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Title: Observations on the Coasts of Van Diemen's Land
Author: Matthew Flinders
* A Project Gutenberg Australia eBook *
eBook No.: 0900121h.html
Language: English
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A related work by Flinders, An Expedition through Bass's Strait, is available at Project Gutenberg Australia.


OBSERVATIONS

ON THE COASTS OF

VAN DIEMEN'S LAND,

ON

BASS'S STRAIT and its ISLANDS,

AND ON PART OF THE COASTS OF

NEW SOUTH WALES;

INTENDED TO ACCOMPANY THE

CHARTS OF THE LATE DISCOVERIES

IN THOSE COUNTRIES.



By Matthew Flinders

SECOND LIEUTENANT OF HIS MAJESTY'S SHIP RELIANCE


London:

PRINTED BY JOHN NICHOLS,
——
1801






TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE

SIR JOSEPH BANKS, BART.

PRESIDENT of the ROYAL SOCIETY,

&c. &c. &c. &c.

Sir Joseph,

YOUR zealous exertions to promote geographical and nautical knowledge, your encouragement of men employed in the cultivation of the sciences that tend to their improvement, and the countenance you have been pleased to show me in particular, embolden me to lay the following observations before you.

However unworthy of being offered to Sir Joseph Banks, this humble attempt to increase the utility of the annexed charts may prove, I trust, that the intention with which it is written will excuse the imperfections it must contain. Utility was the only object in view; and if it is so executed as to answer that end, I am sure of its meeting your approbation. With an anxious hope that you will not be dissatisfied with it,

I am,

SIR JOSEPH,

Your grateful and obedient Servant,        

MATTHEW FLINDERS.    






CONTENTS [not in the original]


PREFACE.

VAN DIEMEN'S LAND. [I]

HUNTER's ISLES.

VAN DIEMEN'S LAND. [II]

FURNEAUX's ISLANDS.

KENT's GROUP.

NEW SOUTH WALES [I]

BASS's STRAIT.

NEW SOUTH WALES. [II]



CHARTS



Flinders's Chart of the Whole of Tasmania

Flinders's Chart of Northern Tasmania, Bass's Strait and its Islands


These charts, not in the original work, may be found on the internet at:
the National Library of Australia site on Flinders.






PREFACE.

THE following observations are extracted from the journals of some expeditions from Port Jackson, mostly undertaken by order of His Excellency governor Hunter, for the purpose of exploring the neighbouring coasts. They are here put together under different heads, for the convenience of those who may be amongst the first to use this navigation; and to serve as an explanation to the charts of Van Diemen's Land, Bass's Strait, and those parts of New South Wales, which have lately been examined by the officers of His Majesty's ship Reliance.

The charts are not given as perfect, but as containing the form and situation of what was really seen, as near as could be ascertained. When it is considered, that no time-keeper could be procured for these expeditions, and that the vessel in which most of the work was performed, was not of twenty-five tons burthen, great accuracy in the longitude will not be expected; as a proof, however, that every effort was made to avert errors; it is proper to remark, that from the northeast cape of Van Diemen's Land, named Cape Portland, by governor Hunter, round by the west, to the South-west Cape, the sloop was kept close to the shore, and brought back every morning within sight of the same point it had been hauled off from on the precedeing evening. By which means the chain of angles was never wholly broken; and the dead-reckoning from Port Dalrymple, being corrected by these bearings, placed the South-west Cape in the same situation as captain Cook, within 5' of longitude. This was an unexpected agreement, and must not be looked for in the relative situations of the islands in Bass's Strait; and more especially of those which are not in sight from Van Diemen's Land.

The rottenness of the deep-sea line, with which the sloop was supplied, will account for the very few soundings which are marked in the strait; independently of the small number of the crew, and size of the vessel.

The bearings in the following memoirs are always as given by the compass, unless it is otherwise particularly expressed.

If the information here brought forward should be thought little, or imperfect; it ought to be remembered, that that little was gained, under very disadvantageous circumstances, by the voluntary labours of a few individuals; whose only stimulus to so hazardous an undertaking, was the disinterested spirit of discovery.

If seamen find themselves assisted by these observations and the charts to which they are attached, in conducting ships along new coasts, and into new harbours, it is hoped, that inaccuracies in language and in style will be allowed to pass without severe censure.






VAN DIEMEN's LAND [I]

THE south-eastern parts of this island, received the name of VAN DIEMEN'S LAND, from Abel Janson Tasman, who discovered it more than a century ago. Since that time, captain Furneaux and others have enlarged our knowledge of the south and east coasts, at different periods; but, though suspected of being separated from New Holland, Van Diemen's Land was not known to be a distinct island, until its circumnavigation was lately accomplished in a small sloop, called the Norfolk, by the order of governor Hunter. It is now found to be thirty leagues distant from any known part of New South Wales. It contains something more than 18,000 square miles of surface; and as far as could be observed, Van Diemen's Land appears to be superior in fertility to the same space of ground in any known part of New South Wales.

A long swell from the south-westward does mostly, if not always, roll in from the southern Indian Ocean, upon the western shores of Van Diemen's Land; and as there is no known place of shelter upon this coast, it becomes extremely dangerous to approach it. The shore in general, is rocky; and in many places there are reefs lying three or four miles off it; but there are also patches of sandy beach; more especially from the black cliffy head, in about 40° 54' south, to about 41° 36': the dangerous bight also, the center of which is in 42° 4', is mostly beach. It is more of a low than a bold coast, to the northward of Rocky Point, but is not uniformly so; for in the latitude of 41° 30', the inland mountains approach within three leagues of the shore; and for ten miles on each side of 42°, irregular high mountains come down almost to the water side. From Rocky Point to the southward, both the coast and country put on a different appearance. For the country to the northward is covered with wood, though generally thinly scattered, but here the barren mountains come ranging out of the inland to the sea; and from their colour and nakedness, have the appearance of being covered with snow: it is but in patches that vegetation is seen from them.

Judging from appearances, the west coast of Van Diemen's Land is as dreary, and as inhospitable a shore, as has yet been discovered; and the great swell sufficiently announces, that the consequence of coming near it, between the latitudes of 41° and 43°, with a south-westerly gale, and a dull-sailing vessel, would be to be wrecked upon it.

A point of land on the southern part of this coast, which has two roundish peaked rocks upon its extremity, is named Point Saint Vincent, by governor Hunter. Its latitude is 43° 16' south. Its longitude may probably be a few miles to the westward of what it is laid down in the chart, which is 145° 58' east. It is not improbable, but that there may be an opening round this point; for the mountains appeared to open back sufficiently for one, and we found a set of above twelve miles to the southward, during a night of nine hours, when lying becalmed to the south-westward of the point.



Flinders's Chart of the Whole of Tasmania


The latitude of the South-west Cape, by a meridional altitude of the sun, measured from the south, was 43° 29'; but as captain Furneaux places it in 43° 39', and captain Cook in 43° 37', I conjecture, that from haste to get the noon bearings before the sloops position was materially altered, a mistake of 10' must have been made in reading off from the sextant; the South-west Cape is, therefore, placed in 43° 39' in the chart. Its longitude there is 146° 10' east, according to the lunar observations taken in Port Dalrymple, and the corrected dead reckoning from thence.

The South-west Cape projects about a mile from the high land at its back, as a steep, narrow, point. When made from the westward, it appears to be jagged; but when seen from the eastward, it is supposed to bear some resemblance to Rame Head, near Plymouth.

The want of ports on the west coast, and the bleak winds which seem generally to beat upon it, appear to have prevented the human race from inhabiting it, in the numbers that they do the other shores of Van Diemen's Land. We saw but one certain mark of its being inhabited along the whole coast, which was near Rocky Point.

The projecting points of the south coast of Van Diemen's Land, are of the same character with the neighbouring parts of the western coast. They are very high, steep, and barren. The westernmost of these consist of a whitish stone, supposed to be quartz; whence it is, that they appear to a stranger, when at some distance, to be covered with snow. The projections near Storm-Bay Passage have a dark, basaltic appearance.

Every navigator who has hitherto passed along this coast, as far as my knowledge extends, has kept without the Mewstone; and they have usually supposed, that there are several openings between the South-west and South Capes, where good shelter might be expected; but the spaces between the intermediate high heads are only shallow bays, which are open to southerly winds; so that there seems to be no inducement for a ship to pass within De Witt's Isles.

The De Witt's Isles are moderately high, and are mostly fronted with black-looking steep shores; but, except those that are mere rocks, have some vegetation upon them. In passing within them, we looked out under the expectation of seeing seals; but neither in the water, or on shore, was one seen. Men either reside upon, or visit these isles from the main; for the vegetation upon two of them had been lately burnt.

The South-west and South Capes lie nearly east and west, by compass, and are eleven leagues asunder, by the log; but it is to be observed, that what is here called the south cape, is not what is so termed by captain Cook. If we may judge by its relative situation to his Peaked Hill and the Eddystone, it is the next head to the eastward that is called the South Cape by him; but this head opened round the South Cape at east-by-north, the variation being 8° easterly.

