoo! ha! ha! of the
laughing jackass (Dacelo gigantea) a species of jay."

[Howitt's comparison with the jay is evidently due to the azure
iridescent markings on the upper part of the wings, in colour
like the blue feathers on the jay.]

1862.  F. J. Jobson, 'Australia,' c. vi. p. 145:

"The odd medley of cackling, bray, and chuckle notes from
the 'Laughing Jackass.'"

1872.  C. H. Eden, 'My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 18:

"At daylight came a hideous chorus of fiendish laughter, as if
the infernal regions had been broken loose--this was the song of
another feathered innocent, the laughing jackass--not half a bad
sort of fellow when you come to know him, for he kills snakes,
and is an infallible sign of the vicinity of fresh-water."

1880.  T. W. Nutt, 'Palace of Industry,' p. 15:

"Where clock-bird laughed and sweet wildflowers throve."

[Footnote] "The familiar laughing jackass."

1880.  Garnet Walch, 'Victoria in 1880,' p. 13:

"Dense forests, where the prolonged cacchinations of that cynic
of the woods, as A. P. Martin calls the laughing jackass,
seemed to mock us for our pains."

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 37:

"The harsh-voiced, big-headed, laughing jackass."

1881.  D. Blair, 'Cyclopaedia of Australasia,' p. 202:

"The name it vulgarly bears is a corruption of the French word
Jacasser, 'to chatter,' and the correct form is the 'Laughing

[No.  See above.]

1885.  'Australasian Printers' Keepsake,' p. 76:

"Magpies chatter, and the jackass
 Laughs Good-morrow like a Bacchus."

1889.  Rev. J. H. Zillmann, 'Australian Life,' [telling an
old story] p. 155:

"The Archbishop inquired the name of a curious bird which had
attracted his attention.  'Your grace, we call that the
laughing jackass in this country, but I don't know the
botanical [sic] name of the bird."

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals, p. 27:

"Few of the birds of Australia have pleased me as much as this
curious laughing jackass, though it is both clumsy and
unattractive in colour.  Far from deserving its name jackass,
it is on the contrary very wise and also very courageous.  It
boldly attacks venomous snakes and large lizards, and is
consequently the friend of the colonist."

1890.  Tasma, 'In her Earliest Youth,' p. 265:

"'There's a jackass--a real laughing jackass on that dead
branch.  They have such a queer note; like this,, you know--'
and upon her companion's startled ears there rang forth, all of
a sudden, the most curious, inimitable, guttural, diabolical
tremolo it had ever befallen them to hear."

1890.  'Victorian Statutes-Game Act, Third Schedule':

"[Close season.]  Great Kingfisher or Laughing Jackass.
The whole year. all Kingfishers other than the Laughing Jackass.
From the 1st day of August to the 20th day of December next
following in each year."

(2) The next quotations refer to the New Zealand bird.

1882.  T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 122:

"Athene Albifacies, wekau of the Maoris, is known by
some up-country settlers as the big owl or laughing

"The cry of the laughing jackass . . .  Why it should share
with one of our petrels and the great Dacelo of
Australia the trivial name of laughing jackass, we know not;
if its cry resembles laughter at all, it is the uncontrollable
outburst, the convulsive shout of insanity; we have never been
able to trace the faintest approach to mirthful sound in the
unearthly yells of this once mysterious night-bird."

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 198:

"Sceloglaux albifacies, Kaup., Laughing Owl; Laughing
Jackass of the Colonists."

[The following quotation refers to the Derwent Jackass.]

1880.  Mrs. Meredith, 'Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' p. 110:

"You have heard of . . . the laughing jackass.  We, too, have
a 'jackass,' a smaller bird, and not in any way remarkable,
except for its merry gabbling sort of song, which when several
pipe up together, always gives one the idea of a party of very
talkative people all chattering against time, and all at once."

Jack-bird, n. a bird of the South Island of New
Zealand, Creadion cinereus, Buller.  See also
Saddle-back and Creadion.

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 23:

"It has become the habit to speak of this bird as the Brown
Saddle-back; but this is a misnomer, inasmuch as the absence of
the 'saddle' is its distinguishing feature.  I have accordingly
adopted the name of Jack-bird, by which it is known among the
settlers in the South Island.  Why it should be so called I
cannot say, unless this is an adaptation of the native name
Tieke, the same word being the equivalent, in the Maori
vernacular, of our Jack."

Jack Shay, or Jackshea, n. a tin quart-pot.

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 209:

"Hobbles and Jack Shays hang from the saddle dees."

[Footnote]: "A tin quart-pot, used for boiling water for tea,
and contrived so as to hold within it a tin pint-pot."

1890.  'The Argus,' June14, p. 4, col. 1:

"Some of his clothes, with his saddle, serve for a pillow; his
ration bags are beside his head, and his jackshea (quart-pot)
stands by the fire."

Jacky Winter, n.  the vernacular name in New
South Wales of the Brown Flycatcher, Microeca fascinans,
a common little bird about Sydney.  The name has been ascribed
to the fact that it is a resident species, very common, and
that it sings all through the winter, when nearly every other
species is silent.  See Flycatcher.

Jade, n.  See Greenstone.

Jarrah, n. anglicised form of Jerryhl,
the native name of a certain species of Eucalyptus, which grows
in the south of Western Australia, east and south-east of
Perth.  In Sir George Grey's Glossary (1840), Djar-rail;
Mr. G. F. Moore's (1884), Djarryl.  (Eucalyptus
marginata, Donn.)  The name Bastard-Jarrah is given
to E. botryoides, Smith, which bears many other names.
It is the Blue-Gum of New South Wales coast-districts,
the Bastard-Mahogany of Gippsland and New South Wales,
and also Swamp Mahogany in Victoria and New South Wales,
and occasionally Woolly-Butt.

1873.  A. Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,'
vol. ii. p. 102:

"It may be that after all the hopes of the West-Australian
Micawbers will be realised in jarrah-wood."

1875.  T. Laslett, 'Timber and Timber Trees,' p. 189:

"The Jarrah or Mahogany-tree is also found in Western
Australia.  The wood is red in colour, hard, heavy, close in
texture, slightly wavy in the grain, and with occasionally
enough figure to give it value for ornamental purposes; it
works up quite smoothly and takes a good polish."

188.  G. W. Rusden, 'History of Australia, vol. i. p. 77:

"The jarrah of Western Australia (Eucalyptus marginata)
has a peculiar reputation for its power to defy decay when
submerged and exposed to the attacks of the dreaded teredo, and
has been largely exported to India."

1888.  R. Kipling, 'Plain Tales from the Hills,' p. 163

". . . the awful butchery . . . of the Maribyrnong Plate.  The
walls were colonial ramparts--logs of jarrah spiked into
masonry--with wings as strong as Church buttresses."

[Jarrah is not a Victorian, but a West-Australian timber, and
imported logs are not used by the V.R.C., but white or red gum.
For making "jumps," no logs are "spiked into masonry," and the
Maribyrnong Plate is not a "jump-race."]

1892.  Gilbert Parker, 'Round the Compass in Australia,'
p. 415:

"Mr. W. H. Knight, twenty years ago, gave evidence as to the
value of the jarrah. . . .  It is found that piles driven down
in the Swan River were, after being exposed to the action of
wind, water, and weather for forty years, as sound and firm as
when put into the water. . . .  It completely resists the
attacks of the white ants, where stringy-bark, blue-gum,
white-gum, and black-wood are eaten through, or rendered
useless, in from six to twelve years."

1896.  'The Times' (weekly edition), Dec. 4, p. 822, col. 1:

"The jarrah, Eucalyptus marginata, stands pre-eminent as
the leading timber tree of the Western Australian forests.  For
constructive work necessitating contact with soil and water
jarrahwood has no native equal.  A jarrah forest is dull,
sombre, and uninteresting to the eye.  In first-class forests
the trees attain a height of from 90 ft. to 120 ft., with good
stems 3 ft. to 5 ft. in diameter.  The tree is practically
confined to the south-western division of the colony, where the
heaviest rains of the season fall.  As a rule, jarrah is found
either intermixed with the karri tree or in close proximity to

Jasmine, Native, n. an Australian plant,
Ricinocarpus pinifolius, Desf.,
N.O. Euphorbiaceae.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 286:

"Native Jasmine.  This plant yields abundance of seeds,
like small castor oil seeds.  They yield an oil."

Jelly-leaf, n. i.q. Queensland Hemp

Jelly-plant, a sea-weed, Eucheuma speciosum,
J. Agardh, N.O. Algae.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 28:

"Jelly-plant of Western Australia.  This is a remarkable
sea-weed of a very gelatinous character [used by] the people of
Western Australia for making jelly, blanc-mange, etc.  Size and
cement can also be made from it.  It is cast ashore from deep

Jemmy Donnelly, n. a ridiculous name given to
three trees, Euroschinus falcatus, Hook,
N.O. Anacardiaceae; Myrsine variabilis, R. Br.,
N.O. Myrsinaceae; and Eucalyptus resinifera, Sm.,
N.O. Myrtaceae.  They are large timber trees, highly
valued in Queensland.

Jerrawicke, n. obsolete name for Colonial beer.

1857.  J. Askew, 'A Voyage to Australia and New Zealand,'
p. 272:

"There were always a number of natives roaming about.  There
might be about 150 in all, of the Newcastle tribe.  They were
more wretched and filthy, and if possible, uglier than those of
Adelaide. . . .  All the earnings of the tribe were spent in
tobacco and jerrawicke (colonist-made ale)."

1857.  Ibid. p. 273:

"A more hideous looking spectacle can hardly be imagined than
that presented by these savages around the blazing fire,
carousing among jerrawicke and the offal of slaughtered

Jew-fish, n. a name applied in New South Wales
to two or more different species, Sciaena antarctica,
Castln., and Glaucosoma hebraicum, Richards.  Sciaena
antarctica, Castln., is the King-fish of the Melbourne
market.  Sciaena is called Dew-fish in Brisbane.  It
belongs to the family Sciaenidae.  The Australian
species is distinct from S. aquila, the European
"Maigre" or "Meagre," but closely resembles it.
Glaucosoma belongs to the Percidae.  The Silver
Jew-fish of New South Wales is thought to be the same as the
Teraglin (q.v.), Otolithus atelodus, Guenth.,
also of the family Sciaeidae.  Tenison Woods (in 'Fish
and Fisheries of New South Wales,' 1882, p. 34) says the
Jew-fish of New South Wales is sometimes Glaucosoma
scapulare, Ramsay; and Glaucosoma hebraicum,
Richards., is the Jew-fish of Western Australia (a marine
fish).  Fishes on the American coasts, different from these,
are there called Jew-fishes.

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 40:

"The water-holes abounded with jew-fish and eels."

Jew-Lizard, n. a large Australian lizard,
Amiphibolurus barbatus, Cuv.; called also Bearded

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 89:

"A small Chlamydophorus (Jew-lizard of the Hunter) was
also seen."  [The Hunter is a river of New South Wales.]

1890.  F. McCoy, 'Prodromus of the Natural History of
Victoria,' Decade xiii. pl. 121:

"This is commonly called the Jew Lizard by colonists, and is
easily distinguished by the beard-like growth of long slender
spires round the throat . . . when irritated, it inflates the
body to a considerably increased size, and hisses like a snake
exciting alarm; but rarely biting."

1893.  'The Argus,' July 22, p. 4, col. 5:

"The great Jew-lizards that lay and laughed horribly to
themselves in the pungent dust on the untrodden floors."

Jil-crow-a-berry, n. the Anglicised
pronunciation and spelling of the aboriginal name for the
indigenous Rat-tail Grass, Sporobolus indicus,
R. Br.

Jimmy, n. obsolete name for an immigrant, a
word which was jocularly changed into Jimmy Grant.  The word
'immigrant' is as familiar in Australia as 'emigrant' in

1859.  H. Kingsley, 'Geoffrey Hamlyn,' p. 211:

"'What are these men that we are going to see?' 'Why one,'
said Lee, is a young Jimmy--I beg your pardon, sir, an
emigrant, the other two are old prisoners.'"

1867.  'Cassell's Magazine,' p. 440:

"'I never wanted to leave England,' I have heard an old
Vandemonian observe boastfully.  'I wasn't like one of these
'Jemmy Grants' (cant term for 'emigrants'); I could always earn
a good living; it was the Government as took and sent me out."

[The writers probably used the word immigrant, which,
not being familiar to the English compositor, was misprinted
emigrant.  The "old Vandemonian" must certainly have
said immigrant.]

Jimmy Low, n. one of the many names of a
Timber-tree, Eucalyptus resinifera, Smith,
N.O. Myrtaceae.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 208:

"The 'Red,' or 'Forest Mahogany,' of the neighbourhood of
Sydney.  These are bad names, as the wood bears no real
resemblance to the true mahogany.  Because the product of this
tree first brought Australian kino into medical notice, it is
often in old books called 'Botany Bay Gum-tree.'  Other names
for it are Red gum, Grey gum, Hickory, and it perpetuates the
memory of an individual by being called 'Jimmy Low.'"

Jingle, n. a two-wheeled vehicle, like an Irish
car, once common in Melbourne, still used in Brisbane and some
other towns: so called from the rattle made by it when in
motion.  The word is not Australian, as is generally supposed;
the 'Century' gives "a covered two-wheeled car used in the
south of Ireland."

1862.  Clara Aspinall, 'Three Years in Melbourne,' p. 122:

"An omnibus may be chartered at much less cost (gentlemen who
have lived in India will persist in calling this vehicle
a jingle, which perhaps sounds better); it is a kind of
dos-a-dos conveyance, holding three in front and three behind:
it has a waterproof top to it supported by four iron rods, and
oilskin curtains to draw all round as a protection from the
rain and dust."

1863.  B. A. Heywood, 'Vacation Tour at the Antipodes,'
p. 44:

"During my stay in Melbourne I took a jingle, or car, and drove
to St. Kilda."

1865.  Lady Barker, writing from Melbourne, 'Station Life in
New Zealand,' p. 12:

"A vehicle which was quite new to me--a sort of light car with a
canopy and curtains, holding four, two on each seat, dos-a-dos,
and called a jingle--of American parentage, I fancy.  One drive
in this carriage was quite enough, however."

1869.  Marcus Clarke, 'Peripatetic Philosopher,' p. 14:

"Some folks prefer to travel
 Over stones and rocks and gravel;
 And smile at dust and jolting fit to dislocate each bone.
 To see 'em driving in a jingle,
 It would make your senses tingle,
 For you couldn't put a sixpence 'twixt the wheel and the

1887.  Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. i. p. 64:

"In former days the Melbourne cab was a kind of Irish car,
popularly known as a jingle. . . .  The jingle has been ousted
by the one-horse waggonette."

1887.  R. M. Praed, 'Longleat of Kooralbyn,' c. iv. p. 30:

"The Premier hailed a passing jingle."

[This was in Brisbane.]

Jinkers, n. a contrivance much used in the bush
for moving heavy logs and trunks of trees.  It consists of two
pairs of wheels, with their axle-trees joined by a long beam,
under which the trunks are suspended by chains.  Its structure
is varied in town for moving wooden houses.  Called in England
a "whim."

1894.  'The Argus,' July 7, p. 8, col. 4:

"A rather novel spectacle was to be seen to-day on the Ballan
road in the shape of a five-roomed cottage on jinkers. . . .
Mr. Scottney, carrier of Fitzroy, on whose jinkers the removal
is being made . . ."

Jirrand, adj. an aboriginal word in the dialect of
Botany Bay, signifying "afraid."  Ridley, in his vocabulary,
spells it jerron, and there are other spellings.

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol.
ii. p. 59:

"The native word jirrand (afraid) has become in some
measure an adopted child, and may probably puzzle our future
Johnsons with its unde derivatur."

1889.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Robbery under Arms,' p. 316:

"When I saw the mob there was I didn't see so much to be jerran
about, as it was fifty to one in favour of any one that was

Jo-Jo, n. name used by Melbourne larrikins for
a man with a good deal of hair on his face.  So called from a
hairy-faced Russian "dog man" exhibited in Melbourne
about 1880, who was advertised by that name.

Job's Tears.  The seeds of Coix lachryma, which
are used for necklace-making by the native tribes on the Cape
York peninsula, are there called Job's tears.

Joe, Joe-Joe, Joey, interjection, then a verb,
now obsolete.  Explained in quotations.

1855.  W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 400:

"The well-known cry of 'Joe! Joe!'--a cry which means one of
the myrmidons of Charley Joe, as they familiarly style Mr.
[Charles Joseph] La Trobe,--a cry which on all the diggings
resounds on all sides on the appearance of any of the hated

1861.  T. McCombie, 'Australian Sketches,' p. 135:

"The cry of 'Joey' would rise everywhere against them."

[Footnote]: "To 'Joey' or 'Joe' a person on the diggings, or
anywhere else in Australia, is to grossly insult and ridicule

1863.  B. A. Heywood, 'Vacation Tour at the Antipodes,'
p. 165:

"In the early days of the Australian diggings 'Joe' was the
warning word shouted out when the police or gold commissioners
were seen approaching, but is now the chaff for new chums."

1865.  F. H. Nixon, 'Peter Perfume,' p. 58:

"And Joe joed them out, Tom toed them out."

1891.  'The Argus,' Dec. 5, p. 13, col. 4:

"'The diggers,' he says, 'were up in arms against the
Government officials, and whenever a policeman or any other
Government servant was seen they raised the cry of "Joe-Joe."'
The term was familiar to every man in the fifties.  In the
earliest days of the diggings proclamations were issued on
diverse subjects, but mostly in the direction of curtailing the
privileges of the miners.  These were signed, 'C. Joseph La
Trobe,' and became known by the irreverent--not to say flippant
--description of 'Joes.'  By an easy transition, the corruption
of the second name of the Governor was applied to his officers,
between whom and the spirited diggers no love was lost, and
accordingly the appearance of a policeman on a lead was
signalled to every tent and hole by the cry of 'Joe-Joe.'"

Joey, n. (1) A young kangaroo.

1839.  W. H. Leigh, 'Reconnoitring Voyages in South Australia'
pp. 93-4:

"Here [in Kangaroo Island] is also the wallaba . . .  The
young of the animal is called by the islanders a joe."

1861.  T. McCombie, I'Australian Sketches,' p. 172:

"The young kangaroos are termed joeys.  The female carries the
latter in her pouch, but when hard pressed by dogs, and likely
to be sacrificed, she throws them down, which usually distracts
the attention of the pack and affords the mother sufficient
time to escape."

1888.  D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 10:

"Sometimes when the flying doe throws her 'joey' from her
pouch the dogs turn upon the little one."

1896.  F. G. Aflalo, 'Natural History of Australia,' p. 29:

"At length the actual fact of the Kangaroo's birth, which is
much as that of other mammals, was carefully observed at the
London Zoo, and the budding fiction joined the myths that were.
It was there proved that the little 'joey' is brought into the
world in the usual way, and forthwith conveyed to the
comfortable receptacle and affixed to the teat by the dam,
which held the lifeless-looking little thing tenderly in her
cloven lips."

(2) Also slang used for a baby or little child, or even a young
animal, such as a little guinea-pig.  Compare "kid."

(3) A hewer of wood and drawer of water.

1845.  J. A. Moore, 'Tasmanian Rhymings,' p. 15:

"He was a 'joey,' which, in truth,
 Means nothing more than that youth
 Who claims a kangaroo descent
 Is by that nomenclature meant."

1888.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Robbery under Arms,' p. 198:

"I'm not going to be wood-and-water Joey, I can tell ye."

John Dory, or Dorey, n. a fish.  This
name is applied in New South Wales and Tasmania to Cyttus
(Zeus) australis, Richards., family Cyttidae, which
is nearly the same as Zeus faber, the "John Dory" of
Europe.  Others call C. australis the Bastard
Dorey (q.v.), and it is also called the Boar-fish
(q.v.) and Dollar-fish (q.v.).

1880.  Guenther, 'Study of Fishes,' p. 451:

"'John Dorys' are found in the Mediterranean, on the eastern
temperate shores of the Atlantic, on the coasts of Japan and
Australia.  Six species are known, all of which are highly
esteemed for the table.  The English name given to one of the
European species (Zeus Faber) seems to be partly a
corruption of the Gascon 'Jau,' which signifies cock, 'Dory'
being derived from the French Doree, so that the entire
name means Gilt-cock.  Indeed, in some other localities of
southern Europe it bears the name of Gallo.  The same
species occurs also on the coasts of South Australia and New

Johnny-cake.  n. The name is of American
origin, originally given by the negroes to a cake made of
Indian corn (maize).  In Australia it is a cake baked on the
ashes or cooked in a frying-pan.  (See quotations.)  The name
is used in the United States for a slightly different cake,
viz. made with Indian meal and toasted before a fire.

1861.  Mrs. Meredith, 'Over the Straits,' p. 154:

"The dough-cakes fried in fat, called 'Johnny-cakes.'"

1872.  C. H. Eden, 'My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 20:

"Johnny-cakes, though they are smaller and very thin, and made
in a similar way [sc. to dampers: see Damper]; when
eaten hot they are excellent, but if allowed to get cold they
become leathery."

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance of Australia,' p. 3:

"Johnny-cakes are made with nothing but flour, but there is a
great art in mixing them.  If it is done properly they are
about the lightest and nicest sort of bread that can be made;
but the efforts of an amateur generally result in a wet heavy
pulp that sticks round one's teeth like bird-lime."

1890.  'The Argus,' Aug. 16, p. 13, col. 1:

"Here I, a new chum, could, with flour and water and a pinch
of baking-powder, make a sweet and wholesome johnny cake."

1892.  Mrs. Russell, 'Too Easily Jealous,' p. 273 :

"Bread was not, and existed only in the shape of johnny-cakes
--flat scones of flour and water, baked in the hot ashes."

1894.  'The Argus,' March 10, p. 4, col. 6:

"It is also useful to make your damper or 'Johnny-cake,' which
serves you in place of yeast bread.  A Johnny-cake is made
thus:--Put a couple of handfuls of flour into your dish, with a
good pinch of salt and baking soda.  Add water till it works to
a stiff paste.  Divide it into three parts and flatten out into
cakes about half an inch thick.  Dust a little flour into your
frying-pan and put the cake in.  Cook it slowly over the fire,
taking care it does not burn, and tossing it over again and
again.  When nearly done stand it against a stick in front of
the fire, and let it finish baking while you cook the other
two.  These, with a piece of wallaby and a billy of tea, are a
sweet meal enough after a hard day's work."

Jolly-tail, n. a Tasmanian name for the larger
variety of the fish Galaxias attenuatus, Jenyns, and
other species of Galaxias called Inanga (q.v.) in
New Zealand.  Galaxias weedoni is called the Mersey
Jolly-tail, and Galaxias atkinsoni, the Pieman
Jolly-tail.  Pieman and Mersey are two Tasmanian rivers.
See Mountain-Trout.

July, n. a winter month in Australia.  See

1888.  Mrs. M'Cann, 'Poetical Works,' p. 235:

"Scarce has July with frigid visage flown."

Jumbuck, n. aboriginal pigeon-English for
sheep.  Often used in the bush.  The origin of this word was
long unknown.  It is thus explained by Mr. Meston, in the
'Sydney Bulletin,' April 18, 1896: "The word 'jumbuck' for
sheep appears originally as jimba, jombock, dombock, and
dumbog.  In each case it meant the white mist preceding
a shower, to which a flock of sheep bore a strong resemblance.
It seemed the only thing the aboriginal mind could compare it

1845.  C. Griffith, 'Present State and Prospects of the Port
Phillip District of New South Wales,' p. 162:

"The following is a specimen of such eloquence: 'You
pilmillally jumbuck plenty sulky me, plenty boom, borack
gammon,' which being interpreted means, 'If you shoot my sheep
I shall be very angry, and will shoot you and no mistake.'"

1855.  W. Ridley, 'Transactions of Philological Society,'
p. 77:

"When they adopt English words ending in mutes, the blacks drop
the mute or add a vowel: thus, jimbugg, a slang name for
sheep, they sound jimbu." [It was not English slang but
an aboriginal word.]

1893.  'The Argus,' April 8, p. 4, col. 1:

"Mister Charlie, jumbuck go along of grass, blood all there,
big dog catch him there, big jumbuck, m'me word, neck torn."

1896.  'The Australasian,' June 6, p. 1085, col. 1:

"Jumbuck (a sheep) has been in use from the earliest days,
but its origin is not known."

Jump, to, v. to take possession of a claim
(mining) on land, on the ground that a former possessor has
abandoned it, or has not fulfilled the conditions of the grant.
The word is also used in the United States, but it is very
common in Australia.  Instead of "you have taken my seat," you
have jumped it.  So even with a pew. a man in England,
to whom was said, "you have jumped my pew," would look
astonished, as did that other who was informed, "Excuse me,
sir, but you are occupewing my py."

1861.  T. McCombie, 'Australian Sketches,' p. 31:

". . . on condition that he occupies it within twenty-four
hours: should this rule not be observed, the right of the
original holder is lost, and it may be occupied (or 'jumped'
as it is termed) by any other person as a deserted claim."

1861.  'Victorian Hansard,' vol. vii. p. 942 (May 21):

"Mr. Wood: Some of the evils spoken of seemed indeed
only to exist in the imagination of the hon. and learned
gentleman, as, for instance, that of 'jumping,' for which a
remedy was already given by the 77th section of the present

"Mr. Ireland: Yes; after the claim is 'jumped.'"

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'The Miner's Right,' p. 37:

"If such work were not commenced within three days, any other
miners might summarily take possession of or jump the claim."

ibid. p. 52:

"Let us have the melancholy satisfaction of seeing Gus's pegs,
and noting whether they are all en regle.  If not, we'll
'jump' him."

Ibid. p. 76:

"In default of such advertisement, for the general benefit,
they were liable, according to custom and practice, to have
their claim 'jumped,' or taken forcible possession of by any
party of miners who could prove that they were concealing the
golden reality."

1875.  'Melbourne Spectator,' August 21, p. 189, col. 3:

"Jumping selections . . .  is said to be very common now in
the Winmera district."

Jumpable, adj. open to another to take.  See

1884.  Rolf Boldrewood, Melbourne Memories,' c. xvi. p. 114:

"The heifer station was what would be called in mining
parlance 'an abandoned claim' and possibly 'jumpable.'"

Jumper, n. one who jumps a claim.  See

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. xii. p. 127:

"Come along, my noble jumper, you've served your injunction."

Jumping-mouse, n.  See Hapalote.

June, n. a winter month in Australia.  See

1886.  H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 132:

"Twenty white-haired Junes have left us
 Grey with frost and bleak with gale."

Jungle-hen, n. name given to a mound-building
bird, Megapodius tumulus, Gould.  See also
Megapode.  The Indian Jungle-fowl is a different bird.

1890.  Carl Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 97:

"But what especially gives life and character to these woods
are the jungle-hens (mound-builders) . . .  The bird is of a
brownish hue, with yellow legs and immensely large feet; hence
its name Megapodius."

Juniper, Native, n. i.q. Native Currant


Kahawai, n.  Maori name for the fish Arripis
salar, Richards.; called in Australia and New Zealand
Salmon (q.v.).

Kahikatea, n.  Maori name for a New Zealand
tree, Podocarpus dacrydioides, A. Rich.,
N.O. Coniferae.  Also called White-Pine.
See Pine.  The settlers' pronunciation is often
Kackatea.  There is a Maori word Kahika, meaning

1855.  Rev. R. Taylor. 'Te Ika a Maui,' p. 439:

"White-pine, Podocarpus dacrydioides--Kahikatea, kahika,
korol.  This tree is generally called the white-pine, from the
colour of its wood.  The kahikatea may be considered as nearly
the loftiest tree in the New Zealand forest; it often attains a
height of little less than two hundred feet, and in that
respect rivals the noble kauri, but the general appearance is
not very pleasing."

1875.  T. Laslett, 'Timber and Trees,' p. 304:

"The kahikatea or kakaterra-tree (Dacrydium excelsum or
taxifolium).  This majestic and noble-looking tree
belongs to the natural order of Taxaceae, more commonly
known by the name of Joint Firs.  Height 150 to 180 feet,
rising sixty feet and upward without a branch."

1876: W. Blair, 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,'
vol. ix. art. 10, p. 160:

"This timber is known in all the provinces, except Otago, by
the native name of 'kahikatea'.  I think we should adopt it
also, not only on account of being more euphonious, but for
the reason that so many timbers in other parts of the world
are called white-pine."

1873.  'Appendix to Journal of House of Representatives,'
vol. iii. G. 7, p. 11:

"On the purchased land stands, or lately stood, a small
kahikatea bush. . . .  The wood appears to have been of no
great money value, but the natives living in Tareha's pa
depended upon it for their supply of fire-wood."

1883.  J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand, p. 124:

[It is Sir James Hector who assigns the tree to
Coniferae, not Taxaceae.]

1888.  Cassell's' Picturesque Australasia,' vol. iii. p. 210:

"The White Pine or kahikatea is a very beautiful tree, and
droops its dark feathery foliage in a way which recalls the
graceful branches of the English elm-tree."

Kahikatoa, n.  Maori name for /a/ New Zealand
shrub, but no longer used by the settlers.

1883.  J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand, p. 126:

"Kahikatoa, tea-tree of Cook.  Leptospermum
scoparium, Forst., N.O. Myrtaceae."

Kahikomako, n. Maori name [shortened into
kaikomako] for a New Zealand timber, Pennantia
corymbosa, N.O. Olacineae; called also
Ribbonwood (q.v.).

1883.  J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand, p. 130:

"Kahikomako, a small, very graceful tree, with white
sweet-smelling flowers; height twenty to thirty feet.
Wood used by the Maoris for kindling fires by friction."

Kai, n. Maori word for food; used also
in the South Sea islands.  Kai-kai is an English
adaptation for feasting.

1807.  J. Savage, 'Some Account of New Zealand,' Vocab.
p. 75:

"Kiki . . .  food."  [The i has the English not the
Italian sound.]

1820.  'Grammar and Vocabulary of Language of New Zealand'
(Church Missionary Society), p. 157:

"Kai, s. victuals, support, etc.; a. eatable."

1845.  E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i.
p. 29:

"He explained to us that every one would cry very much, and
then there would be very much kai-kai or feasting."

1855.  Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui,' p. 95:

"Kai, the general word for food, is not used at Rotorua,
because it was the name of a great chief, and the word tami
has been substituted for it."

1895.  Louis Becke and J. D. Fitzgerald, 'The Maori in
Politics,' 'Review of Reviews,' June 20, p. 621:

"We saw some thirty men and women coming towards us, singing
in chorus and keeping step to the music.  In their hands they
carried small baskets woven of raupo reeds, containing kai,
or food.  This was the 'kai' dance."

Kainga, and Kaika, n. now generally
kaik, and pronounced kike, a Maori settlement,
village.  Kainga is used in the North, and is the
original form; Kaika is the South Island use.  It is the
village for dwelling; the pa is for fighting in.

