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Title: The Diamond Lens
Author: Fitz-James O'Brien
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Title: The Diamond Lens
Author: Fitz-James O'Brien


From a very early period of my life the entire bent of my inclinations
had been towards microscopic investigations. When I was not more than
ten years old, a distant relative of our family, hoping to astonish my
inexperience, constructed a simple microscope for me, by drilling in a
disk of copper a small hole, in which a drop of pure water was
sustained by capillary attraction. This very primitive apparatus,
magnifying some fifty diameters, presented, it is true, only
indistinct and imperfect forms, but still sufficiently wonderful to
work up my imagination to a preternatural state of excitement.

Seeing me so interested in this rude instrument, my cousin explained
to me all that he knew about the principles of the microscope, related
to me a few of the wonders which had been accomplished through its
agency, and ended by promising to send me one regularly constructed,
immediately on his return to the city. I counted the days, the hours,
the minutes, that intervened between that promise and his departure.

Meantime I was not idle. Every transparent substance that bore the
remotest semblance to a lens I eagerly seized upon and employed in
vain attempts to realize that instrument, the theory of whose
construction I as yet only vaguely comprehended. All panes of glass
containing those oblate spheroidal knots familiarly known as "bull's
eyes" were ruthlessly destroyed, in the hope of obtaining lenses of
marvellous power. I even went so far as to extract the crystalline
humor from the eyes of fishes and animals, and endeavored to press it
into the microscopic service. I plead guilty to having stolen the
glasses from my Aunt Agatha's spectacles, with a dim idea of grinding
them into lenses of wondrous magnifying properties--in which attempt
it is scarcely necessary to say that I totally failed.

At last the promised instrument came. It was of that order known as
Field's simple microscope, and had cost perhaps about fifteen dollars.
As far as educational purposes went, a better apparatus could not have
been selected. Accompanying it was a small treatise on the
microscope,--its history, uses, and discoveries. I comprehended then
for the first time the "Arabian Nights' Entertainments." The dull veil
of ordinary existence that hung across the world seemed suddenly to
roll away, and to lay bare a land of enchantments. I felt towards my
companions as the seer might feel towards the ordinary masses of men.
I held conversations with Nature in a tongue which they could not
understand. I was in daily communication with living wonders, such as
they never imagined in their wildest visions. I penetrated beyond the
external portal of things, and roamed through the sanctuaries. Where
they beheld only a drop of rain slowly rolling down the window-glass,
I saw a universe of beings animated with all the passions common to
physical life, and convulsing their minute sphere with struggles as
fierce and protracted as those of men. In the common spots of mould,
which my mother, good housekeeper that she was, fiercely scooped away
from her jam pots, there abode for me, under the name of mildew,
enchanted gardens, filled with dells and avenues of the densest
foliage and most astonishing verdure, while from the fantastic boughs
of these microscopic forests hung strange fruits glittering with green
and silver and gold.

It was no scientific thirst that at this time filled my mind. It was
the pure enjoyment of a poet to whom a world of wonders has been
disclosed. I talked of my solitary pleasures to none. Alone with my
microscope, I dimmed my sight, day after day and night after night
poring over the marvels which it unfolded to me. I was like one who,
having discovered the ancient Eden still existing in all its primitive
glory, should resolve to enjoy it in solitude, and never betray to
mortal the secret of its locality. The rod of my life was bent at this
moment. I destined myself to be a microscopist.

Of course, like every novice, I fancied myself a discoverer. I was
ignorant at the time of the thousands of acute intellects engaged in
the same pursuit as myself, and with the advantages of instruments a
thousand times more powerful than mine. The names of Leeuwenhoek,
Williamson, Spencer, Ehrenberg, Schultz, Dujardin, Schact, and
Schleiden were then entirely unknown to me, or if known, I was
ignorant of their patient and wonderful researches. In every fresh
specimen of Cryptogamia which I placed beneath my instrument I
believed that I discovered wonders of which the world was as yet
ignorant. I remember well the thrill of delight and admiration that
shot through me the first time that I discovered the common wheel
animalcule (Rotifera vulgaris) expanding and contracting its flexible
spokes, and seemingly rotating through the water. Alas! as I grew
older, and obtained some works treating of my favorite study, I found
that I was only on the threshold of a science to the investigation of
which some of the greatest men of the age were devoting their lives
and intellects.

As I grew up, my parents, who saw but little likelihood of anything
practical resulting from the examination of bits of moss and drops of
water through a brass tube and a piece of glass, were anxious that I
should choose a profession. It was their desire that I should enter
the counting-house of my uncle, Ethan Blake, a prosperous merchant,
who carried on business in New York. This suggestion I decisively
combated. I had no taste for trade; I should only make a failure; in
short, I refused to become a merchant.

But it was necessary for me to select some pursuit. My parents were
staid New England people, who insisted on the necessity of labor; and
therefore, although, thanks to the bequest of my poor Aunt Agatha, I
should, on coming of age, inherit a small fortune sufficient to place
me above want, it was decided, that, instead of waiting for this, I
should act the nobler part, and employ the intervening years in
rendering myself independent.

After much cogitation I complied with the wishes of my family, and
selected a profession. I determined to study medicine at the New York
Academy. This disposition of my future suited me. A removal from my
relatives would enable me to dispose of my time as I pleased, without
fear of detection. As long as I paid my Academy fees, I might shirk
attending the lectures, if I chose; and as I never had the remotest
intention of standing an examination, there was no danger of my being
"plucked." Besides, a metropolis was the place for me. There I could
obtain excellent instruments, the newest publications, intimacy with
men of pursuits kindred to my own,--in short, all things necessary to
insure a profitable devotion of my life to my beloved science. I had
an abundance of money, few desires that were not bounded by my
illuminating mirror on one side and my object-glass on the other;
what, therefore, was to prevent my becoming an illustrious
investigator of the veiled worlds? It was with the most buoyant hopes
that I left my New England home and established myself in New York.


