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Title:      Early Voyages to Terra Australis, now called Australia.
Author:     R H Major
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Title:      Early Voyages to Terra Australis, now called Australia.
Author:     R H Major





Early Voyages to Terra Australis, now called Australia.

A COLLECTION OF DOCUMENTS, AND EXTRACTS FROM EARLY MANUSCRIPT MAPS,
ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE HISTORY OF DISCOVERY ON THE COASTS OF THAT VAST ISLAND,
FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY TO THE TIME OF CAPTAIN COOK.

Edited, with an Introduction by R. H. MAJOR, Esq., F.S.A.



"Austrinis pars est habitabilis oris,
Sub pedibusque jacet nostris."
MANILIUS, Astronomicon, lib. i, lin. 237-8.


LONDON:
PRINTED FOR THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY.
M.DCCC.LIX (1859)



THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY

SIR RODERICK IMPEY MURCHISON, G.C.St.S., F.R.S., D.C.L., Corr. Mem. inst. F.,
         Hon. Mem. Imp. Acad. Sc. St. Petersburg, &c., &c., PRESIDENT.
THE MARQUIS OF LANSDOWNE.                   )
REAR-ADMIRAL C. R. DRINKWATER BETHUNE, C.B. ) VICE-PRESIDENTS.

JOHN BARROW, ESQ.
RT. HON. LORD BROUGHTON.
THE LORD ALFRED SPENCER CHURCHILL.
CHARLES WENTWORTH DILKE, Esq., F.S.A.
RT. HON. SIR DAVID DUNDAS.
SIR HENRY ELLIS, K.H., F.R.S.
JOHN FORSTER, ESQ.
LIEUT.-GEN. CHARLES RICHARD FOX.
R. W. GREY, Esq., M.P.
EGERTON HARCOURT, ESQ.
JOHN WINTER JONES, ESQ, F.S.A.
HIS EXCELLENCY THE COUNT DE LAVRADIO.
R. H. MAJOR, ESQ., F.S.A.
THE EARL OF SHEFFIELD.
RT. HON. LORD TAUNTON.

CLEMENTS R. MARKHAM, ESQ., HONORARY SECRETARY.


* ** * *


TO

SIR RODERICK IMPEY MURCHISON, G.C.St.S, D.C.L., F.R.S., ETC., ETC., ETC.

DEAR SIR RODERICK,
You have kindly permitted me to dedicate to you this result of my
investigations respecting the early explorations of Australia.
To none can a book on such a subject be more appropriately offered
than to yourself. To you geographers are pre-eminently indebted for
the promotion of Australian exploration in recent times, while your
ever-memorable scientific anticipation of the discovery of the
Australian gold fields must connect your name inseparably with the
history of a country, whose future greatness can be foreseen,
but cannot be estimated.

I remain,
DEAR SIR RODERICK,
With much respect,
Yours very faithfully,
R. H. MAJOR.
British Museum, August, 1859.


* * * * *


CONTENTS

A MEMORIAL ADDRESSED TO HIS CATHOLIC MAJESTY PHILIP THE THIRD, KING OF
SPAIN, by Dr. Juan Luis Arias, respecting the exploration, colonization,
and conversion of the Southern Land, translated from the Spanish original.

RELATION OF LUIS VAEZ DE TORRES, concerning the discoveries of QUIROS,
as his Almirante. Dated Manila, July 12, 1607, a translation, nearly
literal, by Alexander Dalrymple, Esq., from a Spanish manuscript copy
in his possession, reprinted from App. to vol. ii of Burney's "Discoveries
in the South Sea".

EXTRACT FROM THE BOOK OF DISPATCHES FROM BATAVIA; commencing January the
15th, 1644, and ending November the 29th following, reprinted from
Dalrymple's "Collections Concerning Papua".

THE VOYAGE AND SHIPWRECK OF CAPTAIN FRANCIS PELSART, in the "Batavia,"
on the coast of New Holland, and his succeeding adventures, translated
from Trevenot's "Recueil de Voyages Curieux".

VOYAGE OF GERRIT THOMASZ POOL TO THE SOUTH LAND. Translated from
Valentyn's "Beschryvinge van Banda".

ACCOUNT OF THE WRECK OF THE SHIP "DE VERGULDE DRAECK" ON THE SOUTH
LAND, and the expeditions undertaken, both from Batavia and the Cape
of Good Hope, in search of the survivors and money and goods which
might be found on the wreck, and of the small success which attended
them. Extracted from MS. documents at the Hague, and translated from
the Dutch.

DESCRIPTION OF THE WEST COAST OF THE SOUTH LAND by Captain Samuel
Volkersen, of the pink "Waeckende Boey," which sailed from Batavia on
the 1st of January 1658, and returned on the 19th of April of the
same year. Extracted from MS. Documents at the Hague and translated
from the Dutch.

EXTRACT TRANSLATED FROM BURGOMASTER WITSEN'S "NOORD EN OOST TARTARYE".

ACCOUNT OF THE OBSERVATIONS OF CAPTAIN WILLIAM DAMPIER on the coast
of New Holland, in 1687-88, being an extract from his "New Voyage
round the World".

EXTRACT FROM SLOAN MS., 3236, entitled "The Adventures of William
Dampier, with others (1686-87), who left Captain Sherpe in the South
Seas, and travaled back over land through the country of Darien".

SOME PARTICULARS RELATING TO THE VOYAGE OF WILLEM DE VLAMINGH to New
Holland in 1696. Extracted from. MS. Documents at the Hague and
translated from the Dutch.

EXTRACT FROM THE JOURNAL OF A VOYAGE MADE TO THE UNEXPLORED SOUTH LAND,
by order of the Dutch East India Company, in the years 1696 and 1697,
by the hooker "De Nyptang," the ship "De Geelvink," and the galiot
"De Wesel," and the return to Batavia. From MS. Documents at the
Hague: translated from the Dutch.

ACCOUNT OF THE OBSERVATIONS OF CAPTAIN WILLIAM DAMPIER on the coast
of New Holland, in 1699, being an extract from "a Voyage to New
Holland, etc., in the year 1699".

A WRITTEN DETAIL OF THE DISCOVERIES AND NOTICEABLE OCCURRENCES in the
voyage of the fluyt "Vossenbosch," the sloop "D'Waijer," and the
patsjallang "Nova Hollandia," despatched by the government of India,
anno 1705, from Batavia by way of Timor to New Holland. From MS.
Documents at the Hague: translated from the Dutch.

THE HOUTMAN'S ABROLHOS in 1727, translated from a publication
entitled "De Houtman's Abrolhos", by Captain P. A. Loupe, of the
Dutch Navy.

INDEX

[ILLUSTRATIONS

Java la Grande
The Londe of Java
Tasman's Track
Coast visited by the Waeckende Boey and Emeloort, two maps
Terra Australis]



INTRODUCTION

When, at a period comparatively recent in the world's history, the
discovery was made that, on the face of the as yet unmeasured ocean,
there existed a western continent which rivalled in extent the world
already known, it became a subject of natural enquiry whether a fact of
such momentous importance could for so many thousands of years have
remained a secret. Nor was the enquiry entirely without response. Amid
the obscurity of the past some faint foreshadowings of the great reality
appeared to be traceable. The poet with his prophecy, the sage with his
mystic lore, and the unlettered seaman who, with curious eye, had peered
into the mysteries of the far-stretching Atlantic, had each, as it now
appeared enunciated a problem which at length had met with its solution.[*1]

[*1) Reference is here made, 1stly, to that most remarkable and often
quoted passage from the Medea of Seneca:
"Venient annis
Saecula seris, quibus Oceanus"

2ndly, to the island of Atlantis, described by Plato, in the Timaeus,
as lying in the Atlantic, opposite the Pillars of Hercules, and
exceeding in size the whole of Africa and Asia.

And 3rdly, to the imaginary island of St. Brandan, seen at intervals
far out in the Atlantic by the inhabitants of the Canary Islands.

It may not be unacceptable here to mention that there is one passage
among the writings of the ancients far more minute and affirmative
in its description than any of the foregoing, which has been thought
by various learned commentators to refer to America, but which the
editor has not found hitherto quoted, in that light, by any English
author. In a fragment of the works of Theopompus, preserved by
Aelian, is the account of a conversation between Silenus and Midas,
king of Phrygia, in which the former says that Europe, Asia, and
Africa, were lands surrounded by the sea ; but that beyond this known
world was another island, of immense extent, of which he gives a
description. The account of this conversation, which is too lengthy
here to give in full, was written three centuries and a half before
the Christian era. Not to trouble the reader with Greek, we give an
extract from the English version by Abraham Fleming, printed in
1576, in the amusingly quaint but vivid language of the time.

"THE THIRDE BOOKE OF AELIANUS. PAGE 37.

¶ Of the familiaritie of Midas the Phrigian, and Selenus, and of
certaine circumstances which he incredibly reported.

"Theopompus declareth that Midas the Phrygian and Selenus were
knit in familiaritie and acquaintance. This Selenus was the sonne
of a nymphe inferiour to the gods in condition and degree, but
superiour to men concerning mortalytie and death. These twaine
mingled communication of sundrye thinges. At length, in processe
of talke, Selenus tolde Midas of certaine ilandes, named Europia,
Asia, and Libia, which the ocean sea circumscribeth and compasseth
round about ; and that without this worlde there is a continent
or percell of dry lande, which in greatnesse (as hee reported)
was infinite and unmeasurable ; that it nourished and maintained,
by the benefite of the greene medowes and pasture plots, sundrye
bigge and mighty beastes ; that the men which inhabite the same
climats exceede the stature of us twise, and yet the length of
there life is not equall to ours ; that there be many and diuers
great citties, manyfold orders and trades of living ; that their
lawes, statutes, and ordinaunces, are different, or rather clean
contrary to ours. Such and lyke thinges dyd he rehearce."

The remainder of this curious conversation, however apparently
fabulous, deserves attention from the thoughtful reader.]

In these later days, when the enquiry has assumed gigantic proportions,
and the facilities of investigation have been simultaneously increased,
much has been done towards bringing to light the evidence of various
ascertained or possible visitations from the Old World to the New, which
had previously remained unknown. A summary of them has already been laid
before the members of the Hakluyt Society by the editor of the present
volume, in his introduction to the "Select Letters of Columbus", and
requires no repetition here.

Of the future results of that momentous discovery, what human
intelligence can foresee the climax? Already the northern half of that
vast portion of the globe is mainly occupied by a section of the
Anglo-Saxon family, earnest and active in the development of its native
energies; and among these, again, are many who look back with eager
curiosity to every yet minuter particular respecting the early history of
their adopted country.

A new field of colonization, second only to that of America, and
constituting, as far as is at present known, the largest island in our
globe, has in far more recent times been opened up by a slow and gradual
progress to a branch of the same expansive family. A future but little
inferior in importance may, without much imaginative speculation, be
assigned to them, and from them likewise may be reasonably expected the
most curious inquiry as to the earliest discoveries by their predecessors
of a land so vast in its dimensions, so important in its characteristics,
and yet so little known or reasoned upon by the numerous generations of
mankind that has passed away before them.

In endeavouring to meet this demand it must be premised, that while the
main object proposed in this volume is to treat of the early indications
of the island now recognised as Australia, anterior to the time of
Captain Cook, it is impossible to deal with the real or supposed
discoveries which may have taken place prior to that date, without
referring at the same time to the discovery of the adjacent island of New
Guinea and of the great southern continent, of both of which what we now
call Australia was in those times regarded as forming a part. The
investigation is one of the most interesting character in all stages, but
beset with doubts and difficulties arising from a variety of causes.

The entire period up to the time of Dampier, ranging over two centuries,
presents these two phases of obscurity; that in the sixteenth century
(the period of the Portuguese and Spanish discoveries) there are
indications on maps of the great probability of Australia having been
already discovered; while in the seventeenth century there is documentary
evidence that its coasts were touched upon or explored by a considerable
number of Dutch voyages but the documents immediately describing these
voyages have not been found.

That, in so far as regards the Portuguese, this obscurity is mainly due
to jealous apprehension lest lands of large extents, and great
importance in the southern seas might fall into the hands of rival powers
to their own displacement or prejudice, may not only be suspected, but
seems to be affirmable from historical evidence.

It is stated by Humboldt (Histoire de la Geographie du Nouveau Continent,
tom. iv, p. 70), upon the authority of the letters of Angelo Trevigiano,
secretary to Domenico Pisani, ambassador from Venice to Spain, that the
kings of Portugal forbad upon pain of death the exportation of any marine
chart which showed the course to Calicut. We find also in Ramusio
(Discorso sopra el libro di Odoardo Barbosa, and the Sommario delle Indie
Orientali, tom. i, p. 287 b) a similar prohibition implied. He says that
these books "were for many years concealed and not allowed to be
published, for convenient reasons that I must not now describe". He also
speaks of the great difficulty he himself had in procuring a copy, and
even that an imperfect one, from Lisbon. "Tanto possono," he says, "gli
interessi del principe." Again, in tom. iii of the same collection, in
the account of the "Discorso d'un gran Capitano del Mare Francese del
Luogo di Dieppa," etc., now known as the voyage of Jean Parmentier to
Sumatra in 1529, and in all probability by his companion and eulogist,
the poet Pierre Crignon, the covetousness and exclusiveness of the
Portuguese are inveighed against. "They seem," he says, "to have drunk
of the dust of the heart of king Alexander, for that they seem to think
that God made the sea and the land for them, and that if they could have
locked up the sea from Finisterre to Ireland it would have been done long
ago," etc.

Imputations of a similar nature are thrown on the Dutch East India
Company by so well informed a man as Sir William Temple, ambassador at
the Hague in the reign of Charles II, and who is a very high authority on
all matters concerning the republic of the United Provinces. In his
"Essay upon Ancient and Modern Learning," he makes the following curious
statement, which we give in extenso as otherwise bearing upon the subject
of which we treat. See vol. iii of Sir William Temple's "Works", p. 457.

"But the defect or negligence (in the progress of discovery since the
invention of the compass) seems yet to have been greater towards the
south, where we know little beyond 35° and that only by
the necessity of doubling the Cape of Good Hope in our East India voyages:
yet a continent has long since been found out within 15°
to the south, about the length of Java, which is marked by the name
of New Holland in the maps, and to what extent none knows, either,
to the south, the east, or the west; yet the learned have the opinion,
that there must be a balance of earth on that side of the line in
some proportion to what there is on the other; and that it cannot
be all sea from 30° to the south pole, since we have found
land to above 65°, towards the north. But our navigators
that way have been confined to the roads of trade, and our discoveries
bounded by what we can manage to a certain degree of gain. And I have
heard it said among the Dutch, that their East India Company have long
since forbidden, and under the greatest penalty any further attempts of
discovering that continent, having already more trade in those parts
than they can turn to account, and fearing some more populous nation of
Europe might make great establishments of trade in some of those unknown
regions, which might ruin or impair what they have already in the
Indies."

Although the statement of so well informed and so impartial man as Sir
William might almost be considered as conclusive, the Dutch have very
naturally been unwilling to abide by this severe judgement. An indignant
remonstrance against the imputation that they secreted and suppressed the
accounts of their early voyages, was published in August 1824, in vol. ii
of Nouvelles Annales des Voyages, by Mr. J. van Wijck Roelandszoon, who
attributed the origin of this charge to ignorance of the Dutch language
on the part of those who made it. In vindication of his assertions he
referred to the publication, in 1618, of Linschoten's voyages, both to
the North and the East Indies, also Schouten and Lemaire's
"Circumnavigation of the Globe" in 1615-18, which was published in 1646.
He referred to the fact that the voyages of Van Noort, l'Hermite, and
Spilbergen had also, been published, and stated that, generally speaking,
such had been the case with all the voyages of the Dutch as early as the
year 1646, and that their discoveries were exactly laid down in the 1660
edition of the maps of P. Goos.

He furthermore announced (in reply to an invitation which had been given
to the learned men of Holland, to fill up the gaps in their history which
had been complained of), that one of the learned societies of Holland had
offered a prize for a careful essay on the discoveries of the Dutch
mariners[*1].

[*1) With respect to the essay for which the learned
society referred to (the Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen
of Utrecht) had offered a prize, it was published in that society's
Transactions in 1827, under the title of " Bennet and Van Wijck's
Verhandeling over de Nederlandsche Ontdekkingen." The editor, who
has examined this work carefully, can state that it supplies no
information in addition to that which we had already possessed.]

In publishing this remonstrance, the editor of the "Nouvelles Annales des
Voyages" judiciously observed, that if the reproach of jealousy which
applied to the Portuguese, did not apply to the Dutch, it was at least
true that some sort of carelessness had prevented either the preservation
or the publication of a great number of Dutch narratives, amongst which
he quoted those of De Nuyts, Van Vlaming, etc., to the coasts of New
Holland. We must not, however, lose sight of the fact, that Sir William
Temple's charge of want of liberality is directed, not against the Dutch
in general, but only against the East India Company; and further, that it
contains two different imputations; first, that the Company forbade
exploration; and secondly, that they prohibited the publication of those
already made.

As to the first of these two charges it may have been just. The
commercial spirit of the seventeenth century had a general character of
narrowness, from which the East India Company was not exempt. The conduct
here imputed to them was in accordance with the regular and wholesale
destruction of spices, by which they tried to keep up the value of this
commodity. Too much importance, however, ought not to be attached even
to Sir William's testimony, when, as in the present case, it stands
entirely alone. Every hostile statement with regard to the Dutch East
India Company made in Sir William's time, may be regarded as at least
likely to have been dictated by party spirit. The directors of the East
India Company were so closely connected with the ruling but unpopular
party presided over by the De Witts, that the enemy of the one was also
the enemy of the others, and, among these enemies were a number of the
most eminent men, many of them distinguished geographers.

As to the second charge, it must be allowed in justice to the Company,
that such secrecy as is here imputed to them is not to be traced in their
general conduct. Commelyn, the compiler of the celebrated "Begin ende
Voortgangh", published in 1646, had undoubtedly access to the Company's
archives, and he discloses many facts which the Company would seem much
more interested to hide than what meagre knowledge they possessed of
Australia; Godfried, Udemans, Dr. 0. Dapper, Witsen, Valentyn, and
besides these a host of map-makers and geographers, were largely indebted
to the Company for geographical materials. If we may form any judgement
from the dedications we find in books of the period, we must consider
their encouragement of the study of their dominions as almost on a par
with that afforded at the present day by the English East India Company.

The fact that many accounts of Australian voyages which the Company
possessed were never published, may be accounted for in a simpler and
more honourable manner. The Dutch voyages and travels that were published
were plainly intended for a large circle of readers, and were got up as
cheaply as possible. Thus, though thousands and thousands of copies were
sold, they have all now become scarce. A voyage which did not contain
strange adventures or striking scenes, had no chance of popularity and so
it remained unpublished. Thus, among other instances, a picturesque
account of Japan was published in, the "Begin ende Voortgangh", whilst
the extremely important account of De Vries's voyage to the same part of
the world, which is far richer in geographical materials than in
interesting incidents, has remained in manuscript till recently edited
by Captain Leupe, of the Dutch navy.

It is with pleasure that we indulge the hope that the veil which has
thus hung over those valuable materials is likely, before very long, to
be entirely removed. The archives of the Dutch East India Company, a yet
unsifted mass of thousands of volumes, and myriads of loose papers, have
a short time since been handed over to the State Archives at the Hague,
where the greatest liberality is shown in allowing access to the
treasures they possess. Meanwhile, the editor of the present volume need
hardly plead any excuse for not having attempted what no foreigner be his
stay in Holland ever so long, could possibly expect to accomplish; and
he must leave to those who will take up this matter after him, the
satisfaction of availing themselves of materials the importance of which
he knows, and the want of which he deeply deplores.

As has been already stated, in the earlier and more indistinct periods
of Australian discovery even when some portions of the vast island had
been already lighted on, it remained a doubt whether New Guinea and the
newly seen lands did not form part of a great southern continent, in
which tradition in the first place and subsequent discoveries, had
already established a belief.

The very existance of the belief in an extensive southern continent at
those early periods presents a twofold cause of doubt. It engendered at
the time the supposition that every island to the south of what was
previously known, and of which the north part only had been seen, formed
a portion of that continent; while to us who, from this distance of time
look back for evidence, the inaccurate representation of such discoveries
on maps, in or near the longitude of Australia (for longitude could be
but laxly noticed in those days) leaves the doubt whether that continent
may not have been visited at the period thus represented. Hence,
manifestly, it will be requisite to bear well in mind this broadly
accepted belief in the existence of a great southern continent, if we
would form a right judgement respecting those supposed indications of
Australia which are presented on maps of the sixteenth and beginning of
the seventeenth centuries.

Among the very early writers, the most striking quotation that the editor
has lighted upon in connection with the southern continent, is that which
occurs in the 'Astronomicon' of Manilius, lib. i, lin. 234 et seq.,
where, after a lengthy dissertation, he says:--

"Ex quo colligitur terrarum forma rotunda:
Hanc circum variae gentes hominum atque ferarum,
Aeriaeque colunt volueres. Pars ejus ad aretos
Eminet, Austrinis pars est habitabilis oris,
Sub pedibusque jacet nostris."

The latter clause of this sentence, so strikingly applying to the lands
in question, has been quoted as a motto for the title-page of this
volume. The date at which Manilius wrote, though not exactly ascertained,
is supposed, upon the best conclusions to be drawn from the internal
evidence supplied by his poem, to be of the time of Tiberius.

Aristotle also, in his 'Meteorologica', lib. ii, cap. 5, has a passage
which, though by no means distinct as the preceding one speaks of two
segments of the habitable globe, one towards the north, the other,
towards the south pole, and which have the form of a drum. Aratus,
Strabo, and Geminus have also handed down a similar opinion, that the
torrid zone was occupied throughout its length by the ocean, and that the
band of sea divided our continent from another, situated, as they
suppose, in the southern hemisphere[*1].

[*1) See Aratus, Phaenom., 537; Strabo, 1. 7, p. 130, and 1. 17;
apud Geminum, Elementa Astronomica, c. lxiii, in the Uranologia, p. 31.]

To come down, however, to a later period, the editor is enabled through
the researches of his lamented friend, the late learned and laborious
Vicomte de Santarem, to show from early manuscript maps and other
geographical monuments, how this belief in the existence of a great
southern continent was entertained anterior to the discoveries of the
Portuguese in the Pacific Ocean. In his 'Essai sur l'Histoire de la
Cosmographie et de la Cartographie du Moyen Age', vol. i, p. 229,
the Vicomte informs us that "Certain cartographers of the middle
ages, still continue to represent the 'Antichthone' in their maps
of the world in accordance with the belief that, beyond the ocean of
Homer, there was an inhabited country, another temperate region, called
the "opposite earth", which it was impossible to reach, principally on
account of the torrid zone.

"The following are the maps of the world which represent this theory:--

"1. The map of the world in a manuscript of Macrobius, of the tenth
century; 2. The map of the world, in a manuscript of the eighth century
in the Turin library; 3. That of Cecco d'Ascoli, of the thirteenth
century; 4. The small map of the world, in one of the manuscript maps of
the thirteenth century, of l'Image du Monde, by Gauthier de Metz, MS. No.
7791, Bibliotheque Imperiale, Paris; 5. That of an Icelandic manuscript
of the thirteenth century, taken from the Antiquitates Americanae; 6.
That in a manuscript of Marco Polo, of the fourteenth century (1350), in
the Royal Library of Stockholm; 7. That on the reverse of a medal of the
fifteenth century, in the Cabinet of M. Crignon de Montigny.

"The cartographers of the middle ages have admitted that as a reality
which, even to the geographers of antiquity, was merely a theory."

The earliest assertion of the discovery of a land bearing a position on
early maps analogous to that of Australia has been made in favour of the
Chinese, who have been supposed to have been acquainted with its coasts
long before the period of European navigation to the east. Thevenot, in
his "Relations de Divers Voyages Curieux," part i, Preface: Paris, 1663,
says: The southern land, which now forms a fifth part of the world, has
been discovered at different periods. The Chinese had knowledge of it
long ago, for we see that Marco Polo marks two great islands to the
south-east of Java, which it is probable that he learned from the
Chinese." The statements of Marco Polo, which we quote from Marsden's
translation, run thus:--

"Upon leaving the island of Java, and steering a course between south and
south-west, seven hundred miles, you fall in with two islands, the larger
of which is named Sondur, and the other Kondur. Both being uninhabited,
it is unnecessary to say more respecting them. Having run the distance
of fifty miles from these islands, in a south-easterly direction,
you reach an extensive and rich province, that forms a part of the
main land, and is named Lochac. It's inhabitants are idolaters. They
have a language peculiar to themselves, and are governed by their
own king, who pays no tribute to any other, the situation of the
country being such as to protect it from any hostile attack. Were it
assailable, the Grand Khan would not have delayed to bring it under
his dominion. In this country sappan or brazil wood is produced in
large quantities. Gold is abundant to a degree scarcely credible;
elephants are found there; and the objects of the chase, either with
dogs or birds, are in plenty. From hence are exported all those
porcelain shells, which, being carried to other countries, are
there circulated for money, as has been already noticed. Here they
cultivate a species of fruit called berchi, in size about that
of a lemon, and having a delicious flavour. Besides these circumstances
there is nothing further that requires mention, unless it be that the
country is wild and mountainous, and is little frequented by strangers;
whose visits the king discourages, in order that his treasures and other
secret matters of his realm may be as little known to the rest of the
world as possible.

"Departing from Lochac and keeping a southerly course for five hundred
miles, you reach an island named Pentam, the coast of which is wild and
uncultivated, but the woods abound with sweet scented trees. Between the
province of Lochac and this island of Pentam, the sea, for a space of
sixty miles, is not more than four fathoms deep, and this obliges those
who navigate it to lift the rudders of their ships, in order that they
may not touch the bottom. After sailing these sixty miles in a
south-easterly direction, and then proceeding thirty miles further,
you arrive at an island, in itself a kingdom, named Malaiur, which
is likewise the name of its city. The people are governed by a king,
and have their own peculiar language. The town is large and well
built. A considerable trade is there carried on in spices and drugs,
with which the place abounds. Nothing else that requires notice
presents itself. Proceeding onwards from thence, we shall now speak
of Java Minor."

That this description does not apply to Australia the reader of the
present day may readily conclude. It has received its explanation in the
judicious notes of Marsden, who shows how, from the circumstances, it is
highly probable that Lochac is intended for some part of the country of
Cambodia, the capital of which was named Loech, according to the authority
of Gasper de Cruz, who visited it during the reign of Sebastian, king of
Portugal. See Purchas, vol. iii, p. 169. The country of Cambodia,
moreover, produces the gold, the spices, and the elephants which Marco
Polo attributes to Lochac. Pentam is reasonably supposed by Marsden to
be Bintam, and the island and kingdom of Malaiur (Maletur, in the Basle
edition of 1532, included in the Novus Orbis of Grynaeus) to be the
kingdom of the Malays.

In the early engraved maps of the sixteenth century, however, we see the
effects of this description exhibited, in a form calculated to startle
the inquirer respecting the early indications of Australia. On these maps
we find laid down an extensive development of the great Terra Australis
Incognita trending northward to New Guinea; with which, on some of these
maps, it is made to be continuous, while on others it is divided from it;
and on the northernmost portion of this remarkable delineated land occur
the legends: "Beach provincia aurifere", "Iucach regnum", "Maletur regnum
scatens aromatibus", "Vasitissimas hic esse regiones e M. Pauli Veneti et
Ludovici Vartomanni scriptis peregrinationibus liquido constat".

We have already explained from Marsden's notes the reasonable rendering
of the name of Lucach or Lochac. The name of Beach, or rather Boesch, is
another form of the same name, which crept into the Basle edition of
Marco Polo in 1532, and was blunderingly repeated by cartographers; while
for Maletur we have the suggestion of the Burgomaster Witsen, in the
"Noord en Oost Tartarye" fol. 169, that it is taken from Maleto, on the
north side of the island of Timor, a suggestion rendered null by the
fact, apparently unknown to Witsen, that Maletur, as already stated, was
but a misspelling in the Basle edition for Malaiur. The sea in which, on
these early maps, this remarkable land is made to lie, is called, Mare
Lantchidol, another perplexing piece of misspelling upon which all
cartographers have likewise stumbled, and which finds its explanation in
the Malay words 'Laut Kidol', or 'Chidol' "The South Sea". As, however,
this striking protrusion to the northward of a portion of the Great Terra
Australis Incognita on the early maps in a position so nearly corresponding
with that of Australia, may not have emanated solely from the description
of Marco Polo, the editor proposes to defer further allusion to these maps
until they present themselves in their due chronological order among the
documents and data of which he will have to speak.

The earliest discovery of Australia to which claim has been laid by any
nation is that of a Frenchman, a native of Honfleur, named Binot
Paulmier de Gonneville, who sailed from that port in June 1503, on a
voyage to the South Seas. After doubling the Cape of Good Hope, he was
assailed by a tempest which drove him on an unknown land, in which he
received the most hospitable reception, and whence, after a stay of six
months, he returned to France, bringing with him the son of the king of
the country. The narrative is given in a judicial declaration made by him
before the French Admiralty, dated the 19th of June, 1505, and first
published in the 'Memoires touchant l'Etablissment d'une Mission
Chretiennes dans la Terre Australe', printed at Paris by Cramoisy, 1663,
and dedicated to Pope Alexander VII, by an "ecclesiastque originaires de
cette mesme terre." The author gives his name in no other way than by
these initials, "J.P.D.C., Pretre Indien." This priest, as well as his
father and grandfather, was born in France; but his great grand-father
was one of the Australians, or natives of the southern world, whom
Gonneville had brought into France at his return from that country, and
whom he afterwards married to one of his own relations there, he having
embraced Christianity. The author of the account himself being animated
by a strong desire of preaching the gospel in the country of his
ancestors, spent his whole life in endeavouring to prevail on those who
had the care of foreign missions to send him there, and to fulfil the
promise the first French navigator had made, that he should visit that
country again. Unfortunately Gonneville's journals, on his return, fell
into the hands of the English, and were lost. The author, however,
collected his materials from the traditions and loose papers of his own
family, and the judicial declaration above mentioned. This account was to
have been presented to the Pope, but it never was printed till it fell
into the hands of the bookseller Cramoisy. The narrative is to the effect
that some French merchants, being tempted by the success of the
Portuguese under Vasco de Gama, determined upon sending a ship to the
Indies by the same route which he had sailed. The ship was equipped at
Honfleur. "The Sieur de Gonneville, who commanded her, weighed anchor in
the month of June 1503, and doubled the Cape of Good Hope, where he was
assailed by a furious tempest, which made him lose his route, and
abandoned him to the wearisome calm of an unknown sea". "Not knowing what
course to steer, the sight of some birds coming from the south determined
them to sail in that direction in the hope of finding land. They found
what they desired, that is to say, a great country which, in their
relations, was named the Southern India, according to the custom, at that
time, of applying indifferently the names of the Indies to every country
newly discovered." They remained six months at this land; after which the
crew of the ship refused to proceed further, and Gonneville was obliged to
return to France. When near home, he was attacked by an English corsair,
and plundered of every thing; so that his journals and descriptions were
entirely lost. On arriving in port, he made a declaration of all that had
happened in the voyage to the Admiralty, which declaration was dated July
the 19th, 1505, and was signed by the principal officers of the ship.

In one part of the relation, this great southern land is said to be not
far out of the direct route to the East Indies. The land of Gonneville
has been supposed by some to be in a high southern latitude, and nearly
on the meridian of the Cape of Good Hope; and Duval and Nolin placed it
on their charts to the south-west of the Cape, in 48° south: The
President De Brosses, author of 'Histoire des Navigations aux
Terres Australes', Paris, 1756, 2 vols., conjectured that it was south of
the Moluccas, and that it was, in fact, the first discovery of the Terra
Australis, since named New Holland.

Gonneville, however, is represented as carrying on during his stay a
friendly intercourse with the natives, whom he mentions as having made
some advances in civilization. The account is quite incompatible with the
character for treachery and barbarous cruelty, which we have received of
the natives of North Australia from all the more recent voyagers.

Let the whole account, says Burney, be reconsidered without
prepossession, and the idea that will immediately and most naturally
occur is that the Southern India discovered by Gonneville was Madagascar.
De Gonneville having doubled (passed round) the Cape, was by tempests
driven into calm latitudes, and so near to this land, that he was
directed thither by the flight of birds. The refusal of the crew to
proceed to Eastern India, would scarcely have happened if they had been
so far advanced to the East as New Holland.

A more reasonable claim than the preceding to the discovery of Australia
in the early part of the sixteenth century, may be advanced by the
Portuguese from the evidence of various MS. maps still extant, although
the attempt made recently to attach the credit of this discovery to
Magalhaens in the famous voyage of the 'Victoria' round the world in 1520,
is, as we shall endeavour to show, perfectly untenable. The claim of this
honour for Spain is thus asserted in the "Compendio Geografico Estadistico
de Portugal y sus posesiones ultramarinas", by Aldama Ayala, 8 vo, Madrid,
1855, p. 482. "The Dutch lay claim to the discovery of the continent of
Australia in the seventeenth century, although it was discovered by Fernando
Magalhaens, a Portuguese, by order of the Emperor Charles V, in the year
1520, as is proved by authentic documents, such as the atlas of Fernando
Vaz Dourado, made in Goa in 1570, on one of the maps in which is laid down
the coast of Australia. The said magnificent atlas, illuminated to
perfection, was formerly preserved in the Carthusian Library at Evora".

A similar claim was also made for their distinguished countryman, though
the voyage was made in the service of Spain, in an almanack published at
Angra, in the island of Terceira, by the government press, anno 1832,
and composed, it is supposed, by the Viscount Sa' de Bandeira, the present
minister of marine at Lisbon. In the examination of this subject, the
editor has had the advantage of the assistance of a friend in Lisbon,
who, in his research among the remaining literary wealth of that city,
has exhibited an earnestness and an amount of care and thought but too
rarely witnessed in delegated investigations. The reader will not wonder
that the zeal of a true lover of literature has been thrown into these
researches, when he learns that they have been made by Dr. John Martin,
the well-known author (for it would be wrong to call him the editor) in
days now long gone by, of that most interesting and important work,
"Mariner's Tonga Islands". As will be presently seen, the whole question
of the possibility of the discovery of Australia having been made by the
Portuguese, in the first half of the sixteenth century, is sufficiently
enigmatical to call for a great extent of inquiry, and the editor's
venerable and honoured friend, though now grown old in the service of
science and literature, has entered into the subject with a cordiality
and ardour, commensurate with the puzzling nature of the subject.

But first with respect to the claim on behalf of Magalhaens, as based
upon the map of Vaz Dourado. The following are extracts from Dr. Martin's
reports upon the map.

"On inspecting the map and examining the more southern regions, I found
that the island of Timor was the most southern land laid down in lat. 10°
S., which is its true situation, while further to the south all was
blank, excepting certain ornamental devices as far as about latitude 17°
or 18°, which was the lowest margin of the map. To the west and east the
map was bordered by a scale of latitude, in single degrees; but this map
did not occupy the whole sheet of vellum, for to the right of the eastern
scale of latitude something else was laid down, viz., a line of coast
running with a little southing from west to east, with many rivers and
names of places upon it, and this notice underneath, 'Esta Costa
Descubrio Fernao de Magalhaes naturall portuges pormandado do emperador
Carllos o anno 1520'.

"If the whole sheet is meant to constitute one map and referable to the
same scale of latitude, then the coast in question is not where New
Holland ought to be, being north of Timor and much too far to the
eastward. On turning over to the next sheet (in the atlas) there is a
similar line of coast laid down with precisely the same notice (above
quoted) at the bottom, and evidently a continuation of the same coast
upon the same scale. I send a list of the names, which I have made out as
well as I could, for they are very small and several letters are not very
clear.

"The reasons why I cannot consider this coast as part of New Holland,
are, 1st. It is at least one thousand five hundred miles in length, and
nearly straight as a whole; though indented in its parts; 2ndly. That it
is represented to have numerous rivers, which are very rare in New
Holland (on the coast); 3rdly. That it is considerably distant from its
true place to the south of Timor, which in the atlas is laid down
correctly as to latitude, although 4thly. There is plenty of room for
it on the map. I have thought it might be part of the coast of South
America, where Magelhaens was long detained, and that it is put down as
a sort of memorandum of the great extent of coast which he discovered in
the first circumnavigation of the globe. With indomitable perseverance he
pushed his way through the straits that bear his name into the Pacific,
and in this vast ocean he sailed about for three months and twenty days
(says Pigafetta, who accompanied him and wrote an account of the voyage)
without discovering anything except two small desert islands, until he
arrived at the Phillippines. Had he really discovered so much of the
coast of a great southern continent, Spain, in whose service he was,
might well have boasted of the feat, and Portugal, whose native he was,
might have defended the claims of the man who performed it, and not let so
bold and noble a discovery (for those times) remain so long in doubt.

* * * * *

"Now with respect to America: if we examine carefully the list of names
upon this line of coast, we shall find some that have a resemblance to
those on the coast of America, along which Malelhaen pursued his course.
One of these, C. de las Virgines, is found in some maps just at the
entrance of the Straits of Magellan, on the eastern side. I do not see
any name like Fromose[*1], but there is the name Gaia Fromosa, in or near the
Straits of Magellan (in the same atlas). In the enclosed list of names we
have also Terra Gigates or Terra Gigantes, and may not this be the
Patagonians?

[*1) This apparently Gallicised Portugese name is here referred
to by Dr. Martin in allusion to its occurrence on certain early
French maps to be treated of hereafter.]