1820.  'Grammar and Vocabulary of Language of New Zealand'
(Church Missionary Society), p. 157:

"Kainga.  A place of residence, a home," etc.

1873.  Lt.-Colonel St. John, 'Pakeha Rambles through Maori
Lands,' p. 164 [Heading of Chapter x.]:

"How we live in our kainga."

1896.  'Otago Witness,' Jan. 23, p. 50, col. 5:

"A cosy-looking kainga located on the bank of a picturesque
bend of the river."

Ibid.  p. 52, col. 1:

"We steamed on slowly towards Tawhitinui, a small kainga
or kaik, as it is called in the South island."

1884.  'Maoriland,' p. 84:

"The drive may be continued from Portobello to the Maori kaik."

Kaio, n. popular corruption in the South Island
of New Zealand of Ngaio (q.v.).

Kaitaka, n.  Maori word for the best kind of
native mat.

1835.  W. Yate, 'Account of New Zealand,' p. 157:

"Requiring from three to four months' close sitting to complete
one of their kaitakas--the finest sort of mat which they
make.  This garment has a very silky appearance."

1845.  E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i.
p. 244:

"Pukaro ended by flinging over my shoulders a very handsome
kaitaka mat, which he had been wearing while he spoke."

1881.  J. L. Campbell, 'Poenamo,' p. 205:

"Highly prized and beautiful kaitaka mats."

Kaiwhiria, n.  Maori name for New Zealand tree,
Hedycarya dentata, Forst., N.O. Monimiaceae.
Porokaiwhiri is the fuller name of the tree.

1883.  /J./ Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 129

"Kaiwhiria, a small evergreen tree, twenty to thirty feet high;
the wood is finely marked and suitable for veneering."

Kaka, n. the Maori name for a parrot.  The word
is imitative of a parrot's cry.  It is now always used to
denote the Brown Parrot of New Zealand, Nestor
meridionalis, Gmel.

1835.  W. Yate, 'Account of New Zealand,' p. 54:

"Kaka--a bird of the parrot kind; much larger than any other
New Zealand parrot."

1845.  E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i.
p. 259:

"The kaka, a large russet parrot, of excellent flavour, and
very abundant in many places."

1851.  Mrs. Wilson, 'New Zealand,' p. 40:

"The bright red feathers from under the wing of the kaka or
large parrot."

1854.  W. Golder, 'Pigeons' Parliament,' [Notes] p. 79:

"The kaka is a kind of parrot of a reddish grey colour,
and is easily tamed when taken young."

1866.  Lady Barker, 'Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 93:

"The hoarse croak of the ka-ka, as it alighted almost at our
feet, and prepared, quite careless of our vicinity, to tear up
the loose soil at the root of a tall tree, in search of grubs."

1869.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' (Supplement):

"Nestor hypopolius, ka-ka parrot."

1884.  T. Bracken, 'Lays of Maori,' p. 38:

"I heard mocking kakas wail and cry above thy corse."

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 150:

"Nestor meridionalis, kaka parrot."

Ibid. p. 158:

"Sprightly in its actions, eminently social, and more noisy
than any other inhabitant of the woods, the kaka holds a
prominent place among our native birds."

 Kaka-bill, n. a New Zealand plant, the
Clianthus (q.v.), so called from the supposed
resemblance of the flower to the bill of the Kaka
(q.v.).  Called also Parrot-bill, Glory-Pea, and
Kowhai (q.v.).

1842.  W. R. Wade, 'Journey in New Zealand,' [Hobart Town].
p. 196:

"Kowai ngutukaka [parrot-bill kowai]; the most elegant
flowering shrub of the country."

1892.  'Otago Witness,' Nov. 24, 'Native Trees':

"A plantation of a shrub which is in great demand in England
and on the Continent, and is greatly neglected here--the
Clianthus puniceus, or scarlet glory pea of New Zealand,
locally known as kaka beak."

Kakapo, n.  Maori name for the Night-parrot,
Stringops habroptilus, Gray.  Called also
Owl-parrot.  See Kaka.  The syllable po
is Maori for night.  Compare Katipo (q.v.).

1869.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia' (Supplement):

"Strigops habroptilus, G. R. Gray, Kakapo, native name."

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i. p. 149:

"Stringops, owl-parrot--ground-parrot of the colonists."

1889.  Prof. Parker, 'Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,'
p. 117:

"Although possessing large wings, it is flightless, its
breast-muscles being so small as to be practically useless.
Its habits are nocturnal, and it has a ring of feathers
arranged round the eye, giving it a curious resemblance to
an owl, whence the name owl-parrot is often applied to it."

1893.  A. R. Wallace, 'Australasia,' vol. i. p. 445:

"Another remarkable bird is the owl parrot (Stringops
habroptilus) of a greenish colour, and with a circle of
feathers round the eye as in the owl.  It is nocturnal in its
habits, lives in holes in the ground under tree-roots or

1896.  'Otago Witness,' June 11, p. 53:

"The Kakapo is one of our most unique birds."

Kakariki, n.  Maori name for a green Parrakeet.
There are two species, Platycercus novae zelandiae,
Sparrm., and P. auriceps, Kuhl.  See Parrakeet.
The word kakariki means literally little parrot,
kaka (q.v.)  and iki (little), the r is
intrusive.  It is applied also to a green lizard.  In Maori it
becomes later an adjective, meaning 'green.'

1855.  Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui,' p. 404:

"The Kakariki . . . (platycercus novae zeal.) is a
pretty light green parrot with a band of red or yellow over the
upper beak and under the throat.  This elegant little bird is
about the size of a small thrush."

1894.  'Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,' vol. xxvii.
p. 95 [Note]:

"The name Kakarika (indicative of colour) is applied
alike to the green lizard and to the green Parrakeet of our

Kamin, n. aboriginal word, explained in
quotation.  It is probably local.

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 89:

"If he [the Australian black] has to climb a high tree, he
first goes into the scrub to fetch a piece of the Australian
calamus (Calamus australis), which he partly bites,
partly breaks off; he first bites on one side and breaks it
down, then on the other side and breaks it upwards--one, two,
three, and this tough whip is severed.  At one end of it he
makes a knot, the other he leaves it as it is.  This implement,
which is usually from sixteen to eighteen feet long, is called
a kamin."

Kanae, n. (trisyll.)  Maori name for a fish
of New Zealand, the Silver-Mullet, Mugil perusii or

1820.  'Grammar and Vocabulary of Language of New Zealand'
(C.M.S.), p. 158:

"Kanae, s.  The mullet fish."

1888.  Order in Council, New Zealand, Jan. 10, 'Regulations
under the Fisheries Conservation Act':

"The months of December, January, and February in each year
are here prescribed a close season for the fish of the species
of the mugil known as mullet or kanae."

Kanaka, n. and adj. a labourer from the
South Sea Islands, working in Queensland sugar-plantations.
The word is Hawaiian (Sandwich Islands).  The kindred words are
given in the following extract from

Fornander's Polynesian Race' (1885), vol. iii. p. 154:

"Kanaka, s. Hawaiian, man, human, mankind, a
common man in distinction from chiefs.  Samoan, New Zealand
[sc. Maori], Tongan, tangata, man.  Tahitian,
taata, man."

In the original word the accent is on the first syllable, which
accent Mr. Rudyard Kipling preserves (see quotation, 1893),
though he has changed the word in his reprint of the poem in
 'The Seven Seas'; but the usual pronunciation in Australia is
to accent the second syllable.

1794.  J. J. Jarves, 'History of Hawaiian Islands,' printed at
Honolulu (1872), p. 82:

"[On 21st Feb. 1794.]  A salute was then fired, and the natives
shouted, 'Kanaka no Beritane'--we are men of Britain."

1852.  A. Miller, 'Narrative of United States Exploring
Expedition,' c. ii. p. 142:

"On Monday (Nov. 16, 1840) our gentlemen formed themselves into
two parties, and started on horseback for their journey.  One
party consisted of Messrs. Reade, Rich, and Wall, with eight
kanakas and two guides."

1873.   A. Trollope, 'Australia and New Zealand,' c. viii.
p. 133:

"Queensland at present is supplying itself with labour from
the South Sea Islands, and the men employed are called
Polynesians, or canakers, or islanders."

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia, p. 162:

"The word 'kanaka' is really a Maori word, signifying a man,
but in Australia it has come to be applied exclusively to the
inhabitants of the South Sea Islands."

1885.  R. M. Praed, 'Head Station,' p. 9:

"The kanaka reverences women and adores children.  He is loyal
in heart, affectionate of disposition, and domestic in his

1888.  H. S. Cooper, 'The Islands of the Pacific,' p. 5:

"The kanakas, who at present populate Hawaii, are, as a rule,
well made and intelligent.  That there is a cross of the Malay
and Indian blood in them few can doubt."

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 64:

"Natives of the South Sea Islands, who in Australia are called
kanakas--a capable and intelligent race, especially to this
kind of work [on plantations], for they are strong, and endure
the tropical heat far better than the whites."

1892.  Gilbert Parker, 'Round the Compass in Australia,'
p. 298:

"Thus, it is maintained by the planters, the kanaka, necessary
as he is to the conditions of North Queensland, opens up
avenues of skilled labour for the European, and makes
population and commerce possible where otherwise there would
be complete stagnation."

2892.  'The Times,' Dec. 28:

"The principal open-air labour of the sugar plantations is
furnished by kanakas, who are the native inhabitants of certain
groups of South Sea Islands not at present under the protection
of any European flag."

1893.  R. L. Stevenson, 'Island Night's Entertainments,'
p. 41:

"What we want is a man-of-war--a German, if we could--they know
how to manage kanakas."

1893.  Rudyard Kipling, 'Banjo Song':

"We've shouted on seven-ounce nuggets,
 We've starved on a kanaka's pay."

1893.  C. H. Pearson, 'National Life and Character,' p.32:

"In Australasia . . .  the Maori, the Kanaka, and the Papuan
are dying out.  We cannot close our eyes to the fact that
certain weak races--even when, like the kanaka, they possess
some very high qualities--seem to wither away at mere contact
with the European. . . .  The kanakas (among whom we may include
the Maories)."

Kangaroo, n.  (1) an aboriginal word.
See Marsupial.

(a) The Origin of the Name.  The name was first obtained in
1770, while H.M.S. Endeavour lay beached at the
Endeavour River, where Cooktown, Queensland, now is.  The name
first appears in print in 1773, in the book brought out by the
relatives of Mr. Parkinson, who was draughtsman to Banks the
naturalist, and who had died on the voyage.  The object of this
book was to anticipate the official account of Cook's Voyage by
Hawkesworth, which appeared later in the same year.  It is now
known that Hawkesworth's book was like a rope twisted of four
strands, viz. Cook's journal, the diaries of the two
naturalists, Banks and Solander, and quartum quid, the
Johnsonian pomposity of Dr. Hawkesworth.  Cook's journal was
published in 1893, edited by Captain Wharton, hydrographer to
the Admiralty; Banks's journal, in 1896, edited by Sir J. D.
Hooker.  Solander's journal has never been printed.

When Englishmen next came to Australia in 1788, it was found
that the word Kangaroo was not known to the natives
round Port Jackson, distant 1500 miles to the South of
Cooktown.  In fact, it was thought by them to be an English
word.  (See quotation, Tench, 1789.)  It is a question whether
the word has belonged to any aboriginal vocabulary since.
"Capt. Philip P. King, the explorer, who visited that locality
[sc. Endeavour River] forty-nine years after Cook, relates in
his 'Narrative of the Survey of the Intertropical and Western
Coasts of Australia,' that he found the word kangaroo unknown
to the tribe he met there, though in other particulars the
vocabulary he compiled agrees very well with Captain Cook's."
(Curr's 'Australian Race,' vol. i. p. 27.)  In the fourth
volume of Curr's book a conspectus is given of the words used
in different parts of Australia for various objects.  In the
list of names for this animal there are a few that are not far
from Kangaroo, but some inquirers suspect the accuracy
of the list, or fancy that the natives obtained the words
sounding like Kangaroo from English.  It may be assumed
that the word is not now in use as an aboriginal word.  Has it,
then, disappeared? or was it an original mistake on the part of
Banks or Cook ?

The theory of a mistake has obtained widely.  It has figured in
print, and finds a place in at least one dictionary.  Several
correspondents have written that the word Kangaroo meant
"I don't understand," and that Banks mistook this for a name.
This is quite possible, but at least some proof is needed, as
for instance the actual words in the aboriginal language that
could be twisted into this meaning.  To find these words, and
to hear their true sound, would test how near the explanation
hits the mark.  Banks was a very careful observer, and he
specially notes the precautions he took to avoid any mistake in
accepting native words.  Moreover, according to Surgeon
Anderson, the aborigines of Van Diemen's Land described the
animal by the name of Kangaroo.  (See quotation, 1787.)

On the other hand, it must be remembered that it is an
ascertained fact that the aborigines taboo a word on the death
of any one bearing that word as a proper name.  (See quotation
under Nobbler, 1880.) If, therefore, after Cook's visit,
some man called Kangaroo died, the whole tribe would
expunge Kangaroo from its vocabulary.  There is,
however, some evidence that the word was much later in use
in Western Australia.  (See quotation, 1835.)

It is now asserted that the word is in use again at the very
part of Queensland where the Endeavour was beached.
Lumholtz, in his 'Amongst Cannibals' (p. 311), gives it in his
aboriginal vocabulary.  Mr. De Vis, of the Brisbane Museum, in
his paper before the Geographical Society at Brisbane (1894),
says that "in point of fact the word 'kangaroo' is the normal
equivalent for kangaroo at the Endeavour River; and not only
so, it is almost the type-form of a group of variations in use
over a large part of Australia."  It is curiously hard to
procure satisfactory evidence as to the fact.  Mr. De Vis says
that his first statement was "made on the authority of a
private correspondent; "but another correspondent writes from
Cooktown, that the blacks there have taken Kangaroo from
English.  Inquiries inserted in each of the Cooktown newspapers
have produced no result.  Mr. De Vis' second argument as to the
type-form seems much stronger.  A spoken language, unwritten,
unprinted, must inevitably change, and change rapidly.  A word
current in 1770 would change rather than disappear, and the
root consonants would remain.  The letters ng together,
followed by r, occur in the proportion of one in
thirteen, of the names for the animal tabulated by Curr.

It is a difficult matter on which to speak decidedly, but
probably no great mistake was made, and the word received was
a genuine name of the animal.

See further the quotations, 1896.

(b) The Plural of the Word.

There seems to be considerable doubt as to the plural of the
word, whether it should take s like most English words,
or remain unchanged like sheep, deer.  In two
consecutive pages of one book the two plurals are used.  The
general use is the plural in s.  See 1793 Hunter, 1845
Balfour, and 1880 Senior; sportsmen frequently use the form

[Since 1888 a kangaroo has been the design on the one-shilling
postage stamp of New South Wales.]

1815.  'History of New South Wales,' (1818) PP. 460-461:

"Throughout the general course of the journey, kangaroos, emus,
ducks, etc.  were seen in numbers."  "Mr. Evans saw the
kangaroo in immense flocks."

1830.  R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 49:

"The kangaroos are too subtle and shy for us to get near."

1846.  G. H. Haydon, 'Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 125:

"In the afternoon we saw some kangaroos and wallaby, but did
not succeed in killing any."

1884.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c.  iii. p. 23:

"Though kangaroo were plentiful, they were not overwhelming to

(c) Kangaroo in French.

1777.  Buffon, 'Supplement a l'Histoire Naturelle,' tom. iv.
'Table des Matieres':

"Kanguros, espece de grosse Gerboise qui se trouve dans les
terres australes de la Nouvelle Hollande."

1800.  J. J. Labillardiere, 'Voyage a la recherche de La
Perouse,' tom. i. p. 134: [Under date April 24, 1792.]

"Un de nos chasseurs trouva un jeune kangourou sur les bords de
la mer."

1880.   H. de Charency, 'Recherches sur les Dialectes
Tasmaniens,' p. 21:

"Kangourou.  Ce mot semble d'origine non Australienne, comme on
l'a soutenu, mais bien Tasmanienne."

1882.  Littre, 'Dictionnaire de la Langue Francaise' (s.v.):

"Kanguroo ou kangarou.  On ecrit aussi kangarou et kangourou."

1882.  A. Daudet, 'Jack,' p. 131:

Il regardait les kangaroos dresses sur leurs pattes, si
longues qu'elles ont l'agilite et l'elan d'une paire d'ailes."

1890.  Oscar Comettant [Title]:

"Au Pays des Kangourous."

(d) Kangaroo in German--Kaenguruh:

1892.   R. V. Lendenfeld, 'Australische Reise,' p. 46:

"Die Kaenguruh hoben in dem Augenblick, als sie das Geheul
hoerten, die Koepfe hoch and witterten, blickten and loosten
in alle Richtungen."

Notice that both in French and German the u sound of the
middle syllable is preserved and not changed as in English to

(e) The species.

The name Kangaroo is applied to the following larger
species of the genus Macropus, the remaining species
being called Wallabies--

Antilopine Kangaroo--
 Macropus antilopinus, Gould.

Great Grey K., or Forester--
 M. giganteus, Zimm.

Great Red K.--
 M. rufus, Desm.

Isabelline K.--
 M. isabellinus, Gould.

Owen's K.--
 M. magnus, Owen.

Wallaroo, or Euro--
 M. robustus, Gould.

The name Kangaroo is also applied to certain other
species of Marsupials belonging to the genus Macropus,
but with a qualifying adjective, such as Dorca-,
Tree-, Rat-, Musk-, etc.; and it is
applied to species of the genera Dorcopsis,
Dendrolagus, Bettongia, and Hypsiprymnodon.  The
Brush-Kangaroo (q.v.) is another name for the
Wallaby (q.v.), and the Rat-Kangaroo is the
stricter scientific appellation of Kangaroo-Rat (q.v.).
The Banded-Kangaroo is a Banded-Wallaby (see
Lagostrophus).  See also Dorca-Kangaroo,
Tree-Kangaroo, Musk-Kangaroo, Dorcopsis,
Dendrolagus, Bettongia, Hypsiprymnodon,
Rock-Wallaby, Paddy-melon, Forester,
Old Man,, Joey, and Boomah.

(f) The Use of the Word.

1770.  'Capt. Cook's Journal' (edition Wharton, 1893), p. 244:

May 1st.  An animal which must feed upon grass, and which,
we judge, could not be less than a deer."

[p. 280]: "June 23rd.  One of the men saw an animal something
less than a greyhound; it was of a mouse colour, very slender
made, and swift of foot."

[p. 294]: August 4th.  "The animals which I have before
mentioned, called by the Natives Kangooroo or Kanguru."
[At Endeavour River, Queensland.]

1770.  Joseph Banks, 'Journal' (edition Hooker, 1896), p. 287:

"July 14.--Our second Lieutenant had the good fortune to
kill the animal that had so long been the subject of our
speculations.  To compare it to any European animal would be
impossible, as it has not the least resemblance to any one that
I have seen.  Its forelegs are extremely short, and of no use
to 1t in walking; its hind again as disproportionally long;
with these it hops seven or eight feet at a time, in the same
manner as the jerboa, to which animal indeed it bears much
resemblance, except in size, this being in weight 38 lbs., and
the jerboa no larger than a common rat."

Ibid. p. 301:

"August 26.--Quadrupeds we saw but few, and were able to
catch but few of those we did see.  The largest was called by
the natives kangooroo; it is different from any
European, and, indeed, any animal I have heard or read of,
except the jerboa of Egypt, which is not larger than a rat,
while this is as large as a middling lamb.  The largest we shot
weighed 84 lbs.  It may, however, be easily known from all
other animals by the singular property of running, or rather
hopping, upon only its hinder legs, carrying its fore-feet
close to its breast.  In this manner it hops so fast that in
the rocky bad ground where it is commonly found, it easily beat
my greyhound, who though he was fairly started at several,
killed only one, and that quite a young one."

1773.  Sydney Parkinson, 'Journal of a Voyage,' p. 149:

"Kangooroo, the leaping quadruped."
[A description given at p. 145.]

1773.  J. Hawkesworth, 'Voyages,' vol. iii. p. 577:

"July 14, 1770.  Mr. Gore, who went out this day with his gun,
had the good fortune to kill one of the animals which had been
so much the subject of our speculation.  An idea of it will
best be conceived by the cut, plate xx., without which the most
accurate verbal description would answer very little purpose,
as it has not similitude enough to any animal already known to
admit of illustration by reference.  In form it is most like
the gerbua, which it also resembles in its motion, as has been
observed already, for it greatly differs in size, the gerbua
not being larger than a common rat, and this animal, when full
grown, being as big as a sheep: this individual was a young
one, much under its full growth, weighing only thirty-eight
pounds.  The head, neck, and shoulders are very small in
proportion to the other parts of the body; the tail is nearly
as long as the body, thick near the rump, and tapering towards
the end: the fore-legs of this individual were only eight
inches long, and the hind-legs two-and-twenty: its progress is
by successive leaps or hops, of a great length, in an erect
posture; the fore-legs are kept bent close to the breast, and
seemed to be of use only for digging: the skin is covered with
a short fur, of a dark mouse or grey colour, excepting the head
and ears, which bear a slight resemblance to those of a hare.
In form it is most like the gerbua.  This animal is called by the
natives 'kangaroo.'"  [This account, it will be seen, is based
on the notes of Banks.]

1774.  Oliver Goldsmith, 'Animated Nature,' Book VII. c. xvi.,
The Gerbua,' [in four-vol. ed., vol. iii. p. 30]:

"But of all animals of this kind, that which was first
discovered and described by Mr. Banks is the most
extraordinary.  He calls it the kanguroo; and though from its
general outline and the most striking peculiarities of its
figure it greatly resembles the gerbua, yet it entirely
differs, if we consider its size, or those minute distinctions
which direct the makers of systems in assorting the general
ranks of nature.  The largest of the gerbua kind which are to
be found in the ancient continent do not exceed the size of a
rabbit.  The kanguroo of New Holland, where it is only to be
found, is often known to weigh above sixty pounds, and must
consequently be as large as a sheep.  Although the skin of that
which was stuffed and brought home by Mr. Banks was not much
above the size of a hare, yet it was greatly superior to any of
the gerbua kind that have been hitherto known, and very
different in many particulars.  The snout of the gerbua, as has
been said, is short and round, that of the discovered animal
long and slender; the teeth also entirely differ, for as the
gerbua has but two cutting teeth in each jaw, making four in
all, this animal, besides its cutting teeth, has four canial
teeth also; but what makes a more striking peculiarity, is the
formation of its lower jaw, which, as the ingenious discoverer
supposes, is divided into two parts which open and shut like a
pair of scissors, and cut grass, probably this animal's
principal food.  The head, neck, and shoulders are very small
in proportion to the other parts of the body; the tail is
nearly as long as the body; thick near the rump and tapering
towards the head and ears, which bear a slight resemblance to
those of the hare.  We are not told, however, from the
formation of its stomach to what class of quadrupeds it
belongs: from its eating grass, which it has been seen to do,
one would be apt to rank it among the ruminating animals; but
from the canial teeth which it is found to have, we may on the
other hand suppose it to bear some relation to the carnivorous.
Upon the whole, however, it can be classed with none more
properly than with the animals of the gerbua kind, as its
hind-legs are so much longer than the fore; it moves also
precisely in the same manner, taking great bounds of ten or
twelve feet at a time, and thus sometimes escaping the fleetest
greyhound, with which Mr. Banks pursued it.  One of them that
was killed proved to be good food; but a second, which weighed
eighty-four pounds, and was not yet come to its full growth,
was found to be much inferior."

1787,  Surgeon Anderson, quoted by W.  Eden, in 'History of New
Holland' (second edition), p. 71:

"However, we must have a far more intimate acquaintance with
the languages spoken here [Van Diemen's Land] and in the more
northern parts of New Holland, before we can pronounce that
they are totally different; nay, we have good grounds for the
opposite opinion; for we found that the animal called kangaroo
at Endeavour River was known under the same name here."

1781.  T. Pennant, 'History of Quadrupeds,' vol. i.  p. 306:

No. 184.  [A Scientific Description of the Kangaroo.]

1789.  Governor Phillip, 'Voyage':

[p. 106]: "The kangaroo."

[p. 168]: "Skeleton of the head of the kangaroo."

[At each of these places there is a description and a picture.
Under each picture the name is spelt "Kangooroo."  At p. 289
there is a further note on the kanguroo.  In the text at p. 149
the spelling " Kangooroo " is adopted.]

Ibid. p. 104:

"The kanguroo, though it resembles the jerboa in the
peculiarity of using only the hinder legs in progression,
does not belong to that genus."

Ibid, p. 168:

"Since stating the dimensions of the kanguroo, in page 106,
Lord Sydney has received from Governor Phillip a male of a much
larger size. . . .  Lieutenant Shortland describes them as
feeding in herds of about thirty or forty, and assures us that
one is always observed to be apparently upon the watch at a
distance from the rest."

1789.  Watkin Tench, 'Account of the Settlement of Port
Jackson,' p. 171:

"Kangaroo was a name unknown to them [the aborigines of Port
Jackson] for any animal, until we introduced it.  When I showed
Colbee [an aboriginal] the cows brought out in the Gorgon he
asked me if they were kangaroos."

1793.  Governor Hunter, 'Voyage,' p. 66:

"The animal described in the voyage of the Endeavour,
called the kangaroo (but by the natives patagorang), we found
in great numbers."

Ibid. p. 568:

"I had a kanguroo on board, which I had directions to carry to
Lord Grenville, as a present for his Majesty.--Nov. 26, 1791."
[There is no statement whether the animal reached England.]

Ibid. p. 402:

"In rowing up this branch, we saw a flock of about thirty
kangaroos or paderong, but they were only visible during their
leaps, as the very long grass hid them from our view."

1809.  G. Shaw, 'Zoological Lectures,' vol. i. p. 94:

"The genus Macropus or kangaroo . . .  one of the most
elegant as well as curious animals discovered in modern times."
[Under the picture and in list of contents: Kanguroo.]

1814.  M. Flinders, 'Voyage to Terra Australis,' Introd.
p. lxiii:

"An animal found upon one of the islands is described [by
Dampier, 'Voyage to New Holland,' vol. iii. p. 123] as 'a
sort of raccoon, different from that of the West Indies,
chiefly as to the legs; for these have very short fore legs;
but go jumping upon them' [not upon the short fore, but the
long hind legs, it is to be presumed] 'as the others do; and
like them are very good meat.'  This appears to have been the
small kangaroo, since found upon the islands which form the
road; and if so, this description is probably the first ever
made of that singular animal" [though without the name].

1820.  W. C. Wentworth, 'Description of New South Wales,'
p. 57:

"Coursing the kangaroo and emu forms the principal amusement
of the sporting part of the colonists.

(p. 68): The colonists generally pursue this animal [kangaroo]
at full speed on horseback, and frequently manage,
notwithstanding its extraordinary swiftness, to be up at the

1833.  Charles Lamb, 'Essays of Elia' [edition 1895], p. 151,
'Distant Correspondents':

"The kangaroos--your Aborigines--do they keep their primitive
simplicity un-Europe-tainted, with those little short fore
puds, looking like a lesson framed by nature to the
pick-pocket!  Marry, for diving into fobs they are rather
lamely provided a priori; but if the hue and cry were
once up, they would show as fair a pair of hind-shifters as the
expertest loco motor in the colony."

1833.  C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' vol. I. c. iii. p. 106:

"Those that were noticed were made of the red kangaroo-skin."

1834.  L. E. Threlkeld, 'Australian Grammar of the Language
spoken by the Aborigines, at Hunter's River,' p. 87:

"Kong-go-rong, The Emu, from the noise it makes, and likely
the origin of the barbarism, kangaroo, used by the English, as
the name of an animal, called Mo-a-ne."

1835.  T. B. Wilson, 'Narrative of a Voyage round the World,
etc.' p. 212:

"They [natives of the Darling Range, W.A.]  distinctly
pronounced 'kangaroo' without having heard any of us utter that
sound: they also called it waroo, but whether they
distinguished 'kangaroo' (so called by us, and also by them)
from the smaller kind, named 'wallabi,' and by them
'waroo,' we could not form any just conclusion."

1845.  J. O. Balfour, 'Sketch of New South Wales,' p. 23:

"Kangaroos are of six different species, viz. the forester,
the flyer, the wallaby, the wallaroo, the kangaroo-rat,
and the kangaroo-mouse."
[This is of course merely a popular classification.]

1845.  J. A. Moore, 'Tasmanian Rhymings,' p. 15:

"A kangaroo, like all his race,
 Of agile form and placid face."

1861.  W. M. Thackeray, 'Roundabout Papers', p.83:

"The fox has brought his brush, and the cock has brought his
comb, and the elephant has brought his trunk and the kangaroo
has brought his bag, and the condor his old white wig and black
satin hood."

1880.  W. Senior, 'Travel and Trout,' p. 8:

"To return to the marsupials.  I have been assured that
the kangaroos come first and eat off the grass; that the
wallabies, following, grub up the roots."

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 114:

"Sometimes a kangaroo would come down with measured thud,
thud, and drink, and then return without noticing the human

1888.  D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 118:

"According to the traditions of the bush--not always
reliable--the name of kangaroo was given under a misconception.
An aborigine being asked by one of the early discoverers the
name of the animal, replied, 'Kangaroo' ('I don't know'), and
in this confession of ignorance or misapprehension the name
originated.  It seems absurd to suppose that any black hunter
was really ignorant of the name of an animal which once
represented the national wealth of Australians as the merino
does to-day."

[The tradition is not quite so ridiculous, if the answer
meant--"I don't know what you mean,--I don't understand you."
See above.]

1891.  'Guide Zoological Gardens, Melbourne':

"In this enclosure is a wooden model of a kangaroo of ancient
times.  This is copied from a restoration by Professor McCoy,
who was enabled to represent it from fossil remains which have
been unearthed at various places in Australia."

1896.  E. Meston, 'Sydney Bulletin,' April 18:

"The origin of the word 'kangaroo' was published by me six
years ago.  Captain Cook got it from the Endeavor River blacks,
who pronounce it to-day exactly as it is spelled in the great
navigator's journal, but they use it now only for the big toe.
Either the blacks in Cook's time called the kangaroo 'big toe'
for a nick-name, as the American Indians speak of the 'big
horn,' or the man who asked the name of the animal was holding
it by the hind foot, and got the name of the long toe, the
black believing that was the part to which the question

1896.  Rev. J. Mathew, Private Letter, Aug. 31:

"Most names of animals in the Australian dialects refer to their
appearance, and the usual synthesis is noun + adjective; the
word may be worn down at either end, and the meaning lost to
the native mind.

"A number of the distinct names for kangaroo show a
relation to words meaning respectively nose, leg, big,
long, either with noun and adjective to combination or
one or other omitted.

"The word kangaroo is probably analysable into ka
or kang, nose (or head), and goora,
long, both words or local equivalents being widely

(2) Wild young cattle (a special use)--

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i.
p. 290:

"A stockyard under six feet high will be leaped by some of
these kangaroos (as we term them) with the most perfect ease,
and it requires to be as stout as it is high to resist their
rushes against it."