My first step, of course, was to find suitable apartments. These I
obtained, after a couple of days' search, in Fourth Avenue; a very
pretty second-floor unfurnished, containing sitting-room, bedroom, and
a smaller apartment which I intended to fit up as a laboratory. I
furnished my lodgings simply, but rather elegantly, and then devoted
all my energies to the adornment of the temple of my worship. I
visited Pike, the celebrated optician, and passed in review his
splendid collection of microscopes,--Field's Compound, Higham's,
Spencer's, Nachet's Binocular, (that founded on the principles of the
stereoscope,) and at length fixed upon that form known as Spencer's
Trunnion Microscope, as combining the greatest number of improvements
with an almost perfect freedom from tremor. Along with this I
purchased every possible accessory,--draw-tubes, micrometers, a
camera-lucida, lever-stage, achromatic condensers, white cloud
illuminators, prisms, parabolic condensers, polarizing apparatus,
forceps, aquatic boxes, fishing-tubes, with a host of other articles,
all of which would have been useful in the hands of an experienced
microscopist, but, as I afterwards discovered, were not of the
slightest present value to me. It takes years of practice to know how
to use a complicated microscope. The optician looked suspiciously at
me as I made these wholesale purchases. He evidently was uncertain
whether to set me down as some scientific celebrity or a madman. I
think he inclined to the latter belief. I suppose I was mad. Every
great genius is mad upon the subject in which he is greatest. The
unsuccessful madman is disgraced, and called a lunatic.

Mad or not, I set myself to work with a zeal which few scientific
students have ever equalled. I had everything to learn relative to the
delicate study upon which I had embarked,--a study involving the most
earnest patience, the most rigid analytic powers, the steadiest hand,
the most untiring eye, the most refined and subtile manipulation.

For a long time half my apparatus lay inactively on the shelves of my
laboratory, which was now most amply furnished with every possible
contrivance for facilitating my investigations. The fact was that I
did not know how to use some of my scientific accessories,--never
having been taught microscopics,--and those whose use I understood
theoretically were of little avail, until by practice I could attain
the necessary delicacy of handling. Still, such was the fury of my
ambition, such the untiring perseverance of my experiments, that,
difficult of credit as it may be, in the course of one year I became
theoretically and practically an accomplished microscopist.

During this period of my labors, in which I submitted specimens of
every substance that came under my observation to the action of my
lenses, I became a discoverer,--in a small way, it is true, for I was
very young, but still a discoverer. It was I who destroyed Ehrenberg's
theory that the Volcox globator was an animal, and proved that his
"monads" with stomachs and eyes were merely phases of the formation of
a vegetable cell, and were, when they reached their mature state,
incapable of the act of conjugation, or any true generative act,
without which no organism rising to any stage of life higher than
vegetable can be said to be complete. It was I who resolved the
singular problem of rotation in the cells and hairs of plants into
ciliary attraction, in spite of the assertions of Mr. Wenham and
others, that my explanation was the result of an optical illusion.

But notwithstanding these discoveries, laboriously and painfully made
as they were, I felt horribly dissatisfied. At every step I found
myself stopped by the imperfections of my instruments. Like all active
microscopists, I gave my imagination full play. Indeed, it is a common
complaint against many such, that they supply the defects of their
instruments with the creations of their brains. I imagined depths
beyond depths in Nature which the limited power of my lenses
prohibited me from exploring. I lay awake at night constructing
imaginary microscopes of immeasurable power, with which I seemed to
pierce through all the envelopes of matter down to its original atom.
How I cursed those imperfect mediums which necessity through ignorance
compelled me to use! How I longed to discover the secret of some
perfect lens whose magnifying power should be limited only by the
resolvability of the object, and which at the same time should be free
from spherical and chromatic aberrations, in short from all the
obstacles over which the poor microscopist finds himself continually
stumbling! I felt convinced that the simple microscope, composed of a
single lens of such vast yet perfect power, was possible of
construction. To attempt to bring the compound microscope up to such a
pitch would have been commencing at the wrong end; this latter being
simply a partially successful endeavor to remedy those very defects of
the simple instrument, which, if conquered, would leave nothing to be

It was in this mood of mind that I became a constructive microscopist.
After another year passed in this new pursuit, experimenting on every
imaginable substance,--glass, gems, flints, crystals, artificial
crystals formed of the alloy of various vitreous materials,--in short,
having constructed as many varieties of lenses as Argus had eyes, I
found myself precisely where I started, with nothing gained save an
extensive knowledge of glass-making. I was almost dead with despair.
My parents were surprised at my apparent want of progress in my
medical studies, (I had not attended one lecture since my arrival in
the city,) and the expenses of my mad pursuit had been so great as to
embarrass me very seriously.

I was in this frame of mind one day, experimenting in my laboratory on
a small diamond,--that stone, from its great refracting power, having
always occupied my attention more than any other,--when a young
Frenchman, who lived on the floor above me, and who was in the habit
of occasionally visiting me, entered the room.