The rocks lying off Tasman's Head, called the Friars, consist of three steep, rocky islets, that have some vegetation upon them; and two black rocks. They are frequented by many gannets; and people also seem to have visited the nearest islet, for it had the burnt appearance that was seen upon two of De Witt's Isles.

From Tasman's Head to Fluted Cape, the course is north-by-east, about ten miles; and from thence to Cape Frederick Henry, N. 6° or 8° E., about the same distance. These capes are all more or less basaltic; and in that part of the south-east coast, which has hitherto been termed Maria's Islands, we find not only the capes, but the coast between them, to be of the same substance. The cliffs of Cape Pillar, Cape Basaltes, and of the island lying off the former, are surmounted by numberless columns; sometimes single, and sometimes clinging together, like the stacks of chimnies.

The two capes lie nearly true east and west from each other, and are distance ten or eleven miles. Of the bight between them, I cannot say, whether it affords shelter or not.

Round Cape Pillar, the coast opens at true north; and presents the same bold, steep shore, that fronts the southeast coast.

The island, in which Oyster Bay is situated, appeared to be two islands, of moderate height. The north-east point, which is the Mistaken Cape of Mr. Cox, is steep, and is indented like a cock's comb. The islet which is marked in the chart as lying off it, was not seen.


*   *   *

It does not seem to be well determined which is the Frederick Henry or Hendrick's Bay of Tasman. In the chart, I affix that name to the space which lies to the northward of, and between Cape Frederick Henry and Cape Basaltes; and I have extended it to those large pieces of water, on each side of Green Head, calling them the upper bay.*

[* It appears that this upper bay had been previously visited by the French admiral D'Entrecasteaux.]

The observations, for ascertaining the latitude of the upper and lower bays, were two in each. In longitude, they are placed according to the situation of Penguin Island, ascertained by captain Bligh, in 1788.

In entering this bay, there are no dangers to be feared that are not sufficiently conspicuous.

Around Betsey's Island, the sea-weed grows up to the surface of the water; but in passing between the island and the two flat rocks that lie to the northward of it, there is from five to nine fathoms amongst the weeds.

Besides various anchorages in different parts of Frederick Henry Bay, the eastern part of the upper bay contains more than eight square miles of anchorage, upon a bottom of mud and sand, in from six to nine fathoms water: this part of the bay only is, therefore, capable of affording shelter to a large fleet.

The opening left at the back of Woody Island, had the appearance of being either the mouth of a river, or a passage going out to the sea. Circumstances did not permit us to ascertain this important point. The western part of the upper bay must also be looked upon as unexplored: it may probably have a stream falling into its north-west corner. The shore here is low and sandy; but from thence eastward, rocky heads and alternate sandy beaches become the northern boundary of the upper bay. The southern shores of the eastern bay are mostly rocky, but not high.

The sides of the entrance, from the lower to the upper bay, are generally steep, rocky, and moderately high; but these rocky shores are divided into distinct heads or points, by intermediate sandy beaches: that is more frequently the ease on the west side of the entrance.

No run of tide was observed in Frederick Henry Bay; but there is some rise and fall, perhaps two or three feet.

*   *   *

The wood does not appear to be much calculated for other uses to a ship than fire wood. It can be procured in every part of the bay.

A small stream of fresh water runs over the rocks, into the arm near Gull Island; but the shallowness of the arm towards its head, makes it difficult of access. This is the only fresh water, for ships, that was seen in Frederick Henry Bay: but the heads of the greater number of the coves remain yet to be examined.

The country on the eastern side of the bay, is stony; and, wherever we landed, is wretchedly barren. The islands have a better appearance. Smooth Island, contains about one hundred acres of ground, that might answer for a garden: its soil is shallow and sandy. Sloping Island has a pretty appearance. Betsey's Island is really a fine spot; although so high and steep, that it is scarcely accessible, except at the north end. Its top is well covered with timber, and fine grass; and it seems to have a moderate depth of excellent soil. The length of this island is about one mile, and the view from its high land is extensive.*

[* Some account of the inhabitants &c, is included in that of the Derwent River.]

*   *   *

The River Derwent appears to have been the discovery of Mr. Hayes, commander of the ship Duke, about 1793. With the exception of Herdsman's Cove, the names that are applied in this river and its immediate neighbourhood, where taken from his chart; but in such parts as the sloop visited, it was found necessary to make some alterations in the terms: coves having been called ports and bays, and creeks, rivers. The river itself, is denominated Fletcher Hayes's Gulph, in the lower part, and Derwent towards its head; but, as it is certainly nothing more than a common river, I have dropped the name of gulph, and affixed Der-went River as the name of the whole.

Herdsman's Cove being unnoticed in Mr. Hayes's chart, has received a name descriptive of the country that surrounds it; and it is the only name given by me in this part of Van Diemen's Land: save those in the upper part of Frederick Henry Bay, and Cape Basaltes, which are also descriptive.

Three observations were taken for the latitude in different parts of this river. Mount Direction is in 42° 48' south. The mean variation of the azimuth compass and theodolite, observed on the south side of Risdon Cove, in December, 1798, was 8° 52' east.

The Derwent being almost as free from any, but very: apparent, dangers, as Frederick Henry Bay, it is thought unnecessary to engrave the particular chart of these parts: the original plan is upon a scale of half an inch to a mile.

The entrance of this river, is in depth ten or twelve fathoms, and in width, two miles and a half; but a small part of this space is occupied by some rocks, that lie off the point on the east side of the entrance.

When the river is entered, Shoal Point seems to be the only place of danger. It is necessary to give it a wide berth, by keeping close over to the echoing cliffs on the opposite side. The width of the river is here contracted to half a mile.

In sailing up thus far, Mount Direction will be a very conspicuous object a-head: a gap at its top, divides it into two roundish heads. Below this mount, is Risdon Cove, which is the highest part to which a ship can safely go. We could scarcely find so much as two fathoms water abreast of Mount Direction; but when round the point, there is a channel by the starboard shore, with not less than four fathoms in it. Below the next point, on the same side, are some dry mud-bands; and except striking into the mid-channel to pass these, the deep water continues on the same side past Herdsman's Cove. The channel than becomes exceedingly narrow, in proportion to the width of the river; and keeps closer to the starboard shore, until the south-south-west reach opens: it then rounds over to the opposite side. The depth of water is from two to three fathoms above Herdsman's Cove, and continues to be so as far up as our examination went.

No vessel that draws more than nine feet water should attempt to get above Risdon Cove. It is for the use of smaller vessels, and of ships long boats, that the channels so high up are spoken of. A long boat may also get up the creek that falls into the north corner of Herdsman's Cove. The greater part of this cove is a dray mud-bank at low water; but there is a narrow channel, leading round by the starboard shore into the creek, in which there is nine feet water.

A ship may lie in Risdon Cove, out of the stream of the river, in from six to three fathoms, muddy bottom; and from thence downwards to Relph's Bay, both sides of the river afford anchorage in various depths of water, between three and twelve fathoms, on the same ground.

Relph's Bay appears to be a very spacious harbour, but I cannot speak of the depth of water in it.

Pruen Cove, in the northern part of Storm-Bay Passage, affords complete shelter from winds at north-east, and round by the west to south-west; but at south, there would be a considerable sea thrown into it, and an easterly wind would make a short disagreeable swell. The water shoals very suddenly in the head of this cove.

The water moves so slowly in the lower parts of the Derwent, that a good sailing vessel need pay no attention to the tides. We sometimes found the water draining down for twelve hours and more together, and at other times, as long upwards; whilst the rise and fall by the shore, were at the usual intervals. A counter current at the bottom appeared to be the cause of this irregularity. From Shoal Point upwards, the tides seemed to run true, and to have some little strength, perhaps half a mile per hour.

I reckoned the time of high water to precede the moon's passage over the meridian on any day, about four hours; which is more than an hour later than in Adventure Bay.* The rise is between four and five feet in Risdon Cove.

[* See captain Cook's third voyage, and lieutenant Bligh's narrative of the Bounty's voyage to Otaheite.]

Every part of the shores of this river will afford wood for the fire, in abundance; but fresh water is not so easily procured by shipping. The river itself is fresh in that part where it takes a south-south-westerly course; but the larger classes of vessels can only get at it by boats, from Risdon Cove. A fresh stream falls into the creek, which is in the north corner of Herdsman's Cove; but the large stones at the head of the creek, will much impede boats in filling their casks; and the high banks, by increasing the power and altering the direction of the wind, will make rafting very tedious.

Risdon Cove was our watering place. The hogsheads were rafted into the creek at high water, filled at the following low water time, and towed out as soon as they floated. The late rain had made the water somewhat muddy; but it was otherwise very good.