(3) Used playfully, and as a nickname for persons and things
Australian.  An Australian boy at an English school is
frequently called "Kangaroo."  It is a Stock Exchange nickname
for shares in Western Australian gold-mining companies.

1896.  'Nineteenth Century' (Nov.), p. 711:

"To the 80,000,000 Westralian mining shares now in existence
the Stock Exchange has long since conceded a special 'market';
and it has even conferred upon these stocks a nickname--the
surest indication of importance and popularity.  And that
'Kangaroos,' as they were fondly called, could boast of
importance and popularity nobody would dare to gainsay."

(4) A kind of chair, apparently from the shape.

1834.  Miss Edgeworth, 'Helen,' c. xvi.  ('Century'):

"It was neither a lounger nor a dormeuse, nor a Cooper, nor a
Nelson, nor a Kangaroo: a chair without a name would never do;
in all things fashionable a name is more than half.  Such a
happy name as Kangaroo Lady Cecilia despaired of finding."

Kangarooade, n. a Kangaroo hunt; nonce word.
See quotation.

1863.  M. K. Beveridge, 'Gatherings among the Gum Trees,'
p. 86:

"The Kangarooade--in three Spirts."
[Title of a poem.]

Kangaroo-Apple, n. an Australian and Tasmanian
fruit, Solanum aviculare, Forst., N.O.
Solanaceae.  The name is also applied to S. vescum,
called the Gunyang (q.v.).  In New Zealand, the fruit is
called Poroporo (q.v.).

1834.  Ross, 'Van Diemen's Land Annual, p. 133:

'Solanum laciniatum, the kangaroo-apple, resembling the
apple of a potato; when so ripe as to split, it has a mealy
sub-acid taste."

1846.  G. H. Haydon, 'Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 85:

"The kangaroo-apple (Solanum laciniatum) is a fine shrub
found in many parts of the country, bearing a pretty blue
flower and a fruit rather unpleasant to the taste, although
frequently eaten by the natives, and also by Europeans."

1848.  W. Westgarth, 'Australia Felix,' p. 132:

"The kangaroo-apple comes from a bush or small tree bearing
blue blossoms, which are succeeded by apples like those of the
potato.  They have a sweetish flavour, and when ripe may be
boiled and eaten, but are not greatly prized."

1857.  F. R. Nixon (Bishop), 'Cruise of Beacon,' p. 28:

"Of berries and fruits of which they partook, the principal
were those of Solanum laciniatum, or kangaroo-apple,
when dead ripe."

1877.  F. v.  Mueller, 'Botanic Teachings,' p. 105:

"Solanum aviculare, on which our colonists have very
inappropriately bestowed the name Kangaroo-apple, while
in literal scientific translation it ought to be called Bird's
Nightshade, because Captain Cook's companions observed in New
Zealand that birds were feeding on the berries of this bush."

Kangaroo-Dog, n. a large dog, lurcher,
deerhound, or greyhound, used for hunting the Kangaroo.

1806.  'History of New South Wales' (1818), p. 265:

"Shortly before the Estramina left the River Derwent,
two men unfortunately perished by a whale-boat upsetting, in
which they were transporting four valuable kangaroo-dogs to the
opposite side, none of which ever reached the shore."

1830.  R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 141:

"The kind of dog used for coursing the kangaroo is generally a
cross between the greyhound and the mastiff or sheep-dog; but
in a climate like New South Wales they have, to use the common
phrase, too much lumber about them.  The true bred greyhound is
the most useful dog: he has more wind; he ascends the hills
with more ease; and will run double the number of courses in a
day.  He has more bottom in running, and if he has less
ferocity when he comes up with an 'old man,' so much the
better, as he exposes himself the less, and lives to afford
sport another day."

1832.  J. Bischoff, 'Van Diemen's Land,' c. ii. p. 31:

"They . . . are sometimes caught by the kangaroo-dogs."

1845.  R. Howitt, 'Australia,' p. 126:

"A fine kangaroo-dog was pointed out to us, so fond of
kangarooing that it goes out alone, kills the game, and then
fetches its master to the dead animals."

1847.  J. D. Lang, 'Cooksland,' p. 422:

"With the gun over his shoulder, and the kangaroo-dog in a
leash by his side."

1850.  J. B. Clutterbuck, 'Port Phillip in 1849,' c. iii.
p. 35:

"On every station, also, a large kind of greyhound, a cross
of the Scotch greyhound and English bulldog, called the
kangaroo-dog, which runs by sight, is kept for the purpose
of their destruction."

1888.  Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. ii. p. 91:

"Kangaroo-dogs are a special breed, a kind of strong

1893.  'The Argus,' April 8, p. 4, col. 1:

"That big, powerful, black kangaroo-dog Marmarah was well worth
looking at, with his broad, deep chest, intelligent, determined
eyes, sinews of a gymnast, and ribs like Damascus steel.  On
his black skin he bore marks of many honourable fights; the
near side showed a long, whitish line where the big emu he had
run down, tackled single-handed, and finally killed, had laid
him open.  His chest and legs showed numerous grey scars, each
with a history of its own of which he might well be proud."

Kangaroo-Fly, n. a small Australian fly,
Cabarus.  See quotations.

1833.  C. Sturt, 'Southern Australia,' vol. I. c. ii. p. 71:

"Our camp was infested by the kangaroo-fly, which settled upon
us in thousands."

1865.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'History of the Discovery
and Exploration of Australia,' vol. i. p. 313 [Note]:

"Rather smaller than the house-fly, it acts with such celerity
that it has no sooner settled on the face or hands than it
inflicts instantaneously a painful wound, which often bleeds
subsequently.  It is called by the colonists the kangaroo-fly;
and though not very common, the author can testify that it is
one of the most annoying pests of Australia."

Kangaroo-Grass, n. a name given to several
species of grasses of the genera Anthistiria and
Andropogon, chiefly from their height, but also because,
when they are young and green in spring, the Kangaroo
feeds on them.  Andropogon is more like a rush or sedge,
and is sometimes so high as to completely conceal horses.  See

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i.
p. 209:

"Of native grasses we possess the oat-grass, rye-grass,
fiorin, kangaroo-grass, and timothy,--blady grass growing in wet,
flooded, alluvial spots, and wire-grass upon cold, wet, washed

1838.  'Report of Van Diemen's Land Company,' in J. Bischoff's
'Van Diemen's Land' (1832), c. v. p. 119:

"The grasses were principally timothy, foxtail, and single

1845.  T. L. Mitchell, 'Tropical Australia, p. 88:

"A new species of Anthistiria occurred here, perfectly
distinct from the kangaroo grass of the colony."

1848.  W. Westgarth, 'Australia Felix,' p. 131:

"The most conspicuous of the native Gramineae that so
widely cover the surface of Australia Felix."

1862.  G. T. Lloyd, 'Thirty-three Years in Tasmania and
Victoria,' p. 36:

"Where are the genial morning dews of former days that used to
glisten upon and bespangle the vernal-leaved kangaroo grass?"

1862.  G. T. Lloyd, 'Thirty-three Years in Tasmania,' p. 393:

"Between the Lake River and Launceston . . .  I was most
agreeably surprised in beholding the novel sight of a spacious
enclosure of waving kangaroo grass, high and thick-standing as
a good crop of oats, and evidently preserved for seed."

1888.  D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 8:

"Not even a withered wisp of kangaroo-grass."

(p. 193):

"The long brown kangaroo-grass."

1891.  'The Argus,' Dec. 19, p. 4, col. 2:

"Had they but pulled a tuft of the kangaroo-grass beneath their
feet, they would have found gold at its roots."

Kangaroo-hop, n. a peculiar affected gait.  See

1875.  'Spectator' (Melbourne), May 22, p. 27, col. 2:

"The young lady that affects waterfalls, the Grecian-bend,
or the kangaroo hop."

Kangaroo-Hound, n.  i.q. Kangaroo-Dog

1865.  Lady Barker, 'Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 28:

"A large dog, a kangaroo-hound (not unlike a lurcher in

Kangarooing, vb. n. hunting the kangaroo.

1852.  Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' p. 257:

"In chasing kangaroos, or, as it is technically termed,
'kangarooing,' large powerful dogs are used . . ."

1870.  E. B. Kennedy, 'Four Years in Queensland,' p. 194:

"You may be out Kangarooing; the dogs take after one
[a kangaroo], and it promises to be a good course."

1888.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Robbery under Arms,' p. 15:

"We were sick of kangarooing, like the dogs themselves,
that as they grew old would run a little way and then pull
up if a mob came jump, jump, past them."

Kangaroo-Mouse, n. more strictly called the
Pouched-Mouse (q.v.).

1888.  D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 256:

"It is a long chain from the big forester, down through the
different varieties of wallaby to the kangaroo-rat, and finally,
to the tiny interesting little creature known on the plains as
the 'kangaroo-mouse'; but all have the same characteristics."

Kangaroo-net, n. net made by the natives to
catch the kangaroo.

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 45:

"I found . . . four fine kangaroo-nets, made of the bark of

Kangaroo-Rat, or Rat-Kangaroo, n.
the name applied to species of Marsupials belonging to the
following genera, viz.--

(1) Potorous, (2) Caloprymnus, (3)
Bettongia, (4) AEpyprymnus.

(1) The first genus (Potorous, q.v.) includes animals
about the size of a large rat; according to Gould, although
they stand much on their hind-legs they run in a totally
different way to the kangaroo, using fore and hind-legs in a
kind of gallop and never attempting to kick with the hind-feet.
The aboriginal name was Potoroo.  The species are
three--the Broad-faced Kangaroo-Rat, Potorous platyops,
Gould; Gilbert's, P. gilberti, Gould; Common,
P. tridactylus, Kerr.  They are confined to Australia
and Tasmania, and one Tasmanian variety of the last species is
bigger than the mainland form.  There is also a dwarf Tasmanian
variety of the same species.

(2) A second genus (Caloprymnus, q.v.) includes the
Plain Kangaroo-Rat; it has only one species,
C. campestris, Gould, confined to South Australia.
The epithet plain refers to its inhabiting plains.

(3) A third genus (Bettongia, q.v.) includes the
Prehensile-tailed Rat-Kangaroos and has four species,
distributed in Australia and Tasmania--

Brush-tailed Kangaroo-Rat--
 Bettongia penicillata, Gray.

Gaimard's K.-R.--
 B. gaimardi, Desm.

Lesueur's K.-R.--
 B. lesueuri, Quoy and Gaim.

Tasmanian K.-R.--
 B. cuniculus, Ogilby.

(4) A fourth genus (AEpyprymnus, q.v.) includes the
Rufous Kangaroo-Rat.  It has one species, AE. rufescens,
Grey.  It is the largest of the Kangaroo-Rats and is
distinguished by its ruddy colour, black-backed ears,
and hairy nose.

[Mr. Lydekker proposes to call the animal the Rat-
Kangaroo (see quotation, 1894), but the name Kangaroo-
Rat is now so well-established that it does not seem
possible to supersede it by the, perhaps, more correct name of
Rat-Kangaroo.  The introduction of the word
Kangaroo prevents any possibility of confusion between
this animal and the true rodent, and it would seem to be a
matter of indifference as to which word precedes or follows the

1788.  Governor Phillip (Despatch, May 15), in 'Historical
Records of New South Wales,' vol. I. pt. ii. p. 135:

"Many trees were seen with holes that had been enlarged by the
natives to get at the animal, either the squirrel, kangaroo
rat, or opossum, for the going in of which perhaps they wait
under their temporary huts, and as the enlarging these holes
could only be done with the shell they used to separate the
oysters from the rocks, must require great patience."

1793 Governor Hunter, 'Voyage,' p. 61:

"As most of the large trees are hollow by being rotten in the
heart, the opossum, kangaroo-rat, squirrel, and various other
animals which inhabit the woods, when they are pursued,
commonly run into the hollow of a tree."

1802.  G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' c. xi.
p. 430:

"The poto roo, or kangaroo-rat. . . .  This curious animal
which is indeed a miniature of the Kangaroo."

1832.  J. Bischoff, 'Van Diemen's Land,' c. ii. p. 28:

"The kangaroo-rat is a small inoffensive animal and perfectly
distinct from the ordinary species of rat."

1836.  C. Darwin, 'Naturalist's Voyage,' c. xix. p. 321:

"The greyhounds pursued a kangaroo-rat into a hollow tree,
out of which we dragged it; it is an animal as large as a
rabbit, but with the figure of a kangaroo."

1850.  J. B. Clutterbuck, 'Port Phillip in 1849,' p. 37:

"The kangaroo-rat is twice the size of a large English
water-rat, and of the same colour, measuring nearly two feet
in length."

1852.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes' (edition 1853), p. 157:

"Two or three of the smallest kind, called the kangaroo-rat--
about the size of a hare, and affording pretty good coursing."

1860.  Fison and Howitt, 'Kamilaroi and Kurnai,' p. 195:

"One of the skin aprons . . .  made from the skin of a

1879.  C. W. Schurmann, 'Native Tribes of Australia--Port
Lincoln Tribe,' p. 214:

"The natives use this weapon [the Waddy] principally
for throwing at kangaroo-rats or other small animals."

1890.  A. H. S. Lucas, 'Handbook of the Australasian
Association for the Advancement of Science,' Melbourne, p. 63:

"The Victorian Kangaroo rat is Bettongia cuniculus."

1894.  R.Lydekker, 'Marsupialia,' p. 63:

"The rat-kangaroos, often incorrectly spoken of as

Kangaroo-skin, n. either the leather for the
tanned hide, or the complete fur for rugs and wraps.

1806.  'History of New South Wales' (1818), p. 258:

"The fitness of the kangaroo-skin for upper leathers will no
doubt obtain preference over most of the imported leather, as
it is in general lighter and equally durable."

1872.  C. H. Eden, 'My Wife and I in Queensland,' p. 106:

"I used always to strip and preserve the pelt, for it makes
good and pretty door-mats, and is most useful for pouches,
leggings, light-whips, or any purpose where you require
something strong and yet neater than green hide.  I have seen
saddles covered with it, and kangaroo-skin boots are very
lasting and good."

Kangaroo-tail Soup, n. soup made from the

1820.  W. C. Wentworth, 'Description of New South Wales,'
p. 58:

"The tail of the forest kangaroo in particular makes a soup
which, both in richness and flavour, is far superior to any
ox-tail soup ever tasted."

1865.  Lady Barker, writing from Melbourne, 'Station Life in
New Zealand,' p. 14:

"The soups comprised kangaroo-tail--a clear soup not unlike
ox-tail, but with a flavour of game."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. xxxv. p. 312:

"Kangaroo-tail and ox-tail soup disputed pre-eminence."

Kangaroo-Thorn, n. an indigenous hedge-plant,
Acacia armata, R. Br., N.O. Leguminosae; called
also Kangaroo Acacia.

Kapai, adj.  Maori word for good, used
by the English in the North Island of New Zealand; e.g. "That is
a kapai pipe."  "I have a kapai gun."

1896.  'New Zealand Herald,' Feb. 14 (Leading Article):

"The Maori word which passed most familiarly into the speech
of Europeans was 'kapai,' 'this is good.'"

Kapu, n.  Maori word for a stone adze.  The
Maori word means the hollow of the hand.  The adze is so called
from its curved shape.  (Williams, 'Maori Dict.')

1889.  'Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,' p. 140:

"Kapu,, or adze."

Karaka, n.  Maori name for a tree,
Corynocarpus laevigata, Forst. N.O. anacardiaceae;
also called Cow-tree (q.v.), forty feet high, with orange-
coloured berries, two to three inches long.

1845.  E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i.
p. 226:

"Two or three canoes were hauled up under some karaka trees,
which formed a pleasant grove in a sort of recess from the

Ibid. vol. i. p. 233:

"The karaka-tree much resembles the laurel in its growth and
foliage.  It bears bright orange-coloured berries about the
size and shape of damsons, growing in bunches.  The fruit is
sickly and dry; but the kernel forms an important article of
native food."

1859.  A. S. Thomson, 'Story of New Zealand,' p. 157:

"The karaka fruit is about the size of an acorn.  The pulp is
eaten raw; the kernel is cooked in the oven for ten days, and
then steeped for several weeks in a running stream before it is
fit for use.  Karaka berries for winter use are dried in the
sun.  The kernel is poisonous uncooked."

1872.  A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 108:

"The thick karakas' varnished green."

1881.  J. L.  Campbell, 'Poenamo,' p. 102:

"The karaka with its brilliantly polished green leaves
and golden yellow fruit."

1883.  F. S. Renwick, 'Betrayed,' p. 35:

"Bring the heavy karaka leaf,
 Gather flowers of richest hue."

1892.  'Otago Witness,' Nov. 10.  (Native Trees):

"Corynocarpus laevigata (generally known by the name of
karaka).  The fruit is poisonous, and many deaths of children
occur through eating it.  Mr. Anderson, a surgeon who
accompanied Captain Cook, mentions this tree and its fruit, and
says the sailors ate it, but does not say anything about it
being poisonous.  The poison is in the hard inner part, and it
may be that they only ate the outer pulp."

Karamu, n.  Maori name for several species of
the New Zealand trees of the genus Coprosma,
N.O. Rubiaceae.  Some of the species are called
Tree-karamu, and others Bush-karamu; to the
latter (C. lucida, Kirk) the name Coffee-plant,
or Coffee-bush, is also applied.

1874.  J. White, 'Te Rou, or the Maori at Home,' p. 221:

"Then they tied a few Karamu branches in front of them and went
towards the settlement."

1876.  J. C. Crawford, 'Transactions of the New Zealand
Institute,' vol. IX. art. lxxx. p. 545:

"I have seen it stated that coffee of fine flavour has been
produced from the karamu, coprosma lucida."

1883.  J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand, p. 132:

"Karamu. an ornamental shrub-tree; wood close-grained and
yellow; might be used for turnery."

1887.  T. F. Cheeseman, 'Transactions of the New Zealand
Institute,' vol. XX. art. xxii. p. 143:

"The first plant of interest noted was a new species of
coprosma, with the habit of the common karamu."

1889.  T. Kirk, 'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 275:

"'Karamu' is applied by the Maoris to several species of
Coprosma, amongst which, I believe, this
[C. arborea] is included, but it is commonly termed
'tree-karamu' by bushmen and settlers in the North."

1891.  T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' 'New Zealand Country
Journal,' vol. xv. p. 105:

 "Of these fruits that of the karamu, (Coprosma lucida),
seemed to be amongst the first to be selected."

Kareau or Kareao, n.  Maori name for
Supplejack (q.v.).

Karmai, n. used by settlers in South Island of
New Zealand for Towhai (q.v.), a New Zealand tree,
Weinmannia racemosa, Forst. N.O. Saxifrageae.
Kamahi is the Maori, and Karmai, or Kamai, the

1876.  W. N. Blair, 'Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,'
vol. ix. p. 148:

"As will be seen by the tables of names, kamai is called black
birch in the Catlin River District and Southland, which name is
given on account of a supposed resemblance to the 'birches,'
or more correctly 'beeches,' a number of which occur in that
locality.  I cannot understand how such an idea could have
originated, for except in the case of the bark of one there
is not the slightest resemblance between the birches and kamai.
Whatever be the reason, the misapplication of names is
complete, for the birches are still commonly called kamai in

Karoro, n. Maori name for a Black-backed Gull,
Larus dominicanus.

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 47:

Karri or Kari, n. aboriginal name
(Western Australia) for Eucalyptus diversicolor.
F. v. M.

1870.  W. H. Knight, 'Western Australia: Its History,
Progress, Condition, etc.,' p. 38:

"The Karri (eucalyptus colossea) is another wood very
similar in many respects to the tuart, and grows to an enormous

1875.  T. Laslett, 'Timber and Timber Trees,' p. 196:

"The kari-tree is found in Western Australia, and is said to be
very abundant . . .  of straight growth and can be obtained
of extraordinary size and length. . .  .  The wood is red in
colour, hard, heavy, strong, tough, and slightly wavy or curled
in the grain."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 444:

"Commonly known as 'karri,' but in its native habitat as
blue-gum. . . .  The durability of this timber for lengthened
periods under ground yet remains to be proved."

1896.  'The Inquirer and Commercial News,' [Perth] July 3,
p. 4, col. 5:

"Mr. J. Ednie Brown, conservator of forests . . . expresses
astonishment at the vastness of the karri forests there.  They
will be in a position to export one thousand loads of karri
timber for street-blocking purposes every week."

1896.  'The Times' (Weekly Edition), Dec. 4, p. 822, col. 1:

"Karri, Eucalyptus diversicolor, is the giant tree of
Western Australia. an average tree has a height of about
200ft., and a diameter of 4 ft. at 3 ft. or 4 ft. above the
ground.  The tree is a rapid grower, and becomes marketable in
30 or 40 years, against 50 years for jarrah.  Karri timber is
being largely exported for London street-paving, as its surface
is not easily rendered slippery."

Katipo, n. a small venomous spider of New
Zealand and Australia.  The name is Maori.  The scientific name
is Latrodectus scelio, Thorel.In New Zealand, it is
generally found on the beach under old driftwood; but in
Australia it is found widely scattered over the Continent, and
always frequents dark sheltered spots.  The derivation may be
from Kakati, verb, to sting, and po, night.
Compare Kakapo.  It is a dark-coloured spider, with a
bright red or yellowish stripe.

1867.  F. Hochstetter, 'New Zealand,' p. 440:

"A small black spider with a red stripe on its back, which they
[the natives of New Zealand] call katipo or katepo."

1870.  Sir W. Buller, before Wellington Philosophical Society,
quoted in 'The Katipo,' Jan. 1, 1892, p. 2:

"I have satisfied myself that in common with many other
venomous creatures it (the katipo) only asserts its dreaded
power as a means of defence, or when greatly irritated,
for I have observed that on being touched with the finger it
instantly folds its legs, rolls over on its back, and simulates
death, remaining perfectly motionless till further molested,
when it attempts to escape, only using its fangs as the dernier

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals, p. 39:

"Another spider (Lathrodectus scelio), which is very
common here and everywhere in Queensland, is very dangerous
even to men.  It is a small black animal, of the size of our
house-spider, with a brilliant scarlet mark on its back."

1891.  C. Frost, 'Victorian Naturalist,' p. 140:

"I also determined, should opportunity occur, to make some
further experiments with the black and red spider
Latrodectus scelio . . .  I found suspended in the web
of one of this species a small lizard . . . which doubtless had
been killed by its bite."

1892.  Jan. 1, 'The Katipo,' a Journal of Events in connection
with the New Zealand Post Office and Telegraph Services.  On
p. 2 of the first number the Editor says:

"If hard words could break bones, the present lot of the
proprietors of 'The Katipo' would be a sorry one.  From certain
quarters invectives of the most virulent type have been hurled
upon them in connection with the title now bestowed upon the
publication--the main objections expressed cover contentions
that the journal's prototype is a 'repulsive,' 'vindictive,'
and 'death-dealing reptile,' 'inimical to man,' etc. ; and so
on, ad infinitum."

[The pictorial heading of each number is a katipo's web,
suggestive of the reticulation of telegraph wires, concerning
which page 3 of the first number says: "The Katipo spider and
web extends its threads as a groundwork for unity of the

1895.  H. R. Hogq, 'Horne Expedition in Central Australia,
Zoology, p. 322:

 "This spider, popularly known as the red streaked spider, is
found all over Victoria and New South Wales, and is recorded
from Rockhampton and Bowen on the Queensland Coast, and from
the North Island of New Zealand, where it is known by the
Maoris as the Katipo."

Kauri, or Cowry, or Kauri-Pine,
n. Maori name for the tree Agathis australis,
Sal. (formerly Dammara A.), N.O. Coniferae.
Variously spelt, and earlier often called Cowdie.  In
'Lee's New Zealand Vocabulary,' 1820, the spelling Kaudi
appears.  Although this tree is usually called by the generic
name of Dammara (see quotation, 1832), it is properly
referred to the genus Agathis, an earlier name already
given to it by Salisbury.  There is a Queensland Kauri
(Dammara robusta, F. v. M.).  See Pine.

1823.  R. A. Cruise, 'Ten Months in New Zealand,' p. 145:

"The banks of the river were found to abound with cowry; and
. . . the carpenter was of opinion that there could be no great
difficulty in loading the ship.  The timber purveyor of the
Coromandel having given cowry a decided preference to
kaikaterre, . . . it was determined to abandon all further

1835.  W. Yate, 'True Account of New Zealand,' p. 37:

"As a shrub, and during its youthful days, the kauri is not
very graceful . . .  but when it comes to years of maturity,
it stands unrivalled for majesty and beauty."

1852.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes' (edition 1855), p. 285:

"The kauri (Dammera [sic] Australis) is
coniferous, resinous, and has an elongated box-like leaf."

1860.  G. Bennett, 'Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 349:

"When Captain Cook visited New Zealand (nearly a century after
the discovery of the Dammara of Amboyna), he saw, upon
the east coast of the Northern Island, a tree, called by the
natives Kowrie; it was found to be a second species of
Dammara, and was named D. australis."

1867.  F. Hochstetter, 'New Zealand,' p. 140:

"The Kauri-pine is justly styled the Queen of the New Zealand
forest . . . the celebrated and beautiful Kauri."

1874.  W. M. B., 'Narrative of Edward Crewe,' p. 169:

"The kauri is the only cone-bearing pine in New Zealand.  The
wood is of a yellow colour, wonderfully free from knots, and
harder than the red-pine of the Baltic.  Beautifully mottled
logs are sometimes met with, and are frequently made up into

1875.  T. Laslett, 'Timber and Timber Trees,' p. 295:

"The Kaurie or Cowdie-Pine (Dammara Australis) is a
native of and is found only in New Zealand. . . .  A tall and
very handsome tree with a slightly tapering stem. . .  .  For
masts, yards, etc., is unrivalled in excellence, as it not only
possesses the requisite dimensions, lightness, elasticity, and
strength, but is much more durable than any other Pine."  [The
whole of chap. 37 is devoted to this tree.]

1883.  F. S. Renwick, 'Betrayed,' p. 47:

"As some tall kauri soars in lonely pride,
 So proudly Hira stood."

1886.  J. A. Froude, 'Oceans,' p. 318:

"Only the majestic Kauri tolerated no approaches to his
dignity.  Under his branches all was bare and brown."

1889.  T. Kirk,  'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 143:

"The Native name 'Kauri' is the only common name in general
use.  When the timber was first introduced into Britain it was
termed 'cowrie' or 'kowdie-pine'; but the name speedily fell
into disuse, although it still appears as the common name in
some horticultural works."

1890.  Brett, 'Early History of New Zealand,' p. 115:

"'The Hunter' and 'Fancy' loaded spars for Bengal at the Thames
in 1798." . . .  "These two Indian vessels in the Thames were
probably the earliest European ships that loaded with New
Zealand Timber, and probably mark the commencement of the
export Kauri trade."

Kauri-gum, n. the resin which exudes from the
Kauri (q.v.), used in making varnish.

1867.  F. Hochstetter, 'New Zealand,' p. 140:

"In the year 1859 the amount of timber exportation from the
Province of Auckland was L 34,376; that of kauri-gum exported
L 20,776."

1874.  G. Walch, 'Head over Heels,' p. 15:

"He paid his passage with kauri-gum."

1893.  'Murray's Handbook to New Zealand,' p. 62:

"The industry which will most interest the tourist is the
Kauri-gum. . . .  The resin or gum which they [the Kauri-trees]
contained fell into the ground as the trees died, and (not
being soluble in water) has remained there ever since.  Men go
about with spears which they drive into the ground, and if they
find small pieces of gum sticking to the end of the spear, they
commence digging, and are often rewarded by coming on large
lumps of gum."

Kava, n.  The word is Tongan for--

(1) An ornamental shrub, Piper methysticum, Miq.; also
Macropiper latifolium, Miq.  See Kawa-kawa.

(2) A narcotic and stimulant beverage, prepared from the root
of this plant, which used to be chewed by the natives of Fiji,
who ejected the saliva into a Kava bowl, added water and
awaited fermentation.  The final stage of the manufacture was
accompanied by a religious ceremonial of chanting.  The
manufacture is now conducted in a cleaner way.  Kava produces
an intoxication, specially affecting the legs.

1858.  Rev. T. Williams, 'Fiji and the Fijians,' vol. i.
p. 141:

"Like the inhabitants of the groups eastward, the Fijians drink
an infusion of the Piper methysticum, generally called
Ava or Kava--its name in the Tongan and other
languages.  Some old men assert that the true Fijian mode of
preparing the root is by grating, as is still the practice in
two or three places; but in this degenerate age the Tongan
custom of chewing is almost universal, the operation nearly
always being performed by young men.  More form attends the use
of this narcotic on Somosomo than elsewhere.  Early in the
morning the king's herald stands in front of the royal abode,
and shouts at the top of his voice, 'Yagona!'  Hereupon
all within hearing respond in a sort of scream,
'Mama!'--'Chew it!'  At this signal the chiefs, priests,
and leading men gather round the well-known bowl, and talk over
public affairs, or state the work assigned for the day, while
their favourite draught is being prepared.  When the young men
have finished the chewing, each deposits his portion in the
form of a round dry ball in the bowl, the inside of which thus
becomes studded over with a large number of these separate
little masses.  The man who has to make the grog takes the bowl
by the edge and tilts it towards the king, or, in his absence,
to the chief appointed to preside.  A herald calls the king's
attention to the slanting bowl, saying, 'Sir, with respects,
the yagona is collected.'  If the king thinks it enough,
he replies, in a low tone, 'Loba'--'Wring it--an order
which the herald communicates to the man at the bowl in a
louder voice.  The water is then called for and gradually
poured in, a little at first, and then more, until the bowl is
full or the master of the ceremonies says, 'Stop!' the operator
in the meantime gathering up and compressing the chewed root."

1888.  H. S. Cooper, 'The Islands of the Pacific,' p. 102:

"Kava is the name given to a liquor produced by chewing the
root of a shrub called angona, and the ceremonious part of the
preparation consists in chewing the root."

Kawa-kawa, n. Maori name for an ornamental
shrub of New Zealand, Macropiper excelsum.  In Maori,
Kawa = "unpleasant to the taste, bitter, sour." (Williams.)
The missionaries used to make small beer out of the

1850.  Major Greenwood, 'Journey from Taupo to Auckland,'
p. 30:

"The good missionary . . .  thrust upon us . . .  some
bottles of a most refreshing light beverage made from the
leaves of the kawa-kawa tree, which in taste much resembled

1877.  Anon., 'Colonial Experiences, or Incidents of
Thirty-four Years in New Zealand,' p. 104:

"Our tea was made from the dried leaves of a native shrub,
of a very spicy flavour, and known as the kawakawa, too pungent
if used fresh and green."

1896.  'Otago Witness,' June 4, p. 49:

"The tints of kawa, of birch and broadleaf, of
rimu and matai are blended together into one dark
indivisible green."

Kawau, n.  Maori name for a Shag,
Phalacrocorax novae-hollandiae, Steph.