I think that Jules Simon was a Jew. He had many traits of the Hebrew
character: a love of jewelry, of dress, and of good living. There was
something mysterious about him. He always had something to sell, and
yet went into excellent society. When I say sell, I should perhaps
have said peddle; for his operations were generally confined to the
disposal of single articles,--a picture, for instance, or a rare
carving in ivory, or a pair of duelling-pistols, or the dress of a
Mexican caballero. When I was first furnishing my rooms, he paid me a
visit, which ended in my purchasing an antique silver lamp, which he
assured me was a Cellini,--it was handsome enough even for that,--and
some other knick-knacks for my sitting-room. Why Simon should pursue
this petty trade I never could imagine. He apparently had plenty of
money, and had the entree of the best houses in the city,--taking
care, however, I suppose, to drive no bargains within the enchanted
circle of the Upper Ten. I came at length to the conclusion that this
peddling was but a mask to cover some greater object, and even went so
far as to believe my young acquaintance to be implicated in the slave-
trade. That, however, was none of my affair.

On the present occasion, Simon entered my room in a state of
considerable excitement.

"Ah! mon ami!" he cried, before I could even offer him the ordinary
salutation, "it has occurred to me to be the witness of the most
astonishing things in the world. I promenade myself to the house of
Madame--How does the little animal--le renard--name himself in the

"Vulpes," I answered.

"Ah! yes,--Vulpes. I promenade myself to the house of Madame Vulpes."

"The spirit medium?"

"Yes, the great medium. Great Heavens! what a woman! I write on a slip
of paper many of questions concerning affairs the most secret,--
affairs that conceal themselves in the abysses of my heart the most
profound; and behold! by example! what occurs? This devil of a woman
makes me replies the most truthful to all of them. She talks to me of
things that I do not love to talk of to myself. What am I to think? I
am fixed to the earth!"

"Am I to understand you, M. Simon, that this Mrs. Vulpes replied to
questions secretly written by you, which questions related to events
known only to yourself?"

"Ah! more than that, more than that," he answered, with an air of some
alarm. "She related to me things--But," he added, after a pause, and
suddenly changing his manner, "why occupy ourselves with these
follies? It was all the Biology, without doubt. It goes without saying
that it has not my credence.--But why are we here, mon ami? It has
occurred to me to discover the most beautiful thing as you can
imagine,--a vase with green lizards on it, composed by the great
Bernard Palissy. It is in my apartment; let us mount. I go to show it
to you."

I followed Simon mechanically; but my thoughts were far from Palissy
and his enamelled ware, although I, like him, was seeking in the dark
after a great discovery. This casual mention of the spiritualist,
Madame Vulpes, set me on a new track. What if this spiritualism should
be really a great fact? What if, through communication with subtiler
organisms than my own, I could reach at a single bound the goal, which
perhaps a life of agonizing mental toil would never enable me to

While purchasing the Palissy vase from my friend Simon, I was mentally
arranging a visit to Madame Vulpes.


TWO evenings after this, thanks to an arrangement by letter and the
promise of an ample fee, I found Madame Vulpes awaiting me at her
residence alone. She was a coarse-featured woman, with a keen and
rather cruel dark eye, and an exceedingly sensual expression about her
mouth and under jaw. She received me in perfect silence, in an
apartment on the ground floor, very sparsely furnished. In the centre
of the room, close to where Mrs. Vulpes sat, there was a common round
mahogany table. If I had come for the purpose of sweeping her chimney,
the woman could not have looked more indifferent to my appearance.
There was no attempt to inspire the visitor with any awe. Everything
bore a simple and practical aspect. This intercourse with the
spiritual world was evidently as familiar an occupation with Mrs.
Vulpes as eating her dinner or riding in an omnibus.

"You come for a communication, Mr. Linley?" said the medium, in a dry,
business-like tone of voice.

"By appointment,--yes."

"What sort of communication do you want?--a written one?"

"Yes,--I wish for a written one."

"From any particular spirit?"


"Have you ever known this spirit on this earth?"

"Never. He died long before I was born. I wish merely to obtain from
him some information which he ought to be able to give better than any

"Will you seat yourself at the table, Mr. Linley," said the medium,
"and place your hands upon it?"

I obeyed,--Mrs. Vulpes being seated opposite me, with her hands also
on the table. We remained thus for about a minute and a half, when a
violent succession of raps came on the table, on the back of my chair,
on the floor immediately under my feet, and even on the window-panes.
Mrs. Vulpes smiled composedly.

"They are very strong to-night," she remarked. "You are fortunate."
She then continued, "Will the spirits communicate with this

Vigorous affirmative.

"Will the particular spirit he desires to speak with communicate?"

A very confused rapping followed this question.

"I know what they mean," said Mrs. Vulpes, addressing herself to me;
"they wish you to write down the name of the particular spirit that
you desire to converse with. Is that so?" she added, speaking to her
invisible guests.

That it was so was evident from the numerous affirmatory responses.
While this was going on, I tore a slip from my pocket-book, and
scribbled a name under the table.

"Will this spirit communicate in writing with this gentleman?" asked
the medium once more.

After a moment's pause her hand seemed to be seized with a violent
tremor, shaking so forcibly that the table vibrated. She said that a
spirit had seized her hand and would write. I handed her some sheets
of paper that were on the table, and a pencil. The latter she held
loosely in her hand, which presently began to move over the paper with
a singular and seemingly involuntary motion. After a few moments had
elapsed she handed me the paper, on which I found written, in a large,
uncultivated hand, the words, "He is not here, but has been sent for."
A pause of a minute or so now ensued, during which Mrs. Vulpes
remained perfectly silent, but the raps continued at regular
intervals. When the short period I mention had elapsed, the hand of
the medium was again seized with its convulsive tremor, and she wrote,
under this strange influence, a few words on the paper, which she
handed to me. They were as follows:---

"I am here. Question me.


