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Title:      A Chronological History of The Voyages and Discoveries in
            the South Sea or Pacific Ocean.
Author:     James Burney
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Title:      A Chronological History of The Voyages and Discoveries in
            the South Sea or Pacific Ocean.
Author:     James Burney





THE VOYAGE OF CAPTAIN ABEL JANSEN TASMAN IN THE YEAR 1642

and

NOTICES OF A SECOND VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY BY TASMAN. OF THE AMSTERDAM
STADT-HOUSE MAP OF THE WORLD; AND OF THE NAMES HOLLANDIA NOVA AND
ZEELANDIA NOVA

* * *

Being Chapter IV and VII of Volume III of BIBLIOTHECA AUSTRALIANA #5
JAMES BURNEY
A CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES IN THE SOUTH SEAS
Volume 3
N. ISRAEL/AMSTERDAM  DA CAPO PRESS/NEW YORK
Published 1967

A Facsimile of:
A CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF THE VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES IN
THE SOUTH SEA OR PACIFIC OCEAN.
PART III.
From the Year 1620, to the Year 1688.
ILLUSTRATED WITH CHARTS AND OTHER PLATES.
By JAMES BURNEY, CAPTAIN IN THE ROYAL NAVY.
LONDON. 1813.

* * * * *

CONTENTS OF VOLUME III.

CHAPTER IV.

THE VOYAGE OF CAPTAIN ABEL JANSEN TASMAN IN THE YEAR 1642.

Manuscript Journal of Captain Tasman's
Tasman sails from Batavia
At the Island Mauritius
Land discovered
Is named Van Diemen's Land
Frederik Hendrik's Bay
Other Land discovered, and named Staten Land [since, New Zealand]
Moordenaar's Bay
Drie Koningen Island
Pylstaart Island
Amsterdam Island
Amamocka Island
Island North of Amamocka
Prins Willem's Islands, and Heemskerk's Shoals
Onthona Java
Marquen Islands
Groene Islands
Island St Jan
Ant. Kaan's Island. Cape Sta. Maria. Gerrit Denys Island. Vischer's
Island
Salomon Sweert's Hoek
Coast of New Guinea
Vulcan's Island. Hooge Bergh
Islands Jamna and Arimoa
Islands Moa and Inson
Willem Schouten's Island
Return to Batavia

CHAPTER VII. NOTICES OF A SECOND VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY BY TASMAN. OF THE AMSTERDAM STADT-HOUSE MAP OF THE WORLD; AND OF THE NAMES HOLLANDIA NOVA AND ZEELANDIA NOVA. Second Voyage of Discovery by Tasman Extract from his Instructions Of the Name New Holland; 0n what occasion first applied to the Terra Australis Amsterdam Stadt-house Map of the World Zeelandia Nova * * * * * {Page 59} CHAPTER IV. THE VOYAGE OF CAPTAIN ABEL JANSEN TASMAN IN THE YEAR 1642. After the discovery of the Western coast of the _Terra Australis_ or _Great South Land_ by Theodoric Hertoge, which was in the year 1616, the Hollanders endeavoured at various opportunities to obtain further knowledge concerning the country and its extent, as well by their ships outward bound from Europe touching on different parts of the coast, as by vessels sent purposely from their Eastern settlements to make examination. Before the Presidentship of Governor Van Diemen, however, only the Northern and Western coasts had been visited: and to that time no limitation had been set by the track of any navigator to the extent Southward and Eastward of the _Terra Australis_. In 1642, the Governor and Council at _Batavia_ fitted out two ships to prosecute the discovery of the South Land, principally with a view to ascertain its extent. The command of this expedition was given to Captain Abel Jansen Tasman, and his Voyage proved to be one of the most importance to geography of any which had been undertaken since the first circumnavigation of the globe. The history of this Voyage will here be given in the Commander's own words, or, to speak more precisely, in a translation of them from his Journal, concerning which some prefatory explanation is necessary. In fact, all the published accounts of Tasman's Voyage are derived from his own Journal. The earliest extant, or at present known to have been published, is a very abridged narrative in the Dutch language, entitled, _een kort verhael uyt het journael van den Kommander_ Abel Jansen Tasman _int' ontdekken van t'onbekende Suit Landt int Jare 1642_; (i.e. _A short relation from the Journal of the Commander_ Abel Jansen Tasman, _in the Discovery of the Unknown South Land, in the year 1642_), which was published at Amsterdam, in 1674; by Dirck Rembrantz Van Nierop. Translations of this abridgment were soon after printed in most of the European languages. In 1726, {Page 60} Valentyn published the Voyage at greater length, accompanied with charts and views, in the IIId volume of his East Indian Descriptions. Mr. Dalrymple, from a comparison and examination of Valentyn with the accounts before published, drew up a narrative of the Voyage, which, with a selection of the charts and views from Valentyn, he published in his _Historical Collection of Discoveries in the Pacific Ocean_. Subsequent to the publication of Mr. Dalrymple's _Historical Collection_, a manuscript Journal of Captain Tasman's, with charts and views of the lands discovered by him, was brought to this country, and was purchased of the then possessor by Mr. Banks (the present Sir Joseph Banks) shortly after his return from the _South Sea_. In Sir Joseph's Library it has been preserved not merely as a curiosity. To facilitate the means of information from so valuable a manuscript, he procured it to be translated into English; and the Dutch original with the English translation are kept on the same shelf in his Library. From these, with the permission of the Right honourable owner, the account of Abel Jansen Tasman's Voyage is now offered to the public. The English translation was made in 1776, by the Reverend Charles Godfrey Woide, who was then Chaplain to His Majesty's Dutch Chapel at St. James's Palace, and afterwards Under Librarian to the British Museum, and is done with much care and judgment. Mr. Woide, in a note, expresses his opinion that this Journal is not in the handwriting of Captain Tasman, though he remarks the manner of spelling to be of the time of Tasman's Voyage. He makes the three following objections. 1st. That where Tasman's name appears as a signature, it is accompanied with the word '_Onderstout_' (_Undersigned_). 2dly. He notices the entire omission of three days in the Journal; and 3dly, he points out some inaccuracies which appeared to him more like the mistakes of a transcriber than of a journalist. Mr. Woide has given too much weight to these objections. The word _Onderstout_ accompanying {Page 61} the signatures, was a formality not unusually practised by those who subscribed their names; as appears by an example in this same Journal, where the opinion of one of the steersmen being demanded, is delivered in writing, _'Onderstout by my, Pieter N. Duytz.'_ i.e. Undersigned by me, Pieter N. Duytz.[*] The charge of three days being omitted, is immaterial, from the circumstance of the ships being on the days in question (Sept. 22d, 23d, and 24th, 1642) at anchor in port. With respect to the distinction between the inaccuracies of a transcriber and of a journalist, it is to be observed, that the journalist is frequently his own transcriber. It is a common practice with Voyagers, with Commanders especially, to keep two Journals, the last written of which is a transcript from the first, generally with additions or corrections as the journalist thinks proper, and this, the latter written, is considered, not as a copy, but as the fair Journal. Such, almost invariably, are the Journals transmitted by Sea Commanders to their superiors. The Manuscript in the library of Sir Joseph Banks, by the manner in which it is concluded (which will be seen in its place) has the appearance of being the Journal delivered by Captain Tasman to the Governor and Council at _Batavia_. But nothing is a more convincing proof of this being an original Journal than that the particulars of the navigation, from leaving _Batavia_ to Tasman's arrival at the scene of new discovery (a part of his voyage which has little or nothing to attract curiosity, or to repay the trouble of copying at length) are noted down in as full and circumstantial a manner as the more important occurrences and remarks when on the coast of newly discovered countries. On comparing the Manuscript with Valentyn, nearly but not all the charts and views in the Journal are found in Valentyn; [* MS, Journal. February the 14th, 1643.] {Page 62} but the copier or engraver has at times varied from the original, by substituting what he intended as improvements in lieu of supposed defects in the Journal. The figures in the original drawings it is true are so disproportioned as to he susceptible of alteration without danger of swerving wider from the truth; but the alterations have extended in a few instances to views of land, and to matters which relate to geographical positions, in all which, a copy cannot be too scrupulously exact. Valentyn has made another variation from the original, by relating all the proceedings in the third person. Such parts of the Journal as it would be wholly useless to publish, are here omitted; of which kind has been judged nearly the whole of the nagivation from _Batavia_ to the _Island Mauritius_; and generally, the common occurrences whilst not in sight of land. Such curtailment does not reduce a journal to an abstract, seeing the material parts are retained at length. Where remark or explanation has appeared necessary, it is introduced in the form of note at the bottom of the page, or deferred till after the conclusion of the Journal. The longitude is reckoned Eastward from the _Peak of Teneriffe_, (which is 16 46' W. of the Meridian of _Greenwich_, and was nearly so estimated in Tasman's time). The distances are set down in Dutch or German miles, 15 of which measure one degree. A peculiarity in Tasman's Journal, of which it is proper the reader should be timely advertised, is, that in the narrative of occurrences, he begins and ends the day at midnight: but the reckoning of the ship's course or route is kept from noon to noon; the latitude and longitude being set down for each day at noon, with the course and distance made good from the preceding noon. * * * * * {Page 63} JOURNAL or DESCRIPTION By me _Abel Jansz Tasman_, Of a Voyage from _Batavia_ for making Discoveries of the _Unknown South Land_ in the year 1642. May GOD ALMIGHTY be pleased to give His Blessing to this Voyage. Amen. [1642 August] August the 14th, we set sail from the road of _Batavia_ in the yacht Heemskirk, in company with the fly boat the Zeehaan, for the _Strait of Sunda_: and it was resolved (in Council) to sail from the said _Strait_ SWbW to 14 South latitude; afterwards to steer WSW to 20 S; and afterwards, due West for the _Island Mauritius_. [1642 September] September the 4th, in the afternoon, we had variation 22 30' NW. At the end of the first watch of the night we saw land; whereupon we shortened sail and lay to for the rest of the night. The 5th, in the morning, we perceived the land to be the _Island Mauritius_. We stood in, and anchored there about 9 o'clock in the morning. We had latitude 20 S, and our longitude by reckoning was 83 48', we supposing ourselves to be 50 miles Eastward from the _Mauritius_ when we first saw it. The 6th, we sent one of our mates, with three of our seamen, and six-men from the Zeehaan, to the woods to assist the huntsmen in catching game. At four this afternoon, the ship _Arend_ from the mother country anchored here. She sailed from the _Texel_ the 23d of April last. The Captain of the Arend reported to the Commander on shore, Van Steelen, that he had spoken a French ship near the Island. The Commander therefore immediately dispatched some people to the Northwest part of the Island, being suspicious that the Frenchmen intended to cut ebony there, which would not be allowed. The 7th, we received from the shore eight goats and one hog. We sent four of the goats to the Zeehaan; and sent two more men to assist the hunters. {Page 64} The 9th, we sent our carpenters on shore to cut timber. The 10th [and at other times afterwards] we received goats, and hogs from the shore, half of which were sent to the Zeehaan. The 13th. This day we sent fish to our people in the woods. The 16th, the yacht Little Mauritius got under sail to fetch ebony from a place to the Eastward, to he put on board the Arend; but she was prevented from getting out by the high wind. The 21st, the Little Mauritius got out, having been detained till now by a strong ESE trade wind. The 25th, at day break we had a light breeze from NNE, and afterwards it blew rather fresher from NWbW, which is the first land breeze we have had since we have been here at anchor. Our chief steersman, Francis Jacobsz, and Mr. Gillemans, took a draught of the land.