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. ii.
p. 145:

[Description given.]

Kea, n. a parrot of New Zealand, Nester
notabilis, Gould.  For its habits see quotations.

1862.  J. Von Haast, 'Exploration of Head Waters of Waitaki,
1862,'-in 'Geology of Westland' (published 1879), p. 36:

"What gave still greater interest to the spot was the presence
of a number of large green alpine parrots (Nestor
notabilis), the kea of the natives, which visited
continually the small grove of beech-trees near our camp."

1880.  'Zoologist' for February, p. 57:

"On the 4th of November last the distinguished surgeon,
Mr. John Wood, F.R.S., exhibited before the Pathological
Society of London the colon of a sheep, in which the operation
known as Colotomy had been performed by a Parrot . . . the
species known as the 'Kea' by the Maoris, the 'Mountain Parrot'
of the colonists, Nestor notabilis of Gould.  Only five
species . . . are known, one of which (Nestor productus)
has lately become extinct; they only occur in New Zealand and
Norfolk Island.  They were formerly classed among the
Trichoglossinae or brush-tongued parrots . . . more
nearly allied to true Psittaci . . .  Its ordinary food
consists of berries and insects; but since its Alpine haunts
have been reached by the tide of civilization, it has acquired
a taste for raw flesh, to obtain which it even attacks living

1882.  T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 176:

"We have the hoary-headed nestors, amongst which are found the
noisy honey-loving kaka, the hardy kea, that famous sheep-
killer and flesh-eater, the dread of many an Alpine sheep

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i.
p. 166:

"Nestor notabilis, Gould, Kea-parrot, Mountain-parrot of
the Colonists."

1888.  'Antipodean Notes,' p. 74:

"The Kea picks the fat which surrounds the kidneys. . . .
Various theories have been started to explain how this parrot
has become carnivorous."
[Two pages are devoted to the question.]

1889.  Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. iv. p. 19:

"The kea-parrot. . . .  The kea is pretty to look at, having
rich red and green plumage, but it is a cruel bird.  It is said
that it will fasten on the back of a living sheep and peck its
way down to the kidney-fat, for which this parrot has a special
fancy.  No tourist need feel compunction about shooting a kea."

1893.  A. R. Wallace, 'Australasia,' vol. i. p. 445:

"Another very interesting group of birds are the large dull
colonial parrots of the genus Nestor, called kea or kaka by the
natives from their peculiar cries.  Their natural food is
berries . . .  but of late years the kea (Nestor
notabilis), a mountain species found only in the South
Island, has developed a curious liking for meat, and now
attacks living sheep, settling on their backs and tearing away
the skin and flesh to get at the kidney fat."

1895.  'Otago Witness,' Dec. 26, p. 3, col. 1:

"There is in the Alpine regions of the South Island a plant
popularly called the 'vegetable sheep,' botanically named
Raoulia.  From the distance of even a few yards it looks
like a sheep.  It grows in great masses, and consists of a
woolly vegetation.  A large specimen of this singular plant was
exhibited in the Colonial and Indian Exhibition.  It is said
that the kea was in the habit of tearing it up to get at the
grubs which harbour within the mass, and that mistaking dead
sheep for vegetable sheep it learned the taste of mutton.  A
more enterprising generation preferred its mutton rather

Kelp-fish, n.  In New Zealand, also called
Butter-fish (q.v.), Coridodax pullus, Forst.
In Tasmania, Odax baleatus, Cuv. and Val.; called
also Ground Mullet by the fishermen.  In Victoria,
Chironemus marmoratus, Gunth.  Coridodax and
Odax belong to the family Labridae or Wrasses,
which comprises the Rock-Whitings; Chironemus
to the family Cirrhitidae.  The name is also given
in New Zealand to another fish, the Spotty (q.v.).
These fishes are all different from the Californian food-
fishes of the same name.

1841.  J. Richardson, 'Description of Australian Fishes,'
p. 148:

"This fish is known at Port Arthur by the appellation of
'Kelp-fish,' I suppose from its frequenting the thickets of
the larger fuci."

Kennedya, n. the scientific name of a genus of
perennial leguminous herbs of the bean family-named, in 1804,
after Mr.  Kennedy, a gardener at Hammersmith, near London.
There are seventeen species, all natives of Australia and
Tasmania, many of them cultivated for the sake of their showy
flowers and berries.  Others lie near the ground like a vetch;
K. prostrata is called the Coral Pea (q.v.),
or Bleeding Heart, or Native Scarlet Runner,
or Running Postman.  Another species is called
Australian Sarsaparilla.  See Sarsaparilla.

1885.  R. M. Praed, 'The Head Station,' p. 294:

"Taking off his felt hat, he twisted round it a withe of
crimson Kennedia, then put it on again."

Kestrel, n. the common English name for a
falcon.  According to Gould the Australian species is identical
with Cerchneis tinnunculus, a European species, but
Vigors and Horsfield differentiate it as Tinnunculus

1893.  'The Argus,' March 25, p. 4, col. 5:

"The kestrel's nest we always found in the fluted gums that
overhung the creek, the red eggs resting on the red mould of
the decaying trunk being almost invisible."

Kia ora, interj.  Maori phrase used by English in
the North Island of New Zealand, and meaning "Health to you!"
A private letter (1896) says--"You will hear any day at a
Melbourne bar the first man say Keora ta-u, while the
other says Keora tatu, so replacing "Here's to you!"
These expressions are corruptions of the Maori, Kia ora
taua, "Health to us too!"  and Kia ora tatou,
"Health to all of us!"

Kie-kie, n.  Maori name for a climbing plant,
Freycinetia banksii, N.O. Pandanaceae; frequently
pronounced ghi-ghi in the North Island of New Zealand,
and gay-gie in the South Island.

1854.  W. Golder, 'Pigeons' Parliament,' p. 77:

"The trees were . . .  covered with a kind of parasite plant,
called a keekee, having a thick cabbage-like stock."

1872.  A. Domett, 'Ranolf' (Notes), p. 505:

"Kie-kie (parasite). . . .  A lofty climber; the bracts and
young spikes make a very sweet preserve."

1882.  T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 20:

"The unused food . . . of our little camp, together with
the empty kie-kie baskets."

[sc. baskets made of kie-kie leaves.]

Kiley, n. aboriginal word in Western Australia
for a flat weapon, curved for throwing, made plane on one side
and slightly convex on the other.  A kind of boomerang.

1839.  Nathaniel Ogle, 'The Colony of Western Australia,'
p. 57:

"In every part of this great continent they have the koilee,
or boomerang . . ."

1846.  J.  L.  Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. 1.
c. iv. p. 72:

"One of them had a kiley or bomerang."

1872.  Mrs. E. Millett, 'An Australian Parsonage; or, The
Settler and the Savage in Western Australia,' p. 222:

"The flat curved wooden weapon, called a kylie, which
the natives have invented for the purpose of killing several
birds out of a flock at one throw, looks not unlike a bird
itself as it whizzes (or walks as natives say) through
the air in its circular and ascending flight. . ."

1885 Lady Barker, 'Letters to Guy,' p. 177:

"More wonderful and interesting, however, is it to see them
throw the kylie (what is called the boomerang in other parts of
Australia), a curiously curved and flat stick, about a foot
long and two or three inches wide. . . .  There are heavier
'ground kylies,' which skim along the ground, describing
marvellous turns and twists, and they would certainly break
the leg of any bird or beast they hit; but their gyrations
are nothing compared to those of a good air-kylie in skilful

Kinaki, n. a Maori word for food eaten with
another kind to give it a relish.  Compare Grk. 'opson.

1820.  'Grammar and Vocabulary of Language of New Zealand'
(Church Missionary Society), p. 164:

"Kinaki.  Victuals, added for variety's sake."

1873.  'Appendix to Journal of House of Representatives,'
vol. iii. G. 1, p. 5:

"If it be a Maori who is taken by me, he will also be
made into a kinaki for my cabbage."

1878.  R. C. Barstow, 'Transactions of New Zealand
Institute,' vol. XI. art. iv. p. 71:

"Fifty years ago it would have been a poor hapu that could
not afford a slave or two as a kinaki, or relish, on such an

King-fish, n.  In New Zealand a sea-fish,
Seriola lalandii (Maori, Haku), sometimes called the
Yellow-tail; in Victoria, Sciaena antarctica,
Castln.  Called Jew-fish (q.v.) in New South Wales.
Tenison Woods says the King-fish of Port Jackson must not be
confounded with the King-fish of Victoria or the King-fish of
Tasmania (Thyrsites micropus, McCoy).  The Port Jackson
King-fish belongs to a genus called "Yellow-tails" in Europe.
This is Seriola lalandii, Cuv. and Val.  Seriola
belongs to the family Carangidae, or Horse-
Mackerels.  Thyrsites belongs to the family
Trichiuridae.  The "Barracouta" of Australasia is
another species of Thyrsites, and the "Frost-fish"
belongs to the same family.  The Kingfish of America is
a different fish; the name is also applied to other fishes in

1876.  P. Thomson, 'Transactions of New Zealand
Institute,' vol. XI. art. lii. p. 381:

"The king-fish, Seriola Lalandii, put in no appearance
this year."

1883.  'Royal Commission on Fisheries of Tasmania,' p. 11:

"Thyrsites Lalandii, the king-fish of Tasmania:
migratory.  Appear in immense numbers at certain seasons
(December to June) in pursuit of the horse-mackerel.  Caught
with a swivelled barbless hook at night.  Voracious in the
extreme--individuals frequently attacking each other, and also
the allied species, the barracouta."

Kingfisher, n. common English bird-name.  Gould
mentions thirteen species in Australia.  The Australian species

Blue Kingfisher--
 Halcyon azurea, Lath.

Fawn-breasted K.--
 Dacelo cervina, Gould.

Forest K.--
 Halcyon macleayi, Jard. and Selb.

Laughing jackass (q.v.)--
 Dacelo gigas, Bodd.

Leach's K.--
 D. leachii, Vig. and Hors.

Little K.--
 Halcyon pusilla, Temm.

Mangrove K.--
 H. sordidus, Gould.

Purple K.--
 H. pulchra, Gould.

Red-backed K.--
 H. pyrropygius, Gould.

Sacred K.--
 H. sanctus, Vig. and Hors.

White-tailed K.--
 Tanysiptera sylvia, Gould.

Yellow-billed K.--
 Syma flavirostris, Gould.

There is a Kingfisher in New Zealand (Halcyon vagans,
Less.)  considered identical by many with H. sanctus
of Australia, but concluded by Butler to be a distinct species.

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. i.
p. 121:

[A full description.]

King of the Herrings, n. another name for the
Elephant-fish (q.v.).

1890.  A. H. S. Lucas, 'Handbook of the Australasian
Association' (Melbourne), p. 72:

"The King of the Herrings, Callorhynchus antarcticus,
is fairly common with us."

King-Parrot.  See Parrot.

1865.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'History of the Discovery
and Exploration of Australia,' vol. i. p. 317:

This creek [King Parrot Creek] was named after a beautiful
parrot which was then seen for the first time.  It is a bird
of magnificent plumage, with crimson feathers on the body,
and blue wings, both of gorgeous hue, and no other colour except
a little black.  The name, King Parrot, is variously applied to
several birds in different arts of Australia; the one
described is common."

King William Pine, n. a Tasmanian tree.
See Cedar.

Kino, n. a drug; the dried juice, of astringent
character, obtained from incisions in the bark of various
trees.  In Australia it is got from certain Eucalypts,
e.g. E. resinifera, Smith, and E. corymbosa,
Smith.  "It is used in England under the name of Red-gum
in astringent lozenges for sore throat."  ('Century.')  See
Red Gum.  The drug is Australian, but the word,
according to Littre, is "Mot des Indes orientales."

Kipper, n. a youth who has been initiated,
i.e. been through the Bora (q.v.).  It is a Queensland
word.  In Kabi, Queensland, the form is kivar: on the
Brisbane River, it is kippa, whereas in the Kamilaroi of
New South Wales the word is kubura.

1853.  H. Berkeley Jones, 'Adventures in Australia in 1852 and
1853,' p. 126:

"Around us sat 'Kippers,' i.e. 'hobbledehoy blacks.'"

1885.  R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 24:

"The young men receive the rank of warriors,
and are henceforth called kippers."

Kit, n. a flexible Maori basket; not the English
kit used by soldiers, but the Maori word kete, a basket.

1855.  Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui,' p. 199:

"Kete (Maori), pa-kete (Anglo-Maori), basket, kit

1856.  E. B. Fitton, 'New Zealand,' p. 68:

"The natives generally bring their produce to market in neatly
made baskets, plaited from flax and known by the name of 'Maori

1857.  C. Hursthouse, 'New Zealand, the Britain of the South,'
vol. i. p. 180:

"The kit is a large plaited green-flax basket."

1877.  An Old Colonist, 'Colonial Experiences,' p. 31:

"Potatoes were procurable from the Maoris in flax kits,
at from one to five shillings the kit."

1884.  Lady Martin, 'Our Maoris,' p. 44:

"They might have said, as an old Maori woman long afterwards
said to me, 'Mother, my heart is like an old kete (i.e. a
coarsely-woven basket).  The words go in, but they fall

Kite, n. common English bird-name.  The species
in Australia are--

Allied Kite--
 Milvus affanis, Gould.

Black-shouldered K.--
 Elanus axillaris, Lath.

Letter-winged K.--
 E. scriptus, Gould.

Square-tailed K.--
 Lophoictinia isura, Gould.

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 321:

"We had to guard it by turns, whip in hand, from a host of
square-tailed kites (Milvus isiurus)."

1895.  G. A. Keartland, 'Horne Expedition in Central
Australia,' Zoology, p. 55:

"At any stockyard or station passed Kites were seen . . . at
Henbury one female bird was bold enough to come right into camp
and pick up the flesh thrown to it from birds I was skinning."

Kiwi, n.  Maori name for a wingless struthious
bird of New Zealand, the Apteryx (q.v.), so called from
the note of the bird.  The species are--

Large Grey Kiwi (Roa roa, generally shortened to Roa,
 Apteryx haastii, Potts.

Little Grey K.--
 A. oweni, Gould.

North Island K.--
 A. bulleri, Sharpe.

South Island K. (Tokoeka)--
 A. australis, Shaw and Nodder.

See Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand' (1888), vol. ii. p. 308.

1835.  W. Yate, 'Account of New Zealand,' p. 58:

"Kiwi--the most remarkable and curious bird in New Zealand."

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. vi. pl. 2:

"Apteryx Australis, Shaw, Kiwi kiwi."

[Australis here equals Southern, not Australian.]

1867.  F. Hochstetter, 'New Zealand,' p. 181:

"The Kiwi, however, is only the last and rather insignificant
representative of the family of wingless birds that inhabited
New Zealand in bygone ages."

1872.  A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 232:

"'Twas nothing but that wing-less, tail-less bird,
 The kiwi."

1882.  T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 35:

"The fact that one collector alone had killed and disposed
of above 2000 specimens of the harmless kiwi."

1889.  Professor Parker, 'Catalogue of New Zealand Exhibition,'
p. 116:

"The Kiwi, although flightless, has a small but well-formed
wing, provided with wing quills."

Knockabout, adj. a species of labourer employed
on a station; applied to a man of all work on a station.  Like
Rouseabout (q.v.).

1876.  W. Harcus, 'Southern Australia,' p. 275:

"Knockabout hands, 17s. to 20S. per week."

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. i. p. 80:

"They were composed chiefly of what is called in the bush
'knockabout men'--that is, men who are willing to undertake
any work, sometimes shepherding, sometimes making yards or

1884.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' xvi. p. 118:

"I watched his development through various stages of colonial
experience--into dairyman, knockabout man, bullock-driver,
and finally stock-rider."

Knock-down, v. generally of a cheque.  To spend
riotously, usually in drink.

1869.  Marcus Clarke, 'Peripatetic Philosopher' (reprint),
p. 80:

"Last night! went knocking round with Swizzleford and
Rattlebrain.  C'sino, and V'ri'tes.  Such a lark!  Stole two
Red Boots and a Brass Hat.  Knocked down thirteen notes, and
went to bed as tight as a fly!"

1871.  J. J. Simpson, 'Recitations,' p. 9:

"Hundreds of diggers daily then were walking Melbourne town,
 With their pockets fill'd with gold, which they very soon
  knock'd down."

1882.  A. J. Boyd, 'Old Colonials,' p. 6:

"Cashed by the nearest publican, who of course never handed
over a cent.  A man was compelled to stay there and knock his
cheque down 'like a man'"

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton,' Advance Australia,' p. 222:

"A system known as 'knocking down one's cheque' prevails all
over the unsettled parts of Australia.  That is to say, a man
with a cheque, or a sum of money in his possession, hands it
over to the publican, and calls for drinks for himself and his
friends, until the publican tells him he has drunk out his

1887.  R. M. Praed, 'Longleat of Kooralbyn,' c. xviii. p. 182:

"The illiterate shearer who knocks down his cheque in a spree."

Koala, Coola, or Kool-la,
n. aboriginal name for Native Bear (q.v.); genus,
Phascolarctus (q.v.).  A variant of an aboriginal word
meaning a big animal.  In parts of South Australia koola means
a kangaroo.

1813.  'History of New South Wales' (1818), p. 432:

"The koolah or sloth is likewise an animal of the opossum
species, with a false belly.  This creature is from a foot and
a half to two feet in length, and takes refuge in a tree, where
he discovers his haunt by devouring all the leaves before he
quits it."

1849.  J. Gould, 'Proceedings of the Zoological Society of
London,' November:

"The light-coloured mark on the rump, somewhat resembling that
on the same part of the Koala . . . the fur is remarkable for
its extreme density and for its resemblance to that of the

Kohekohe, n.  Maori name for a New Zealand
tree, sometimes called Cedar, Dysoxylum spectabile,
Hook (N.O. Meliaceae).

1883.  Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 127:

"Kohekohe.  A large forest tree, forty to fifty feet high.  Its
leaves are bitter, and used to make a stomachic infusion: wood
tough, but splits freely."

Kohua, n.  Maori word, for (1) a Maori oven;
(2) a boiler.  There is a Maori verb Kohu, to cook or
steam in a native oven (from a noun Kohu, steam, mist),
and an adj. Kohu, concave.  The word is used by
the English in New Zealand, and is said to be the origin of
Goashore (q.v.).

Kokako, n.  Maori name for the Blue-wattled
Crow.  See under Crow and Wattle-bird.

1882.  T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 194:

"The Orange-wattled Crow, or wattled bird, kokako of the
Maoris, Glaucopis cinerea, Gml., still seems to be an almost
unknown bird as to its nesting habits. . . .  The kokako loving
a moist temperature will probably soon forsake its ancient
places of resort."

Kokopu, n.  Maori name for a New Zealand fish;
any species of Galaxias, especially G. fasciatus;
corrupted into Cock-a-bully (q.v.).  See Mountain

1820.  'Grammar and Vocabulary of Language of New Zealand'
(Church Missionary Society), p. 106:

"Kokopu.  Name of a certain fish."

1886.  R. A. Sherrin, 'Fishes of New Zealand,' p. 138:

"'Kokopu,' Dr.Hector says, 'is the general Maori name for
several very common fishes in the New Zealand streams and
lakes, belonging to the family of Galaxidae.'"

Kokowai, n.  Maori name for Red Ochre, an oxide
of iron deposited in certain rivers, used by the Maoris for
painting.  It was usually mixed with shark oil, but for very
fine work with oil from the berries of the titoki

1845.  E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i.
p. 124:

"His head, with the hair neatly arranged and copiously
ornamented with feathers, reclined against a carved post,
which was painted with kokowai, or red ochre."

1878.  R. C. Barstow, 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,'
vol. XI. art. iv. p. 75:

"Kokowai is a kind of pigment, burnt, dried, and mixed with
shark-liver oil."

Konini, n.  Maori name for (1) the fruit of the
New Zealand fuchsia, Fuchsia excorticata, Linn.

(2) A settlers' name for the tree itself.
See Kotukutuku.

1882.  T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 114:

"The berries of the konini . . . ripening early furnish some
part of its (bell-bird's) food supply."

(p. 146): "Rather late in August, when the brown-skinned konini
begins to deck its bare sprays with pendulous flowers."

1889.  T. Kirk, 'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 53:

"Mr. Colenso informs me that it [Fuchsia excorticata]
is the Kohutuhutu and the Kotukutuku of the Maoris, the fruit
being known as Konini, especially in the South Island and the
southern part of the North Island.  The settlers sometimes term
it Kotukutuku or Konini, but more generally fuchsia."

Kooberry, n. aboriginal name for the Bidyan
Ruffe (q.v.).

Kookaburra, n. (also Gogobera and
Goburra), the aboriginal name for the bird called
the Laughing Jackass (q.v.).  The first spelling is
that under which the aboriginal name now survives in English,
and is the name by which the bird is generally called in Sydney.

1862.  H. C. Kendall, 'Poems,' p. 123:

"And wild goburras laughed aloud
 Their merry morning songs."

1870.  F. S. Wilson, 'Australian Songs,' p. 167:

"The rude rough rhymes of the wild goburra's song."

1886.  E. M. Curr, 'Australian Race,' p. 29:

"The notes of this bird are chiefly composed of the sounds
ka and koo, and from them it takes its name
in most of the languages . . .  It is noticeable in some
localities that burra is the common equivalent of
people or tribe, and that the Pegulloburra . . .
the Owanburra, and many other tribes, called the laughing-
jackass--kakooburra, kakaburra, kakoburra, and so on; literally
the Kakoo people."  [Mr. Curr's etymology is not
generally accepted.]

1890.  'The Argus,' Oct. 25, p. 4, col 5:

"You might hear the last hoot of the kookaburra then."

1893.  'Sydney Morning Herald,' Aug. 26, p. 5, col. 4:

"But what board will intervene to protect the disappearing
marsupials, and native flora, the lyre-bird, the kookaburra,
and other types which are rapidly disappearing despite the laws
which have been framed in some instances for their protection?"

1894.  E. P. Ramsay, 'Catalogue of Australian Birds in the
Australian Museum at Sydney,' p. 2, s.v. Dacelo:

"Gogobera, aborigines of New South Wales."

Koradji, or Coradgee, n. aboriginal
name for a wise man, sorcerer, or doctor.  In the south-east of
New South Wales, it means one of the tribal wizards, usually
called "blackfellow- doctors."

1845.  J. O. Balfour, 'Sketch of New South Wales,' p. 14:

"The coradgees, who are their wise men, have, they suppose,
the power of healing and foretelling.  Each tribe possesses one
of these learned pundits, and if their wisdom were in proportion
to their age, they would indeed be Solons."

1865.  S. Bennett, 'Australian Discovery,' p. 250:

"Kiradjee, a doctor; Grk. cheirourgos.  Persian,
khoajih.  English, surgeon.  Old English (obsolete),

[Curious and impossible etymology.]

1865.  W. Howitt, 'Discovery in Australia, vol. i. p. 287:

"One who seemed a coradge, or priest, went through a strange
ceremony of singing, and touching his eyebrows, nose, and
breast, crossing himself, and pointing to the sky like an old

1885.  R. M. Praed, 'Australian Life,' p. 23:

"The korradgees, or medicine men, are the chief repositories
(of the secrets of their religion)."

1892.  J. Fraser, 'Aborigines of New South Wales,' p. 63:

"For some diseases, the kar'aji, or native doctor when he is
called in, makes passes with his hand over the sick man, much
in the same way as a mesmerist will do . . .  Our Australian
karaji is highly esteemed, but not paid."

Korari, n. often pronounced Koladdy
and Koladdy, and spelt variously; the Maori word for
the flowering stem of Phormium tenax, J. and G. Forst.
(q.v.), generally used for making a mokihi (q.v.).
There is a Maori noun, kora, a small fragment;
and a verb korari, to pluck a twig, or tear it off.

1879.  'Old Identity' [Title]:

"The Old Identities of the Province of Otago."

[p. 53]: "A kolladie (the flower stalk of the flax,
about seven feet long) carried by each, as a balancing pole or

1893.  Daniel Frobisher, 'Sketches of Gossipton,' p. 75:

"But now the faithful brute is gone;
 Through bush and fern and flax koladdy,
 Where oft he bunny pounced upon,
 No more will follow me, poor Paddy."

Korero, n.  Maori for a conference,
a conversation.  The verb means "to tell, to say, to address,
to speak, to talk."  ('Williams' Maori Dictionary,' 4th. ed.)

1820.  'Grammar and Vocabulary of Language of New Zealand'
(Church Missionary Society), p. 168:

"Korero, s. a speaking; v. n. speaking."

1845.  E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' c. i.
p. 78:

"There were about sixty men assembled, and they proceeded to
hold a 'korero,' or talk on the all-important subject."

Ibid. p. 81:

"With the exception of an occasional exclamation of 'korero,
korero,' 'speak, speak,' which was used like our 'hear, hear,'
in either an encouraging or an ironical sense, or an earnest
but low expression of approval or dissent, no interruption of
the orators ever took place."

1863.  T. Moser, 'Mahoe Leaves,' p. 30:

 "As he had to pass several pahs on the road, at all of which
there would be 'koreros.'"

(p. 31): "Had been joined by a score or more of their
acquaintances, and what between 'koreros' and 'ko-mitis,'
had not made any further progress on their journey."

1896.  'Otago Witness,' Jan. 23, p. 42, col. 3:

"All this after a very excited 'korero' on the empty dray,
with the surging and exciting crowd around."

Korimako, n.  Maori name for the
Bell-Bird (q.v.).

1855.  Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui,' p. 402:

"The korimako, or kokorimako (Anthornis melanura).
This bird is the sweetest songster of New Zealand, but is not
distinguished by its plumage, which is a yellowish olive with
a dark bluish shade on each side of the head."

Ibid. p. 75:

"In the first oven [at the Maori child's naming feast] a
korimako was cooked; this is the sweetest singing bird of New
Zealand; it was eaten that the child might have a sweet voice
and be an admired orator."

1872.  A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 202:

"The korimako, sweetest bird
 Of all that are in forest heard."

1888.  W. W. Smith, 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,'
vol. XXI. art. xxi. p. 213:

"Anthornis melanura, korimako or bell-bird.  In fine
weather the bush along the south shores of Lake Brunner
re-echoes with the rich notes of the tui and korimako, although
both species have disappeared from former haunts east of the

Koromiko, n. a white flowering arborescent
Veronica of New Zealand, Veronica salicifolia, Forst.,
N.O. Scrophularineae.

1855.  Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui,' P. 454:

"Koromiko, a very ornamental plant, but disappearing before the
horse.  It bears a tapering-shaped flower of a purplish white."

1872.  A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 2:

               "Just a ditch,
With flowering koromiko rich."

1884.  T. Bracken, 'Lays of Maori,' p. 21:

                      "The early breeze
That played among the koromiko's leaves."

1889.  Vincent Pyke, 'Wild Will Enderby,' p. 16:

"Fostered by the cool waters of a mountain rivulet, the
koromiko grows by the side of the poisonous tutu bushes."

Korora, n.  Maori name for a Blue Penguin,
Spheniscus minor, Gmel.  See Penguin.

Korrumburra, n. aboriginal name for the common
blow-fly, which in Australia is a yellow-bottle, not a

1896.  'The Melburnian,' Aug. 28, p. 54:

"Odd 'Korrumburras' dodge quickly about with cheerful hum.
Where they go, these busy buzzy flies, when the cold calls them
away for their winter vac. is a mystery.  Can they hibernate?
for they show themselves again at the first glint of the spring

Kotuku, n.  Maori name for the White
Crane of the Colonists, which is really a White
Heron (Ardea egretta).  See Crane.

1888.  W. L. Buller, 'Birds of New Zealand,' vol. ii. p. 124:

[A full description.]

Kotukutuku, n.  Maori name for the New Zealand
tree, Fuchsia excorticata, Linn.,
N.O. Onagrariea; written also Kohutuhutu.  This
name is not much used, but is corrupted into Tookytook
(q.v.).  See Konini and Fuchsia.

1883.  J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 127:

"Kotukutuku.  The fruit is called konini.  A small and
ornamental tree, ten to thirty feet high . . . a durable
timber. . .  .  The wood might be used as dye-stuff . . .  Its
fruit is pleasant and forms principal food of the wood-pigeon."

Kowhai, n.  Maori name given to--

(1) Locust-tree, Yellow Kowhai (Sophora
tetraptera, Aiton, N.O. Leguminosae).

(2) Parrot-bill, Scarlet Kowhai (Clianthus
puniceus, N.O. Leguminosae), or Kaka-bill

Variously spelt Kowai and Kohai, and corrupted
into Goai (q.v.) by the settlers.

1845.  E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i.
p. 58:

"The kohai too, a species of mimosa covered with bright
yellow blossoms, abounds in such situations where the stunted
growth is an almost unvarying sign of constant inundation."

[Mr. Wakefield was mistaken.  The Kohai is not a mimosa.]

1872.  A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 261:

"'Tis the Kowhai, that spendthrift so golden
 But its kinsman to Nature beholden,
 For raiment its beauty to fold in,
 Deep-dyed as of trogon or lory,
 How with parrot-bill fringes 'tis burning,
 One blood-red mound of glory!"

1873.  'New Zealand Parliamentary Debates,' No. 16, p. 863:

"Kowai timber, thoroughly seasoned, used for fencing posts,
would stand for twelve or fourteen years; while posts cut out
of the same bush and used green would not last half the time."

1882.  T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 146:

"The head of the straight-stemmed kowhai is already crowned
with racemes of golden blossoms."

1883.  J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand, p. 131:

"Kowhai--a small or middling-sized tree. . . .  Wood red,
valuable for fencing, being highly durable . . .  used for
piles in bridges, wharves, etc."

1884.  T. Bracken, 'Lays of Maori,' p. 21:

"The dazzling points of morning's lances
 Waked the red kowhai's drops from sleep."

Kuku, or Kukupa, n.  Maori name
for the New Zealand Fruit-pigeon (q.v.), Carpophaga
novae-zelandiae, Gmel.  Called also Kereru.
The name is the bird's note.

1820.  'Grammar and Vocabulary of Language of New Zealand'
(Church Missionary Society), p. 170:

"Kuku, s. the cry of a pigeon."

1855.  Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui,' p. 406:

"Family Columbidae--kereru, kukupa (kuku, Carpophaga
Novae Zealandiae), the wood-pigeon.  This is a very fine
large bird, the size of a duck; the upper part of the breast
green and gold, the lower a pure white, legs and bill red.  It
is a heavy flying bird, and very stupid, which makes it an easy
prey to its enemies.  The natives preserve large quantities in
calabashes, taking out the bones; these are called kuku."

Ibid. p. 183:

"The pigeon bears two names--the kuku and kukupa, which are
common to the isles."

1881.  J. L. Campbell, 'Poenamo,' p. 115:

"The kukupa . . .  was just the bird created expressly for the
true cockney sportsman--the one after his heart . . . for if not
brought down by the first shot, why he only shakes his feathers
and calmly waits to be shot at again!"