I was astounded. The name was identical with that I had written
beneath the table, and carefully kept concealed. Neither was it at all
probable that an uncultivated woman like Mrs. Vulpes should know even
the name of the great father of microscopics. It may have been
Biology; but this theory was soon doomed to be destroyed. I wrote on
my slip--still concealing it from Mrs. Vulpes--a series of questions,
which, to avoid tediousness, I shall place with the responses in the
order in which they occurred.

I.--Can the microscope be brought to perfection?


I.--Am I destined to accomplish this great task?

SPIRIT.--You are.

I.--I wish to know how to proceed to attain this end. For the love
which you bear to science, help me!

SPIRIT.--A diamond of one hundred and forty carats, submitted to
electromagnetic currents for a long period, will experience a
rearrangement of its atoms inter se, and from that stone you will form
the universal lens.

I.--Will great discoveries result from the use of such a lens?

SPIRIT.--So great, that all that has gone before is as nothing.

I.--But the refractive power of the diamond is so immense, that the
image will be formed within the lens. How is that difficulty to be

SPIRIT.--Pierce the lens through its axis, and the difficulty is
obviated. The image will be formed in the pierced space, which will
itself serve as a tube to look through. Now I am called. Good night!

I cannot at all describe the effect that these extraordinary
communications had upon me. I felt completely bewildered. No
biological theory could account for the discovery of the lens. The
medium might, by means of biological rapport with my mind, have gone
so far as to read my questions, and reply to them coherently. But
Biology could not enable her to discover that magnetic currents would
so alter the crystals of the diamond as to remedy its previous
defects, and admit of its being polished into a perfect lens. Some
such theory may have passed through my head, it is true; but if so, I
had forgotten it. In my excited condition of mind there was no course
left but to become a convert, and it was in a state of the most
painful nervous exaltation that I left the medium's house that
evening. She accompanied me to the door, hoping that I was satisfied.
The raps followed us as we went through the hall, sounding on the
balusters, the flooring, and even the lintels of the door. I hastily
expressed my satisfaction, and escaped hurriedly into the cool night
air. I walked home with but one thought possessing me,--how to obtain
a diamond of the immense size required. My entire means multiplied a
hundred times over would have been inadequate to its purchase.
Besides, such stones are rare, and become historical. I could find
such only in the regalia of Eastern or European monarchs.


There was a light in Simon's room as I entered my house. A vague
impulse urged me to visit him. As I opened the door of his sitting-
room unannounced, he was bending, with his back toward me, over a
carcel lamp, apparently engaged in minutely examining some object
which he held in his hands. As I entered, he started suddenly, thrust
his hand into his breast pocket, and turned to me with a face crimson
with confusion.

"What!" I cried, "poring over the miniature of some fair lady? Well,
don't blush so much; I won't ask to see it."

Simon laughed awkwardly enough, but made none of the negative
protestations usual on such occasions. He asked me to take a seat.

"Simon," said I, "I have just come from Madame Vulpes."

This time Simon turned as white as a sheet, and seemed stupefied, as
if a sudden electric shock had smitten him. He babbled some incoherent
words, and went hastily to a small closet where he usually kept his
liquors. Although astonished at his emotion, I was too preoccupied
with my own idea to pay much attention to anything else.

"You say truly when you call Madame Vulpes a devil of a woman," I
continued. "Simon, she told me wonderful things tonight, or rather was
the means of telling me wonderful things. Ah! if I could only get a
diamond that weighed one hundred and forty carats!"

Scarcely had the sigh with which I uttered this desire died upon my
lips, when Simon, with the aspect of a wild beast, glared at me
savagely, and rushing to the mantel-piece, where some foreign weapons
hung on the wall, caught up a Malay creese, and brandished it
furiously before him.

"No!" he cried in French, into which he always broke when excited.
"No! you shall not have it! You are perfidious! You have consulted
with that demon, and desire my treasure! But I will die first! Me! I
am brave! You cannot make me fear!"

All this, uttered in a loud voice trembling with excitement, astounded
me. I saw at a glance that I had accidentally trodden upon the edges
of Simon's secret, whatever it was. It was necessary to reassure him.

"My dear Simon," I said, "I am entirely at a loss to know what you
mean. I went to Madame Vulpes to consult with her on a scientific
problem, to the solution of which I discovered that a diamond of the
size I just mentioned was necessary. You were never alluded to during
the evening, nor, so far as I was concerned, even thought of. What can
be the meaning of this outburst? If you happen to have a set of
valuable diamonds in your possession, you need fear nothing from me.
The diamond which I require you could not possess; or if you did
possess it, you would not be living here."

Something in my tone must have completely reassured him; for his
expression immediately changed to a sort of constrained merriment,
combined, however, with a certain suspicious attention to my
movements. He laughed, and said that I must bear with him; that he was
at certain moments subject to a species of vertigo, which betrayed
itself in incoherent speeches, and that the attacks passed off as
rapidly as they came. He put his weapon aside while making this
explanation, and endeavored, with some success, to assume a more
cheerful air.

All this did not impose on me in the least. I was too much accustomed
to analytical labors to be baffled by so flimsy a veil. I determined
to probe the mystery to the bottom.

"Simon," I said, gayly, "let us forget all this over a bottle of
Burgundy. I have a case of Lausseure's Clos Vougeot downstairs,
fragrant with the odors and ruddy with the sunlight of the Cote d'Or.
Let us have up a couple of bottles. What say you?"

"With all my heart," answered Simon, smilingly.