[*] The 26th, we held a Council, and we appointed the 4th day of the next month for our departure from this Port. [1642 October] October the 4th. This was the day fixed for our departure; but the wind being contrary, we were forced to lie still. We sent our first steersman with the steersman of the Zeehaan to sound the Easterly entrance of the Port, to examine if we could pass that way; but they found the depth, with the highest spring tide, to be no more than 13 feet. [* This draught of the Mauritius SE Port, (a copy of which is annexed from Captain Tasman's Journal) has neither scale nor soundings. The different sketches which have been, published of this Port, have less resemblance to each other than might be expected. According to a plan in Van Keulen, from the Islands at the South-eastern entrance, which is the entrance included in Tasman's sketch, to the fort, the distance is one Dutch mile and a half. Van Keulen lays down sufficient depth of water in the Port for ships of any size; and the smallest depth of water in the channel towards the Eastern entrance, 3 fathoms. The chart published in Viscount de Vaux's History of the _Isle de France_, makes the distance from the islands at the SE entrance to where the Dutch Fort stood, nearly one-third less than Van Keulen; and the smallest depth, between the two entrances, three fathoms. By the observations of M. d'Apres and the Abbe de la Caille, the Island _Mauritius_ is in latitude from 19 58' S, to 20 31' S; and the middle part in 57 30' E longitude _from Greenwich_.] {Page 65} The 5th, our shallop went fishing, and returned with excellent fish for all the ship's crew. The 6th, we endeavoured to get through the SE channel, but were obliged to give it up. Caught fish for all the crew. The 7th, the wind continued Easterly. In the evening, we came to anchor under the Islands which are before the Bay, and had 17 fathoms muddy bottom. It is very difficult to get out of this Bay, the South Easterly winds blowing here so continually. No vessel ought to come in here unless for business. The 8th, in the morning, we had a breeze from shore with rainy weather. We weighed anchor, but the wind came contrary, and we were obliged to anchor again. About 8 o'clock, the wind changed and blew from NEbE. We weighed anchor, and stood out South Eastward to sea: for which the Lord be praised. This _Island Mauritius_, its South part, is in 20 12' S, and in longitude 78 47' E from _Tenerife_. We kept our course SSE. The 9th, the wind was from between the East and SE, and we stood to the Southward. The 12th, the variation was 23 30' NW. [After the 12th, the winds were variable, and the course was directed South Eastward.] The 27th, in the morning, we saw a great deal of duck weed. We held a Council, and it was resolved to keep a man constantly at the topmast head to look out; and that whoever first discovered land, sands, or banks under water, should receive a reward of three reals and a pot of arrack. Our latitude this day by account was 43 S, and our longitude 88 6'. In the afternoon, we had variation 26 45' NWesterly. [1642 November] November the 4th, at noon, our latitude by account was 48 25' S. In the afternoon on comparing with the master and the steersmen, we found our middle longitude[*] to be 107 25'. [* The longitude by the mean of all the reckonings.] {Page 66} Saw several patches of duck weed: we had a great many thunnies about the ship, and we also saw a seal, which made us conjecture that some Islands might be hereabouts. At night we shortened sail. The 6th, we had a storm from the West, with hail and snow: the weather very cold. At noon, latitude 49 4' S. longitude 114 56'. The variation was 26. The 7th, the wind was Westerly with hail and snow. This morning we held Council; and the following was delivered to us by our first Pilot, as the advice of himself and the Steersmen. "According to the large map of the _South Sea_, the Eastern part of the _Salomon Isles_ is in 205; the longitude beginning with the _Piko de Teneriffe_, being at present used by every body. 6 The longitude of _Batavia_ is 127 5'; and the longitude of _Hoorn Islands_ 185 45'. This is our advice: that we should keep to the parallel of 44 S latitude till we have passed 150 longitude: and then make for latitude 40 S, and keeping in that parallel, to run Eastward to 220 longitude: and then steering Northward, search with the trade wind from East to West for the _Salomon Islands_. We imagine if we meet with no main-land till we come to 150 longitude, we must then meet with Islands. "Undersigned, Francis Jacobsz." Whereupon we resolved with our Council and Steersmen to steer NE to latitude 45 or 44 S. The 10th, we had fine weather. We supposed our latitude to be 44 S; but at noon we found we were in 43 20'. Longitude 126 45'. The variation was 21 30' NWesterly. The sea ran very high from the SW, and sometimes from the SE. The 17th, we continued to see much sea weed floating. The sea still ran high from the SW, wherefore we presume that there is no large tract of land to the South. Latitude at noon 44 15'. Longitude 147 3'. We believed we had already passed the {Page 67} South land at present known, or that we were at least as far Eastward as Pieter Nuyts had been. The 18th, we saw whales. The variation was 12 NWesterly. During the night, we lay to, and at day-light sailed on again Eastward. The 19th, our latitude at noon was 45 5' S. Longitude 153 34' E. In the morning the variation was 8 NWesterly. The 22d, at noon, we found the latitude 42 49'. Our longitude 160 34'. Our compass was not steady as it should be. It may be that there are loadstones hereabouts, as our compasses do not stand still within eight points. There is something which keeps the needle in continual motion.[*] We have found the great NW variation decrease very suddenly. The 23d, found our latitude at noon 42 50'. Longitude 162 51'. The 24th, we had fine weather and a clear sky, with light wind from SW and South. Held our course EbN. At noon found the latitude was 42 25' S. Longitude 163 31'. In the afternoon, about four o'clock, we saw land bearing EbN, distant from us by conjecture ten miles. The land was very high, and towards evening we saw high mountains to the ESE, and to the NE two smaller mountains. Our compass here stood right. We had a light breeze from SE, and resolved to run off in the night five hours to sea, and then to run back again towards the land.[+] We sounded in the night, and had ground at 100 fathoms, fine white sand with small shells. We sounded afterwards, and had black gravel. The 25th, in the morning, it was calm. Towards noon, the wind came from SE, and afterwards from the South. We steered towards the shore, and about five o'clock in the afternoon were within three miles, and had soundings at 60 fathoms, the bottom coral. We ran nearer the coast, and at one mile distance had fine white [* A similar instance of unsteadiness in the needle was observed near _Cape Horne_ by the Nassau Fleet.] [+ The track on Captain Tasman's chart of _Van Diemen's Land_, is not so minutely drawn as to show all the variations of course mentioned in the Journal.] {Page 68} small sand. The coast here lies NbW and SbE, and is level. We were here in latitude 42 30', and middle longitude 163 50'. When you come from the West, and find the NW variation suddenly decrease, you may then look out for the land. Near the coast here, the needle points true North. As this land has not before been known to any European, we called it _Antony Van Diemen's Land_, in honour of our High Magistrate the Governor General, who sent us out to make discoveries. The Islands near us we named in honour of the Council of India, as you may see by the little map we made. The 26th, we had Easterly wind with rain, and did not see the land. At noon, we hoisted the flag to speak the Zeehaan, and ordered Mr. Gillemans to come on board, to whom we declared the reasons mentioned in a letter, which we gave him to shew to Gerrit Janszoon, the master of the Zeehaan, and to the mates; and which is as follows. "The Officers of the Zeehaan are directed to mark in their Journals, longitude 163 50' for the land we saw yesterday, which we found it to be upon comparing our accounts; and therefore we have fixed this longitude, and shall begin again from here to reckon the longitude. The Commander of the Zeehaan is to give this order to the steersmen. The maps also made of this land should place it in longitude 163 50' as before mentioned. "Undersigned, Abel Jansen Tasman." At noon, we judged our latitude to be 43 36' S. Longitude 163 2'. The 27th, in the morning, we saw the coast again. The wind was NE, with foggy rainy weather. We steered ESE. Our latitude at noon by account 44 4' S. Longitude 164 2'. At the fourth hour of the night, it being very dark, we lay to. The 28th, in the morning, we made sail Eastward. Saw the land NE from us, and stood towards it. The direction of the coast is here SEbE and NWbW. At noon, our latitude we {Page 69} supposed 44 12' S; longitude 165 2'. The wind NW, a light breeze. In the evening, we came near three small Islands, one of which has the shape of a lion's head, and is about three miles from the main land. During the night we lay to. The 29th, in the morning, we were still near the cliff which is shaped like a lion's head. We sailed along the coast which extends here East and West. Towards mid-day we passed two cliffs, the Western of which resembles the _Pedra branca_ near the coast of _China_. The Eastern has the appearance of a high mishapen tower, [_Hooge plomp Tore_], and is about four miles from the large land. We passed between this cliff and the main land. At noon, our latitude by account was 43 53' S. Longitude 166 3'.[*] We continued our course along the coast, and about five in the afternoon, we came near to a Bay which seemed to be a good Road, and we resolved to make for it. When we were almost in the Bay, a storm arose which obliged us to take in sail, and return to sea, it not being possible for us with so much wind to anchor the ships.[+] The 30th. We had been driven so far off in the night, that at daylight we could scarcely see the land. We had variable winds this day, and endeavoured to get in with the shore. At noon, the land bore NW from us. [1642 December] December the 1st, we found our latitude at noon 43 10' S, our longitude 167 55'. In the afternoon, we had an Easterly [* According to Tasman's Chart and the situation here noted, the ship was advanced at noon, near 4 leagues to the East or ENE beyond the two Cliffs.] [+ The Bay from which Tasman was thus forced by a storm, is named in his chart _Stoorm Bay_. The anchorage he aimed at, is the same where Captain Furneaux stopped in 1773, and which he named _Adventure Bay_. In Tasman's general sketch of _Van Diemen's Land_, there is no mark of any inlet or arm of the sea running into the land; but in a separate plan which he has given of _Stoorm Bay_, openings are left in the coast; and also Westward of the Bay, the coast is drawn receding Northward, corresponding with the discovery made in 17Q2, by M. D'Entrecasteaux, of a Strait or passage through to the NE, which separates the SW part of the land forming Tasman's _Stoorm Bay_ from the other part of _Van Diemen's Land_.] {Page 70} breeze, and an hour after sunset, we anchored in a good port in 22 fathoms, the bottom fine light grey sand. The 2d, early in the morning, we sent our first steersman with our shallop, and a boat of the Zeehaan well armed, to a Bay a good mile towards the North West from us, to look for fresh water, refreshments, or any other things. They returned three hours before night, and brought some greens of a kind which grow at the _Cape of Good Hope_ and may be used in the place of wormwood; and some of another kind which was long and saltish like sea parsley ('_Pieter Celij du mair_'). The steersman and the mate of the Zeehaan gave the following account.--They rowed round the point a good mile, where they found good fresh water, but which flowed so slowly, that whilst they staid they could get only one pailful. The greens, such as they brought, grew in great quantity. They heard human voices, and a sound like that of a trumpet or little gong not far off, but they could see nobody. They saw two trees which were each from two to two and a half fathoms big,[*] and tall from the ground to the branches 60 to 65 feet. The bark had been taken off with flint stones, and steps were cut for people to climb up to search the nests of the birds. These steps were full five feet one from the other, whence it was conjectured that the people here must be very tall, or that they used some artifice in climbing. They observed on the ground the traces of some animals resembling the marks made by the claws of a tiger; and they brought on board the excrements of some quadruped, as we supposed. They also brought pieces of good looking gums, which dropped from the trees, some like the _gumma lacca_. At the East corner of this Bay, they had soundings at 13 and 14 feet: the tide ebbed and flowed about three feet. Before the said corner they saw people; and some wild ducks, and geese. They took no fish except muscles which stuck to little [* Most probably in circumference.] {Page 71} bushes. The country was all over furnished with trees which stood thin, so that one might pass through every where, and distinguish objects at a distance, without hindrance from bushes or underwood. Many of the trees were burnt deep in near the ground. Smokes also were observed rising in several places in the woods. The 3d, we went with our shallop to the SE part of this Bay, where we found water, but the land was low and the water saltish. In the afternoon, we went to a little Bay WSW from our ships; but it came to blow, and the surf was high. We however let our carpenter swim to the shore, where he set up a post, and left the Prince's flag' flying upon it. This was nigh to four remarkable trees which stand in form of a crescent. When the carpenter had erected the post with the flag, he swam back to us through the surf, and we returned on board. In the evening, we observed 3 NE variation. We lay at anchor here in 43 S latitude, and longitude 167 30'.