The head of the cove, called Slainforth's Bay, by Mr. Hayes, was not examined.

Some rills of excellent water come winding through a rich valley, at the back of Pruen Cove; and uniting, fall into the head of the cove; but the shoals, which dry at low water, are a hindrance to watering a ship at this place. It is probable, however, that Mr. Hayes, or perhaps admiral D 'Entrecasteaux, watered here; for there was a tree lying near the run, which had been cut, both by a saw and an axe; and they would not have pitched upon this as a wooding place only, when there were twenty others about the cove more convenient for the purpose.

From appearances it seems, that the south-east part of Van Diemen's Land is tolerably well inhabited. Once only, in the upper part of the river, were we able to over-' come their efforts to avoid us. Two women ran off screaming, but a man staid to receive Mr. Bass and myself; and accepted a swan that was presented to him, with great joy. He carried two small spears in his hand, but seemed to be devoid of fear. Our fire-arms were neither objects of curiosity or alarm; and the only part of our dress that attracted his attention, were the red handkerchiefs about our necks. He was a short, slight made man, of the middle age. His countenance was more expressive of benignity and intelligence, than of ferocity or stupidity. His features were less negro-like than is usual in New South Wales; and his hair was either cut or burnt very close. He understood none of the dialects spoken in the neighbourhood Port-Jackson, or the common words of the Otaheitean language.

The natives of Frederick Henry Bay, have some mode of conveyance by water; for they had visited Betsey's Island, the Isle of Caves, Smooth Island, and Gull Island; and, perhaps, the others. It has been a received opinion, that the inhabitants of this part of Van Diemen's Land have no canoes; and, had our observations been confined to the Derwent River, we should have joined in that opinion.

A few of the grey, and of the smaller red kanguroos, were seen here.

The flocks of swans, in the Derwent, will be the best dependance for fresh provisions, to those vessels that shall visit it early. In December, and perhaps at all times, from one-tenth to one-third of these swans are without their wing feathers; and may be taken by a handy whale boat, whose only weapon need be a boat hook. By swimming and flapping along the water, and by their craftiness in gaining the wind, after being once chased, the swans would sometimes tire our little two-oared boat: a few shot then generally ended the pursuit.

The long grass that grows upon the shoals of mud, furnishes the swans with food; and where this food is most plentiful, there they are most numerous. We did not meet with one in Frederick Henry Bay; but in the northern part of Storm-Bay Passage, and in the lower parts of the Derwent, there were a few straggling birds. It is in the shoal part of the river, from Risdon Cove upwards, where they are found in hundreds. These swans are black, the wing feathers excepted.

Ducks, black shags, gannets, red-bills, and pelicans, were occasionally seen; principally in the shoal lagoon, at the back of Relph's Bay.

The only trial that we here made to catch fish, was in the lower part of the Derwent; and was not without success. Fish are known to very plentiful in Adventure Bay.

Venomous snakes are found here, which so much resemble burnt sticks, that it requires a close inspection to detect them. One was taken alive, but died soon afterwards; apparently in consequence of his own bite.

The banks of the Derwent are not remarkable for their height; but on the east side, the hills rise suddenly from the water, whilst the west side ascends gradually up to a large body of mountain; the summit of which is four or five miles inland. This mountain is the parent of all the streams that fall into the river on that side; and is sufficiently high to be seen over the land in almost all parts of Frederick Henry Bay. Mr. Bass found it covered with large timber, to its very top. In the fresh part of the river, the hills rise rather suddenly from the water-side; and the country seems to be hilly, if not mountainous.

The borders of the river are, in general, much better calculated for pasturage than for agriculture. They are covered with grass, equally dispersed over a good, but sometimes shallow, soil. The hills descend with so gradual a slope, that they usually leave a considerable extent of valley; and the depth and goodness of the soil, in many of these vallies, seem very fit for the plough.

The stream that falls into Risdon Cove, runs out of an extensive valley, that in the disposition of the ground, exceeds in beauty every other that was met with. Round Herdsman's Cove, the country is unusually thin of timber, and finely rounded into grassy hills. Upon the tops of these hills, as upon most others, it is usually stony; but in some of the values, the soil is capable of a profitable cultivation.

The remarkably formed peninsula, that surrounds Relph's Bay, is tolerably good ground; and about the Shoal Lagoon, there is some of a superior depth of soil. Was a settlement to be formed in this neighbourhood, Relph's Bay would deserve particular attention.

The stone about the Derwent is sometimes basaltic, and often contains iron. From its great weight, it is well calculated for ballast; and in many places, as in Risdon Cove, may be conveniently taken into a boat.






HUNTER's ISLES.


THIS cluster is named after His Excellency the governor of New South Wales. In latitude, the isles are placed according to four meridional observations of the sun, taken in sight of some of them; and in longitude, according to the dead reckoning form Port Dalrymple, corrected by the bearings along the coast.

Albatross Isle is in latitude 40° 25' south. Its longitude, by the above authority, is 145° 4' east. No observations were taken to find the variation of the compass; but in constructing the chart, 8° east were allowed.

These isles are in general high; and the south westernmost of them are surrounded by steep, forbiding cliffs.

Black Rock is a small conic-formed islet, and may be seen more than five leagues in fine weather.

Albatross Isle is visible at the distance of six leagues. The heavy south-west swell, which breaks upon the steep shores of this rocky islet, will seldom allow it to be landed upon, and then only at the north-eastern end.

The long spit of land between Albatross and Three-hummock Islands, I judge to be an island also, distinct from the north-west end of Van Diemen's Land; but this is a matter of some uncertainty. The west side of this land is low, and there are some beaches upon it. The north point is low, but rocky. On the east side of this supposed island, the land seems to rise as it proceeds to the southward, and the shore to become steep. The internal parts of it are sparingly covered with a kind of half-starved vegetation.

The three hummocks, on the island which they give name to, lie in the direction of S. 20° W. by compass, nearly in a line. The southernmost of them, which is the largest, is sloped somewhat like a sugar loaf; and may be seen more than seven leagues from almost every direction. Off the east side of this island, there is anchorage on a sandy bottom, and shelter from westerly winds. Judging by appearances from the anchorage, the ascent up to the hummocks is covered with an impenetrable brush; over which the heads of a few stinted gum trees are seen.

The islands, whose situation is nearest to the northwest part of Van Diemen's Land, as well as the north-west part itself, must be considered as yet unexplored; and it is necessary to observe, that the relative positions of those islands that are more distinctly marked in the chart, may not be correct to one, two or perhaps three miles; for between the nouns of the 9th and 10th of December, a long swell, and strong winds and tides, made a considerable disagreement amongst our angles and bases; which disagreement will, more or less, affect the whole of the lands in the neighbourhood of this part of the track.

Upon Three-hummock Island, there were certain marks of its having been frequented by men; but it is probable, that none of Hunter's Isles have stationary inhabitants.

The tides run very strong amongst these islands. The flood comes from the south-westward. It appears to be high water about one hour before the moon passes over the meridian, and the rise of the tide seems not to be less than eight feet.

Although not a seal was found upon the east side of Three-hummock Island, yet several were seen in the water near it; and some of a reddish bad fur, were knocked down upon Albatross Island.

Sea birds are numerous amongst Hunter's Isles. There were vast numbers of albatrosses on that isles to which their name is given, which were tending their young in the beginning of December; and being unacquainted with the power or disposition of man, did not fear him: we taught them their first lesson of experience.

Out of the great, and almost unknown, bight, between Three-hummock Island and Circular Head, such an immense number of gannets, and Mount-Pitt birds* issued, that there must be one or more islands there, which are much frequented by them. They came from the southward at day-light in the morning, and took their way, round the islands, to the westward.

[* A sooty-coloured petterel, of the size of a pigeon. They are commonly called sheerwaters at sea.]






VAN DIEMEN's LAND. [II]


THE north coast of Van Diemen's Land puts on a very different aspect from that of the west or south coasts. The long swell from the southern Indian Ocean, which strikes over to the coast of New South Wales from Hunter's Isles, leaves this side of Bass' Strait in smooth water. From this cause, and from the most prevailing winds being off the land, the north coast has more the appearance of being the shore of a harbour, than of one that is exposed to the sea.

Circular Head is steep, resembling a round twelfth cake in form, and is high enough to be seen more than eight leagues. The cape, to which it is connected by a low isthmus, and of which it forms the easternmost part, is smooth, sloping, and rather low.

The bight between Circular Head and the next projection eastward, is almost entirely a sandy beach; and there are also sandy beaches half way from the rocky projection towards Table Cape; but the shore then becomes rocky and more steep. Both Circular Head and Table Cape, and also the rocky cape between them, make like islands when first seen from the eastward. The Table Cape preserves its flat appearance in every direction from the sea. Its cliffs are steep; and it is high enough to be seen at the distance of twelve leagues.