I produced the wine and we seated ourselves to drink. It was of a
famous vintage, that of 1848, a year when war and wine throve
together,--and its pure, but powerful juice seemed to impart renewed
vitality to the system. By the time we had half finished the second
bottle, Simon's head, which I knew was a weak one, had begun to yield,
while I remained calm as ever, only that every draught seemed to send
a flush of vigor through my limbs. Simon's utterance became more and
more indistinct. He took to singing French chansons of a not very
moral tendency. I rose suddenly from the table just at the conclusion
of one of those incoherent verses, and fixing my eyes on him with a
quiet smile, said:

"Simon, I have deceived you. I learned your secret this evening. You
may as well be frank with me. Mrs. Vulpes, or rather, one of her
spirits, told me all."

He started with horror. His intoxication seemed for the moment to fade
away, and he made a movement towards the weapon that he had a short
time before laid down. I stopped him with my hand.

"Monster!" he cried, passionately, "I am ruined! What shall I do? You
shall never have it! I swear by my mother!"

"I don't want it," I said; "rest secure, but be frank with me. Tell me
all about it."

The drunkenness began to return. He protested with maudlin earnestness
that I was entirely mistaken,--that I was intoxicated; then asked me
to swear eternal secrecy, and promised to disclose the mystery to me.
I pledged myself, of course, to all. With an uneasy look in his eyes,
and hands unsteady with drink and nervousness, he drew a small case
from his breast and opened it. Heavens! How the mild lamp-light was
shivered into a thousand prismatic arrows, as it fell upon a vast
rose-diamond that glittered in the case! I was no judge of diamonds,
but I saw at a glance that this was a gem of rare size and purity. I
looked at Simon with wonder, and--must I confess it?--with envy. How
could he have obtained this treasure? In reply to my questions, I
could just gather from his drunken statements (of which, I fancy, half
the incoherence was affected) that he had been superintending a gang
of slaves engaged in diamond-washing in Brazil; that he had seen one
of them secrete a diamond, but, instead of informing his employers,
had quietly watched the negro until he saw him bury his treasure; that
he had dug it up, and fled with it, but that as yet he was afraid to
attempt to dispose of it publicly,--so valuable a gem being almost
certain to attract too much attention to its owner's antecedents,--and
he had not been able to discover any of those obscure channels by
which such matters are conveyed away safely. He added, that, in
accordance with Oriental practice, he had named his diamond by the
fanciful title of "The Eye of Morning."

While Simon was relating this to me, I regarded the great diamond
attentively. Never had I beheld anything so beautiful. All the glories
of light, ever imagined or described, seemed to pulsate in its
crystalline chambers. Its weight, as I learned from Simon, was exactly
one hundred and forty carats. Here was an amazing coincidence. The
hand of Destiny seemed in it. On the very evening when the spirit of
Leeuwenhoek communicates to me the great secret of the microscope, the
priceless means which he directs me to employ start up within my
reach! I determined, with the most perfect deliberation, to possess
myself of Simon's diamond.

I sat opposite him while he nodded over his glass, and calmly revolved
the whole affair. I did not for an instant contemplate so foolish an
act as a common theft, which would of course be discovered, or at
least necessitate flight and concealment, all of which must interfere
with my scientific plans. There was but one step to be taken,--to kill
Simon. After all, what was the life of a little peddling Jew, in
comparison with the interests of science? Human beings are taken every
day from the condemned prisons to be experimented on by surgeons. This
man, Simon, was by his own confession a criminal, a robber, and I
believed on my soul a murderer. He deserved death quite as much as any
felon condemned by the laws; why should I not, like government,
contrive that his punishment should contribute to the progress of
human knowledge?

The means for accomplishing everything I desired lay within my reach.
There stood upon the mantel-piece a bottle half full of French
laudanum. Simon was so occupied with his diamond, which I had just
restored to him, that it was an affair of no difficulty to drug his
glass. In a quarter of an hour he was in a profound sleep.

I now opened his waistcoat, took the diamond from the inner pocket in
which he had placed it, and removed him to the bed, on which I laid
him so that his feet hung down over the edge. I had possessed myself
of the Malay creese, which I held in my right hand, while with the
other I discovered as accurately as I could by pulsation the exact
locality of the heart. It was essential that all the aspects of his
death should lead to the surmise of self-murder. I calculated the
exact angle at which it was probable that the weapon, if levelled by
Simon's own hand, would enter his breast; then with one powerful blow
I thrust it up to the hilt in the very spot which I desired to
penetrate. A convulsive thrill ran through Simon's limbs. I heard a
smothered sound issue from his throat, precisely like the bursting of
a large air-bubble, sent up by a diver, when it reaches the surface of
the water; he turned half round on his side, and as if to assist my
plans more effectually, his right hand, moved by some mere spasmodic
impulse, clasped the handle of the creese, which it remained holding
with extraordinary muscular tenacity. Beyond this there was no
apparent struggle. The laudanum, I presume, paralyzed the usual
nervous action. He must have died instantaneously.