[*] The 4th, in the morning, we got under sail, with a NW wind, and steered to the Northward as close as we could, that we might look for a watering place. In the evening we saw a round mountain about eight miles NNW from us. We kept [* Names are not given in the Journal to the Bays or Capes seen of this land, or to the Islands near it. It is probable they were afterwards assigned on making the charts. In the chart of the Bay where Tasman anchored is inserted the name _Frederik Hendrik's Bay_, but disposed in such manner as to cause a belief that it was applied only to the inner harbour, which the boats visited on December the 2d . In 1772, M. Marion anchored in the same Bay in which Tasman had anchored so many years before; and it appears in the short account published of his Voyage, that he considered it to be the _Frederik Hendrik's Bay_ of Tasman. The late French charts however, apply the name solely to the inner port, which seems to have been the intention of the first discoverers; and to the anchorage of Abel Tasman and Marion, assign the name of _Marion's Bay_.] By some mistake in Valentyn, the ship's place on the 1st of December at noon, is given for the situation of _Frederik Hendrik's Bay_. The chart of _Van Diemen's Land_, likewise, in Valentyn, though the outline of coast is the same as in Tasman's chart, is marked differently in longitude, and not agreeing with the Journal. {Page 72} our course close to the wind N Eastward. Several smokes of fires were seen along the coast all the day. Here I should give a description of the extent of the coast, and the Islands near it; but I hope to be excused, and refer for brevity's sake to the Map made of it and joined herewith. The 5th, we kept our course as before, and lost sight of the land, the part last seen being the round mountain, which was then due West, six miles from us. We assembled the Council, and resolved to keep our course Eastward to longitude 195. At noon, our latitude was by account 41 34' S. Longitude 169. The 11th, the variation was 7 N Easterly. The 12th, we had a high sea from the SW. The 13th, our latitude was 42 10' S. Longitude 188 28'. Towards noon, we saw a large high land[*] about 15 miles SSE from us. We steered towards it, but the wind was light and variable. In the evening, we had a breeze, and steered East. The 14th, at noon, we were about two miles from the shore. Our latitude was 42 10' S; longitude 189 3'. This is a high double land. We could not get sight of the tops of the mountains for dark clouds. We sailed along the coast Northward, so close that we could see the waves break on the shore. We had soundings at two miles distance, 55 fathoms grey sand. In the evening and night it was calm, and a current set from the WNW which made us approach the shore, so we anchored with our stream anchor in 28 fathoms, muddy bottom. The 15th, in the morning, having a light wind, we weighed and stood farther from shore, and then kept our course Northward. At noon our latitude was 41 40' S; longitude 189 49'. We did not perceive any people, or the smokes of fires upon the land: and we could see that near the sea-coast the land was barren. [* This discovery was at first named Staten Land; but afterwards, NEW ZEALAND.] {Page 73} The 16th, we had little wind. Latitude at noon 40 58' S. At sunset, we found variation 9 23' N Easterly. The Northern extremity of the land in sight bore EbN from us. We steered towards it NE and ENE. In the second watch, we had soundings at 60 fathoms, fine grey sand. The 17th, at sunrise, we were about one mile from shore, and saw smoke rising in different places. At noon, latitude by account 40 32' S; longitude 190 47'. In the afternoon we sailed EbS, along a low land full of sand hills; having soundings at 30 fathoms depth, black sand. At sunset we anchored in 17 fathoms, near a sandy point of land, within which we saw a large open Bay, three or four miles wide. From this sandy point, a shoal or sand bank runs off a mile to the ESE, which lies under water, with six, seven, and eight feet depth: when you have passed this shoal, you can enter the Bay.[*] Variation here 9 N Easterly. The 18th. In the morning we weighed anchor, and stood into the Bay; our shallop and a boat of the Zeehaan going in before us to look for good anchorage and a watering place. At sunset it was calm, and we cast anchor in 15 fathoms, good muddy ground. An hour after sunset, we saw several lights on the land, and four vessels coming from the shore towards us. Two of these were our own boats. The people in the other two called to us in a strong rough voice. What they said, we did not understand; however, we called to them again in place of an answer. They repeated their cries several times, but did not come nearer than a stone's throw: they sounded also an instrument which made a noise like a Moorish trumpet; and we answered by blowing our trumpet. This was done on [* In a view given in the Manuscript Journal of the coast at this part, a remark is inserted that this shoal or bank extends three miles Eastward and Southward from the sandy point. The Chart, however, agrees with what is said-in the Journal, as above.] {Page 74} both sides several times. When it grew dark, they left off, and went away. We kept good watch all night, with our guns ready. The 19th, in the morning, a boat of the natives having 13 men in it, came near our ship; but not nearer than a stone's throw. They called to us several times, but their language had nothing in it like to the vocabulary of the _Salomon Islands_ given to us by the General and Council at BATAVIA. These people, as well as we could judge, were of our own common stature, strong boned, and of a rough voice. Their colour is between brown and yellow; their hair black, which they tie up on the crown of the head, like to the Japanese, and wear a large white feather upright in it.[*] Their vessels were two narrow long canoes fastened together, upon which, boards were fixed to sit on. Their paddles were more than a fathom long, and were pointed at the end. Their clothing seemed to us to be of mats, or of cotton: but most of them went with their breast naked. We showed them fish, linen, and knives, to invite them to come to us; hut they would not, and at length rowed back to the land. In the meantime, the Officers of the Zeehaan came on board us, and we resolved to go nearer to the shore with our ships, as here is good anchorage, and the people seemed to be desirous of our friendship. Immediately after we had taken this resolution, we saw seven vessels coming from the shore. One of them in which were 17 men, came very quick, and turned round behind the Zeehaan. Another with 13 stout men came within half a stone's throw of our ship. They called out one to the other several times. We showed them, as before, white linen: but they lay still. The Master of the Zeehaan, Gerard Janszoon, who was on board of our ship, ordered his boat, in which were a quarter-master and six seamen, to go to his ship, [* This part of the New Zealander's dress is omitted in the drawing. In Valentyn it has been supplied on the authority of the narrative.] {Page 75} to carry directions to the mates to keep on their guard, and that in case these people should come along side, not to allow too many of them to enter the ship at one time. When the Zeehaan's boat put off from our ship, the natives in the _praws_ or canoes nearest to us, gave a loud call to those who were behind the Zeehaan, and made a signal with their paddles, the meaning of which we could not guess. But when the boat of the Zeehaan had gone quite clear from our ship, the canoes of the natives which were between our two ships made furiously towards her, and ran with their beaks violently against her, so as to make her heel and take in water; and the foremost of these villains, with a blunt pointed pike, gave the quarter-master, Cornelius Joppe, a violent blow in his neck which made him fall overboard. The others then attacked the rest of our boat's crew with their paddles, and with short thick clubs (which we had in the beginning supposed to be clumsy _parangs_[*]) and overcame them. In this scuffle, three of the Zeehaan's men were killed, and one was mortally wounded. The quarter-master and two seamen swam for our ship, and we sent our boat which took them up alive. After the fight, these murderers took one of our dead people into their canoe: another of our dead men fell overboard and sunk. They let the boat go. Our ship and the Zeehaan fired at them with our muskets and guns, but we did not hit them, and they paddled away to the shore. We sent our boat to bring back the boat of the Zeehaan, wherein we found one of her men dead, and one mortally wounded. After this, there could no friendly intercourse take place between us and the natives, nor could we hope to obtain water or refreshments here; so we weighed anchor and set sail. When we were under sail, twenty-two of their boats put off from the shore and advanced towards us. Eleven of them were full of people. When they were come within reach of our guns, we [* Parangs are knives used in some parts of the _East Indies_ for cutting wood.] {Page 76} fired two shot at them, but without effect. The Zeehaan fired also, and hit a man in their foremost canoe, who was standing with a white flag in his hand, so that he fell down. We heard our grape shot clash against their canoes, but we know not what the effect was, except that it caused them suddenly to retreat towards the shore, where they lay still and did not come towards us again. We named this Bay _Moordenaar's Bay_, [i.e. _Murderer's Bay_.] The part in which we anchored is in 40 50' S latitude, and in longitude 191 30'. Variation there, 9 30' N Easterly. From _Moordenaar's Bay_ we steered ENE; but during the night we sailed backward and forward, having soundings from 26 to 15 fathoms. This is the second Land discovered by us. We named it _Staten Land_ in honour of the States General. It is possible that this land joins to the _Staten Land_;[*] but it is uncertain. It is a very fine country, and we hope it is part of the _Unknown South Continent_. The 20th, in the morning, we saw land nearly all round us, so that we have sailed perhaps 30 miles into a Bay. We at first thought the place where we had anchored was an Island, and that we should find a clear passage [Eastward] to the _Great South Sea_; but to our great disappointment we find it otherwise. The wind being from the Westward, we did all in our power to turn to windward to get back the way we had come. At noon we were in latitude 40 51' S. Longitude 192 55'. In [* Meaning the _Staten Land_ to the East of the _Tierra del Fuego_, discovered and so named by Schouten and Le Maire. The supposition that both Schouten and Le Maire's discovery and his own might form part of one and the same great Continent, led Tasman to apply the name on the present occasion; and singularly enough, in the last year in which it could have been allowable: for in the year which next followed, the Expedition of Hendrik Brower to _Chili_, deprived Schouten and Le Maire's _Staten Land_ of the honour of being any longer conjectured to be Continental Land. And Tasman's _Staten Land_ being thereby proved a separate Land from Schouten and Le Maire's discovery, its name was, not long afterwards, changed for that of NEW ZEALAND, which name it still retains.] {Page 77} the afternoon it was calm, and the current ran strong into the Bay. The land all around seems to be good fine land. The sea coast is low, but the land within is high enough. We found a muddy anchoring ground, at 60, 50, and to 15 fathoms depth, about 1 or 2 miles from shore. We had light winds all the afternoon. The 21st, in the second watch of the night, a breeze came from the West, and we sailed Northward. We found the coast of the Northern land to extend towards the NW. In the morning, it began to blow fresh. After breakfast we put about, and stood towards the South coast. Towards evening, we ran for shelter within a small Island which we brought to bear NNW of us, and then cast anchor in 33 fathoms, the bottom sand and shells. We had other Islands and cliffs near us. Our latitude here was 40 50', and longitude 192 37'.[*] It blew so hard in the night that we let go another anchor and got down the topmasts, as did the Zeehaan. The 22d and 23d, the gale continued strong from the NW, with dark foggy weather. The Zeehaan was almost forced from her anchors. The 24th, in the morning, it was calm. The Officers of the Zeehaan came on board our ship, and proposed that if the wind and weather would permit, we should examine if there is any passage through this Bay, as the flood tide was observed to come from the SE.[+] The 25th, the weather looked still very dark, and we remained at anchor. The 26th, in the morning, the wind came from ENE. We got under sail, and held our course North, and afterwards NNW, intending to sail round this land Northward. [* The situation here mentioned in the Journal is a quarter of a degree more Northerly than the anchoring place marked on the Chart.] [+ The uafavourable appearance of the weather seems to have prevented Tasman from making the proposed examination.] {Page 78} The 27th, we had a strong breeze from SW. At noon, our latitude was 38 38' S. Longitude 190 15'. After noon we steered NE [to get in with the land]. Variation 8 20' NE. The 28th, at noon, we saw a high mountain EbN from us, which at first we took to be an Island, but we found it was a part of the main land, and that the coast here extends as much as I could observe North and South. This mountain is in 38 S latitude. Our latitude at noon, by account, was 38 2'. Longitude 192 23'. At five miles from the shore we had soundings in 50 fathoms, fine sand mixed with clay. In the night it blew hard. The 29th, we had a fresh gale. Latitude at noon 37 17' S. The 30th, the weather became moderate, wind WNW. At noon our latitude was 37 S. Longitude 191 55'. We sailed NE, and towards evening saw the land again, bearing NE and NNE; we therefore steered more to the North. The 31st, at noon, found our latitude 36 45' S: longitude 191 46'. The coast here lies SE and NW. This land is in some places high; and in some full of sand hills. In the evening we were three miles from shore. Had soundings in the night at 80 fathoms. [1643 January] January 1st, 1643. This is an even coast, without shoals or banks, but there is a great surf on the shore. Latitude at noon 36 12' S. The 2d, and 3d, running Northward along the coast. The 4th. This morning we were near a Cape of land, and had an Island NWbN from us. We hoisted the white flag for the Officers of the Zeehaan to come on board, and we resolved to stand for the Island to look for fresh water and greens. We find a strong current setting Westward, and much sea from the NE, from which we hope to find a clear passage Eastward. In the evening we were near the Island, but could not observe that any thing we wanted might be got here. The 5th, in the morning, we had little wind and a calm sea. About noon, we sent Francis Jacobsz in our shallop, and the {Page 79} supercargo, Mr. Gillemans, in the Zeehaan's boat to the Island, to try if fresh water could be got. In the evening, they returned, and reported that they had been at a safe small Bay where fresh water came in abundance from a high mountain; but that there was a great surf on the shore, which would make watering there troublesome and dangerous. They rowed farther round about this Island to look if there was any more convenient place. Upon the highest mountain of the Island, they saw 35 persons who were very tall, and had staves or clubs. These people called to them in a strong rough voice. When they walked, they took very large strides. On other parts of the Island, a few people were seen here and there, which with those already mentioned, were thought to be all, or nearly all the inhabitants of the Island. Our people saw no trees, nor did they observe any cultivated land, except that near the fresh water there were some square plots of ground, green, and very pleasant; but of what kind the greens were, they could not distinguish. Two canoes were drawn up on the shore. In the evening, we anchored in 40 fathoms, good ground, a musket shot distant from the Island. [On the North side.] The 6th, in the morning, we put water casks in the two boats, and sent them to the shore. As they rowed towards the land, they saw tall men standing in different places, with long staves like pikes in their hands, who called to our people. There was much surf at the watering place, which made landing difficult; and between a point of the Island and another very high cliff or little Island, the current ran so strong against the boats that they could scarcely stem it; for which reasons the Officers held counsel together, and not being willing to expose the boats and the people, they returned to the ships. Before we saw them coming back, we had fired a gun and hoisted a flag as a signal for them to return. This Island we named _Drie Koningen Eyland_, i.e. _Three Kings Island_; [on account of this being the day of the _Epiphany_.] It is in latitude 34 25' S, and longitude 190 40'. {Page 80} We called the Officers of the Zeehaan on board, and it was resolved in Council, to sail Eastward to longitude 220, and then to steer North; and afterwards to get sight of the _Cocos_ and _Hoorne_ Islands. In the afternoon, we had the wind ESE, and steered NE. At sunset, _Drie Koningen Island_ bore SSW distant six or seven, miles; the cliffs and the Island bearing NE and SW one from the other.