Taking that space of coast between Table Cape and Port Dalrymple, we find a good deal of sandy beach upon it; and although the land is very mountainous at the back, yet the shores do not appear to be steep, in general. There is a round hill close down to the water, five leagues to the eastward of Table Cape; and a few miles beyond this hill, there is a range of mountains coming from the south-westward, which break off abruptly at the water side, and form a bluff head; but do not project beyond the line of the coast.

From hence eastward, we are not so well acquainted with the nature of the shore; and it is not impossible, but that there may be a small opening in the bight which lies about five miles west of Port Dalrymple: the small projecting point in that bight is low, and made like an island.

On each side of Port Dalrymple, ranges of hills from the mountains inland, approach near to the sea; but from thence eastward, the coast may be called low; and is, with few exceptions, a sandy beach which continues round Cape Portland, and as far beyond it as I have seen the coast. The principal exception, is a stony head lying ten miles to the north-eastward of Port Dalrymple. This head is not remarkable for height; but it will easily be known by its being the only stony projection in the neighbourhood, and from having a small rocky islet lying two-and-half miles off it, north-west-by-west, by compass.

The great similarity that one island or piece of land, has to some other in its neighbourhood, is often remarked; and this is exemplified in the likeness between Isle Waterhouse and the islet that lies three or four miles to the westward of it. They are both moderately high, and level at the top. The shores of the islet are rocky; but the inner point of Isle Waterhouse is sandy, and seems to run off shoal. We passed between this isle and the main, our shallowest soundings being four fathoms, and the bottom sandy; but I would not recommend it to any ship to follow our example, unless from necessity. I think it still less safe for a ship to attempt passing between Cape Portland and the isles that lie off it. The northernmost of these isles is divided into two parts, nearly equal in size, whence it may be called double isle. From this double isle, and the sands near it, there appeared to be shoal water connecting them with the Swan Isles. The rippling water, which is marked in the chart as a curving line from the double isle, is about two cables lengths broad. Upon that part of the ripple over which we passed, there was nine fathoms; and the water appeared to be as much agitated there as in other parts.

The latitude of the largest Swan Isle is 40° 43' south, and its longitude, reduced back from the observations in Port Dalrymple, 148° 13' east. On the south side of this isle, there are two small sandy bays. Our anchorage in the eastern bay, was a short quarter of a mile from the shore, in four fathoms: the points of the island bearing, by compass, N 66°. E. and S. 22°. W.; and the easternmost part of Van Diemen's Land S. 49°. E.; the bay is, therefore, open to easterly winds.

On this part of the north coast the tides run strong; and on the west side of Cape Portland, the ebb takes so northerly a direction, that we expected to have found a considerable opening in the bight; but from Isle Water-' house, where the flood comes from the eastward, to Circular Head where it appears to come from the west, there seems to be very little tide running. A line drawn from Isle Waterhouse to the head, will probably be a boundary, to the southward of which, no tide will be perceptible on this coast.

In speaking of the more interior part of the north coast of Van Diemen's Land, it will be convenient to divide it into three portions. That part of the country from' Table Cape westward, has almost as sterile an aspect as the west coast, or as Hunter's Isles. It is for the most part rocky, and is in many places bare rock. This was the appearance of the country from the sea.

In height, this part of the coast rises as it proceeds to the eastward. It may be called a low and level country in its western parts; but, as before observed, is high enough at Table Cape to be visible more than twelve leagues.

The second portion of the coast, from Table Cape to Port Dalrymple, is mountainous inland; but almost everywhere has a fertile appearance, being well covered with timber down to the water side.

About four, or perhaps more, leagues inland, there is a remarkable hill, which opens round Table Cape at S. 16° E. by compass, as a sharp-pointed sugar loaf; but when it bears to the westward of south, it becomes flat-topped. From the shape and height of this peak, it might be thought to have once been a volcano.

Stretching from hence, round the head of Port Dalrymple, the inland presents nothing but mountains; the back ridges topping over those that are nearer to the sea. The head which forms the west side of the entrance into the port, is of considerable height; and the ridge of back mountains, which it partly hides, is of great singularity. This ridge is formed into peaks, hummocks, and knobs, of uncouth shape, in its more western parts; and loses itself behind the head in a kind of table land. These peaks and knobs are generally bare of vegetation, and from the brilliancy with which they reflected the sun's rays, on his appearance after rain, I judged them to consist of quartz, like the mountains of Furneaux's Islands.

The same kind of mountains are seen reaching to the eastward, from the upper part of Port Dalrymple; and they also extend so far to the northward, as to be visible from Cape Portland.

In the third portion of the north coast, from Port Dalrymple, eastward, the hills form a gradual descent from the inland mountains towards the low land near the sea coast. These descending hills are well covered with wood; and though the soil seems to be sandy, yet it appeared to be above mediocrity. There are are also some grassy tracts of open ground, that are prettily varied by clumps of wood and large single trees standing here and there: these open tracts were principally seen on the east side of Cape Portland.

There is usually a space of from one to five miles, between the feet of these green hills and the sea; which space, in the whole of this portion of the coast, seems to partake of the same sandy nature as the shore. Some hillocks on the pitch of Cape Portland, and on the projection opposite to Isle Waterhouse, are exceptions to its being universally low land.

The smokes which ascended from various part of this coast, gave us to understand that it was inhabited. These smokes were most numerous between Port Dalrymple and Isle Waterhouse.

Several overgrown hair seals and some flocks of birds, which were sitting upon the rocky islet that lies between Isle Waterhouse and the main, were an indication, that men do not often, if ever, visit the islet; and consequently, not the more distant isle. On the largest Swan Isle, we found no marks of men; but there were wild geese, penguins, and Mount-Pitt birds, upon it; and according to the information of a man who had crossed over from the wreck at Preservation Island, it abounds with swans at sometimes. Upon this man's authority, I called this small cluster the Swan Isles, in February 1798; but on visiting it in the November following, we found no indications of its deserving so respectable a name.

On passing the rocky islet, which lies two-and-half miles from the stony head near Port Dalrymple, a few seals were seen sitting on the top of it.

*   *   *

Port Dalrymple is the only harbour that the north' coast of Van Diemen's Land is at present known to afford. It was so named by His Excellency governor Hunter, as a small token of respect to Alexander Dalrymple Esq.

Low Head is a projection of sloping land on the east side of the entrance into the port; its latitude by six observations taken near it, is 41° 3½' south.

The observations for ascertaining its longitude were taken with Troughton's sextant, No. 251, of nine inches' radius, and with a five inch sextant made by Adams. They were taken in different parts of the port; and when reduced to Low Head by the survey, will be as follows:

Troughton Adams
{Two sets of * Aldebaran
{   and two of the sun . . . 
   east of the moon 146° 35' 6 " E. do. 146° 52' 36 " E.
[Two sets of * Altair and
[   two of the sun . . . 
   west of the moon 147 39 35 do. 147 36 28
—— ——
Longitude 147 7 20   E. 147 14 32 E.
——
Mean longitude 147 10 56 E.
 
{The variation of our azimuth compass,
{   by four sets of observations, was
in November, 1798 7 33 E.
By one set for a Troughton's theodolite, it was 8 30
Mean variation 8 E.

The entrance of this port is by no means conspicuous; and it is difficult to find good marks whereby it may be found. It has been observed, that ridges or chains of hills from the mountains inland, approach nearer to the sea on each side of Port Dalrymple, than they usually do in its neighbourhood. When the entrance bears to the southeast, that chain which comes to the back of Low Head appears as a cluster of irregular hills, with the blue tops of the higher mountains peeping over them; and the ridge which comes down to the sea on the west side of the port, puts on nearly the same appearance. Again, the stony head which has been mentioned as having a small rocky islet lying two-and-half miles to the north-west-by-west, is the only projection on the east side of the port that is not sandy; and on the west side, is the very singular range of mountains, before mentioned, which is formed into uncouth shapes and peaks. These marks, taken together, are the best that I can give for knowing the entrance of the port by, in addition to its latitude and longitude, and the trending of the coast on each side of it, as laid down in the chart.

It will sufficiently appear by the chart, that this port is difficult of access. In addition to the particular chart, I would observe to a vessel going in, that the greatest part of the shoals are covered at half tide; it is therefore by much the best time to enter the port with the first of the flood, or even a little before that.

A line drawn from about two cables lengths off Low Head, for the middle of the harbour, will, with a little deviation, carry a vessel almost up to Green Island. There are two passages into this fair way. That nearest to Low Head lies amongst the patches of weed. This weed does not grow up to the surface of the water, but the patches are sufficiently distinguishable from the mast head or fore yard; and with a free wind, a vessel that answered her helm quick might avoid running over them, by yawing to one side and the other. On coming into this port the last time, we ran through them before a gale of wind at west-north-west, and saw no breaking upon any but the outer patch; which, in the chart, is marked as a rock; I therefore conclude, that there cannot be less than three fathoms upon them. At a much less distance than two cables lengths from Low Head, this inner passage may probably be clear of weed: it appeared to be so when inspecting it from the head.