There was yet something to be done. To make it certain that all
suspicion of the act should be diverted from any inhabitant of the
house to Simon himself, it was necessary that the door should be found
in the morning locked on the inside. How to do this, and afterwards
escape myself? Not by the window; that was a physical impossibility.
Besides, I was determined that the windows also should be found
bolted. The solution was simple enough. I descended softly to my own
room for a peculiar instrument which I had used for holding small
slippery substances, such as minute spheres of glass, etc. This
instrument was nothing more than a long slender hand-vice, with a very
powerful grip, and a considerable leverage, which last was
accidentally owing to the shape of the handle. Nothing was simpler
than, when the key was in the lock, to seize the end of its stem in
this vice, through the keyhole, from the outside, and so lock the
door. Previously, however, to doing this, I burned a number of papers
on Simon's hearth. Suicides almost always burn papers before they
destroy themselves. I also emptied some more laudanum into Simon's
glass,--having first removed from it all traces of wine,--cleaned the
other wine-glass, and brought the bottle away with me. If traces of
two persons drinking had been found in the room, the question
naturally would have arisen, Who was the second? Besides, the wine-
bottle might have been identified as belonging to me. The laudanum I
poured out to account for its presence in his stomach, in case of a
post-mortem examination. The theory naturally would be, that he first
intended to poison himself, but, after swallowing a little of the
drug, was either disgusted with its taste, or changed his mind from
other motives, and chose the dagger. These arrangements made, I walked
out, leaving the gas burning, locked the door with my vice, and went
to bed.

Simon's death was not discovered until nearly three in the afternoon.
The servant, astonished at seeing the gas burning,--the light
streaming on the dark landing from under the door,--peeped through the
keyhole and saw Simon on the bed. She gave the alarm. The door was
burst open, and the neighborhood was in a fever of excitement.

Every one in the house was arrested, myself included. There was an
inquest; but no clue to his death, beyond that of suicide, could be
obtained. Curiously enough, he had made several speeches to his
friends the preceding week, that seemed to point to self-destruction.
One gentleman swore that Simon had said in his presence that "he was
tired of life." His landlord affirmed, that Simon, when paying him his
last month's rent, remarked that "he would not pay him rent much
longer." All the other evidence corresponded,--the door locked inside,
the position of the corpse, the burnt papers. As I anticipated, no one
knew of the possession of the diamond by Simon, so that no motive was
suggested for his murder. The jury, after a prolonged examination,
brought in the usual verdict, and the neighborhood once more settled
down into its accustomed quiet.

Chapter 5. ANIMULA.

THE three months succeeding Simon's catastrophe I devoted night and
day to my diamond lens. I had constructed a vast galvanic battery,
composed of nearly two thousand pairs of plates,--a higher power I
dared not use, lest the diamond should be calcined. By means of this
enormous engine I was enabled to send a powerful current of
electricity continually through my great diamond, which it seemed to
me gained in lustre every day. At the expiration of a month I
commenced the grinding and polishing of the lens, a work of intense
toil and exquisite delicacy. The great density of the stone, and the
care required to be taken with the curvatures of the surfaces of the
lens, rendered the labor the severest and most harassing that I had
yet undergone.

At last the eventful moment came; the lens was completed. I stood
trembling on the threshold of new worlds. I had the realization of
Alexander's famous wish before me. The lens lay on the table, ready to
be placed upon its platform. My hand fairly shook as I enveloped a
drop of water with a thin coating of oil of turpentine, preparatory to
its examination,--a process necessary in order to prevent the rapid
evaporation of the water. I now placed the drop on a thin slip of
glass under the lens, and throwing upon it, by the combined aid of a
prism and a mirror, a powerful stream of light, I approached my eye to
the minute hole drilled through the axis of the lens. For an instant I
saw nothing save what seemed to be an illuminated chaos, a vast
luminous abyss. A pure white light, cloudless and serene, and
seemingly limitless as space itself, was my first impression. Gently,
and with the greatest care, I depressed the lens a few hairs'
breadths. The wondrous illumination still continued, but as the lens
approached the object, a sense of indescribable beauty was unfolded to
my view.

I seemed to gaze upon a vast space, the limits of which extended far
beyond my vision. An atmosphere of magical luminousness permeated the
entire field of view. I was amazed to see no trace of animalculous
life. Not a living thing, apparently, inhabited that dazzling expanse.
I comprehended instantly, that, by the wondrous power of my lens, I
had penetrated beyond the grosser particles of aqueous matter, beyond
the realms of Infusoria and Protozoa, down to the original gaseous
globule, into whose luminous interior I was gazing, as into an almost
boundless dome filled with a supernatural radiance.

It was, however, no brilliant void into which I looked. On every side
I beheld beautiful inorganic forms, of unknown texture, and colored
with the most enchanting hues. These forms presented the appearance of
what might be called, for want of a more specific definition, foliated
clouds of the highest rarity; that is, they undulated and broke into
vegetable formations, and were tinged with splendors compared with
which the gilding of our autumn woodlands is as dross compared with
gold. Far away into the illimitable distance stretched long avenues of
these gaseous forests, dimly transparent, and painted with prismatic
hues of unimaginable brilliancy. The pendent branches waved along the
fluid glades until every vista seemed to break through half-lucent
ranks of many-colored drooping silken pennons. What seemed to be
either fruits or flowers, pied with a thousand hues lustrous and ever
varying, bubbled from the crowns of this fairy foliage. No hills, no
lakes, no rivers, no forms animate or inanimate were to be seen, save
those vast auroral copses that floated serenely in the luminous
stillness, with leaves and fruits and flowers gleaming with unknown
fires, unrealizable by mere imagination.

How strange, I thought, that this sphere should be thus condemned to
solitude! I had hoped, at least, to discover some new form of animal
life,--perhaps of a lower class than any with which we are at present
acquainted,--but still, some living organism. I find my newly
discovered world, if I may so speak, a beautiful chromatic desert.