[*] The 7th, 8th, and 9th,[+] steered to the NE, with light East and ESE winds. A swell from the SE. The 10th, found our latitude at noon 31 28' S. Longitude 192 43'. The variation 10 30' N Easterly. [From the 10th to the 19th, the winds were variable; the courses sailed were towards the NE.] January the 19th, at noon, our latitude was 22 49' S. Longitude 203 27'. About two o'clock this afternoon, we discovered land bearing EbN about eight miles from us. We could not get near it, the wind being from the SE and blowing fresh. It is a high Island, not more than two or three miles in circumference, and in the situation it was from us, it resembled the breasts of a woman. It is in latitude 22 55' S,[ ] and longitude 204 15'. We called it _Pylstaart Eylandt_, [_Tropic Bird Island_] as we saw many of those birds near it.[**] The variation there was 7 30'. The 20th. At sunrise, the Island, we saw yesterday was still in sight, SSW from us, six miles. At noon, found we were in latitude 21 50' S. About one hour past noon, we saw other land bearing East from us, distant eight miles. We made towards it, and at night took in sail and lay to. [* This was not an observed, but an estimated bearing. By the cliffs (_Clippen_) are meant the small isles and rocks S Westward of _Drie Koningen Island_.] [+ The Journal contains no remark of land being in sight on any of these three days.] [ This latitude does not correspond with the noon latitude, it being evident the Island is more Northerly than the ship's situation at noon. Late observations give the latitude of this Island 22º 23' 30" S.] [**_Pyl-staert_ or _Pyl-staart_ signifies Arrow-tailed, and is the name by which the Hollanders distinguish the bird we call Tropic Bird. ] {Page 81} The 21st, in the first of the morning, it was calm. An Island bore from us EbS, distant five miles. Another Island lay to the North of it. We sailed to the NW part of the Northern Island, where we cast anchor in 25 fathoms, coral bottom. Here we lay in 21 20' S latitude, and in longitude 205 29'. These two Islands lie about SE and NW one from the other, and one mile and a half apart. The SE Island is the highest: the Northern Island is like Holland, and we named it _Amsterdam_, for we found plenty of refreshments here. The Southerly Island we named _Middleburgh_.[*] At noon, three men [natives] came in a small boat or canoe near our ship. They were of a brown colour, and naked except a poor covering round the waist. They were taller than our common stature, and two of them had long thick hair: the other had his hair cut very short. They called out loud to us several times; and we did so to them. We showed them some white linen, and threw a piece about three yards long into the water to them. They came towards it with their canoe, but it began to sink, and was already deep in the water when one of them jumped out of the canoe and dived after it. He was a long time under water, and at length came up with the linen. He put it several times upon his head as a sign of thankfulness. They then came a little nearer to the ship, and we tied two spike nails, a small Chinese looking-glass, and a string of beads, to a piece of wood, and put it overboard, which they took up, and in return reached to us with a long stick one of their fish-hooks and a small fishing-line. The fishhook was made of shell, and like a small anchovy. They laid the looking-glass and the beads several times upon their heads, and one of them hung the spike nails round his neck. But as the shutter was before the looking-glass so that they could not [* The Northern, which is the largest of the two Islands, is called by the natives _Tonga-tabu_: the other _Eooa_. _Tonga-tabu_ is the principal Island of the group which Captain Cook named the _Friendly Islands_.] {Page 82} look in it, we reached them another, which they looked in and laid on their heads. We showed them an old cocoa-nut and a fowl, and asked them from our Vocabulary for hogs, and fresh water; but we did not make them understand us. At last, they left us and went on shore, and it seemed to us as if they went for the purpose of fetching something for us. In the afternoon, we saw many people running along the shore with white flags, which we took to be meant for signs of peace, and we hoisted a white flag at our stern; whereupon four strong men in a small canoe carrying a white flag, put off from the shore and came on board us. The men were painted black from the middle to the thighs, and they had coverings of leaves round their necks. They delivered to us some cloth made of the bark of a tree; and the white flag they fixed on the stem of our boat. We judged from their gift, and by their canoe being better than the common ones, that they came from the King or Chief of the Country; and we gave them in return, a looking-glass, a knife, a piece of linen, and two spikes. We filled a wine-glass with wine, and drank it, to show them that it was nothing hurtful, and then filled the glass again and gave it them: but they threw out the wine, and took the glass with them on shore. In a short time after, a great many canoes came to the ships, bringing cocoa-nuts, for which we gave old nails in exchange, at the rate of three or four cocoa-nuts for a double spike. Besides those who came in the canoes, several of the natives swam from the shore, bringing things to exchange. Presently, a grave old man came on board of us, to whom the other Islanders showed much respect, so that he seemed to be their Chief. We conducted him to our Cabin. He paid us his respects, by bowing his head upon our feet; and we did him honour our way. We showed him a cup of fresh water, and he made signs that there was fresh water on shore. We made him a present of a piece of linen and several other things. This afternoon we detected one {Page 83} of the natives in stealing a pistol and a pair of gloves belonging to the Master of our ship. We took the things from him without anger. When it was near sunset, about 20 canoes came from the shore and took stations near our ship in a regular order. The people in them were very loud, and called out several times, Woo, Woo, Woo! whereupon all the natives who were in our ship sat down, and one of the canoes came on board, bringing a present from their King, of a fine large hog, and a great many cocoa-nuts and yams. The bearer of this was one of the four men who had first come to us with the white flag and the cloth. We returned by him a plate and some brass wire. We continued to make exchanges for provisions, until it began to grow dark, when all the natives went ashore except one, who staid and slept on board of us. The 22d, in the morning, many canoes came off to us with cocoa-nuts, yams, bananas, plantains, hogs, and fowls, which they exchanged for nails, beads, and linen. Several women also came on board, both old and young. The elder women had the little finger cut off from both hands; but the young women had not. The meaning of this we could not guess. The person who yesterday brought the presents, came this morning with two hogs; and we in return gave him a handsome knife and eight spike nails. We likewise gave this old man a satin habit, a hat, and a shirt, which we put on him. We carried some of the natives below to see our ship, and fired one of our great guns, which frightened them a good deal, but seeing that nobody was hurt, they were soon easy again. About noon, a large boat with a sail, such as is drawn in Le Maire and Schouten's Voyage, came to us. They made us a present of their cloth and some provisions, for which we made returns, and caused our music to be played, which they admired. In the mean time, we sent our boat and one of the Zeehaan's {Page 84} boats to the shore with water casks, they being armed with muskets, and our Master and Mr. Gillemans going in them. Some of the inhabitants also went from the ship with our people to shew them where the fresh water was. They rowed a good way towards the NE coast of this land, and arrived at last at a place where there were three small wells; but with so little water in them that they were obliged to take it up with cocoa-nut shells; and what they took was of a bad colour. The natives who conducted our men, led them farther into the country to a pleasant valley, where they were seated upon fine mats, and fresh water in cocoa-nut shells brought to them. In the evening, the boats returned on board, bringing a live hog: but from the account they gave, we found we could not water the ships here. We got by exchanges in the course of this day, near 40 hogs and 70 fowls, at the rate of a spike nail and a yard of old sail-cloth for a hog, and a double middle nail for a fowl; yams, cocoa-nuts, and fruits we bought for coral or beads. These people have no idea of tobacco, or of smoking. We saw no arms among them, so that here was altogether peace and friendship. The women wear a covering of mat-work that reaches from the middle to the knees: the rest of their body is naked. They cut their hair shorter than that of the men. The tide here runs SW and NE; and by our account we make it high water with a SW moon: the current is not strong: the rise and fall of the tide is seven or eight feet. The 23d. This morning, myself and the Skipper of our ship, Gerard Janszoon, went on shore with the shallop and two boats to dig for fresh water. We made the Chief understand that the wells ought to be made larger, and he directly set his people to work to do it for us; and in the mean while, he went with us to the valley, and ordered mats to be spread on the ground, and when we were seated, cocoa-nuts and fresh fish and several fruits were brought to us. He behaved to us with great friendship {Page 85} and enquired of us whence we came, and where we intended to go. We told him we had been more than a hundred days at sea, at which he and the natives were much astonished. We explained to them that we came to their country for water and provisions; and they answered us that we should have as much as we could wish for. We filled to day nine casks with water, and the Chief made us a present of four live hogs, a good many fowls, with cocoa-nuts and sugar canes. We presented him with two yards of cloth, six large spikes, and six strings of coral. I ordered a white flag to be brought, and we went with it to three of their Chiefs, to whom we explained that we wished it to be set up in that valley, and that it might remain there as a sign of peace between us: at which they were much pleased, and the flag was fixed there. The anchoring ground where the ships lay was steep and rocky; and about noon this day, whilst I was on shore, the Heemskerk was driven off the bank by the strengh of the trade wind, without being able to help it, and she drifted out to sea. There were but few people on board, and it was midnight before they got the anchor quite up and secured. We obtained by exchanges with the inhabitants this day, 100 hogs, 150 fowls, and a large quantity of yarns, and other fruits. As I could not get to my ship, I was obliged to pass the night on board the Zeehaan. The 24th, in the morning, the Heesmkerk was four miles to leeward of the Island. The Zeehaan therefore was got under sail and we went out and joined her. When I got on board the Heemskerk, we held a Council, and there being little prospect that we should be able to fetch up to the Island again, as the trade wind was strong from the SE, we resolved to proceed on our voyage, and to stop at some other Island, if we should meet with any. The place where we anchored at _Amsterdam_ we called Van {Page 86} _Diemen's Road_; and the Bay where our boats went to fetch water we named _Maria's Bay_; in honour of our Governor General, and his Lady. From our anchoring place at _Amsterdam_, two high but small Islands, about one mile and a half each in circumference, bore NbW, distant seven or eight miles. We directed our course NE, and about three in the afternoon, we saw a low and pretty large Island, distant four or five miles ENE from us. A short time afterwards, we saw three small Islands Eastward, and two others to the SE from us. They are all low land. We steered ENE for the largest Island, and anchored by the West side of it in 12 fathoms, shelly bottom, about a musket shot distance from land. NWbN from us, distant eight or nine miles, we saw two high Islands; and to the North and N Eastward we saw seven small Islands, distant from us about three or four miles. Most of these Islands have reefs of coral rock round about them: and the bottom also is rocky and steep, so that one must anchor near to the shore, The variation is here 7 North Easterly. The 25th, in the morning, several canoes came on hoard of us with cocoa-nuts, yams, and plantains, to exchange for nails, of which they were very desirous. It seems that but a few people live on this Island. Our chief pilot and the Master went with the shallop and both the boats for fresh water, one of the inhabitants going with them to show them where it was. We gave small presents to some of the natives, that they might know we did not desire to take their water without paying them for it. About two hours before sunset, the Master and pilot returned on board. They reported that they found on shore 60 or 70 persons sitting down, whom they believed to be all the men on this Island: that they had no arms, and seemed a good peaceable people. They saw also many women and children, and were shewn a good path which led landwards two-thirds of a mile, to a piece of fresh water about a quarter of a mile in {Page 87} circumference, and which is a fathom and a half or two fathoms higher than the level of the sea. They walked round by the edge of this lake, and found that it lay within a musket shot of the sea on the North side of the Island, where there was a good sandy Bay, and smooth water for landing and for loading the boats. In the front of this Bay was a coral reef, in which there was an opening on the West side. At low water one can row along the shore to the calm water, but the tide must be risen 1 or 2 feet before one can get to the sandy strand. As this was at the North side of the Island, and our ships lay at the West side, the boats had to row along the shore a full mile to come at the Bay near the fresh water. About three hours after sunset, our boats returned on board with water. The tide rises and falls here about eight feet. In the lake of fresh water were a good many wild duck, which were not at all shy. The inhabitants came to us with fruits and a few hogs. They are a thievish people, and steal every thing they can get at. Their clothing and manners are the same as those of the people of _Amsterdam Island_, except that the men had not so long and thick hair. The women seemed to he as strong in their bodies and limbs as the men. We named this Island _Rotterdam_. The natives called it _Amamocka_.