The outermost shoal from Low Head lies about midway to the opposite shore. It is, I believe, dry at all times of tide, and is frequented by shags and other birds. The outer passage into the fair way, is, to run to within about a quarter of a mile of this shoal, where nine fathoms is marked, and then to steer for the lagoon beach till arrived in the fair way; which must be judged of, by having deep water, by having the entrance fairly open, and by comparing the chart with the land.

Having gained the fair way, the middle of the harbour I' will be conspicuous; and the Middle Head also, if thee weather is not thick. Keep a straight course for these, for' one mile and a half, looking out sharply upon the great shoal upon the starboard hand, from the mast head. At the same time, it is best to keep to that side withal; and to edge more to port if the water should shoal to five or six fathoms.

The northernmost of the hills, on the east shore, is also the nearest hill to the water side. At the top of this hill there is a gap in the trees; and when this gap bears east by-north, by compass, a vessel will be in the worst part of the channel, and abreast of a rock which lies a quarter of a mile from the larboard shore. This rock is covered before half tide, and, is not steep to; and it is more particularly dangerous, as the ebb tide seems to set a good deal upon it. Its place will often be denoted by a strong rippling in the water, but perhaps not always.

On account of this rock it is principally, that I recommend keeping rather over towards the shoal on the starboard hand. This shoal being a mixture of shells, sand, and mud, upon a rocky foundation, will shew itself to a man at the mast-head in almost all kinds of weather; and if the vessel comes in before the tide is much risen, the greater part of it will be dry. Therefore, having passed the dangerous rock, keep inclining towards the starboard shore, but paying attention to the lead, till you approach Green Island. This island will at first appear like a point, and the direct channel into the port will seem to be on the starboard or west side of it; but with the knowledge that the channel winds round on the east side of the island, it will be sufficiently conspicuous.

The principal thing to be attended to, when passing round Green Island, is to look out for the Middle Rock. This rock is covered at half tide, like most of the others. It lies at equal distances from Green Island, and from the two points of Outer Cove; and is, consequently, right in the middle of the channel. The water is deep to within twenty yards of the rock, and the passage is clear on either side of it; but if the rock should be covered, the safest way is to keep the island close on board. This is more particularly necessary on the ebb tide, as it sets over the rock on the first half of the ebb, and close past it when it becomes uncovered.

After passing Green Island, there can scarcely be said to be any danger in getting into the basin; for the points are all steep to, and the Shag Rock is not covered till the top of high water. A vessel may safely push in to the westward, between the Shag Rock and the point; taking care that she borrows near enough to the point, if the flood tide is running; and that she does not go too near the shoal water in the entrance of the western arm, before she anchors.

Upon the whole, although the entrance is certainly a dangerous one, I confidently hope, that by attending to the chart, and the preceding remarks, and by keeping a vigilant look out, a ship of any size, under snug sail, may get in safely. On first entering this port in the Norfolk sloop, we got up as high as Green Island, almost without percieving any danger; this circumstance, however, has often surprised me.

To run up the river, for I consider it to be a river above Middle Island, there seems to be no direction necessary, but to consult the chart, particularly about Brush Island. After passing the Norfolk's uppermost anchorage, a boat or two should be kept a-head of the ship.

The tides run so strong in Port Dalrymple, that a vessel will hardly get in or out against them; but by their assistance, may get against any wind; if she can carry sail. In the sea reach more particularly, that is, from Green Island downwards, the tides occasion strong ripplings and whirlpools. Upon many of these we have found deep water; but it must by no means be inferred, that a vessel need be under no apprehension of them. The names Point Round-a-bout, Point Rapid, and Whirlpool Reach, are descriptive of the effect of the tides in the neighbourhood of these parts.

I calculate the time of high water in Port Dalrymple, to be about a quarter of an hour before the moon passes over the meridian on any day; and the rise of the tide to be from six to eight feet. The ebb runs out near seven hours.

Outer Cove will afford anchorage for at least one vessel, on a sandy bottom. Ships that have good boats, may lie in any part of the basin where there is deep water; but for small craft, the anchorage on the west side of Shag Rock is well calculated. A vessel of even fifty tons should not attempt to go up the Western Arm without a previous examination by boats; and a ship that attempts the passage towards the Middle Arm, without following the same step, would probably find some difficulty in hitting the channel; although the line of direction in the chart, from the south head of Deceitful Cove to Inspection Head, should be found correct.

Above Green Island, the bottom is universally muddy.

Fire wood can be had in every part of Port Dalrymple, in as great plenty, and as conveniently, as can be wished. Our hasty examination did not bring us to the knowledge of any timber well fitted for better uses: the growing trees are very heavy, and full of gummy sap.

Although the country appears to be well stored with fresh-water for all the domestic purposes that inhabitants might require, yet it is but indifferently supplied for the convenience of shipping, in the lower parts of the port. The fresh-water lagoon, at the back of the beach near Low Head, is the most convenient place we met with; but the water was inferior to some that was procured in a shoal cove on the eastern shore, two or three miles above Middle Island. In this latter place, hogsheads could only be rafted off at high water; and our time and strength being ill adapted to such a mode of proceeding, we preferred the standing water of the lagoon.

For a vessel that wanted much water, or to refit, I should think it most advisable to run up into the freshwater river at once. It was almost drinkable at low water, at the Norfolk's uppermost anchorage; from whence we concluded, that if circumstances had permitted us to have gone have five or six miles further up, the water would have proved fresh.

If we may form any judgment from the traces of inhabitants that were found upon its shores, Port Dalrymple is peopled in almost the same proportion as the ports of New South Wales. Seven or eight huts were sometimes found standing together, like a little encampment; but the owners of them were always absent. Some natives once made fires abreast of where the sloop was lying; but as soon as the boat came near the shore, they ran off into the woods; and this was the nearest communication that their shyness would permit.

Concurring circumstances seem to point out, that the men of this place have no canoes. Middle Island excepted, the isles in this port have no appearance of having been visited; and no tree was ever met with in the woods, whose bark had been taken off so as to be fit for making a canoe. The sum of our observations upon these people, and their mode of existing, was, that they have less ingenuity, and are more destitute of comforts and conveniences, than even the inhabitants of New South Wales.

Kanguroos are tolerably numerous in the neighbourhood of Port Dalrymple, and according to Mr. Bass's opinion, they are larger than those found near Port Jackson. The kanguroo is only to be procured by hunting with stout greyhounds, or by shooting.

Marks of the emu, or cassuary, were met with, but the bird itself was not seen.

The swans that inhabit this port, will be a source of food to its visitors for some time. Similar to those in the Derwent, a considerable portion of these swans were without the wing feathers. In the short intervals of time that our little two-oared boat could be spared from more important employment, we caught thirty-five; and as one swan will serve three or four people for a day, they constituted the greatest part of our food. The Middle and Western Arms, and the heads of the coves up the river, are frequented by the swans; but they were most numerous in 'the shoal bight above Swan Point, three hundred of them having been counted swimming there, in the space of a quarter of a mile square. They will probably be found to be more numerous in the fresh water.

Owing to the ease and certainty with which we supplied ourselves with fresh food by swan hunting, we did not follow after the large flocks of ducks that where met with in different parts of the port; these birds are shy, even here.

The small, white-bellied, shag, and the larger black one, inhabit here. Pelicans, and the black, and pied red-bills, are also found. Green Island is a breeding place for gulls; and eggs were also found upon Egg Island. Crows, and parrots of dull plumage, are met with in the woods.

Of the fish, I can only say, that our wants and leisure, whilst in this port, were never sufficient to induce a trial to catch any.

Muscles are numerous upon the rocks that are overflowed by the tide; and the natives appear to get oysters by diving; the shells being found in many places.

Amongst other reptiles, are poisonous snakes, and some brown iguanas.

The Islands in Port Dalrymple would be found very convenient to a vessel for landing sheep upon, or other live stock, during her stay. Green Island is secure, but the grass upon it is neither very good or abundant. Middle Island is a beautiful place, containing about forty acres of good pasturage; but the natives sometimes cross over to it: at low water. Was a ship to lie at anchor near it, or were' two men to be left on shore with the stock, it is probable, that the natives would not come near it. Egg Island is very small, but it is secure; and the grass upon it good.

This port is situated between two ridges of mountains; which, from the sea coast, stretch inland to the east-southeast, with an increasing elevation; and approaching nearer to each other, seem to unite in a point; which point is, probably, the source of the river. The high peaks which skew themselves above the ridges of mountains, from the uppermost part of the river now visited, may perhaps be this point; and if so, the river is marked in the chart to but one half of its real extent: this is corroborated by the strength of tide and depth of water at the uppermost anchorage.

Hills strike off in various directions from the ridges of mountains that bound the river on each side; in some places, permitting its banks to open out to a considerable extent, and in other parts, contracting it to a small channel. The river is in one place nearly two-and-half miles, and in another a short quarter of a mile in width, and these nearly close together.