"On a closer and more minute examination of Dourado's map, and others, I
think it may now be made evident that the coast said to have been
discovered by Magelhaens, in 1520, and mistaken by Sa de Bandeira and
others, for part of the coast of New Holland, is no other than the
northern coast of New Guinea.

"Now New Guinea, or part of it, as laid down by Dourado, appears under
the name of Os Papuos, and extends to the eastward as far as the scale of
latitude is marked, but beyond that scale there is about half an inch of
space, and there the coast in question commences, and runs a long way
towards the east, with a little southing, and has many islands bordering
upon it; whether this be either a continuation or a repetition more
extended of Papua, it is much in the same latitude, and runs in the same
direction. Again, on referring to an old map of Mercator, I found some
names upon New Guinea, similar to those on the coast in question; there I
found C. de las Virgines; I. de los Cresbos; R. de Bolcados; Buen Puerto
answering to C. de las Virgines; I. de los Crespos: Bullcones Puerto
Bueno, as found among the names on the coast in question; but what
places the matter still more beyond doubt is, that the names in both run
in the same consecutive order from west to east, upon several of the
islands which border the main land.

Names of Islands as laid down in          Names of Islands as laid down
Dourado's map along the coast             in Mercator's map on the
said to be New Holland, in consecutive    coast of New Guinea, in
order from W. to E.                       consecutive order, W. to E.


I. de los Martiles                        Y. de los Martyres
I. dellos Crespos                         Y. de Crespos
I. Duarati                                Y. Dearti
I de Armo                                 No such name
I. Dombres brancos                        Y. de Malagente
Llabasbuda                                La barbade
Llacuimana                                No such name
Bullcones (is laid down on the main land) Los Bulcones

* * * * *

"Seeing that the coast in question, and that of New Guinea, are in the
same latitude, that they greatly resemble each other in position, that
several names upon them are similar, and that the similar names follow
each other in both cases in the like consecutive order, and the same
direction from west to east, I think we may safely come to the conclusion
that the coast in question is identically that of New Guinea, and that the
assumption of Viscount Sa de Bandeira and others following him, or whom
he has followed, is an error."

From these observations of Dr. Martin, the editor forms the following
conclusions; that the tract laid down on Vaz Dourado's map as discovered
by Magalhaens, is in fact a memorandum or cartographical side-note of the
real discovery by Magalhaens of Terra del Fuego, and that from its
adopted false position on the vellum it was subsequently applied
erroneously to New Guinea by Mercator. But even if this surmise be
incorrect, the only alternative that remains is that the tract laid down
is New Guinea, and clearly not Australia, as assumed by the claiments to
whom we have referred. The editor submits that this claim is alike
untenable from the accounts of Magalhaen's voyage and from the evidence
of the map itself on which that claim is founded.

But we now pass to a more plausible indication of a discovery of
Australia by the Portuguese in the early part of the sixteenth century,
which ranges between the years 1512 and 1542. It occurs in similar form
on six maps, four of them in England and two in France, on which,
immediately below Java, and separated from that island only by a narrow
strait, is drawn a large country stretching southward to the verge of
several maps. The earliest in all probability, and the most detailed of
these maps, is the one from which we give the annexed reduction of that
portion immediately under consideration. It is a large chart of the world
on a plane scale, on vellum, 8 ft. 2 in. by 3 ft. 10 in., highly
ornamented, with figures, etc., and with the names in French. At the upper
corner, on the left side, is a shield of the arms of France, with the
collar of St. Michael; and on the right, another shield of France with
Dauphiny, quarterly. It was probably executed in the time of Francis I. of
France, for his son the Dauphin, afterwards Henry II. This chart formerly
belonged to Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford, after whose death it was taken
away by one of his servants. It was subsequently purchased by Sir Joseph
Banks, Bart., and presented by him to the British Museum in 1790.

The second, in all probability, of these, is contained in an atlas
drawn at Dieppe in 1547, at present in the possession of Sir Thomas
Phillipps, Bart., of Middle Hill, Worcestershire. It contains the name of
Nicholas Vallard of Dieppe. The editor has been unsuccessful in his
efforts to gain a sight of this atlas, or even a fac-simile lithograph
made by Sir Thomas Phillipps of the map supposed to contain the
representation of Australia. Hence he has been compelled to rely upon the
memory of Sir Frederick Madden, who had an opportunity of examining the
atlas some years since, and who recollects that though it bore the name
of Vallard and the date of 1547, it was not made by him, and that its
date, though probably earlier than 1547, could be shown from internal
evidence to be not earlier than 1539, A coat of arms appears in the margin
of the volume, argent, on a saltire, gules, five besants, a mullet,
sable in the fess point. This may lead a future investigator to the
discovery of an earlier possessor of the map than Vallard, although it
should be remarked that the borders on the margin appear to be of a later
date than the maps themselves. It fell into the possession of Prince
Talleyrand at the beginning of this century, and attracting the attention
of the celebrated geographer M. Barbie du Bocage, drew from him a notice
in the 'Magasin Encyclopedique, douzieme annee', tom. iv, 107, which,
though lengthy, bears so directly upon the subject of the present work,
that it is proposed in simple justice both to the writer and the
reader presently to give it in full.

The third and fourth of these maps (if our other inferences as to date be
correct) are contained in one volume in the British Museum; one of them
is a detailed map, and the other an almost skeleton map of the world in
hemispheres, with the latitudes and longitudes marked and the names of
'lytel Java' and the 'londe of Java' laid down on the great country in
question. It is from this latter map that the annexed extract is given,
on the same scale as the original, the octavo page being sufficiently
large to admit the portion required to be shown. The only point of
difference calling for special remark is, that in the original hemisphere
the line representing the eastern coast does not reach to the bottom of
the map, but terminates abruptly in the same degree of latitude as
represented in the copy, though that degree is here, for convenience
sake, made to coincide with the margin of the map. Indeed the special
interest of this particular map is, that whereas all the others
which represent this remarkable country have the coastline extended
indefinitely to the southern margin; on this both the eastern and western
coast lines stop abruptly at certain points, of which we are able to take
cognizance by the degrees of latitude being shown on the same map.
The volume containing these two important maps bears the date of
1542, and was made by one Jean Rotz who had in the first instance
intended to dedicate it to the king of France, but afterwards
presented it to king Henry VIII of England. In this dedication to
the king, he says that the maps are made "au plus certain et vray quil
ma este possible de faire, tante par mon experience propre, que par la
certaine experience de mes amys et compagnons navigateurs;" and at the
close he expresses his hope to compose shortly a work in English, which
was to be printed to the great profit and advantage of all the navigators
and seamen of this prosperous kingdom. It is to be regretted that we do
not possess the work here promised, as much light might thereby have been
thrown upon the mystery in which the question before us is involved. It
has been suggested by Malte Brun, that the author was a Fleming, who came
over to England with Anne of Cleves in 1540. The idea may have originated
in the form of the name, but would hardly have been maintained had Malte
Brun read Totz's dedication, in which he speaks of the king of France as
having been "mon souverin et naturel signeur." There can be no doubt,
then, that he was a French subject.

The fifth in date, if we suppose it to have been made early in the reign
of Henry II, is a map given in fac-simile by M. Jomard, in his 'Monuments
de la Geographie, ou Recueil d'Anciennes Cartes' now in progress, and is
described by him as "Mappemonde peinte sur parchemin par ordre de Henri
II, Roi de France."

The sixth is a map in a Portolano at the Depot de la Guerre, Paris, drawn
in 1555 by Guillaume le Testu, a pilot of Grasse, in Provence, or as
others have thought a Norman. Andre Thevet, cosmographer to Henry II,
boasted of having often sailed with him, and always styles him as
"renomme pilote et singulier navigateur." The map was drawn for Admiral
Coligny, to whom it is dedicated and whose name it bears. The editor has
succeeded in procuring a tracing of that portion which affects the
present question, and finds it to agree with the other maps of the kind
in the delineation of the coast of "la Grande Java."

On the reduced tracing of the most fully detailed of these maps are
inscribed some names of bays and coasts which were noticed in the first
instance by Alexander Dalrymple, the late hydrographer to the Admiralty
and the East India Company, to bear a resemblance to the names given by
Captain Cook to parts of New Holland which he had himself discovered.

In his memoir concerning the Chagos and adjacent islands, 1786, p.4,
speaking of this map he says:--"The east coast of New Holland as we name
is expressed with some curious circumstances of correspondence to Captain
Cook's MS. What he names:--

Bay of Inlets,              is in the MS. called Bay Perdue.
Bay of Isles,               is in the MS. called R. de beaucoup d'Isles.
Where the Endeavour struck, is in the MS. called Coste dangereuse."

So that we may say with Solomon, "'There is nothing new under the sun'".

To the discredit of so well informed and laborious a man as Dalrymple, to
whom, perhaps, next to Hakluyt, this country is the most largely indebted
for its commercial prosperity, this passage was but an invidious
insinuation, intended to disparage the credit of Captain Cook, of whose
appointment to the command of the Endeavour he was extremely jealous.
Dalrymple had earnestly desired the command of an expedition to discover
the great southern continent, the existence of which he had endeavoured
to prove by various philosophical arguments, which later times have shown
to be not without foundation; and his observation would seem to imply
that Cook, who had been so successful in his discoveries on the coast of
New Holland, might have been led thereto by an acquaintance with this
pre-existant map. The unworthy insinuation met with a sensible
refutation, as we are happy to record, from the pen of a Frenchman, M.
Frederic Metz, in a paper printed at p, 261, vol. 47 of "La Revue, ou
Decade Philosophique, Litteraire et Politique," Nov., 1805. For the sake
of clearness, the editor avoids here giving the whole of M. Metz's paper,
in which an attempt is made to disprove that New Holland was discovered
at this time by the Portuguese at all, but will merely quote those
passages which meet Dalrymple's insinuation. M. Metz says:--

"It had been generally believed that we were indebted to the Dutch for
our acquaintance with this vast country, and that the celebrated Cook had
in his first voyage discovered its eastern coast, which he named New South
Wales, until the discovery was made in the British Museum of a map upon
parchment, presumed to be of the sixteenth century, on which was observed
a large country laid down on the site occupied by New Holland. On the
eastern coast of this country, places were found with the names 'Cotes des
Herbaiges', 'Riviere de beaucoup d'Iles', 'Cote dangereuse', names which
present a great resemblance to those of 'Botany Bay', 'Bay of Islands' and
'Dangerous Coast', given by Cook to parts of New South Wales. "The
resemblance of these names struck many persons. Mr. Dalrymple, a man of
the greatest merit, but a personal enemy of Cook, whom he never forgave
for having received, in preference to him, the command of the Endeavour,
in the voyage made to observe the passage of Venus, and especially for
having demolished, beyond a hope of recovery, his theories of the existence
of the southern lands, and of the north-west passage of America:
Mr. Dalrymple, I say, took occasion therefrom to insinuate in one of his
works, that the discovery of the east of New Holland was due to some
navigator of the sixteenth century, and that Cook had only followed
in his track..."

"As the the resemblance of the names--this seems to me to prove exactly
the contrary of the conclusions which it has been attempted to draw from
them. If Cook had been acquainted with the maps in question, and had
wished to appropriate to himself the discoveries of another, will anyone
suppose him so short-sighted as to have preserved for his discoveries the
very names which would have exposed his plagiarism, if ever the sources
which he had consulted came to be known. The 'dangerous coast' was so
named because there he found himself during four hours in imminent danger
of shipwreck. We must suppose, then, that he exposed himself and his crew
to an almost certain death in order to have a plausible excuse for
applying a name similar to that which this coast had already received
from the unknown and anonymous navigator who had previously discovered
it. Moreover, names such as 'Bay of Islands', 'Dangerous coast', are well
known in geography. We find a Bay of Islands in New Holland; and on the
east coast of the island of Borneo there is a 'Cote des Herbages.'"

The sound sense of this reasoning, apart from all question of honour on
the part of a man of the high character of Captain Cook, would seem
conclusive, yet this similarity of names has, to the editor's own
knowledge, been remarked upon by persons of high standing and
intelligence in this country, though without any intention of
disparaging Captain Cook, as an evidence that this country was
identical with Australia. The similarity of the expression, 'Cote des
Herbages', with the name of Botany Bay, given to a corresponding part of
the coast by Captain Cook, has been particularly dwelt upon, whereas it
ought to be known that this bay, originally called Stingray, but
afterwards Botany Bay, was not so named on account of the fertility of
the soil, but from the variety of plants new to the science of botany
which were discovered on a soil otherwise rather unpromising. It is plain
that early navigators would assign such a designation as 'Cote des
Herbages' to a shore remarkable for its rich growth of grass or other
vegetation, rather than from the appreciation of any curious botanical
discovery. Had the similarity of the names 'Riviere de beaucoup d'Iles' and
'Cote dangereuse' with Cook's 'Bay of Islands' and the place 'where the
Endeavour struck', names descriptive of unquestionable realities, been
advanced by Dalrymple as evidence of the high probability that the
country represented on the early map was New Holland, without
volunteering an insinuation against the merit of his rival, we should
have accepted the reasonable suggestion with deference and just
acquiescence.

That New Holland was the country thus represented, became an argument
supported by a variety of reasonings by more than one of our French
neighbours. Mr. Coquebert Montbret, in a memoir printed in No. 81 of the
'Bulletin des Sciences', 1804, quotes Dalrymple's injurious observation
and silently allows it to have its deceptive effect on the mind of the
incautious reader.

The atlas now in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps, which as we have
stated, is probably next in date to that made for the Dauphin, fell into
the possession of Prince Talleyrand at the beginning of this century, and
attracting the attention of the celebrated geographer M. Barbie du
Bocage, drew from him the following notice in the 'Magasin
Encyclopedique, douzieme annee', tom. iv, 1807, which, though lengthy,
bears so directly upon the subject of the present work, that it is here
given in full.

Extract from the notice of a geographical manuscript belonging to his
Serene Highness the Prince of Benevento (better known as Prince
Talleyrand), read at a public session of the Institute, on the 3rd of
July, 1807, by M. Barbie du Bocage.

"This manuscript is an hydrographic atlas, drawn at Dieppe in 1547 by a
person of the name of Nicholas Vallard, of Dieppe, representing the
eastern and western coasts of the continent of New Holland. This atlas is
not the only one upon which these coasts are laid down. There are two in
England, which came from France, and which we have been acquainted with
by the English as well as by some Frenchmen. One of the two, which has
been for a considerable time in the library of the British Museum, was
drawn in 1542 by a person of the name of Jean Rotz or Roty, who had in
the first instance drawn it, as he states in the dedication, for the
King of France, but afterwards presented it to Henry VIII, king of
England. The second is a large map on one single sheet of parchment, made
for the Dauphin of France, whose arms it bears. It was formerly in the
library of the Earl of Oxford, where Sir Joseph Banks was acquainted with
it, and thence it passed to the British Museum, where it is at present.
The English pretend that none of these charts were discovered till after
the death of the celebrated Captain Cook, and that they had no knowledge
of them when this navigator set sail. But their prior existence in
well-known libraries in England may cause this assertion to be
doubted. But even if they had made use of them to indicate to their
countryman the countries which he had to visit, it would not the less
follow that the skill the prudence and the resolution with which Captain
Cook conducted his operations must always secure for him the glory of
having made known in detail the countries which had hitherto been but
faintly indicated."

The third manuscript atlas which represents the coasts of New Holland is
that of which we have now to treat. It is a small folio volume,
consisting of fifteen hydrographical charts on vellum, which has been
recently acquired by his serene highness the Prince of Benevento. This
atlas, even by the account of persons who have seen those which are in
England, is the most beautiful of all the works of the kind, and for this
reason deserves the most particular attention. There has since been
discovered in France a fourth which is at present in the library of the
Depot de la Guerre, which was drawn in 1555 by a person named Guillaume le
Testu, a pilot, of Grasse, in Provence, for Admiral Coligny, to whom it
is dedicated, and whose arms it bears.

The English geographers, MM. Dalrymple, Major Rennell, and Pinkerton; and
among the French, MM. Bauache, De la Rochette, Coquebert de Montbret, and
others, recognise on these atlases the eastern and western coasts of New
Holland. These coasts are bounded by the same latitudes as those indicated
on recent maps; and if they encroach more on longitude it is because, at
the time the discovery was made, there existed but small means of fixing
the boundaries in that respect. The names on all the atlases which we
have just quoted are, for the most part, in Portuguese, some of them in
French; that of 1542 alone, which is in England, has some of the names in
bad English. We must, therefore, come to the conclusion that these
atlases have been copied from Portuguese maps, and consequently that the
discovery of the continent of New Holland belongs to the Portuguese. This
is the opinion of MM. Dalrymple, Pinkerton, De la Rochette and several
others; and I do not believe that any good reason can be alleged in
refutation of an opinion so well founded.

All these atlases call this continent "Great Java", in contradistinction
to the Island of Java, which is to the north of it; yet it is very
singular that no mention whatever is made of this country in the voyages
of the time. As, however, I think I have detected from history the
period at which it must have been made, I shall now endeavour to explain
why the Portuguese have kept this discovery a secret. I shall then fix
the period at which I presume it to have been made, and will show how the
knowledge of this country has been lost even by those who have
discovered it.

The most ancient of the atlases which represents the coasts of New
Holland, is that of Rotz or Roty, which is in England, and which bears
the date 1542. At that period the Portuguese were masters of the Molucca
Islands, which they had discovered in 1511, and where they had
established themselves in 1512, and in one of which, Ternate, they had
built a fort in 1522. They must have discovered New Holland after the
Moluccas, and therefore this discovery must be limited to the period
between the years 1512 and 1542.

Now, after 1516 or 1517, Spain began to dispute with Portugal the
possession of the Moluccas, as being situated within the hemisphere which
had been allotted to them by the bull of the pope Alexander VI, dated the
4th of July, 1493. This pope, in consequence of the disputes which had
arisen between the courts of Lisbon and Toledo, had arranged that all
discoveries which might be made on the globe to the east of a meridian
one hundred leagues west of the Azores and Cape Verde Islands (which he
seemed to think lay under the same medidian), for the space of 180° of
longitude, should belong to the Portuguese; and that those to the
westward of the same meridian for the same space should belong to
the Spaniards. This division has since been called the line of
demarcation of Pope Alexander VI. Don John II, however, who was then king
of Portugal, being dissatisfied with this bull, which seemed to deprive
him of considerable possessions in the west, made another arrangement in
the following year with Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain, by which this
line was pushed further west, and definitely fixed at three hundred and
seventy leagues to the westward of the Cape Verde Islands. This agreement
was signed the 4th of June, 1494, and it was arranged that, in the space
of ten months, persons should be sent out who were well informed in
geography, to fix exactly the places through which this line should pass.

This agreement once entered upon, no more consideration was given
to the sending out of competent persons to the places indicated,
and the two governments continued their discoveries, each on its own
behalf. Under the guidance of Cabral, the Portuguese, on the 9th of
March, 1500, discovered Brazil, which lay in their own hemisphere. Under
the guidance of Vincent Yanez Pinzon, the Spaniards had in the same or
preceding year, sailed along the whole of this coast as far as the
embouchure of the Oronoco. After this time the line, without further
examination, was reckoned to pass by the mouth of the Maranon, or river
of the Amazons, which had been already explored, and it is in this part
that it is found traced on the Spanish maps of Herrera. The Portuguese,
while they took possession of Brazil, continued their discoveries towards
the east, and reached the Moluccas, where they established themselves, as
we have said, in 1512. The proprietorship of the spices which the
possession of these islands gave them, produced such considerable profits
that it soon excited the jealousy of the Spaniards. The latter pretended
that the Moluccas were in the hemisphere which had been allotted to them.
This idea was particularly suggested to them by Magellan, who, being
discontented with the treatment of king Emanuel, in having refused him an
increase of allowance, took refuge about the year 1516 in Spain, and
offered his services to the government of Charles V. Not only did he
assert that the hemisphere belonging to the Spaniards comprised the
Moluccas, but also the islands of Java and Sumatra, and a part of the
Malay peninsula. In fact, from the difficulty which then existed in
determing longitude, the discoveries of the Portuguese appeared to
appropriate more than 180° in this direction, so great was the amount
of space given to them in their maps; nevertheless, if we examine modern
maps we shall see that, measuring from the mouth of the Maranon, the
Moluccas still came within the hemisphere of the Portuguese.

Cardinal Ximenes, who at that time governed Spain in the absence of
Charles V, at the outset received Magellan very well, and Charles V.
himself afterwards entrusted him with the command of a squadron of five
vessels, which, as we know, sailed from San Lucar on the 20th of
September, 1519, on a western passage, in search of the spice islands, or
Moluccas. Two of the vessels of this fleet arrived on the 8th of
November, 1521, at the island of Tidore, after having passed through the
straits since called the Straits of Magellan. That navigator was now no
more; he had been killed in one of the islands of the archipelago of St.
Lazaro, since called the Philippines, and nearly all his squadron having
been destroyed, one vessel only, named "Victoria", returned to Europe,
with eighteen persons, all very sick, under the guidance of Sebastian del
Cano, who landed on the 6th of September, 1522, at the same port of San
Lucar de Barrameda, from which the fleet had set sail three years before.

Whether it was from policy, or because the currents which exist in the
Great Pacific Ocean had carried Magellan's fleet rapidly down to the
Philippines and Moluccas, those who returned from this expedition, always
maintained that these latter islands were in the hemisphere of the
Spaniards, who consequently laid claim to traffic there. They were even on
the point of sending out a new expedition thither, when king John III
begged Charles V to have the question examined by competent persons, and
promised to acquiesce in their decision. The two governments appointed
twenty-four, or even a greater number, both Spaniards and Portuguese,
well skilled in geography and navigation, who from the commencement of
March 1524, met alternately in the two cities of Badajos and Elves, on
the frontiers of the two states. Three months were allowed to them to
decide definitely to whom these islands belonged.

These commissioners, among whom was Sebastian del Cano, who had brought
back the "Victoria", consumed at the outset a considerable time in
consulting globes and charts, and in comparing the journals of pilots.
They examined the distance between the Moluccas and the line of
demarcation. They disputed much, and came to no conclusion. More than
two months passed away in this manner; and they reached the latter part
of May, which had been fixed as the term of the conferences.

The Spanish commissioners then settled the line of demarcation at three
hundred and seventy leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands as it had been
fixed in 1494; and as, on the basis of the charts which they had then
before them, they made the opposite line, which was to be at the
distance of 180°, pass-through the Malay peninsula, they included
in their own hemisphere not only the Moluccas, but also the islands
of Java and Borneo, part of Sumatra, the coast of China, and part
of the Malay peninsula itself. The Portuguese did not agree to this
limitation, which was too disadvantageous for themselves; on the
contrary, they went away very discontented, storming, and threatening
war, which gave occasion to the jocose observation of Peter Martyr of
Anghiera, a talented man, at that time the historiographer of the court
of Spain, that the Commissioners, after having well syllogized, concluded
by being unable to decide the question except by cannon balls.

In spite of the unsuccessful issue of this negotiation, the two courts
did not come to a quarrel; they were at the point of forming alliances.
The question of the marriage of the Infanta Catherine, the emperor's
sister, with king John, which was celebrated in 1525, was being then
entertained. In the following year, 1526, the emperor espoused, with
great pomp, Isabella, king John's sister. Charles V, however, believing
himself in the right, continued to permit his subjects to carry on
commerce with the Spice Islands; and he himself fitted out fleets to
dispute the possession of them with the Portuguese. Some of these vessels
landed at the Moluccas in 1527 and 1528; but, as these expeditions were
generally unsuccessful, and as, moreover, he was in need of money for his
coronation in Italy, he listened to the proposals of king John to
purchase his rights to the islands. He parted with them by a secret
treaty, which was signed at Saragossa the 22nd of April, 1529, for the
sum, it is said, of 350,000 golden ducats, against the express wish of
his subjects, who often, but in vain, besought him to retract it. By his
refusal, it was thought that he had received much more. Thenceforth the
Spaniards were not permitted to traffic with the Moluccas.

This termination of the quarrel on the part of Portugal was a
justification of the claims of the Spaniards, and an acknowledgment in
some sort that the Moluccas were in their hemisphere. After such an
arrangement, the Portuguese could not show any discoveries made to the
eastward, or even under the meridian of these islands. The greatest part
of New Holland is more to the east than the Moluccas; hence it is to be
believed that for this reason the Portuguese have kept silence respecting
their discovery of it.

This discovery, as we have said, must be comprised between the years 1512
and 1542. There is, however, no mention made of it in the voyages of the
time, which would sufficiently prove that the Portuguese had suppressed,
or at least concealed, the account of it. But I propose to endeavour to
supply this defect from the narrative of two of their historians.

Castenheda, a Portuguese author, who had been in India, tells us that in
the beginning of July, 1525, the Portuguese of Ternate, one of the
Moluccas, dispatched a vessel to the island of Celebes to traffic there;
that this vessel on its return was driven by violent winds and currents
into an open sea, between the Straits of Magellan and the Moluccas; that
the Portuguese found themselves thrown more than three hundred leagues
out of their route, and were several times nearly lost. One night their
rudder was carried away, and they beat about till morning, when they
discovered an island thirty leagues in circumference, on which they
landed, with thanks to God for affording them this asylum. The islanders
gave them an excellent reception; they were of a tawny colour, but well
made and good looking, both men and women. The men had long black beards.
The Portuguese remained four months on this island, not only for the
purpose of refitting, but because the winds were contrary for the return
to the Moluccas. At length they departed and reached Ternate on the 20th
of January, 1526.

Such is the narrative of Castenheda. The Jesuit Maffei, who has given us
a history of India, has supplied us with less details, but his account is
not less valuable, inasmuch as he gives us the name of the captain who
commanded the ship. He says: Some Portuguese of the Moluccas, having gone
to the islands of the Celebes to seek for gold, but not having been able
to land, were driven by a fearful tempest upon an island, which is
distant therefrom three hundred leagues, when they went ashore. The
inhabitants, who were simple people, received them very well, and soon
became familiar with them. They comprehended their signs, and even
understood a little of the language spoken at the Moluccas. All the
inhabitants were well-looking, both male and female; they were cheerful,
and the men wore beards and long hair. The existence of this island was
previously unknown, but in consideration of the account given, of it by
the captain, whose name was Gomez de Sequeira, and of the map which he
drew of this island, his name was given to it.

From the details supplied to us by these two authors, it is evident that
the island on which Gomez de Sequeira was thrown was to the eastward of
the Moluccas, because, in returning, the Portuguese had to sail
Westward. Now three hundred Portuguese leagues, starting from the
Moluccas, or the island of Celebes, leads us to within a trifle of
Endeavour Straits; we may therefore conclude that it was upon one of the
rocks in this strait that Gomez de Sequeira lost his rudder, and that the
island on which he landed was one of the westernmost of those which lie
along its western extremity. The Portuguese did not advance far into this
strait, for it is plain that they met with no obstacle in returning to
the Moluccas. I think, therefore, that the island on which Gomez de
Sequeira landed was one of those which were called Prince of Wales
Islands by Captain Cook, and which are inhabited, because this navigator
states that he saw smoke there. What confirms me in this opinion, is the
agreement of our two authors in stating that the natives of New Holland
[differed?] from those of New Guinea, whose hair and beards are crisped.
This island, therefore, was nearer to New Holland than to New Guinea,
which is, in fact, the case with the Prince of Wales Islands.

The Portuguese having discovered in 1525 an island so near as this to New
Holland, we must believe that the discovery of that continent followed
very soon after that of this island. It was at that time that the
controversies between the courts of Portugal and Spain were at their
highest; the Portuguese, therefore, needed to be cautious respecting
their new discoveries; they were obliged to conceal them carefully. It
will not, therefore, be surprising that no mention was made in their
works of the discovery of New Holland.

But, after having shown how much importance the Portuguese must
have attached to the concealment of their discoveries, and having
examined at what period the discovery of New Holland may have been
made, it will be not less interesting to inquire how this discovery may
have become known in France, and afterwards, in England, so early as
1542. There was nothing at that time to induce the court of Portugal to
disclose their discoveries to the court of France; there was nothing to
bind these two courts in intimate union; on the contrary, their
intercourse had for some time been rather cool. As proof of this, the
king of Portugal had in 1543 married his daughter Mary to Philip
the Infant of Spain, without giving notice thereof to Francis I,
who thereupon showed his vexation in his conduct towards Francis
de Norough, the ambassador of Portugal, who to avoid a rupture
between the two courts, answered with considerable reserve. We
cannot, therefore, presume that the court of Portugal would ever have
frankly communicated its discoveries to the court of France.

For my part, if it is permitted me to offer a conjecture, I think that
this information may have resulted from the faithlessness of Don Miguel
de Sylva, bishop of Viseo, and secretary of La Purite, a favourite of the
king of Portugal, who, according to De la Clede, left the kingdom about
1542, carrying with him some papers of importance with which the king had
entrusted him.[*1] This historian adds, that Don John was so indignant
at the treachery of his favourite, that he outlawed him by a public
decree, deprived him of all his benefices, and degraded him from his
nobility. He decreed the same penalties against all his followers, and
forbad all his subjects to hold any intercourse whatever with him, under
pain of his displeasure. The count of Portalegre, the brother of the
fugitive was even confined as a prisoner in the tower of Belem for having
written to him, and kept under strict guard until the Infanta Maria, on
the point of her departure to marry Philip II, the son of the Emperor
Charles V, begged his liberation. The king granted the request, on the
condition that the count should go to Arzilla to fight against the
Moors, and earn by his services the forgiveness of his fault.

[*1) Since the reading of this memoir at the Institute,
M. Correa da Serra, to whom I had previously read it, has had the
goodness to inform me of some researches which he has made upon
this subject. He discovered that Don Miguel de Sylva left the
kingdom of Portugal in 1542, that he only arrived in Italy in 1543
to receive the cardinal's hat, and he thinks that he could only
have reached that country by passing through France, where he
had formerly studied, and that he doubtless there left the
originals from which our charts were copied.]

The severity which the king Don John exhibited on this occasion
sufficiently shows the value which he attached to the papers which had
been taken away. It is evident that they were of the greatest importance.
They were secret papers; and may they not have been those which gave
information of the discoveries of the Portuguese? Our atlases, therefore,
may have been copied from the stolen documents; and it only remains for
us to discover what has become of the originals.

Now, although the theories to which these maps have given rise have been
so complacently accepted by successive geographical writers, the subject
has never yet been minutely investigated by any English writer, nor,
indeed, have the foregoing arguments of the French been ever before
brought together into a focus. The editor, therefore, first proposes to
answer the hypothesis of M. Barbie du Bocage respecting the voyage he
adduces of Gomez de Sequeira, and then, finally, to deal with the general
question of the suggestive evidence of the maps.

With respect to Gomez de Sequeira's voyage, it is certainly surprising
that M. Barbie du Bocage should have contented himself with referring to
Castenheda and Maffei for a slight and loose description of this voyage,
when it was equally competent to him to have resorted to the more ample
description of Barros, the most distinguished of all the early Portuguese
historians, who lived in the middle of the sixteenth century, and who has
devoted a whole chapter to the minute description of the voyage in
question. (See Dec. 3, liv. x, cap. 5) So full and ample is Barros'
narrative that with a modern map before us, we can track Sequeira's
course with a nicety which, so far as the main question is concerned, is
not interrupted even by the accidents of the storm and the
unshipping of his rudder. Let the reader for a moment consult any modern
map of the Moluccas and the neighbouring islands, and he will find that
the island of the Celebes, to which Sequeira directed his course from
Ternate, presents the northernmost of the three horns of its oddly-shaped
outline at a distance of about sixty leagues from Ternate. This is the
distance which Barros states that he had to sail in order to reach that
island. Had he sailed to the nearest of the two other points his voyage
would have been, instead of sixty leagues, more than twice that
distance; whereas the very nearness of the island was an inducement for
the undertaking of the voyage, as the object was to relieve the immediate
necessities of the settlement of Ternate. Upon landing at the point thus
shown to be the northernmost one, the fact of his having carried with
him stuffs for barter being discovered by the natives, converted the
friendly feeling with which they had at first received him into
hostility, as, having heard of some previous acts of greediness on the
part of the Portuguese, they immediately concluded that the visit was
not made in a spirit of friendship, but from selfish and ulterior
motives. Hence Sequeira and his party were compelled to make their
escape in haste, and proceeded to four or five other small islands
in the neighbourhood, at which they met with a like reception. The map
will show these plainly to the north of the Celebes. Resolving after
these rebuffs to return to Ternate, they encountered a terrific storm,
which drove them, to the best of their calculation, three hundred leagues
into an open sea, with not a single island in sight, but constantly
towards the east. At length one night, they struck upon an island and
unshipped their rudder. They met with a most friendly reception from the
natives, who are described as of a light, rather than a dark, colour, and
clothed. The island is stated to have been large and the natives pointed
to a mountain to the westward in which they said there was gold. The
Portuguese remained in the island four months, until the monsoon enabled
them to return to Ternate.

Now, had Sequeira been driven by the storm towards Endeavour Strait, as
presumed by M. Barbie du Bocage, a glance at the map will show us that
his course would have been south-east instead of east, and that not
through an open sea in which no island could be seen, but one bestudded
with islands. In fact, so definite is the whole account as given in
detail by Barros, that, as we have shown his course under the driving
tempest may be palpably traced in accordance therewith on modern maps as
due east to the north of the Moluccas, and through an open sea, and is
clearly at variance with the inference of M. Barbie du Bocage, who seems
not to have consulted Barros at all upon the subject. To what island, the
reader will ask, was Sequeira driven? Let the modern map be consulted,
and the course described will bring us to the island Tobi, otherwise
known as Lord North's Island. A course so clearly defined is in itself a
very strong point in the question, even though we may have to show some
discrepancies between the description of the island on which Sequeira was
thrown and that which we have in recent times received of Lord North's
Island. Let the reader, however, in connexion with Barros' description of
the course, take the following remarkable statement, as quoted in the 6th
volume of the 'Ethnography and Philology of the United States Exploring
Expedition', by H. Hale, in which, under the article "Tobi, or Lord
North's Island," at p. 78, the following account is given, and he will
perhaps not dissent from the editor in thinking it possible that this was
the island on which Sequeira was driven.

"Tobi, or Lord North's Island, is situated in about lat. 3° 2' N., and
long. 131° 4' E. It is a small low islet, about three miles in
circumference, with a population of between three and four hundred souls.
Our information concerning it is derived from an American, by name Horace
Holden, who, with eleven companions, after suffering shipwreck, reached
the island in a boat, and was taken captive by the natives. He was
detained by them two years from December 6th, 1832, to November 27th,
1334, when he made his escape and returned to America, where he published
in a small volume (which is in the British Museum), an interesting
narrative of his adventures and sufferings, with a description of the
island and its inhabitants.

"The complexion of the natives, says Holden in his narrative, is a light
copper colour, much lighter than that of the Malays or Pelew Islanders,
which last, however, they resemble in the breadth of their faces, high
cheek bones, and broad flattened noses. Here we observe what has been
before remarked of the Polynesian tribes, that the lightest complexion is
found among those who are nearest the equator.

"According to the native traditions a personage, by name "Pita-Ka't" (or
Peeter Kart)[*1], of copper colour like themselves, 'Came, many years ago,
from the Island of Ternate, one of the Moluccas, and gave them their
religion and such simple arts as they possessed.' It is probably to him
that we are to attribute some peculiarities in their mode of worship,
such as their temple with rude images to represent their divinity.
The natives wear the Polynesian girdle of bark cloth.

[*1) This name, from the Dutch form which it bears, might
suggest the idea that the visitor was a Dutchman; but it
must be remembered that the Dutch were not in those seas till
the end of the sixteenth century, and that the Synod of Dort
was held in the years 1618 and 1619, which renders the
suggestion at the close of the paragraph as to "the images to
represent their divinityl unreasonable as coming from a native
of that country. It is mor probable that, from the lapse of
time, a mistake was made in the repetition of the name by a
savage, and that a Portuguese, and no a Dutchman, suggested
the use of images to represent a divinity.]

"The' houses of the natives are built with small trees and rods and
thatched with leaves. They have two stories, a ground floor and a
loft, which is entered by a hole or scuttle through the horizontal
partition or upper floor.

"For ornament they sometimes wear in their ears, which are always bored,
a folded lead, and around their necks a necklace made with the shell of
the cocoa-nut and a small white sea shell."

With reference to the cruelties detailed in Holden's narrative Mr. Hale
goes on to say:

"It should be mentioned that the release of the four Americans who
survived (two of whom got free a short time after their capture), was
voluntary on the part of the natives, a fact which shows that the
feelings of humanity were not altogether extinct in their hearts. Indeed,
though the sufferings of the captives were very great, it did not appear
that they were worse, relatively to the condition in which the natives
themselves lived, than they would have been on any other island of the
Pacific. Men who were actually dying of starvation, like the people of
Tobi, could not be expected to exercise that kindness towards others
which nature refused to them."

We have quoted this somewhat long passage respecting Lord North's Island,
as having an incidental interest in connexion with M. Barbie du Bocage's
argument; but whatever may really have been the island on which Sequeira
was driven, it seems clear that it could not have been in the direction
of Endeavour Strait as inferred by that geographer.

Having thus shown the surmises which have been suggested by geographers
of good repute with respect to the main question of the discovery of
Australia in the early part of the sixteenth century, and explained, as
he hopes satisfactorily, the errors into which they have fallen in their
attempts at explanation, the editor will now lay before the reader his
own reasons for concluding that Australia is the country which these maps
describe.