[*] It lies in latitute 20 15' S, longitude 206 19'.[+] The variation here is 6 20' NE. [* The name by which the natives call this Island, is not given in the Manuscript Journal in the regular course of the narrative; but in the drawings. Two of the drawings shew the name differently written. _Tabula_ XXI. of the Manuscript, is a plan and representation of the Island _Amamocka_, with small Islands near it of the names _Amo, Amoa, Amango_, and _Amatafoa_. _Tabula_ XXII. is a representation of the inhabitants of _Anamocka_. The navigators of our own time have understood the native pronunciation of the name to be _Anamocka_; but the number of names with the same commencement in _Tab_. XXI. have much appearance of some reference to one common meaning, and favours the probability of _Amamocka_ being the right native name.] [+ In Tasman's Chart it is laid down a few miles more Eastward.] {Page 88} We continued at anchor taking on board fresh water, and making exchanges for provisions: and God be thanked, we were here well refreshed, and provided with water: but the eyes of an Argus are scarcely sufficient to guard against the thieving of the inhabitants. On the 31st, at noon, I went on shore with the chief pilot, the Skipper of our ship, and Mr. Gillemans, the merchant of the Zeehaan, to take our leave, and to make some more exchanges. When we landed, a great many of the natives assembled about us. We asked two of the principal among them to lead us to the Chief of the Island; and they conducted us by narrow paths, which were very dirty from much rain having fallen in the two last days, to the South side of the Island, where many cocoa-nut trees were regularly planted. From here they took us to the East side of the Island where six large vessels with masts were lying. They then led us to a pool of water which was about a mile in circumference; but we were not yet come to the _Aigy_ or _Latoun_, as they call their Chief. When we had rested, we again asked where the _Aigy_ was; and they pointed to the other side of the pool of water: but the day being far advanced, we returned by another way to our boats. In our walk, we saw several pieces of cultivated ground, or gardens, where the beds were regularly laid out into squares, and planted with different plants and fruits; bananas and other trees placed in strait lines, which made a pleasant show, and spread round about a very agreeable and fine odour: so that among these people who have the form of the human species but no human manners, you may see traces of reason and understanding. They know nothing about Religion or Divine Worship: they have no idols, relicks, or priests: but they have nevertheless superstitions; for I saw a man take up a water snake which was near his boat, and he put it respectfully upon his head, and then again into the water. They kill no flies, though they are very {Page 89} numerous and plague them extremely. Our steersman accidentally killed a fly in the presence of one of the principal people, who could not help shewing anger at it. The people of this Island have no King or Chief, and are without government; nevertheless they punished a man who was detected in stealing from us, by beating him with an old cocoa-nut on the back till the nut broke. [1643 February] February the 1st. This morning we weighed our anchors and sailed towards the NNW. The 2d, at noon, we were in latitude 1920' S; longitude 205 55'. In the afternoon, we discovered an Island of a tolerable height, bearing NEbE from us about seven miles distant.[*] We had the wind from East, a weak breeze. Our course was North. On the 4th, being under 17 S latitude, it was resolved in Council to steer Westward, and to keep a sharp look-out that we might not pass the _Cocos_ and _Verraders Islands_.[+] The 5th, we held our course Westward with a light wind from the ESE, and kept a look-out for _Cocos_ and _Verraders Islands_. Latitude at noon 16 30'; longitude 203 12'. After three glasses of the dog watch had run out, we saw land, and immediately changed our course Southward till seven glasses were out, and then turned Northward. The 6th, in the morning, we saw the land again, which we found to be three small Islands, with many sand banks and shoals round them. A large reef was to the Westward, which extended to the South, and gave us some apprehension. We sailed Southward close to the wind, which was from ESE. This reef was eight or nine miles in length; and right before us we saw breakers, which we did not dare attempt to pass. We could not clear this reef, neither could we clear a reef which [* In Tasman's chart, this Island is laid down due North from the anchoring place at _Amamocka_, and in latitude 18º 50' S. ] [+ At the time of altering the course to the West, Tasman was a degree of longitude to the Westward of _Cocos_ and _Verraders Islands_.] {Page 90} was to the Northward. We observed a small channel about twice the length of a ship wide, where there was no surf; and as we had no other chance for safety, we steered for it, and passed through the [opening in the] reef, having four fathoms depth, being all the time under a great deal of anxiety. You meet every where hereabouts with shoals, and there are here likewise about 18 or 19 Islands which you cannot coast on account of the reefs. When we were clear within the opening, we wished much to anchor near one of the Islands, but could not find anchorage for the many shoals and reefs. At noon, our latitude by account was 17 9'. Longitude 201 35'. After noon, we directed our course Northward to try to get out of these difficulties before night. There were many sands to the North, which we could scarcely keep clear of; but at last we found a passage between the reefs. It was a great disappointment to us that we could not find anchorage among these Islands. In the evening we saw three hills, which we took to be so many Islands. Part of the first watch of the night we ran back to avoid sands. After five glasses [i.e. five half hours] we put about Northward intending to run that way for the rest of the night. The wind was fresh from NE, and blew strong with rain. Early in the morning we came close upon an Island, and therefore we turned again Southward till day-break. We then saw the Island which yesterday evening bore NbW, and again put about to the Northward. The wind was NE and stormy; and we went with shortened sail to the NW. At noon we conjectured our latitude to be 16 S, and longitude 200 48'.[*] The 8th. This day we held Council amongst ourselves in the Heemskerk, it being too stormy for our friends of the Zeehaan to come on board; and we came to a resolution to steer a [* The account of this day's navigation does not well agree with the track in the Chart. The Journal assigns no name to these Islands. In the Chart the whole groupe is named _Prins Willem's Eylanden_ (i.e. _Prince William's Islands_); and the reefs and shoals are named _Heemskerk's Droochten_ (i.e. _Heemskerk's Shoals_).] {Page 91} Northerly course to 5 or to 4 of S latitude, that we might keep clear of the East coast of _Nova Guinea_, the present time of the year being the season when the North and South trade winds meet one another, which must be the cause of a great deal of rain and bad weather. In the large map of the _South Sea_, there are marked some Islands in the same latitude as the Islands we have met with, but differing in longitude above 200 miles from our accounts. However, as our voyage is very long, and we have sailed much East, and much West, it is possible there might be such a difference. The Islands by which we were so much encompassed on the 6th, are about 18 or 20 in number, perhaps more, as we could not exactly number them in the dark weather we had. [_From the time Tasman left the Prins Willem's Islands to March the 21st inclusive, no land was seen, nor does the Journal contain any occurrence particularly deserving notice, except what relates to the track sailed and the weather. For that interval therefore, the winds and the ship's place on every day at noon, are here set down tabular-wise, as being best adapted for giving a clear view of the navigation. Tasman made the longitude of Amamocka 206º 19' E. The longitudes therefore set down in this account of his track, if sub-tracted from 206 19', will give longitude by his Reckoning, West of Amamocka._] {Page 92} and {Page 93} contain a table not reproduced in this ebook. [1643 March] The 22d. Had a continuance of fine weather. The breeze light from the East and NE, with smooth water. We kept our course West, and at noon we saw land strait before us, distant about four miles; our latitude by account was 5 2' S. Longitude 178 32'. We steered WbN and afterwards NW to go North of the land. In the evening, we sailed near to and along the North part of the land, which we found to be many very small Islands, about twenty. The largest of them is not more than two miles long, and they all lay within one reef. A reef runs off NW, upon which are three cocoa-nut trees, by which it may easily be known again. These are the Islands which are set down in the Map by Jacob Le Maire, about 90 miles distant from the coast of _Nova Guinea_. We named them _Onthona Java_ for the great resemblance they have with it. In the evening we saw more land to the NNW; we therefore kept by the wind to the NNE in the night, with the foresail up. The 23d, when it was day, we set sail and steered West. The Islands we saw yesterday evening bore South, about three miles distant. At noon, we were in latitude by account 4 31' S, and longitude 177 18'. At night we lay to, for fear of coming on the Islands named _Marken_. {Page 94} The 24th. In the morning we made sail again, and steered West. About noon, we saw land right before us, very low, and appearing like two Islands, SE and NW one from the other. The most Northerly appears like Marken which Jacob Le Maire has described. At noon, we were in latitude 4 55' S, by which we find a current sets Southward. Our longitude, 175 30'. In the evening we steered to pass to the Northward of these Islands. In the night we floated with a calm sea which set us towards them. The 25th. In the morning watch before it was day-light, we heard the surf beating against the shore. It was still calm, and we got our boats out to tow, to keep us from the reefs; but the current and swell carried us towards them, and we could not find anchorage. About nine o'clock in the forenoon, a canoe with seven men in it came from the land to us. They brought about twenty cocoa-nuts of a wild kind and not very good, for which we gave them three strings of coral and some nails. These people were naked, except a piece of cloth which seemed to be of cotton round their waist. They were blacker than the inhabitants of the Islands we had been at, and not so civil or friendly in their behaviour. Some of them had their hair cut short, and others had it bound up like those villains at Moordenaar's Bay. One man had two feathers on the crown of his head, like two horns: another had rings through his nose, but what the rings were made of we could not distinguish. They did not set much value on the things we gave them. They were armed with bows and arrows. A breeze sprung up from the South, which happily carried us from the reef; and the canoe returned to the shore. There are 15 or 16 Islands in this groupe. The largest is about one mile long; the rest look almost like houses, and they lay all together within one reef. This reef towards the NW extends about a gun-shot beyond the Islands. At the NW part, is a small wood or cluster of trees growing on {Page 95} land that is level with the surface of the sea; and two miles thence farther to the NW, is a fragment or small clump[*], like a cape of land. The reef extends still farther N Westward half a mile. At noon we were in latitude by account 4 34' S, and longitude 175 10'. We sailed on towards the West, and NW. The 26th. The latitude observed at noon was 4 33' S, by which we found that a current had set us Southward, and therefore we steered NW. Longitude 174 30'. Variation 9 30' N Easterly. The 27th. At noon our latitude was 4 1'. Longitude 173 36'. We altered our course more to the West. The 28th. We had a weak breeze from East with fine weather and smooth sea. Towards noon we saw land strait before us. At noon we found we were in latitude 4 11' S; longitude 172 32'. The land was then about four miles distant. This Island is situated in latitude 4 50' S,[+] and longitude 172 16'; and is 46 miles West and WbN from _Marken_. At night we floated in a calm sea. The 29th in the morning, we found the current had set us towards the Islands. At noon we were in latitude 4 20', and longitude 172 17'. In the middle of the afternoon, two small boats came to us from the shore: they had two wings [outriggers]; in one were six, in the other three persons. When they came within a ship's length of us, a man sitting in one of the canoes broke an arrow in the middle, and put one half in his hair, which we supposed he meant as a token of friendship. These people were naked, their bodies quite black; they had curled hair, but not so woolly as the hair of the Caffres; and their noses were not so flat. They had bracelets apparently made of bones; [* _Klyn brokje_.] [+ This is a disagreement from the latitude just before given of the ship at noon, for which no cause appears.] {Page 96} some had their faces painted, and wore bands made of the bark of a tree round their foreheads. We spoke to them from our Vocabulary of the _Nova Guinea_ language, but they did not understand any thing we said except the word _Lamas_, which signifies cocoa-nuts. They brought nothing with them but their bows and arrows. We gave them some beads and nails. Towards evening a light breeze from the NE drove us towards the Islands, and kept us employed during the first part of the night in towing the ships. By the end of the second night watch, we had past clear. These are what Le Maire has named _Groene Islands_. There are five of them; to wit, two large Islands, and three small, which are on the West side.