1883.  F. S. Renwick, 'Betrayed,' p. 45:

"The kuku, plaintive, wakes to mourn her mate."

Kumara, or Kumera, n. (pronounced
Koomera), a Maori word for an edible root, the yam or sweet
potato, Ipomaea batatas, N.O. Convolvulaceae.
There are numerous varieties.  It should be added that it is
doubtful whether it grows wild in New Zealand.

1773.  Sydney Parkinson, 'Journal of a Voyage to the South
Seas' (see extract in 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,'
'Manibus Parkinsonibus Sacrum,' W. Colenso, vol. x. art. ix.
p. 124):

"Several canoes came alongside of the ship, of whom we got some
fish, kumeras or sweet potatoes, and several other things."

1828.  'Henry William Diarys' (in Life by Carleton), p. 69:

"Kumara had been planted over the whole plain."

1830.  Ibid. p. 79:

"We passed over the hill, and found the assailants feasting on
the kumara, or sweet potato, which they just pulled up from
the garden at which they had landed."

1851.  Mrs. Wilson, 'New Zealand,' p. 49:

"He saw some fine peaches and kumaras or sweet potatoes."

1852.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes,' c. xi. p. 273 (3rd
edition, 1855)

"The kumara or sweet potato is a most useful root."

1863.  F. E. Maning (Pakeha Maori), 'Old New Zealand,' p. 51:

"Behind the pigs was placed by the active exertion of two or
three hundred people, a heap of potatoes and kumera, in
quantity about ten tons, so there was no lack of the raw
material for a feast."

1872.  A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 430:

              "Now the autumn's fruits
Karaka,--taro,--kumera,--berries, roots
Had all been harvested with merry lays
And rites of solemn gladness."

1884.  T. Bracken, 'Lays of Maori,' p. 18:

"Some more dainty toothsome dish
 Than the kumera and fish."

Kumquat, Native, n. an Australian tree,
Atalantia glauca, Hook., N.O. Rutaceae,
i.q. Desert Lemon (q.v.).

Kurdaitcha, Coordaitcha, or Goditcha,
n. a native term applied by white men to a particular
kind of shoe worn by the aborigines of certain parts of Central
Australia, and made of emu feathers matted together.  The two
ends are of the same shape, so that the direction in which the
wearer has travelled cannot be detected.  The wearer is
supposed to be intent upon murder, and the blacks really apply
the name to the wearer himself.  The name seems to have been
transferred by white men to the shoes, the native name for
which is interlin~a, or urtathurta.

1886.  E. M. Curr, 'Australian Race,' vol. i. p. 148:

"It was discovered in 1882 . . . that the Blacks . . . wear a
sort of shoe when they attack their enemies by stealth at
night.  Some of the tribes call these shoes Kooditcha,
their name for an invisible spirit.  I have seen a pair of
them.  The soles were made of the feathers of the emu, stuck
together with a little human blood, which the maker is said to
take from his arm.  They were about an inch and a half thick,
soft, and of even breadth.  The uppers were nets made of human
hair.  The object of these shoes is to prevent those who wear
them from being tracked and pursued after a night attack."

1896.  P. M. Byrne, 'Proceedings of the Royal Society of
Victoria,' p. 66:

"The wearing of the Urtathurta and going Kurdaitcha luma
appears to have been the medium for a form of vendetta."

Kurrajong, n. or Currajong (spelt
variously), the aboriginal name for various Australian and
Tasmanian fibrous plants; see quotations, 1825 and 1884.
They are the--

Black Kurrajong--
 Sterculia diversifolia, G. Don., and Sterculia
quadrifida, R. Br., N.O. Sterculiaceae.

Brown K.--
 Commersonia echinata, R. and G. Forst.; also,
Brachychiton gregorii; both belonging to
N.O. Sterculiaceae.

Green K.--
 Hibiscus heterophyllus, Vent., N.O. Malvaceae.

Tasmanian K.--
 Plagianthus sidoides, Hook., N.O. Malvaceae.

Others are Trema aspera, Blume, N.O. Urticeae;
and Sterculia rupestris, Benth., N.O. Urticeae.
Some of the varieties are also called Bottle-trees, and,
in Tasmania, Cordage-trees (q.v.).

1823.  'Uniacke's Narrative of Oxley's Expedition,' quoted by
J. D. Lang, 'Cooksland,' p. 408:

"The nets used for fishing [by the natives] are made by the men
from the bark of the kurrajong (Hibiscus heterophyllus),
a shrub which is very common to the swamps."

1825.  Barron Field, Glossary, in 'Geographical Memoirs of New
South Wales,' p. 502:

"Currijong or Natives' cordage tree (Hibiscus heterophyllus)."

1832.  J. Bischoff, 'Van Diemen's Land,' vol. ii. p. 25:

"The curragong is sometimes found; its inner bark may be
manufactured into ropes."

1846.  C. P. Hodgson, 'Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 149:

"The currajong (Sterculia)is used for cordage, and makes
strong, close, but not very durable ropes."

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' vol. iii. p. 91:

"Dillis neatly worked of koorajong bark."

1849.  J. P. Townsend, 'Rambles in New South Wales,' p. 214:

"In such a valley in which stands a spreading corrijong
(Sterculia diversifolia), which has a strong resemblance
to the English oak, I constantly found a flock of sheep."

1862.  W. Archer, 'Products of Tasmania,' p. 41:

"Currajong (Plagianthus sidoides, Hook).  The fibres
of the bark are very strong.  It is a large shrub, found
chiefly on the southern side of the Island, in various and
shady places, and grows rapidly."

1878.  Rev. W. W. Spicer, 'Handbook of the Plants of
Tasmania,' p. 104:

"Plagianthus sidoides, Hooker.  Currijong,
N.O. Malvaceae.  Peculiar to Tasmania."

1883.  G. W. Rusden, 'History of Australia,' vol. i. p. 77:

"The currejong of the forest, and the casuarina which lines the
rivers, stand with brighter green in cheering contrast to the
dulness of surrounding leaves."

1881,.  W. R. Guilfoyle, 'Australian Botany' (second
edition), p. 162:

"The aborigines apply the name Kurrajong, or Currijong, to some
[Pimeleas]; but it would appear that this native name is
indiscriminately given to any plant possessing a tough bark."

1888.  Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. iii. p. 138:

"Quaint currajongs . . .  very like in form to the stiff
wooden trees we have all played with in childish days."


Laburnum, Native, n. the Tasmanian
Clover-tree, Goodenia lotifolia, Sal.,
N.O. Leguminosae.

Laburnum, Sea-coast, n. also called Golden
Chain, Sophora tomentosa, Linn., N.O.
Leguminosae; a tall, hoary shrub.

Lace-bark, Lacey-bark, or Lacewood,
n. names for Ribbonwood (q.v.).  The inner bark of the
tree is like fine lace.

1876.  W. N. Blair, 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,'
vol. IX. art. x. p. 175:

"Ribbonwood, Plagianthus betulinus, botanical name,
Hooker; Whauwhi, Maori name, according to Hector; lace-bark
tree, settlers' name, according to Buchanan."

1882.  T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open':

"The soft, bright-foliaged ribbonwood (lace-bark,
Plagianthus) contrasts with the dusky hue
of the dark-leaved fagus."

Lace-Lizard, n. Hydrosaurus (Varanus)
varius.  See Goanna.

1881.  F. McCoy, 'Prodomus of the Natural History of Victoria,'
Dec. 4:

"Although the present Lace Lizard is generally arboreal,
climbing the forest trees with ease, and running well on the
ground, it can swim nearly as well as a Crocodile."

Lagorchestes, n. the scientific name for a
genus of Australian marsupial mammals, called the Hare-
Wallabies or Hare-Kangaroos (q.v.). (Grk.
lagows, a hare, and 'orchestaes, a dancer.)
They live on plains, and make a "form" in the herbage like
the hare, which they resemble.

Lagostrophus, n. the scientific name of the
genus containing the animal called the Banded-Wallaby.
(Grk. lagows, a hare, and strophos, a band or
zone.) Its colour is a greyish-brown, with black and white
bands, its distinguishing characteristic.  It is sometimes
called the Banded-Kangaroo, and is found at Dirk
Hartog's Island, and on one or two islands in Shark's Bay,
and in West Australia.  For its interesting habits see
R. Lyddeker's 'Marsupialia.'

Lake-Trout, n. a Tasmanian fish, Galaxias
auratus, family Galaxidae.  See Mountain-

Lamb down, v. tr.

(1) To knock down a cheque or a sum of money in a spree.
There is an old English verb, of Scandinavian origin, and
properly spelt lamm, which means to thrash, beat.

1873.  J. B. Stephens, 'Black Gin,' p. 51:

"It is the Bushman come to town--
 Come to spend his cheque in town,
 Come to do his lambing down."

1890.  'The Argus,' June 7, p. 4, col. 2:

"The lambing down of cheques."

1890.  Ibid. Aug. 9, p. 4, col. 5:

"The old woman thought that we were on gold, and would lamb
down at the finish in her shanty."

(2) To make a man get rid of his money to you; to clean him

1873.  Marcus Clarke, 'Holiday Peak, etc.,' p. 21:

"The result was always the same--a shilling a nobbler.  True,
that Trowbridge's did not 'lamb down' so well as the Three
Posts, but then the Three Posts put fig tobacco in its brandy
casks, and Trowbridge's did not do that."

1880.  Garnet Walch, 'Victoria in 1880,' p.30:

"The operation--combining equal parts of hocussing,
overcharging, and direct robbery--and facetiously christened
by bush landlords 'lambing down.'"

1890.  'The Argus,' Aug. 16, p. 4, col. 7:

"One used to serve drinks in the bar, the other kept the
billiard-table.  Between them they lambed down more shearers
and drovers than all the rest on the river."

Lamprey, n.  The Australian Lampreys are
species of the genera Mordacia and Geotria,
of the same family as the "Lampreys" of the Northern Hemisphere.

Lancelet, n. The fishes of this name present in
Australasia are--

In Queensland, Epigonichthys cultellus, Peters, family
Amplingae; in Victoria and New South Wales, species of

Lancewood, n.  There are many lancewoods in
various parts of the world.  The name, in Australia, is given
to Backhousia myrtifolia, Hook. and Harv., N.O.
Myrtaceae; and in New Zealand, to Panax crassifolium,
Dec. and Plan., N.O. Araliaceae, known as Ivy-
tree, and by the Maori name of Horoeka (q.v.).

Landsborough Grass, n. a valuable Queensland
fodder grass of a reddish colour, Anthistiria
membranacea, Lindl., N.O. Gramineae.
See Grass.

Lantern, Ballarat, n. a local term.
See quotation.

1875.  Wood and Lapham, 'Waiting for the Mail,' p. 21:

"I may explain that a 'Ballarat Lantern' is formed by knocking
off the bottom of a bottle, and putting a candle in the neck."

Lark, n. common English bird name.
The Australian species are--

Brown Song Lark--
 Cincloramphus cruralis, Vig. and Hors.

Bush L.--
 Mirafra horsfieldii, Gould.

Field L.--
 Calamanthus campestris, Gould.

Ground L.--
 Anthus australis, Vig. and Hors.  (Australian Pipit),
 A. novae-zelandae, Gray (New Zealand Pipit).

Lesser Bush L.--
 Mirafra secunda, Sharpe.

Little Field L.--
 Cathonicola sagittata, Lath.

Magpie L.--
 Grallina picata, Lath.; see Magpie-Lark.

Rufous Song L.--
 Cincloramphus rufescens, Vig. and Hors.

Striated Field L.--
 Calamanthus fuliginosus, Vig. and Hors.

See Ground-Lark, Sand-Lark, Pipit, and

Larrikin, n.  The word has various shades of
meaning between a playful youngster and a blackguardly rough.
Little streetboys are often in a kindly way called little
larrikins.  (See quotations, 1870 and 1885.)  Archibald
Forbes described the larrikin as "a cross between the Street
Arab and the Hoodlum, with a dash of the Rough thrown in to
improve the mixture."  ('Century.)  The most exalted position
yet reached in literature by this word is in Sir Richard
Burton's 'Translation of the Arabian Nights' (1886-7),
vol. i. p. 4, Story of the Larrikin and the Cook;
vol. iv. p. 281, Tale of First Larrikin.  The previous
translator, Jonathan Scott, had rendered the Arabic word,

There are three views as to the origin of the word, viz.--

(1) That it is a phonetic spelling of the broad Irish
pronunciation, with a trilled r of the word
larking.  The story goes that a certain Sergeant Dalton,
about the year 1869, charged a youthful prisoner at the
Melbourne Police Court with being "a-larrr-akin' about
the streets."  The Police Magistrate, Mr. Sturt, did not quite
catch the word--"A what, Sergeant?"--"A larrikin', your
Worchup."  The police court reporter used the word the next day
in the paper, and it stuck.  (See quotation, 'Argus,' 1896.)

This story is believed by 99 persons out of 100; unfortunately
it lacks confirmation; for the record of the incident cannot
be discovered, after long search in files by many people.  Mr.
Skeat's warning must be remembered--"As a rule, derivations which
require a story to be told turn out to be false."

(2) That the word is thieves' English, promoted like
swag, plant, lift, etc., into ordinary
Australian English.  Warders testify that for a number of years
before the word appeared in print, it was used among criminals
in gaol as two separate words, viz.--leary ('cute, fly,
knowing), and kinchen (youngster),--'leary kinchen
,'--shortened commonly into 'leary kin' and
'leary kid.'  Australian warders and constables are
Irish, almost to a man.  Their pronunciation of 'leary
kin' would be very nearly 'lairy kin,' which becomes
the single word larrikin.  (See quotation, 1871.)  It is
possible that Sergeant Dalton used this expression and was
misunderstood by the reporter.

(3) The word has been derived from the French larron
(a thief), which is from the Latin latronem (a robber).
This became in English larry, to which the English
diminutive, kin, was added; although this etymology is
always derided in Melbourne.

1870.  'The Daily Telegraph' (Melbourne), Feb. 7, p. 2, col. 3:

"We shall perhaps begin to think of it in earnest, when we
have insisted upon having wholesome and properly baked bread,
or a better supply of fish, and when we have put down the
'roughs' and 'larrikins.'"

1870.  'The Age,' Feb. 8, p. 3, col. 1:

"In sentencing a gang of 'larrikins' who had been the terror
of Little Bourke-street and its neighbourhood for several hours
on Saturday night, Mr. Call remarked. . ."

1870.  'The Herald,' April 4, p.3, col. 2:

". . . three larikins who had behaved in a very disorderly manner
in Little Latrobe-street, having broken the door of a house and
threatened to knock out the eye of one of the inmates."

1870.  Marcus Clarke, 'Goody Two Shoes,' p. 26:

"He's a lively little larrikin lad, and his name is
Little Boy Blue."

1871.  'The Argus,' Sept. 19, p.5, col. 4:

"In San Francisco, the vagabond juveniles who steal, smash
windows, and make themselves generally obnoxious to the
respectable inhabitants, instead of being termed 'larrikins,'
as in Victoria, are denominated 'hoodleums.'  The name is more
musical than the one in vogue here, and probably equally as
descriptive, as its origin appears to be just as obscure as
that of the word 'larrikin.'  This word, before it got into
print, was confined to the Irish policemen, who generally
pronounced it 'lerrikan,' and it has been suggested that the
term is of Hibernian origin, and should be spelt lerrichaun.'"

1871.  Sir George Stephen, Q.C., 'Larrikinism,' a Lecture
reported in 'Prahran Telegraph,' Sept. 23, p. 3, col. 1:

What is Larrikinism?  It is a modern word of which I can only
guess the derivation, . . .  nor can I find any among the
erudite professors of slang who adorn our modern literature who
can assist me.  Some give our police the credit of coining it
from the 'larking' of our school boys, but I am inclined to
think that the word is of Greek origin--Laros, a
cormorant--though immediately derived from the French
'larron' which signifies a thief or rogue.  If I am
right, then larrikin is the natural diminutive form in English
phraseology for a small or juvenile thief. . .  .  This however
is, I must acknowledge, too severe a construction of the term,
even if the derivation is correct; for I was myself, I frankly
confess it, an unquestionable larrikin between 60 and 70 years
ago. . . .  Larrikinism is not thieving, though a road that
often leads to it. . . .  Is it a love of mischief for
mischief's sake?  This is the theory of the papers, and is
certainly a nearer approach to the true solution."

1871.  'Figaro,' in 'Prahran Telegraph,' Sept. 30, p. 7,
col. 3:

"A local contemporary has . . .  done his 'level best' to help
me out of my 'difficulty' with respect to the word Larrikin.
He suggests that lerrichan should read leprichaun
, a mischievous sprite, according to Irish tradition. . . .
We think we may with more safety and less difficulty trace the
word to the stereotype [sic] reply of the police to the
magisterial question--'What was he doing when you apprehended
him?'  'Oh! larriking (larking) about, yer Wurtchip.'"

1872.  J. S. Elkington, 'Tenth Report of Education,
Victoria,' dated Feb. 14:

"My inquiries into the origin and habits of that troublesome
parasite the larrikin (if I may adopt Constable Dalton's term)
do not make me sanguine that compulsory primary instruction can
do much for him, unless indirectly."

1875.  'Spectator' (Melbourne), May 15, p. 21, col. 3:

"On Sunday night an unfortunate Chinaman was so severely
injured by the Richmond larrikins that his life was

1875.  David Blair, in 'Notes and Queries,' July 24, p. 66:

"Bedouins, Street Arabs, Juvenile Roughs in London; Gamins
 in Paris; Bowery Boys in New York; Hoodlums to San
Francisco; Larrikins in Melbourne.  This last phrase is an
Irish constable's broad pronunciation of 'larking' applied to
the nightly street performances of these young scamps, here as
elsewhere, a real social pestilence."

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' p. 338:

"There is not a spare piece of ground fit for a pitch anywhere
round Melbourne that is not covered with 'larrikins' from six
years old upwards."

1889.  Rev. J. H. Zillmann, 'Australian Life,' p. 159:

"It has become the name for that class of roving vicious young
men who prowl about public-houses and make night hideous in
some of the low parts of our cities.  There is now the bush
'larrikin' as well as the town 'larrikin,' and it would be
difficult sometimes to say which is the worse.  Bush
'larrikins' have gone on to be bushrangers."

1890.  'The Argus,' May 26, p. 6, col. 7:

"He was set upon by a gang of larrikins, who tried to rescue
the prisoner."

1891.  'Harper s Magazine,' July, p. 215, col. 2:

"The Melbourne 'larrikin' has differentiated himself from the
London 'rough,' and in due season a term had to be developed to
denote the differentiation."

1893.  'Sydney Morning Herald,' Aug. 12, p. 13, col. 2:

"Robert Louis Stevenson, in a recent novel, 'The Wrecker,'
makes the unaccountable mistake of confounding the unemployed
Domain loafer with the larrikin.  This only shows that Mr.
Stevenson during his brief visits to Sydney acquired but a
superficial knowledge of the underlying currents of our social

1896.  J. St. V. Welch, in 'Australasian Insurance and Banking
Record,' May 19, p. 376:

"Whence comes the larrikin? that pest of these so-called
over-educated colonies; the young loafer of from sixteen to
eight-and-twenty.  Who does not know him, with his weedy,
contracted figure; his dissipated pimply face; his greasy
forelock brushed flat and low over his forehead; his too small
jacket; his tight-cut trousers; his high-heeled boots; his
arms--with out-turned elbows--swinging across his stomach as he
hurries along to join his 'push,' as he calls the pack in which
he hunts the solitary citizen---a pack more to be dreaded on a
dark night than any pack of wolves--and his name in Sydney is
legion, and in many cases he is a full-fledged voter."

1896.  W. H. Whelan, in 'The Argus,' Jan. 7, p. 6, col. 3:

"Being clerk of the City Court, I know that the word originated
in the very Irish and amusing way in which the then well-known
Sergeant Dalton pronounced the word larking in respect to the
conduct of 'Tommy the Nut,' a rowdy of the period, and others
of both sexes in Stephen (now Exhibition) street.

"Your representative at the Court, the witty and clever 'Billy'
O'Hea, who, alas! died too early, took advantage of the
appropriate sound of the word to apply it to rowdyism in
general, and, next time Dalton repeated the phrase, changed the
word from verb to noun, where it still remains, anything to the
contrary notwithstanding.  I speak of what I do know, for O'Hea
drew my attention to the matter at the time, and, if I mistake
not, a reference to your files would show that it was first in
the 'Argus' the word appeared in print."

("We can fully confirm Mr. Whelan's account of the origin of
the word 'larrikin.'"--Ed. 'Argus.')

[But see quotation from 'Argus,' 1871.]

Larrikin, adj.

1878.  'The Australian,' vol. i.  p. 522:

"Marks the young criminals as heroes in the eyes not only of
the ostensible larrikin element . . ."

Larrikinalian, adj. (Not common.)

1893.  'Evening Standard,' July 5, p. 4, col. 4 (Leading

"In the larrikinalian din which prevailed from start to finish
. . ."

Larrikiness, n. a female larrikin.

1871.  'Collingwood Advertiser and Observer,' June 22, p. 3,
col. 5:

"Evidence was tendered as to the manner of life led by these
larikinesses . . .  The juvenile larrikin element being
strongly represented in court, all the boys were ordered out."

1871.  Sir George Stephen, Q.C., 'Larrikinism,' a Lecture
reported in 'Prahran Telegraph,' Sept. 23, p. 3, col. 1:

"I know many a larrikiness to whose voice I could listen by
the hour with all my heart, without the least fear of her
stealing it, even if it were worth the trouble."

1892.  Gilbert Parker, 'Round the Compass in Australia,'
p. 224:

"I have not found the larrikin [in Brisbane]. . .  .  The
slouch-hat, the rakish jib, the drawn features are not to be
seen; nor does the young larrikiness--that hideous outgrowth
of Sydney and Melbourne civilization--exist as a class."

Larrikinism, n. the conduct of larrikins

1870.  'The Australian' (Richmond, Victoria), Sept. 10, p. 3,
col. 3:

"A slight attempt at 'larrikinism' was manifested. . .  .  "

1871.  J. J. Simpson, 'Recitations and Rhymes,' p. 17:

"Melbourne larrikinism is still very bad,
 By the papers each day we are told."

1875.  'Spectator' (Melbourne), June 19, p. 80, col. 2:

"He took as his theme the 'Dialect of Victoria,' which was
coarse and vulgar to a degree.  'Larrikinism' was used as a
synonym for 'blackguardism.'"

1876.  A. P. Martin, 'Sweet Girl-Graduate,' p. 20:

"There is no doubt that its rising generation afforded material
for letters in the newspapers, under the headings 'Larrikinism,'
or, 'What shall we do with our boys?'"

1893.  'The Argus,' Feb. 23:

"Outbreaks of larrikinism are not always harmless ebullitions
of animal spirits.  Sometimes they have very serious results."

Laughing Jackass, n.  See Jackass.

Launce, n.  The Australian species of this fish
is Congrogradus subducens, Richards., found in North-
West Australia.  The Launces or Sand-eels of the
Northern Hemisphere belong to a different group.

Laurel, n.  The English tree name is applied in
Australia to various trees, viz.--

Alexandrian Laurel--
 Calophyllum inophyllum, Linn:, N.O. Guttiferae;
not endemic in Australia.

Diamond-leaf L.--
 Pittosporum rhombifolium, A. Cunn.,
N.O. Pittosporeae.

Dodder L.--
 Cassytha filiformis, Linn., N.O. Lauraceae;
called also Devil's Guts, not endemic in Australia.

Hedge L. (q.v.)--
 Pittosporum eugenioides, Cunn.

Moreton Bay L.--
 Cryptocarya australis, Benth., N.O. Lauraceae;
called also Grey Sassafras.

Native L.--
 Pittosporum undulatum, Andr., N.O. Pittosporeae;
called also Mock Orange (q.v.).
 Panax elegans, C. Moore and F. v. M.,
N.O. Araliaceae; which is also called Light or White Sycamore.

White L.--
 Cryptocarya glaucescens, R. Br., N.O. Lauraceae;
for other names see Beech.

In Tasmania, the name Native Laurel is applied to Anopterus
glandulosus, Lab., N.O. Saxifrageae.  Peculiar to

The New Zealand Laurel is Laurelia novae-zelandiae;
called also Sassafras.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 292:

"Native Laurel, [also called] 'Mock Orange.' This tree is well
worth cultivating on a commercial scale for the sake of the
sweet perfume of its flowers."

Lavender, Native, n. a Tasmanian tree,
Styphelia australis, R. Br., N.O. Epacrideae.

Lawyer, n.  One of the English provincial uses
of this word is for a thorny stem of a briar or bramble.  In
New Zealand, the name is used in this sense for the Rubus
australis, N.O. Rosaceae, or Wild Raspberry-Vine
(Maori, Tataramoa).  The words Bush-Lawyer,
Lawyer-Vine, and Lawyer-Palm, are used with the
same signification, and are also applied in some colonies to
the Calamus australis, Mart.  (called also Lawyer-
Cane), and to Flagellaria indua, Linn,, similar
trailing plants.

1865.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'History of the Discovery
and Exploration of Australia,' vol. ii. p. 157:

"Calamus Australis, a plant which Kennedy now saw for
the first time. . .  It is a strong climbing palm.  From the
roots as many as ninety shoots will spring, and they lengthen
out as they climb for hundreds of feet, never thicker than a
man's finger.  The long leaves are covered with sharp spines;
but what makes the plant the terror of the explorers, is the
tendrils, which grow out alternately with the leaves.  Many of
these are twenty feet long, and they are covered with strong
spines, curved slightly downwards."

1867.  F. Hochstetter, 'New Zealand,' p. 135:

"Rubus Australis, the thorny strings of which scratch
the hands and face, and which the colonists, therefore, very
wittily call the 'bush-lawyer.'"

1882.  T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 71:

"Torn by the recurved prickles of the bush-lawyer."

1889.  Vincent Pyke, 'Wild Will Enderby,' p. 16:

"Trailing 'bush-lawyers,' intermingled with coarse bracken,
cling lovingly to the rude stones."

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 103:

"In the mountain scrubs there grows a very luxuriant kind of
palm (Calamus Australis), whose stem of a finger's
thickness, like the East Indian Rotang-palm, creeps through the
woods for hundreds of feet, twining round trees in its path,
and at times forming so dense a wattle that it is impossible to
get through it.  The stem and leaves are studded with the
sharpest thorns, which continually cling to you and draw blood,
hence its not very polite name of lawyer-palm."

1891.  A. J. North, 'Records of Australian Museum,' vol. i.
p. 118:

"Who, in the brushes of the Tweed River, found a nest placed on
a mass of 'lawyer-vines' (Calamus Australis)."

1892.  Gilbert Parker, 'Round the Compass in Australia,'
p. 256:

"'Look out,' said my companion, 'don't touch that lawyer-vine;
it will tear you properly, and then not let you go.'  Too late;
my fingers touched it, and the vine had the best of it.  The
thorns upon the vine are like barbed spears, and they would,
in the language of the Yankee, tear the hide off a crocodile."

1892.  'The Times,' [Reprint] 'Letters from Queensland,' p. 7:

"But no obstacle is worse for the clearer to encounter than the
lawyer-vines where they are not burnt off.  These are a form of
palm which grows in feathery tufts along a pliant stalk, and
fastens itself as a creeper upon other trees.  From beneath its
tufts of leaves it throws down trailing suckers of the
thickness of stout cord, armed with sets of sharp red barbs.
These suckers sometimes throw themselves from tree to tree
across a road which has not been lately used, and render it as
impassable to horses as so many strains of barbed wire.  When
they merely escape from the undergrowth of wild ginger and
tree-fern and stinging-bush, which fringes the scrub, and coil
themselves in loose loops upon the ground, they are dangerous
enough as traps for either man or horse.  In the jungle, where
they weave themselves in and out of the upright growths, they
form a web which at times defies every engine of destruction
but fire."

Lawyer-Cane, Lawyer-Palm, and
Lawyer-Vine.  See Lawyer.

Lead, n. (pronounced leed), a mining
term.  In the Western United States and elsewhere, the term
lead in mining is used as equivalent for lode.  In Australia,
the word lead is only used in reference to alluvial
mining, and signifies the old river-bed in which gold is found.

1875.  'Spectator' (Melbourne), June 19, p. 75, col. 2:

"There was every facility for abstracting the gold in the rich
lead of a neighbour."

1880.  Fison and Howitt, 'Kamilaroi and Kurnai,' p. 272 [Note]:

"The expression 'deep lead' refers to those ancient
river-courses which are now only disclosed by deep-mining

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. v. p. 55:

"Taking the general matter of 'leads' or dead rivers, it
chiefly obtained that if gold were found on one portion of
them, it extended to all the claims within a considerable

Lead, to strike the.  See above.  Used figuratively
for to succeed.

1874.  Garnet Walch, 'Head over Heels,' p. 74:

"We could shy up our caps for a feller,
 As soon as he struck the lead."

Leadbeater, n. applied to a Cockatoo,
Cacatua leadbeateri, Vig., called Leadbeaters
Cockatoo by Major Mitchell (q.v.).

1890.  Lyth, 'Golden South,' c. xiv. p. 127:

"The birds are very beautiful--the Blue Mountain and Lowrie
parrots . . .  leadbeater, and snow-white cockatoos."

Leaf-insect, n.  See Phasmid.

Lease, n. a piece of land leased for mining
purposes.  In England, the word is used for the document or
legal right concerning the land.  In Australia, it is used for
the land itself.  Compare Right-of-way.

1890.  'Goldfields of Victoria,' p. 15:

"A nice block of stone was crushed from Johnson's lease."

Lease in perpetuity, a statutory expression in the
most recent land legislation of New Zealand, indicating a
specific mode of alienating Crown lands,.  It is a lease for
999 years at a permanent rental equal to 4% on the capital
value, which is not subject to revision.

Leather-head, n. another name for the
Friar-bird (q.v.), Philemon corniculatus, Lath.
See Tropidorhynchus.

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 461:

"The Leatherhead with its constantly changing call and

1855.  W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 58:

"The leather-heads utter their settled phrase 'Off we go! off
we go!' in the woods, or they come to suck honey from the
Melianthus major, which stands up like a huge artichoke
plant, tipped with dark red plumes of flowers."

1860.  G. Bennett,  'Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 233:

"Among the Honey-suckers is that singular-looking bird, the
Leatherhead, or Bald-headed Friar (Tropidorhynchus
corniculatus); it is commonly seen upon the topmost
branches of lofty trees, calling 'Poor Soldier,' 'Pimlico,'
'Four o'clock,' and uttering screaming sounds.  It feeds upon
insects, wild fruits, and any sweets it can procure from the
flowers of the Banksia and Gum-trees."

Leather-Jacket, n.

(1) A name applied popularly and somewhat confusedly to various
trees, on account of the toughness of their bark--
(a) Eucalyptus punctata, De C., Hickory Eucalypt (q.v.);
(b) Alphitonia excelsa, Reiss., or Cooperswood;
(c) Ceratopetalum, or Coachwood;
(d) Cryptocarya meissnerii, F. v. M.;
(e) Weinmannia benthami, F. v. M.