The first question that will naturally arise is--how far does the
country thus represented, correspond in latitude, longitude, and outline
with the recognised surveys of Australia as delineated in modern maps?
And if the discrepancies exposed by the comparison do not forbid the
supposition that Australia is the country represented on the early maps,
the inquiry will then suggest itself--how, with any satisfactory show
of reason, may these discrepancies be accounted for? To both these
questions, the editor believes that he can give acceptable answers.

And first as respects latitude. In all of these maps, the latitude of the
north of Java, which is the first certain starting point, is correct. The
south coast of Java, or "the lytil Java", though separated from "Java la
Grande," or the "Londe of Java," by a narrow channel, as shown in the
maps here given, has no names which indicate any pretension to a survey.
There is enough proximity between the two to suggest alike the
possibility of a connection or of a separation of the two countries. In
the absence of so many words, the maps show as plainly as possible that
it was as yet an unsettled question. With this fact, therefore, before
us, implying, as it does, both conscientiousness in the statements on the
maps, and the confession of an imperfect survey of the whole of the
coasts supposed to be laid down, we have no difficulty in giving credence
to the pretension that the great southern land there represented was,
with all its errors, a reality and not a fiction. In all fairness,
therefore, we pass the question of junction between the little and the
great Java, as a point virtually declared to be unsettled, and
supposing the latter to be Australia, test our supposition by inquiring
as to the correctness of the latitude in which the coastline terminates
on the western side. Here again we find exact correctness. In the one
(Rotz's map), the line ceases altogether at 35°, the real south-western
point of Australia, and in the other at the same point all description
ceases, and a meaningless line is drawn to the margin of the map, implying,
that no further exploration had been made. On the eastern side, we have in
every respect greater inaccuracy; but for the present we deal only with the
question of latitude. For the sake of convenience, our reduction of
Rotz's map is made to terminate at the point where the eastern coast line
of "the Londe of Java terminates," namely in the sixtieth degree, a
parallel far exceeding in. its southing even the southernmost point of
Tasmania, which is in 43° 35'; but if we look to the Dauphin map, we
find that about 10° of the southernmost portion of the line is
indefinite, and it must not be forgotten that for the Portuguese, this
was the remotest point for investigation, and consequently, the least
likely to be definite. There is, however, strong reasons for supposing
that the eastern side of Tasmania was included within this coast line.

With respect to longitude, it may be advanced that with all
the discrepancies observable in the maps here presented,
there is no other country but Australia lying between the same
parallels, and of the same extent, between the east coast of
Africa and the west coast of America, and that Australia
does in reality lie between the same meridians as the great
mass of the country here laid down. In Rotz's map we have the
longitude reckoned from the Cape Verde islands, the degrees
running eastward from 1 to 360. The extreme western point
of the "Londe of Java" is in about 126° (102 E. from Greenwich),
whereas the westernmost point of Australia is in about 113° E.
from Greenwich. The extreme eastern points of "the Londe of
Java" is in about 207° (or 183° E. from Greenwich). The extreme
western point however is on a peak of huge extent, which is
a manifest blunder or exaggeration. The longitude of the easternmost
side, excluding this peak, is in about 187° (or 163° East from Greenwich),
whereas the easternmost point of Australia is in something less than
154 E. from Greenwich. The difficulty of ascertaining the
longitude in those days is well known, and the discoveries which
these maps represent were, in all probability, made on a variety
of occasions, and had a continuous line given to them on maps,
not so much as an exact, but as an approximate guide to
subsequent explorers. It were hard indeed, therefore, if
sufficient concession were not made to the pioneers of maritime
exploration, for the reconciliation of these comparatively and
light discrepancies, when inaccuracies as striking are observable
in surveys made as late as in the eighteenth century.

Thus in taking a general survey of the outline of this immense country,
we have this one striking fact presented to us, that the western side is
comprised between exactly the same parallels as the correspooding side of
Australia, allowance being made for the conjunction of Java, while the
eastern side presents the same characteristic as the eastern side of
Australia in being by far the longest.

We now proceed to a more minute examination of the contour of the coasts.
It is to be observed that on the north of the Great Java, shown in all
these manuscript maps which have met the editor's eye, occurs the word
"Sumbava," a fact which, he thinks has never been noticed by any writer
upon these interesting documents. Here is another instance of the
discovery of the north of an island of which the south has remained
unexplored. The peak of the great Java, on which this name "Sumbava"
is laid down, falls into the right position of the now well-known island
of Sumbava, with the smaller islands of Bali and Lombok, lying between
it and Java, and with Flores and Timor duly described towards the
eastward. The reason of the south coast of these islands remaining for
so long unexplored may be found in the description of Java by Barros,
the Portuguese historian, who wrote in the middle of the sixteenth
century. He says:

"The natives of Sunda, in dissecting Java, speak of it as separated by
the river Chiamo from the island of Sunda on the west and on the east by
a strait from the island of Bali; as having Madura on the north, and on
the south an undiscovered sea; and they think that whoever shall proceed
beyond these straits, will be hurried away by strong currents, so as
never to be able to return, and for this reason they never attempt to
navigate it, in the same manner as the Moor on the eastern coast of
Africa do not venture to pass the Cape of Currents. The earliest mention
that the editor has noticed of a passage to the south of Java, is in the
account of the "Four Hollanders' Ships' Voyage, being the First Voyage of
the Dutch to the East Indies." See 'Oxford Collection of Voyages'
vol ii, p. 417. Under date of the 14th March, 1597, it is said: "The wind
blew still south-east, sometimes more southward and sometimes eastward,
being under 14°, and a good sharp gale, holding our course west-south-west.
There we found that Java is not so broad nor stretcheth itself so much
southward as it is set down in the card; for, if it were, we should have
passed clean through the middle of the land." Supposing, then, that the
Portuguese navigators have lighted upon the west coast of Australia, and
have regarded it as a possible extension to the southward of the already
known island of Java; let us proceed to test the correctness of this
supposition by the contour of the coast of the western side. A single
glance of the eye will suffice to detect the general resemblance. It
is probable that the two great indentures are Exmouth Gulf and Shark Bay,
and we may fairly conclude we detect Houtman's Abrolhos in about their
proper parallel of from 28° to 29° south latitude. To attempt a minute
investigation of the whole coast upon data so indefinite would be of
course unreasonable, but on this western side at least the similarity is
sufficient, we think, on every ground to establish its identity with the
west coast of Australia. On the eastern side the discrepancies are much
greater. Having already spoken of the latitude and longitude, we now
speak merely of the outline of the coast. In the ancient map we see no
huge promontory, terminating in Cape York, but let the reader recall the
suggestion that the visits to these coasts were made on various
occasions, and naturally less frequently to the eastern than to the
western side, and let the result of these considerations be that the
promontory may have been altogether unvisited or ignored, and we shall
have forthwith an explanation of the form of the north-east coast line on
the early maps. Let a line be drawn from the southernmost point of the
Gulf of Carpentaria to Halifax Bay, and the form of outline referred to
is detected immediately. Nor is this conjecture without corroboration from
the physical features of the country. On the ancient map we find several
rivers laid down along the north-east coast. If we examine the
corresponding coast in the Gulf of Carpentaria, those rivers are seen to
exist; whereas from Cape York all along the coast of Australia to the
twenty-second or twenty-third degree, there is not even an indication of a
river emptying itself into the sea. The great number of islands and reefs
laid down along the north-east coast of the early maps coincides with the
Great Barrier Reefs, and with the Cumberland and Northumberland islands,
and a host of others which skirt this part of the shores of Australia.
"Coste dangereuse", "Bay perdue", and "R. de beaucoup d'Isles", are names
which we readily concede to be appropriate to portions of such a coast.
The name "Coste des Herbaiges", which we have already spoken of as having
been erroneously supposed by many geographers to apply to Botany Bay, was
probably given to that part of the coast where the first symptoms of
fertility were observed in passing southward, the more northern portions
of the shore being for the most part dry and barren. That it is an error
to connect the name with Botany Bay has already been shown, and the
editor must not fail to state that the unanswerable reason there adduced
was derived from a judicious observation made to him by the late
distinguished Dr. Brown, who not only, as Humboldt has described him was,
"Botanices facile princeps", but himself acquainted with the locality of
which he spoke.

The remainder of the coast southward is too irregularly laid down both as
to latitude and longitude, and consequently as to correctness of
conformation, to admit of any useful conjecture. It must be supposed from
the conscienciousness observable in the delineation of other parts of the
country, that this portion was laid down more carelessly, or with less
opportunity of taking observations. It is by no means improbable, from
the length of this coast line, that "Baye Neufve" is Bass's Straits; that
"Gouffre" is Oyster Bay in Tasmania; and that the survey really ceased at
the south of that island. That the continuity of the coast forms no
ground of objection to this conjecture may be shown by the fact that on
"a general chart exhibiting the discoveries made by Captain Cook, by
Lieut. H. Roberts", the coast is continuous to the south of Van Dieman's
Land, Bass's Straits being then of course undiscovered.

It may also be fairly presumed that the islands in the extreme east of
our extract from the Dauphin map, represent New Zealand.

If the above reasons have sufficient weight in them to justify the
supposition that the extensive country thus laid down in those early maps
is really Australia, it becomes a question of the highest interest to
ascertain, as nearly as may be, by whom, and at what date, the discovery
of this country was made.

The maps upon which the supposition of the discovery is alone founded are
all in French, and that they are all repetitions, with slight variations,
from one source, is shown by the fact that the inaccuracies are alike in
all of them. But although the maps are in French, there are, indications
of Portuguese in some of the names, such as "Terre ennegade", a
Gallicized form of "Tierra anegada", i.e., "land under water", or "sunken
shoal", "Gracal", and "cap de Fromose". The question then arises, were
the French or the Portuguese the discoverers? In reply, we present the
following statement.

In the year 1529, a voyage was made to Sumatra, by Jean Parmentier of
Dieppe and in this voyage he died. Parmentier was a poet, and a
classical scholar, as well as a navigator and a good hydrographer. He was
accompanied in this voyage by his intimate friend, the poet Pierre
Crignon, who, on his return to France, published, in 1531, the poems of
Parmentier, with a prologue containing his eulogium, in which he says of
him, that he was "le premier Francois qui a entrepris a estre pilotte pour
mener navires a la Terre Amerique qu'on dit Bresil, et semblablement le
premier Francois qui a descouvert les Indes jusqu'a l'Isle de Taprobane,
et, si mort ne l'eust pas prevenu, je crois qu'il eust ete jusques aux
Moluques." This is a high authority upon this point, coming as it does
from a man of education, and a shipmate and intimate of Parmentier
himself. The French, then, were not in the South Seas beyond Sumatra,
before 1529. The date of the earliest of our quoted maps is not earlier
than 1535, as it contains the discovery of the St. Lawrence by Jacques
Cartier in that year; but even let us suppose it no earlier than that of
Rotz, which bears the date of 1542, and ask, what voyages of the French
in the South Seas do we find between the years 1529 and 1542? Neither
the Abbe Raynal, nor any modern French writer, nor even antiquaries, who
have entered most closely into the history of early French explorations,
as for example, M. Leon Guerin, the author of the "Histoire Maritime de
France", Paris, 1843, 8 vo.; and of "Les Navigateurs Francais", 8 vo.,
Paris, 1847, offer the slightest pretension that the French made
voyages to those parts, in the early part or middle of the sixteenth
century. Now we do know from Barros and Galvano that, at the close of
1511, Albuquerque sent from Malacca, Antonio de Breu, and Francisco
Serrano, with three ships to Banda and Malacca. They passed along the
east side of Sumatra to Java, and thence by Madura, Bali, Sumbava, Solor,
etc., to Papua or New Guinea. From thence they went to the Moluccas and
to Amboyna. See "Barros", d. 3, 1. 5, c. 6, p. 131, and "Galvano",
translater by Hakluyt, p. 378. Here we have the very islands, forming the
northern portion of the Grande Jave, at this early date; but that which
is totally wanting between this and 1529, is the account of the various
explorations of the eastern and western coasts of the vast country
described under that name. It is certain, moreover, that France was at
that time too poor, and too much embroiled in political anxieties, to
busy itself with extensive nautical explorations. Had she so done, the
whole of North America and Brazil might now have belonged to her. At the
same time, however, we know that the Portuguese had establishments before
1529, in the East Indian Islands, and the existence of Portuguese names
on the countries of which we speak, as thus delineated on these French
maps, is in itself an acknowledgment of their discovery by the
Portuguese, as assuredly the jealousy implied in the sentence, quoted at
p. vi of this introduction, from Pierre Crignon's Prologue, would not
only have made the French most ready to lay claim to all they could in
the shape of discovery, but would have prevented any gratuitous insertion
of Portuguese names on such remote countries, had they themselves
discovered them.

But, further, as an important part of the argument, the reader must not
overlook that jealousy of the Portuguese, to which allusion has already
been made, in forbidding the communication of all hydrographical
information respecting their discoveries in these seas. As regards the
surmises of M. Barbie du Bocage respecting the probable causes of the
suppression or concealment of such documents, his carefulness and
ingenuity entitle them to the best consideration; and if these documents
really exist in France, or Rome, or elsewhere, it is much to be hoped
that they may ere long be brought to light. His Excellency the Count de
Lavradio, ambassador from Portugal to the Court of St. James, has
obligingly set on foot inquiries at Rome for the purpose of elucidating
this subject, which have not, however, produced any successful result.

But although we have no evidence to show that the French made any
original discoveries in the South Seas in the first half of the
sixteenth century, we have the evidence that they were good
hydrographers. Crignon describes Parmentier as "bon cosmographe et
geographe", and says, "par luy ont este composez plusieurs mapemondes en
globe et en plat, et maintes cartes marines sus les quelles plusieurs ont
havigue seurement". It is dangerous to draw conclusions from negatives;
but it is both legitimate and desireable that we should give due weight
to evidence of high probability when such fall within our notice. If all
the French maps we have quoted are, as has been shown, derived from one
source, since they all contain the same errors; and if Parmentier, who was
a good hydrographer, was the only French navigator we find mentioned as
having gone so far as Sumatra before the period of the earliest of these
maps; and further, if these maps exhibit Portuguese names laid down in
these maps on a country beyond Parmentier's furthest point of
exploration, we think the inference not unreasonable that Parmentier may
have laid down, from Portuguese maps, the information which has been
copied into those we have quoted, and that the descriptions round the
coast, which are all (as may be plainly seen), with the exception of
those which bear the stamp of Portuguese, convertible into French, have
been naturally written by French mapmakers, in that language. We can but
throw out this suggestion for quantum valeat. All positive evidence, in
spite of labourious research, is wanting. The earliest Portuguese
portolani which have met the editor's eye are those of Joham Freire, of
1546 and of Diego Homem, of 1558. Both these are silent on the subject.
That of Lazaro Luis and of Vas Dourado, later in the century, both
examined by Dr. Martin in Lisbon, are equally so. But this has been
already accounted for. It is true that, in a mappemonde of the data of
1526, by one Franciscus monachus ordinis Franciscanorum, copied into the
atlas to the "Geographic du Moyen Age" of Joachim Lelewel the great Terra
Australis, extending along the south of the globe from Tierra del Fuego,
is laid down with the words "Is nobis detecta existet", and "haec pars
ore nondum cognita"; but this is plainly nothing more than a fanciful
extension of Magellan's discovery of the north coast of Tierra del
Fuego, combined with the old supposition of the existence of a great
southern continent.

A similar remark occurs in the manuscript portolano of Ioan Martinez, of
Messina, of the date of 1567, in the British Museum; and in the fifth map
of the portolano of the same hydrographer, of the date of 1578, is laid
down "Meridional discoperta novamente", with no names on it, and only
showing the north part. The extent of what is seen is twice as long as
Java Major, which seems here to be Sumatra. It is observable that Petan
and Maletur, here occurring on or near the Terra Australis of other maps
of about this date, occur here, but close under Java Minor, which is a
long way to the west of the "Meridional discoperta novamente".

In 1526 the Portuguese commander, Don Jorge de Meneses, in his passage
from Malacca to the Moluccas, was carried by currents and, through his
want of information respecting the route, to the north coast of Papua,
which we now know as New Guinea; and in the following year we find
Don Alvaro de Saavedra, a Spaniard, and kinsman of the great Cortes,
despatched from New Spain to the Moluccas, and also lighting on New
Guinea, where he passed a month; but nowhere in the allusions to these
voyages do we find reference to the great southern land, which is land
drawn with so much detail under the name of "La Grande Jave".

Our surmises, therefore, lead us to regard it as highly probable that
Australia was discovered by the Portuguese between the years 1511 and
1529, and, almost a demonstrable certainty, that it was discovered before
the year 1542.

A notion may be formed of the knowledge possessed by the Spaniards in the
middle of the sixteenth century, on the part of the world on which we
treat, from the following extract from a work entitled, "El libro de las
costumbres de todas las gentes del mundo y de las Indias". Translated
and compiled by the Bachelor Francisco Themara Antwerp, 1556:--"Thirty
leagues from Java the Less is Gatigara, 19° the other side
of the equinoctial towards the south. Of the lands beyond this point
nothing is known, for navigation has not been extended further, and it is
impossible to proceed by land on account of the numerous lakes and lofty
mountains in those parts. It is even said that there is the site of the
Terrestrial Paradise". Although this was not originally written in
Spanish, but was translated from Johannes Bohemus it would scarcely have
been given forth to the Spaniards had better information on the subject
existed among that people.

It has already been stated in this Introduction, that in, the early
engraved maps of the sixteenth century, there occur apparent indications
of Australia, with names and sentences, descriptive of the country so
represented, derived from the narrative of Marco Polo, with an intimation
that some of these representations may not have emanated solely from that
narrative. The earliest of these occurs on a mappemonde in the third
volume of the polyglot bible of Arias Montanus, and the indication of
Australia there given is the more striking that it stands unconnected with
any other land whatever, and bears no kind of description. It is simply a
line indicating the north part of an unexplored land, exactly in the
position of the north of Australia, distinctly implying an imperfect
discovery, but not copied from, or bearing any resemblance to any
indication of the kind in any previous map with which the editor is
acquainted.

In Thevet's "Cosmographie Universelle", Paris, 1575, is a map with
Taprobane, La Grand Jave, Petite Jave, Partie de la Terre Australe, and
in tom. i, liv. 12, the following passage:

"L'art et pratique du navigage est le plus penible et dangerex de toutes
les sciences, que oncques les hommes ayent inventees, veu que l'homme
s'expose a la mercy des abysmes de ce grand ocean, qui environne et
abbreuve toute la terre. Davatage, avec ceste Esquille lon peult visiter
presque toute ce que le monde continent en sa rotondite, soit vers la mer
glaciale, ou les deux poles, et terre Australe, qui n'est, encor comme ie
croy descouverte mais selon mon opinion d'aussi grande estendue que
l'Asie ou l'Afrique, et laquelle un iour sera; recherchee par le moyen de
ce petit instrument navigatoire, quelque long voyage qui y peust estre."

In Dalrymple's "Hist. Coll. of Voyages in the South Pacific Ocean", Juan
Fernandez is said to have discovered the southern continent. Burney, who
speaks of his doscovery of the southern continent (vol. i, p. 300),
refers to the memorial of Juan Luis Arias for the description. See the
first article in the present collection.

It is needless here to repeat the names and sentences already described
as given on early engraved maps from Marco Polo, but it will be well to
notice such peculiarities as distinguish these maps from those in
manuscript, which we have already been speaking of as probably
representing Australia under the name of La Grande Jave. Such notice is
the more interesting as the date of these engraved maps is intermediate
between that of the manuscript documents and the period of the
authenticated discovery of Australia. In the 1587 edition of Ortelius is
a map entitled "Typus Orbis Terrarum", in which New Guinea is made an
island, with the words "Nova Guinea quae an sit insula aut pars
continentis Australis incertum". On the Terra Australis, here brought up
far more to the north than elsewhere, and separated from New Guinea only
by a strait, are the words, "Hanc continentem Australem non nulli
Magellanicam regionem ab ejus inventore nuncupant." While the sentence
shows how indefinite was the idea of the extent of Australia towards the
south, we think that the entire delineation, which brings the great
Terra Australis so far northward in this longitude into connexion with
New Guinea, goes far to show that Australia had really been discovered.

In various editions of Mercator occur copies of a map entitled "Orbis
Terrae Compendiosa descriptio quam ex magna universali Gerardi
Mercatoris Rumoldus Mercator fieri curabat anno 1587", in which similar
indications are given to those in the map of Ortelius just described.

In the map of Peter Plancius, given in the English edition of the voyages
of Linschoten, 1598, similar indications of Australia occur, but leaving
the question of the insular character of New Guinea doubtful.

In the "Speculum Orbis" of C. de Judaeis, Antwerp, 1592, is a map
entitled "Brasilia et Peruvia", on which occurs "Chaesdia seu Australis
Terra quamnautarum vulgus Tierra di Fuego vacant, alii Psittacorum
Terram". In the map of Asia, in the same Volume, a tract is laid down
which, by comparison with Ortelius' map of the Pacific Ocean, is plainly
New Guinea; and on both these maps, on the west coast of said tract, are
the words "Tierra baixa", which seems to tally with "Baie Basse", at
about the corresponding point on the manuscript maps, and is confirmatory
of the conclusion which the editor had formed. In the same volume is a
map of the Antartic hemisphere, in which the Terra Australis incognita is
brought high up to the north in the longitude of Australia. On that part
of it opposite the Cape of Good Hope is the following legend: "Lusitani
bonae spei legentes capitis promontorium hanc terram austrum versus
extare viderunt, sed nondum imploravere", a significant sentence if
allowance be made for the difficulty at that time of reckoning the
longitude.

In the map to illustrate the voyages of Drake and Cavendish by Jodocus
Hondius, of which a fac-simile was given in "The World Encompassed by Sir
Francis Drake", printed for our Socity, New Guinea is made a complete
island, without a word to throw a doubt on the correctness of the
representation; while the Terra Australis which is separated from New
Guinea, only by a strait, has an outline remarkably similar to that of the
Gulf of Carpentaria. These indications give to this map an especial
interest, and the more so that it is shown to be earlier than the passage
of Torres through Torres' Straits in 1606, by its bearing the arms of
Queen Elizabeth, before the unicorn of Scotland had displaced the
dragon of England.

In the article "Terra Australis", in Cornelius Wytfliet's "Descriptionis
Ptolemaicae Augmentum", Louvain, 1598, we find the following passage:--

"The 'Australis Terra' is the most southern of all lands, and is
separated from New Guinea by a narrow strait. Its shores are hitherto but
little known, since after one voyage and another, that route has been
deserted, and seldom is the country visited unless when sailors are
driven there by storms. The 'Australis Terra' begins at two or three
degrees from the equator, and is maintained by some to be of so great an
extent, that if it were thoroughly explored, it would be regarded as a
fifth part of the world."

The above significant statement was printed, it will be remembered, before
any discovery of Australia of which we have an authentic account.

But while examining these indications of a discovery of Australia in the
sixteenth century, it will be asked what explorations had been made by
the Spaniards in that part of the world in the course of that
century. From the period of the voyage of Don Alvaro de Saavedra to the
Moluccas in 1527, already alluded to, we neet with no such active spirit
of exploration on the part of the Spaniards in the South Seas.
Embarrassed by his political position, and with an exhausted treasury,
the emperor, in 1529, definitely renounced his pretensions to the
Moluccas for a sum of money, although he retained his claim to the
islands discovered by his subjects to the east of the line of demarcation
now confined to the Portuguese. In 1542 an unsuccessful attempt to form a
settlement in the Philippine Islands was made by Ruy de Villalobos, but
its failure having been attributed to mismanagement, a new expedition
in 1564 was despatched with the like object under Miguel Lopez de
Legaspi, which was completely successful, and a Spanish colony was
established at Zebu. It is not impossible that this settlement gave rise
to voyages of discovery about this time by the Spaniards, of which no
accounts have been published. In 1567, Alvaro de Mendana sailed from
Callao on a voyage of discovery in which he discovered the Solomon
Islands and several others. There are great discrepancies in the
different relations of this voyage. In 1595 he made a second voyage from
Peru, in which he discovered the Marquesas, and the group afterwards
named by Carteret, Queen Charlotte's Islands. The object of this
expedition was to found a colony on the Solomon Islands, which
he had discovered in his previous voyage, but from the incorrectness
of his reckoning he was unable to find them. In the island of
Santa Cruz he attempted to establish a colony, but without
success, and in this island he died. In this second voyage he had
for his chief pilot Pedro Fernandez Quiros, who may be regarded as the
last of the distinguished mariners of Spain, and whose name claims
special notice in a work treating of the early indications of Australia,
although he himself never saw the shores of that great continental
island.[*1]

[*1 For an account of this voyage see a letter from Quiros to Don Antonio
de Morga, cap. vi, p. 29, of de Morga's "Sucesos en las Islas Filipinas",
Mexico, 1609, 4to.; and Figueroa's "Hechos de Don Garcia Hurtado de
Mendoza, quarto Marques de Canete", Madrid, 1613, 4to., 1. 6, p. 238.]

The discovery of the island of Santa Cruz suggested to the mind of Quiros
that the great southern continent was at length discovered, and in two
memoirs addressed by him to Don L. de Velasco, viceroy of Peru, we meet
with the first detailed argument upon this great geographical question,
which, though he himself was not destined to demonstrate it by an actual
discovery, may nevertheless be said to have been indirectly brought to a
solution through his instrumentality. It is true that it is difficult in
dealing with these vague surmises respecting the existence of a southern
continent to draw distinctions between Australia itself and the great
continent discovered in the present century, some twenty or thirty
degrees to the south of that vast island. It has been already stated,
that Dalrymple, nearly two centuries later, earnestly advocated the same
cause as De Quiros had done, and speaking, of that navigator he says:
"The discovery of the southern continent, whenever and whomsoever it may
be completely effected, is in justice due to this immortal name." It
should be premised that there are, in fact, three points of ambiguity in
connexion with the name of that navigator, which it is well at once to
state, as they might mislead the judgment of the superficial reader of
the history of navigation of that period as to his connexion with the
discovery of Australia.

In the first place, though generally reputed to be a Spaniard, he is
described by Nicholas Antonio, the author of the "Bibliotheca Hispana",
himself a Spaniard, and not unwilling, it may be supposed to claim so
distinguished a navigator for his countryman, as "Lusitanus. Eborensis,
ut aiunt Lusitani", (a Portuguese, stated by the Portuguese to be a
native of Evora), and the style of his writings bears out the
supposition. Secondly, Antonio de Ulloa, in his "Resumen", p. 119,
quotes from an account of the voyage of Quiros said to be given in the
"Historia de la Religion Serafica of Diego de Cordova", (a work which
the editor has not met with) the discovery of a large island in
28° south latitude, which latitude is further south than
Quiros or his companions are otherwise known to have made in any voyage.
Thirdly, the printed memoirs of Quiros bear the title of Terra Australis
Incognita, while the southern Tierra Austral, discovered by Quiros
himself, and surnamed by him "del Espiritu Santo", is none other than
the "New Hebrides", of the maps of the present day.

At the same time, to both Quiros and Dalrymple we are indirectly indebted
for the earliest designation which attaches in any sense to the modern
nomenclature connected with Australia, viz., for the name of Torres
Straits. That Quiros, whether by birth a Portuguese or a Spaniard, was in
the Spanish service, cannot be doubted, The viceroy of Peru had warmly
entertained his projects, but looked upon its execution as beyond the
limits of his own power to put into operation. He therefore urged to
Quiros to lay his case before the Spanish monarch at Madrid, and
furnished him with letters to strengthen his application. Whether Philip
III was more influenced by the arguments of De Quiros, as to the
discovery of a southern continent, or rather by the desire to explore the
route between Spain and America by the east, in the hope of discovering
wealthy islands between New Guinea and China, we need not pause to
question. It is possible that both these motives had their weight, for
Quiros was despatched to Peru with full orders for the carrying out of
his plans, addressed to the Viceroy, the Count de Monterey; and he was
amply equipped with two well-armed vessels and a corvette, with which he
sailed from Callao on the 21st of December, 1605. Luis Vaez de Torres was
commander of the Almirante or second ship, in this expedition. The voyage
was looked upon as cne of very great importance; and Torquemada, in his
account of it in the "Monarquia Indiana", says the ships were the
strongest and best armed which had been seen in those seas. The object
was to make a settlement at the island of Santa Cruz, and from thence to
search for the Tierra Austral, or southern continent.

After the discovery of several islands, Quiros came to a land which he
named Australia del Espiritu Santo, supposing it to be part of the great
southern continent. At midnight on the 11th of June, 1606, while the
three ships were lying at anchor in the bay which they had named San
Felipe and Santiago, Quiros, for reasons which are not known, and without
giving any signal or notice, was separated from the other two ships.

Subsequently to the separation, Torres found that the Australia del
Espititu Santo was an island, and then continued his course westward in
pursuance of the exploration. In about the month of August, 1606 he
fell in with a coast in 11½° south lat., which he calls the
beginning of New Guinea; apparently the south-eastern part of the land
afterwards named Louisiade by M. de Bougainville, and now known to be a
chain of islands. As he could not pass to windward of this land, Torres
bore away along its south side, and himself gives the following account
of his subsequent course. "We went along three hundred leagues of coast,
as I have mentioned, and diminished the latitude 2½°, which
brought us into 9°. From hence we fell in with a bank of from
three to nine fathoms; which extends along the coast above one hundred
and eighty leagues. We went over it, along the coast, to 7½°
south latitude; and the end of it is in 5°. We could not go
further on for the many shoals and great currents, so we were obliged to
sail south-West, in that depth, to 11° south lat. There is all over
it an archipelago of islands without number, by which we passed; and at
the end of the eleventh degree the bank became shoaler. Here were very
large islands, and there appeared more to the southward were inhabited
by black people, very corpulent and naked. Their arms were lances,
arrows, and clubs of stone ill fashioned. We could not get any of
their arms. We caught in all this land, twenty persons of different
nations, that with them we might be able to make a better account
to Your Majesty. They give much notice of other people, although
as yet they do not make themselves well understood. We were upon
this bank two months at the end of which time we found ourselves in
twenty-five fathoms and 5° south latitude, and ten leagues from
the coast; and having gone four hundred and eighty leagues here, the
coast goes to the north-east. I did not search it, for the bank became
very shallow. So we stood to the north."

The very large islands seen by Torres in the 11th degree of south
latitude are evidently the hills of Cape-York; and the two months of
intricate navigation, the passage through the strait that separates
Australia from New Guinea. A copy of this letter of Torres was
fortunately lodged in the archives of Manilla; and it was not until that
city was taken, in 1762, by the English, that the document was discovered
by Dalrymple, who paid a fitting tribute to the memory of this
distinguished Spanish navigator, by giving to this dangerous passage the
name of Torres' Straits, which it has ever since retained. The editor has
striven in vain to learn into whose hands Dalrymple's copy of this
letter has fallen. He has been compelled, therefore, to reprint it from
Dalrymple's translation, supplied to Admiral Burney, as inserted at the
end of vol. ii of his "Discoveries and Voyages in the South Seas."

De Quiros himself reached Mexico on the 3rd of October, 1606, nine months
from his departure from Callao. Strongly imbued with a sense of
importance of his discoveries, he addressed various memoirs to Philip
III, advocating the desirableness of further explorations in these
unknown regions; but, after years on unavailing perseverance, he died at
Panama in 1614, leaving behind him a name which for merit, though not for
success, was second only to that of Columbus, and with him expired the
naval heroism of Spain.

"Reasoning", as Dalrymple says, "from principles of science and deep
reflection, he asserted the existence of a southern continent and devoted
with unwearied though condemned diligence, the remainder of his life to
the prosecution of this sublime conception." In the first document
printed in this collection, which is from the hand of the Fray Juan Luis
Arias, is given an account of his earnest advocacy of the resuscitation
of Spanish enterprise in the southern seas, and especially with reference
to the great southern continent.

But while the glory of Spanish naval enterprise was thus on the wane, the
very nation which Spain had bruised and persecuted was to supplant her in
the career of adventure and prosperity. The war of independence had
aroused the energies of those provinces of the Netherlands which had
freed themselves from the Spanish yoke; while the cruelties perpetrated in
those provinces which the Spaniards had succeeded in again subduing,
drove an almost incredible number of families into exile. The majority of
these settled in the northern provinces, and thus brought into them a
prodigious influx of activity. Among these emigrants were a number of
enterprising merchants, chiefly from Antwerp, a town which had for many
years enjoyed a most considerable, though indirect, share in the
trans-Atlantic trade of Spain and Portugal, and was well acquainted with
its immense advantages. These men were naturally animated by the bitter
hatred of exiles, enhanced by difference of faith and the memory of many
wrongs. The idea that arose among them was, to deprive Spain of her
trans-Atlantic commerce, and thus to cripple her resources, and strengthen
those of the Protestants, and by this means eventually to force the
southern provinces of the Netherlands from their oppressors. This idea,
at first vaguely entertained by a few, became general when the Spaniards
forbed Dutch vessels to carry on any traffic with Spain. This traffic
had existed in spite of the wars, and had furnished the Dutch with the
principal means of carrying it on.

Being thus violently thrust out of their share in trans-Atlantic
commerce, the Dutch determined to gain it back with interest. Geography
and hydrography now became the subjects of earnest study and instruction;
and the period was distinguished by the appearance of such men as
Ortelius, Mercator, Plancius, De Bry, Hulsius, Cluverius, etc., whom we
are now bound to regard as the fathers of modern geography. Among these
the most earnest in turning the resources of science into a weapon
against the oppressors of his country, was Peter Plancius, a Calvinist
clergyman, who opened a nautical and geographical school at Amsterdam for
the express purpose of teaching his countrymen how to find a way to
India, and the other sources whence Spain derived her strength. We do not
here dwell on their efforts to find a northern route to the east. Their
knowledge of the direct route to that wealthy portion of the world had
become greatly increased by the appearance of Jan Huyghen van
Linschoten's great work. (Amst., 1595-96.) Linschoten had, for fourteen
years, lived in the Portuguese possessions in the East, and had there
collected a vast amount of information. The Dutch East India Company was
established in 1602; and in 1606 we find a vessel from Holland making
the first AUTHENTICATED discovery of that great south land which in our
own time has been designated--at the suggestion of that worthy navigator,
Matthew Flinders, to whom we are so largely indebted for our knowledge of
the hydrography of that country--by the distinct and appropriate name of
Australia.

Of the discoveries made by the Dutch on the coast of Australia, ancestors
of a hundred years ago, and even the Dutch themselves knew but little.
That which was known was preserved in the "Relations de divers voyages
curieux" of Meichisedech Thevenot (Paris, 1663-72, fol.); in the "Noord
en Oost Tartarye" of Nicolas Witsen, (Amst., 1692-1705, fol.); in
Valentyn's "Oud en Nieuw Oost Indien" (Amst., 1724-26, fol.); and in the
"Inleidning tot de algemeen Geographie" of Nicolas Struyk (Amst., 1740, 4
to.). We have, however, since gained a variety of information through a
document which fell into the possession of Sir Joseph Banks, and was
published by Alexander Dalrymple, at that time hydrographer to the
Admiralty and the East India Company, in his collection concerning Papua.
This curious and interesting document is a copy of the instructions to
Commodore Abel Jansz Tasman for his second voyage of discovery. That
distinguished commander had already, in 1642, discovered not only the
island now named after him, Tasmania (but more generally known as Van
Dieman's Land, in compliment to the then governor of the Dutch East India
Company at Batavia), but New Zealand also; and, passing around the east
side of Australia, but without seeing it, sailed on his return voyage
along the northern shores of New Guinea. In January 1644 he was
despatched on his second voyage; and his instructions, signed by the
Governor-General Antonio Van Diemen, and the members of the council, are
prefaced by a recital, in chronological order, of the previous
discoveries of the Dutch. The document is reprinted in the present
volume.

From this recital, combined with a passage from Saris, given in Purchas,
Vol. i, p, 385, we learn that, "On the 18th of November, 1605, the Dutch
yacht the Duyfhen (the Dove), was despatched from Bantam to explore the
islands of New Guinea, and that she sailed along what was thought to be
the west side of that country, to 19¾° of south latitude." This
extensive country was found, for the greatest part, desert; but in some
places inhabited by wild, cruel black savages, by whom some of the crew
were murdered; for which reason they could not learn anything of the land
or waters, as had been desired of them; and from want of provisions, and
other necessities, they were obliged to leave the discovery unfinished.
The furthest point of the land, in their maps, was called Cape Keer Weer,
or "Turn Again". As Flinders observes, "the course of the Duyfhen from
New Guinea was southward, along the islands on the west side of Torres
Strait, to that part of Terra Australis a little to the west and south
of Cape York. But all those lands were thought to be connected, and to
form the west coast of Guinea". Thus, without being conscious of it the
commander of the Duyfhen made the first authenticated discovery of any
part of the great south land about the month of March 1606; for it appears
that he had returned to Banda in or before the beginnirg of June of
that year.