[*] They were so named on account of their being green and pleasant. We saw to the WSW another large island, and two or three very small Islands; and also to the Westward, very high land, which seemed to be of an extensive coast. Variation 9 N Easterly. The 30th. A light breeze from the NE. Observed a current setting us Southward. At noon we found the latitude 4 25'; longitude 172. In the evening, _St. Jan's Island_ bore NW, about six miles distant. The 31st, very light wind East. We held our course West. [* The _Groene Islands_ are level land and near to each other, so that when seen from a distance, in many directions they appear as one Island. In Captain Carteret's Voyage (A.D. 1767) they are described as a single Island, and named _Sir Charles Hardy's Island_. It is to be observed that Captain Carteret saw and passed them in the night. Tasman, however, towards noon saw land, which at noon he calls an Island, and afterwards describes to be a groupe of five Islands. Tasman has given a view of the _Groene Islands_, which is copied in Valentyn: but Valentyn's engraver has embellished this, and other of the drawings, with figures of the two ships, and has made this addition in a very uninformed manner; for at the _Groene Islands_ he has represented the ships lying at anchor; and in some other plates they appear sailing in the direction opposite to the track.] {Page 97} [1643 April] April the 1st, we were near the East part of _Nova Guinea_[*], which the Spaniards call _Cabo Santa Maria_. At noon, found we were in latitude 4 30' S; longitude 171 2'. The 2d, we had light winds and calms. We endeavoured to sail along the coast which here lies NW and SE. About 10 miles distant from _St. Jan's_ is another Island, which we named _Anthony Kaan's Island_. It bears due North from the _Cape Santa Maria_. At noon we found we were in latitude 4 9', and our longitude was 170 41'. _Cape Santa Maria_ then bore South; accordingly the longitude of the said Cape is 170 41'. In the night we had a land wind with which we held on our course N Westward. The 3d, in the forenoon, we saw a vessel coming towards us from the land: she was curved at each end, and was full of people. They did not venture within reach of gun-shot, and after a little time, went back to the shore. Latitude by account at noon 3 42' S. Longitude 170 20'. This seems to be a very fine land; but we could find no anchorage. In the night we had lightning and rain, and the wind variable. The 4th, we sailed along the coast, which extends NWbW with a great many Bays. We passed an Island which lies NW 12 miles from _Anthony Kaan's Island_. We called it _Gerrit Denys Island_. At noon, we reckoned our latitude 3 22' S. Longitude 169 50'. In the night had a land wind, with thunder, lightning and rain. The 5th, at noon, our latitude by account was 3 S. Longitude 169 17'. We were near an Island that is about 10 miles distant to the WNW from _Gerrit Denys Island_. Some boats which we supposed to be fishing boats were lying close under this Island, and therefore we named it _Vischer's Island_. About [* The land at present named _New Ireland_ was then believed to join, and form part of _New Guinea_.] {Page 98} noon, six boats came in our wake. We threw some beads, nails, and pieces of sail cloth into the water to float towards them; but they did not mind these things, and pointed to their heads, as if they wanted turbans. They were very shy, and kept at a distance as if they were afraid of a shot. They paddled a good while round the ships, sometimes giving a loud call to us, which we answered; and at length they returned to the land. The 6th. In the morning it was calm. Eight small canoes came from _Vischer's Island_, but they stopped at some distance, in the same manner as the boats which came yesterday, till one of our quartermasters took off his girdle and shewed to them; upon which, one of the canoes came to the ship. We made the people in her a present of a string of coral, and our quartermaster gave them his girdle: the other canoes then came to the ship. They gave us a little sago, which was the only commodity they had in their boats. We named to them _anieuw, oufi, pouacka_,[*] which signifies cocoa-nuts, yams, and pork; and they seemed to understand us, for they pointed to the land, and soon after departed. These people are black as Hottentots can be; their hair is of different colours, which is caused by powdering it with lime and ochre; they paint their faces red, the forehead excepted; and some among them had something white as big as a little finger sticking through their noses. They came without arms, and were without covering except some green leaves round their middle. Their canoes had each one outrigger. At noon, our latitude was 2 55' S; longitude 168 59'. In the afternoon, we had a good breeze from the SE. At night the wind was from the land, and weak. The 7th, we had little wind. Some canoes came from the [* These words are from Le Maire's Vocabulary of the _Salomon_ and _Cocos Island_ language. The Islands at which Tasman had lately stopped, made these words familiar to him and his people, and occasioned their being now tried before the words of the _New Guinea_ Vocabulary. ] {Page 99} shore, and after signs of invitation being made to them, came along-side. We bought of them a shark (which they call _Isdaxa_) and a dorado, for which we gave three strings of beads, and a cap. At going away, they altogether set up a loud shout. At noon, our latitude by account was 2 35' S; longitude 168 25'. Westward of us, the land begins to be very low, but the coast extends as far as we could see WbN and WNW. In the afternoon, we saw high land bearing WbN and West, distant by estimation 10 miles. We had a current setting along the coast always in our favour. In the night we passed a large Bay. The 8th, in the morning, we sailed by four low Islands, and as we passed them, found three more small Islands together near them Westward, which we passed before noon.. Our latitude at noon by account was 2 26' S; longitude 167 39'. Wind Easterly but variable. Found the variation here 10º N Easterly. In the afternoon, we came near a low point of land, to the North of which lie two small Islands. The coast of the main land begins here to decline to the South. At sunset, the two small Islands bore SbW; and the most advanced part of the main land in sight, which was flat and low, bore from us SWbS, distant about four miles.[*] We kept our course along the coast. The 9th, at sunrise, the most Southerly point seen of the main land bore SEbE, 2 miles distant. Here the land is suddenly terminated. We saw likewise a small low Island SSW, about two miles distant. We endeavoured to sail by the point of the main land, but it was calm. At noon we found our latitude 2 53' S; longitude 167 4'. The variation here was 10 N Easterly. [* A view os this Cape is given here from Tasman's Journal, in which it is named _Salomon Sweert's Hoek_, after a Member,of the Council at Batavia. It would have been very satisfactory if Captain Tasman had made charts of all the lands by which he sailed, instead of limiting himself to be the hydrographer of his own discoveries; but after coming into the track of Le Maire and Schouten's discoveries, his Journal contains views only of land unaccompanied with a single chart.] {Page 100} The 10th, at noon, we found our latitude 3 S; longitude 167 4'. The land bore from NNE to ENE. We kept our course towards the South, partly to discover more lands, and partly to see if there was a passage here to the South. Had weak variable winds. The 12th, at noon, our latitude by account was 3 28' S, longitude 166 51'. The 12th, in the night, there was a shock of an earthquake so strong that it awoke every person on board who was asleep, and they came terrified upon deck thinking the ship had struck against rocks. We tried for soundings, but, found no bottom. We afterwards felt several shocks, but less violent than the first. The weather was soon after rainy, but the wind soft and variable. At noon found our latitude 3 45' S. Longitude 167 1'. Steered to the SE, and saw a small, round, low Island SbW from us, 4 or 5 miles distant. The 13th, in the morning, we saw high mountainous land, and also low land, from ESE to SWbW. It appears to us as if we are in a large Bay; for the water here is as smooth as in a river. Our latitude at noon we supposed 4 22' S. Longitude 167 18'. In the evening we directed our course towards some mountains that bore SSW from us. The 14th, in the morning, we saw land from ENE to SSW; and soon afterwards, we saw land in the WSW. We hoped to find a passage between them; but on coming nearer,we found a Bay, and that the land all joined.[*] We therefore directed our course Westward. At noon, observed the latitude 5 27' S. Longitude 166 57'. About three o'clock in the afternoon, we met with a ledge or reef of rocks, some part level with the surface of the water. We conjectured this reef to be two miles distant from the [* Many years after Tasman's Voyage, a Strait was discovered here, which separates the land now called _New Britain_ from _New Guinea_.] {Page 101} main land. We had light winds and calms. Variation 9 15' NE. The 15th, we advanced but little. At noon, our latitude by account was 5 18' S; longitude 166 36'. In the evening, a high Island bore from us due NW, distant six miles. The 16th, we floated in a calm sea. The main land begins here to extend from one point to another nearly WbN. We saw on it high mountains and some fine vallies. The 17th. This morning we passed by the South of the high Island, and had other Islands in sight. Found our latitude at noon 5 8' S. Longitude 166. Variation 8 45' NE. At sunset the high Island bore from us EbN six or seven miles; and the West part of a high mountain on the main land of _Nova Guinea_ bore SWbS six or seven miles distant. The 18th, at noon, found our latitude 5 S; longitude 165 37'. The high mountain on the main then bore SbE; and other high mountains SWbS from us. We kept our course Westward. The 19th, the latitude observed at noon was 5 9' S; longitude 164 50'. A high round Island between us and the main land then bore South, distant 2 miles. We had the wind from the SE, and steered WSW. At two in the afternoon we fell in with some rocky banks and reefs; and from our mast-head saw several small reefs to the Northward, between some of which there was apparently deep water. We ran Southward, and that way found a passage between the reefs, when we resumed our course WSW; the round Island which at noon bore South, at this time bearing SEbE, about four miles distant; and the Northern part of some mountainous land (which we supposed,and which proved: to be an Island) bearing WNW, about seven miles distant. The above-mentioned reef lies in latitude 5 10' or 5 12' S.[*] [* Tasman means here the part near which he passed; for by the defcription above, the reefs must be of considerable extent.] {Page 102} The 20th, the latitude observed was 5 4' S; longitude 164 27'. In the night we came close under the _Vulcan's Island_ mentioned by W. Schouten in his Journal,[*] and between this Island and the main land we passed. We saw a great fire continually rising out of the mountains. We saw also many fires near the waterside, and inland between the mountains, so that this seems to be a very populous Island. We heard the ripling of the current, which set us Westward. In sailing along this coast of _Nova Guinea_, we continually saw floating wood, such as trees and bushes; and we passed through muddy streaks which seemed to come from rivers. The 21st. In the morning the body of _Vulcan's Island_ bore East distant three miles. We then saw NWbW from us, distant eight miles, the _Hooge Bergh_ (i.e. High Mountain), so named with reason by Willem Schouten. Our latitude observed at noon 4 30' S; longitude 163 13'. In the night we sailed between the main land of _Nova Guinea_, and the _Hooge Bergh_ which continually cast out flames from its top. We observed that here the land of _Nova Guinea_ near the sea shore begins to be low; therefore for fear of coming into danger, at the end of the first night watch we took in all our sails and let the ship drift with the current, which we always found to run Westward. The coast extends from here to the WNW and NWbW. The _Hooge Bergh_ during the whole night was in violent flames. The 22d. We set our sails at day-light and steered WNW. At sunrise we came into quite black water, and for fear it should be a shoal, we altered our course Northward. The _Hooge Bergh_ then bore ESE and SEbE distant seven miles; a small high Island bore NNE from us four or five miles distant; the most Western part of the main land seen, bore WNW; and to the SSW, at two miles distance from us, was a great River. The [* See Vol. IId. p.425.] {Page 103} course of this river was SSE and NNW between two small high Islands lying near to other Islands. Westward, we saw three more Islands. When we had sailed one mile Northward, and more distant from the low land, we sounded; and finding no bottom, we again directed our course WNW along the coast. We passed this day six small Islands, all of which we left on our right hand. At noon, observed the latitude 3 39' S; longitude 161 38'. Wind from the ENE, a fine breeze. The land hereabouts is low and full of rivers, whence come trees and brush-wood floating in whitish sandy water. The low