(2) A fish of the family Sclerodermi, Monacanthus
ayraudi, Quoy. and Gaim., and numerous other species of
Monocanthus.  Leather-Jackets are wide-spread in
Australian seas.  The name is given elsewhere to other fishes.
See File-fish and Pig-fish.

1770.  'Capt. Cook's Journal,' edition Wharton, 1893, p. 246:

"They had caught a great number of small fish, which the
sailors call leather jackets, on account of their having
a very thick skin; they are known in the West Indies."

1773.  'Hawkesworth's Voyages,' vol. iii. p. 503--'Cook's
First Voyage,' May 4, 1770 (at Botany Bay):

"Small fish, which are well known in the West Indies, and
which our sailors call Leather jackets, because their skin
is remarkably thick."

1789.  W. Tench, 'Expedition to Botany Bay, p. 129:

"To this may be added bass, mullets, skaits, soles,
leather-jackets, and many other species."

(3) A kind of pancake.

1846.  G. H. Haydon, 'Five Years in Australia Felix,' p. 151:

"A plentiful supply of 'leatherjackets' (dough fried in a

1853.  Mossman and Banister, 'Australia Visited and Revisited,'
p. 126:

"Our party, upon this occasion, indulged themselves, in
addition to the usual bush fare, with what are called 'Leather
jackets,' an Australian bush term for a thin cake made of
dough, and put into a pan to bake with some fat. . .  The
Americans indulge in this kind of bread, giving them the name
of 'Puff ballooners,' the only difference being that they place
the cake upon the bare coals . . ."

1855.  R. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 117:

"The leather-jacket is a cake of mere flour and water, raised
with tartaric acid and carbonate of soda instead of yeast, and
baked in the frying-pan; and is equal to any muffin you can
buy in the London shops."

Leather-wood, n. i.q. Pinkwood (q.v.).

Leawill, or Leeangle (with other spellings),
n. aboriginal names for a native weapon, a wooden club
bent at the striking end.  The name is Victorian, especially of
the West; probably derived from lea or leang, or
leanyook, a tooth.  The aboriginal forms are
langeel, or leanguel, and lea-wil,
or le-ow-el.  The curve evidently helped the English
termination, angle.

1845.  Charles Griffith, 'Present State and Prospects of the
Port Phillip District of New South Wales,' p. 155:

"The liangle is, I think, described by Sir Thomas Mitchell.
It is of the shape of a pickaxe, with only one pick.  Its name
is derived from another native word, leang, signifying a tooth.
It is a very formidable weapon, and used only in war."

1846.  J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. II.
c. xiii. p. 479:

"A weapon used by the natives called a Liangle, resembling a
miner's pick."

1863.  M. K. Beveridge,' Gatherings among the Gum-trees,'
p. 56:

"Let us hand to hand attack him
 With our Leeawells of Buloite."

Ibid. (In Glossary) p. 83:

"Leeawell, a kind of war club."

1867.  G. Gordon McCrae, 'Mimba,' p. 9:

"The long liangle's nascent form
 Fore-spoke the distant battle-storm."

1886.  R. Henty, 'Australiana,' p. 21:

"His war-club or leeangle."

1889.  P. Beveridge, 'Aborigines of Victoria and Riverina,
p. 67:

"Of those [waddies] possessing--we might almost say---a
national character, the shapes of which seem to have come down
generation after generation, from the remotest period, the
Leawill is the most deadly-looking weapon.  It is usually three
feet long, and two and a half inches thick, having a pointed
head, very similar both in shape and size to a miner's driving
pick; in most cases the oak (Casuarina) is used in the
manufacture of this weapon; it is used in close quarters only,
and is a most deadly instrument in the hands of a ruthless foe,
or in a general melee such as a midnight onslaught."

Leeangle, n. i.q. Leawill (q.v.).

Leek, n. a small parrot.  See Greenleek.

Leek, Native, n. a poisonous Australian plant,
Bulbine bulbosa, Haw., N.O. Liliaceae.  Called
also Native Onion.  Its racemes of bright yellow flowers
make the paddocks gay in spring.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 121:

"'Native Onion,' 'Native Leek.'  Mr. W. n. Hutchinson, Sheep
Inspector, Warrego, Queensland, reports of this plant: 'Its
effects on cattle are . . .  continually lying down, rolling,
terribly scoured, mucous discharge from the nose.'"

Leg, n. mining term. a peculiar form of
quartz-reef, forming a nearly vertical prolongation of the

1890.  'The Argus,' June x6th, p. 6, col. 1:

"It may also be observed that in payable saddle formations a
slide intersects the reef above the saddle coming from the
west, and turning east with a wall of the east leg, where the
leg of reef is observed to go down deeper, and to carry a
greater amount of gold than in ordinary cases."

Legitimacy, n.  See quotation.
[Old and now unused slang.]

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i.
p. 16:

"Legitimacy--a colonial term for designating the cause of the
emigration of a certain portion of our population; i.e.
having legal reasons for making the voyage."

[So also at p. 116, "Legitimates"]

Leguminous Ironbark, n. a name given by
Leichhardt to the Queensland tree Erythrophaeum
laboucherii, F. v. M., N.O. Leguminosae.
See Ironbark.

Leichhardt, or Leichhardt-Tree, n.
an Australian timber-tree, Morinda citrifolia, Linn.,
N.O. Rubiaceae; called also Canary-wood and Indian
Mulberry.  In Queensland, the name is applied to
Sarcocephalus cordatus, Miq., N.O. Rubiaceae,
a large timber-tree of North Queensland, much used
in building.

1874.  M.  K. Beveridge, 'Lost Life,' p. 40:

"Groaning beneath the friendly shade
 That by a Leichhardt-tree was made."

 1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia, p. 258:

"The Leichhardt is a very symmetrical tree, that grows to a
height of about sixty feet, and has leaves rather like a big

Leichhardt-Bean, n.  See Bean.

Leichhardt's Clustered-Fig,
n. i.q. Clustered Fig.  See Fig.

Lemon, Desert, n.  See Desert Lemon.

Lemon-scented Gum, n.  See Gum.

Lemon-scented Ironbark, n. a name given to the
Queensland tree Eucalyptus staigeriana, F. v. M.,
N.O. Myrtaceae.  See Ironbark.  The foliage of
this tree yields a large quantity of oil, equal in fragrance to
that of lemons.

Lemon-Sole, n.  In England, the name is applied
to an inferior species of Sole.  In New South Wales,
it is given to Plagusia unicolor, Mad., of the family
Pleuronectidae or Flat-fishes.  In New Zealand,
it is another name for the New Zealand Turbot (q.v.).

Lemon, Wild, n. a timber tree, Canthium
latifolium, F. v. M., N.O. Rubiaceae; called also
Wild Orange.

Lemon-Wood, n. one of the names given by
settlers to the New Zealand tree called by Maoris Tarata
(q.v.), or Mapau (q.v.).  It is Pittosporum
eugenoides, A. Cunn., N.O. Pittosporeae.

Leopard-Tree, n. an Australian tree,
Flindersia maculosa (or Strezleckiana), F. v. M.,
N.O. Meliaceae; called also Spotted-Tree (q.v.),
and sometimes, in Queensland, Prickly Pine.

Lerp, n. an aboriginal word belonging to the
Mallee District of Victoria (see Mallee).  Sometimes
spelt leurp, or laap.  The aboriginal word means
'sweet.'  It is a kind of manna secreted by an insect, Psylla
eucalypti, and found on the leaves of the Mallee, Eucalyptus
dumosa.  Attention was first drawn to it by Mr. Thomas
Dobson (see quotations).  A chemical substance called
Lerpamyllum is derived from it; see Watts' 'Dictionary
of Chemistry,' Second Supplement, 1875, s.v.

1848.  W. Westgarth, 'Australia Felix,' p. 73:

"The natives of the Wimmera prepare a luscious drink from the
laap, a sweet exudation from the leaf of the mallee
(Eucalyptus dumosa)."

1850.  T. Dobson, 'Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society
of Van Diemen's Land,' vol. i. p. 235:

"The white saccharine substance called 'lerp,' by the
Aborigines in the north-western parts of Australia Felix, and
which has attracted the attention of chemists, under the
impression that it is a new species of manna, originates with
an insect of the tribe of Psyllidae, and order

1850.  Ibid. p. 292::

"Insects which, in the larva state, have the faculty of
elaborating from the juices of the gum-leaves on which they
live a glutinous and saccharine fluid, whereof they construct
for themselves little conical domiciles."

1878.  R. Brough Smyth, 'The Aborigines of Victoria,' vol. i.
p. 211:

"Another variety of manna is the secretion of the pupa of an
insect of the Psylla family and obtains the name of
lerp among the aborigines.  At certain seasons of the
year it is very abundant on the leaves of E. dumosa,
or mallee scrub . . ."

Lift, v. tr. to drive to market from the run.

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Squatter's Dream,' c. iv. p. 45:

"I haven't lifted a finer mob this season."

1890.  'The Argus,' June 14, p. 4, col. 2:

"We lifted 7000 sheep."

Light-horseman, n. obsolete name for a fish;
probably the fish now called a Sweep (q.v.).

1789.  W. Tench, 'Expedition to Botany Bay,' p. 129:

"The French once caught [in Botany Bay] near two thousand fish
in one day, of a species of grouper, to which, from the form of
a bone in the head resembling a helmet, we have given the name
of light horseman."

1793.  J. Hunter, 'Voyage,' p. 410 [Aboriginal Vocabulary]:

"Woolamie, a fish called a light-horseman."
[But see Wollomai.]

1802.  G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' c. iv.
p. 78:

"A boat belonging to the Sirius caught near fifty large fish,
which were called light-horsemen from a bone that grew out of
the head like a helmet."

Lightwood, n. a name given to various trees.
See Blackwood.  It is chiefly applied to Acacia
melanoxylon, R. Br., N.O. Leguminosae.  See
quotations, 1843 and 1889.

1843.  I. Backhouse.  'Narrative of a Visit to the Australian
Colonies,' p. 48:

"Lightwood--Acacia Melanoxylon . . .  It derives its
name from swimming in water, while the other woods of
V. D. Land, except the pines, generally sink.  In some parts of
the Colony it is called Blackwood, on account of its dark

1852.  G. C. Mundy, 'Our Antipodes' (edition 1855), p. 515:

"Some immense logs of 'light wood,' a non lucendo,
darker than mahogany."

1864.  J. Rogers, 'New Rush,' p. 17:

"Arms so brown and bare, to look at them
 Recalls to mind the lightwood's rugged stem."

1866.  H. Simcox, 'Rustic Rambles,' p. 54:

"The numerous lightwood trees with sombre shade
 Tend to enhance the richness of the glade."

1884.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Melbourne Memories,' c. xv. p. 111:

"The ex-owner of Lyne wished himself back among the old
lightwood trees."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 359:

"Called 'Blackwood' on account of the very dark colour of the
mature wood.  It is sometimes called 'Lightwood' (chiefly in
South Tasmania, while the other name is given in North Tasmania
and other places), but this is an inappropriate name.  It is in
allusion to its weight as compared with Eucalyptus timbers.  It
is the 'Black Sally' of Western New South Wales, the 'Hickory'
of the southern portion of that colony, and is sometimes
called 'Silver Wattle.'  This is considered by some people
to be the most valuable of all Australian timbers.

It is hard and close-grained; much valued for furniture,
picture-frames, cabinet-work, fencing, bridges, etc., railway,
and other carriages, boat-building, for tool-handles,
gun-stocks, naves of wheels, crutches, parts of organs,
pianofortes (sound-boards and actions), etc."

Light Yellow-wood, i.q. Long-Jack (q.v.).

Lignum (1), or Lignum-Vitae, n.
The name is applied to several trees, as Myrtus
acmenioides, F. v. M., called also White Myrtle;
Acacia falcata, Willd., N.O. Leguminosae,
called also Hickory and Sally; but chiefly to
Eucalyptus polyanthema, Schau., N.O. Myrtaceae.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 505:

"[E. polyanthema.]  The 'Red Box' of South-eastern
Australia.  Called also 'Brown Box,' 'Grey Box,' and 'Bastard
Box.'  'Poplar-leaved Gum' is another name, but it is most
commonly known as 'Lignum Vitae' because of its tough and hard
wood.  Great durability is attributed to this wood, though the
stems often become hollow in age, and thus timber of large
dimensions is not readily afforded.  It is much sought after
for cogs, naves and felloes; it is also much in demand for
slabs in mines, while for fuel it is unsurpassed.  (Mueller.)
Its great hardness is against its general use."

(2) A bushman's contraction for any species of the wiry plants
called polygonum.

1880.  Mrs.  Meredith, 'Tasmanian Friends and Foes,' [writing
of the Lachlan district, New South Wales] p. 180:

"The poor emus had got down into the creek amongst the lignum
bushes for a little shade . . .  I do not know what a
botanist would call them; they are something like cane, but
with large leaves, which all animals are fond of, and they grow
about eight feet high in the creeks and gullies."

1896.  H. Lawson, 'When the World was Wide,' p. 135:

"By mulga scrub and lignum plain."

Lilac, n. name given in Australia to the tree
Melia composita, Willd., N.O. Meliaceae, called
Cape Lilac.  It is not endemic in Australia, and is
called "Persian Lilac "in India.  In Tasmania the name of
Native Lilac is given to Prostanthera
rotundifolia, R. Br., N.O. Labiatae, and by
Mrs. Meredith to Tetratheca juncea, Smith, of the
Linnean Order, Octandria.

1793.  J. E. Smith, 'Specimen of Botany of New Holland,' p. 5:

"Tetratheca juncea, Rushy Tetratheca [with plate]."

1852.  Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. ii. p. 69:

"A little purple flower, which is equally common, so vividly
recalls to my mind, both by its scent and colour, an Old-World
favorite, that I always know it as the native Lilac
(Tetratheca juncea)."

Lily, Darling, n. a bulbous plant, Crinum
flaccidum, Herb., N.O. Amaryllideae; called also the
Murray Lily.  (See Lily, Murray.)

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 20:

"The 'Darling Lily.'  This exceedingly handsome white-flowered
plant, which grows back from the Darling, has bulbs which yield
a fair arrowroot.  On one occasion, near the town of Wilcannia,
a man earned a handsome sum by making this substance when flour
was all but unattainable."

Lily, Flax, n.  See Flax-Lily, and
Flax, New Zealand.

Lily, Giant-, or Spear-, n.
a fibre plant, Doryanthes excelsa, Corr.,
N.O. Amaryllideae.

1860.  G. Bennett, 'Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 339:

"The Doryanthes excelsa, a gigantic Lily of Australia, is a
magnificent plant, with a lofty flowering spike.  The bunches
or clusters of crimson flowers are situated in the summit of
the flowering spike . . .  The diameter of a cluster of
blossoms is about 14 inches . . .  The flower-buds are of a
brilliant crimson, and the anthers of the stamens are, in the
recently expanded flower, of a dark-green colour."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 621:

"'Spear Lily.'  'Giant Lily.'  The leaves are a mass of fibre,
of great strength, which admits of preparation either by
boiling or maceration, no perceptible difference as to quality
or colour being apparent after heckling.  Suitable for brush
making, matting, etc."

Lily, Gordon, n. a Tasmanian plant
and its flower, Blandfordia marginata, Herb.,
N.O. Liliaceae, and other species of
Blandfordia (q.v.).

1835.  Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 72:

"Blandfordia nobilis.  This splendid plant is common on the
west coast and on the shores of the Mersey.  It bears a head of
pendulous scarlet blossoms tipped with yellow, one inch long,
rising out of a stalk of from 1 1/2 to 3 feet long, from between
two opposite series of strapshaped leaves.  It is named after
George [Gordon] Marquis of Blandford, son of the second Duke of

Lily, Murray, n. i.q. Darling Lily.
See above.

1877.  F. v. Mueller,  'Botanic Teachings,' p. 119:

"This showy genus Crinum furnishes also Victoria with a
beautiful species, the Murray Lily (Crinum flaccidum),
not however to be found away from the Murray-River southward."

Lilly-Pilly, n. name given to a large timber
tree, Eugenia smithii, Poir., N.O. Myrtaceae.
The bark is rich in tanning.  Sometimes called Native

1860.  G. Bennett, 'Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 327:

"The Lillypilly-trees, as they are named by the colonists,
consist of several species of Acmena, and are all of
elegant growth and dense and handsome foliage."

1879.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Proceedings of the Linnaean
Society of New South Wales,' p. 134:

"Eugenia Smithii, or Lilli pilli, and Melodorum
Leichhardtii are also fair eating.  The latter goes by the
name of the native banana though it is very different from a
banana, and in reality allied to the custard apple."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 29:

"'Lilly Pilly.'  The fruits are eaten by aboriginals, small
boys, and birds.  They are formed in profusion, are acidulous
and wholesome.  They are white with a purplish tint, and up to
one inch in diameter."

Lily, Rock, n. an orchid, Dendrobium
speciosum, Smith, N.O. Orchideae. although not a
Lily, it is always so called, especially in Sydney, where it is

1879.  H. n. Moseley, 'Notes by Naturalist on Challenger,'
p. 270:

"A luxuriant vegetation, with huge masses of Stagshorn Fern
(Platycerium) and 'rock-lilies' (orchids), and a variety
of timbers, whilst there are Tree-ferns and small palms in the
lateral shady gullies."

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 22:

"'Rock Lily.'  The large pseudobulbs have been eaten by the
aboriginals; they contain little nutritive matter."

Lily, Water, n.  There are several indigenous
native varieties of the N.O. Nymphaeceae--Cabombia
peltata, Pursh; Nymphaea gigantea, Hook. (Blue

Lily, Yellow, n. a Tasmanian name for
Bulbine bulbosa, Haw., N.O. Liliaceae.
See Leek, Native.

Lime, Native, n. an Australian tree, Citrus
australasica, F. v. M., N.O. Rutaceae; called also
Finger Lime and Orange.  But the appellation of
Native Lime is more generally given to Citrus
australis, Planch., N.O. Rutaceae.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 16:

"'Native Lime.  Orange.'  The fruit, which is an inch and
a half in diameter, and almost globular, yields an agreeable
beverage from its acid juice."

Ling, n. a fish.  The name is given in England
to various fishes, from their length.  In New Zealand and
Tasmania, it is applied to Genypterus blacodes, Forst.;
also called Cloudy Bay Cod.  Lotella marginata,
Macl., is called Ling, in New South Wales, and
Beardie.  Genypterus belongs to the
Ophidiidae and Lotella to the next family,
the Gadidae.

Lobster, n.  The name is often carelessly used
in Australia for the Crayfish (q.v.).

Lobster's-Claw, n. another name for Sturt's
Desert Pea (q.v.).

Locust, n. name popularly but quite erroneously
applied to insects belonging to two distinct orders.

(1) Insects belonging to the order Hemiptera.  The great
black Cicada, Cicada moerens, Germ., and the great green
Cicada, Cyclochila australasiae, Donov.

(2) Insects belonging to the order Orthoptera,
such as the great green gum-tree grasshopper, Locusta
vigentissima, Serv., or the Australian yellow-winged
locust, Oedipoda musica, Fab.

1846.  J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. I. c.
ix. p. 285:

"The trees swarmed with large locusts (the Cicada),
quite deafening us with their shrill buzzing noise."

1862.  F. J. Jobson, 'Australia,' c. iv. p. 104:

"We heard everywhere on the gumtrees the cricket-like
insects--usually called locusts by the colonists--hissing
their reed-like monotonous noise."

1869.  J. Townend, 'Reminiscences of Australia,' p. 155:

"The perpetual song of unnumbered locusts."

1885.  H. H. Hayter, 'Carboona,' p. 5:

"The deaf'ning hum of the locusts."

1885.  F. McCoy,  'Prodromus of the Natural History of
Victoria,' Dec. 5, pl. 50:

"Our Cicada moerens . . .  produces an almost deafening
sound from the numbers of the individuals in the hottest days
and the loudness of their noise."  "This species (Cyclochila
Australasiae) is much less abundant than the
C. moerens, and seems more confined to moist places,
such as river banks and deep ravines and gullies."

1889.  F. McCoy, 'Prodromus of the Natural History of
Victoria,' Dec. 11, pl. 110:

"The great size of the muscular thighs of the posterior pair of
feet enables the Locusts to jump much higher, further, and more
readily than Grasshoppers, giving an example of muscular power
almost unparalleled in the animal kingdom."

1896.  F. A. Skuse, 'Records of Australian Museum,' vol. ii.
No. 7, p. 107:

"What are commonly styled 'locusts' in this country are really
Cicadae, belonging to a totally distinct and widely
separated order of insects.  And moreover the same kind of
Cicada is known by different names in different
localities, such as 'Miller,' 'Mealyback,' etc.  The true
locusts belong to the grasshoppers, while the Homopterous
Cicadidae have been known as Cicadas from times
of remote antiquity."

Locust-tree, of New Zealand.  See Kowhai.

Logan-Apple, n. a small Queensland tree,
with an acid fruit, Acronychia acidia, F. v. M.,
N.O. Rutaceae.

Log-hut, n.  Log-cabin is American.
Log-hut is Australian.

1802.  G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' p. 178:

"Not more than ten settlers had been able to erect dwellings
better than log-huts."
[This was in Sydney, 1796.]

1846.  J.  L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. I.
c. ix. p. 287:

"Captain Fyans was living in a log-hut on the banks of the
Marabool river."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. vi. p. 61:

"Log-huts, with the walls built American fashion, of horizontal

Log-Runner, n. an Australian bird, called also
a Spinetail.  The species are--

 Orthonyx spaldingi, Ramsay;

 O. spinicauda, Temm., called also Pheasant's
Mother.  See Orthonyx.

Logs, n. pl. the Lock-up.  Originally, in the
early days, a log-hut, and often keeping the name when it was
made a more secure place.  Sometimes, when there was no
lock-up, the prisoners were chained to heavy logs of trees.

1802.  G.Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' p. 184:

"The governor resolved on building a large log prison both at
Sydney and Paramatta, and 'as the affair cried haste,' a
quantity of logs were ordered to be sent in by the various
settlers, officers and others."

[p. 196]: "The inhabitants of Sydney were assessed to supply
thatch for the new gaol, and the building was enclosed with
a strong high fence.  It was 80 feet long, the sides and ends
were of strong logs, a double row of which formed each
partition.  The prison was divided into 22 cells.  The floor
and the roof were logs, over which was a coat eight inches
deep of clay."

1851.  Letter from Mrs. Perry, given in Canon Goodman's
'Church of Victoria during Episcopate of Bishop Perry,' p. 164:

"One [sentry] at the lock-up, a regular American log-hut."
[sic.  But in America it would have been called a log-cabin.]

1888.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Robbery under Arms,' p. 193:

"Let's put him in the Logs . . .  The lock-up, like most
bush ones, was built of heavy logs, just roughly squared,
with the ceiling the same sort."

1888.  Rolf Boldrewood,  'A Sydneyside Saxon,' p. 111:

"'He'll land himself in the logs about that same calf racket
if he doesn't lookout, some day.'  'Logs!'  I says.  'There
don't seem to be many about this part.  The trees are all
too small.'"

Log up, v. to make a log-support for the

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. v. p. 54:

"We . . . had logged up and made a start with another shaft."

Lolly, n., pl. Lollies.  The English
word lollipop is always shortened in Australia, and is the
common word to the exclusion of others, e.g. sweets.
Manufacturers of sweetmeats are termed Lolly-makers.

1871.  J. J. Simpson, 'Recitations,' p. 24:

"Lollies that the children like."

1874.  Garnet Walch, 'Head over Heels,' p. 18:

"Common children fancy lollies,
 Eat them 'gainst their parents' wills."

1882.  A. J. Boyd, 'Old Colonials,' p. 16:

"I thankfully expended the one in bile-producing cakes
and lollies."

1893.  'Evening Standard' (Melbourne), Oct. 18, p. 6, col. 2:

"Mr. Patterson (musing over last Saturday's experiences):
You're going to raise the price of lollies.  I'm a great buyer
of them myself.  (Laughter.) If you pay the full duty it will,
doubtless, be patriotic for me to buy more when I go amongst
the juveniles."

Long-fin, n. name given to the fish Caprodon
schlegelii, Gunth., and in New South Wales to Anthias
longimanus, Gunth.

1882.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Fish of New South Wales,'
p. 33:

"The long-fin, Anthias Iongimanus, Gunth., is a good
fish that finds its way to the market occasionally . . . may be
known by its uniform red colour, and the great length of the
pectoral fins."

Long-Jack, name given to the tree Flindersia
oxleyana, F. v. M., N.O. Meliaceae; called also
Light Yellow-Wood.

Long-sleever, n. name for a big drink and also
for the glass in which it is contained.  Perhaps in allusion to
its tall, tapering, long shape.

1888.  Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. iii. p. 83:

"Their drivers had completed their regulation half-score of
'long-sleevers' of 'she-oak.'"

Long-Tom, n. name given in Sydney to Belone
ferox, Gunth., a species of Garfish which has both
jaws prolonged to form a slender beak.  See Garfish.

Long-Yam.  See Yam.

Look, v. tr. to examine.

1874.  W. H. L. Ranken, 'Dominion of Australia,' c. vi. p. 105:

"Plains are scoured and every piece of timber looked."
[sc. looked-over.]

Lope, n. a slow and steady gallop.  From Dutch
verb loopen, to leap, to run.  The word is American
rather than Australian.

1855.  W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 35:

"Every body gallops here, or at least goes at a canter--which
they call the Australian lope."

Loquat, a Chinese word meaning "Rush-orange,"
Photinia japonica.  Being highly ornamental and bearing
a pleasant stony juicy fruit of the colour and size of a small
orange, it has been introduced into nearly all Australian
gardens.  The name Native Loquat has been given to an
indigenous shrub, Rhodomyrtus macrocarpa, Benth.,
N.O. Myrtaceae.

Lorikeet, n. a bird-name, little Lory
(q.v.).  The species in Australia are--

Blue-bellied Lorikeet--
 Trichoglossus novae-hollandiae, Gmel.

Blue-faced L.--
 Cyclopsitta macleayana, Ramsay.

Little L.--
 Trichoglossus pusillus, Shaw.

Musk L.--
 T. concinnus, Shaw.

Purple-crowned L.--
 T. porphyrocephalus, Dietr.

Red-collared L.--
 T. rubritorqus, Vig. and Hors.

Red-faced L.--
 Cyclopsitta coxenii, Gould.

Scaly-breasted L.--
 Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus, Kuhl.

Swift L.--
 Lathamus discolor, Shaw.

Varied L.--
 Trichoglossus versicolor, Vig.

The following table gives Gould's classification in 1848:--

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. v.


Lathamus discolor, Swift Lorikeet   ...   ...     47
Trichoglossus Novae-Hollandiae, Jard. and Selb.,
  Swainson's L.   ...   ...   ...   ...   ...   ...      48
T. rubritorquis, Vig. and Horsf., Red-collared L. 49
T. chlorolepidotus, Scaly-breasted L.    ...      50
T. versicolor, Vig., Varied L.     ...   ...      51
T. concinnus, Musky L. ...   ...   ...   ...      52
T. porphyrocephalus, Dict., Porphyry-crowned L.   53
T. pusillus, Little L. ...   ...   ...   ...      54

1890.  'The Argus,' June 7, p. 13, col. 4:

"On the hill-sides the converse of the lorikeets as they drain
the honeycups and swing and chatter in low undertones the whole
day long."

Lory, n. a bird-name.  The word is Malay.  (See
'Encyclopaedia Britannica,' vol. xv.)  It is often spelt
Lowrie in Australia.  The species in Australia are--

Crimson-winged Lory--
 Aprosmictus coccineopterus, Gould.

King L.--
 A. scapulatus, Bechst.

Red-winged Lory--
 A. erythropterus, Gmel.

1848.  Gould's 'Birds of Australia,' vol. v.:

"Aprosmictus scapulatus, king lory;
erythropturus, red-winged lory."

Lotus-bird, n.  Parra gallinacea, Temm.;
called also the Jacana (q.v.), and the Parra

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 22:

"The most striking bird on the lagoon is doubtless the
beautiful Parra gallinacea, which in Australia is called
the lotus-bird.  It sits on the leaves that float on the water,
particularly those of the water-lily."

Lowan, n. aboriginal birdname for Leipoa
ocellata, Gould.  The name is used for the bird in Victoria
and in the south-east district of South Australia.  In the
Mallee district, it is called Mallee-bird, Mallee
fowl, Mallee-hen (q.v.); in South Australia,
Native Pheasant (q.v.); and in various parts of
Australia, the Scrub-Turkey.  The county called Lowan,
after the bird, is in the Mallee country in the west of
Victoria.  See Turkey.

1888.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Robbery under Arms,' p. 171:

"The Lowan (Mallee-hen, they're mostly called).  The Lowan
eggs--beautiful pink thin-shelled ones they are, first-rate
to eat, and one of 'em a man's breakfast."

1890.  A. H. S. Lucas, 'Handbook of the Australasian
Association for the Advancement of Science,' Melbourne, p. 68:

"To the dry, arid Mallee Scrub of the Western District is a
radical change of scene.  There the so-called Mallee hen, or
Native name, Lowan (Leipoa ocellata), loves to dwell."

1896.  'The Argus,' Aug. 4, p. 5, col. 2:

"The postmaster at Nhill had drawn the attention of the Deputy
Postmaster-General to the large number of letters which are
received there addressed to 'Lowan.'  It should be understood
that this is the name of a county containing several postal
districts, and correspondents should be more specific in their

Lowrie, n. a bird-name.  An Australian variant
of Lory (q.v.).

1850.  J. B.  Clutterbuck, 'Port Phillip in 1849,' p. 40:

"A great many species of the parrot are found; and of these
the King Parrot is the most beautiful, and that called the
Lowrie is perhaps the most docile."

1890.  Lyth, 'Golden South,' p. 127:

"The birds are very beautiful--the Blue Mountain and Lowrie
parrots . . .'

Lubra, n. aboriginal name for a black woman.
The name comes from Tasmania, appearing first in the form
loubra, in a vocabulary given in the 'Voyage de
Decouvertes de l'Astrolabe' (Paris, 1834), vol. vii. p. 9,
and was obtained from a Tasmanian woman, belonging to Port
Dalrymple on the Tamar River.  It is probably a compound
of the Tasmanian words loa or lowa, a woman,
and proi (with variants), big.  In Victoria, the use
of the word began at the Hopkins River and the vicinity,
having been introduced by settlers from Tasmania, but it was
generally adopted south of the Murray.  North of the Murray
the native women were called Gins (q.v.).  Both words
are now used indiscriminately.

1855.  W. Blandowski, 'Transactions of Philosophical Society
of Victoria,' vol. i. p. 73 :

"The young man who wishes to marry has first to look out for a
wife amongst the girls or leubras of some neighbouring

1864.  H. Simcox, 'Outward Bound," p. 87:

"Many lubras so black with their load on their back."