The second expedition mentioned in the Dutch recital for the discovery of
the great south land, was undertaken in a yacht in the year 1617, by
order of the Fiscal d'Edel, with little success and the journals and
remarks were not to be found; but various ships outward bound from Holland
to the East Indies, in the course of the years 1616, 1618, 1619, and
1622, made discoveries on the west coast of the great unknown south land,
from 35° to 22° south latitude, and among them the ship "Eendragt"
(the Concord) commanded by Dirk Hartog, Hertoge, or Hartighs, of
Amsterdam, fell in with land in about 25° south, which afterwards
received its name from this ship. The president, De Brosses, has fallen
into the error of describing Dirk Hartog as a native of Eendragt, adding
that this coast has preserved the name of the vessel, and that of the
country of its commander. The Dutch recital which mentions the voyage
of the "Eendragt", does not give Hartog's name, but we learn it from a
MS. chart by Hessel Gerritz, of Amsterdam, 1627, referred to by Dalrymple
in his collection concerning Papua, note, page 6. An important part of
Hartog's discovery was Dirk Hartog's Roads, at the entrance of the sound,
afterwards called by Dampier, Shark's Bay, in 25°; and on Dirk Hartog's
island, one of the islands forming the road, he left a tin plate, bearing
the following inscription: Anno 1616 den 25sten October is hier vangecomen
het schip de Endracht van Amsterdam, den Oppercoopmen Gilles Mibais van
Amsterdam, den 27sten. dito t' Zeijl gegaen na Bantam, den Ondercoopman
Jan Stoyn, Opperstiermann Pieter Dockes van Bil Anno 1616. Of which the
following is a translation: "On the 25th of October, 1616, arrived here
the ship Endraght, of Amsterdam; the first merchant, Gilles Mibais Van
Luyck; Captain Dirck Hartog, of Amsterdam; the 27th ditto set sail for
Bantam; undermerchant, Jan Stoyn; upper steersman, Pieter Dockes, from
Bil. Anno 1616."

In 1697, this plate was found by Wilhelm Van Vlaming, Captain of the
"Geelvink", of whose voyage we shall have to speak in due course, and was
replaced by another on which the inscription was copied, and the
following new inscription added:

1697. den 4 den Februarij is hier aengcomen het schip de Geelvinck van
Amsterdam, den commandeur schipper William de Vlamingh van Vlielandt:
Adsistent Joan van Bremen van Coppenhage; Opperstierman Michiel Blom van
Es tight van Bremen.

De Hoecker de Nijptang, schipperr Gerrit Collaert van Amsterdam;
Adsistent Theodorus Heermans van do. d'opper-stierman Gerrit Gerritz
van Bremen.

't Galjoot t' Weseltje, Gezaghebber Cornelis de Vlamigh van Vlielandt;
stierman Coert Gerritsz van Bremen, en van hier Gazeilt met ons vloot den
12 do. voorts het Zuijtlandt to ondersoecken en gedestineert voor Batavia.

Of which the following is a translation: "On the 4th of February, 1697,
arrived here the ship Geelvinck, of Amsterdam: captain commandant,
Wilhelm van Vlaming of Vlielandt; assistant, Jan van Bremen of
Copenhagen; first pilot, Michael Bloem van Estight of Bremen; the hooker
the Nymtangh, captain Gerrit Collaert of Amsterdam; assistant, Theodorus
Heermans of the same place; first pilot, Gerrit Gerritz of Bremen; then
the galliot Weseltje; commander, Cornelius van Vlaming of Vlielandt;
pilot, Gerrit Coert of Bremen. Sailed from here with our fleet on the
12th, to explore the south land, and afterwards bound for Batavia."

In the account of the voyage of discovery made to the south by the
corvettes Geographe and Naturaliste, in the years 1800, 1802, 1803, and
1804, published by F. Peron, Vol i, chap. 10, p. 193, we find, that in
the month of July 1801, Captain Hamelin of the Naturaliste, resolved on
sailing to the extremity of Shark's Bay; but he first dispatched three
men to Dirck Hartog's island, for the purpose of signalizing the
Geographe, in case it should heave in sight at the entrance to the bay.
On returning from Dirck Hartog's island, the botswain brought with them
the plate of tin thus described. It was about six inches in diameter,
and the inscriptions were described as coursely cut. The plate was found
on the north point of the island which was named in consequence the Cape
of the Inscription; it was then half covered with sand, lying near an
oaken post, on which it seemed to have been originally nailed. Having
copied the inscriptions, Captain Hamelin had a new post made, and sent back
the plate to be refixed on the same spot from which it had been taken; he
would have looked upon it as sacrilege to have kept on board this plate,
which, for nearly two centuries, had been spared by nature, and by those
who might have observed it before him. He himself also placed on the
north-east part of this island a second plate, on which were inscribed
the name of his corvette, and the date of his arrival on those shores. In
the translation given in Peron's work of the earlier of these two
inscriptions, a droll mistake is made by an error in punctuation, as will
be seen by comparing the original inscription, with the following:

"1616. Le 25 Octobre est arrive ici le naviere 1' Endraght d' Amsterdam:
premier marchand, Gilles Miebais Van Luck; capitaine, Dirck Hartighs
d'Amsterdam; it remit sous voile le 27 du memo mois; Bantum etoit sous
marchand; Janstins premier pilote: Pieter Ecoores Van-Bu... Anne 1616:"

Thus it will be seen, that Bantam, in Java, for which they set sail, is
transformed into the under-merchant, and the person who really held that
post is converted into chief pilot, while poor Pieter Dockes, whose name,
perhaps more feebly scratched at the close of the inscription, had become
obliterated by more than a century's rough usage, is deprived of the
honour of holding any post whatever. Even this rendering of the
inscription is however, highly interesting, as giving some indication of
the degree of obliteration effected by the weather in this long space
of time.

In 1617 appeared a work, the title of which renders some mention of it in
this place necessary. It was entitled "Mundus alter et idem, sive Terra
Australis antehac semper incognite longis itineribus peregrini academici
nuperrime lustrata". Hanau, 1617. The book bearing this delusive title
was by Bishop Joseph Hall. It was in reality an invective against the
characteristic vices of various nations, from which it is said that Swift
borrowed the idea of "Gulliver's Travels".

A strange blunder has been made by the Abbe Prevost, tom. ii, p. 201, of
his "Histoire des Voyages", 4to. ed., and by the President de Brosses, in
his "Histoire des Navigations aux Terres Australes" tom. i, p. 432; and
copied by Callender in his unacknowledged translation from De Brosses, to
the effect that in the year 1618, one Zeachen, a native of Arnheim,
discovered the land called Arnheim's Land, and Van Diemen's Land on the
N. coast of Australia in about latitude 14°. He proceeds to say that
Dieman's Land owes its name to Anthony Van Diemen, at that time General
of the Dutch East India Company, who returned to Europe with vast riches
in 1631. The blunder is easily demonstrable. Zeachen, or as it is also
given, Zechaen, is a form of word plainly irreconcileable with the genius
of the Dutch language, and is an evident misspelling, of Zeehaen, which
is the name not of a man, but of a ship, the "Sea-hen".

No such voyage is mentioned in the recital of discoveries which preface
the instructions to Tasman, nor is there any notice of the north coast of
new Holland having been visited by the Dutch in that year. Moreover Van
Diemen, as we learn from the "Vies des Gouverneurs Generaux avec l'abrege
de l'histoire des etablissemens Hollandois" by Dubois, was not governor
general until January 1st, 1636, and it is observable that on one of the
ships employed in Tasman's voyage in 1642, in which he discovered the
island now known as Tasmania, but to which he, out of compliment, gave
the name of the governor general, Van Diemen, was called the "Zeehaen"
from which in all probability, by some complication of mistakes, the
mis-statement here made has originated.

The "Mauritius", an outward bound ship, appears to have made some
discoveries upon the west coasts, in July, 1618, particularly of Willem's
River, near the north-west cape, but no further particulars are known.

It would seem that another of the outward bound ships referred to in the
Dutch recital, as visiting the coast of New Holland, was commanded by
Edel, and the land there discovered, which was on the west coast, was
named the land of Edel. From Campbell's editions of Harris's voyages we
learn that this discovery was made in 1619. It appears from Thevenot's
chart, published in 1663, to have extended from about 29° northward to
26½, where the land of Eendragt commences, but in Van Keulen's chart,
published near the close of the century, it is made to extend still more
southward, to 32° 20' which Trevenot's chart would attribute rather to the
discovery made three years later (1622) of the ship "Leeuwin" (the
Lioness).

The great reef lying off the coast of Edel's Land, called Houtman's
Abrolhos, was discovered at the same time. The name was doubtless given
after the Dutch navigator Frederick Houtman, although we find no trace of
his having himself visited this coast. The Portuguese name Abrolhos,
meaning "open your eyes", was given to dangerous reefs, implying the
necessity of a sharp look out.

The name of the commander of the "Leeuwin" has not yet appeared in any
published document that has met the editor's eye. The land to which the
name of that vessel was given extended from 35° northward, to about 31°;
but as we have already stated, in Van Keulen's and later charts, the
northern portion of this tract has been included in the discovery by
Edel.

For the nearer discovery of Eendraght's Land, the Dutch recital informs
us that the governor general, Jan Pietersz Coen, dispatched in September,
1622, the yachts De Haring and Harewind; but this voyage was rendered
abortive by meeting the ship "Mauritius", and searching after the ship
"Rotterdam".

In January 1623, the Dutch recital informs us, the yachts Pera and Arnhem,
under the command of Jan Carstens, were despatched from Amboina by order
of his Excellency Jan Pietetz Coen. Carstens, with eight of the Arnhem's
crew, was treacherously murdered by the natives of New Guinea; but the
vessels prosecuted the voyage and discovered "the great islands, Arnhem
and Spult". Arnhem's Land forms the easternmost portion of the north coast
of New Holland, lying to the west of the Gulf of Carpentaria. In a chart
inserted in Valentyn's "Beschryvingh van Banda", fo. 36, is laid down the
river Spult in Arnhem's Land, in about the position of Liverpool River,
with which, in all probability, it is identical; and the country in this
vicinity is probably what is here meant by the Spult.

The ships were then "untimely separated", and the Arnhem returned to
Amboina. The Pera persisted, and "sailed along the south coast of New
Guinea to a flat cove situate in 10° south latitude, and ran along the
west coast of this land to Cape Keer Weer; from thence discovered the
coast further southwards, as far as 17°, to Staten River. From this
place, what more of the land could be discerned seemed to stretch
westward." The Pera then returned to Amboina. "In this discovery were
found everywhere shallow water and barren coasts; islands altogether
thinly peopled by divers cruel, poor, and brutal nations, and of very
little use to the Dutch East India Company."

The first discovery of the south coast of New Holland was made in 1627.
The Dutch recital says: "In the year 1627, the south coast of the great
south land vas accidently discovered by the ship the 'Guide Zeepaard',
outward bound from Fatherland, for the space of a thousand miles." The
journal of this voyage seems to have been lost. The editor has spared no
pains, by inquiry in Holland and Belgium, to trace its existence, but
without success; and the only testimony that we have to the voyage is
derived from the above passage and Dutch charts, which give the name
Pieter Nuyts to the immense tract of country thus discovered. Nuyts is
generally supposed to have commanded the ship; but Flinders judiciously
remarks that, on his arrival at Batavia, he was sent ambassador to Japan,
and afterwards made governor of Formosa. It seems more probable that he
was a civilian--perhaps the company's first merchant on board-- rather
than captain of the ship. In estimating the thousand miles described
in the recital, allowance must be doubtless made for irregularities
of the coast, embracing from Cape Leeuwin to St. Francis and
St. Peter's Islands.

The next discovery upon the western coasts was that of the ship "Vianen",
one of the seven which returned to Europe under the command of the
Governor General, Carpenter. In this year, the Dutch recital informs us
that the coast was seen again accidentally, in the year 1628, on the
north side, in the latitude 21° south by the ship "Vianen", homeward
bound from India, when they coasted two hundred miles without gaining
any knowledge of this great country; only observing "a foul and barren
shore, green fields, and very wild, black, barbarous inhabitants."

This was the part called De Witt's Land; but whether the name were
applied by the captain of the "Vianen" does not appear. The President De
Brosses, whose account, however, is too full of blunders to follow very
implicitly, says, "William de Witt gave his own name to the country which
he saw in 1628 to the north of Remessen's River; and which Viane, a Dutch
captain, had, to his misfortune, discovered in the month of January in
the same year, when he was driven upon this coast of De Witt, in 21° of
latitude, and lost all his riches". The name of De Witt was subsequently
retained on this part of the coast in all the maps.

In Thevenot's "Recueil de divers Voyages curieux", 1663, is given an
account, translated from the Dutch, of the shipwreck of the "Batavia",
Captain Francis Pelsart, in the night of June 4, 1629, on the reef still
known as Houtman's Abrolhos, lying between 28° and 29° S. lat., on the
west coast of Australia. A loose and incorrect translation of this
account, is given in vol. i, p. 323, of Harris's "Navigantium atque
Intinerantium Bibliotheca" (Campbell's edition), but a new translation is
supplied, in its proper chronological order, in the present volume. At
daylight, the shipwrecked sailors saw an island at about three leagues
distance, and still nearer, two islets, to which the passengers with some
of the crew were sent. As no fresh water was found on these islets,
Pelsart put to sea on the 8th of June, in one of the boats which he had
had covered with a deck, and sailed to the main land for the purpose of
seeking water. He found his latitude at noon to be 28° 13' south. The
coast, which bore N. by W., he estimated to be eight leagues from the
place of shipwreck. It was rocky and barren and about the same height of
the coast of Dover. He essayed to put in at a small sandy bay, but the
surf and the unfavourableness of the weather compelled him to keep off
the shore. He then steered north, but the abruptness of the shore, and the
breakers which e found along the coast, prevented his landing for several
days, till at length on the 14th of June, being then in 24° latitude,
he saw some smokes at a distance, and steered towards them, but the shore
was still found to be steep and rocky, and the sea broke high against it;
at length six of his men leaped overboard, and with great exertion
reached the land, the boat remaining at anchor in twenty-five fathoms.
The sailors, while busily engaged in seeking water, perceived four natives
creeping towards them on their hands and feet; but suddenly, on one of the
sailors appearing on an eminence, they rose up and fled, so that those who
remained in the boat could see them distinctly. They were wild, black,
and entirely naked.

The search for water was unsuccessful, and the sailors swam back to the
boat, though much bruised by the waves and rocks. They then again set
sail, keeping outside the shoals. On the morning of the 15th, they
discovered a cape, off which lay a chain of rocks, stretching out four
miles into the sea, and beyond this, another reef, close to the shore.
Finding here an opening where the water was smooth, they put into it, but
with great risk, as they had but two feet of water with a stony bottom.
Here in the holes of the rocks they found fresh rain water, of which they
collected forty gallons. There were evident traces of the natives having
been there but a short time before. On the 16th of July, they endeavoured
to collect more water but without success. There were no signs of
vegetation on the sandy level country to be seen beyond, and the ant
hills were so large, that they might have been taken for the horses of the
natives. The quantity of flies was so great, that they could with
difficulty free themselves from them. Eight savages carryng sticks or
spears in their hands, came within musket shot, but fled when the
Dutch sailors moved towards them. When Captain Pelsart found there
was no hope of procuring water he again weighed anchor end got outside of
the reef by a second opening more to the north; for having observed the
latitude to be 22° 17', his intention was to seek for the river of Jacob
Remessens near the north-west cape, but the wind changing to the
north-east, he was compelled to quit the coast. Being now four hundred
miles from the place of shipwreck, and having barely enough water for
their own use, he determined to make the best of his way back to Batavia
for assistance.

Meanwhile, by a fortunate accident, one of them who had been left at the
Abrolhos chanced to taste the water on two holes, which water had been
supposed to be salt, as it rose and fell with the tide. To their
inexpressible joy it proved to be fit to drink, and afforded them an
unfailing supply. Captain Pelsart afterwards returned to the Abrolhos in
the yacht "Saardam", from Batavia; but finding a shameful conspiracy on
foot, he was compelled to execute some, and two men were set on shore on
the opposite main land.

In the instructions subsequently given to Tasman for his voyage in 1644,
he was directed "to inquire at the continent thereabouts after two Dutch
men, who, having forfeited their lives, were put on shore by Commodore
Pelsart, if still alive. In such case, you may make your enquiries of them
about the situation of those countries; and if they entreat you to that
purpose, give them passage hither."

Gerrit Tomaz Pool, or Poel, was sent in April this year from Banda, with
the yachts "Klyn", "Amsterdam" and "Wezel" upon the same expedition as
Carstens; and at the same place on the coast of New Guinea he met with
the same fate. Nevertheless, the voyage was assiduously continued under
the charge of the super cargo, Pieterz Pietersen; and the islands Key and
Arouw visited. By reason of very strong eastwardly winds, they could not
reach the west coast of New Guinea (Carpentaria); but shaping their course
very near south discovered the coast of Arnhem or Van Diemen's Land in
11° south latitude; so named after the governor general Van Diemen, who
was sent out this year, and sailed along the shore for one hundred and
twenty miles (thirty mijlen), without seeing any people, but many signs of
smoke.

A short account of this voyage is given by Valentyn, in his volume on
Banda, p. 47, a translation of which will be found in the present volume.

Abel Janszen Tasman, who, in the year 1642, had made the two great
discoveries of south Van Diemen's Land--in these days more correctly
named after himself, Tasmania--and of New Zealand, was again sent out
in 1644, for the express purpose of examining the north and north-western
shores of New Holland. His instructions, of which we have already
repeatedly spoken, say, that "after quitting Point Ture, or False Cape,
situate in 8° on the south coast of New Guinea, you are to
continue eastward along the coast to 9° south latitude, crossing
prudently the cover at that place. Looking about the high islands or
Speults River, with yachts for a harbour, despatching the tender De Braak
for two or three days into the cove, in order to discover whether, within
the great inlet, there be not to be found an entrance into the South Sea.
From this place you are to coast along the west coast of New Guinea, to
the furthest discoveries in 17° south latitude, following the
coast further, as it may run west or southward. But it is to be feared
you will meet in these parts with the south-east trade winds, from which
it will be difficult to keep the coast on board, if stretching to the
south-east; but, notwithstanding this, endeavour, by all means to
proceed, that we may be sure whether this land is divided from the great
unknown south continent or not." Thus it became part of Tasman's duty to
explore Torres' Straits, then unknown, though possibly suspected to exist.
That they had been unconsciously passed through by Torres, in 1606 we have
already seen. Tasman, however, failed, as will be presently shown, in
making the desired exploration, and it was not until 1770 that the
separation of New Holland from New Guinea was established by Captain Cook.
In the remaining portion of his duty, Tasman fully succeeded, viz., in
establishing the continuity of the north-west coast of the land designated
generally "the great known south continent", as far south as about the
twenty-second degree. It is greatly to be regretted that the account of
this interesting voyage has not been published. The Burgomaster Witsen,
in a work on the migrations of the human race, which appeared in 1705,
gives some notes on the inhabitants of New Guinea and New Holland, in
which Tasman is quoted among those from whom he gained his information;
thus showing that Tasman's narrative was then in existence. M. Van Wyk
Roelandszoon, in a letter addressed to the editor of the "Nouvelles
Annales des Voyages", dated 26th July, 1825, states that many savans du
premier ordre had for a long time sought in vain for the original papers
of Abel Tasman. One young, but very able fellow countryman of his, had
even made a voyage for that express purpose to Batavia, in the hope that
they might be found there, but he unfortunately died shortly after his
arrival at that place. M. Van Wyk continues, "we still live in the hope
of receiving some of these documents." This hope, however, was not
realised, and the efforts of the editor of the present volume, which
have been exerted in influential quarters for the same object, have
been equally unsuccessful. But, although we have to regret the
loss or non-appearance of any detailed account of this most important
voyage, the outline of the coasts visited by Tasman is laid down, though
without any reference to him or his voyage, on several maps which
appeared within a few years after the voyage was performed. The
earliest representation which the editor has found anywhere mentioned,
although in all probability it was preceded by others published in
Holland, was on the mappemonde of Louis Mayerne Turquet, published in
Paris in 1648. It was also represented on a planisphere, inlaid in the
floor of the Groote Zaal, in the Stad-huys at Amsterdam, a building
commenced in 1648. The site adopted for this remarkable map was peculiar,
and scarcely judicious; for though it gratified the eyes of the
enterprising burghers, with the picture of the successful explorations of
their countrymen, it exposed the representation itself to almost
unceasing detrition from the soles of their feet. This outline was
also given in the map entitled Mar di India, in the 1650 edition of
Janssen's Atlas in the King's Library in the British Museum, by J.
Klencke, of Amsterdam, presented to King Charles the Second, on his
restoration in 1660, and also in a chart inserted in Melchisedech
Thevenot's "Relation de divers voyages curieux", 1663. From these maps it
is apparent that it was from this voyage that the designation of New
Holland was first given to this great country. In a map by Van Keulen,
published at the close of the seventeenth century, a portion of Tasman's
track with the soundings is given, but this also is without reference to
Tasman himself. It has, however, been the good fortune of the editor of
the present volume to light upon a document which, in the absence of
Tasman's narrative, and his own original chart., viz., an early copy,
perhaps from his own chart, with the tracks of his two voyages pricked
thereon, and the entire soundings of the voyage of 1644 laid down. It
forms Art. 12 in a miscellaneous MS. collection marked 5222 in the
department of MSS. in the British Museum. It bears no name or date, but
is written on exactly the same kind of paper, with the same ink, and by
the same hand, as one by Captain Thomas Bowrey, in the same volume, done
at Fort St. George in 1687. It is observable, that in the preface to a
work by Captain Bowrey, on the Malay language, he says, that in 1688, he
embarked at Fort St. George, as a passenger for England, having been
nineteen years in the East Indies, continually engaged in navigation and
trading in those countries, in Sumatra, Borneo, Bantam and Java. The
two-fold blunder, both as to fact and date, contained in the sentence
inserted in the middle of the chart, "This large land of New Guinea was
first discovered to joyne to ye south land by ye Yot Lemmen as by this
chart Francois Jacobus Vis. Pilot Major Anno 1643" is self-evidently an
independent subsequent insertion, probably by Bowrey himself, and
therefore by no means impugns the inference that the chart is otherwise
a genuine copy. The soundings verify the track, and show that Tasman
regarded the first point of his instructions as to the exploration of the
"great inlet", either as of less importance or of greater danger than the
subsequent portion, as to establishing the continuity of the lands on the
north and north-west coasts of "the great known southern continent."

It is worthy of remark, that the map of Klencke, already referred to,
leaves the passage towards Torres Strait open, while in the map here
given it is closed. The missing narrative of Tasman alone could explain
this discrepancy, or show us the amount of authenticity to be ascribed to
either of these maps; but it appears to the editor, that the track laid
down with the soundings, gives to the map here given the claim to
preference, while the very depth of the imaginary bight here drawn,
instead of the strait, throws it out of the line of exploration in the
voyage whose track is described. From the notes of the Burgomaster
Witsen (1705), we derive the only fragment of an account of this most
important voyage. From thence we gain the earliest information respecting
the inhabitants. The translation is given by Dalrymple in his volume
on "Papua". It is as follows: "In latitude 13°, 8' south, Longitude
146°, 18' (probably about 129½° east of Greenwich), the coast is
barren. The people are bad and wicked, shooting at the Dutch with
arrows, without provocation, when they were coming on shore. It is here
very populous."

"In 14°, 58' south, longitude 138°, 59' (about 125° east) the people
are savage, and go naked: none can understand them. In 16°, 10' south,
the people swam on board of a Dutch ship, and when they received a
present of a piece of linen, they laid it upon their head in token of
gratitude. Everywhere thereabouts all the people are malicious. They use
arrows and bows, of such length that one end rests on the ground when
shooting. They have also hazegayes and kalawayes, and attacked the Dutch,
but did not know the execution of the guns.

"In Hollandia Nova (a term which seems to imply that the previously
named places were not supposed by Witsen to be included under the name of
New Holland) in 17°, 12' south, (longitude 121° or 122° east), Tasman
found naked black people, with curly hair: malicious and cruel, using
for arms bows and arrows, hazegayes and kalawayes. They once came to
the number of fifty, double armed, dividing themselves into two
parties intending to have surprised the Dutch, who had landed
twenty-five men; but the firing of the guns frightened them so
much that they took to flight. Their canoes are made of the bark of
trees: their coast is dangerous: there is but little vegetation: the
people have no houses.

"In 19°, 35' S., longitude 134° (about 120°
apparently), the inhabitants are very numerous, and threw stones at the
boats sent by the Dutch to the shore. They made fire and smoke all along
the coast, which it was conjectured they did to give notice to their
neighbours of strangers being upon the coast. They appear to live very
poorly; go naked; eat yams and other roots."

This fragment of description is meagre enough; but it is all that we
can boast of possessing. It is further remarkable that those who
have spoken of the part of the coast visited by Tasman in this voyage,
have led their readers into misconception by attributing the discovery
of the Gulf of Carpentaria to Carpenter, and of the northern Van
Diemen's Land to the governor of that name. So soon after the voyage as
the year 1663, we find Trevenot printing as follows: "We shall, in due
course, give the voyages of Carpenter and Diemen, to whom is due the
principal honour of this discovery. Van Diemen brought back gold,
porcelain, and a thousand other articles of wealth; which at first gave
rise to the notion that the country produced all these things; though it
has been since ascertained that what he brought was recovered from the
vessel which had been wrecked on these coasts. The mystery which the
Dutch make of the matter, and the difficulties thrown in the way of
publishing what is known about it, suggest the idea that the country is
rich. But why should they show such jealousy in respect to a country
which produces nothing deserving so distant a journey?" La Neuville also,
in his "Histoire de Hollande" (Paris, 1703 p. 213), speaking, of
Van Diemen, says: "This latter not only examined the coasts of
this great land, but had two years previously sailed as far as
43° towards the antarctic pole, and discovered, on the 24th of
November 1642, a new country in the other continent, which now bears the
name of Van Diemen's Land." Here the very details clearly expose the
nature of the mistake, since the maps and the instructions to Tasman show
his second voyage to have been in 1644, and the discovery of Van Diemen's
Land in 1642 is known to be his beyond all dispute. The fact is moreover
confirmed by the identity of the names given to the tracts discovered
in these two voyages, viz, those of the principal members of the council
and of Marie van Diemen, to whom Tasman is supposed to have been attached.

Prevost, in his "Histoire des Voyages", (Paris, 1753, tom. ii, p. 201),
says that Carpentaria was discovered by Carpenter in 1662. We then find
De Brosses correcting this statement (p. 433), by saying, "the Abbe
Prevost ought not to have stated that, in 1662, Carpentaria was discovered
by Pieter Carpenter, since he was Governor-General of the Company of the
Indies, and returned to Europe in June 1628 with five vessels richly
laden". He then quotes the above passage from Thevenot, and continues:
"Unfortunately Thevenot has not fulfilled his promise respecting
Carpentaria. That learned collector was engaged in preparing, at the time
of his decease, a fifth volume of his collection, of which some incomplete
portions of what he had already published were found in his cabinet.
From amongst these I have extracted the journal of Captain
Tasman, who discovered Van Diemen's Land. There was, however, nothing
respecting the voyage of Captain Carpenter, nor that of the
Governor-General, Van Diemen, even if he had left one: at least, if the
manuscripts of these voyages were there originally, it is not known what
has become of them." De Brosses concludes by saying that his researches
in private collections and in printed geographical works had been
unsuccessful in procuring further information on the subject. Subsequent
geographers continued to attribute to Carpenter the discovery of
Carpentaria, and many of them to Van Diemen the discovery of the north
Van Diemen's Land. In Dubois' work, "Vies des Gouverneurs Generaux",
already quoted, which was compiled in Holland from the manuscript
journals and registers from Batavia, he says expressly, p. 82, in
speaking of Carpenter, who was governor between 1623 and 1627, "Some
writers attribute to him personally the honour of the discovery of
Carpentaria, the southern land lying between New Guinea and New Holland;
but this is without any apparent foundation, inasmuch as they fix this
discovery in the year 1628, in which year he returned to Holland, on the
12th of June, with five vessels richly laden, having sailed from Batavia
on the 12th of November of the previous year." It should, moreover, be
observed, that no evidence has been adduced of his having been on the
coast at all, while there is every reason to believe that the exploration
of the Gulf of Carpentaria was not only "acheve", as M. Eyries suggests
(p. 12, art. 1, vol. ii, of "Nouvelles Annales des Voyages"), by Tasman
in 1644 but accomplished by that navigator for the first time. It might
then be asked how comes it that Tasman, who had in both his voyages so
largely complimented the governor Van Diemen, by giving his name and that
of his daughter Maria, to whom he was attached, to various points of his
discovery, should finally give the name of Carpenter to an important gulf
and tract of country, when the governor bearing that name had left
Batavia sixteen years before? The answer is readily given. The Governor
and Company of Batavia formed a local administration under the presidency
of the Company of the Indies of Amsterdam, which latter consisted of
seventeen delegates from the seventeen provinces of the Netherlands. In
the year 1623, in which Carpenter commenced his governorship in the east,
an event occurred in Amboina which threatened to produce a war between
Holland and England. Some English officials, in concert with some
Japanese soldiers, had formed a conspiracy to kill the Dutch in the
island and to gain possession of the fortress. The conspiracy was
discovered, and the governor had the conspiritors put to death. In
England the governor's conduct was regarded as a piece of heartless
cruelty. Mutual recriminations ensued, and for several years a contest
between the two countries was imminent. After Carpenter's return to
Holland in 1628, he was sent out as one of a deputation to London on
this subject, despatched in the year 1629. He was also appointed president
of the Company of the Indies in Amsterdam, which post he occupied till
his death in 1659. It need, therefore, no longer be subject of surprise
that Tasman should have given the name of Carpenter, the president of the
Home Company of the Indies, to an extensive country and gulf discovered
by him in 1644.

We cannot dismiss our notice of this important voyage, which thus gave
the name of New Holland to the great South Land, without quoting the
remark of Thevenot in the "Relation de l'estat present des Indes",
prefixed to the second volume of his "Relation de Divers Voyages Curieux".
He says: "The Dutch pretend to have a right to the southern land which
they have discovered...They maintain that the coasts were never known by
the Portuguese or the other nations of Europe. It is to be noticed that
all this extent of country falls within the line of demarcation of the
Dutch East India Company, if we are to believe their maps, and that this
motive of interest has perhaps made them give a false position to New
Zealand, lest it should fall within the line of demarcation of the Dutch
West India Company: for these two companies are as jealous of each other,
as they are of other nations of Europe. It is to be observed, that
although the Portuguese possess many places in the Indies, they are
extremely weak by reason that their enemies are masters of the seas, and
of the traffic which they themselves formerly possessed."

The observation would seem to imply that Thevenot, a Frenchman, was not
wanting in the belief that these coasts had really been discovered by the
Portuguese before they were visited by the Dutch while it passes by in
silence any thought of a claim thereto on the part of his own countrymen,
a point worth noticing in connexion with the evidence of the early French
manuscript maps of which we have already so fully treated.

From the voyage of Tasman to the close of the seventeenth century, it is
probable that a considerable number of voyages were made to the west
coasts of New Holland, of which no account has ever been printed. By the
obliging, intelligent assistance of Mr. Frederick Muller, of Amsterdam,
(a rare example of a bookseller who interests himself not only in
obtaining curious early books illustrative of the history of his country,
but in minutely studying that history himself), the editor has been
enabled to procure some printed documents from the Hague which have never
before been printed, and one which, although in print, has become
exceedingly scarce, and has never before been rendered into English.

The earliest of these is an account of the ship "De Vergulde Draeck",
on the Southland, and the expedition undertaken both from Batavia and the
Cape of Good Hope in search of survivors, etc., drawn up and translated
from authentic MS. copies of logbooks in the Royal Archives at the Hague.
"De Vergulde Draeck", which set sail from the Texel in October 1655, was
wrecked on a reef on the west coast, in latitude 30° 40',
and a hundred and eighteen souls were lost. The news was brought to
Batavia by one of the ship's boats, sixty-eight of the survivors having
remained behind, exerting themselves to get their boat afloat again, that
they might send some more of their number to Batavia. The Governor
General immediately dispatched the flyboat the "Witte Vaclk", and the
yacht "Goede Hoop", to the assistance of those men, and also to help in
the rescue of the specie and merchandise lost in the "Vergulde Draeck".
This expedition was attended with bad success, as they reached the coast
in the winter time. Similar ill luck attended the flyboat "Vinck", which
was directed to touch at New Holland, in its voyage from the Cape to
Batavia in 1657, to search for the unfortunate men who had been left
behind. The company next dispatched from Batavia two galliots, the
"Waeckende Boey", and the "Emeloort", on the 1st of January, 1658. These
vessels also returned to Batavia in April of the same year, having each
of them separated, after parting company by the way, sailed backwards and
fowards again and again and landed parties at several points along
the coast. They had also continually fired signal guns night and day,
without, however, discovering either any Dutchmen, or the wreck of the
vessel. The only things seen were some few planks and blocks, with a
piece of the mast, a taffrail, fragments of barrels and other objects
scattered here and there along the coast, and supposed to be remnants of
the wreck. This account with a description of the west coast of the South
Land by Captain Samuel Volkersen, of the Pink "Waeckende Boey" is
accompanied by copies of original charts, showing the coast visited by
this vessel and the "Emeloort", never before printed. These documents are
followed by an extract from the Burgomaster Witsen's "Noord en Oost
Tartarye", descriptive of the west coast, a portion of which is plainly
derived from the account of Abraham Leeman, the mate of the "Waeckende
Boey".

We must not here omit to mention, that in the year 1693, appeared a
work bearing the following title: "Les Adventures de Jaques Sadeur dans
la decouverte et le voyage de la Terre Australe contenant les coutumes et
les moeurs des Australiens, leur religions, leurs exercises, leurs
etudes, leurs guerres, leurs animaux, particuliers a ce pays et toutes
les raretez curieuses qui s'y trouvent. A Paris, chez Claude Barbin, au
Palais, sur le second perron de la Sainte Chapelle, 1693." In the Vannes
edition, p. 3, the author's Christian name is given as Nicolas. An
English translation appeared in the same year, entitled "A new
discovery of Terra Incognita Australis, or the Southern World, by James
Sadeur, a Frenchman, who being cast there by shipwreck, lived
thirty-five years in that country, and gives a particular description of
the manners, customs, religion, laws, studies and wars of those southern
people, and of some animals peculiar to that place, with several other
rarities. These memoirs were thought so curious, that they were kept
secret in the closet of a great minister of state, and never published
till now, since his death. Translated from the French copy printed at
Paris by publick authority, April 8. Imprimatur, Charles Hern, London:
Printed for John Dunton, at the Raven, in the Poulty, 1693." The work
is purely fictitious throughout.

The next Dutch voyage of which we have succeeded in finding an account,
is that of William de Vlamingh, in 1696, which also owed its origin to
the loss of a ship, the "Ridderschap van Hollandt". This vessel had
been-missing from the time she had left the Cape of Good Hope in 1684 or
1685, and it was thought that probably she might have been wrecked upon
the great South Land, and that some of the crew might, even after this
lapse of time, be still living. The commodore, Willem de Vlaming, who was
going out to India with the "Geelvink", "Nyptang" and "Wezel", was,
therefore, ordered to make a search for them. The account of this
voyage, which was printed at Amsterdam in 1701, 4to, is exceedingly
scarce; and after many years enquiry, the editor deemed himself
fortunate in procuring through the medium of Mr. Muller, of Amsterdam, a
copy of it, and a translation is here given. The search of De Vlaming
was, however, fruitless, and the two principal points of interest were
the finding of the plate already described, with the inscription
commemorating the arrival and departure of Dirk Hartog, in 1616, and the
discovery of the Swan River, where the embodiment of the poet's notion of
a rara avis in terris was for the first time encountered, and two of the
black swans were taken alive to Batavia.

Meanwhile, the shores of New Holland had been visited by a countryman of
our own, the celebrated Dampier. In the buccaneering expedition in which
he made a voyage round the world, he came upon the north-west coast in
16° 50' due south from a shoal, whose longitude is now known
to be 122¼° east. Running along the shore N.E. by E. twelve
leagues to a bay or opening convenient for landing, a party was sent
ashore to search for water, and surprised some of the natives, some of
whom they tried to induce to help in filling the water casks, and
conveying them to the boat. "But all the signs we could make", says
Dampier, "were to no purpose; for they stood like statues, staring at one
another, and grinning like so many monkeys. These poor creatures seem not
accustomed to carry burdens; and I believe one of our ship's boys, of ten
years old, would carry as much as one of their men." In his description
of the natives, he agrees with Tasman in their being a "naked black
people, with curly hair, like that of the negroes in Guinea"; but he
mentions other circumstances which are not mentioned in the note from
Tasman. He describes them as "the most miserable people in the world. The
Hottentots compared with them are gentlemen. They have no houses,
animals, poultry their persons are tall, straight bodied, thin, with
long limbs; they have great heads, round foreheads, and great brows;
their eyelids are always half-closed, to keep the flies out of their
eyes, for they are so troublesome here, that no fanning will keep them
from one's face; so that, from infancy, they never open their eyes as
other people do, and therefore they cannot see far, unless they hold up
their heads as if they were looking at something over them. They have
great bottle noses, full lips, wide mouths; the two foreteeth of the
upper jaw are wanting in all of them; neither have they any beard. Their
hair is short, black and curled, and their skins coal black, like that of
the negroes in Guinea. Their only food is fish, and they consequently
search for them at low water; and they make little weirs or dams with
stones across little coves of the sea. At one time, our boat being among
the islands seeking game, espied a drove of these people swimming from
one island to another, for they have neither boats, canoes or bark
logs." Dampier remained there from January 5 to March 12, 1688, but is
silent as to any dangers upon the twelve leagues of coast seen by him.