The fertile appearance of the points in sailing up Port Dalrymple, with which an eye accustomed to the rocky banks of Port Jackson is so much delighted, is no falacious specimen of the soil in general. A good covering of herbage, equally dispersed, clothes the rising grounds; and the vallies are overspread with a stronger grass, which is more particularly adapted to the bite of large cattle.

The hills are generally found to be stony near their tops; and the steep banks of the river, as in Whirlpool Reach, are stony also.








Flinders's Chart of Northern Tasmania, Bass's Strait and its Islands


FURNEAUX's ISLANDS.


THE eastern points of these islands were the discovery of captain Furneaux, of His Majesty's ship Adventure, whose name has been given to them.

Various observations have been taken for the latitude, upon, and in sight of, Furneaux's Islands; but they cannot well be reduced to any one particular place.

According to captain Furneaux, the longitude of Cape Barren is 148° 8' east; but as it is here placed 25' more to the east, it is necessary to explain the reason for so doing.

Four sets of lunar distances taken in sight of Cape Barren, with Adams's five-inch sextant, place the cape as follows.

Two sets of the sun east of the moon gives its longitude 148° 48'  14 " E.
Ditto                 sun west of the moon  . . . . . . . . . .   148 51  29
——
Mean 148 19  51 E.
——
{The beginning and end of a lunar eclipse, observed
{   at the east end of Preservation Island, place it in
148 56  50 E.
——
{Three sets of lunar observations, taken in Kent's Bay, by
{   Mr. R. Simpson, of the snow Nautilus, give it
148 35  51 E.
——
{The before-given observations in Port Dalrymple, being
{   reduced by the running survey to the Swan Isles,
{   from whence the peak of Cape Barren is in sight,
{   place the cape in
148 33  00 E.

On comparing these longitudes together, I determined to place Cape Barren according to the observations in Port Dalrymple, in which I put most confidence.

No good observations have been taken amongst these islands for the variation of the compass; I consider it to have been 8° east in 1798.

The western sides of Furneaux's Islands usually present a rocky shore to the prevailing winds and seas, and as far as we know, are tolerably steep to; but their eastern sides are almost universally a sandy beach, and shelve off gradually. There are soundings to a considerable distance from the islands, and perhaps they run across this part of Bass's Strait. Except some few spots that may be rocky, there seems to be every where a sandy bottom.

The southernmost of these islands, of which a particular chart is engraved, are by far the best known amongst this large cluster. Preservation Island is one of these, and has its name from having saved the crew of the ship Sidney Cove, in 1797. She was run aground between this island and Rum Island, and part of the cargo saved. The remains are scattered about the neighbouring shores; and have been seen as far as Wilson's Promontory and Port Dalrymple.

When coming from the westward to Preservation Island, the island is hid under the higher land of Clarke's Island. Lumps of white rock first appear upon it, and upon Night Island. The rocks that lie between these isles must be left on the starboard hand, and the south side of Preservation Island kept as close on board as the state of the wind may make prudent. A reef that lies a short quarter of a mile off Rum Island, will make it necessary not to haul up too close for Hamilton's Road. The anchorage is off the sandy beach at the east end of Preservation Island, in from three to five fathoms. This road has hitherto been the place of rendezvous for all vessels that visit these parts, being exceedingly well sheltered against the most prevalent winds; and is tolerably secure against easterly winds, with good ground tackling. The wind at south, or south-south-east, is the only quarter whence it can do much injury.

Not having sounded all the way between Preservation and Cape-Barren Islands, I cannot be certain that Hamilton's Road is approachable from the northward; but I have no doubt that there is a sufficient channel of eight or more fathoms between these islands.

Cape-Barren Island is, in many parts, high land. The peak, through which the lines of latitude and longitude pass, in the particular chart, may be seen ten leagues; and the mountainous ridge that extends from it almost to the pitch of the cape, is of nearly equal height. A round mountain which stands on the north-western part of this island seems to be still higher than the peak.

There are various places between this island and those south of it, where a vessel might anchor securely when the wind inclined either to the northward or southward of west; but Dent's Bay seems to be the best anchorage attached to Cape-Barren Island. To go from Hamilton's Road towards this bay, no better directions can be given than to keep a good look out for the shoal water, and to compare the chart with the land as you proceed. A vessel may pass very near to Battery Isle, in nine fathoms; and if she has a westerly wind, it will be necessary to haul close around Sloping Point, and keep in with that shore till abreast of the rocks, at the back of which is the anchorage. My information upon this place is from Mr. Simpson; according to whose survey and surroundings, a ship may be safe here from every wind, and the least depth, at low water, is four fathoms.

The Passage Islands are low; and at a distance, will be judged to be but one island. A little sandy bay in the western island, is well adapted for small vessels to ride in. It is sheltered from all winds, except those between south-south-east and east-south-east.

Between the Passage Islands there is a sufficient channel for any ship; and I have no doubt, but that there is a still deeper one between Inner Rocky Point and the eastern island; although nothing larger than a rowing boat has yet passed through it.

Upon one of a small cluster of low islands, subordinate to Furneaux's Islands, is a mountain, conspicuous for being the only considerable eminence upon them, and remarkable for its uniform roundness. It received the name of Mount Chappelle, in February 1798, and the name is since extended to the isles which lie in its immediate neighbourhood. The passage amongst these isles, through which the track is marked in the the chart, is safe for any ship with a leading wind; being two miles in width, and having more than ten fathoms in it.

The water is very light coloured, both amongst these isles and several miles to the westward of them, the bottom being a white sand.

The largest of Furneaux's Islands seems to be superior in many respects to those that have been mentioned, but our knowledge of it is very confined. Mr. Bishop, commander of the snow Nautilus, passed through the strait between it and Cape-Barren Island, in a boat; and from him we learn that there are many rocks and isles in it, whose exact situation and form are not ascertained; but it appears, that there is a safe passage through the strait, and some well-sheltered anchoring places in it.

The great body of the large island is high; but neither on the north-western part or on the east side, does the high land come close to the water side. Sandy beaches, almost uninterrupted, skirt these parts of this large island. The west coast is exceedingly high; and overtopped with peaks and knobs of more varied shape and more bare of vegetation, than even the interior mountains to the west of Port Dalrymple. It was our fortune also, to see the effect of the gleaming sunshine amongst these mountains, after they had been bathed in rain. The spectacle was magnificent. At the moment, we could not blame the sterility that produced so beautiful a scene.

The strait that divides this large island from that of Cape-Barren, was hastily examined by Mr. Bishop, commander of the snow Nautilus. From him we learn, that there are many rocks and isles in it, whose exact situation and form are not ascertained; but that it also contains a navigable passage, and many well-sheltered anchoring places: one of these anchorages is in a bay on the south end of the large island.

The three-peaked hills on the east side of this island, called the Patriarchs, are not unlike each other, when seen to the north-west; but when seem from the northward, they appear as two pyramids; and the island lying off them makes something like the Lion's Head and Rump, when sailing into Table Bay.

The largest of the isles that lie off the west side of the large island, is hummocky, and moderately high: and three principal hills upon it all slope towards the south. The other patches of land to the north-eastward of these hummocks are low.

The Sisters were very well named by captain Furneaux, being much alike: they may be seen eight or ten leagues. When the Francis scooner was steering to pass between them and the large island, rippling water suddenly made its appearance under the bows. A strong tide might have occasioned this, but lest it should not be so, and to caution others, a reef is marked in the chart.

The tides run strong in the passages amongst the southernmost of these islands. The flood comes from the eastward, between the Passage Islands and the Inner Rocky Point, and continues its course along the south side of Cape-Barren Island. In the deep channel, and particularly off the projecting points, the tide runs with rapidity.

It is high water here, about an hour before the moon comes to the meridian. The rise of the tide appears to be from three to six feet.

The tides are represented as running strong, between Cape-Barren and the large island.

The lower parts of the southernmost islands are very thickly covered with brush-wood; and in a few places, as in the head of Kent's Bay, there is small timber amongst it. The south end of the largest island is said to afford timber of a fair growth; and also a run of fresh water: but the more southern isles are very ill supplied with this last necessary article; the runs into the head of Kent's Bay yield it more abundantly than elsewhere.

Under the high land of Cape-Barren, there are some swamps and lagoons; but the water which drains into them from above, becomes so tinged in its way, as not to be drinkable. Some of these look like ponds of blood.

After continued rains, there is a swampy pond of tolerably good water at the east end of Preservation Island; but a small rill that drains from the higher land, on the south side of this island, was thought to have a deleterious quality, from the deaths that happened amongst the Sidney Cove's crew. Sand, with a mixture of tin and copper, is found on one of the beaches.

No inhabitants have ever been seen, or any marks of them, upon any of these islands.