While I was speculating on the singular arrangements of the internal
economy of Nature, with which she so frequently splinters into atoms
our most compact theories, I thought I beheld a form moving slowly
through the glades of one of the prismatic forests. I looked more
attentively, and found that I was not mistaken. Words cannot depict
the anxiety with which I awaited the nearer approach of this
mysterious object. Was it merely some inanimate substance, held in
suspense in the attenuated atmosphere of the globule? or was it an
animal endowed with vitality and motion? It approached, flitting
behind the gauzy, colored veils of cloud-foliage, for seconds dimly
revealed, then vanishing. At last the violet pennons that trailed
nearest to me vibrated; they were gently pushed aside, and the Form
floated out into the broad light.

It was a female human shape. When I say "human," I mean it possessed
the outlines of humanity,--but there the analogy ends. Its adorable
beauty lifted it illimitable heights beyond the loveliest daughter of

I cannot, I dare not, attempt to inventory the charms of this divine
revelation of perfect beauty. Those eyes of mystic violet, dewy and
serene, evade my words. Her long lustrous hair following her glorious
head in a golden wake, like the track sown in heaven by a falling
star, seems to quench my most burning phrases with its splendors. If
all the bees of Hybla nestled upon my lips, they would still sing but
hoarsely the wondrous harmonies of outline that enclosed her form.

She swept out from between the rainbow-curtains of the cloud-trees
into the broad sea of light that lay beyond. Her motions were those of
some graceful Naiad, cleaving, by a mere effort of her will, the
clear, unruffled waters that fill the chambers of the sea. She floated
forth with the serene grace of a frail bubble ascending through the
still atmosphere of a June day. The perfect roundness of her limbs
formed suave and enchanting curves. It was like listening to the most
spiritual symphony of Beethoven the divine, to watch the harmonious
flow of lines. This, indeed, was a pleasure cheaply purchased at any
price. What cared I, if I had waded to the portal of this wonder
through another's blood? I would have given my own to enjoy one such
moment of intoxication and delight.

Breathless with gazing on this lovely wonder, and forgetful for an
instant of everything save her presence, I withdrew my eye from the
microscope eagerly,--alas! As my gaze fell on the thin slide that lay
beneath my instrument, the bright light from mirror and from prism
sparkled on a colorless drop of water! There, in that tiny bead of
dew, this beautiful being was forever imprisoned. The planet Neptune
was not more distant from me than she. I hastened once more to apply
my eye to the microscope.

Animula (let me now call her by that dear name which I subsequently
bestowed on her) had approached the wondrous forest, and was gazing
earnestly upwards. Presently one of the trees--as I must call them--
unfolded a long ciliary process, with which it seized one of the
gleaming fruits that glittered on its summit, and sweeping slowly
down, held it within reach of Animula. The sylph took it in her
delicate hand, and began to eat. My attention was so entirely absorbed
by her, that I could not apply myself to the task of determining
whether this singular plant was or was not instinct with volition.

I watched her, as she made her repast, with the most profound
attention. The suppleness of her motions sent a thrill of delight
through my frame; my heart beat madly as she turned her beautiful eyes
in the direction of the spot in which I stood. What would I not have
given to have had the power to precipitate myself into that luminous
ocean, and float with her through those groves of purple and gold!
While I was thus breathlessly following her every movement, she
suddenly started, seemed to listen for a moment, and then cleaving the
brilliant ether in which she was floating, like a flash of light,
pierced through the opaline forest, and disappeared.

Instantly a series of the most singular sensations attacked me. It
seemed as if I had suddenly gone blind. The luminous sphere was still
before me, but my daylight had vanished. What caused this sudden
disappearance? Had she a lover, or a husband? Yes, that was the
solution! Some signal from a happy fellow-being had vibrated through
the avenues of the forest, and she had obeyed the summons.

The agony of my sensations, as I arrived at this conclusion, startled
me. I tried to reject the conviction that my reason forced upon me. I
battled against the fatal conclusion,--but in vain. It was so. I had
no escape from it. I loved an animalcule!

It is true, that, thanks to the marvellous power of my microscope, she
appeared of human proportions. Instead of presenting the revolting
aspect of the coarser creatures, that live and struggle and die, in
the more easily resolvable portions of the water-drop, she was fair
and delicate and of surpassing beauty. But of what account was all
that? Every time that my eye was withdrawn from the instrument, it
fell on a miserable drop of water, within which, I must be content to
know, dwelt all that could make my life lovely.

Could she but see me once! Could I for one moment pierce the mystical
walls that so inexorably rose to separate us, and whisper all that
filled my soul, I might consent to be satisfied for the rest of my
life with the knowledge of her remote sympathy. It would be something
to have established even the faintest personal link to bind us
together,--to know that at times, when roaming through those enchanted
glades, she might think of the wonderful stranger, who had broken the
monotony of her life with his presence, and left a gentle memory in
her heart!

But it could not be. No invention, of which human intellect was
capable, could break down the barriers that Nature had erected. I
might feast my soul upon her wondrous beauty, yet she must always
remain ignorant of the adoring eyes that day and night gazed upon her,
and, even when closed, beheld her in dreams. With a bitter cry of
anguish I fled from the room, and, flinging myself on my bed, sobbed
myself to sleep like a child.


I AROSE the next morning almost at daybreak, and rushed to my
microscope. I trembled as I sought the luminous world in miniature
that contained my all. Animula was there. I had left the gas-lamp,
surrounded by its moderators, burning, when I went to bed the night
before. I found the sylph bathing, as it were, with an expression of
pleasure animating her features, in the brilliant light which
surrounded her. She tossed her lustrous golden hair over her shoulders
with innocent coquetry. She lay at full length in the transparent
medium, in which she supported herself with ease, and gambolled with
the enchanting grace that the Nymph Salmacis might have exhibited when
she sought to conquer the modest Hermaphroditus. I tried an experiment
to satisfy myself if her powers of reflection were developed. I
lessened the lamp-light considerably. By the dim light that remained,
I could see an expression of pain flit across her face. She looked
upward suddenly, and her brows contracted. I flooded the stage of the
microscope again with a full stream of light, and her whole expression
changed. She sprang forward like some substance deprived of all
weight. Her eyes sparkled, and her lips moved. Ah! if science had only
the means of conducting and reduplicating sounds, as it does the rays
of light, what carols of happiness would then have entranced my ears!
what jubilant hymns to Adonais would have thrilled the illumined air!