In the year 1699, Great Britain being at peace with the other maritime
states of Europe, King William ordered an expedition for the discovery of
new countries, and for the examination of some of those already
discovered, particularly New Holland and New Guinea. Dampier's
graphic narrative of his buccaneering voyages caused the Earl of
Pembroke to select him to conduct the expedition. The "Roebuck", a
ship belonging to the royal navy, was equipped for the purpose. After a
voyage of six months, Dampier struck soundings in the night of August
1st, 1699, upon the northern part of the Abrolhos shoal, in latitude
about 27°, 40' S. Next morning he saw the main coast, and
ran northward along it, discovering in 26°, 10', an opening
two leagues wide but full of rocks and foul ground. August 6th, he
anchored in Dirk Hartog's Road, at the entrance of a sound which he named
Shark's Bay; where he remained eight days examining the sound, cutting
wood upon the islands, fishing, etc., and gives a description of what was
seen in his usual circumstantial manner. His description of the kangaroo,
probably the first ever given of that singular animal, is a curious one.
"The land animals we saw here were only a sort of raccoons, but different
from those of the West Indies, chiefly as to their legs; for they have
very short forelegs, but go jumping; and like the raccoons are very good
meat."

Sailing northward along the coast, he found an archipelago extending
twenty leagues in length, which has been more recently examined by
Captain King, He anchored in lat. 20°, 21', under one of
the largest of the islands, which he named Rosemary Island. This was near
the southern part of De Witt's Land but besides an error in latitude of
40', he complains that in Tasman's charts "the shore is laid down
as all along joining in one body or continent, with some openings like
rivers, and not like islands, as really they are."

"By what we saw of them, they must have been a range of islands, of about
twenty leagues in length, stretching from E.N.E. to W.S.W., and, for aught
I know, as far as to those of Shark's Bay; and to a considerable breadth
also, for we could see nine, or ten leagues in amongst them, towards the
continent or main land of New Holland, if there be any such thing
hereabouts: and by the great tides I met with awhile afterwards more to
the north-east, I had a strong suspicion that there might be a kind of
archipelago of islands; and a passage, possibly, to the south of New
Holland and New Guinea, into the great South Sea eastward."

Not finding fresh water upon such of the islands as were visited that
day, Captain Dampier quitted his anchorage next morning, and steered
away E.N.E., coasting along as the land lies. He seems to have kept the
land in sight, in the daytime, at the distance of four to six leagues;
but the shore being low, this was too far for him to be certain whether
all was main land which he saw; and what might have passed in the night
was still more doubtful.

August 30th, being in latitude 18°, 21', and the weather
fair, Captain Dampier steered in for the shore; and anchored in eight
fathoms, about three-and-a-half leagues off. "The tide ran very swift
here; so that our nun-buoy would not bear above the water to be seen. It
flows here, as on that part of New Holland I described formerly, about
five fathoms."

He had hitherto seen no inhabitants; but now met with several. The place
at which he had touched in the former voyage was not above forty or
fifty leagues to the north-east of this. "And these were much the same
blinking creatures (here being also abundance of flesh flies teizing
them), and with the same black skins, and hair frizzled, tall and thin,
etc., as those were. But we had not the opportunity to see whether
these, as the former, wanted two of their fore teeth. One of them who
was supposed to be a chief was painted with a circle of white paste or
pigment about his eyes, and a white streak down his nose, from his
forehead to the tip of it. And his breat, and some part of his arms, were
also made white with the same paint."

Neither bows nor arrows were observed amongst these people: they used
wooden lances, such as Dampier had before seen. He saw no houses at
either place, and believed they had none; but there were several things
like haycocks, standing in the savanah; which "at a distance, we thought
were houses, looking like the Hottentots houses at the Cape of Good Hope;
but we found them to be so many rocks." These rocks he could not have
examined very closely; for there can be little doubt that they were the
ant hills described by Pelsart as being so large, that they might have
been taken for the houses of Indians.'

The land near the coast is described as equally sandy with the parts
before visited, and producing, amongst its scanty vegetation nothing for
food. No stream of fresh water was seen, nor could any fit to drink be
procured by digging.

Quitting this inhospitable shore, Captain Dampier weighed his anchor on
September 5th, with the intention of seeking water and refreshments
further on to the north-eastward. The shoals obliged him to keep a
considerable distance, from the land, and finally, when arrived at the
latitude of 16°, 9', to give up this project, and direct
his course for Timor.

With the voyage of Dampier terminates the information gained of the
western coasts previously to the present century, which does not lie
within the range of our inquiries.

In 1705 another and last voyage was made by the Dutch for the discovery
of the north coast. The expedition consisted of three vessels, the
"Vossenbosch", the "Waayer" and the "Nova Hollandia". The commander was
Martin van Delft. The journals appear to have been lost. At all events
they have not hitherto been found, but a report to the Governor-General
and Council of the discoveries and notable occurrences in the expedition,
was drawn from the written journals and verbal recitals of the officers
on their return, by the Councillors Extraordinary, Hendrick Swaardecroon
and Cornelis Chastelijn. This report is given for the first time in
English in the present volume, from which it appears that the part of the
coast visited was carefully explored, and that the Dutch had intercourse
with the natives, a result in which De Vlaming's expedition had entirely
failed. In the miscellaneous tracts of Nicholas Struyck, printed at
Amsterdam, 1753, is also given an imperfect account of this voyage, as
follows: "March 1st, 1705. Three Dutch vessels were sent from Timor with
orders to explore the north coast of New Holland, better than it had
before been done. They carefully examined the coast, sand banks, and
reefs. In their route to it, they did not meet with any land, but only
some rocks above water, in 11° 52' south latitude." (probably, says
Flinders, the south part of the great Sahul Bank, which, according
to Captain Peter Heywood, who saw it in 1801 lies in 11° 40').
"They saw the west coast of New Holland, four degrees to the
eastward of the east point of Timor. From thence, they continued
their route towards the north, and passed a point, off which lies
a bank of sand above water, in length more than five German miles of
fifteen to a degree. After which they made sail to the east, along the
coast of New Holland; observing everything with care, until they came to
a gulf, the head of which they did not quite reach. I (Struyck) have seen
a chart made of these parts."

Flinders remarks upon this account, "What is here called the west, must
have been the north-west coast," and he is right; for in the report here
printed, the country is called "Van Diemen's Land", lying, as we know,
on the north-west coast of New Holland, already in this introduction
frequently referred to in distinction from the island more generally so
known, and now called Tasmania. Flinders continues: "which the vessels
appear to have made somewhat to the south of the western Cape Van Diemen.
The point which they passed was probably this same cape itself; and in a
chart published by Mr. Dalrymple, August 27th, 1783, from a Dutch
manuscript (possibly a copy of that which Struyck had seen), a shoal of
thirty geographic miles in length, is marked as running off from it,
but incorrectly, according to Mr. M Cluer. The gulf here mentioned was
probably a deep bay in Arnhem's Land; for had it been the Gulf of
Carpentaria, some particular mention of the great change in the
direction of the coast would, doubtless, have been made."

In the year 1718 a Mons. Jean Pierre Purry, of Neufchatel, published a
work entitled, "Memoire sur le Pays des Caffres et la Terre de Nuyts par
rapport a l'utilite que la Compagnie des Indes Orientales en pourroit
retirer pour son Commerce", followed by a second memoir in the same year.
These publications were explanatory of a project he entertained of
founding a colony in the land of Nuyts. The scheme had been submitted to
the Governor General, Van Swell, at Batavia, but was discountenanced. It
subsequently met the same fate when laid by its author before the
Directors of the Dutch East India Company at Amsterdam. M. Purry shortly
afterwards brought his proposition before the West India Company, and it
was supposed by some that the voyage of Roggeween to the South Seas in
1721 was a result of this application; but it is distinctly stated by
Valentyn that it was an entirely distinct expedition. In 1699 Roggeween's
father had submitted to the West India Company a detailed memoir on the
discovery of the southern land; but the contentions between Holland and
Spain prevented the departure of the fleet destined for the expedition,
and it was forgotten. Roggeween, however, who had received his father's
dying injunctions to prosecute this enterprise, succeeded at length in
gaining the countenance of the directors, and was himself appointed
commander of the three ships which were fitted out by the company for
the expedition.

According to Valentyn, the principal object of this voyage was the
search for certain "islands of gold", supposed to lie in 36°
south latitude; but the professed purpose was distinctly avowed by
Roggeween to be directed to the south lands. Although the expedition
resulted in some useful discoveries, it did not touch the shores of New
Holland.

The last document in the collection here printed is a translation from a
little work published in Dutch, in 1857, by Mr. P.A. Leupe, Captain of
Marines in the Dutch Navy, "The Houtman's Abrolhos in 1727", detailing
the disasters of which those dangerous shoals had been the cause.

It will be seen that we have been unable to supply any descriptive
account of discoveries on the Eastern coast of Australia. That it was
really discovered, and in all probability by the Portuguese in the early
part of the sixteenth century, we have already endeavoured to show.
During more than two centuries from that period, it was probably never
visited by any European. The honour of exploring that portion of that
great island was reserved for the immortal Cook, who first saw the coast
on April 19th, 1770, but a reference to such well known explorations
certainly does not fall within the scope of antiquarian investigation.
The like may be said of the first visit to Van Diemen's Land, subsequent
to Tasman's discovery in 1642, which was made by Marion a hundred and
thirty years later.

In conclusion, it would be inappropriate to omit the remark that it is to
that most able and distinguished voyager, Matthew Flinders, to whose
valuable work, "A Voyage to Terra Australis", the editor has been greatly
indebted for help in his introduction, that we have to give the credit
for the compact and useful name which Australia now bears. In a note
contained in page 111 of his introduction, he modestly says, "Had I
permitted myself any innovation upon the original term (Terra Australis),
it would have been to convert it into Australia, as being more agreeable
to the ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions
of the earth".

It has been the habit, for the most part, of editors of works for the
Hakluyt Society, to endeavour to elucidate their text by introductions,
which have often reached to a considerable length; a very slight
consideration of the nature of the subjects which the Society professes
to deal with, will show the reasonableness, nay, even the necessity of
such introductions. When the attention of a reader is invited to the
narrative of a voyage, however interesting and curious in itself, which
carries him back to a remote period, it is but reasonable that he should
have explained to him the position which such a narrative, arbitarily
selected, holds in the history of the exploration of the country treated
of. To do this satisfactorily is clearly a task requiring no little
labour, and although it may necessarily involve a somewhat lengthy
dissertation, certainly calls for no apology. Nevertheless, the simple
fact of an introduction bearing at length at all approaching to that of
the text itself, as is the case in the present volume, does, beyond
question, at the first blush, justly require an explanation. All the
publications of our society consist of previously unpublished documents,
or are reprints or translations of narratives of early voyages become
exceedingly rare. But it is evidently a matter of accident to what length
the text may extend, while it is equally evident that the introductory
matter illustrative of a small amount of text may be of necessity, longer
than that required to illustrate documents of greater extent. This is
strikingly the case with the subject of the present volume. It has been
a matter of good fortune that the editor has been enabled to bring
together even so many documents as are here produced, in connection with
the early discoveries of Australia, while the enigmatical suggestions of
early maps, unaccompanied by any descriptive matter to be found after
diligent research, has necessitated an inquiry into their merits, which,
though lengthy, it is hoped will not be deemed unnecessary. This so
called introduction in fact, in a great measure consists of matter, which,
if supplied by original documents, would form a component part of the
text itself.

The editor cannot close his labours on this most puzzling subject of the
"Early Indications of Australia", without expressing an earnest hope that
further researches may yet result in the production of documents, as yet
undiscovered, which may throw a light upon the history of the exploration
of this interesting country in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries,
and, if possible, solve the great mystery which still hangs over the
origin of the early manuscript maps so fully treated of, and it is hoped,
not without some advance towards elucidation, in this introduction.


* * * * * * * * *


INDICATIONS OF AUSTRALIA, ETC.

A MEMORIAL ADDRESSED TO HIS CATHOLIC MAJESTY PHILIP THE THIRD,
KING OF SPAIN, BY DR. JUAN LUIS ARIAS, RESPECTING THE EXPLORATION,
COLONIZATION, AND CONVERSION OF THE SOUTHERN LAND.

SIRE,--The memorial of the Doctor Juan Luis Arias showeth: That in
consideration of the great advantage which will accrue to the service of
Your Majesty, to the extension of the Catholic Church, and to the
increase of our holy faith, from the conversion of the gentiles of the
southern land, which is the principal obligation to which Your Majesty
and your crown are pledged, he now earnestly begs (great as have been his
former importunities) to solicit Your Majesty's consideration to that
which is here set forth. At the instance of the fathers of the Seraphic
order of St. Francis, and in particular of the father Fray Juan de
Silva, he has composed a treatise dedicated to his most serene highness the
Infant Don Ferdinand[*1], from which a judgment may be formed of the
temperature, productions and population of the southern hemisphere, and
every other point desirable to be understood with respect to its most
extensive provinces and kingdoms. He has done this with a view to its
discovery, and the spiritual and evangelical conquest, and bringing in to
our holy faith and Catholic religion of its numberless inhabitants, who
are so long waiting for this divine and celestial benefit at the hand of
Your Majesty. It is a subject upon which the father Fray Juan de Silva has
bestowed the most serious attention, and for which he is most anxiously
solicitous; for all his order desire to be engaged in this mighty
enterprise, which is one of the greatest that the Catholic Church ever
has, or ever can undertake, and the accomplishment of which it is the
duty of all us her faithful sons to pray should be accelerated as much as
possible. For the English and Dutch heretics, whom the devil unites
for this purpose by every means in his power, most diligently continue
the exploration, discovery, and colonization of the principal ports
of this large part of the world in the Pacific Ocean, and sow in it
the most pernicious poisons of their apostasy which they put forth with
the most pressing anxiety in advance of us, who should put forth the
sovereign light of the gospel. This they are now perseveringly doing in
that great continent in which are the provinces of Florida, and they will
afterwards proceed to do the same with New Spain, and then with New
Mexico, the kingdom of Quivira, the Californias, and other most extensive
provinces. For which purpose, and for other reasons connected with their
machinations against our kingdom, they have already colonized Virginia.
To further the same object also, they have fortified and colonized
Bermuda, and continue most zealously and rapidly sowing the infernal
poison of their heresy, and infecting with it the millions upon millions
of excellent people who inhabit those regions. From Virginia also they
are advancing most rapidly inland, with the most ardent desire to deprive
the Catholic Church of the inestimable treasure of an infinite number of
souls; and to found in that land an empire, in which they will at length
possess much better and richer Indies than our own, and from which
position they will be able to lord it absolutely over all our
territories, and over all our navigation and commerce with the West
Indies. This is a most grievous case for us, and most offensive to our
Lord God and His Church, and this kingdom has reason to dread from so
mischievous a state of things very great injuries from the hands of these
enemies, and no less punishment from the divine indignation for having
allowed these basilisks to locate themselves in such a position; from
whence, before we of the Catholic Church arrive with the preaching of the
gospel with which we are commissioned, they draw to themselves and infect
with the depravity of their apostasy that countless number of gentiles
which inhabit the said provinces, and which cover a greater surface of
land than all Europe.

[*1) 1 In the collective volume in the British Museum
which contains the original of the present memorial, are several
memorials to the king from the Fray Juan de Silva, advocating the
same cause on general religious and political grounds ; but the
editor has been unable to find the treatise here referred to as
dedicated to the Infant Don Ferdinand, nor is any mention made
of it by Nicolas Antonio or Leon Pinelo, both of whom speak of
the memorials addressed to the king.]

But as the said tretise of the southern hemisphere has not yet been put
into a form to be communicated, which will soon be done, I have resolved
herein to relate to Your Majesty, although very briefly, some of its
contents; in order, meanwhile, to afford the necessary information
concerning these southern lands, whither it is proposed to set on foot so
great and mighty an undertaking as the evangelical and spiritual conquest
of the said hemisphere.

In order to understand the question, it must be premised that the
whole globe of earth and waters is divided into two equal parts or
halves by the equinoctial line. The northern hemisphere, which stretches
from the equinoctual to the Arctic Pole, contains all which has been
hitherto discovered and peopled in Asia, Europe and the chief part of
Africa. The remaining half, or southern hemisphere, which reaches from
the equinoctial to the Antarctic Pole, comprises part of what we call
America, and the whole of that Austral Land, the discovery and apostolic
conquest of which is now treated of. Now, if we except this southern
hemisphere all that there is of Africa lying between the equinoctial line
and the Cape of Good Hope, and all that there is of Peru from the
parallel of the said equinoctial line, which passes near Quito, down to
the straits of Magellan, and that small portion of land which lies to the
south of the strait, all the rest of the firm land of the said southern
hemisphere remains to be discovered. Thus of the whole globe, there is
little less than one entire half which remains to be discovered, and to
have the gospel preached in it; and this discovery and evangelical
conquest forms the principal part of the obligation under which these
kingdoms lie for the preaching of the gospel to the gentiles, in
conformity with the agreement made with the Catholic Church and its head,
the supreme pontiffs Alexander VI and Paul III.

Some one will say, that what has been stated is contradictory to what the
Apostle understands as meant by the Psalmist with reference to the
preaching of the gospel, where he says, "Their sound is gone out in every
land, and their words unto the ends of the world." For the Apostle,
speaking of the conversion of the gentiles, says thus: "How shall they
call upon Him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe
in Him in whom they have not heard? or how shall they hear without a
preacher? and how shall they preach except they be sent? As it is
written, How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of
peace, and bring glad tidings of good things." Then shortly after the
Apostle sayeth: "But I say, 'Have they not heard? Yes verily, their sound
is gone out into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the
world." According to which it seems that it must be affirmed, either
that then or now the preaching of the gospel has already had its course,
and its voice gone out throughout all the world, or that the gospel was
to be only preached for the most part in the northern hemisphere and in
some very small part of the aforesaid lands of Africa and Peru in the
southern; and that in the remainder of the world there is no population
or discovered land-surface uncovered by water where there could be
populations or habitations, and thus that the voice of the gospel has
already run its course as far as it can, and that in the rest of the
southern hemisphere there is no provision for it. To all this I reply,
that these words of the Psalmist were a prophecy of the preaching of the
gospel, speaking out of the past into the future, with the infallible
certainty of prophecy. And although the Apostle in quoting the said
passage of the Psalmist, seems to affirm that already in his time the
preaching of the gospel had had its course throughout the world, it is to
be understood that he speaks in the sense of the aforesaid prophecy; that
the preaching of the voice of the gospel had to run, and not that it had
already run throughout the whole of the globe, since his quotation of the
said passage of the Psalmist was made at so early a period that the gospel
was then preached only in a small part of the northern hemisphere.

The passage of the Apostle where he so speaks may be also thus
understood: he could not say that the gentiles did not hear the voice or
word of the gospel to their conversion, because already it has gone forth
from the apostolic seminary for the conversion of all the earth; and in
order that it may reach to its boundaries so that no portion of the
gentiles throughout the world should remain to which it should not reach,
and into which it should not penetrate. Moreover it may be understood in
this sense, that he speaks of the gentiles (after the consummation of the
preaching of the gospel) as placed at the divine tribunal, and as giving
to understand that those who would not be converted should have no
remission; and on this point the Apostle puts the following question:
"Haply all have not the word of the gospel, else if they had heard
it would they not have embraced it?" and that they had all heard it is a
certain thing, since the sound of the gospel Voice has sounded throughout
all the earth; so that in all these senses this expression of the Apostle
may be understood without opposition in any way to the strictness of its
genuine and literal meaning. And if anyone should say that the nearest
explanation of the passage would be, that the sound of the preaching of
the gospel might reach to the ends of the earth in the interval that took
place between the time when the Apostles Went forth to preach the gospel,
after the Redeemer had gone up to heaven, and the time when St. Paul said
these words,--the answer is, that although the preaching of the gospel
may have travelled far in the said interval, it did not extend over any
great part even of the northern hemisphere, as is very manifest; and thus
the southern hemisphere still remained, and has remained until now,
without the voice of the gospel being preached or sounded in it, always
excepting those parts of Africa and Peru which are comprehended therein,
but which when its extent is considered, form a very small part of it.
Moreover, the equinoctial line, which is, as it were, the boundary of the
two hemispheres, may be understood to represent the ends of the earth, to
some parts of which the preaching of the gospel might reach in the said
interval. But this is not contradictory to our proposition, and if due
consideration be given to the subject it will be seen, that Christ our
Redeemer has pointed out to us with much clearness, that this preaching
of the gospel in the southern hemisphere should take place after that in
the north; for in giving charge to His Apostles, and through them to
those apostolic men who should succeed them, that they should preach the
gospei, it appears that He gave them to understand that that charge was
principally and directly given for the northern hemisphere; for He spoke
to them in this manner "Other sheep I have, which are not of this fold:
them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be
one fold, and one shepherd." Now although some Greek and Latin doctors
have understood that by these two folds the Redeemer meant, firstly,
that of the Jews, who were to be brought into the Church, and who, from
the commencement of the preaching of the gospel, would continue to be
converted; and, secondly, that of the gentiles which he pointed out thus
distinctly because it was to be the principal fold; yet the said passage
is not well explained in this manner, as time and the progress of gospel
preaching have since shown; and inasmuch as it would follow from the said
interpretation that, in some sense, the Redeemer had committed to the
Apostles the preaching to the Jews only, and, as by original intention,
reserved to Himself the preaching to the gentiles; that was not the case,
since the preaching to all the principal of the gentiles of the northern
hemisphere was divided among the Apostles, and, in fact, they continued
carrying out the injunction. The subsequent election also of the Apostle
who was the chosen vessel for preaching to the gentiles must be
understood in the same manner. Thus our Lord the Redeemer made a
distinction in this passage between the two principal folds which were to
be brought into the pale of the Church. The first, that of the gentiles of
the northern hemisphere, the immediate preaching to whom was enjoined
upon the Apostles; the other, that of the southern hemisphere, whose
conversion to our holy faith He appears to have reserved to Himself when
He says, that they should take care to bring within the pale of the
Church the sheep of the northern hemisphere, and that He would take upon
Himself the charge of bringing in the others as in His own person, and it
is a very certain fact that that injunction is now in course of being
carried out, from the Franciscan order having gone forth and undertaken the
extension of this great enterprise. For its seraphic and sovereign chief,
the most glorious patriach St. Francis, possessed in his own person so
express and true an image of the Redeemer, that it might very well be
said that the fold of the southern hemisphere should be brought in by Him
in person, it being that which that exalted patriach reserved to himself
to bring in to the pale of the Church through the medium of the faithful
sons of his institute and order. Thus it is seen in this passage in how
great esteem the Almighty Lord held this extensive and precious fold of
the southern hemisphere, which His Church hopes for; since He says that
the sheep thereof, as those which are most chosen and drawn by His hand
or by that of His seraphic and sovereign standard bearer, are to hear His
voice with the most singular affection and devotion, receive His doctrine
and faith and be most faithful to Him, continuing always most constant
and firm therein; not like those of the northern hemisphere, amongst whom
there has been so great a defection and apostasy, so great a number of
provinces of the northern hemisphere having deserted their faith and
apostatized so that the Catholic faith, in the purity in which the
Apostles preached it, may be said to remain only in that little portion
which is governed by the head of the Church and in these kingdoms of
Spain, in which the divine providence by such great means preserves it as
a chosen seminary and as a refined and pure plantation of religion, from
which it should be transplanted to that southern hemisphere.

And thus the sovereign commission to preach the gospel to the said
southern hemisphere appertained as of a necessity to those kingdoms, as
those which the Redeemer had distinguished and preferred to the rest, in
order that they should attract that hemisphere, which is to be the most
enlightened of the Catholic and faithful fold of His Church. Whence it
follows, that the principal compact and agreement into which these
kingdoms have entered with the Church in undertaking to preach the
gospel, is directed toward the preaching to the aforesaid southern
hemisphere.

Some one, however, may say in opposition to the above argument that the
commission which the Redeemer gave to the Apostles to preach the gospel
should be understood as being general and therefore applying to both
hemispheres, in accordance with what He said to them before He ascended
into heaven: "Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every
creature." As also relates St. Matthew: "All power is given to me in
heaven and earth. Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them
in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."
The same also is written by the evangelist St. Luke. The answer to
all this is, that it in no sense contradicts the distinction
which has been made between the two principal folds of the
gentiles which had to be taken from these two hemispheres; for
in the passage quoted, Christ our Redeemer speaks in the persons
of the Apostles, with all the apostolic men and preachers of the
gospel who were to succeed them until the end of the world; but that
which he committed to them bore immediate reference to the northern
hemisphere which was that which they divided amongst themselves and where
they preached, for not one of the Apostles has been understood to have
passed to the southern hemisphere. The words also that the Redeemer added
in the abovementioned passage: "And there shall be one fold and one
shepherd", prove that He there speaks of the fold which was to be
converted from the southern hemisphere; becuase, until that hemisphere be
settled, the preaching of the gospel will not have been consummated, and
consequently the making one fold of the two hemispheres under one
shepherd cannot be verified. This the conversion and spiritual and
evangelical conquest of the southern hemisphere has remained to be
effected by the Apostolic men of this kingdom.

Moreover, long ago, the Divine Majesty foretold this same thing by the
prophet Obadiah, who says thus "The captivity of Jerusalem which is in
the Bosphorus, shall possess the cities of the south, and Saviours shall
come up on Mount Sion to judge the Mount of Esau." And where our Vulgate
puts Bosphorus the Hebrew text says Sepharat, which signifies Spain,
according to the Chaldaic paraphrast and the Sederholan of the Hebrews
and Rabbi Zonathas Abenuciel and many other Hebrews. And it is with much
propriety that, in the place of Spain, our interpreter has put Bosphorus,
for that word signifies the passage of an ox, that is to say; a strait.
Now there are in the Mediterranean three straits of this name;
one is called the Thracian Bosphorus, which is that of Constantinople,
which is the passage from the said Mediterranean to the Black Sea;
another is called the Commerian Bosphorus, which is the passage from the
Black Sea to the Lake Meotis; the third is the Gaditan Bosphorus, which
is the Strait of Gibraltar. When, therefore, hydrographers speak of the
Bosphorus alone without addition, it is understood to mean the principal
one in the Mediterranean, by which it communicates with the ocean and
therefore the prophet Obadiah meant the same when he said "the captivity
of Jerusalem which is in the Bosphorus," that is to say, which is in
Spain. But, as has been said, our translator has with much propriety and
in accordance with the intention of the prophet, given Bosphorus as the
rendering for the word Sepharat; for although the transmigration of
Jerusalem which was in Spain was to possess the cities of the south, its
conquerors had to go forth principally from that part of Spain which is
nearest to the Bosphorus, or of Gibraltar, as is seen to be the case.

The literal meaning of this prophecy therefore, is that the
transmigration of Jerusalem which was in the Bosphorus, that is to say,
the Spaniards who have beet-the most constant of the faithful and to whom
was transmitted the perseverance of the faith of Abraham and Jacob, are
to possess the cities of the south, that is to say the southern
hemisphere, gaining over it a spiritual and apostolical conquest by the
preaching of the gospel. And then the saviours, who are the preachers of
the gospel and who bring salvation to the gentile, shall come up to Mount
Sion to judge the Mount of Esau, which is as much as to say, they shall
ascend to the highest climax of the sovereign virtues, from whence they
shall announce to the gentiles the true knowledge of their Creator and
Redeemer. And thus they shall judge them by condemning and extirpating
their errors, and reducing them to the purity of our holy faith. After
their conversion also, they shall judge them at the divine tribunal of
the sacrament of penitence. The prophet concludes by saying: "And the
kingdom shall be the Lord's." For when these Catholic kingdoms shall
have drawn to the faith this southern hemisphere and shall have
proclaimed and sung this glorious victory the Redeemer will have made
perfect the kingdom of His Church, which now is defective in the greatest
part from not having accomplished this grand object. Hence it may be
gathered how great a service this will be to the Redeemer, and how
blessed will be the prince of this monarchy who shall undertake and
complete it. Thus it has been seen that the prophet Obadiah prophecied to
the letter the conquest and spiritual possession of the southern hemisphere,
through the medium of the preaching of the gospel by the Spanish nation,
which has preserved in its integrity the faith of the Redeemer and of His
Catholic Church.

Some have asked, as already pointed out, whether the southern hemisphere
be not all water, forming, as it were, a great part of the ocean, so as
to leave but little of the surface of the earth in it uncovered. The
reply to this is, that, according to what we are taught by sacred writ
and by philosophical reasoning, there is proportionably as great a
surface of land uncovered in the southern hemisphere as in the northern.
For the fiat of the Creator, that the waters should be collected
into certain hollows of the earth, in order that there should
remain uncovered the portion that was necessary for the production
of vegetation, as where He says in Genesis the 1st: "Let the waters
under the heaven be gathered together into one place, and let the
dry land appear," supposes this water to have been created au
entire orb, which covered and surrounded the whole of the earth, in the
same manner as we reckon the positions of the elements; the land the
lowest, in the middle of which is the centre of the whole elementary and
celestial machine then the water, and after that the air and igneous
substance or the fire, which reaches its culmination or convex part in
the concave of the celestial firmament. Then if, when God commanded that
the waters should be gathered together, it was to be understood solely
with reference to the northern hemisphere, the water in the southern
hemisphere would remain as it was, surrounding and covering all, and the
whole sphere of water could not he contained beneath one spherical
surface equidistant to the centre of gravity, which always seeks to be
united with the centre of the whole machine. And thus all the water of
the southern hemisphere would be more remote from the said centre than
that of the other hemisphere, without being contained in any sinus, and
thus would be much higher, and naturally could not contain itself without
flowing towards the other hemisphere, until it placed itself in
equilibrium with the said centre of gravity; as is plainly gathered from
the demonstration of Archimedes, in his work "De Insidentibus Aquae," and
is manifestly seen in the ebb and flow of the ocean: in which it is
observed, that when the water rises above the surface of equidistance
from its centre of gravity it immediately outflows its ordinary limits
until it finds its level with that surface; so that the gathering
together of the waters was proportional in the two halves of the sphere
of earth and water, gathering itself into certain hollows of the earth,
which also have their means of correspondence between the two
hemispheres. For as the quiet and equilibrium of the parts of the earth
and water with respect to the centre of gravity consist in the equal
tendencies of the opposite parts towards the same centre, it follows that
the sinuses or receptacles of water in the one half are nearly
proportioned in their position and other respects to those of the other.
From all which it follows, that in the southern hemisphere there is an
uncovered surface of land correspondent, or nearly so, to that which has
been discovered in the northern hemisphere.

If any one should say in opposition to the above argument, that
the Psalmist appears to assert that the hemisphere opposite to the
northern was entirely covered with water, when he says: "Who stretcheth
out the earth above the waters, for His mercy endureth for ever;"--in
which the real meaning of the royal prophet would seem to be, that that
half of the earth which is between the equinoctial and the Arctic pole
was that which was peopled, and that, as by a miracle, all the earth was
stretched out above the waters, which covered the other half as far as
the Antarctic pole--the answer is, that the Psalmist does not intend to
say absolutely that the earth is stretched out above the waters; for that
is impossible, since these two bodies, earth and water, gravitate towards
the centre of gravity, which is that of the mass or sphere of land and
water and thus of necessity the water upon the earth is contained in its
hollows; but, as by an allegory, he said that it might seem to those who
inhabit the one hemisphere, that the land was stretched upon the waters
which extended towards the other hemisphere, as it is our custom in
imagination to think that the antipodes are below those to whom they are
antipodes, it being in conformity to the law of gravitation that both one
and the other are alike uppermost, and the lower part, which is the
centre of gravity, towards which both incline, is common to all.

And thus, in agreement with this, the same prophet, speaking of the
divine foundation of the earth, says also in another place: "Who bath
founded the earth upon its own stability, that it shall not he moved for
ever;" which was as much as to say, that the earth has no other stability
or foundation for its remaining in the position in which it is: but its
own stability, which consists in the equal tendencies of its opposite
parts towards the centre of gravity, a law to which the water also is
subjected, and, as it rests upon the earth, it keeps the same relation to
the centre of gravity; from all which results the aforesaid equalization
of the whole mass of earth and water to that centre, and in this consists
its stability. Hence it follows that the Psalmist, in the passage first
quoted, spoke generally of the two hemispheres; since the inhabitants of
each one might imagine to themselves that all the earth of that
hemisphere was kept in its place by the water contained in the hollows
of the other. The expression that the earth never shall move at any time,
implies that it is naturally impossible that its centre of gravity should
be moved from the centre of the entire elementary and celestial system,
for that would be that gravitation should ascend or move upwards. Hence
the statements of the Psalmist in no way opposes what has been
demonstrated that there is as much surface of land uncovered and free
from water in the southern hemisphere as there is in the northern.

Also, if we recur to the celestial influences which, in regard to
temperature, affect the earth and water with dryness and cold heat and
moisture, cold and moisture and heat and dryness, and cause some parts of
the earth to be uncovered by water and to be kept dry; while others
remain underwater; these are the influence of the fixed stare which are
vertical to the southern hemisphere and as efficacious as those of the
northern hemisphere for keeping the parts of the said southern hemisphere
dry, uncovered, and habitable, as may be proved by observing the
celestial objects which correspond to each hemisphere; when it will be
seen that, of the forty-eight fixed stars, four-and-twenty correspond to
each hemisphere, and also of the twelve signs of the zodiac, six belong
to each; so that it cannot be doubted that there is in the southern
hemisphere at least as great a part of the earth's surface uncovered as
in the north. Now it is consequently manifest that this part of the earth
is as fertile and habitable as the northern hemisphere, for the south has
of necessity the same distribution of zones as the north; that is to say,
half of the torrid zone from the equinoctial line to the tropic of
Capricorn, then the temperate zone from that to the Antarctic Circle, and
then that which lies between the Antarctic Circle and the Antarctic Pole;
and those zones in the two hemispheres which correspond to each other,
have (allowance being made for the natural motion of the sun through the
ecliptic) the same, or nearly the same temperature excepting such
differences as are caused by certain vertical stars and the various form,
arrangement, and temperament of the land, from which it occurs that in
the hottest part of a zone, there are some spots very temperate and
cool. And thus in those zones which are generally cold, there are some
parts that are milder and very free from the severity of the cold. And if
particular consideration be given to the influences produced on
temperature by the constellations belonging to the southern hemisphere it
will be found that there are lands in it, not only habitable, but much
more so than in the other hemisphere; and it has been seen by experience,
from the discoveries which have been made in that half of the torrid zone
which is south of the equator, that whereas the ancients considered its
heat to be so excessive that it was utterly uninhabitable, there have
been found in it parts as habitable and of as mild a temperature as in
the most temperate and habitable parts of Spain. This has been shown in
the country of the Baia de Sanfelipe y Santiago, discovered by Captain
Pedro Fernandez de Quiros which is very near to the middle of the southern
half of the torrid zone, where, in the month of May, was found the same
mildness of temperature, the same songs of birds in the twilight, the same
agreeableness and delight in the softness of the air, as is found in
Spain in the mildest and most refreshing season of spring and although,
in the middle of the time that they were in the bay, the sun went down
about 20° to the north, which, together with the fifteen or
twenty minutes of the latitude of the bay, made their distance from the
sun, which was in the south of the zenith, little more than twenty-five
degrees, and thus fofty-five of southern altitude; yet was the temperature
extremely mild for a situation so near to the middle of the southern half
of the torrid zone. But in other islands which they discovered in the
same southern half of the torrid zone, when the sun stood in southern
signs for January, February and March, being vertical or very near the
vertex or zenith of those islands, there was not felt greater heat
there than in our summer, no, indeed, did there appear to have been
so much on those occasions when they went on shore for the purpose of
taking in water.

By the same reasoning it is shown, that the land of the southern
hemisphere is greatly stored with metals and rich in precious stones and
pearls, fruits and animals; and from the discoveries and investigations
which have been already made in this southern hemisphere, there has been
found such fertility, so great plenty and abundance of animals, swine,
oxen and other beasts of different kinds fit for the sustenance of man as
has never been seen in our Europe; also of birds and fishes of different
species, and amongst them all, those which we most value as wholesome and
delicate on the shores of our own ocean; and fruits, some of which we
already know, and others of different kinds, all which may well excite
the greatest admiration, as has been related in detail in the treatise
referred to at the beginning of this memorial.

It must be observed that, although the arguments we have hitherto
advanced refer to the entire southern hemisphere, yet that which we now
propose to have explored, discovered, and evangelically subdued is that
part of the said hemisphere which lies in the Pacific Ocean, between the
longitude of the coast of Peru, as far as the Baia de San Felipe y
Santiago and the longitude which remains up to Bachan and Ternate, in
which longitude the following most remarkable discoveries have already
been made. The adelantado Alvaro Mendana de Meyra first discovered New
Guadalcanal, 'which is a very large island very near New Guinea; and some
have imagined that what Mendana called New Guadalcanal was part of New
Guinea, but this is of no consequence whatever. New Guinea belongs also to
the southern hemisphere, and was discovered some time before; and almost
all of it has been since discovered on the outside (the northern side).
It is a country encompassed with water,[*1] and according to the greater
number of those who have seen it, is seven hundred leagues in circuit:
others make it much more: we do not give a close calculation here,
because what has been said is sufficient for the intention of this
discourse. The rest will be said in its proper place. The middle of
those great islands are in from thirteen to 14° of south
latitude. The adelantado Mendana afterwards discovered the archipelago
of islands which he called the Islands of Solomon, whereof, great and
small, he saw thirty-three of very fine appearance, the middle of which
was, according to his account, in 11° south latitude. After this he
discovered, in the year 1565, the island of San Christobal not far from
the said archipelago, the middle of which was in from seven to
eight° of south latitude. The island was one hundred and
ten leagues in circuit. Subsequently, in the year '95, the said
adelantado sailed for the last time from Peru, taking with him for his
chief pilot the Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, with the purpose of colonizing
the island of San Christobal, and from thence attempting the discovery of
the southern terra firma. He shortly after discovered to the east of the
said island of San Christobel the island of Santa Cruz in 10°
south latitude. The island was more than 100 leagues in circuit, very
fertile and populous, as, indeed, appeared all those islands which we
have mentioned, and most of them of very beautiful aspect. In this island
of Santa Cruz the adelantado had such great contentions with his
soldiers, that he had some of the chief of them killed, because he
understood that they intended to mutiny, and a few days after he
died. Whereupon, as the admiral of the fleet had parted company
a short time before they had reached the island, the whole project was
frustrated, and Pedro Fernandez de Quiros took Dona Isabel Garreto, the
wife of the adelantado and the remainder of the fleet to Manilla.