1885.  R. M.  Praed, 'Australian Life," p. 23:

"Certain stout young gins or lubras, set apart for that
purpose, were sacrificed."

1891.  'The Argus,' Nov. 7, p. 13, col. 4:

"A few old lubras sufficiently dirty and unprepossessing."

1892.  Gilbert Parker, 'Round the Compass in Australia,' p. 28:

"Naked, and not ashamed, the old men grey-bearded and eyes
bright, watched the cooking of the fish, and the younger, with
the lubras, did the honours of reception."

Lucerne, Native, or Paddy, n. i.q.
Queensland Hemp.  See Hemp.

1895.  A. B. Paterson, 'Man from Snowy River,' p. 95:

"And now lies wandering fat and sleek,
 On the Lucerne flats by the Homestead Creek."

Luderick, or Ludrick, n. an aboriginal
Gippsland name for a local variety of the fish Girella
simplex, Richards., the Black-fish (q.v.).

Lugg, n. a fish not identified.

"Lug, a kind of fish." ('Walker,' 1827)

1802.  Flemming, 'Journal of the Exploration of C.  Grimes'
(at Port Phillip), ed. by J. J.  Shillinglaw, Melbourne, 1897,
p. 27:

"Many swans, ducks and luggs."

Lyonsia, n. a Tasmanian plant.  See Devil's

Lyre-bird, n. an Australian bird, originally
called the Bird of Paradise of New South Wales; then
called a Native Pheasant, or Mountain Pheasant,
and still generally called a Pheasant by the Gippsland
bushmen.  The name Lyre-bird apparently began between 1828 and
1834.  It is not used by Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South
Wales' (1828), vol. i. p. 303.  See Menura.
The species are--

The Lyre-bird--
 Menura superba, Davies.

Albert L.-b.--
 M. alberti, Gould.

Victoria L.-b.--
 M. victoriae, Gould.

Since 1888 the Lyre-bird has been the design on the
eight-penny postage-stamp of New South Wales.

1802.  G. Barrington, 'History of New South Wales,' p. 435:

"The Bird of Paradise of New South Wales [with picture].  This
elegant bird, which by some is called the Bird of Paradise, and
by others the Maenura Superba, has a straight bill, with the
nostrils in the centre of the beak."

1802.  D. Collins, 'History of English Colony of New South
Wales,' vol. ii. p. 335:

"Menura superba." [But not the name lyre-bird].

1834.  Geo. Bennett, 'Wanderings in New South Wales, etc.,'
/vol./ i. p. 277:

"The 'Native or Wood-pheasant,' or 'Lyre bird' of the
colonists, the 'Menura superba' of naturalists, and the
'Beleck, beleck,' and 'Balaugara' of the aboriginal tribes,
is abundant about the mountain ranges, in all parts of the

1846.  G. H. Haydon, 'Five Years in Australia Felix,'
p. 132:

"Numerous pheasants (Menura superba).  These birds are
the mocking-birds of Australia, imitating all the sounds that
are heard in the bush in great perfection.  They are about the
size of a barn-door fowl, and are not remarkable for any beauty
either in the shape or colour, being of a dirty brown,
approaching to black in some parts; their greatest attraction
consists in the graceful tail of the cock bird, which assumes
something the appearance of a lyre, for which reason some
naturalists have called them lyre-birds."

1848.  J. Gould, 'Birds of Australia,' vol. iii. pl. 14:

"Menura superba, Davies, Lyre-bird; Pheasant of the
Colonists.  Were I requested to suggest an emblem for Australia
amongst its birds, I should without the slightest hesitation
select the Menura as the most appropriate, being
strictly peculiar to Australia."

1864.  J. S. Moore, 'Spring-Life Lyrics;' p. 92:

"Shy as the lyre-bird, hidden away,
 A glittering waif in the wild."

1867.  G. G. McCrae, 'Balladeadro,' p. 30:

"There the proud lyre-bird spreads his tail,
 And mocks the notes of hill and dale
 Whether the wild dog's plaintive howl
 Or cry of piping water-fowl."

1872.  A. McFarland, 'Illawarra Manaro,' p. 54:

"The Lyre-bird may yet be seen--more frequently heard--amongst
the gullies and ravines.  It has the power of imitating every
other bird, and nearly every sound it hears in the bush-even
that of a cross-cut saw."

1886.  J. A. Fronde, 'Oceana,' p. 146:

"Here, too, for the first time, we saw a lyre-bird, which some
one had just shot, the body being like a coot's, and about the
same size, the tail long as the tail of a bird of paradise,
beautifully marked in bright brown, with the two chief feathers
curved into the shape of a Greek lyre, from which it takes its

1890.  'Victorian Statutes'--Game Act, Third Schedule:

[Close Season.]  "Lyre Birds.  The whole year."

1893.  'The Age,' Aug. 7, p. vi, col. 9:

"There are more reasons than one why the lyre-bird should be
preserved.  From a purely utilitarian point of view it is of
value, for it is insectivorous and preys upon insects which are
apt to prefer orchard fruit to their natural bush food.  But
the bird has as well a national and sentimental value.  Next to
the emu it is the most typical Australian bird.  It is peculiar
to Australia, for in no other country is it to be seen.
Comparatively speaking it is a rara avis even in
Australia itself, for it is only to be found in the most
secluded parts of two colonies--Victoria and New South Wales.
It is the native pheasant.  The aborigines call it
'Beleck-Beleck,' and whites call it the 'lyre-bird' from the
shape of its tail; the ornithologists have named it
Menura.  There are three species--the Victoriae
of this colony, and the Alberta and superba of
New South Wales.  The general plumage is glossy brown, shaded
with black and silver grey, and the ornate tail of the male
bird is brown with black bars.  They live in the densest
recesses of the fern gullies of the Dividing Range with the
yellow-breasted robin, the satin-bird, and the bell-bird as
their neighbours.  They are the most shy of birds, and are
oftener heard than seen.  Their notes, too, are heard more
frequently than they are recognized, for they are consummate
mimics and ventriloquists.  They imitate to perfection the
notes of all other birds, the united voicing of a flock of
paraquetts [sic], the barking of dogs, the sawing of timber,
and the clink of the woodman's axe.  Thus it is that the
menura has earned for itself the title of the Australian
mocking-bird.  Parrots and magpies are taught to speak; as a
mimic the lyre-bird requires no teacher."

1893.  'Sydney Morning Herald,' Aug. 9.  p. 9, col. 1:

"If the creature was lovely its beauty was marketable and
fatal--and the lyre-bird was pursued to its last retreats and
inveigled to death, so that its feathers might be peddled in
our streets."


Mackerel, n.  In Australia, Scomber
antarcticus, Castln., said to be identical with Scomber
pneumatophorus, De la Roche, the European mackerel; but
rare.  In New Zealand, Scomber australasicus, Cuv. and

Macquarie Harbour Grape, or Macquarie Harbour
Vine, n. the Tasmanian name for Muhlenbeckia
adpressa, Meissn. N.O. Polygonaceae; called
Native Ivy in Australia.  See Ivy and

1831.  Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 265:

"That valuable plant called the Macquarie harbour grape.
It was so named by Mr. Lempriere, late of the Commissariat at
that station, who first brought it into notice as a desirable
acquisition in our gardens."

1834.  Ross, 'Van Diemen's Land Annual,' p. 133:

"Polygonum adpressum.  The Macquarie harbour vine,
either as an insignificant trailing plant, or as a magnificent
climber, according to the soil and situation, is found on the
coast of various parts of Van Diemen's Land, and also as far
inland as within about four miles of New Norfolk.  This plant
has a small but sweet fruit, formed of the thickened divisions
of the calyx of the flower, inclosing a triangular seed of
unpleasant flavour."

Macquarie Pine, n.  See Pine.

Macropus, n. the scientific name for the
typical genus of Macropodidae, established by Shaw in
1800.  From the Greek makropous, long-footed.  It
includes the Kangaroo (q.v.) and Wallaby (q.v.).
M. giganteus, Zimm., is the Giant Kangaroo, or
Forester (q.v.).

Mado, n. a Sydney fish, Therapon
cuvieri, Bleek; called also Trumpeter-Perch.
Atypus strigatus, Gunth., is also called Mado
by the Sydney fishermen, who confound it with the first species.
The name is probably aboriginal.

Magpie, n. a black-and-white Crow-Shrike,
present all over Australia.  He resembles the English Magpie in
general appearance, but has not the long tail of that bird,
though he shares with him his kleptomania.  He is often called
the Bush-magpie (q.v.) by townsfolk, to distinguish him
from the tamed specimens kept in many gardens, or in cages,
which are easily taught to talk.  The species are--

Black-backed Magpie--
 Gymnorhina tibicen, Lath.; called also
Flute-Bird (q.v.).

Long-billed M.--
 G. dorsalis, Campbell.

White, or Organ M.--
 G. organicum, Gould; called also Organ-bird

White-backed M.--
 G. leuconota, Gould.

In Tasmania, the name is also applied to the--

Black Magpie--
 Strepera fuliginosa, Gould; and
 S. arguta, Gould.

1859.  H. Kingsley, 'Geoffr/e/y Hamlyn,' vol. ii. p. 314

"Magpie, a large, pied crow.Of all the birds I have ever seen,
the cleverest, the most grotesque, and the most musical.  The
splendid melody of his morning and evening song is as
unequalled as it is indescribable."

1869.  B. Hoare, 'Figures of Fancy,' p. 97:

"Gay magpies chant the livelong day."

1886.  T. Heney, 'Fortunate Days,' p. 47:

"The magpie swells from knoll or silent brake
 His loud sweet tune."

1887.  'Melbourne Punch,' March 31:

   "The magpie maketh mute
    His mellow fluent flute,
Nor chaunteth now his leuconotic hymn."

Magpie-Goose, n. a common name for the
Australian Goose, Anseranus melanoleuca, Lath.; called
also Swan-goose, and Pied goose.
See Goose.

Magpie-Lark, n. an Australian black-and-white
bird (Grallina picata, Lath.), resembling the Magpie in
appearance, but smaller; called also Pee-wee, and
Mudlark, from its building its nest of mud.

1888.  Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. ii. p. 235:

"The little magpie-lark. . . .  His more elegant and graceful
figure remains in modest silence by the hedgerow in the

Magpie-Perch, n. a West Australian, Victorian,
and Tasmanian fish, Chilodactylus gibbosus, Richards.;
not a true Perch, but of family Cirrhitidae.

Magra, n. aboriginal name for the sling or
pouch in which the gins carry their children on their backs.

1845.  R. Howitt, 'Australia,' p. 185:

"Other lesser brats were in magras, gipsy-like, at their
mothers' backs."

On p. 191, Mr. Howitt uses the form "mogra."

Mahoe, n.  Maori name for the New Zealand
Whitewood-tree, Melicytus ramiflorus, Forst.,
N.O. Violarieae.

1855.  Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui,' p. 447:

"Mahoe (Melicytus ramiflorus) grows to the height
of about fifty feet, and has a fine thin spiral leaf."

1863.  Thomas Moser, 'Mahoe Leaves':

[Title of a volume of articles about the Maoris.]

1883.  J.  Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 130:

"Mahoe, hinahina.  A small tree twenty to thirty feet high;
trunk often angular and seven feet in girth.  The word is soft
and not in use. . .  .  Leaves greedily eaten by cattle."

Mahogany, n.  The name, with varying epithets,
is applied to several Australian trees, chiefly
Eucalypts, on account of the redness or hardness of
their timber, and its applicability to purposes similar to that
of the true Mahogany.  The following enumeration is compiled
from Maiden's 'Useful Native Plants'

Mahogany, Tristania conferta, R. Br., N.O.
Myrtaceae; called also White Box, Red Box, Brush
Box, Bastard Box, Brisbane Box.  This bark is occasionally used
for tanning.

Bastard Mahogany, or Gippsland Mahogany, or Swamp Mahogany,
Eucalyptus botryoides, Smith, N.O. Myrtaceae.
The Blue Gum of New South Wales coast districts.  Bastard
Mahogany of Gippsland and New South Wales; called also Swamp
Mahogany in Victoria and New South Wales.  It also bears the
names of Bastard Jarrah, and occasionally Woolly Butt.  Sydney
workmen often give it the name Bangalay, by which it was
formerly known by the aboriginals of Port Jackson.  It is one
of four colonial timbers recommended by the Victorian Carriage
Timber Board for use in the construction of railway carriages.
Specimens from Gippsland (Gippsland Mahogany) are spoken of as
"a timber of good colour, as strong as Blue Gum."

Mahogany, or Bastard Mahogany, Eucalyptus marginata,
Smith, N.O. Myrtaceae.  Universally known as
Jarrah.  In Western Australia it also bears the name
of Mahogany, or Bastard Mahogany.

Forest or Red Mahogany, Eucalyptus resinifera, Smith,
N.O. Myrtaceae; called also Jimmy Low (q.v.).

Forest Mahogany, Eucalyptus microcorys, F. v. M.,
N.O. Myrtaceae.  In Queensland it is known as
Peppermint, the foliage being remarkably rich in volatile oil.
But its almost universal name is Tallow Wood (q.v.).
North of Port Jackson it bears the name of Turpentine
Tree (q.v.), and Forest Mahogany.

Tom Russell's Mahogany, Lysicarpus ternifolius,
F. v. M., N.O. Myrtaceae.

Swamp Mahogany, or White Mahogany, Eucalyptus robusta,
Smith, N.O. Myrtaceae, B. Fl.  This tree is known as
White, or Swamp Mahogany, from the fact that it generally grows
in swampy ground.  It is also called Brown Gum.  This timber is
much valued for shingles, wheelwrights'work, ship-building, and
building purposes generally.  As a timber for fuel, and where
no great strength is required, it is excellent, especially when
we consider its adaptability to stagnant, swampy, or marshy

1846.  J. L. Stokes, 'Discoveries in Australia,' vol. ii.
c. iv. p. 132:

"Mahogany, Jarrail, Eucalyptus, grows on white sandy land."

Ibid. vol. ii. c. iv. p. 231:

"Part of our road lay through a thick mahogany scrub."

Mai, or Matai, n. a New Zealand tree,
now called Podocarpus spicata.

1855.  Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui,' p. 440:

"Matai, mai (Dacrydium mai), a tree with a fine thick
top, and leaf much resembling that of the yew.  The wood is of
a slightly reddish colour, close-grained, but brittle, and
peculiarly fragrant when burnt. . .  .  Highly prized for fuel,
and also much used for furniture, as it works up easily and
comes next to the totara for durability."

1876.  W. n. Blair, 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,'
vol. ix. art. x. p. 157:

"I have in this paper adhered to the popular name of black-pine
for this timber, but the native name matai is always used in
the north."

Maiden's Blush, n. name given to the Australian
tree Echinocarpus australis, Benth., N.O.
Tiliaceae; and sometimes applied to Euroschinus
falcatus, Hook., N.O. Anacardiaceae.  The timber is
of a delicate rosy colour when cut.  The fruit is called
Hedgehog-fruit (q.v.).  In Tasmania, the name is applied
to Convolvulus erubescens, Sims., order

Maire, n. a Maori name applied to three kinds
of trees; viz.--

(1) Santalum cunninghamii, Hook., a sandal-wood;

2) Olea of various species (formerly Fusanus);

(3) Eugenia maire, A. Cunn., native box-wood, but now
usually confined to N.O. Santalaceae.

1835.  W. Yate, 'Some Account of New Zealand,' p. 41:

"Mairi--a tree of the Podocarpus species."

1883.   J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand, pp. 132-33:

"Maire--a small tree ten to fifteen feet high, six to eight
inches in diameter; wood hard, close-grained, heavy, used by
Maoris in the manufacture of war implements.  Has been used as
a substitute for box by wood-engravers.  Black maire,
N.O. Jasmineae;also Maire-rau-nui, Olea
Cunninghamii. Hook., fil., Black M., forty to fifty feet
high, three to four feet in diameter, timber close-grained,
heavy, and very durable."

Major Buller, n. name given to one of the
fruits of the Geebong tribe.  See Geebong.

1882.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Fish of New South Wales,'
p. 82:

"The Sergeant Baker in all probability got its local
appellation to the early history of the colony (New South
Wales), as it was called after a sergeant of that name in one
of the first detachments of a regiment; so were also two fruits
of the Geebong tribe (Persoonia); one was called Major
Buller, and the other Major Groce, and this latter again
further corrupted into Major Grocer."

Major Groce, or Major Grocer, name given to
one of the fruits of the Geebung tribe.  See Geebung,
 /or Geebong/ and quotation under Major Buller.

Major Mitchell, n. vernacular name of a species
of Cockatoo, Cacatua leadbeateri, Vig.  It was called
after the explorer, Major (afterwards Sir Thomas) Mitchell, who
was Surveyor- General of New South Wales.  The cry of the bird
was fancifully supposed to resemble his name.
See Leadbeater.

Make a light, expressive pigeon-English.  An aboriginal's
phrase for to look for, to find.  "You been make a light
yarraman this morning?"  i.e.  Have you found or seen the
horses this morning?

1859.  H. Kingsley, 'Geoffrey Hamlyn,' vol. ii. p. 185

"'Make a light,' in blackfellow's gibberish, means simply

Mako, n. originally Makomako.  Maori
name for a New Zealand tree, Aristotelia racemosa,
Hook., N.O. Tiliaceae, often but incorrectly called

1883.  J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand, p. 130:

"Mako, a small handsome tree, six to twenty feet high,
quick-growing, with large racemes of reddish nodding flowers.
Wood very light and white in colour."

Mako/2/, n.  Maori name for the Tiger-
Shark.  See Shark.  The teeth of the Mako are used
for ornaments by the Maoris.

Mallee, n. and adj. an aboriginal word.
Any one of several scrubby species of Eucalyptus in the desert
parts of South Australia and Victoria, especially Eucalyptus
dumosa, Cunn., and E. oleosa, F. v. M., N.O.
Myrtaceae.  They are also called Mallee Gums.
Accent on the first syllable.  The word is much used as an
adjective to denote the district in which the shrub grows, the
"Mallee District," and this in late times is generally
shortened into The Mallee.  Compare "The Lakes" for the
Lake-district of Cumberland.  It then becomes used as an
epithet of Railways, Boards, Farmers, or any matters connected
with that district.

1848.  W. Westgarth, 'Australia Felix,' p. 73:

"The natives of the Wimmera prepare a luscious drink from the
laap, a sweet exudation from the leaf of the mallee
(Eucalyptus dumosa"

1854.  E. Stone Parker, 'Aborigines of Australia,' p. 25:

"The immense thickets of Eucalyptus dumosa, commonly
designated the 'Malle' scrub."

1857.  W. Howitt,' Tallangetta,' vol. ii. p. 2:

"This mallee scrub, as it is called, consists of a dense wood
of a dwarf species of gum-tree, Eucalyptus dumosa.
This tree, not more than a dozen feet in height, stretches its
horizontal and rigid branches around it so as to form with its
congeners a close, compact mass."

186.  W. Howitt, 'Discovery in Australia, vol. i. p. 214
(Oxley's Expedition in 1817):

"The country, in dead flats, was overspread with what is now
called mallee scrub, that is, the dwarf spreading eucalyptus,
to which Mr. Cunningham gave the specific name of
dumosa, a most pestilent scrub to travel through,
the openings betwixt the trees being equally infested with
the detestable malle-grass."

1883.  'The Mallee Pastoral Leases Act, 1883,' 47 Vict.
No. 766, p. 3:

"The lands not alienated from the Crown and situated in the
North-Western district of Victoria within the boundaries set
forth in the First Schedule hereto, comprising in all some ten
millions of acres wholly or partially covered with the mallee
plant, and known as the Mallee Country, shall be divided into
blocks as hereinafter provided."

1890.  'The Argus,' June 13, p. 6, col. 2:

"Mallee Selections at Horsham.  A special Mallee Board,
consisting of Mr. Hayes, head of the Mallee branch of
the Lands Department, and Mr. Porter."

1893.  'The Argus,' April 24, p. 7, col. 5:

"In the Mallee country there is abundance of work, cutting down
mallee, picking up dead wood, rabbit destruction, etc.

1893.  A. R. Wallace, 'Australasia,' vol. i. p. 46:

"One of the most common terms used by explorers is 'Mallee'
scrub, so called from its being composed of dwarf species of
Eucalyptus, called 'Mallee' by the natives.  The species that
forms the 'mallee' scrub of South Australia is the
Eucalyptus dumosa, and it is probable that allied
species receive the same name in other parts of the country."

1897.  'The Argus,' March 2, p. 7, col. 1:

"The late Baron von Mueller was firmly convinced that it would
pay well in this colony, and especially in the mallee, to
manufacture potash."

Mallee-bird, n. an Australian bird, Leipoa
ocellata, Gould.  Aboriginal name, the Lowan (q.v.);
see Turkey.

Mallee-fowl, n.  Same as Mallee-bird

Mallee-hen, n.  Same as Mallee-bird

1890.  'Victorian Statutes-Game Act, Third Schedule':

[Close Season.]  "Mallee-hen, from 1st day of August
to the 20th day of December next following in each year."

1895.  'The Australasian,' Oct.5, p. 652, col. 1:

". .  .  the economy of the lowan or mallee-hen. . .  .  It
does not incubate its eggs after the manner of other birds, but
deposits them in a large mound of sand . . .  Shy and timid.
Inhabits dry and scrubs.  In shape and size resembles a greyish
mottled domestic turkey, but is smaller, more compact and
stouter in the legs."

Mallee-scrub, n. the "scrub," or thicket,
formed by the Mallee (q.v.).

1893.  A. R. Wallace, 'Australasia,' vol. i. p. 22:

"The flat and, rarely, hilly plains . . . are covered
chiefly with thickets and 'scrub' of social plants, generally
with hard and prickly leaves.  This 'scrub,' which is quite a
feature of the Australian interior, is chiefly formed of a
bushy Eucalyptus, which grows somewhat like our osiers to a
height of 8 or 10 feet, and often so densely covers the ground
as to be quite impenetrable.  This is the 'Mallee scrub' of
the explorers; while the still more dreaded 'Mulga scrub'
consists of species of prickly acacia, which tear the clothes
and wound the flesh of the traveller."

Malurus, n. the scientific name for a genus of
Australian warblers.  Name reduced from Malacurus, from
the Grk. malakos, soft, and 'oura, a tail.  The
type-species is Malurus cyaneus of Australia, the
Superb Warbler or Blue-Wren.  See Superb
Warbler, Wren, and Emu-Wren.  All the
Maluri, of which there are fifteen or sixteen species,
are popularly known as Superb Warblers, but are more correctly
called Wrens.

1896.  F. G.  Aflalo, 'Natural History of Australia,' p. 136:

"The Wrens and Warblers--chiefly Maluri,
with the allied Amytis and Stipiturus--are purely
Australian.  They are feeble on the wing but swift of foot."

Mana, n. a Maori word for power, influence,
right, authority, prestige.  See chapter on Mana,
in 'Old New Zealand' (1863), by Judge Maning.

1843.  E. Dieffenbach, 'Travels in New Zealand,' vol. i.
p. 371:

"Mana--command, authority, power."

1855.  Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui,' p. 279:

"The natives feel that with the land their 'mana,' or power,
has gone likewise; few therefore can now be induced to part
with land."

1863.  F. E. Maning (Pakeha Maori), 'Old New Zealand,' Intro.
p. iii:

"The Maoris of my tribe used to come and ask me which had the
greatest 'mana' (i.e. fortune, prestige, power, strength),
the Protestant God or the Romanist one."

1873.  'Appendix to Journal of House of Representatives,'
G. i, B. p. 8:

"The Government should be asked to recognize his mana
over that territory."

1881.  J. L.Campbell, 'Poenamo,' p. 166:

"We should be glad to shelter ourselves under the mana--
the protection--of good old Kanini."

1892.  'Otago Witness,' Dec 22, p. 7, col. 1:

"A man of great lineage whose personal mana was undisputed."

1896.  'New Zealand Herald,' Feb. 14 [Leading Article]:

"The word 'mana,' power, or influence, may be said to be
classical, as there were learned discussions about its precise
meaning in the early dispatches and State papers.  It may be
said that misunderstanding about what mana meant caused
the war at Taranaki."

Mangaroo, n. aboriginal name for a small flying
phalanger with exquisitely fine fur.

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' vol. ii.
p. 217:

"Descending from the branches of an ironbark tree beside him,
a beautiful little mangaroo floated downwards on out-stretched
wings to the foot of a sapling at a little distance away, and
nimbly ascending it was followed by his mate."

Mangi, or Mangeao, n.  Maori name for
a New Zealand tree, Litsea calicaris, Benth. and Hook. f.

1873.  'Catalogue of Vienna Exhibition':

"Mangi--remarkably tough and compact, used for ship-blocks
and similar purposes."

Mango, n.  Maori name for the Dog-fish
(q.v.), a species of shark.

Mangrove, n.  The name is applied to trees
belonging to different natural orders, common in all tropical
regions and chiefly littoral.  Species of these, Rhizophorea
mucronata, Lamb, and Avicennia officinalis, Linn.,
are common in Australia; the latter is also found in New

Bruguiera rheedii, of the N.O. Rhizophoreae,
is called in Australia Red Mangrove, and the same
vernacular name is applied to Heritiera littoralis,
Dryand., N.O. Sterculiaceae, the Sundri of India
and the Looking-glass Tree of English gardeners.

The name Milky Mangrove is given, in Australia, to
Excaecaria agallocha, Linn., N.O. Euphorbiaceae,
which further goes by the names of River Poisonous Tree
and Blind-your-Eyes--names alluding to the poisonous
juice of the stem.

The name River Mangrove is applied to AEgiceras
majus, Gaertn., N.O. Myrsineae, which is not endemic
in Australia.

In Tasmania, Native Mangrove is another name for the
Boobialla (q.v.)

Mangrove-Myrtle, n. name applied by Leichhardt
to the Indian tree Barringtonia acutangula, Gaertn.
(Stravadium rubrum De C.), N.O. Myrtaceae.

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 289:

"As its foliage and the manner of the growth resemble
the mangrove, we called it the mangrove-myrtle."

Manna, n. the dried juice, of sweet taste,
obtained from incisions in the bark of various trees.  The
Australian manna is obtained from certain Eucalypts, especially
E. viminalis, Labill.  It differs chemically from the
better known product of the Manna-Ash (Fraxinus ornus).
See Lerp.

1835.  Ross, 'Hobart Town Almanack,' p. 99:

"Several of the species yield an exudation in the spring and
summer months, which coagulates and drops from the leaves to
the ground in small irregular shaped snow white particles,
often as large as an almond [?].  They are sweet and very
pleasant to the taste, and are greedily devoured by the birds,
ants, and other animals, and used to be carefully picked up and
eaten by the aborigines.  This is a sort of Manna."

1878.  R. Brough Smyth, 'The Aborigines of Victoria,' vol. i.
p. 211:

"Two varieties of a substance called manna are among the
natural products . . . one kind . .  .  being secreted by the
leaves and slender twigs of the E. viminalis from
punctures or injuries done to these parts of the tree. . . .
It consists principally of a kind of grape sugar and about 5 %.
of the substance called mannite.  Another variety of manna is
the secretion of the pupa of an insect of the Psylla
family and obtains the name of lerp among the
aborigines.  At certain seasons of the year it is very abundant
on the leaves of E. dumosa, or mallee scrub . . ."

1878.  W. W. Spicer, 'Handbook of Plants of Tasmania, p. viii:

"The Hemipters, of which the aphids, or plant-lice, are a
familiar example, are furnished with stiff beaks, with which
they pierce the bark and leaves of various plants for the
purpose of extracting the juices.  It is to the punctures of
this and some other insects of the same Order, that the sweet
white manna is due, which occurs in large quantities during the
summer months on many of the gum-trees."

Manna-Grass.  See Grass.

Manna-Gum.  See Manna and Gum.

Manoao, n.  Maori name for a New Zealand tree,
Yellow-pine, Dacrydium colensoi, Hook.,
N.O. Coniferae.

1889.  T. Kirk, 'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 192:

"The wood of the manoao is of a light-brown colour."

Manucode, n.  The word is in English use for
the bird-of- paradise.  It is Malay (manuk-dewata = bird
of the gods).  The species in Australia is Manucodia
gouldii, Grey.  See also Rifle-bird.

Manuka, n. the Maori name for Tea-tree
(q.v.).  Properly, the accent is on the first syllable with
broad a.  Vulgarly, the accent is placed on the second
syllable.  There are two species in New Zealand, white
and red; the first, a low bush called Scrub-Manuka,
L. scoparium, R. and G. Forst., the Tea-tree used
by Captain Cook's sailors; the second, a tree Leptospermum
ericoides, A. Richard.

1840.  J. S. Polack, 'Manners and Customs of the New
Zealanders,' p. 258:

"This wood, called by the southern tribes manuka, is
remarkably hard and durable, and throughout the country is an
especial favourite with the natives, who make their spears,
paddles, fishing rods, etc., of this useful timber."

1842.  W. R. Wade, 'Journey in Northern Island of New
Zealand,' p. 75:

"The Manuka, or, as it is called in the northern part of the
island, Kahikatoa (leptospermum scoparium), is a
mysterious plant, known in Van Diemen's Land as the tea tree."

1843.  E. Dieffenbach, 'Travels in New Zealand,' vol. i.
p. 28:

"The manuka supplies the place of the tea-shrub."

1845.  E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i.
p. 270:

"[The house] was protected from the weather by a wooden railing
filled in with branches of the manuka.  This is a shrub very
abundant in some parts.  The plant resembles the teaplant in
leaves and flower, and is often used green by the whalers and
traders for the same purpose."

1851.  Mrs.Wilson, 'New Zealand,' p. 46:

"It is generally made of manuka a very hard, dark,
close-grained and heavy wood."

1867.  Lady Barker, 'Station Life in New Zealand,' p. 121:

"The manuka, a sort of scrub, has a pretty blossom like a
diminutive Michaelmas daisy, white petals and a brown centre,
with a very aromatic odour; and this little flower is
succeeded by a berry with the same strong smell and taste of
spice.  The shepherds sometimes make an infusion of these when
they are very hard up for tea; but it must be like drinking a
decoction of cloves."

1871.  C. L. Money, 'Knocking about in New Zealand,' p. 70:

"Chiefly covered with fern and tea-tree (manuka) scrub."

1872.  A. Domett, 'Ranolf,' p. 149:

"Then to a copse of manuka retreat,
 Where they could safely, secretly commune."

[Domett has the following note--"'A large shrub or small tree;
leaves used as tea in Tasmania and Australia, where the plant
is equally abundant' (Hooker).  In the poem it is called
indiscriminately manuka, broom, broom-like myrtle, or
leptosperm.  The settlers often call it 'tea-broom.'"]

1875.  Wood and Lapham, 'Waiting for the Mail,' p. 23:

"A tremendous fire of broadleaf and manuka roared in the

1889.  Cassell's 'Picturesque Australasia,' vol. iv. p. 123:

"Manuka is a shrub which is rampant throughout New Zealand.
If it were less common it would be thought more beautiful.
In summer it is covered with white blossom: and there are
few more charming sights than a plain of flourishing manuka."