land forms a Cape here, to the Westward of which is a large Bay; but the points bear WNW and ESE of each other. In the night, we passed a high Island which was between us and the main land. The 23d, we continued our course WNW, the wind still Easterly. This morning we passed so many pieces of trees, bamboos, and shrubs, floating, that we supposed ourselves to be in a large river; and we found we were set off from the shore by a current. Latitude at noon by account 3 1' S; longitude 160 3'. In the afternoon, we again came close to the land, and a boat of the country went near the Zeehaan. The 24th, we continued our course WNW. In the second watch of the night, we saw low land before us with fires on it. We took in sail and lay by the wind to wait for day-light. In the night we observed the latitude 2 20' S. The 25th, in the morning, we made sail towards the low land on which we had seen fires in the night, which we found to be three low Islands lying near the main land; and shortly after, we saw the Island _Moa_ which is about five miles farther along the coast Westward. In the forenoon we anchored by the West side of an Island, in 12 fathoms depth, on a good bottom of grey sand. We had much rain and a swell from the NW. A great many small canoes flocked round our ships, but they continued {Page 104} a long while paddling about us without venturing to come on board. We fastened some beads to pieces of wood and threw towards them; and at length they all came to the ships. They had with them only three cocoa-nuts; but they soon went to the shore and returned again with cocoa-nuts, unripe bananas, and fish both dried and fresh. These things they sold to us for nails, beads, and knives; giving 12 or 14 cocoanuts for a knife. Our latitude at noon was 2 11' S; longitude 156' 47'. We found variation here 8 NEasterly. The current has constantly run Westward, and has set us along the coast at the rate of four, five, or six miles a day. From the anchorage we now lay at, two small Islands are in sight to the Westward; also the _Island Arimoa_ bearing NWbW, distant by conjecture eight or nine miles. In the evening, all the natives left our ships. Their canoes are very narrow, being not more than a foot in breadth. The 26th. In the morning, the natives came again with cocoa-nuts and unripe bananas. It seems that at this time they have no great plenty of provisions for themselves. We obtained however as many cocoa-nuts as served out five to each man of our crew. The wind during the day was from the NE, and in the night SE from the land. The 27th. In the morning, the wind was from the SW. Many boats or canoes came to us from the main land, and from different Islands near us, with fish, cocoa-nuts, and unripe bananas, to traffic. Among these vessels, two were large and carried each 18 or 20 men, armed with pikes, bows and arrows, and harpoons. The people here are almost quite black and naked. They could pronounce after us the words of our language very exactly. In their own language they make much use of the letter R, and in some words pronounce it as if it were three times together. We bartered for as many cocoa-nuts to day as served to each {Page 105} man of our crew six, besides bananas. This day we observed the latitude 2 10' S. The 28th, early in the morning, we sailed from _Jamna_, and at noon anchored close to the _Island Moa_, in 10 fathoms muddy bottom. Immediately a great many small canoes came to us with cocoa-nuts and bananas. Our latitude here, we reckoned to be 2 5' S; our longitude 156 28'. The cocoa-nuts purchased to day served six to each man. The 29th, the canoes of the natives came on board with provisions as usual, and we served out four cocoa-nuts to each of our men. We consulted this evening, and resolved to sail and proceed on our voyage as soon as wind and weather would permit. The 30th, the wind blew hard from WNW, and the sea was high, which prevented our getting under sail. We trafficked for as many cocoa-nuts as the natives brought. [1643 May] May the 1st. The wind continued to blow from the WNW, and the current set Eastward, therefore we remained at anchor. The 2d. In the forenoon we trafficked with the natives, but in the afternoon it blew hard and they did not come off. On the 3d, in the morning, the boats of the natives again came on board. We were busied in cleaning the ship; and as one of our seamen was standing by the shrowds to hand over the buckets of water, a native shot at him with an arrow, which went into his thigh. We fired muskets among their canoes, and wounded one man in the arm. Soon after, we took up our anchors and ran in between the two Islands [_Moa_ and _Insou_] to where Jacob Le Maire had formerly moored his ship; and we cast anchor there in six fathoms, muddy bottom, in calm water and safe from all winds. The inhabitants, when they saw the ships sailing towards them, were much alarmed, and held up branches of trees; and in a short time they sent on board to us the man who had shot the arrow, to make peace with us. When this was done, the natives came to the ships again as at first, {Page 106} but they did not dare to ask so great a price for their goods as before, and were satisfied with what we chose to give them. We bought so many cocoa-nuts this day that each of our crew had nine. The 4th, a great many canoes came on board. We served seven cocoa-nuts to each of our men. The 5th, the wind was still Westerly. We bartered for cocoanuts, but what we got were small and unripe. The 6th, about eight in the morning, a breeze sprung up from the land, and we took up our anchors to proceed on our voyage. At these Islands, _Jamna_ and _Moa_, we procured 6,000 cocoa-nuts, and about 100 bunches of bananas for the two ships.[*] To help us in our traffick with the natives, we took pieces of iron hoop, which we fitted with handles in the form of knives, and made them somewhat bright and sharp. Before we had sailed a mile, it fell calm, and soon after, the Westerly wind returned. The 8th, in the morning at sunrise, we had the great Island _Arimoa_[+] right SW from us, distant about three miles. The 9th, we passed by the North side of _Arimoa_. At sunset the North point of the Island bore EbS, distant seven miles. We were here in 67 fathoms depth about three miles from the shore [of the main land of _New Guinea_], which is very low. The wind was NW, and we sailed slowly along [and slanting towards] the shore, having soundings at 50, 40, 30, and 24 fathoms, all good bottom, and then we put about on the other tack. [* On six of the days that Tasman stopped at these Islands, the numbers of cocoanuts that were shared out to each of his men are specified. On five other days the numbers distributed are not noticed, and it is probable they were in a smaller proportion. Making allowance under the average for the five days, will give for the number of men in both the ships at this time, about one hundred.] [+ Schouten's Chart does not show the Island _Arimoa_ to be larger than other Islands near it.] {Page 107} The 10th, the wind was from the South. We sailed here along a low coast, in thick water of a greenish colour, which we supposed to come out of rivers, but we were too far from the land to distinguish exactly. We observed however, that the stream here set us continually off shore. At noon, found the latitude, 1 17' S; our longitude 155 12'. The 11th at noon, the wind was SE; the land not in sight. Found our latitude 1 3' S; longitude 154 28'. We steered WbS. Variation 6 30' NE. In the night we had a fine breeze, but at times light. It seems however as if this was the beginning of the Eastern Monsoon. The 12th, we saw _Willem Schouten's Island_. At noon the North part of the Island bore from us due West distant six miles. Found our latitude 0 54' S; longitude 15317'. In the night we sailed along the North coast of _Schouten's Island_. The 13th, in the morning, the West point of Schouten's Island bore nearly WbS from us, two miles distant; and a small Island bore from us NWbN, distant from the aforesaid point three or four miles. After we had passed _Willem Schouten's Island_, we steered WSW to get sight again of the main land. At noon, we supposed our latitude 0 54' S; longitude 152 6'. In the afternoon, we saw the main land of _New Guinea_ to the SSW, which was here low land. Wind from between the East and SE. The 14th. In the morning we came close to the land of _New Guinea_. The inner land is very high, like the Island _Formosa_; but near the coast, the land is almost every where low. We sailed West and WbN along the coast towards the _Cape de Goede Hoop_.[*] Eastward of the Cape the land begins to be very high, even close to the shore, and without any low land. It is as high as the land of _Formosa_. [* Tasman has mistakenly applied this name to a Cape of the main land of _New Guinea_; the _Cape de Goede Hoop_ of Le Maire and Schouten, being the West Cape of _W. Schouten's Island_. See Vol. II. p, 432.] {Page 108} The 15th, we had a light wind from ENE. At noon, the _Cape de Goede Hoop_ bore South, distant three miles. We reckoned our latitude 0 41' S; longitude 149 53'. Variation here 6 NE. The 16th, we were sailing past the Bay into which W. Schouten went and was obliged to return. We had light winds and much calm, but we perceive by the land that the current every day sets us Westward. At noon the West point of the Bay bore SSW. Observed in latitude 0 16' S, longitude 149 9'. We saw several small Islands near the aforesaid West point. The 17th. This morning we sailed by the North side of a small Island, at about a mile distance, and passed over a bank on which we sounded in nine fathoms, stony bottom. When we had passed this first bank, we had deep water; but soon after, we found ourselves, in seven fathoms, the Island then bearing SbE. We saw five or six other Islands before us Westward. At noon, the small Island we had passed bore East, distant about three miles. Our latitude by account was 0 20' S; longitude 148 34'. At sunset, we saw NWbW from us, seven or eight Islands lying in one line WbN and EbS from each other. We left them on our right hand; and on our left we passed four small Islands which lay close to the main land of _New Guinea_. Along the coast are several small Bays, but with great depth of water. In the night we anchored in 40 fathoms sandy bottom, opposite to a Bay, and about three quarters of a mile from the shore, a large Island bearing from us WbS, distant about six miles. The 18th, early in the morning, we weighed anchor, and steered for a Strait between the main land and the Island. At noon, we had a weak breeze from the West and found a current setting against us, on which account we anchored, having bottom at 16 fathoms, coral. We lay here between an Island and a rock level with the surface of the water. We had sailed six miles [since yesterday noon], and our latitude by account was 0 26' S; {Page 109} longitude ----.[*] After we anchored, the current ran with more rapidity till four in the afternoon, when it began to change; running one way Westward, and the flood Eastward, so that we reckon a WSW moon makes high water here. We cannot be far from the West end of _Nova Guinea_, for the coast begins to turn Southward. This afternoon, several boats came near us. The people in them said they were Ternatans, and they spoke the _Ternate_ language; but they would not venture on board, and we believed them to be pirates. In the night we had a violent storm, and very irregular currents. The 19th, in the morning, we got under sail. We had Southerly winds and calms, and endeavoured to make our way to the Southward near the Coast of _New Guinea_. We saw much cultivated land, and had soundings from 25 to 50 fathoms. At noon we found the latitude 0 35' S; longitude ----. The 20th, we were endeavouring to get Southward between Islands. We sailed over a bank in 5 fathoms. We found the currents here running in so strange a manner that in my judgement there is no possibility of giving a description of them. This West point of _New Guinea_ is extraordinary hilly land. The coast here is full of turnings, with innumerable Bays and Islands near it; and the currents in many places are as strong as the tide before _Flushing_ pier head, the flood running Northward, and the ebb Southward; but the stream following the windings of the coast, and the direction of the Straits between the Islands. We landed at different places to get firewood, [* In the Manuscript, the longitude is not given after the 17th, but is mentioned with a blank left for the numbers, in manner as above; and the same is done for some days following. In Valentyn, the longitude is omitted for several days preceding the 18th of May, and on that day it is set down 147 55'; which is a quarter of a degree more Westward than the distance above specified to have been sailed on the 18th, applied to the longitude on the 17th, will give; and was apparently calculated with an allowance for a Westerly current.] {Page 110} which is in abundance. We found traces of people, but did not see any body. The fishermen it appears come here at one season of the year to dry their fish. Observed the variation here 4 30' N.Easterly. The 24th, we found our latitude at noon 1 6' S; and determined to steer for the _Island Ceram_. The 26th, we saw the coast of _Ceram_. [1643 June] June the 15th, we arrived at _Batavia_. God be praised for this Happy Voyage. Amen. In the ship Heemskerk, dated as above, Your most Humble and most dutiful Servant, (Undersigned) Abel Jansz Tasman. * * * With the Commander's signature the Journal concludes. It is written in the most plain and intelligible style, and abounds in traits characteristic of the nautical fashions of the time. Such indeed, is the encomium merited generally by the early Dutch Journals, The Lands discovered by Tasman are, _Van Diemen's Land_, under which name are comprehended the smaller Islands seen by him in that neighbourhood. _New Zealand_; but whether Continent or Island doubtful. _Pylstaart Island._ The Groupe now called the _Friendly Islands._ A single Island due North of _Amamocka_, in latitude 18 50' S. _Prins Willem's Islands_ and _Heemskerk Shoals._ Land seen NNW of _Onthona Java_, in about 4 30' S, and longitude 158 30' E from _Greenwich_. [The lands seen in the neighbourhood of _New Guinea_ are not reckoned among the discoveries made in this Voyage, they having been seen before by Schouten and Le Maire.] The foregoing list is to be respected more