[*1) Dalrymple, in quoting this passage, thinks that
the word "Aislada", here translated according to its general
meaning, "encompassed with water", in this place rather signifies
"separated into islands". This suggstion is, however, entirely
arbitrary, and even in contradiction to the context, which states
the supposed circuit of the island. Even in maps anterior to the
voyage of Torres, as, for example, Hondius's Mappemonde, showing
Drake's track round the world, published in the Hakluyt Society's
edition of Drake's World Encompassed, New Guinea is laid
down as an island, although it is true that in much later maps the
point is spoken of as doubtful. Meanwhile, the editor sees no
reason to deviate from the recognized rendering of the word
"Aislada".]

Some time afterwards Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, being at Valladolid, came
to this court to petition for the same discovery, and was dispatched to
the Viceroy of Peru, who was to supply him with all that was requisite.
He sailed from Lima in January of the year 1605, with three Vessels, the
"Capitana", the "Almiranta", and one "Zabra", with Luis Vaez de Torres
for his admiral, in order to colonize the island of Santa Cruz and to
follow out the intentions of the adelantado Mendana. After discovering
in this voyage many islands and islets, he put in at the island of
Tuamaco, which is from eight to nine leagues in circuit, in 10°
south latitude, and about one thousand seven hundred leagues distant from
Lima, which is about eighty leagues to the eastward of the island of Santa
Cruz. The cacique or chief of Taumaco informed him, as well as he could
make himself understood, that if he sought the coast of the great Terra
Firma, he would light upon it sooner by going to the south than to the
island of Santa Cruz; for in the south there were lands very fertile and
populous, and running down towards a great depth towards the said south.
In consequence of which Pedro Fernandez de Quiros abandoned his idea of
going to colonise the island of Santa Cruz, and sailed southward with a
slight variation to the south-west, discovering many islands and islets,
which were very populous and of pleasant appearance, until in 15° 20'
south, he discovered the land of the Baia de San Felipe y Santiago,
which, on the side that he first came upon, ran from east to west.
It appeared to be more than one hundred leagues long; the country
was very populous, and, although the people were dark, they were
very well favoured; there were also many plantations of trees, and
the temperature was so mild that they seemed to be in Paradise; the air
also, was so healthy, that in a few days after they arrived all the man
who were sick recovered. The land produced most abundantly many kinds
of very delicious fruits, as well as animals and birds in great variety.
The bay, also, was no less abundant in fish of excellent flavour, and of
all the kinds which are found on the coast of the sea in Spain. The
Indians ate for bread certain roots like the batata, either roasted or
boiled, which when the Spaniards tasted they found them better eating
and more sustaining than biscuit.

For certain reasons (they ought to have been very weighty) which
hitherto have not been ascertained with entire certainty, Pedro
Fernandez de Quiros left the Almiranta and the Zabra in the said
bay, and himself sailed with his ship, the Capitana, for Mexico,
from whence he again came to this court to advocate anew the
colonization of that land, and was again sent back to the viceroy
of Peru, and died at Panama on his return voyage to Lima. The admiral
Luis Vaez de Torres being left in the bay and most disconsolate for
the loss of the Capitana, resolved, with the consent of his companions,
to continue the discovery. Being prevented by stress of the weather
from making the circuit of the land of the Baia, to see whether it
were an island or mainland as they had imagined, and finding himself
in great straits in 21° south, to which high latitude he
had persevered in sailing in about a south-westerly direction from
the fifteen or twenty minutes south in which lay the aforesaid Baia,
he put back to the north-west and north-east up to 14°,
in which he sighted a very extensive coast, which he took for New
Guadalcanal; from thence he sailed westward, having constantly on the
right hand the coast of another very great land which he continued
coasting, according to his own reckoning, more than six hundred leagues,
having it still to the right hand[*] (in which course may be understood to
be comprehended New Guadalcanal and New Guinea). Along the same coast
he discovered a great diversity of islands. The whole country was very
fertile and populous; he continued his voyage on to Bachan and Ternate,
and from thence to Manilla, which was the end of his discovery.

[*1) It is from this sentence that Dalrymple observed the passage of 
Torres through these dangerous straits, and consequently gave to them
the name of that navigator.]

There was also a pilot named Juan Fernandez, who discovered the track
from Lima to Chili by going to the westward (which till then had been
made with much difficulty as they kept along shore, where the southerly
winds almost constantly prevail): he sailing from the coast of Chili
about the latitude of 40°, little more or less, in a small ship,
with some of his companions, in courses between west and south-west,
and brought in a month's time to what was to the best of their judgment,
a very fertile and agreeable continent, inhabited by a white and
well-proportioned people, of our own height, well clad, and of so
peaceable and gentle a disposition that, in every way they could express,
they showed the greatest hospitality, both with respect to the fruits and
productions of their country, which appeared in every respect very rich
and plentiful. But (being overjoyed to have discovered the coast of that
great and so much desired continent) he returned to Chili, intending to
go back properly fitted, and to keep it a secret till they and their
friends could return on the discovery. It was delayed from day to day
till Juan Fernandez died, when with his death, this important matter fell
to the ground.

In regard to this subject it must be observed, that many have related
this discovery of Juan Fernandez in the following manner, affirming that
they had it thus from himself, viz., that going to the westward from Lima,
to discover the track to Chili, waiting their opportunity and getting off
shore (where the winds almost always are southerly), a certain space of
longitude (which he would, at a proper time declare); and then standing
south with little deviation to the adjoining points, he discovered the
said coast of the southern continent in the latitude (which he would also
tell when expedient) from whence he made his voyage to Chili.

Other relations, very worthy of credit, give this discovery as before
described; but whether it happened in this or the other manner, or
whether there were two different discourses, it is a very certain fact
that he did discover the coast of the southern land; for it has been thus
certified by persons of great credit and authority, to whom the said Juan
Fernandez communicated the account with the above-mentioned proofs and
details of the country and the people thus discovered: and one of these
witnesses, who made a statement thereof to Your Majesty, as having heard
it from the said pilot, and seen the description he brought of the said
coast, was the Maestro del Campo Cortes, a man as worthy of credit as any
that is known, and who has been employed in Chili nearly sixty years.

When Pedro Fernandez de Quiros sailed from the coast of Peru he followed
nearly the same track until he reached the latitude of 26°
when his companions and especially his admiral, earnestly advised him to
continue on until he reached 40°, as the most reasonable means
of finding the continent which they had come in search of. This, for
certain considerations he refused, being apprehensive of unfavourable
weather, as he saw that the sun already began to decline towards the
equinoctial; but in this refusal he made a great mistake.

That which we have above related, is the most noticeable thing which has
hitherto been effected in the shape of discovery the southern hemisphere
in the said longitude in the Pacific; and although, with the exception of
the discovery made by the pilot Juan Fernandez, no satisfactory
examination of the coast of the much sought for great southern continent
has been effected, yet, doubtless, the aforesaid voyage failed but little
of finding it, and it is either by negligence or by carelessness, and it
may be said, by the acknowledged blunders of some of the adventurers that
it has not yet been discovered for in their explorations they saw very
great and manifest signs of a most extensive continent; and when Pedro
Fernandez de Quiros reached the aforesaid 26° they saw to
the south very extensive and thick banks of clouds in the horizon, and
other well known signs of mainland, and also a little islet, in which
were various kinds of birds of very sweet song, which never sing nor are
found at any great distance from the coast of the mainland. They
discovered afterwards some islands, still very remote from the coast of
Peru and Mexico, which apparently, could not have been peopled but from
the coast of the southern continent. And in other islands which Pedro
Fernandez de Quiros discovered in the same voyage, long before he discovered
that of Taumaco, he stated that he saw some boys as fair and ruddy as
Flemings, amongst the natives of the islands who were almost swarthy, and
they said by signs that they brought those whites from a more southern
latitude. Nearly the same thing Was met with by the adelantado Alvaro de
Mendana, in some island which he discovered before he reached San
Christobel and Santa Cruz, as in those which he called the four Marquesas
de Mendoza and others in which there were the same reasons for presuming
that they could not have been peopled from the coasts of Peru and Mexico,
but from the southern land; not only from the distance from those
countries, but from the great difference of the natives from the Indians
of Peru and Mexico, and because when questioned by signs they had no
knowledge of any land towards Mexico or Peru, and all seemed to point
towards the south.

It is of great importance towards the same argument, to take into
consideration the often confirmed indications given by the Indians of
Taumaco of there being a deep and spacious, populous and fertile
continent towards the south. The land also of the Baia de Dan Felipe y
Santiago showed very great signs of its being the coast of the southern
continent, as much by its great extent as by there being visable from it,
looming at a great distance, cordilleras of very lofty mountains of very
agreeable aspect; and by the fact of two rivers falling into the bay, one
as large as the Guadalquiver, and the other not quite so broad, all signs
of a continent Or at least of a very spacious and deep country approach
ing to a continent.

Many specious rivers were also seen to discharge themselves along the
coast which the pilot Juan Fernandez discovered, from which and from the
signs of the natives, and from the people being so white, so well clad,
and in all other respects so different from those of Chili and Peru, it
was taken for certain that it was the coast of the southern continent,
and seemed to be far better and richer than that of Peru. Besides all
this, the great number of large islands which, as has been stated, have
been discovered on voyages from the coast of Peru, made with the object
of discovering the southern land, are necessarily the evidences of the
proximity of a very large and not very distant continent, as we see in
the islands of the archipelago of San Lazaro, nearwhich are the
Phillippines, the Moluccas, Amboina, those of Banda,[*] the Javas, and many
others in their neighbourhood, which are the evidences of the proximity
of the great coast of the continent of Asia; I now allude of India beyond
the Ganges, the kingdoms of Siam and Cambodia, that of the Great Mogul
of China, leaving out what lies more to the westward.

[*1) Printed in the original thus, "Bandalaizavas", probably misprinted
for Banda, las Zavas, or Java.]

From all which it follows how infallibly certain is the greatness,
populousness, fertility and riches of the southern continent and how
readily, according to what has been above demonstrated, it may be
discovered and subjected to an evangelical and spiritual conquest, by
which may be attracted to our Mother, the Catholic Church, millions upon
millions of most faithful and sincere sons as the result of this mighty
evangelical conquest. And if the vast extent of the southern continent of
which we have been writing, were not such as it has thus evidently been
shown to be, for planting therein the purity of our holy and Catholic
religion, nevertheless we have in that portion of the southern hemisphere
which we have already seen and visited, if we take into consideration all
the above-mentioned islands, more land than half of Europe, and as rich,
populous, and fertile, in which there is the full harvest of which Christ
our Lord and treasure spoke, to be cultivated by the holy labourers and
preachers of His gospel.

Your Majesty ought to give much consideration to the fact that Christ
our Redeemer and supreme good, when He finished the period of His first
coming, recommended to His Apostles with the greatest strictness the
preaching of His gospel, as the principal means by which the redemption
of the human race, which had cost him so much was to receive its
consummation. For this cause it was the last charge He gave them, that
they might understand that it was the principal service they had to
render Him, and for which He had chosen them. Immediately after so doing
He ascended up to heaven, to give to His most holy humanity the seat of
ineffable glory at the right hand of His Father, and receive the crown of
the sovereign and universal empire over heaven and earth, as is shown by
the evangelist St. Mark in the passage quoted above: "And He said unto
them, Go ye into all the world and preach the gospel to every creature.
He that believeth and is baptised shall be saved:" And after He "had
spoken unto them He was received up into heaven, and sat on the right
hand of God. And they went forth and preached everywhere, the Lord
working with them." Thus also should Your Majesty set the eyes of your
heart upon the consummation of the preaching of the gospel in the
southern hemisphere, which this same Lord is now recounting to you with
the crown of the universal empire of the globe in His hand, ready to
place it upon your head, if you value, as it should be valued, this
Divine commission, and execute it with that zeal and devotion that the
charge enjoins. But, if which God forbid, Your Majesty should not accept
this commission, or with-hold the said zeal from the undertaking, it would
doubtless be the greatest disaster that could happen to this kingdom, and
the most certain sign that God is withdrawing his Hand from us; and even
already it seems that this withdrawal has fallen upon us, in that we are not
attempting a task which applies to us so well, and which so much concerns
these kingdoms and all Your Majesty's possessions, and we do not seem
to bethink ourselves that, in neglecting and crushing so great an
enterprise, our most culpable and persevering remissness brings upon us
this grievous and abiding calamity which we shall realize with greater
certainty when we have to repair such great losses, for we shall have to
effect all our conversions amidst great blindness and error.

Meanwhile Your Majesty might not apprehend how that this proposition is
the most important that could be made for the welfare of your crown, and
that its most speedy and faithful execution should be carried out with
the same fervour and zeal as was shown at the commencement by your most
Christian predecessors the Catholic kings, who frequently declared that,
when other means failed, they themselves would go forth to carry it into
effect. By this means your Majesty will return to find the road which
they followed, and by which they brought their kingdom to so great a
height of prosperity, from which exalted height it has, through the loss
of time and through repeated blunders and hinderances, continued falling,
until we have reached such a point that the most inconsiderable nations
of Europe, whom we formerly held beneath our feet, now look upon us as an
oppressed and afflicted nation and of small account, which is a horrible
fact, and an easily recognizable effect of the divine indignation for the
aforesaid cause, and there is no one who correctly reasons upon this
subject but will come to the same conclusion.

Let me also invite Your Majesty's attention to the words of the Apostle
in the passage quoted above: "How shall they believe in Him of whom they
have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher? and how shall
they preach except they be sent?" And let Your Majesty take into account
that the Apostle is speaking with Your Majesty yourself, and with your
kingdoms, with reference to this very point, in as much as the charge has
been given for preaching to the entire southern hemisphere, and
especially to that which lies in the Pacific Ocean, and without allowing
any other Christian Prince should go or send preachers hither.[*] If Your
Majesty do not send them, how shall they have any knowledge of their
Redeemer and be converted to Him? And as the charge was given that
these gentiles were to. be converted, Your Majesty and Your Crown
will be principally responsible for their conversion, for you will
be the immediate cause of that infinite number of gentiles not hearing
the word of the gospel or knowing their Redeemer; for as they should know
Him who is it that, if preachers are riot sent, has the guilt of not
sending them, and not allowing others to send them? May Your Majesty
ponder much upon this matter for it touches nothing less than your
salavtion and the final loss of your crown if we do not perfectly
discharge this most righteous duty, and acquit this most heavy debt to
our Lord and Redeemer, by sending, as speedily as possible to the
southern hemisphere, a sufficient number of preachers of the gospel.

[*) We presume that the eccentric argument here advanced, is based
upon the inference deduced by the writer at the commencement
of this memorial, from the peculiar use in sacred writ of the word
"Sepharat," rendered in Latin "Bosphorus," the especial meaning
is there discussed. See page 10.]

May Your Majesty give no heed to the plausible arguments which some may
perhaps advance with some show of political consideration that Your
Majesty is not in a condition to undertake the conquest of new kingdoms
of such great extent and so far off, but will have enough to do to keep
those which you already have. There will also not be wanting men learned
in the scriptures, who will prove from them that Your Majesty may
disregard the fulfilment of an obligation so distinct and may withdraw
from the contract you have made with the Redeemer, through the medium of
His vicar and the head of His Church. May Your Majesty give no heed to
this, but abominate it is mischievous to your greatness, your conscience,
and to your crown. For this conquest is to be a spiritual and evangelical
one, and by no means entailing, as is supposed any considerable expense
upon Your Majesty, nor a matter which can divert you from walking
conformably to the dictates of the Apostle. But rather, in order to
secure Your Majesty the restoration and increase of your royal power to
the extent of your desires, may Your Majesty give the attention of your
exalted understanding to the words of the Apostle to his disciple
Timothy, as if he had addressed them personally to Your Majesty:
"For the time will come (please Cod that it may not be that in
which we live) when they who are under an obligation to follow
sound doctrine so important as this, not only do not receive it, but
cannot endure it, heaping up to themselves the opinions of men with the
title of teachers, who thereby only flatter them and conform to their
wishes, turning away their ears from the truth and changing it into
fables." For such are the superficial arguments of expediency for reasons
of state which are advanced in opposition to the extension of the
Catholic Church and the increase of our holy faith. The Apostle then
says, and we may reasonably understand him as on the present occasion
addressing himself to Your Majesty: "But do thou (whom as sovereign prince
of this Catholic monarchy, and as having made a contract with the King of
kings, art pledged by promise to the completing of the preaching of the
gospel), abominating those who shall propose to thee the contrary, watch
day and night over the fulfilment of this glorious and important
obligation, labour as much as lieth in you that it may be all possible
means be accomplished, do the work of an evangelist; for as the
evangelists wrote the gospel in order that thou mightest cause it to be
preached to the gentiles, do thou after thy manner perform the same
office which they performed in preaching. Placing great value on the fact
that the Redeemer would not entrust the charge to any other prince but to
thy illustrious house do thou give all thy strength to the full and
perfect completion of this grand and exalted ministry so that no gap be
left." By so doing Your Majesty will be able to say at the day of
account, that which immediately afterwards is said by the Apostle:

"Bonum certamen certavi, cursum consummavi, fidem servavi; in reliquo
reposita est mihi corona justitiae, quam reddet mehi Dominus in illa die
justus judex, non solum autem mihi, sed his qui diligunt adventum ejus."
I have fought the good fight gloriously, overcoming the greater power of
Lucifer, liberating from his tyrannical and abominable servitude so great
a number of millions of souls in the southern hemisphere which would
have been lost and would have lost the Redeemer, who laid upon me
the charge of this great and heroic deed; I have finished most
faithfully my course; I have kept His faith pure in this Catholic
seminary of my kingdom, and have transplanted it with the same
purity into the hearts of the infinite number of gentiles which
dwell in that spacious fold; and thus may I justly hope from the
hand of the King Eternal, in the great day of the universal account,
the glorious and blessed crown of righteousness (which the Apostle
hoped for himself) from having rendered this service, the most
acceptable that any king or prince of the world will have rendered to the
Divine Majesty. The same Apostle goes on to say, afterwards that not only
would it be given to him, but to all those who love the coming of the
just Judge, which are those who hold in such account the fulfilment of
their obligations, and especially of so heavenly a one as this, that they
may justly hope for the reward of that unspeakably glorious crown. Your
Majesty may also entertain a like security of hope that if the present
proposition and prayer be accepted and undertaken with the earnest
promptitude which, as has been shown, is enjoined upon you, there will be
added to your present enjoyment of these Catholic kingdoms, and of the
other possessions of your monarchy, every possible exaltation and
aggrandisement, which is the most affectionate desire of Your Majesty's
faithful subjects and servants.



RELATION OF LUIS VAEZ DE TORRES, CONCERNING THE DISCOVERIES OF QUIROS,
AS HIS ALMIRANTE. DATED MANILA, JULY 12th, 1607.

A TRANSLATION, NEARLY LITERAL, BY ALEXANDER DALRYMPLE, ESQ., FROM
A SPANISH MANUSCRIPT COPY IN HIS POSSESSION.

(First printed in Burney's 'Discoveries in the South Sea'.Part 2,
p. 467. London, 1806. 4to.)

Being in this city of Manila, at the end of a year and a half of
navigation and making discovery of the lands and seas in the southern
parts; and seeing that the Royal Audience of Manila have not hitherto
thought proper to give me dispatches for completing the voyage as Your
Majesty commanded, and as I was in hopes of being the first to give
yourself a relation of the discover, etc., but being detained here, and
not knowing if, in this city of Manila, I shall receive my dispatches, I
have thought proper to send Your Majesty Fray Juan de Merlo of the order
of San Francisco one of the three religious who were on board with me,
who having been eye-witness, will give a full relation to Your Majesty.
The account from me is the following.

We sailed from Callao, in Peru, December 21st, 1605, with two ships and a
launch, under the command of Captain Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, and I for
his almirante; and without losing company, we stood W.S.W., and went on
this course 800 leagues.

In latitude 26° S., it appeared proper to our commander not to
pass that latitude, because of changes in the weather: on which account I
gave a declaration under my hand that it was not a thing obvious that we
ought to diminish our latitude if the season would allow, till we got
beyond 30°, my opinion had no effect; for from the said 26°
S., we decreased our latitude in a W.N.W. course to 24½° S. In
this situation we found a small low island, about two leagues long,
uninhabited and without anchoring ground.

From hence we sailed W. by N. to 24° S. In this situation we found
another island, uninhabited, and without anchorage. It was about ten
leagues in circumference. We named it San Valerio.

From hence we sailed W. by N. one day and then W.N.W. to 21¾° S.,
where we found another small low island without soundings, uninhabited,
and divided into pieces.

We passed on in the same course and sailed twenty-five leagues: we found
four islands in a triangle, five or six leagues each; low uninhabited and
without soundings. We named them las Virgines (the Virgins). Here the
variation was north-easterly.

From hence we sailed N.W. to 19° S. In this situation we saw a
small island to the eastward, about three leagues distant. It appeared
like those we had passed. We named it Sta. Polonia.

Diminishing our latitude from hence half a degree we saw a low island,
with a point to the full of palms: it is in 13½° S. We arrived
at it. It had no anchorage. We saw people on the beach: the boats went to
the shore, and when they reached it, they could not land on account of
the great surf and rocks. The Indians called to them from the land: two
Spaniards swam ashore: these they received well, throwing their arms upon
the ground, and embraced them and kissed them in the face. On this
friendship, a chief among them came on board the Capitana to converse,
and an old woman; who were clothed, and other presents were made to them,
and they returned ashore presently for they were in great fear. In return
for these good offices they sent a heap, or locks of hair, and some bad
feathers, and some wrought pearl oyster shells: these were all their
valuables. They were a savage people, mullattoes, and corpulent: the arms
they use are lances, very long and thick. As we could not land nor get
anchoring ground, we passed on steering W.N.W.

We went in this direction from that island, getting sight of land. We
could not reach it from the first, on account of the wind being contrary
and strong with much rain: it was all of it very low, so as in parts to
be overflowed.

From this place in 16½° S., we stood N.W. by N. to 10¾°
S. In this situation we saw an island, which was supposed to be
that of San Bernardo, because it was in pieces: but it was not San
Bernardo, from what we afterwards saw. We did not find anchoring ground
at it, though the boats went on shore to search for water, which we were
in want of, but could not find any: they only found some cocoa-nut trees
though small. Our commander seeing we wanted water, agreed that we should
go to the island Santa Cruz, where he had been with the adelantado Alvaro
de Mendana, saying we might there supply ourselves with water and wood,
and then he would determine what was most expedient for Your Majesty's
service. The crew of the Capitana at this time were mutinous, designing
to go directly to Manila: on this account he sent the chief pilot a
prisoner on board my ship, without doing anything further to him or
others, though I strongly importuned him to punish them or give me
leave to punish them; but he did not choose to do it, from whence
succeeded what Your Majesty knows, since they made him turn from the
course (voyage), as will be mentioned, and he has probably said at
Your Majesty's court.

We sailed from the above island W. by N., and found nearly a point
easterly variation. We continued this cource till in full 10° S.
Latitude. In this situation we found a low island of five or six leagues,
overflowed and without soundings: it was inhabited, the people and arms
like those we had left, but their vessels were different. They came
close to the ship, talking to us and taking what we gave them, begging
more, and stealing what was hanging to the ship, throwing lances,
thinking we could do them no harm.

Seeing we could not anchor, on account of the want we were in of water,
our commander ordered me ashore with two boats and fifty men. As soon as
we came to the shore they opposed my entrance, without any longer keeping
peace, which obliged me to skirmish with them. When we had done them
some mischief, three of them came out to make peace with me, singing,
with branches in their hands, and one with a lighted torch and on his
knees. We received them well and embraced them, and then cloathed them,
for they were some of the chiefs; and asking them for water they did not
choose to show it me, making signs as if they did not understand me.
Keeping the three chiefs with me, I ordered the sergeant, with twelve
men, to search for water, and having fallen in with it the Indians came
out on their flank and attacked them wounding one Spaniard. Seeing their
treachery they were attacked and defeated without other harm whatever.
The land being in my power, I went over the town without finding anything
but dried oysters and fish, and many cocoa-nuts, with which the land was
well provided. We found no birds nor animals except little dogs. They
have many covered embarcations, with which they are accustomed to
navigate to other islands, with latine sails made curiously of mats; and
of the same cloth their women are cloathed with little shifts and
petticoats, and the men only round their waists and hips. From hence we
put off with the boats loaded with water, but by the great swell we were
overset with much risk of our lives, and so we were obliged to go on
with out getting water at this island. We named it Matanza.

We sailed in this parallel thirty-two days. In all this route we had very
strong currents, and many drifts of wood and snakes, and many birds, all
which were signs of land on both sides of us. We did not search for it,
that we might not leave the latitude of the island of Santa Cruz, for we
always supposed ourselves near it; and with reason, if it had been where
the first voyage when it was discovered had represented; but it was much
further on, as by the account will be seen. So that about sixty leagues
before reaching it, and 1940 from the city of Lima, we found a small
island of six leagues very high, and all round it very good soundings;
and other small islands near it, under shelter of which the ships
anchored. I went with the two boats and fifty men to reconnoitre the
people of this island; and at the distance of a musket shot separate from
the island, we found a town surrounded with a wall, with only one
entrance, without a gate. Being near with the two boats with an intention
of investing them as they did not by signs choose peace, at length their
chief came into the water up to his neck, with a staff in his hand, and
without fear came directly to the boats; where he was very well received,
and by signs which we very well understood, he told me that his people
were in great terror of the muskets, and therefore he entreated us not to
land, and said that they would bring water and wood if we gave them
vessels. I told him that it was necessary to remain five days on shore to
refresh. Seeing he could not do more with me he quieted his people, who
were very uneasy and turbulent, and so it happened that no hostility was
committed on either side. We went into the fort very safely; and having
halted, I made them give up their arms, and made them bring from their
houses their effects, which were not of any value, and go with them to
the island to other towns. They thanked me very much: the chief always
continued with me. They then told me the name of the country: all came to
me to make peace, and the chiefs assisted me, making their people get
water and wood and carry it on board the ships. In this we spent six
days.

The people of this island are of an agreeable conversation, understanding
us very well, desirous of learning our language and to teach us theirs.
They are great cruizers: they have much beard; they are great archers and
hurlers of darts; the vessels in which they sail are large, and can go
a great way. They informed us of more than forty islands, great and small,
all peopled, naming them by names, and telling us that they were at war
with many of them. They also gave us intelligence of the island Santa
Cruz, and of what had happened when the adelantado was there.

The people of this island are of ordinary stature: they have amongst them
people white and red, some in colour like those of the Indies, others
woolly-headed blacks and mulattoes. Slavery is in use amongst them. Their
food is yams, fish, cocoa-nuts, and they have hogs and fowls.

This island is named Taomaco and the name of the chief, Tomai. We
departed from hence with four Indians whom we took, at which they were
not much pleased: and as we here got wood and water, there was no
necessity for us to go to the island Santa Cruz, which, as I have said,
is in this parallel sixty leagues further on.

So we sailed from hence, steering S.S.E. to 12½° S. latitude,
where we found an island like that of Taomaco, and with the same kind of
people, named Chucupia: there is only one small anchoring place; and
passing in the offing, a small canoe with only two men came to me to make
peace, and presented me some bark of a tree, which appeared like a very
fine handkerchief, four yards long and three palms wide: on this I parted
from them.

From hence we steered south. We had a hard gale of wind from the north,
which obliged us to lye to for two days: at the end of that time it was
thought, as it was winter, that we could not exceed the latitude of 14°
S., in which we were, although my opinion was always directly
contrary, thinking we should reach for the islands named by the Indians
of Taomaco. Wherefore sailing from this place we steered west, and in one
day's sail we discovered a volcano, very high and large, above three
leagues in circuit, full of trees, and of black people with much beard.

To the westward, and in sight of this volcano, was an island not very
high and pleasant in appearance. There are few anchoring places, and
those very close to the shore: it was very full of black people. Here we
caught two in some canoes, whom we cloathed and gave them presents, and
the next day we put them on shore. In return for this they shot a flight
of arrows at a Spaniard, though in truth it was not in the same port, but
about a musket shot further on. They are, however, a people that never
miss an opportunity of doing mischief.

In sight of this island and around it are many islands, very high and
large, and to the southward one so large that we stood for it, naming the
island where our man was wounded Santa Maria.

Sailing thence to the southward towards the large island, we discovered a
very large bay, well peopled, and very fertile in yams and fruits, hogs
and fowls. They are all black people and naked. They fight with bows,
darts and clubs. They did not choose to have peace with us, though we
frequently spoke to them and made presents; and they never, with their
goodwill, let us set foot on shore.

This bay is very refreshing, and in it fall many and large rivers. It is
in 15 2/3° S. latitude, and in circuit it is twenty-five leagues.
We named it the bay de San Felipe y Santiago, and the land del Espiritu
Santo.

There we remained fifty days:[*1] we took possession in the name of Your
Majesty. From within this bay, and from the most sheltered part of it,
the Capitana departed at one hour past midnight, without giving any
notice to us and without making any signal. This happened the 11th of
June, and although the next morning we went out to seek for them; and
made all proper efforts, it was not possible for us to find them; for
they did not sail on the proper course, nor with good intention. So I was
obliged to return to the bay, to see if by chance they had returned
thither. And on the same account we remained in this bay 15 days; at the
end of which we took Your Majesty's orders, and held a consultation with
the officers of the frigate. It was determined that we should fulfil
them, although contrary to the inclination of many, I may say, of the
greater part; but my condition was different from that of Captain Pedro
Fernandez de Quiros.

[*1) This includes the time Torres remained in the bay after the separation
from Quiros.]

At length we sailed from this bay, in conformity to the order, although
with intention to sail round this island, but the season and the strong
currents would not allow this, although I ran along a great part of it.
In what I saw, there are very large mountains. It has many ports, though
some of them very small. All of it is well watered with rivers. We had at
this time nothing but bread and water: it was the height of winter, with
sea, wind, and ill will (of his crew) against us. 'All this did not
prevent me from reaching the mentioned latitude, which I passed one
degree, and would have gone farther if the weather had permitted; for the
ship was good. It was proper to act in this manner, for these are not
voyages performed every day, nor could Your Majesty otherwise be properly
informed. Going into the said latitude on a S.W. course, we had no signs
of land that way.

From hence I stood back to the N.W. to 11½° S. latitude: there
we fell in with the beginning of New Guinea, the coast of which runs W.
by N. and E. by S. I could not weather the east point so I coasted along
to the westward on the south side.

All this land of New Guinea is peopled with Indians, not very white, and
naked, except their waists, which are covered with a cloth made of the
bark of trees, and much painted. They fight with darts, targets, and some
stone clubs, which are made fine with plumage. Along the coast are many
islands and habitations. All the coast has many ports, very large, with
very large rivers, and many plains. Without these islands there runs a
reef of shoals, and between them (the shoals) and the main land are the
islands. There is a channel within. In these ports I took possession for
Your Majesty.

We went along three hundred leagues of coast as I have mentioned, and
diminished the latitude 2½°, which brought us into 9°. From hence
we fell in with a bank of from three to nine fathoms, which extends
along the coast, above 180 leagues. We went over it along the
coast to 7½° south latitude, and the end of it is in 5°. We could
go no further on for the many shoals and great currents, so we
were obliged to sail out S.W. in that depth to 11° S. latitude.
There is all over it an archipelago of islands without number, by which
we passed, and at the end of the eleventh degree the bank became shoaler.
Here were very large islands, and there appeared more to the southward:
they were inhabited by black people, very corpulent and naked: their arms
were lances, arrows, and clubs of stone ill-fashioned. We could not get
any of their arms. We caught in all this land twenty persons of different
nations, that with them we might be able to give a better account to Your
Majesty. They give much notice of other people, although as yet they do
not make themselves well understood.

We went upon this bank for two months, at the end of which time we found
ourselves in 25 fathoms and in 5° S. latitude and ten leagues
from the coast. And having gone 480 leagues, here the coast goes
to the N.E. I did not reach it, for the bank became very shallow.
So we stood to the north, and in twenty-five fathoms to 4°
latitude, where we fell in with a coast, which likewise lay in a
direction east and west. We did not see the eartern termination, but from
what we understood of it, it joins the other we had left on account of
the bank, the sea being very smooth. This land is peopled by blacks,
different from all the others: they are better adorned: they use arrows,
darts, and large shields and some sticks of bamboo filled with lime with
which, by throwing it out, they blind their enemies. Finally, we stood to
the W.N.W. along the Coast, always finding this people, for we landed in
many places: also in it we took possession for Your Majesty. In this land
also we found iron, china bells, and other things, by which we knew we
were near the Malucas and so we ran along this coast above 130 leagues,
where it comes to a termination fifty leagues before you reach the
Molucas. There is an infinity of islands to the southward and very large
which for the want of provisions we did not approach, for I doubt if in
ten years could be examined the coasts of all the islands we descried. We
observed the variation in all this land of New Guinea to the Molucas; and
in all of it the variation agrees with the meridian of the Ladrone
Islands and of the Philippine Islands.

At the termination of this land we found Mahometans, who were cloathed
and had firearms and swords. They sold us fowls, goats, fruit and some
pepper, and biscuit which they called sagoe, which will keep more than
twenty years. The whole they sold us was but little; for they wanted
cloth, and we had not any; for all the things that had been given us for
traffic were carried away by the Capitana, even to tools and medicines,
and many other things which I do not mention, as there is no help for it;
but, without them, God took care of us.

These Moors gave us news of the events at the Malucas, and told us of
Dutch ships though none of them came here although they said that in all
this land there was much gold and other good things, such as pepper and
nutmegs. For hence to the Malucas it is all islands, and on the south
side are many uniting with those of Banda and Amboyna, where the Dutch
carry on a trade. We came to the islands of Bachian, which are the first
Malucas, where we found a Theatine, with about one hundred Christians
in the country of a Mahometan king friendly to us, who begged me to
subdue one of the Ternate islands inhabited by revolted Mahometans,
to whom Don pedro de Acunha had given pardon in Your Majesty's name,
which I had maintained; and I sent advice to the M. de Campo, Juan de
Esquivel, who governed the islands of Ternate, of my arrival, and demanded
if it was expedient to give this assistance to the king of Bachian, to
which he (Juan de Esquivel) answered that it would be of great service to
Your Majesty if I brought force for that purpose. On this, with forty
Spaniards and four hundred Moors of the king of Bachian, I made war, and
in only four days I defeated them and took the fort, and put the king of
Bachian in possession of it in Your Majesty's name, to whom we
administered the usual oaths, stipulating with him that he should never
go to war against Christians, and that he should ever be a faithful
vassal to Your Majesty. I did not find these people of so intrepid a
spirit as those we had left.

It must be ascribed to the Almighty that, in all these labours and
victories, we lost only one Spaniard. I do not make a relation of them to
Your Majesty, for I hope to give it at large.

The king being put in possession, I departed for Ternate, which was
twelve leagues from this island, where Juan de Esquivel was, by whom I
was well received; for he had great scarcity of people, and the nations
of Ternate were in rebellion, and assistance to him was very unexpected
in so roundabout a way.

In a few days afterwards arrived succour from Manila, which was much
desired, for half of the people left by Don Pedro de Acunha were no more,
and there was a scarcity of provisions, for, as I said, the nations of
the island were in rebellion; but by the prudence of the M. de Campo,
Juan de Esquivel, he went on putting the affairs of the island in good
order, although he was in want of money.

I left the Patache here and about twenty men, as it was expedient for the
service of Your Majesty. From hence I departed for the city of Manila,
where they gave me so bad a dispatch, as I have mentioned; and hitherto,
which is now two months, they have not given provisions to the crew; and
so I know not when I can sail hence to give account to Your Majesty.

Whom may God preserve prosperous,
For sovereign of the world.
Your Majesty's servant,
LUIS VAEZ DE TORRES.

Done at Manila, July 12th, 1607.

* * * * *

EXTRACT FROM THE BOOK OF DESPATCHES FROM BATAVIA; COMMENCING
JANUARY THE 15TH, 1644, AND ENDING NOVEMBER THE 29TH FOLLOWING.

TO BE FOUND FOLIO 39.

Instructions for the commodore, Captain Abel Jansz Tasman, the skipper
chief-pilot, Franz Jacobsz Visser, and the counsel of the yachts Limmen
and Zeemeuw, and the tender de Brak, destined for a nearer discovery of
New Guinea and the unknown coasts of the discovered east and south lands,
together with the channels and the islands supposed to be situated
between and near them.

The several successive administrations of India, in order to enlarge and
extend the trade of the Dutch East India company, have zealously
endeavoured to make an early discovery of the great land of New Guinea
and other unknown east and southerly countries, as you know by several
discourses, and maps, journals, and papers communicated to you. But
hitherto with little success, although several voyages have been
undertaken.