Kanguroos are found upon Preservation, Clarke's, and Cape-Barren Islands, of the smaller, red kind; and the large grey kanguroos have been seen in considerable numbers upon the southern part of the largest island.

The new animal, called Womat, by the natives at the back of Port Jackson, is found in no inconsiderable numbers upon Cape-Barren Island, and probably inhabits several other of these islands. This animal has the appearance of a little bear. It eats grass and other vegetable substances, and its flesh resembles tough mutton. The animal is about the size of a turnspit dog; but there is not too much meat upon it for three or four people to eat in a day.

A few straggling swans have been seen about Preservation Island, and the lagoons of Cape-Barren Island. In the sandy bay at the south end of the large island, they are represented as being numerous.

A kind of brent goose frequents all the islands that have yet been visited. About the southern islands they are shy, having been frequently disturbed; but on the first visit they usually allow themselves to be knocked down with sticks. These birds are tolerable numerous, and are excellent food.

The sooty petterel, called Mount-Pitt bird, is amongst these islands in great numbers. Wherever the tufts of wiry grass are seen, these birds will usually be found. They burrow in the ground under these tufts, but the length of a man's arm is sufficient to reach them. The Mount-Pitt birds, can be taken in any numbers during the summer months, at Preservation Island, the Passage Isles, and many other places. They come in from sea in the evening, in numbers that surprise a person unaccustomed to them.

Where Mount-Pitt birds are found, penguins will generally be met with. There holes, however, are not in the same places; the penguin chusing ground to burrow in which is covered with a different vegetation. They are of a small, blue and white kind, and are very indifferent eating.

Gannets, shags, gulls, and red-bills, are found amongst these islands; but whilst the swans, geese, and Mount-Pitt birds are in numbers, the former will not be much molested.

Seals inhabit most of the rock points and isles. They are both of the hair and fur kind. Some of the latter are of a good fur, but there seems to be every graduation. The seals were most numerous upon the south-eastern points of Cape-Barren Island, but they are now mostly destroyed.

Rock fish are caught at the west end of Preservation Island; but from the various kind of fresh provisions which these islands produce, few attempts were made to catch fish.

The stone, of which the base of Furneaux's Islands is composed, appears to be of a quartzy nature; and it is only in small pieces that any other kind of stone has been met with.

As far as my particular knowledge of these islands extends, there surface is bare rock, in part; or sand which is covered with brush wood; or swamps, in which small trees grow. The brush is very often impenetrable; sometimes growing to a considerable height, and sometimes creeping a long the ground: the tall brush-wood is found in the inner and eastern parts of the islands, and the scrub on the western outskirts: a proof of the strength and prevalence of westerly winds.

The southern part of Furneaux's largest island is, it seems, of a different description. Large timber trees are produced there, and the soil is said to be of sufficient depth and quality to grow corn.

In the remarks of my fellow-traveller, Mr. Bass, upon Cape-Barren Island, is the following paragraph:

"In point of animated life, nature seems to have acted so oddly with this and the neighbouring islands, that if their rich stores were thoroughly ransacked, I doubt not, but the departments of natural history would be enlarged by more new and valuable specimens, than they ever before acquired from any land of many times their extent."






KENT's GROUP.


THIS cluster was so named by His Excellency governor Hunter. In latitude, it is laid down in the chart according to the mean of three observations taken in sight of it; but there is no other authority for its longitude, than what a dead-reckoning run to Furneaux's Islands afforded.

The isles that compose this small group, are rocky and barren; and their shores are in general very steep. They are sufficiently high to be seen eight or ten leagues distant.

The passage through which the Norfolk's track runs in the chart, is safe for any ship. Its width is about three quarters of a mile; and on sounding with seventeen fathoms, no bottom was found.

In sailing through this channel, it is necessary to be careful in carrying sail, especially with a side wind. Whilst a calm prevails under the steep cliffs, strong flurries of wind will rush down the gullies that intersect the high land, and endanger a vessel that is passing them, if unprepared. The Norfolk sloop was nearly overset, when sailing through, under these circumstances.

Two small coves in the channel, which have sandy beaches at their head, afford shelter from all easterly or westerly winds.

A few straggling seals may be killed upon the rocks. The largest of the islets which lie three leagues to the westward of Kent's Group, is steep, and tolerable high.

One of the rocks obtained a distinguishing name, from the similitude of its form to a judgment seat.

An extreme degree of sterility seems to prevail through the whole of this small cluster of isles; and they seem to be shunned by almost every kind of animated beings. Some creeping brush-wood grows on different part of these isles.






NEW SOUTH WALES. [I]


WILSON's Promontory, with its neighbouring isles, and the coast from thence westward, are laid down in the chart from the eye-sketch of Mr. G. Bass, surgeon of His' Majesty's ship Reliance; and to him it is, that we are entirely indebted for our knowledge of these parts. I have also to acknowledge the assistance which this gentleman's observations have afforded, in various other parts of this memoir, particularly in the additional remarks.

Between Western Port and Wilson's Promontory, a bold, rocky, shore, and sandy beaches, seem to have almost equal divisions in the coast. In the bights, both the shore and the back land are low and sandy; but every rocky projection is a commencement of a ridge of hills, which extends to the north-east till it is lost in the country.

One observation, taken at the mouth of Sealers Cove, is the authority by which Wilson's Promontory is fixed in latitude. Its longitude is according to the supposed relative position of Kent's Group; the Promontory having been seen at night, in the Francis schooner, and Kent's Group in the morning.

The latitude of this promontory being so near to 39°, has raised conjectuers, that it is the land seen by captain Furneaux; but unless the longitude of the promontory is more erroneous than I take it to be, the situation of the land, which is nearly true north from the Sisters, will destroy the possibility of its being Wilson's Promontory. We were two or three times deceived with the appearance of land, when off this coast; and possibly, the same circumstance might have happened to captain Furneaux.

Wilson's Promontory is a great body of the same kind of stone, of which Furneaux's Islands are composed; and it is somewhat remarkable, that this promontory should be the only part of New South Wales in which this quartzy substance has been seen. In general, we meet with a softish grit, or an iron stone.

Although the height of this land is not such as would, by seamen, be reckoned remarkable; yet it appears strikingly so, by being contrasted with the low, sandy neck at its back, and other land of the same kind in its neighbourhood.

About Sealers Cove, the high land appears as if cut in two, when made from the north-eastward, and the parts to have been moved asunder.

The isles that lie of Wilson's Promontory, are some of them tolerable high, and some low. The largest of them, which is placed ten miles to the south-eastward, is of the former class. These isles are laid down by single bearings and guessed distances; therefore, their relative situations to the promontory and to each other, may probably be incorrect.

The northern boundary of Bass's Strait, from Wilson's Promontory, eastward, is fronted by a sandy beach of immense length. Some rocky points near the Ram Head, and from thence at intervals to Cape Howe, are all that break its continuity.

A ridge of hills rise at the distance of twelve or fourteen miles to northward of Corner Inlet, and curving to the eastward, they continue in a direction nearly parallel to the shore, but keep gradually approximately to it, till they join the hills between the Ram Head and Cape Howe. A considerable part of the low space between the back of the long beach, and the foot of the hills, is supposed to be occupied by lagoons. Some of these lagoons may preserve a constant opening into the sea, and some others may never have any; but the greater number will be sometimes open and sometimes shut. Lagoons of this last kind are common upon the east coast of New South Wales.

The flood tide comes from the north-eastward, in the direction of the long beach; and leaving Corner Inlet, makes a straight course for the southern part of Wilson's Promontory. It then runs to the west, neither curving round the promontory, nor yet preserving its original direction, but taking a course between them.

On the ebb, the east side of the promontory and the long beach also, are left out of the stream. This tide sets past the promontory to the east, and appears to preserve the same direction afterwards.

The difference between the times of high water in Sealers Cove and Corner inlet, is accounted for by the latter being left in an eddy upon both sides.

We are but little acquainted with the inhabitants of this coast. At one place upon the long beach, some natives came down to the whale boat's party, with very little hesitation. It appeared by their manner, that they had never seen white people before; but they behaved in a friendly manner. Wilson's Promontory does not appear to be inhabited; but upon the low neck by which it is connected with the main, large smokes were seen, as well as in various places at the hack of the long beach.

Seals, and most kinds of sea birds, will be found upon the isles that lie off the promontory, in greater or less numbers; and in the open lagoons, fish of the ray kind may be taken.

Every information that has let been gained of this A portion of New South Wales, inclines us to pronounce it a barren coast. To the westward of the promontory, the high land seems rocky, and the low, sandy; to the eastward, it is almost universally sandy. The promontory itself, is an immense lump of rocky, barren, mountain. A few small gum trees, and other more diminutive vegetation, do, however, often give it a deceitful appearance of fertility to a distant observer.

*   *   *

This port received its present name from its relative situation to every other known harbour on this coast.