according to the magnitude of the Countries comprized in it, than for its length. All the discoveries made by Tasman have been seen since his time by other Europeans, {Page 111} except one or two small Islands. The _Prins Willem's Islands_ and _Heemskerk's Shoals_ have been generally avoided in the later South Sea navigations, on account of the surrounding dangers of which Tasman's Journal has given such ample warning. In 1797, however, the Missionary ship the Duff grounded on a shoal in 16 28' S latitude, and 180 40' E longitude from _Greenwich_, which no doubt was part of the _Heemskerk Shoals_. Tasman has placed the whole of the Islands and Shoals seen by him of this groupe, in longitude 4 3' to 5 30' W from his anchorage at _Amamocka_, which applied to the longitude of that place, as determined by modern observations, is 179 45' E to 181 12' E from the Meridian of _Greenwich_. This longitude cannot be liable to much error, as Tasman was only five days in sailing from _Amamocka_ to _Prins Willem's Islands_. Tasman marked the longitude in his Charts, and also daily in his Journal, as reckoned from _Tenerife_. His longitudes, however, are to be computed from the Meridian of the Island _Mauritius_ at the _South East Port_, which according to modern observations is 57 40' E from the Meridian of _Greenwich_, and which Tasman reckoned to be 78 47' East from that of the _Peak of Tenerife_. The difference of these numbers, i.e. 21 7', subtracted from the longitudes in Tasman's Journal, will adapt his reckoning to the Meridian of _Greenwich_, and will shew the situations which his discoveries would have occupied on the present Charts, if they had not been seen by later Voyagers. The following comparisons will serve as a test of the general correctness of Tasman's reckoning. From the Island _Mauritius_ (the _SE Port_) to his anchorage at _Frederick Hendrik Bay_, Tasman made longitude 88 43'. The difference of the meridians of those places as determined by late observations is 90 28'. The comparison made at the principal points of Tasman's track, between the longitudes deduced from his reckoning, and those received in the present Charts as established from late observations, stands thus From the Meridian of Greenwich. By Tasman's Reckoning. By late Observations. Frederick Hendrik Bay 146 23' E. 148 8' E. Three Kings Island 169 33 172 25. Anchorage at Amamocka 185 12 185 15. Cape Santa Maria, 149 34 153 26. East end of New Ireland {Page 112} It is observable in Tasman's Voyage, that whilst he was sailing Eastward, without the Tropics, his reckoning in longitude was less than the truth; and when within the Tropics he directed his course Westward, his reckoning in longitude was always too great. The latter circumstance seems to have proceeded from his making too large allowance for leeward drift of the sea or current, in the trade winds. The longitude by his reckoning between _Amamock_ a and _Cape Santa Maria_ is nearly four degrees more than the difference between those places as found by late observations; and between _Cape Santa Maria_ and Salomon _Sweert' s hoek_, Tasman's reckoning is a degree more in longitude than Schouten's. It was remarked in the introductory part of this Chapter, that some of the less important parts of Captain Tasman's Journal would not be inserted in the Copy now published. It is proper also to notice the omission of Drawings. In the Manuscript Journal, the Charts and Drawings amount to 38 in number. Copies will be found here of all the Charts; but of the Views of Land and other Drawings, only a small portion has been taken. The superior importance of Captain Tasman's Discoveries, and the advantage of delivering them from his own Journal, would have justified fuller publication than is here given. Pains, however, have been taken, that nothing of consequence should be wanting. In conclusion, it must be allowed, that Abel Jansen Tasman was both a great and a fortunate Discoverer, and that his success is in part only to be attributed to Fortune. The track in which he sailed, and the careful Reckoning kept by him, which so nearly assigns the true situation to each of his discoveries, shew him to have been an enterprizing and an able navigator; and it is to be esteemed no small addition to his important discoveries, and indeed no slight evidence of his merit, that be explored a larger portion of Unknown Sea in a high latitude, and thereby restricted the limits of a supposed Southern Continent, more than any other navigator between the time of Magalhanes and the time of Captain Cook. * * * * * {Page 178} CHAPTER VII. NOTICES OF A SECOND VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY BY TASMAN.--OF THE AMSTERDAM STADT-HOUSE MAP OF THE WORLD; AND OF THE NAMES HOLLANDIA NOVA AND ZEELANDIA NOVA. [1644] We shall conclude this series of the expeditions for discovery undertaken by the Hollanders during the Presidentship at _Batavia_ of Antony Van Diemen, with the notice of a second voyage made by Abel Jansen Tasman. This is one of those of which only a faint remembrance has been preserved, of which no account has been published; and though it is known to have benefited geography by causing additions to be made in the chart of the _Great South Land_ or _Terra Australis_, yet those additions cannot be claimed with certainty, and are only in part and doubtfully to be recognized by some of the names imposed upon headlands and other parts of the coast marking the time, or being similar to the names given in his former voyage. The discoveries of Tasman have been so ill understood, that in some of the charts published in the eighteenth century, his two voyages are confounded by a representation of them in a single track. The object of the second voyage was 4 to make more full "discovery of _New Guinea_, and of the unknown coasts of the discovered East and South Lands." A copy of the Orders and Instructions given to the Commander by the Governor General and Council at _Batavia_, came into the possession of Sir Joseph Banks at the same time with the manuscript Journal of Captain Tasman's first voyage. These Instructions in the original Dutch, accompanied with an English translation, were published in Mr. Dalrymple's _Collection of Memoirs concerning the Land of Papua_. They are dated January the 29th, 1644, and are valuable both for making known the proposed plan of {Page 179} Tasman's second expedition, and for the quantity of information they furnish concerning the antecedent expeditions and discoveries; brief notices of which were inserted in the Instructions, to serve as an additional guidance to the Commander, Abel Tasman. This second voyage of discovery by Tasman was intended to penetrate into the _South Sea_; but it does not appear that this intention was fulfilled. It is proper nevertheless, to notice here the plan of the undertaking, and it shews that the Hollanders at this time had formed very just conceptions of the extent and figure both of _New Guinea_ and of the _Great South Land_. The antecedent expeditions which are recited in the Instructions were all made on the Western side of _New Guinea_ and the _Terra Australis_: to particularize them here would be too great a digression; therefore the readers desirous to be informed respecting them are referred to Mr. Dalrymple's publication. The Instructions to Tasman say: It now only remains to be discovered, whether _Nova Guinea_ is one continent with this _Great South Land_, or whether it is separated by channels and Islands lying between them; and also, whether the new _Van Diemen's Land_ is the same continent with these two great countries or with one of them."--For which purposes, After fulfilling your orders at _Amboina_ and _Banda_, you shall in the latter end of February (or sooner if possible) begin the voyage you are ordered upon, and sail Eastward to the _Ture hoek_ or _Cape Valsche_, situated in 8 S latitude on the South Coast of _Nova Guinea_; whence you are to continue Eastward along the coast to 9 S, crossing carefully the shallow Bight or Cove (vlakke bogt) at that part, and examining with the yacht about the _High Island_ or _Speult's River_ for a harbour, also inspecting the state of the country; and in the interim dispatch the De Brak Tender to look into the Cove for two {Page 180} or three days, to examine if within the _Great Inlet_ there is an entrance into the _South Sea_, which may be soon known by the course of the currents. It is apprehended you will in these parts meet the South East trade-wind, which will make it difficult to keep in with the coast; nevertheless, endeavour by all means to proceed, that we may be certain whether this land [of _New Guinea_] is divided from the _Great_ and _Known South Land_, or not; and you shall try (if possible) to run to the SE as far as to the new _Van Diemen's Land_, steering along the East coast of the _Known South Land_ according to its trending; and from _Van Diemen's Land_ to the Islands _St. Pieter_ and _Francois_[*], and following the direction of the coast Westward to _De Wits Land_ and _Willems River_, in 22 S latitude, when the known _South Land_ would be entirely circumnavigated, and discovered to be the largest Island in the globe. But as it is possible the Land of _Nova Guinea_ is joined to the _South Land_, you are then, which the SE trade-wind will enable you to do, to run along the North [NW] coast from 17 to 22 S, whence you shall steer along the _Land of Eendragt_ to _Houtmans Abrolhos_; and when you have found a proper place thereabouts for anchoring, you are to endeavour to find a chest containing 8,000 rix dollars, that was lost in the wreck of the ship _Batavia_ in the year 1629. Likewise make search on the main land thereabout, after two Netherlanders, who, having forfeited their lives, were put on shore by their Commander Francisco Polsert, if they are still alive, in which case you can enquire of them concerning the country; and, if they entreat you to that purpose, give them a passage hither. On [* The most Eastern part of _De Nuyts Land_ on the South coast; diseovered in 1627.] {Page 181} this occasion you ought to search for a good watering and refreshing place in 26 or 28 S latitude, which would be very desirable for our outward-bound ships. The foregoing are the principal of the orders which related to the navigation. With respect to the proposed discovery of the Eastern coast of the _Great South Land_, it was no small step towards effecting it, that in his former voyage Tasman had discovered the East coast of _Van Diemen's Land_. The examinations of his second voyage, however, are supposed to have been employed wholly on the Northern and Western coasts. Hitherto the name of New Holland had not been given to any part of this land. Throughout the Instructions to Tasman for his second voyage, the _Terra Australis_ is called the _Groote Zuid-land_, or _On-bekende Zuid-land_. i.e. The _Great_ or the _Unknown South Land_. The earliest mention that is found of the name of _Nova Hollandia_ or _New Holland_ is in the year 1665, when it appears to have been adopted by direction of the Government in Holland for all the Western side of the _Terra Australis_. Three years prior to that time, the Stadt-house, or Town Hall, at _Amsterdam_ had been destroyed by fire; in consequence of which accident, a new Stadt-house was built. Among the embellishments to the new building were three Hemispheres cut in stone-work, one for a representation of the Celestial Sphere, the other two for a Map of the World; and they were each twenty-two feet in diameter. The circles were of brass inlaid; and the whole was executed under the direction of Arius Quellius d'Anvers, a sculptor of eminence. Through a strange misapprehension of the nature of grandeur, this beautiful piece of geography was destined to decorate the floor, or, strictly speaking, to be itself the floor in the most public place of resort in the new Stadt-house, being made the pavement of the great hall between the two court yards. In a printed description of the building, this disposition of the three {Page 182} Hemispheres is extolled, one, might almost imagine ironically, as an example of magnificence, the more grand for that it exposed them incessantly to be trodden upon by a concourse of people[*]. The three Hemispheres have long been completely effaced. In the year 1773, Sir Joseph Banks, being then at _Amsterdam_, was at much pains in making enquiry concerning the Stadt-house Map; but he could obtain no proof of the work having been visible within the memory of man. Fortunately, owing to the good taste and judgment of M. Thevenot, a copy of the most material portion to geography of one of the terrestrial hemispheres has been preserved in his _Divers Voyages Curieuses_; and much acknowledgment is due to him on this account. In the part thus saved by M. Thevenot, is included all that was then known of _New Guinea_, of the _Terra Australis_ or _South Land_, and of Tasman's _State Land_. _New Guinea_ is not made to join the _South Land_, neither is it drawn as a separate land; but at three degrees to the East of.the _Valsche Cape_ the line of coast is discontinued and a chasm left of about a degree in latitude, from 7 45' to 8 45' S, at which last parallel the coast of _Carpentaria_ is made to begin. We have here, and also in what has been cited from the Instructions, to admire how completely unknown to the world was the discovery which had been made by Luis Vaez de Torres, of a Strait running between _New Guinea_ and the _Terra Australis_. In this preserved part of the Stadt-house Map, the Western side (comprehending more than one half) of the _Terra Australis_ is distinguished by the name _Hollandia Nova_ (or _New Holland_); and Eastward on the same land, but without defined limits, is inserted the name _Terre Australe_, which being in the French language was [* _Description de l'Hotel de Ville d'Amsterdam_. An imperfect copy in the _British Museum_, title page and date wanting.] {Page 183} probably an explanatory addition introduced by M. Thevenot himself. Farther East is Tasman's _State Land_, which is here named _Zeelandia Nova_ (or _New Zealand_); by which name it has always been known since. Dampier has mentioned, having in his possession a Chart of the discoveries made by Tasman on the West coast of what in Dampier's time was called _New Holland_, which chart was most probably a copy of what Thevenot had published. THE END

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