1st. By order of the president, John Williamson Verschoor, who at that
time directed the company's trade at Bantam, which was in the year 1606,
with the yacht the Duyfhen, who in their passage sailed by the islands
Key and Aroum, and discovered the south and west coast of New Guinea for
about 220 miles (880) from 5° to 13¾° south latitude: and found
this extensive country, for the greater part desert, but in some places
inhabited by wild, cruel black savages, by whom some of the crew were
murdered; for which reason they could not learn anything of the land or
waters, as had been desired of them, and by want of provisions and other
necessaries they were obliged to leave the discovery unfinished: the
furthest point of the land was called in their map Cape Keer-Weer*,
situated in 13¾° South.

[* Cape Turn-again]

The second voyage was undertaken with a yacht in the year 1617 by order
of the Fiscal D'Edel, with little success, of which adventures and
discoveries, through the loss of their journals and remarks, nothing
certain is to be found.

From this time the further discoveries of the unknown east and south
countries were postponed until the year 1623 on account of there being no
ships to spare; but in the interim, in the year 1619, a ship named the
Arms of Amsterdam, destined to Banda, drove past that place and touched
at the south coast of New Guinea, where some of the crew were murdered by
the savage inhabitants, wherefore they acquired no certain knowledge of
the country.

But in the meantime, in the years 1616, 1618, 1619 and 1622, the west
coast of this great unknown south land from 35° to 22° S. latitude
was discovered by outward bound ships, and among them by the
ship Endraght; for the nearer discovery of which the governor-general,
Jan Pietersz Coen (of worthy memory) in September, 1622, despatched the
yachts De Haring and Harewind; but this voyage was rendered abortive by
meeting the ship Mauritius, and searching after the ship Rotterdam.

In consequence of which, by order of His excellency, the third voyage was
undertaken in the month of January 1623, with the yachts Pera and Arnhem
out of Amboina, under the command of Jan Carstens; with order to make a
nearer friendship with the inhabitants of the islands Key, Aroum, and
Tenimber, and better to discover New Guinea and the south lands, when an
alliance was made with the said islands and south coast of New Guinea
nearer discovered. The skipper, with eight of the crew of the yacht
Arnhem, was treacherously murdered by the inhabitants; and after a
discovery of the great islands Arnhem and the Spult (by an untimely
Separation) this yacht, with very little success, came back to Amboina.

But the yacht Pera, persisting in the voyage, sailed along the south
coast of New Guinea to a flat cove on this coast, situated in 10°
south latitude, and ran along the west coast of this land to Cape
Keer-Weer, from thence discovered the coast farther southward as far as
17° South to Staten River (from this place what more of the land
could be discerned seemed to stretch westward) and from thence returned
to Amboina.

In this discovery were found everywhere shallow water and barren coast;
islands altogether thinly peopled by divers cruel, poor, and brutal
nations, and of very little use to the Company. Countries may be seen on
the maps which were made of them.

Through the little success of this third voyage, but mostly because no
ships could be spared, the discovery was again omitted until 1636, but in
the interim, in the year 1627, the south coast of the great south land
was accidentally discovered by the ship Gulde Zeepard, outward bound from
Fatherland[*], for the space of 250 miles (1000) and again accidentally in
the year following, 1628, on the north side in the latitude of 21°
South, by the ship Vianen, homeward bound from India when they coasted
about 50 miles (200) without gaining any particular knowledge of this
great country, only observing a foul and barren shore, green fields and
very wild, black, barbarous inhabitants; all which, by the loss of the
ship Batavia and the cruelties and miseries which followed from that, if
fully proved, and was experienced by the crew of the yacht Sardam, in
their course along this coast.

[* The expressive epithet both of the Dutch and Germans for their
native country.]

At last the fourth voyage was undertaken (in our government) in the month
of April 1636 from Banda with the yachts 'Clyn Amsterdam' and 'Wesel', under
the command of Gerrit Tomasz Pool for the discovery of the east and south
lands; when they first discovered the coast of New Guinea in 3½°
south latitude, and coasted about sixty miles (240) to the
eastward to 5° South, when the commodore Pool, with three of the
crew (by the barbarous inhabitants) was murdered at the same place where
the skipper of that yacht Arnhem was killed in the year 1623.

Notwithstanding which the voyage was assiduously continued under the
supercargo Pieter Pietersz and, the islands Key and Arnoum visited by
very strong easterly winds, they could not reach the west coast to New
Guinea but, shaping their course very near south, described the coast of
Arnhem or Van Diemen's Land in 11° south latitude, and sailed
along the coast for 30 miles (120) without seeing any people, but many
signs of smoke; when, turning towards the north, they visited the unknown
islands of Timor Laut [*] and the known islands of Tenimber, Kauwer, etc.,
but without ever being able to converse with the inhabitants who were a
very timid people when, after three months cruising, they returned in
July to Banda, without (in this voyage) having done or discovered
anything of consequence; which may be seen by the journals and maps.

[* The word "laut" means south, but is erroneously spelt in the original
translation "landt." A similar blunder has been abundantly repeated on
the maps of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in the name of
"Laut Chidol," the Southern Sea, there spelt constantly Lantchidol.]

After the little success in these voyages nothing further was attempted
on discovery to the eastward, but last year (under your direction) the
discovery of the remaining unknown south lands was assiduously
reattempted; and in that remarkable voyage was that great unknown Staten[*]
and Van Diemen's Land discovered from 35 to 43° south latitude,
and at the same time the (so long wished for) passage to the South Sea,
but it is unnecessary to relate more here as you are perfectly acquainted
with all particulars.

[* New Zealand]

But to obtain a thorough knowledge of these extensive countries, the
discovery whereof has been begun (in consequence of the intention of the
Company and the recommendation of our masters) now only remains for the
future to discover whether New Guinea is one continent with that great
south land, or separated by channels and islands lying between them; and
also whether that New Van Diemen's Land is the same continent with these
two great countries or with one of them or, if separated from them, what
islands may be dispersed between New Guinea and the unknown south land
when, after more experience and knowledge of all the said known and
unknown countries, we shall be better enabled for further undertakings.

After considering all that is above related and, by our estimate of the
present strength of the Company's naval forces, it is found that, without
prejudice to the ordinary trading and warlike expeditions, two or three
yachts could be spared, it is therefore resolved in the Council of India
to equip the yachts Limmen, the Zeemeuw, and the Brak for the further
discovery of the east and south lands to furnish them well with all
necessaries, and commit them to your conduct, in confidence that you will
with courage, vigilance, prudence, good order, and the requisite
perseverance, skilfully direct this important voyage in such a manner as
to be capable to give an account on your return fully to our contentment.

1st. You shall early tomorrow morning, after mustering your men, proceed
to sea in company and steer a course to Macassar, Amboina, and Banda, as
the service of the Company shall require, and by separate instructions
you are commanded, by which you are entirely to regulate your voyage to
the above places.

On your arrival at Amboina and Banda you shall plentifully stock your
yachts with water, fuel, and all other necessaries; in the time you are
there the crews are to be supplied with all sorts of fresh provisions,
and well provided for the voyage, for which purpose this shall be an
order to the vice-governors [*] Gerrit Demmer and Cornelis Witzen, to whom
you have to communicate your instructions and demand in writing the
further knowledge they may have of the countries situated to the east of
Banda; and particularly the journal of the commodore Carstens, which we
think may still be found there, and be of some service to you on the
voyage.

[* At that time the governor-general, in instructions or issuing orders,
styled all the other governors, vice-governors.]

But by this we by no means intend you shall spend time unprofitably, but
despatch everything so assiduously that you may leave Banda in the latter
end of February, when the west monsoon had set in, fixing, with the
advice of the council, instructions for the signals at the beginning of
your voyage, in which particularly is to be inserted by what method the
yachts may join, in case (which God prevent) they by storm or other
accidents were separated, upon which the good success of the intended
voyage chiefly depends.

After fulfilling your orders at Amboina and Banda you shall (as is
mentioned) in the latter end of February (or sooner if possible)
undertake in the name of God the voyage you are ordered upon, and steer
your course eastward between and in view of the islands Tenimber, Key,
and Aroum, to the point True or False Cape situated in 8° on the
south of New Guinea; from which place you are to continue eastward along
the coast till 9° south latitude, crossing prudently the cove at
that place looking about the high island or Spelut's River with the
yachts for a harbour, and to inspect into the state of the country;
dispatching the tender Brak for two or three days into the cove in order
to discover whether within the great inlet there is not to be found an
entrance into the South Sea which soon may be determined by the current
of the streams. From this place you are to coast along the west coast of
New Guinea to the farthest discoveries in 170° South latitude,
following this coast farther as it may run west of southward.

But it is to be feared you will meet in these parts with South-East
trade-winds, by which it will be difficult to keep the coast on board, if
stretching to the South-East, but notwithstanding this endeavour by all
means to proceed, by reason that we may be sure whether this land is
divided from the great known south continent or not, which by the great
and slow swell from the South-East may well be perceived; in which case
you shall try (if possible) to run so far to the South-East as the New
Van Diemen's Land, and from thence to the islands of St. Peter and St.
Francois, to learn the situation of these to the northward, and at the
same time to be assured (which is much wished for) a passage to the South
Sea between them and the known south land, which found (as we presume and
hope) you ought, returning through the discovered passage, to steer along
the east coast of the known south land according to its trending,
following its direction to the westward to De Wit's Land and William's
River in 22° south latitude, when the known south land would be
entirely circumnavigated and discovered to be the largest island of the
globe.

But if (as we presume) the land of New Guinea is joined to the south land
and in consequence is one continent, you will be enabled by the
South-East trade-wind to run along the north coast from 17 to 22°
South, and this entirely to discover this land from whence (if wind and
weather by any means will permit) you shall steer along the land of De
Eendragt to Houtman's Abrolhos, and come to an anchor at a fit place
thereabout; and endeavour to find a chest containing eight thousand rix
dollars that remained in the wreck of the ship Batavia, a brass half
cartow [*] having fallen on that chest when it foundered at that place in
the year 1629, and which the crew of the yacht Sardam dragged for in vain.
At the same time you shall (if possible) recover that piece, by this you
will render service to the Company, for which reason be not negligent in
the discharge of your duty.

[* Or 24-pounder. (Note in Dalrymple.)]

Likewise inquire at the continent thereabout after two Dutchmen who,
having forfeited their lives, were put on shore by the commodore Francois
Pelsart, if still alive, in which case you may make your inquiries of
them about the situation of these countries, and if they entreat you to
that purpose give them passage hither; on this occasion you ought to
search for a good water and refreshing place about the 26 or 28°
South latitude, which would be a desirable thing for the outwardbound
ships.

But if the late time of the year and the appearance of storms will not
permit you to reach Houtman's Shoal which, after experience, we leave to
yours and the council's own judgment, consider how you have to sail again
from William's River to the east, along the coast of the south land and
from De Wit's Land, by the help of the South-East trade-wind, to run
across very near eastward to complete the discovery of Arnhem's and Van
Diemen's Lands; and to ascertain perfectly whether these lands are not
one and the same island, and what these places produce; likewise what
other islands besides Baly, Sumbava, and Timor may be situated about the
south land.

After all this (by the help of God) shall be fortunately transacted,
which we hope can be done before the end of the month of June (having
either reached Houtman's Abrolhos or Van Diemen's Land) you have to steer
your course to the south coast of Java, and along the coast through the
Strait of Sunda to return to Batavia: at which place we shall expect you
in July following attended with good success.

Of all the lands, countries, islands, capes, points or coves, inlets,
bays, rivers, shoals, reefs, sands, cliffs, rocks, etc., which you meet
with and pass in this discovery, as well upon the coast of New Guinea and
the south land, as in the Indian Ocean and inland seas, you are to make
accurate maps and circumstantial descriptions and to draw perfectly the
views and from, for which purpose a draughtsman is to go along with you.

Be particularly careful about longitude and latitude, in what direction
and at what distances all coasts, islands, capes, points, bays and rivers
are situated from one and the other, and what are the marks by which they
may be known, as mountains, hills, trees, or buildings to be seen
thereupon.

Take a thorough survey of the depth of the water near the shore and of
the sunken rocks, the rapid current of the rivers at the points, how and
by what marks they are to be avoided, and if the bottom is hard, soft,
sharp, flat, sloping, or steep, and if they may be approached or not, by
the soundings; upon what marks the best anchoring places in harbours and
bays are to be found, how the inlets and rivers are to be entered, what
winds usually blow in the different parts; the course of the streams,
whether ebb and flood are regulated by the moon or wind; what alterations
of monsoon, rains or dry weather you experience; and observed farther
diligently to remark and note down (which is the duty of all able pilots)
whatever may be of service in future voyages to the discovered countries.

The time of the year will doubtless not permit, by the shortening of the
days, to lose any time, but carefully and diligently to proceed; for the
above reason it is consequence to discover as much and in as short a time
as possible.

Nevertheless to discover in a proper manner the coasts of the east, and
south land, it will be necessary in good time now and then to anchor in
proper places, always looking for and choosing such bays and harbours as
with the least danger may be entered and left, where you may lie in
safety, and which by accidental winds or for other reasons you may soon
quit.

But be particularly careful, circumspect and prudent in landing with
small craft, because (as above-mentioned) at several times New Guinea has
been found to be inhabited by cruel wild savages and, as it is uncertain
what sort of people the inhabitants of the south lands are, it may rather
be presumed that they are also wild and barbarous savages than a
civilised people, for which reason you ought always to be upon your guard
and well armed; because in all countries of the globe experience has
taught us no savages are to be trusted, by reason they always suppose
people who appear so unexpectedly and strangely to them are only come to
invade their country; all which is proved in the discovery of America and
the Indies, by the surprise and murdering many careless and unwary
discoverers, many times to the ruin of their voyages.

When you meet and converse with any of these savages behave well and
friendly to them; do not take notice of little affronts or thefts which
they practice upon you, because resentment might create disgust; but try
by all means to engage their affection to you, the better to learn from
them the state of their country, particularly if any thing for the
service of the company may be done there.

You are also to inquire as much as time will permit into the productions
of their country, the fruits and animals, the buildings, the shape and
faces of the people, their clothing, arms, morals, manners, food, trade,
religion, government, war, and everything worthy of remark; particularly
whether they are peaceable or malicious.

You are to show the samples of the goods which you carry along with you,
to inquire what materials and goods they possess, and what is wanted of
ours; all which you are closely to observe, well to annotate, and
correctly to describe; for which reason you are to keep a very
circumstantial journal wherein all particulars may be perfectly inserted,
by which upon your return you may give a satisfactory report to us.

If any country be discovered peopled by a civilised nation (as apparently
will not be the case) you may depend more upon them than upon the wild
savages; try to converse with their governors and subjects, and to
establish an acquaintance; inform them you come there to trade, show them
the goods in proper order; for this purpose laden on board both the
yachts and the tender, amounting to the sum of 2809 guilders, 17 stivers,
and three penningen, of all which the junior merchants have to keep books
in proper order, by which they (when called upon) may be enabled to give
a satisfactory account.

Showing the samples and goods, you and the junior merchants are carefully
to remark what good the strange nations most esteem and to which they are
most inclined; likewise inquire what merchants and goods they possess,
particularly after gold and silver, and whether these metals are held in
great esteem; to keep them ignorant of the precious value seem not
greedily after it; if they offer to barter for your goods seem not to
convert these minerals, but show them copper, tutenag (zinc), pewter and
lead, as if these were of more value to us. If you find them inclined to
trade keep the goods which they seem most greedy after at so high a value
that none may be sold nor bartered without great profit, likewise take
nothing but what you are convinced will turn out profitable to the
Company, which in trading you will learn. It will be particularly
necessary to bring samples of the most rare things to be found there, and
of all the rest exact account, to see what return from thence can be
made, and for the future may be serviceable.

You are prudently to prevent all insolences and maltreatment of the
ship's crew against the discovered nations, and to take care by no means
to insult them in their houses, gardens, ships, possessions, nor women,
etc. Likewise not to carry away any inhabitant against their will, but if
a few voluntarily should be inclined to go along with you then you are
permitted to bring them to this place.

We have here expressed in general our intentions respecting a voyage you
are to undertake but, as upon all that may occur no precise orders can be
given, we leave the rest to your zeal, vigilance and good conduct,
likewise to the council's prudent dispositions, in a full hope and
confidence you will in this expedition be so vigilant as to succeed to
the service of the Company, when we will not be backward to recompense
your endeavours as you may merit; for if in this voyage are discovered
any countries, islands or passages profitable to the Company we promise
you by this to reward the conductors and well-behaving ships' crew with
such premiums as we shall find their good service to have merited, upon
which you all may depend. Likewise you are to fix a competent premium to
those who first shall perceive an unknown country, island, shoal, rock,
or dangerous foul ground, in order to avoid as much as possible all
misfortunes.

To prevent any other European nation from reaping (perhaps) the fruits of
our labour and expenses in these discoveries you are everywhere to take
possession, in the name and by the orders of the Dutch East India
Company, of the countries and islands you may arrive at not inhabited by
savages; to put up some signs, for instance, plant trees, sow some fruit
trees, erect a stone or post, and to cut or carve in them the arms of the
Netherlands or of the Company, and in what year and at what time such a
land was discovered and taken in possession, declaring further in
intention by the first opportunity to send people thither from hence, and
to establish a colony to secure the property near to us.

But if it happens (which is not unlikely) that you discover some
countries or islands that may have a polished government you are to
endeavour with its chiefs or governors (in the name as above) to make
contract upon the most advantageous terms you possibly can obtain,
including a resignation (if they are inclined to do such) or permission
to frequent the place exclusive of all other nations; or other advantages
for the Company; all which you must note down circumstantially in your
journals, expressing the names and qualities of those whom you shall have
treated, to serve the Company when it may be wanted.

In order this dangerous voyage, according to these instructions and our
good intentions, may be well regulated and finished, good order kept
among the crew, right and justice administered conformable to the general
articles; and everything (which upon so dangerous and long a voyage may
happen to be required) be done and transacted to the greatest service of
the Company; we appoint by this the Honourable Abel Jansz Tasman
commodore of the three yachts and the crew which sail with them; we
authorise him to hoist the pendant on board the yacht Limmen, to assemble
the council, and whereof he is to be constantly president: command in
consequence the officers, soldiers and sailors (nobody excepted)
appointed upon the yachts Limmen, De Zeemeuw, and De Brak, to acknowledge
and obey him as their chief and commander; to support him by good advice
and assiduity, to the forwarding of the voyage and the ordered discovery
of the unknown countries, as is the duty of vigilant and faithful
servants, in such a manner as, upon return, everyone may be able to
answer.

The council of the three yachts shall consist of the following persons:--

The commodore           Abel Jansz Tasman    Constantly President
The skipper chief pilot Francois Jacobs,     of the Limmen
The skipper             Dirk Cornelisz Haan) of the Zeemeuw
Supercargo              Isaac Gissmans     )
The skipper             Jasper Jansz Koops   of the Brak.
Cryn Henderiskz,        First mate           of the Limmen
Carsten Jurjansz [*]    First mate           of the Zeemeuw
Cornelis Robol          First mate           of the Brak
The junior merchant     Anthony Blauw        as councillor or secretary

[* Jurjansz signifies George's son, as Jansz signifies John's son;
Cornelisz, Cornelius's son, etc.]

By this council shall all occurring business towards forwarding the
voyage, fulfilling our orders, and administering of justice, be concluded
upon and transacted: if it so happen there is an equal number of votes
the commodore is to have two votes; but in cases of navigation and
discovery of countries the second mates shall also assist with advising
votes, all which the commodore shall collect, and determine by the
majority of the concluding votes, taking care to have all resolutions
instantly truly registered and strictly complied with the service of the
Company.

In the council of each particular yacht the junior merchant or bookkeeper
and high boatswains shall be called as directed in the orders of our
masters.

If the commodore Tasman (which God forbid) should decease such a person
shall succeed him as in our sealed act is nominated, which in every
respect conformable to this instruction in manner his predecessor
commanded, and (as is right) he shall be obeyed.

The yachts are manned with 111 persons, and amongst them one officer and
16 soldiers. Namely:

In the Limmen:  45 sailors, 11 soldiers; in all 56 persons.
In the Zeemeuw: 35 sailors,  6 soldiers; in all 41 persons.
In the Brak:    14 sailors,  0 soldiers; in all 14 persons.
                -------------------------------------------
                94 sailors, 17 soldiers: total 111 persons.

All well provided with all necessary ammunition, tools, and utensils, and
for eight months plentifully victualled. Manage everything well and
orderly, take notice you see the ordinary portion of two meat and two
pork days, and a quarter of vinegar, a half quarter of sweet oil per
week, and a half quarter of arrack per day regularly distributed. Each
yacht carries a leaguer and 120 quarts of strong arrack (the Brak is
provided from the Zeemeuw) which must be carefully distributed in the
cold climate for the health of the people. Notwithstanding you are
plentifully stocked with waterbuts manage particularly fresh water and
fuel to prevent wanting it; as you would then be obliged to search after
it, to the retarding of your voyage, or return without success, to your
shame and the great detriment of the Company, which has been at great
expense in equipping these yachts; and for these reasons, by industry and
prudence, ought to be prevented from suffering.

We give then no further instruction and leave to your and the council's
good conduct and advice what you will have more to do upon this voyage;
only recommending seriously in all emergencies to use such prudence as
may keep the Company's valuable ships and people out of all dangers as
much as can be done. For the better to answer this purpose we do not
approve the commodore much to leave shipboard, but to stay in the yacht,
unless (with advice of the council) the Company's service may require the
contrary in order to avoid the object being neglected by any unforeseen
misfortune in this important voyage.

To conclude this instruction we wish you the protection and blessings of
Omnipotence, which we pray to inspire you with manly courage for the
intended discoveries, and after finishing to return in safety, to the
expanding of His glory, reputation to the mother country, the service of
the Company, our contentment, and to your own everlasting honour.

Out of the castle, Batavia, this 29th day of January, 1644, signed,

ANTONIO VAN DIEMEN, CORNELIS VAN DER LYN, JOAN MAATSUIKER, JUSTUS
SCHOUTEN, and SALOMON SWEERS.

* * * * *

Southland sealed-up Commission for the Successor of the Commodore Abel
Jansz Tasman, in case of his Decease.

In consideration of the uncertainty of life in the human race, and the
disorders which many times arise from the loss of those in command, and
to prevent as much as possible all evil, we have found good to order, as
we do by this: that if the skipper, commodore Abel Jansz Tasman, upon
this voyage of discovery should decease (which God forbid) the skipper of
the yacht the Zeemeuw, Dirk Cornelisz Haan, shall succeed in his place,
shall be acknowledged and obeyed as chief, and receive and follow this
our instruction given to Tasman as given to himself.

In this case, for the service of the Company, is this our meaning and
desire.

Out of the castle, Batavia, day and date as above.


* * * * * * * *


THE VOYAGE AND SHIPWRECK OF CAPTAIN FRANCIS PELSART, IN THE BATAVIA, ON
THE COAST OF NEW HOLLAND, AND HIS SUCCEEDING ADVENTURES.

The Directors of the East India Company, encouraged by the successful
return of the five ships of General Carpenter richly laden caused eleven
vessels to be equipped the very same year 1628, for the same voyage:
amongst which, there was one ship called the "Batavia", commanded by
Captain Francis Pelsart. He sailed from the Texel on the 28th of October,
1628; and as it would be tedious to the reader to give him a long account
of a passage so well known as that to the Cape of Good Hope, I shall pass
over in silence that portion of his journal, and content myself with
observing, that on the 4th of June in the following year, 1629, this
vessel the Batavia being separated from the fleet in a storm, was driven
on some rocks which lie in the latitude of 28° south, and which
are called by the Dutch the Abrolhos of Frederick Houtman. Captain
Pelsart, who was sick in bed when this accident happened, perceived at
once that his ship had struck. It was night indeed; but the moon shone
very brightly, and the weather was fair. He immediately ran upon deck,
and found that all the sails were set; their course was north-east by
north; and the sea appeared covered with a white froth as far as the eye
could reach. He summoned the master, and charged him with the loss of the
ship; who excused himself by saying, he had taken all the care he could;
and that, having discerned the froth at a distance, he asked his
shipmate, what he thought of it; who told him, that this whiteness was
occasioned by the rays of the moon. The captain then asked him what was
to be done; and in what part of the world they were. The master replied,
that God only knew that, and that the ship was on an unknown reef. They
sounded, and found eighteen feet of water abaft, and much less foreward.
They immediately agreed to throw their cannon overboard, in hopes that,
when the ship was lightened she might be brought to float again. They
dropped an anchor, however; but meanwhile there arose a storm of wind and
rain, which soon convinced them of the danger they were in; for, being
surrounded with rocks and shoals, the ship was perpetually striking.

They then resolved to cut away the mainmast, which they did, but this
increased the shock; for though they cut the mast close by the board,
they could not get it clear, because it was much entangled with the
rigging. They could see no land, except an island, which, as far as they
could judge, was at about the distance of three leagues, and two smaller
islands, or rather rocks, which lay nearer. The master was sent to
examine them. He returned about nine in the morning, and reported that
the sea, at high water did not cover them; but that the coast was so
rocky and full of shoals, that it would be very difficult to land upon
them. They resolved, however, to run the risk, and to send most of their
company on shore, to pacify the women, children, sick people, and
such as were out of their wits with fear, whose cries and noise served
only to disturb them. They put these on board their shallop and skiff;
and about ten o'clock in the morning, they perceived that their vessel
began to break. They redoubled their exertions to get up their bread upon
deck, but they did not take the same care of the water, not reflecting,
in the extremity of their danger that they might be much distressed for
want of it on shore; but what embarrassed them most was the brutal
behaviour of some of the crew who made themselves so drunk with the wine
upon which no check was now kept that they were able to make only three
trips that day, in which they landed one hundred and eighty persons,
twenty barrels of bread, and some small casks water. The master returned
on board towards evening, and told the captain, that it was of no use to
send more provisions on shore, for the crew only wasted those they had
already. Pelsart then went in the shallop to put things in some order,
and discovered there was no water to be found upon the island. He
endeavoured to return to the ship, in order to bring off a supply,
together with the most valuable part of their cargo; but a storm suddenly
arising, he was forced to return.

The whole of the fifth day of the month was spent in removing the water,
and some of the merchandise, on shore; and afterwards, the captain in
the skiff and the master in the shallop endeavoured to return to the
vessel, but found the sea running so high, that it was impossible to get
on board. In this extremity the carpenter threw himself out of the
ship, and swam to them in order to inform them to what hardships those
left in the vessel were reduced; and he was sent back, with orders for
them to make rafts, by tying the planks together, and endeavour on these,
to reach the shallop and the skiff; but before this could be done, the
weather became so rough, that the captain was obliged to return, leaving,
with the utmost grief, his lieutenant and seventy men on the very point of
perishing on board the vessel. Those who had reached the little island
were not in much better condition; for, upon taking an account of the
water, they found they had not above eighty pints for forty people; and
on the larger island, where there were one hundred and eighty, the stock
was still less. Those who were on the little island began to murmur, and
to complain of their officers, because they did not go in search of water
on the neighbouring islands; and they represented the necessity of this
to Captain Pelsart, who yielded to their remonstrances, but told them
that before he went, he wished to communicate this resolution to the rest
of the people. It was with difficulty that he gained their consent to
this, for the master was afraid that the other party would keep the
captain with them. At length they consented, but not till the captain had
declared, that without the consent of the company on the large island
that he should go in search of water, he would, rather than leave them,
perisn on board his ship. When he got near to the island, he who
commanded the boat told the captain, that if he had anything to say, he
must call out to the people; for that they would not suffer him to go out
of the boat; the captain then attempted to throw himself overboard, in
order to swim to the island; but he was prevented, and the order was
given to pull off from the shore. Thus he was obliged to return, having
first left these words written on a leaf of a tablet, that he was gone in
the skiff to look for water in the nearest country or islands that he
could find.

They first sought along the coasts of the islands and certainly found
water in the holes of the rocks, but the sea had dashed into it, and
rendered it unfit for use; they therefore determined to seek farther
on. They made a deck to their boat, as it would have been impracticable
to navigate those seas in an open vessel. A few more of the crew
joined themselves to the company for the same purpose; and after the
captain had obtained the signatures of his people to that resolution,
they immediately put to sea, having first taken an observation, by which
they found themselves in latitude 28° 13' south. A short time afterwards,
they had sight of the continent, which appeared, according to their
estimation, to lie about sixteen miles north by west from the place where
they had suffered shipwreck. They found the water about twenty-five or
thirty fathoms deep; and, as night drew on, kept out to sea, standing in
for the land again after midnight. On the morning of the 9th (of June)
they found themselves according to their reckoning, about three miles
from the shore; this day they made four or five miles by many tacks,
sailing sometimes north, sometimes west, the coast lying north-quarter-west,
the coast appearing low, naked and excessively rocky, being nearly of the
same height as that near Dover. At last they saw a little creek, with
sandy bottom, into which they were anxious to enter, but upon approaching
it, they found that the sea ran high, and the weather becoming more
threatening, they were obliged to haul off the coast.

On the 10th, they remained in the same parts, tacking first on one side
and then on the other, but the sea being still rough they determined to
abandon their shallop, and even to throw a part of the bread which
remained in the vessel overboard, since it hindered them from clearing
themselves of the water, which the vessel made upon every side. It rained
much that night, and afforded them hopes that their people who remained
upon the islands would derive great relief therefrom. On the eleventh
day, the wind, which was west-south-west, began to sink, and they steered
their course towards the north, for the sea, which still ran high,
obliged them to keep at a distance from the land.

On the 12th, they made an observation by which they found themselves in
the latitude of 27°. The wind being south-east, they bordered the
coast, but were unable to land on account of its steepness, there being
no creek or low land, in advance of the rocks as is usually found on sea
coasts. From a distance, the country appeared fertile and full of
vegetation. On the 13th, they found themselves by observation in the
latitude of 25° 40'; by which they discovered that the current had
carried them towards the north, and over against an opening, the coast
lying to the north-east. This day their course lay towards the north, but
the coast presented one continuous rock of red colour, and of an equal
height, without any land in advance and the waves broke against it with
such force that it was impossible for them to land.

The wind blew very fresh on the morning of the 14th but towards noon it
became calm, the latitude being 24°, and the wind at east, but the tide
still carried them farther north than they desired, for their design was
to make a descent as soon as possible; with which view they sailed slowly
along the coast, till, perceiving smoke at a distance, they rowed towards
the spot from whence it proceeded, hoping to find inhabitants, and
consequently water. They found the coast steep, full of rocks, and the
sea very high, which caused them to lose all hope of effecting a landing.
At length, six of the men, trusting to their skill in swimming, threw
themselves into the sea, and at last, with much trouble and danger they
reached the shore the boat remaining at anchor in twenty-five fathoms of
water. These men passed the entire day in seeking for water; and, whilst
thus employed, they perceived four men, who approached them upon
all-fours; but one of our people advancing towards them on rising ground,
they immediately raised themselves and took to flight, so that they were
distinctly seen by those who were in the skiff. These people were savages
black and quite naked not having so much even as the covering worn by
nearly all other savage people. The sailors, having no longer any hope of
finding water there, swam on board again, wounded and bruised by the
blows which they received from the waves and rocks.

The anchor being weighed they continued their course along the shore, in
the hopes of finding some spot more adapted for landing.

On the 15th, in the morning, they discovered a cape, from the point of
which there ran a reef or chain of rocks a mile into the sea, whilst
another reef extended itself along the coast. As the sea there appeared
but little agitated, they ventured between the rocks, but found that they
formed only a cul-de-sac, and that there was no place for exit. About
noon, they saw another opening, where the sea was smooth, but it appeared
dangerous to attempt it, there being no more than two feet of water and
many stones. In front of the whole length of this coast is a table of
sand one mile in breadth. As soon as they landed they fell to digging
wells in this advanced coast, but the water which they found there was
brackish. At length, they discovered some soft rain water in the clefts
of the rocks, which was a great relief to them, for they were dying of
thirst, having had for some days previously, little more than half a pint
of water apiece. Of this, they collected during the night that they
remained there about twenty gallons. It was evident that some savages had
been there a short time before, as they found the remains of crayfish and
some ashes.

On the morning of the 16th, they resolved to return again to the shore,
in the hopes of being able to collect a greater quantity of water from
the rocks, since there remained no chance of their finding it elsewhere.
But no rain had fallen for some time, for they discovered no more, and
the land which they found beyond the rocks that skirted the coast held
out no promise to them. The country was flat, without vegetation or
trees, with nothing in view but anthills, and these so large that, from a
distance, they were taken to be the habitations of the Indians. They
found there such a wonderful quantity of flies, that they were compelled to
defend themselves from them. At some distance they perceived eight savages,
each of whom carried a club in his hand; these came up within musket shot,
but when they saw our people advancing to meet them, they took to flight.
At length, finding that there was no longer hope of obtaining water our
people determined about mid-day to leave the coast, and accordingly
departed by another opening in this reef, more to the northward. Finding
by observation that they were in 22° 17', they formed the idea of
seeking the river of Jacob Remmessens, but the wind blowing from the
north-east, they found they could no longer follow the coast; when,
taking into consideration that they were distant more than one hundred
miles from the place of shipwreck, and that they had with difficulty
found sufficient water for their subsistance, they resolved to make the
best of their way to Batavia, to inform the governor to their misfortune,
and to solicit assistance for the people they had left in the islands.

On the 17th, they were prevented by fog from taking an observation at
mid-day, but, by their reckoning, they made ten miles upon a wind,
west-north-west; the weather rough with much rain and wind which, towards
mid-day, veered north-east slightly towards the north, their course lying
to the west. The same weather continued the whole of the 19th, so that
they were again unable to take an observation; but by their reckoning
they made about seven leagues, their course lying north-north-east, and
the wind being due west.

On the 20th, they found themselves by an observation in 19° 22½ of
latitude, having made by reckoning, twenty-two miles, their course lying
northerly, and the wind west south-west, fresh, with a slight rain.

On the 21st, they reckoned to have made twenty-three miles in a northerly
direction, the wind varying from south-west to southeast, sometimes
fresh, followed by a calm.

An observation on the 22nd showed them to be in latitude 16° 10', which
greatly surprised them, as they could not imagine how, in so short a
time, they had been enabled to pass so many degrees; the current
apparently carried them strongly towards the north. By their reckoning
they were found to have made twenty-four miles, the course northerly,
with a fresh breeze at times from the southeast. They found it impossible
to take observation upon the 23rd, but by their reckoning, they had made
sixteen miles, their course lying north by west, the wind this day
sometimes veering from east to west, weather variable, rainy and
occasionally calm. In the evening the wind stood at south south-east.

On the 24th, the weather was dry, fresh, with the wind southeast by
south. About mid-day they found themselves in latitude 13° 10', the
course twenty-five miles north by west.

On the 25th, the wind blew from the south-east, the weather dry and
fresh, and the latitude 13° 30'. This day they had advanced by their
reckoning thirty-one miles, north by west, and saw much sea weed.

The 26th day they were in latitude 9° 56', the wind south-east, and the
weather dry. This day they advanced twenty-four miles in the same
direction.

On the 27th day the wind blew from the south-east, and the weather being
rainy they were unable to take an observation. After mid-day they saw the
land of Java, in latitude 8° according to their calculations, and distant
about four or five miles. They changed their course to west north-west,
hugging the coast until evening, when they discovered a point beyond
which lay an island abounding with trees. Having made for this point they
found, towards dusk, a bay, into which they entered, following a course
towards the north north-west, and casting anchor in eight fathoms water,
with a hard bottom, they passed the night there.

On the morning of the 28th, they weighed anchor, and rowed towards shore
to look for water for they were reduced to extremity by thirst. Happily
they discovered a spring at which they quenched their thirst and refilled
their casks, and towards mid-day resumed their course for Batavia.

After midnight in the second watch of the 29th, they perceived an island
before them, which they left on their starboard or right side, and at
day-break found themselves near the cove which lies upon the west side
thereof from whence they continued their course towards the west
north-west. By pursuing this route one gives a wide berth to the shore at
the bottom of this cove, but nears it again before the Trowuen Islands
are reached. About mid-day they found themselves in latitude 6° 48', and
that by reckoning they made thirty miles, the course lying west
north-west, about three o'clock in the afternoon. They passed between
these two islands, and saw upon the more westerly one a great quantity of
cocoa-nut trees. About evening they were still distant one mile from the
south point of Java, and at the third bell of the second watch found
themselves exactly between Java and Prince's Island. On the morning of the
thirtieth day they were near the coast of Prince's Island, and made only
two miles that day. Towards evening a slight breeze sprung up from
the land.

The weather moderated on the 1st of July, and at mid-day they were still
full three leagues distant from the island called Dwaers-inden-wegh[*]
the wind being inconstant. About evening the wind blew from the north-west,
so that they gained the island of which I speak. The night was calm, and
they were constrained to row.

[*1) "Dwaers-inden-wegh" signifies the island which lies across the path,
i.e. Thwart-the-way Island.]

On the morning of the second, being opposite the island called
Toppers-hoetien, they were forced to remain at anchor till nigh eleven
o'clock, expecting the sea breeze; but it rose so slightly that 'they
were compelled to continue rowing, and found by the evening that they had
only advanced two miles. At sunset they perceived a sail astern opposite
to the island Dwaers-inden-wegh, whereupon they reached the coast and
cast anchor there, resolved to await its coming. When the morning came
they boarded this vessel hoping to obtain assistance and arms for their
defence against the Javanese in case they were at war with the Dutch.
They found the vessel accompanied by two others of the Company, in one of
which was Ramburgh, counsellor to the Company. Pelsart went on board this
vessel, and having recounted to him with grief the accident that had
befallen him, sailed with him to Batavia.