The smokes which arose from the north side of the port, prevented any good observations being taken for its latitude; but it will be found to be somewhere about 38° 35' south. In longitude, it is laid down in the chart by the whale boat's run from Wilson's Promontory. Its real situation may probably be 20' of longitude more to the west.

The eastern entrance of this place has so conspicuous an appearance, by the gap it makes in the land, that it cannot fail to be known by any one coming from the eastward. The point of the island is a high, and rather steep cape, resembling a snapper's head. Vessels whose draught of water was more than nine feet, should not enter by this passage; but after sounding for themselves, ships of a larger size' might probably go out by it. The deep channel is winding and narrow; but mostly lies on the island side. The sea breaks at times upon the large shoal on the opposite side.

In the present imperfectly known state of the port, the western entrance is the preferable one. A gale of wind form the north-west would not allow us to examine it; but from an eminence, whence any broken water must have been visible, at a time that a heavy surf was rolling in upon the shores, no other breakers could be observed, than those that are marked in the sketch.

The general rise of the tide in Western Port is from ten to fourteen feet. It flows till about half an hour after the moon passes the meridian. The tides set strong up and down the large arms, and also through the eastern entrance.

The soundings are frequently irregular, which is perhaps occasioned by the cross setting of the ebb, out of the two arms into the two outlets, and from the softness of the muddy bottom. Mud abounds so much, that the greater part of the points are not approachable, except at high water; and then it is at the risk of having the boat left till next tide; for the mud runs out far and flat, and is too soft to bear walking upon.

Fire wood is plentiful upon every part of the main land, but no wood of any size appears to grow upon the inland.

The whale boat's crew met with great difficulty in finding fresh water; but there was every appearance of an unusual draught in the country, at that time. The head of the winding was the only place where it could then be procured free from a brackish taste. At half-tide, there is water enough for the largest boat to enter the creek; and within it there is at all times a sufficient depth.

Only four natives were seen about this port, and that at a distance. Paths and other marks of them were common, but none very recent. No canoes, or signs of any, were met with.

A few of the smaller kind of kanguroos were seen.

Swans are seen by hundreds, and ducks of a small, but excellent kind, fly in thousands. Most kinds of wild fowl abound in this port.

The land round the borders of Western Port is, in general, low and level; but the hills soon rise, and increasing in height as they recede back, the country has a pleasant appearance. In the different places that were examined, the soil was uniformly found to be a light, brown, mould, free from sand; and in the lowest grounds, a kind of peaty earth. The country is but thinly timbered; but the grass and fearns grow luxuriantly. The island must be called barren.

*   *   *

Sealers Cove, on the east side of Wilson's Promontory, affords room for a small vessel to swing in, and water enough for any ship to ride in safety. It is shut from all winds but those from east-south-east to east-north-east; and it was observed that these throw no great sea into it.

It is high water here nearly two hours before the moon comes to the meridian; and the tide rises ten or eleven feet.

There is plenty of fresh water to be got in Sealers Cove, and wood enough at hand to boil down any quantity of seal's blubber that might be procured from the islands.

*   *   *

Round the northernmost part of the high land of Wilson's Promontory, lies Corner Inlet; so named by Mr. Bass, from its situation.

Its latitude and longitude are upon the same authority as that of the promontory.

Off the mouth of the inlet, lies a long breaking shoal. The deepest channel is between this shoal and the promontory; the shore of the latter, on the larboard hand, must be kept close on board, right into the anchoring place. There is no where more than two fathoms, or two-and-a-half, at low water; except in holes where the tide sets strong. A vessel that could lie in this draught of water may be completely landlocked.

This inlet can be called little else than a large flat, for the greatest part of it dries at low water: the shoals and bottom are mostly of sand.

Wood may be gotten conveniently enough in this inlet; and there are two or three runs of excellent water from the high land near the anchorage.

There are inhabitants in the neighbourhood of the inlet, but we had no communication with them.

A few seals and Mount-Pitt birds may be found upon the islets.






BASS's STRAIT.


THE extensive passage which separates Van Diemen's Land from New Holland, was named Bass's Strait by governor Hunter. Mr. Bass had visited the north side of it in an open whale boat, from Port Jackson, in January, 1797; and the magnitude of the swell which he found rolling in from the south-westward, strongly indicated its origin to be from the southern Indian Ocean; and came so strong in confirmation of the former suppositions of an existing strait, that His Excellency the governor thought proper to order me in a vessel to ascertain its certainty, by sailing through it. It was with pleasure that I was able to associate Mr. Bass in the expedition; but much more so, that our success enabled the governor to pay a just tribute to his personal exertions and correct judgment.

In giving some caution to those who may first sail through Bass's Strait, it is necessary to observe, that as several unknown isles and rocks may probably lie to the westward of Hunter's Isles; a ship should be cautious in running down the last two or three degrees of longitude, before she makes the isles.

The latitude of 40° 20' is a proper parallel with a leading wind. After seeing Albatross Island, Three-hummock Island will immediately appear, and leave no doubt as to what land it is.

The land of considerable extent which is marked in the chart as uncertainly known, is represented to be low land. It was seen by Mr. Reed, in the schooner Martha; but its longitude is very uncertain. The latitude of its south end may have some little reliance put in it.

With the wind to the northward of west, it would be as well to go to windward of Kent's Group; but after that, not to steer a more northerly course than north-east-by-east, until certain of being to the eastward of Cape Howe. In all cases, the long beach is to be avoided, even if it should be a weather shore at the time.

A ship bound to Port Jackson, and meeting with a foul wind, would find Hamilton's Road a convenient place to anchor in for a few days.

It may be necessary to observe to some, that I can by no means answer for there being no rocks or islands in the middle of the strait; or indeed in any of the blank places, except a few miles on each side of the day track. Islands and rocks must be expected to be fallen in with in other places; it therefore behoves every man who has the charge of a ship here, to run with caution in the day; and if he does run during a moonlight night, it should be under working sail, and with the best look-out. But with every advantage, it would be to hazardous to run before the wind in the night.






NEW SOUTH WALES. [II]


IT was intended to have continued the description of the coast of New South Wales, as far as the representation of it is given in the three charts; but circumstances' having now rendered this inconvenient, that small part of the east coast only is spoken of, which appears necessary to a ship passing through Bass's Strait.

Cape Howe is a low point of rocks and sand, but hills rise immediately at its back. A good observation taken about two leagues from it, gave for its latitude 37° 30' south.

Green Cape is so named from its appearance. The land slopes from the hills, with a smooth surface, to the extremity of the point. Cape Howe and Green Cape lie north and south, by compass, of each other.

*   *   *

Twofold Bay, so named by Mr. Bass, from its form, is laid down in latitude from a meridional observation taken on the beach of Snug Cove, with an artificial horizon. Two sets of lunar observations of the sun on the west side, gave the longitude 150° 12' 43"; but it is placed in the chart according to captain Cook. The variation by mean of the theodolite and azimuth compass, was 10° 19' east, in October, 1798.

The land at the back of Twofold Bay, lies much more in hummocks than on any part of the coast near it; and a roundish mount, which lies about three leagues inland, to the south-west, is distinguishable above the neighbouring hills to some distance. The outer north and south points of the bay, have dry rocks lying close to them.

The shores of Twofold Bay are far from being high. They consist of rocky points, steep heads, and sandy beaches.

The best anchorage is at the back of the steep, stony head, on the north side of the bay, in Snug cove; where a vessel may be landlocked in five fathoms, on a sandy bottom. There is room for two, or perhaps three ships in Snug Cove, and small vessels would go closer in; but the water shoals rather suddenly towards the head of the cove.

At the anchorage on the south side, a vessel cannot be landlocked in more than three fathoms. In deeper water she would be open to north-by-east wind.

Large boats may enter the lagoon at the east end of the great south beach, at half flood.

It is high water here about three hours before the moon passes over the meridian; and the tide rises six or seven feet.

Wood is in abundance all round this bay. The only fresh water that we met with, was in swamps, near the anchoring places.

The inhabitants of this bay much resemble those at Port Jackson in their persons. They were friendly in the little intercourse we had with them. Canoes are in use amongst them, and seem to be much prized.

Both quadrupeds and birds seem to be scarce in the woods. Very few marks of the kanguroo were seen.

There are a few ducks, teal, herons and red-bills on the lagoons, and some small flights of curlews and plover.

If the quantity of fish in the bay bears any proportion to the fitness of the beaches for hauling the sein, great numbers might be caught by it. The success that was met with by the hook and line, spoke rather favourably of Twofold Bay in this respect.

This bay will probably be of service to whalers; who, when fishing of the coast, might be glad to get shelter from a gale of wind, in a place whence it would take them so little time to work out, and it is not unlikely, but that they might find some right fish here: we saw the remains of one that had been thrown on shore upon the rocky spit.

The land round the bay is, speaking generally, much more barren than productive. The values and flats contain several patches of good, and some few of excellent ground; but by the far greater part is fit only for pasturage. The hills are universally stony.


THE END

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