I now comprehended how it was that the Count de Gabalis peopled his
mystic world with sylphs,--beautiful beings whose breath of life was
lambent fire, and who sported forever in regions of purest ether and
purest light. The Rosicrucian had anticipated the wonder that I had
practically realized.

How long this worship of my strange divinity went on thus I scarcely
know. I lost all note of time. All day from early dawn, and far into
the night, I was to be found peering through that wonderful lens. I
saw no one, went nowhere, and scarce allowed myself sufficient time
for my meals. My whole life was absorbed in contemplation as rapt as
that of any of the Romish saints. Every hour that I gazed upon the
divine form strengthened my passion,--a passion that was always
overshadowed by the maddening conviction, that, although I could gaze
on her at will, she never, never could behold me!

At length I grew so pale and emaciated, from want of rest, and
continual brooding over my insane love and its cruel conditions, that
I determined to make some effort to wean myself from it. "Come," I
said, "this is at best but a fantasy. Your imagination has bestowed on
Animula charms which in reality she does not possess. Seclusion from
female society has produced this morbid condition of mind. Compare her
with the beautiful women of your own world, and this false enchantment
will vanish."

I looked over the newspapers by chance. There I beheld the
advertisement of a celebrated danseuse who appeared nightly at
Niblo's. The Signorina Caradolce had the reputation of being the most
beautiful as well as the most graceful woman in the world. I instantly
dressed and went to the theatre.

The curtain drew up. The usual semi-circle of fairies in white muslin
were standing on the right toe around the enamelled flower-bank, of
green canvas, on which the belated prince was sleeping. Suddenly a
flute is heard. The fairies start. The trees open, the fairies all
stand on the left toe, and the queen enters. It was the Signorina. She
bounded forward amid thunders of applause, and lighting on one foot
remained poised in air. Heavens! was this the great enchantress that
had drawn monarchs at her chariot-wheels? Those heavy muscular limbs,
those thick ankles, those cavernous eyes, that stereotyped smile,
those crudely painted cheeks! Where were the vermeil blooms, the
liquid expressive eyes, the harmonious limbs of Animula?

The Signorina danced. What gross, discordant movements! The play of
her limbs was all false and artificial. Her bounds were painful
athletic efforts; her poses were angular and distressed the eye. I
could bear it no longer; with an exclamation of disgust that drew
every eye upon me, I rose from my seat in the very middle of the
Signorina's pas-de-fascination, and abruptly quitted the house.

I hastened home to feast my eyes once more on the lovely form of my
sylph. I felt that henceforth to combat this passion would be
impossible. I applied my eye to the lens. Animula was there,--but what
could have happened? Some terrible change seemed to have taken place
during my absence. Some secret grief seemed to cloud the lovely
features of her I gazed upon. Her face had grown thin and haggard; her
limbs trailed heavily; the wondrous lustre of her golden hair had
faded. She was ill!--ill, and I could not assist her! I believe at
that moment I would have gladly forfeited all claims to my human
birthright, if I could only have been dwarfed to the size of an
animalcule, and permitted to console her from whom fate had forever
divided me.

I racked my brain for the solution of this mystery. What was it that
affected the sylph? She seemed to suffer intense pain. Her features
contracted, and she even writhed, as if with some internal agony. The
wondrous forests appeared also to have lost half their beauty. Their
hues were dim and in some places faded away altogether. I watched
Animula for hours with a breaking heart, and she seemed absolutely to
wither away under my very eye. Suddenly I remembered that I had not
looked at the water-drop for several days. In fact, I hated to see it;
for it reminded me of the natural barrier between Animula and myself.
I hurriedly looked down on the stage of the microscope. The slide was
still there,--but, great heavens! the water-drop had vanished! The
awful truth burst upon me; it had evaporated, until it had become so
minute as to be invisible to the naked eye; I had been gazing on its
last atom, the one that contained Animula,--and she was dying!

I rushed again to the front of the lens, and looked through. Alas! the
last agony had seized her. The rainbow-hued forests had all melted
away, and Animula lay struggling feebly in what seemed to be a spot of
dim light. Ah! the sight was horrible: the limbs once so round and
lovely shrivelling up into nothings; the eyes--those eyes that shone
like heaven--being quenched into black dust; the lustrous golden hair
now lank and discolored. The last throe came. I beheld that final
struggle of the blackening form--and I fainted.

When I awoke out of a trance of many hours, I found myself lying amid
the wreck of my instrument, myself as shattered in mind and body as
it. I crawled feebly to my bed, from which I did not rise for months.

They say now that I am mad; but they are mistaken. I am poor, for I
have neither the heart nor the will to work; all my money is spent,
and I live on charity. Young men's associations that love a joke
invite me to lecture on Optics before them, for which they pay me, and
laugh at me while I lecture. "Linley, the mad microscopist," is the
name I go by. I suppose that I talk incoherently while I lecture. Who
could talk sense when his brain is haunted by such ghastly memories,
while ever and anon among the shapes of death I behold the radiant
form of my lost Animula!


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