Maomao, n.  Maori name for a New Zealand
sea-fish, Ditrema violacea.

1886.  R. A. Sherrin, 'Fishes of New Zealand,' p. 67:

"The delicious little maomao may be caught at the Riverina
Rocks in immense quantities."

Maori, n. (pronounced so as to rhyme with
Dowry).  (1) The name used to designate themselves by
the Polynesian race occupying New Zealand when it was
discovered by the white man, and which still survives.  They
are not aboriginal as is commonly supposed, but migrated into
New Zealand about 500 years ago from Hawaii, the tradition
still surviving of the two great canoes (Arawa and
Tainui) in which the pioneers arrived.  They are
commonly spoken of as the Natives of New Zealand.

(2) The language of the Maori race.

(3) adj. applied to anything pertaining to the Maoris or
their language.  See Pakeha.

There is a discussion on the word in the 'Journal of Polynesian
Society,' vol. i. no. 3, vol. ii. no. 1, and vol. iii. no. i.
Bishop Williams (4th ed.) says that the word means, "of the
normal or usual kind."  The Pakehas were not men to whom the
natives were accustomed.  So Maori was used as opposed to the
Europeans, the white-skins.  Kuri Maori was a name used
for a dog after the arrival of other quadrupeds called also
kuri.  Wai maori was freshwater, ordinary as
opposed to sea-water.  Another explanation is that the word
meant "indigenous," and that there are kindred words with that
meaning in other Polynesian languages.  First, "indigenous," or
"of the native race," and then with a secondary meaning,
"ours."  (See Tregear's Maori Comparative Dictionary,' s.v.)

The form of the plural varies.  The form Maoris
is considered the more correct, but the form Maories
is frequently used by good writers.

1845.  E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. i.
p. 194:

"The Maori language is essentially a poor one, and possesses
in particular but few words which express abstract ideas."

1859.  A. S. Thomson, 'Story of New Zealand,' vol. i. c. iii.
p. 51:

"No light is thrown on the origin of the New Zealanders from
the name Maori which they call themselves.  This word, rendered
by linguists 'native,' is used in contradistinction to pakeha,
or stranger."

1864.  Crosbie Ward, 'Canterbury Rhymes,' 'The Runaways' (2nd
edition), p. 79:

"One morn they fought, the fight was hot,
   Although the day was show'ry;
 And many a gallant soldier then
   Was bid Memento Maori."

1891.  Jessie Mackay, 'The Sitter on the Rail, and other
Poems,' p. 61:

"Like the night, the fated Maori
   Fights the coming day;
 Fights and falls as doth the kauri
   Hewn by axe away."

(4) Name given in New South Wales to the fish, Cosis
lineolatus, one of the Labridae, or Wrasses.

Maori-Cabbage, n. the wild cabbage of New
Zealand, Brassica spp., N.O. Cruciferae, said to
be descended from the cabbages planted by Captain Cook.

1855.  Rev. R. Taylor, 'Te Ika a Maui,' p. 206.:

"Every recollection of Cook is interesting. . . .  But the chief
record of his having been on the island is the cabbage and
turnip which he sowed in various places: these have spread and
become quite naturalized, growing everywhere in the greatest
abundance, and affording an inexhaustible supply of excellent

1863.  S. Butler, 'First Year in Canterbury Settlement,'
p. 131:

"The only plant good to eat is Maori cabbage, and that is swede
turnip gone wild, from seed left by Captain Cook."

1880.  W. Colenso, 'Transactions of New Zealand Institute,'
vol. xiii. art. i. p. 31 ['On the Vegetable Food of the
Ancient New Zealanders']:

"The leaves of several smaller plants were also used as
vegetables; but the use of these in modern times, or during the
last forty or fifty years, was commonly superseded by that of
the extremely useful and favourite plant--the Maori cabbage,
Brassica oleracea, introduced by Cook (nani of the
Maoris at the north, and rearea at the south), of which they
carefully sowed the seeds."

Maori-chief, n. name given to a New Zealand
Flathead-fish, Notothenia maoriensis, or
coriiceps.  The name arises from marks on the fish
like tattooing.  It is a very dark, almost black fish.

1877.  P. Thomson, 'Transactions of the New Zealand
Institute,' vol. x. art. xliv. p. 330:

"Some odd fishes now and then turn up in the market, such as
the Maori-chief, cat-fish, etc."

1878.  Ibid.  vol. xi. art. lii. p. 381:

"That very dark-skinned fish, the Maori-chief, Notothenia
Maoriensis of Dr. Haast, is not uncommon, but is rarely
seen more than one at a time."

1896.  'The Australasian,' Aug. 28, p. 407, col. 5:

"Resemblances are strange things.  At first it would seem
improbable that a fish could be like a man, but in Dunedin a
fish was shown to me called Maori Chief, and with the exercise
of a little imagination it was not difficult to perceive the
likeness.  Nay, some years ago, at a fishmonger's in Melbourne,
a fish used to be labelled with the name of a prominent
Victorian politician now no more.  There is reason, however,
to believe that art was called in to complete the likeness."

Maori-head, n. a swamp tussock, so called from
a fancied resemblance to the head of a Maori.  (Compare
Black-boy.)  It is not a grass, but a sedge

1882.  T. H. Potts, 'Out in the Open,' p. 169:

"A boggy creek that oozed sluggishly through rich black soil,
amongst tall raupo, maori-heads, and huge flax-bushes."

1892.  W. McHutcheson, 'Camp Life in Fiordland,' p. 34:

"Amid the ooze and slime rose a rank growth of 'Maori heads.'"

Maori-hen, n.  Same as Weka (q.v.).

Maoriland, n. a modern name for New Zealand.
It is hardly earlier than 1884.  If the word, or anything like
it, such as Maoria, was used earlier, it meant "the
Maori parts of New Zealand."  It is now used for the whole.

1873.  J. H. St. John [Title]:

"Pakeha Rambles through Maori Lands."

1874.  J. C. Johnstone [Title]:

"Maoria: a sketch of the Manners and Customs of the
Aboriginal Inhabitants of New Zealand."

1884.  Kerry Nicholls [Title]:

"The King Country, or Explorations in New Zealand.
A Narrative of 600 Miles of Travel through Maoriland."

1884.  [Title]:

"Maoriland: an Illustrated Handbook to New Zealand."

1886.  Annie R. Butler [Title]

"Glimpses of Maori Land."

1890.  T. Bracken [Title]:

"Musings in Maori Land."

1896.  'The Argus,' July 22, p. 4, col. 8:

"Always something new from Maoriland!  Our New Zealand friends
are kindly obliging us with vivid illustrations of how far
demagogues in office will actually go."

Maorilander, n. modern name for a white man
born in New Zealand.

1896.  'Melbourne Punch,' April 9, p. 233, col. 2:

"Norman is a pushing young Maorilander who apparently has the
Britisher by the right ear."

Maori, White, New Zealand miners' name for a stone.
See quotation.

1883.  'A Citizen,' 'Illustrated Guide to Dunedin,' p. 169:

"Tungstate of lime occurs plentifully in the Wakatipu district,
where from its weight and colour it is called White
Maori by the miners."

Mapau, n. a Maori name for several New Zealand
trees; called also Mapou, and frequently corrupted by
settlers into Maple, by the law of Hobson-Jobson.  The
name is applied to the following--

The Mapau--
 Myrsine urvillei, De C., N.O. Myrsineae;
sometimes called Red Mapau.

Black M.--
 Pittosporum tenuifolium, Banks and Sol.,
N.O. Pittosporeae; Maori name, Tawhiri.

White M.--
 Carpodetus serratus, Forst., N.O. Saxifrageae;
 Pittosporum eugenoides, A. Cunn.; Maori name,
Tarata (q.v.); called also the Hedge-laurel
(q.v.), Lemon-wood, and New Zealand Oak.  See

The first of these trees (Myrsine urvillei) is,
according to Colenso, the only tree to which the Maoris
themselves give the name Mapau.  The others are
only so called by the settlers.

1868.  'Transactions of the New Zealand Institute,' vol. i.,
'Essay on Botany of Otago,' p. 37:

"White Mapau, or Piripiri-whata (Carpodetus serratus),
an ornamental shrub-tree, with mottled-green leaves, and large
cymose panicles of white flowers. . . .  Red Mapau (Myrsine
Urvillei), a small tree common at Dunedin.  Wood dark red, very
astringent, used as fence stuff."

1883.  J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand, p. 132:

"Tawiri, white-mapou, white-birch (of Auckland).  A small tree,
ten to thirty feet high; trunk unusually slender; branches
spreading in a fan-shaped manner, which makes it of very
ornamental appearance; flower white, profusely produced.
The wood is soft and tough."

1889.  T. Kirk, 'Forest Flora of New Zealand,' p. 75:

"By the settlers it is frequently called 'black mapou' on
account of the colour of the bark. . . .  With still less
excuse it is sometimes called 'black maple,' an obvious
corruption of the preceding."

Maple, n.  In New Zealand, a common settlers'
corruption for any tree called Mapau (q.v.); in
Australia, applied to Villaresia moorei, F. v. M.,
N.O. Olacineae, called also the Scrub Silky Oak.
See Oak.

Maray, n.  New South Wales name for the fish
Clupea sagax, Jenyns, family Clupeidae or
Herrings, almost identical with the English pilchard.
The word Maray is thought to be an aboriginal name.
Bloaters are made of this fish at Picton in New Zealand,
according to the Report of the Royal Commission on Fisheries of
New South Wales, 1880.  But Agonostoma forsteri, a
Sea-Mullet, is also when dried called the Picton Herring
(q.v).  See Herring and Aua.

Marble-fish, n. name given to the Tupong
(q.v.) in Geelong.

Marble-wood, n. name applied to a
whitish-coloured mottled timber, Olea paniculata,
R. Br., N.O. Jasmineae; called also Native Olive
and Ironwood.

Mark, a good, Australian slang.

1845.  R. Howitt, 'Australia,' p. 233:

"I wondered often what was the meaning of this, amongst many
other peculiar colonial phrases, 'Is the man a good mark?'
I heard it casually from the lips of apparently respectable
settlers, as they rode on the highway, 'Such and such a one is
a good mark,"--simply a person who pays his men their wages,
without delays or drawbacks; a man to whom you may sell
anything safely; for there are in the colony people who are
regularly summoned before the magistrates by every servant they
employ for wages.  They seem to like to do everything publicly,
legally, and so become notoriously not 'good marks.'"

[So also "bad mark," in the opposite sense.]

Mariner, n.  name given in Tasmania to
a marine univalve mollusc, either Elenchus badius,
or E. bellulus, Wood.

The Mariner is called by the Tasmanian Fishery
Commissioners the "Pearly Necklace Shell"; when deprived of its
epidermis by acid or other means, it has a blue or green pearly

The shells are made into necklaces, of which the aboriginal
name is given as Merrina, and the name of the shell
is a corruption of this word, by the law of Hobson-Jobson.
Compare Warrener.

1878.  'Catalogue of the Objects of Ethnotypical Art in the
National Gallery' (Melbourne), p. 52:

"Necklace, consisting of 565 shells (Elenchus Bellulus)
strung on thin, well-made twine.  The native name of a cluster
of these shells was, according to one writer, Merrina."

Marsh, n. a Tasmanian name for a meadow.
See quotation.

1852.  Mrs. Meredith, 'My Home in Tasmania,' vol. i. p. 163:

"Perhaps my use of the common colonial term 'marsh' may be
misunderstood at home, as I remember that I myself associated
it at first with the idea of a swamp; but a 'marsh' here is
what would in England be called a meadow, with this difference,
that in our marshes, until partially drained, a growth of
tea-trees (Leptospermum) and rushes in some measure
encumbers them; but, after a short time, these die off, and are
trampled down, and a thick sward of verdant grass covers the
whole extent: such is our 'marsh.'"

Marsupial, adj.  See the Noun.

Marsupial, n. an animal in which the female has
an abdominal pouch in which the young, born in a very immature
state, are carried.  (Lat. Marsupium = a pouch.)  At the
present day Marsupials are only found in America and the
Australian region, the greater number being confined to the
latter.  See quotation 1894, Lydekker.

1848.  W. Westgarth, 'Australia Felix,' p. 129:

"The marsupial type exhibits the economy of nature under novel
and very interesting arrangements. . . .  Australia is the
great head-quarters of the marsupial tribe."

1860.  G. Bennett, 'Gatherings of a Naturalist,' p. 5:

"I believe it was Charles Lamb who said, the peculiarity of the
small fore-feet of the Kangaroo seemed to be for picking
pockets; but he forgot to mention the singularity
characterizing the animal kingdom of Australia, that they have
pockets to be picked, being mostly marsupial.  We have often
amused ourselves by throwing sugar or bread into the pouch of
the Kangaroo, and seen with what delight the animal has picked
its own pocket, and devoured the contents, searching its bag,
like a Highlander his sporran, for more."

[See Kangaroo, quotation 1833.]

1885.  H. Finch-Hatton, 'Advance Australia,' p. 106:

"An Act known as the Marsupial Act was accordingly passed to
encourage their destruction, a reward of so much a scalp being
offered by the Government. . . .  Some of the squatters have
gone to a vast expense in fencing-in their runs with marsupial
fencing, but it never pays."

1890.  C. Lumholtz, 'Among Cannibals,' p. 29:

"One of the sheep-owners told me that in the course of eighteen
months he had killed 64,000 of these animals (marsupials),
especially wallabies (Macropus dorsalis) and kangaroo-
rats (Lagorchestes conspicillatus), and also many
thousands of the larger kangaroo (Macropus giganteus)."

1893.  'Sydney Morning Herald,' Aug. 5, p. 9, col. 1:

"In South Australia the Legislature has had to appoint a close
season for kangaroos, else would extinction of the larger
marsupials be at hand.  We should have been forced to such
action also, if the American market for kangaroo-hides had
continued as brisk as formerly."

1894.  R. Lydekker, 'Marsupialia,' p. 1:

"The great island-continent of Australia, together with the
South-eastern Austro-Malayan islands, is especially
characterized by being the home of the great majority of that
group of lowly mammals commonly designated marsupials, or
pouched-mammals.  Indeed, with the exception of the still more
remarkable monotremes [q.v.], or egg-laying mammals, nearly the
whole of the mammalian fauna of Australia consists of these
marsupials, the only other indigenous mammals being certain
rodents and bats, together with the native dog, or dingo,
which may or may not have been introduced by man."

1896.  F. G. Aflalo, 'Natural History of Australia,' p. 30:

"The presence of a predominating marsupial order in Australia
has, besides practically establishing the long isolation of
that continent from the rest of the globe, also given rise to
a number of ingenious theo ries professing to account for its
survival to this last stronghold."

Marsupial Mole, n. the only species of the
genus Notoryctes (q.v.), N. typhlops [from the
Greek notos, 'south' (literally 'south wind'), and
rhunchos, a 'snout']; first described by Dr. Stirling of
Adelaide (in the 'Transactions of the Royal Society of South
Australia,' 1891, p. 154).  Aboriginal name, Urquamata.
It burrows with such extraordinary rapidity in the desert-sands
of Central Australia, to which it is confined, that, according
to Mr. Lydekker, it may be said to swim in the sand as a
porpoise does in the water.

Marsupial Wolf, n.  See Thylacine and
Tasmanian Tiger.

Martin, n. a bird common in England.
The species in Australia are--

 Petrochelidon nigricans, Vieill.;

 Lagenoplastes ariel, Gould;
called also Bottle-Swallow (q.v.).

1896.  F. G. Aflalo, 'Natural History of Australia,' p. 128:

". . . the elegant little Fairy Martins (Lagenoplastes
ariel), which construct a remarkable mud nest in shape not
unlike a retort."

Mary, n. used in Queensland of the aborigines,
as equivalent to girl or woman.  "A black Mary."  Compare
"Benjamin," used for husband.

Matagory, n. a prickly shrub of New Zealand,
Discaria toumatou, Raoul.; also called Wild
Irishman (q.v.).  The Maori name is Tumatahuru,
of which Matagory, with various spellings, is a corruption,
much used by rabbiters and swagmen.  The termination gory
evidently arises by the law of Hobson-Jobson from the fact
that the spikes draw blood.

1859.  J. T. Thomson, in 'Otago Gazette,' Sept. 22, p. 264:

"Much over-run with the scrub called 'tomata-guru.'"

Alex. Garvie, ibid. p. 280:

"Much of it is encumbered with matakura scrub."

1892.  W. McHutcheson, 'Camp Life in Fiordland,' p. 8:

"Trudging moodily along in Indian file through
the matagouri scrub and tussock."

1896.  'Otago Witness,' 7th May, p. 48:

"The tea generally tastes of birch or Matagouri."

Matai, often abridged to Mai, n.
Maori name for a New Zealand tree, Podocarpus spicata,
R. Br., N.O. Coniferae.  Black-pine of Otago.

1883.  J. Hector, 'Handbook of New Zealand,' p. 124:

"Mr. Buchanan has described a log of matai that he found had
been exposed for at least 200 years in a dense damp bush in
North-East Valley, Dunedin, as proved by its being enfolded by
the roots of three large trees of Griselinia littoralis."

Match-box Bean, n. another name for the ripe
hard seed of the Queensland Bean, Entada
scandens, Benth., N.O. Leguminosae.  A tall climbing
plant.  The seeds are used for match-boxes.  See under

Matipo, n. another Maori name for the New
Zealand trees called Mapau (q.v.).

1866.  Lady Barker, 'Station Life in New Zealand' (ed. 1886),
p. 94:

"The varieties of matapo, a beautiful shrub, each leaf a study,
with its delicate tracery of black veins on a yellow-green

1879.  J. B. Armstrong, 'Transactions of the New Zealand
Institute,' vol. xxi. art. xlix. p. 329:

"The tipau, or matipo (pittosporum tenuifolium), makes the best
ornamental hedge I know of."

1879.  'Tourist,' 'New Zealand Country Journal,' vol. iii.
p. 93:

"An undergrowth of beautiful shrubs, conspicuous amongst these
were the Pittosporum or Matipo, which are, however, local in
their distribution, unlike the veronicas, which abound

Meadow Rice-grass, n.  See Grass.

Mealy-back, n. a local name for the
Locust (q.v.).

Medicine-tree, i.q. Horse-radish Tree (q.v.).

Megapode, n. scientific name for a genus of
Australian birds with large feet--the Mound-birds
(q.v.).  From Greek megas, large, and pous,
podos, a foot.  They are also called Scrub fowls.

Melitose, n. the name given by Berthelot to the
sugar obtained from the manna of Eucalyptus mannifera.
Chemically identical with the raffinose extracted from molasses
and the gossypose extracted from cotton-seeds.

1894.  'The Australasian,' April 28, p. 732, col. 1:

[Statement as to origin of melitose by the Baron von Mueller.]
"Sir Frederick M'Coy has traced the production of mellitose
also to a smaller cicade."

Melon, n.  Besides its botanical use,
the word is applied in Australia to a small kangaroo,
the Paddy-melon (q.v.).

Melon-hole, n. a kind of honey-combing of the
surface in the interior plains, dangerous to horsemen, ascribed
to the work of the Paddy-melon.  See preceding word, and
compare the English Rabbit-hole.  The name is often
given to any similar series of holes, such as are sometimes
produced by the growing of certain plants.

1847.  L. Leichhardt, 'Overland Expedition,' p. 9:

"The soil of the Bricklow scrub is a stiff clay, washed out by
the rains into shallow holes, well known by the squatters under
the name of melon-holes."

Ibid. p: 77:

"A stiff, wiry, leafless, polyganaceous plant grows in the
shallow depressions of the surface of the ground, which are
significantly termed by the squatters 'Melon-holes,' and
abound in the open Box-tree flats."

1881.  A. C. Grant, 'Bush Life in Queensland,' p. 220:

"The plain is full of deep melon-holes, and the ground is rotten
and undermined with rats."

Menindie Clover, n.  See Clover.

Menura, n. the scientific name of the genus of
the Lyre-bird (q.v.), so called from the crescent-shaped
form of the spots on the tail; the tail itself is shaped like a
lyre.  (Grk. maen, moon, crescent, and 'oura,
tail.) The name was given by General Davies in 1800.

1800.  T. Davies, 'Description of Menura superba,' in
'Transactions of the Linnaean Society' (1802), vol. vi. p. 208:

"The general colour of the under sides of these two [tail]
feathers is of a pearly hue, elegantly marked on the inner web
with bright rufous-coloured crescent-shaped spots, which, from
the extraordinary construction of the parts, appear wonderfully

Mere, or Meri, n. (pronounced
merry), a Maori war-club; a casse-te^te, or a
war-axe, from a foot to eighteen inches in length, and made of
any suitable hard material--stone, hard wood, whalebone.  To
many people out of New Zealand the word is only known as the
name of a little trinket of greenstone (q.v.) made in
imitation of the New Zealand weapon in miniature, mounted in
gold or silver, and used as a brooch, locket, ear-ring, or
other article of jewelry.

1830.  J. D. Lang, 'Poems' (edition 1873), p. 116:

"Beneath his shaggy flaxen mat
 The dreadful marree hangs concealed."

1851.  Mrs. Wilson, 'New Zealand,' p. 48:

"The old man has broken my head with his meri."

1859.  A. S. Thomson, 'Story of New Zealand,' p. 140:

"Of these the greenstone meri was the most esteemed.  It weighs
six pounds, is thirteen inches long, and in shape resembles a
soda-water bottle flattened.  In its handle is a hole for a
loop of flax, which is twisted round the wrist.  Meris are
carried occasionally in the girdle, like Malay knives.  In
conflicts the left hand grasped the enemy's hair, and one blow
from the meri on the head produced death."

188].  J. Bonwick, 'Romance of Wool Trade,' p. 229:

"A land of musket and meri-armed warriors, unprovided with
a meat supply, even of kangaroo."

1889.  Jessie Mackay, 'The Spirit of the Rangatira,' p. 16:

"He brandished his greenstone mere high,
 And shouted a Maori battle-cry."

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Miner's Right,' c. iii. p. 33:

"'No, no, my peg; I thrust it in with this meri,'
yells Maori Jack, brandishing his war-club."

Merinoes, Pure, n. a term often used,
especially in New South Wales, for the 'very first families,'
as the pure merino is the most valuable sheep.

1827.  P. Cunningham, 'Two Years in New South Wales,' vol. i.
p. 116:

"Next we have the legitimates . . . such as have
legal reasons for visiting this colony; and the
illegitimates, or such as are free from that stigma.
The pure merinos are a variety of the latter species,
who pride themselves on being of the purest blood in the

Mersey Jolly-tail, n.  See Jolly-tail.

Message-stick, n.  The aboriginals sometimes
carve little blocks of wood with various marks to convey
messages.  These are called by the whites,

Messmate, n. name given to one of the
Gum-trees, Eucalyptus amygdalina, Labill., and often to
other species of Eucalypts, especially E. obliqua,
L'Herit.  For origin of this curious name, see quotation, 1889.

1889.  J. H. Maiden, 'Useful Native Plants,' p. 429:

"It is also known by the name of 'Messmate,' because it is
allied to, or associated with, Stringy-bark.  This is
probably the tallest tree on the globe, individuals having been
measured up to 400 ft., 410 ft., and in one case 420 ft., with
the length of the stem up to the first branch 295 ft.  The
height of a tree at Mt. Baw Baw (Victoria) is quoted at 471

1890.  'The Argus,' June 7, p. 13, col1. 4:

"Away to the north-east a wooded range of mountains rolls along
the skyline, ragged rents showing here and there where the dead
messmates and white gums rise like gaunt skeletons from the
dusky brown-green mass into which distance tones the bracken
and the underwood."

Mia-mia, n. an aboriginal hut.  The word is
aboriginal, and has been spelt variously.  Mia-mia is
the most approved spelling, mi-mi the most approved
pronunciation.  See Humpy.

1845.  R. Howitt, 'Australia,' p. 103:

"There she stood in a perfect state of nudity, a little way
from the road, by her miam, smiling, or rather grimacing."

1852.  Letter from Mrs. Perry, given in Canon Goodman's Church
in Victoria during Episcopate of Bishop Perry,' p. 167:

"We came upon the largest (deserted) native encampment we had
ever seen.  One of the mia-mias (you know what that is by this
time--the a is not sounded) was as large as an ordinary
sized circular summer-house, and actually had rude seats all
round, which is quite unusual.  It had no roof, they never
have, being mere break-weathers, not so high as a man's

1855.  W. Howitt, 'Two Years in Victoria,' vol. i. p. 366:

"They constructed a mimi, or bower of boughs on the other,
leaving portholes amongst the boughs towards the road."

1858.  T. McCombie, 'History of Victoria,' c.  vii. p. 96:

"Their thoughts wandered to their hunting-grounds and mia-mias
on the Murray."

1861.  T. McCombie, 'Australian Sketches,' p. 15:

[Notice varied spelling in the same author.]
"Many of the diggers resided under branches of trees made into
small 'miams' or 'wigwams.'"

1871.  C. L. Money, 'Knocking About in New Zealand,' p. 42:

"The next day I began building a little 'mi-mi,' to serve
as a resting-place for the night in going back at any time
for supplies."

1883.  E. M. Curr, 'Recollections of Squatting in Victoria'
(1841-1851), p. 148:

"Of the mia-mias, some were standing; others had, wholly
or in part, been thrown down by their late occupants."

1888.  D. Macdonald, 'Gum Boughs,' p. 32:

"A few branches thrown up against the prevailing wind,
in rude imitation of the native mia-mia."

1889.  Rev. J. H. Zillmann, 'Australian Life,' p. 111:

"[The blacks] would compel [the missionaries] to carry their
burdens while travelling, or build their mia-mias when halting
to camp for the night; in fact, all sorts of menial offices had
to be discharged by the missionaries for these noble black men
while away on the wilds!"

[Footnote]: "Small huts, made of bark and leafy boughs, built
so as to protect them against the side from which the wind

Micky, n. young wild bull.  "Said to have
originated in Gippsland, Victoria.  Probably from the
association of bulls with Mickeys, or Irishmen." (Barere and

1890.  Rolf Boldrewood, 'Colonial Reformer,' c. xviii.
p. 217:

"The wary and still more dangerously sudden 'Micky,'
a two-year-old bull."

Micky/2/, n.  In New Zealand, a corruption of
Mingi (q.v.).

Midwinter, n.  The seasons being reversed in
Australia, Christmas occurs in the middle of summer.  The
English word Midsummer has thus dropped out of use,
and "Christmas," or Christmas-time, is its Australian
substitute, whilst Midwinter is the word used to denote
the Australian winter-time of late June and early July.  See

Mignonette, Native, n. a Tasmanian flower,
Stackhousia linariaefolia, Cunn., N.O.

Mihanere, n. a convert to Christianity; a Maori
variant of the English word Missionary.

1845.  E. J. Wakefield, 'Adventures in New Zealand,' vol. ii.
pp. 11, 12:

"The mihanere natives, as a body, were distinctly inferior in
point of moral character to the natives, who remained with
their ancient customs unchanged. . . .  A very common answer
from a converted native, accused of theft, was, 'How can that
be? I am a mihanere.' . . .  They were all mihanere, or

Milk-bush, n. a tall Queensland shrub,
Wrightia saligna, F. v. M., N.O. Apocyneae;
it is said to be most valuable as a fodder-bush.

Milk-fish, n.  The name, in Australia,
is given to a marine animal belonging to the class
Holothurioidea.  The Holothurians are called
Sea-cucumbers, or Sea-slugs.  The Trepang,
or be^che-de-mer, eaten by the Chinese, belongs to them.
Called also Tit-fish (q.v.).

1880.  Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 'Proceedings of the
Linnaean Society of New South Wales,' vol. v. pt. ii.
p. 128:

"Another species [of Trepang] is the 'milk fish' or 'cotton
fish,' so called from its power of emitting a white viscid
fluid from its skin, which clings to an object like shreds of

Milk-plant, n. i.q. Caustic Creeper

Milk-tree, n. a New Zealand tree,
Epicarpurus microphyllus, Raoul.

1873.  'Catalogue of Vienna Exhibition':

"Milk-tree . . . a tall slender tree exuding a milky sap:
wood white and very brittle."

Milk-wood, n. a Northern Territory name
for Melaleuca leucadendron, Linn.; called also
Paperbark-tree (q.v.).

Miller, n. a local name for the
Cicada. See Locust (quotation, 1896).

Millet, n.  The name is given to several
Australian grasses.  The Koda Millet of India, Paspalum
scrobiculatum, Linn., is called in Australia Ditch
Millet; Seaside Millet is the name given to
Paspalum distichum, Linn., both of the N.O.
Gramineae.  But the principal species is called
Australian Millet, Native Millet, and Umbrella
Grass; it is Panicum decompositum, R. Br.,
N.O. Gramineae; it is not endemic in Australia.

1896.  'The Australasian,' March 14, p. 488, col. 5:

"One of the very best of the grasses found in the hot regions
of Central Australia is the Australian millet, Panicum
decompositum.  It is extremely hardy and stands the hot dry
summers of the north very well; it is nutritious, and cattle
and sheep are fond of it.  It seeds freely, was used by the
aborigines for making a sort of cake, and was the only grain
stored by them.  This grass thrives in poor soil, and starts
into rapid growth with the first autumn rains."

Mimosa, n. a scientific name applied to upwards
of two hundred trees of various genera in the Old World.  The
genus Mimosa, under which the Australian trees called
Wattles were originally classed, formerly included the
Acacias.  These now constitute a separate genus.  Acacia
is the scientific name for the Wattle; though even now
an old colonist will call the Wattles "Mimosa."

1793.  J. E. Smith, 'Specimen of Botany of New Holland,'
p. 52:

"This shrub is now not uncommon in our greenhouses, having been
raised in plenty from seeds brought from Port Jackson.  It
generally bears its fragrant flowers late in the autumn, and
might then at first sight be sooner taken for a Myrtus
than a Mimosa."

1802.  Jas. Flemming, 'Journal of Explorations of Charles
Grimes,' in 'Historical Records of Port Phillip' (ed. 1879,
J. J. Shillinglaw), p. 25:

"Timber; gum, Banksia, oak, and mimosa of sorts, but not large
except the gum."

1830.  R. Dawson, 'Present State of Australia,' p. 202:

"Gum-arabic, which exudes from the mimosa shrubs."

1844.  'Port Phillip Patriot,' July 18, p. 4, col. 2:

"'Cashmere' shawls do not grow on the mimosa trees."

1845.  J. O. Balfour, 'Sketch of New South Wales,' p. 38:

"The mimosa is a very graceful tree; the foliage is of a light
green colour. . . .  The yellow flowers with which the mimosa is
decked throw out a perfume sweeter than the laburnum; and the
gum . . .  is said not to be dissimilar to gum-arabic."

1845.  R. Howitt, 'Australia,' p. 175:

"But, Yarra, thou art lo