Whilst he is soliciting assistance, I will return to those of the crew
who remained upon the island; but I should first inform you that the
supercargo, named Jerome Cornelis, formerly an apothecary at Harlem, had
conspired with the pilot and others, when off the coast of Africa, to
obtain possession of the ship and to take her to Dunkirk, or to avail
themselves of her for the purposes of piracy. This supercargo remained
upon the wreck ten days after the vessel had struck, having discovered no
means of reaching the shore. He even passed two days upon the mainmast,
which floated, and having from thence got upon a yard, at length gained
the land. In the absence of. Pelsart he became commander, and deemed this
a suitable occasion for putting his original design into execution,
concluding that it would not be difficult to become master of that which
remained of the wreck, and to surprise the commander when he should
arrive with assistance which he had gone to Batavia to seek and
afterwards to cruise in these seas with his vessel. To accomplish this it
was necessary to get rid of those of the crew who were not of his party;
but before embruing his hands with blood, he caused his accomplices to
sign a species of compact, by which they promised fidelity one to
another. The entire crew was divided between three islands; upon that of
Cornelis, which they had named the graveyard of Batavia, was the greatest
number of men. One of them, by name Weybehays, had been dispatched to
another island to seek for water, and having discovered some after a
search of twenty days, he made the preconcerted signal by lighting three
fires, but in vain, for they were not seen by the people of cornelis's
company, the conspirators having during that time, murdered those who
were not of their party. Of these they killed thirty or forty; some few
saved themselves on pieces of wood, which they joined together, and going
in search of Weybehays informed him of the horrible massacre that had
taken place Having with him forty-five men he resolved to keep upon his
guard, and to defend himself from these assassins if they should make an
attack upon his company, which, in effect, they designed to do, and to
treat the other party in the same manner; for they feared lest their
company or that which remained upon the third island, should inform the
commander upon his arrival and thus prevent the execution of their
design. They succeeded easily with the party last mentioned, which was
the weakest killing the whole of them excepting seven children and some
women. They hoped to succeed as easily with Weybehays' company and in the
meanwhile broke open the chests of merchandise which had been saved from
the vessel. Jerome Cornelis caused clothing to be made for his company
out of the rich stuffs which he found therein, choosing to himself a body
guard, each of whom he clothed in scarlet, embroidered with gold and
silver. Regarding the women as part of the spoil, he took one for
himself, and gave one of the daughters of the minister to a principal
member of his party, abandoning the other three for public use; he drew
up also certain rules for the future conduct of his men.

After these horrible proceedings, he caused himself to be elected
captain-general by a document, which he compelled all his companions to
sign. He afterwards sent twenty-two men in two shallops to destroy the
company of Weybehays, but they met with a repulse. Taking with him
thirty-seven men he went himself against Weybehays, who received him at
the water's edge as he disembarked, and forced him to retire although he
had no other weapons but, clubs, the ends of which he had armed with
spikes. Finding force unavailing he had recourse to other means.
He proposed a treaty of peace, the chaplain who remained with
Weybehays drawing up the conditions; it was agreed to with this
proviso, that: Weybehays' company should remain unmolested, who,
upon their part, agreed to deliver up a little boat in which one
of the sailors had escaped from the island where Cornelis was
located, to that of Weybehays, receiving in return some stuffs for
clothing his people. During the negotiations Cornelis wrote to certain
French soldiers who belonged to the company, offering to each six
thousand pounds to corrupt them, with the hope that with this assistance
he might easily compass his design. His letters, which were without
effect, were shown to Weybehays, and Cornelis, who was ignorant of their
disclosure, having arrived the next day width three or four others to
find Weybehays and bring him the apparel, the latter caused him to be
attacked, killed two or three of his company, and took Cornelis himself
prisoner. One, by name Wouterlos, who escaped from this rout, returned
the following day to renew the attack, but with little success.

Pelsart arrived, during these occurrences in the frigate Sardam; as he
approached the wreck he observed smoke from a distance, rising from one
of the islands, a circumstance that afforded him great consolation, since
he perceived by it that his people were not all dead. He cast anchor, and
threw himself immediately into a skiff with bread and wine, and
proceeded to land in one of the islands. Nearly at the same time a boat
came alongside armed with four men. Weybehays, who was one of the four,
ran to him, informed him of the massacre, and advised him to return as
speedily as possible to his vessel, for that the conspirators designed
to surprise him--having already murdered twenty-five parsons--and to
attack him with two shallops; adding, that he himself had that morning
been at close quarters with them Pelsart perceived at the same time the
two shallops coming towards him, and had scarcely got on board his own
vessel before they came alongside. He was surprised to see the people
covered with embroidery of gold and silver, and weapons in their hands,
and demanded of them why they approached the vessel armed. They replied
that they would inform him when they came on board. He commanded them to
east their arms into the sea, or otherwise he would sink them. Finding
themselves compelled to submit, they threw away their weapons, and, being
ordered on board, were immediately placed i irons. One of them named Jan
de Bremen, who was the first examined, confessed that he had put to
death, or assisted in the assassination of twenty-seven persons. The
same evening Weybehays brought his prisoner on board.

On the 18th day of September, the captain and the master-pilot taking
with them ten men of Weybehays' company, passed over in boats to the
island of Cornelis. Those who still remained thereon lost all courage as
soon as they saw them alongside, and allowed themselves, to be placed in
irons. The captain's first care was to make search for the jewels, which
had been distributed here and there. The whole of these were discovered
at the first search, with the exception of a chain of gold and a ring,
the latter of which was afterwards recovered. The wreck was afterwards
visited. The vessel was broken into a hundred pieces; the keel upon one,
aground upon a sandbank, the forepart of the vessel resting upon a rock,
and other pieces scattered here and there, holding out little hope to
Pelsart of saving any part of the Company's merchandise. The steward
informed him, that about one month previous, upon the only fine day they
had had during their residence there, having gone out fishing near the
wreck, he had struck against one of the chests filled with silver with
the end of a pike.

On the 19th, they conveyed the other accomplices to the island for the
purpose of examining them.

On the 20th, they sent various necessaries to Weybehays' company, and
brought away water from them; for, after being ten days upon the island
without discovering any, they thought of tasting some which was in two
wells, but which they had believed to be salt, because it rose and fell
with the tide, but they afterwards found it to be good to drink.

On the 21st, they found the tide very low, and the wind so strong from
the east south-east, that the boat could not go out this day.

On the 22nd, they again wished to examine the wreck, but the sea broke
upon it so roughly that the swimmers themselves did not venture to
approach it.

On the 25th, the master and pilot approached it at a favourable moment,
and those who remained on shore perceiving that there was something that
they were unable to remove therefrom, sent assistance to them, the
captain going in person, and they found that the men discovered a chest
full of silver. A second chest was afterwards found, and the two were
placed on dry land; but they were unable to obtain more that day on
account of the bad weather, although the divers of Guzarat assured them
they had found six other chests which they could easily remove.

On the 26th, after they had dined, the weather being fine and the tide
very low, the master set out for the spot where the chests had been seen
and recovered three, placing an anchor and a piece of artillery to mark
the spot where a fourth remained, which after great endeavours, they
found themselves unable to move.

On the 27th, the wind blew very cold from the south.

On the 28th, the wind continued from the same quarter, and as it did not
suffer them to work near the wreck, the captain assembled a council to
advise whether he should bring the prisoners to trial there, or carry
them to Batavia, to be there tried by the officers of the Company. The
great number of them, and the temptation offered by the great treasures
which they had recovered from the wreck; and with which the frigate was
loaded caused the majority to vote for their immediate trial and
execution, which was there and then carried into effect.

* * * * * * * *

VOYAGE OF GERRIT THOMASZ POOL TO THE SOUTH LAND.
TRANSLATED FROM 'VALENTYN'S "BESCHRYVINGE VAN BANDA," p. 47.

On the 26th of March, 1636, there arrived two shallops, the Amsterdam and
the Weasel, sent from Amboina, with orders to Governor Acoley at Banda,
to give to the commander of these ships, Gerard Thomasz Pool, such
information concerning the South Land as might be necessary for him to
perform a voyage thither, under the orders of the honourable Company.

After he had received the desired instructions, and had been furnished
with sufficient provisions and other necessaries, he sailed with those
vessels on the 17th of April.

On the 30th of June following both these vessels returned, and informed
the governor that, having reached the Flat Point in about 4½°
of south latitude on the 18th of April, they had determined to send some
of their people on shore to take a view of the country. The Commander
Pool, desirous to see everything himself, resolved to be of the party and
took with him his steward, Andries Schiller, a native of Nuremberg. They
were scarcely landed, when a large body of wild Southlanders, who at
first appeared friendly, but acted afterwards in a hostile manner,
surrounded them, in so much that it was not in their power to escape. The
Commander Pool perceiving the danger greater than he at first expected,
was still in hopes to escape; but he found himself attacked one of the
first and received a blow with a hazegay, which immediately brought him
to the ground. When he recovered his senses and saw that his steward was
still defending himself, he called out to him that he would do better to
try to make his escape, as otherwise he would not be able to do it for
the savages were coming on in yet greater numbers. He did so, but was
likewise soon knocked down.

The wild Southlanders, perceiving the hanger which the Commander Pool had
in his hand, forced it from him and cut these two men to pieces, and
carried them into the wood; but it never could be discovered what they
did with them, nor what became of the two sailors who were likewise
missing.

The crew could only tell, that these Southlanders have a very black skin,
much like the Caffers of Angola, but with long black hair on their head,
and were much stouter and taller in stature than any Europeans, and quite
naked, with the exception of their middle. They also reported that one of
them, appearing to be a chief, had a rough skin of some wild beast
wrapped round his neck; and that they were armed partly with hazegays,
and a kind of javelins with sharp iron points; and partly with bows and
arrows.

* * * * * * * *

ACCOUNT OF THE WRECK OF THE SHIP "DE VERGULDE DRAECK" ON THE SOUTHLAND,
AND THE EXPEDITIONS UNDERTAKEN, BOTH FROM BATAVIA AND THE CAPE OF GOOD
HOPE, IN SEARCH OF THE SURVIVORS AND MONEY AND GOODS WHICH MIGHT
BE FOUND ON THE WRECK, AND OF THE SMALL SUCCESS WHICH ATTENDED THEM.

DRAWN UP AND TRANSLATED FROM AUTHENTIC MS. COPIES OF THE LOGBOOKS IN THE
ROYAL ARCHIVES AT THE HAGUE.

The ship De Vergulde Draeck, equipped by the Chamber of Amsterdam, having
sailed on the 4th of October, 1655, from Tessel to East India, with a
rich cargo, including 78,600 guilders in cash, in eight boxes, was
wrecked very suddenly on the 28th of April, at night, at the beginning of
the first day-watch, on the coast of the Southland, on a reef stretching
out to sea about one mile and a half, latitude 30 2/3°. Of one hundred and
ninety-three souls only seventy-five, among whom were the skipper Pieter
Aberts and the under-steersman, reached the shore alive. Nothing was
saved from the ship, which foundered and sunk at once, except a small
quantity of provisions washed on shore by the waves. The news was brought
to Batavia by one of the ship's boats, with the above-mentioned steersman
and six sailors, after beating about for a month, on the 7th of June,
with the account that the sixty-eight persons who remained behind were
exerting themselves to get their boat afloat again, which lay deeply
embedded in the sand, that they might send it also with some of their
number to Batavia. The General and Council resolved, for the rescue both
of the above-mentioned unfortunate men, and also of the Company's specie
and merchandise, to get ready without delay a quick-sailing fly-boat, the
Witte Valck, provisioned for five months, with some further supplies for
the above-mentioned men at the Southland; as also some expert divers,
with hatchets and other necessary implements. This they ordered to join
company with the yacht the Goede Hoop, then cruizing in the Straits of
Sunda, with instructions that they should both proceed together without
loss of time from the Straits southwards, as far as 32° to 33° latitude,
or until they met a strong westerly trade-wind, in which case they would
steer towards the coast of the Southland. They were, moreover, to explore
the said coast with particular attention, near the part where the ship
had been wrecked, further than it had been already known, and to lay it
down on a map, with its capes, inlets, bays, rocks, sands, and shoals.

The Witte Valck set sail on the 8th of June, in order to join company
with the yacht Goede Hoop, in the Sunda Straits. They sailed out
together, but returned without having succeeded in their object; the
former, on the 14th of September and the yacht a month afterwards, having
been forced by a severe storm to part company on the 18th of July, on
their way out. According to the captain's journals lying at Batavia, they
had reached the coast just in the winter time, during which season the
sea is so boisterous there, that an approach to the coast is a matter of
extreme danger. Thus, as these documents inform us, they were compelled,
after experiencing great danger and exhausting every effort, to put off
from the coast and to return to Batavia, leaving behind them eleven men
of the yacht Hoop, three of them having wandered too far into the woods
and eight having been sent in search of them, but not one of the number
returned. As the boat in which they had rowed to land was found dashed to
pieces on the shore, the whole number most probably came to an untimely
end. According to the reports which were made, some men or some signs of
the wreck had been noticed, although the Goede Hoop which had been at the
place where the ship was supposed to have been wrecked, gave a different
statement.

Subsequently the commander at the Cape of Good Hope, according to
instructions sent to him, gave orders in the year 1657 to the fly-boat
Vinck bound thence to Batavia, to touch en passant at the same place
where the above-mentioned disaster had occurred, that search might be
made for the unfortunate men. But his vessel also having arrived at the
unfavourable season; found no means of landing either with fly-boat or
boat, so as to make 'a proper search. According to its reports, having,
on the 8th of June; 1657 during the daytime, seen signs of land in 29@ 7'
south latitude, and the weather being very favourable, they anchored at
night in twenty-five fathoms water, the bottom being coarse sand mixed
with coral. In the morning, when day dawned, they saw the surf breaking
over the reef at, the foot of which they lay, and on One side of them the
Southland, presenting a low sandy shore, on which their anchor, lifted.
They continued their course along the coast in order to observe the land,
which was still kept in sight the following day. The weather, however,
became so boisterous, and the breakers roiled all along-the coast with
such violence, that they were compelled to put out a little further to
sea, yet, throughout the 10th and 11th of June, they still followed the
coast line in forty or fifty fathoms water. However, the chance of landing
grew gradually less as they proceeded, for the weather continued stormy
with thunder and lightning, so that it became necessary to get clear of
the coast. They allowed their ship to drive before the wind under bare
poles until the 12th, when they loosened sail a little, the wind shifting
between S., S.S.W., and S.S.E., and stood out towards Batavia, where they
arrived on the 27th.

Notwithstanding all this, and although, as the statement of the General
and Council shows, the rescue of these men seemed hopeless since it was
evident that they must either have perished from hunger and misery, or
been murdered by the barbarous natives; they resolved afterwards, as
there might be still some hope left, however small, to despatch, for a
third time, two galliots, the Waeckende Boey and Emeloort, the former
with a crew of forty, the latter of twenty-five men, provisioned for six
months. They set sail from Batavia on the 1st of January, 1658, with
distinct orders both as to how to reach the Southland and as to their
conduct during the voyage: amongst them these, that after passing the
Straits of Sunda they should steer towards the S.W., and as much further
south, as the wind would allow, so as to meet the S.E. trade winds, when
they would proceed at once as far southwards as they could be crowding
all sail until the west winds were encountered, when again they should
immediately steer as much south as east, in that, without loss of time
and before encountering land they might reach the latitude of 32° to 33,
when directing their course eastwards, they should make the attempt to
land at the Southland. It was enjoined that every possible precaution
should be used, as the coast in that quarter was not much known or
properly explored. It was added, that their arrival would be in summer or
the most favourable season of the year; with other matters set forth in
the instructions given to them by the General and Council on the last day
of December, 1657. On the 19th of April they returned to Batavia, having
each of them separately, after parting company by the way, sailed
backwards and forwards again and again, and landed parties at several
points along the coast. They had also continually fired signal guns night
and day, without, however, discovering either any Dutchmen or the wreck
of the vessel. The only things seen were some few planks and blocks, with
a piece of the mast, a taffrail, fragments of barrels, and other objects
scattered here and there along the coast, and supposed to be remnants of
the wreck. The crew of the Emeloort also saw at different points five
black men of extremely tall stature, without however daring to land
there. Thus of this expedition again the only result was, that the
crew of the Waeckende Boey abandoned a boat with fourteen of their
comrades, including the upper steersman, and that in a manner but
too reckless as it afterwards proved and as we shall presently show.
The boat having been sent to land, and not returning within
twenty-four hours, they concluded that it must have been dashed against
the cliffs and all hands perished; the more so as, on returning to the
same place five days afterwards, and firing several signal-guns
landwards, no men or signs of men were seen. But from the report of four
of their number who afterwards arrived at Japara by way of Mataram, it
appeared that the unfortunate men, seeing themselves abandoned by their
ship and finding no other resource left, resolved at last to steer for
the coast of Java. Accordingly having repaired their boat, as best they
might, with sealskins, and provided themselves with a little water and
seals' flesh, they set out on the 10th of April and arrived on the 28th
of the same month on the south side of that island. But of their number
at that time eleven only remained, three having perished of thirst on the
way, whilst four others in the first instance, and afterwards two, who
had been made to swim ashore in search of water had not returned, either
from obstinacy or because they were killed by the natives. On the
following day, the boat was dashed to pieces on the beach by a heavy sea
when the above four men, without having met either with the seven
above-mentioned or any other men, took their way westward along the coast
and continued to march for two months in a very weak and exhausted
condition, until they at last met with men who brought them to Mataram.

Among the number of those who returned was the upper steersman, Abraham
Leeman van Santwigh. Of the remaining seven nothing more was heard.

It afterwards appeared from the diaries of the before-mentioned galliots
that, notwithstanding the strong injunctions to that effect laid down in
their instructions, proper care had not been taken by them to keep
together, so as to render assistance to each other in case of accident
and to combine in using the most effectual means for landing and
exploring the coast.

The Fiscal of India was ordered to consult further with the Council of
Justice on the subject, but the General and Council were of opinion that
the unfortunate men from the ship De Draeck must one and all have perished
long ago, since no traces of them had been discovered throughout the whole
length of the coast. Consequently all thoughts of any further special
expeditions were given up, the more so as the two former ones had proved
so disastrous. Orders, however, were given that any galliot or light
fly-boat should seize any opportunity of touching there in favourable
weather once more on their way from this country, to see if any clue to
the missing men might perchance be found.

The log-books of the galliots were sent over, together with an extract
from that of the fly-boat Elburgh, as far as related to the Southland,
together with the small charts of the coast.

We shall now enter into a few further particulars with a view to the
fuller elucidation of the subject. According to the journal of Aucke
Pietersz Jonck, skipper of the galliot Emeloort, they sighted land while
at a distance of four miles from the shore, on the 8th of March, at 300
25' south latitude, the south point lying E.S.E., and the north point
N.E. by N. They also saw smoke rising towards the E.S.E., whereupon they
fired three guns and hoisted a large flag on the mainmast. At night a
fire was again seen at N.E. by E.

On the 9th, a fire on shore was again seen and answered with a signal of
three guns and the boat was launched with a crew of nine hardy men and
the steersman, provisioned for eight days; on their approach the smoke or
fire disappeared, whereupon they returned on board. This fire was at a
distance of two miles from the former one. Nine signal-guns were then
fired from the ship, and afterwards three at night. A light was also hung
aloft during the night but no signs were observed on land.

On the 10th, the boat was again sent ashore and a large fire again seen
on the beach, at the same place as on the previous day upon which a gun
was fired every hour from the ship and a flag hoisted. About two hours
elapsed before the boat could reach the shore. Fires at four different
points were again seen from the ship during the night, one of which
continued burning throughout the night, and several musket-shots were
fired.

The boat's crew related that they had come across three huts, and had
encountered five persons of tall stature and imposing appearance, who
made signs to them to approach; this, however, from distrust of their
intentions, they did not venture to do. On their returning again to the
boat these people followed them down to the beach, but were afraid to
enter the boat. Much brushwood was seen on shore by this party and
in some places crops of growing grain which they set fire to, also
portions of land under cultivation; no fruits, however, were
noticed, but merely a few herbs of an agreeable smell. Further
inland they saw neither fresh water nor trees, but numerous sandy downs;
at night also many fires. After having gone three miles along the shore
as well as inland without meeting any misadventure, they again proceeded
with the ship under sail, but saw no signs of anything remarkable along
the coast from latitude 33° 30' to 30° 25'. There they went again on
shore with the same result. This prolonged investigation proved
altogether fruitless with regard both to the lost ship and the crew. The
natives they encountered were men of stalwart frame, naked, and very
dark-skinned; they wore a headdress forming a kind of crown, but with no
covering on any part of their bodies except their middle. They then
returned, the crew beginning to suffer very much chiefly from sore
eyes. They left the cliff Tortelduyf on the starboard side. On the 15th of
March they saw many gulls, entirely black, but of small size, and on the
17th, several wag-tails. On the 26th, the point Wynkoopbergen lay to the
W.N.W. of them, distant three miles. They continued to coast along at a
distance of four, five, six or seven miles, and would have again touched
land had the weather permitted.

On the 14th of April they made for the west point of Java, and there fell
in again with the Waeckende Boey, which had lost its boat and schuyt and
fourteen men, and had got some timber from the Vergulde Draeck at 31°
15' south latitude, without having perceived anything else.

Further, from the journal of the Waeckende Boey it appears, that having
arrived on the 23rd of February 1658, at 31° 40', they saw
land at a distance of eight miles from them, bore down upon it and found
it to be an island about three miles distant from the mainland. On the
24th, they came to anchor in seventeen fathoms water and launched the
boat, there being a bar between the ship and the shore. On the 25th, they
still lay at 31° 20'.

On the 26th, on the return of the boat from the shore, the steersman
reported many signs of the lost ship Draeck, but neither footpaths no any
places where traces of human beings had been left were discovered,
notwithstanding they had been in all directions both inland and along the
coast. They further reported that wood and other objects, portions of
boxes, etc., a barrel, and other things had been found; also a number
of pieces of plank, standing upright in a circle. Having weighed anchor
they sailed along the coast, and on that occasion their schuyt had
capsized and lost.

On the 27th, when about two miles from the coast, latitude 31° 14
minutes, the boat was sent on shore, and returned with the report that
nothing had been observed but a reef about 2/3 (of a mile?) off the coast
seawards.

On the 28th, having arrived at 30° 40', and several fires
having been seen on land, the boat was again sent out. The steersman
reported that nothing had been observed but a great smoke, and that they
had been unable to land with the boat owing to the violence of the surf.
Having descried the Emeloort in the offing, they returned with her.

March 2nd, at 30° 6', the Emeloort was separated from them
in the night and was lost sight of. On the 5th, they were driven by
stormy weather round the south.

The weather continuing cold and wet, they resolved to serve out extra
rations of rum to each man.

On the 8th, the weather grew grey and cold. They supposed themselves to
be in 31° 47'. The 18th, saw land to the eastward, being about 31° 49'.
At sunset they came to anchor under a north-easterly point of the island,
half a mile from land.

On the 19th, a boat was put off in the direction of the island; the
steersman reported its being well wooded, but that no good landing place
had been met with, the coast being surrounded by rocky reefs.

Two seals were seen there also one wild cat, and the excrements of other
animals. On the 20th, a boat was sent on shore well-manned; the following
day several signal-guns were fired, and in the evening the boat returned
to the ship bringing with it a piece of the mast of the Draeck, and again
returning to land after taking in a supply of provisions, brought back a
part of the round-top, a block, and other trifling objects.

On the 22nd, they again sent to shore. At night it blew hard, the waves
running very high. A gun was fired and a light hung out as a guide to the
boat on its return. They ran great risk of driving upon the rocks. At
midnight, the cable parting, another anchor was dropped.

On the 23rd, the weather being still boisterous, and they themselves in
great distress and nothing seen of the boat, fears were entertained that
it might have capsized or been dashed against the rocks. They were
afterwards compelled to cut their cable and run out to sea.

On the 27th, they sighted the island again, and ran so near the coast
that they might have been seen by a man on the beach. Several guns were
fired toward the place where the boat had last gone to land, but neither
sign nor sound being observed, it was taken for certain that they had
been lost, and resolved that they should sail along the coast toward
Batavia. The fire was again seen at dusk close to the sea-line which they
supposed to have been lighted by the crew of the Draeck or the Waeckende
Boey, as no such fire had been seen before. A gun was fired, whereupon
another fire close to the first became visible. But having neither boat
nor schuyt, it was impossible to land and equally so to come to anchor
the bottom being coral-rock.

On the 29th, they found themselves at some distance to the north of the
point where the fire was seen. The coast became more level as they
proceeded, and they sailed along the shore till sunset, when they again
ran further out to sea; in the course of the second watch they passed the
Tortelduyf cliff, the surf breaking on it being plainly visible.

On the 30th, the weather not permitting them to run close in, they
remained at some distance off shore. On the 31st, they were distant five
miles from the Dirck Hertogs Reede, and on April 10th arrived at Java.[*]

[*) From another extract from these MS. logbooks at the Hague,
which was made at the editor's request, there was an additional
observation of importance which is here omitted. Three times
Captain Jonck speaks of a southern current running along
the coast, which struck his attention in these seas. Among
other passages he speaks of it in these terms: "We had deviated
from our course fifteen minutes to the south, and this we
attributed to a southern current, which we have observed several
times on this coast, which is a strange thing, the [ship?] being
drawn by the current in spite of the wind and the waves."
Elsewhere he estimates the force of this current at ten miles in
the twenty-four hours.]

From the journal of the above-mentioned Abraham Leeman, steersman of the
Waeckende Boey, it appears that they first sighted the Southland on the
22nd of Jebruary, 1656, went several times on shore with the boat, and on
one occasion, on the 20th of March, having again landed, they went inland
in a northerly direction and in searching along the beach found there
pieces of plank, lids of boxes, staves of water-barrels and butter-casks,
and other objects of trifling importance The heat on that day was
excessive, so much so that one of the men fainted. They also found similar
planks, staves, etc., in an enclosure. They then encountered a heavy
sea; which prevented their returning on board their vessel, and
were obliged to sail along the cliffs in the utmost peril. Owing to the
dangerous nature of the coast they were obliged to keep themselves alive
by eating seals' flesh, gulls, etc., and from want of fresh water, they
were compelled to supply its place by sea-water and their own urine. At
last they were compelled to undertake a perilous voyage across the ocean
in their little shallop, and at length reached Batavia by way of Mataram
and Japara.

Moreover the General and Council recount, in their general letter of the
14th of December, 1658, that the fly-boat Elburg, when on its way hence,
had come upon the Southland in 31½° latitude, and had been obliged, on
account of wind and the heavy sea, to anchor about two miles and a half
off the coast in twentytwo fathoms water, not without great danger.
Twelve days afterwards they again got into open sea; and in latitude 33°
14' found a commodious anchorage under a projecting corner of the island
in twenty fathoms water. The skipper, steersman, with the sergeant and
six soldiers went ashore and found three black men round a fire, dressed
in skins, like the native of the Cape of Good Hope. They could not
however get to speak to them. Three small hammers were also found there,
with wooden handles and heads of hard stone fastened to the stem by a
sort of gum-lack, strong enough to break a man's skull. A little further
inland stood some huts but no more men were seen. In several places they
found fresh water, and here and there a great quantity of this gum. The
small hammer brought here was found, when rubbed, to be of an agreeable
odour and of a reddish colour.

Lastly we have to notice that according to certain printed accounts, the
ship Batavia, having sailed hence to Batavia, ran very unexpectedly, on
the 4th of June of the following year, 1659 in the morning hours,
latitude 281/3, on the dangerous shoals of the Abrolhos, commonly called
with us Frederick Houtman's Cliffs, and was wrecked. The crew however
reached in safety some small islands which lay near. No fresh water was
found there, but the boat with some men having left the island, say in
24° latitude, smoke rising and observed black men on the shore.

* * * * * * * *

DESCRIPTION OF THE WEST COAST OF THE SOUTH LAND, BY THE CAPTAIN SAMUEL
VOLKERSEN, OF THE PINK, "WAECKENDE BOEY," WHICH SAILED FROM BATAVIA
ON THE FIRST OF JANUARY, 1658, AND RETURNED ON THE 19TH OF APRIL OF
THE SAME YEAR.

TRANSLATED FROM A DUTCH MS. IN THE ROYAL ARCHIVES AT THE HAGUE.

The South Land has on its coasts downs covered with grass and sand so
deep, that, in walking, one's foot is buried ankle-deep and leaves great
traces behind it. At about a league from the shore there runs a reef of
rock on which here and there the sea is seen to break with great force.
In some places there is a depth of from one, one and a half, to two
fathoms, so that a boat can pass after which the depth becomes greater up
to the shore; but it is everywhere a dangerous coral bottom, on which it
is difficult to find holding for an anchor. There is only one spot about
nine leagues to the north of the island and where three rocks are joined
by a reef that shelter is afforded for a boat, and there one can effect a
landing but the ground is everywhere rocks. Further from the coast there
is a raised ground tolerably level but of a dry and barren aspect, except
near the island, where there is some foliage In nearly 32°
south latitude. there is a large island, nearly three leagues from the
continent, with some rather high mountains, covered with wood and
thickets which render it difficult to pass across. It is dangerous to
land there on account of the reefs of rock along the coast; and moreover
one sees many rocks between the continent and this island and also a
smaller island somewhat to the south. This large island to which I have
not chosen to give a name myself thinking it right to leave the choice of
name to the Governor-general, may be seen from the sea at seven or eight
leagues distance on a clear day. I presume that both fresh water and wood
will be found there in abundance, though not without considerable
trouble.

Two certain signs of the proximity of the west coast of the South Land

1st. When a variation is perceived in the compass in these countries to
about 11°, it may be taken for certain that the land is not
more than eighteen to twenty leagues distant.

2ndly. When one sees sea-weed floating, soundings will be found in 70,
60, 50, 40, 30 fathoms, or even less.

(Signed) Samuel Volckersen.

* * * * * * * *

EXTRACT TRANSLATED FROM BURGOMASTER WITSEN'S "NOORD EN OOST TARTARYE"
FOL., AMST.,1705, p. 163.


"The north-west part of New Guinea, in 1½° south latitude, and beyond
it to the south-east, was for the Dutch East India Company and found
almost everywhere to be enriched with very fine rivers, lakes, bays,
etc., but, judging from its outward aspect, the country itself seems to
be barren and uncultivated, being in few spots either planted or fenced
in. In many parts of the interior there are extremely high mountains,
which are seen by sailors at a great distance at sea as if towering above
the clouds. The air is not very mild, but very often damp and foggy, so
much so that most frequently in the afternoons the land is entirely
hidden which has caused the Dutch east India Company the loss of many
ships.

"About the north-western parts the natives are in general lean and of the
middle size, jet black, not unlike the Malabars, but the hair of the head
shorter and somewhat less curly than the Caffres. In the black pupil of
their eyes gleams a certain tint of red, by which may in some measure be
observed that bloodthirsty nature of theirs which has at different times
caused us so much grief, from the loss of several of our young men whom
they have surprised, murdered, carried into the woods, and then devoured.

"They go entirely naked without the least shame, except their rajah or
petty kings, and their wives, which are not native Papoos but mostly
Ceram-Mestinzoes, and are richly dressed after the mann er of Ceram.
Their weapons are bows of bamboo, with arrows of the same, to whose ends
are fastened sharp pointed fish bones with dangerous barbs, which when
shot into the body cannot be extracted without great difficulty. They
likewise use lances made of certain heavy wild Penang wood; these they
throw at their mark with great accuracy at a distance of six or seven
fathoms. Some living near the shcre use a certain kind of swords sold to
them by the people of Ceram, the hilt of which is tied to their hand by a
rattan.

"Of their manners and religion, nothing else can be said than that,
in many respects, they are more like wild beasts than reasonable
human beings. Their women are delivered in the fields or roads, or
wherever they may happen to be taken in labour. After the birth they
instantly put the infant in a bag in which they carry their provisions
made of beaten bark of a tree. The women of the better class rub their
faces with bruised coals, by which they make themselves look more like
devils incarnate than human creatures; though it cannot be denied that
they seem to possess a law of nature, a knowledge of the existence of a
God, which they show by pointing with folded hands towards the heavens.
For when any one lands at any place frequented by these people of Ceram,
they require of us to raise our hands as they do: and with a sharp bamboo
they cut both their own arms and those of their visitors. The mutual
sucking of the blood from these wounds constitutes their oath, and
implies a promise to do each other no mischief. Amongst them are found
some letters or characters written with a sort of red chalk on a rock. On
this rock also were still to be seen some skulls and the bust of a man
looking as if put up as an ornament, with a shield and other weapons near
it, the meaning of all which may be guessed at but not fixed with
certainty.

"Their food consists of roots, tree fruits, herbs etc., but chiefly fish,
caught by them at low water in holes in the bed of the river, as we, when
lying at anchor thereabouts, could distinctly see by the motion of the
thousands of little lights which they used. They know very little of
cooking or drying their food, but generally eat it raw except pork which
they eat when it has been a little smoked and is less than half roasted.

"In about 8° or 9° south latitude, we found a tall, terrible, and
disgusting race of people whose chiefs have the inside of the upper lip
slit from the nose downwards, the two parts being kept asunder by what
they call a gabbe-gabbe. The two sides of the nose also are bored through
with sasappen, or thin awls, which gives their voices a frightful and
hollow sound, as if coming out of a deep cellar.

"It is believed that Nova Guinea is divided from Hollandia Nova or the
south land at about the latitude of 10° south. Of the country further
south we have up to the present day no certain information except that
supplied by Abel Tasman, who sailed round the whole land and the coasts
of the Dutch East India Company's possessions And who testifies to have
found trees (beams) in which at intervals footsteps were cut to climb
up by, about seven feet apart, and also with footsteps in the sand
about fourteen or fifteen Dutch inches long, and every footstep six
or six and a half feet from the other. I am informed by a mate who
about thirty ox thirty-four years ago, list his ship on the most
westerly promontory of the south land, that he with some of the
crew reached Batavia in the ship's boat, and was despatched from
thence to the place where he was shipwrecked with provisions and in order
to deliver their shipmates they left these; but they found none of then
though they saw impressions of large footsteps.[*1]

[*1) In another place Witsen says this happened in 1658, and that eighty
persons were so left behind, evidently from the crew of the Waeckende Boey,
see ante, p. 81.]

"The Ceramers are subjects and likewise allies of the Dutch Company, and
for the most part expert sailors; and by them and none else is the coast
of New Guinea visited. The inhabitants of New Guinea have for many years
suffered from the treachery and murders of this people who not by force
of arms but by cunning have subdued the Papoos. Under the cloak of
friendship they take their women (in which they are not very choice) for
wives and the children thus born, being very carefully instructed in the
Mahomedan faith, are easily able to control these simple inhabitants of
the woods. By this connection also the Ceramers, having gained the
attachment of the women, always know how to escape the evil intentions
which for all that the Papoos cannot restrain themselves from trying to
put in practice against their visitors.

"The fruits of the country of New Guinea are very few, consisting chiefly
in some few yams, cocoa nuts, betal nuts, and plantain trees, which are
planted here and there, in the neighbourhood of their own places by the
Ceramers. The land does not seem to bring forth any wild plants; the
inhabitants live on leaf zajor[*1], roots trees and herbs, but the bread of
the Moluccas in general called sagou, is not produced here as far as I
could learn. Only one sort of it is brought here by the Ceramers for
their own provision, and also for barter. Fish of all sorts is everywhere
so plentiful along the shore that they may be caught with the greatest
ease in uncommon abundance; but they want nets and other fishing tackle,
though they supply this defect in a masterly manner by their art in
making their fish baskets in which at each spring tide, numbers of fish
are caught. It is not known that any large animals are found here except
hogs which are plentiful; but vermin and in particular snakes, scorpions
and millepedes, are here in great number.

[*1) So in the Dutch. The editor has been unable to identify this plant.]

"The woods are filled with a variety of birds, making all day such
uncommon noise that it is really astonishing. They are seldom if ever
shot by the inhabitants, as is sufficiently shown by their uncommon
tameness; for one being shot the other remains sitting next to it.
But our sportsmen must be careful in not entering too far into the
woods for the Papoos imitate the birds very accurately in order to
trepan and murder them, which has happened several times.

"They covet hatchets, cloaths and beads which are bartered for slaves.
When a slave is sold they cut off a lock of his hair, believing in doing
this they shall have more slaves. Those slaves are either prisoners of
war or trepanned in the woods, many of them are sold in Ternate and
thereabouts. At the first they are so greedy in their eating that they
would nearly burst if not checked in their gluttony.

"The heathens of Nova Guinea and Hollandia Nova believe there is some
divinity in the serpent for which reason they represent them upon their
vessels.

"The following is an extract from a letter written to me from Amboina, as
an account of New Guinea and Hollandia Nova otherwise called the South
Land.

"The inhabitants of all New Guinea are a tall, ugly and misshapen people
not so much by nature as choice; for they cut their nostrils asunder,
that you may nearly see into their throats from which it may be conceived
what fine faces those must be after having their promontories demolished
in this manner. They go mostly naked, except those who live upon the
islands who by their intercourse with the Ceram Lauers are become a
little more polished. Of them they get some little clothing with which
they cover themselves, though but scantily but on the continent they are
a savage barbarous people who can on no account be trusted. They are
addicted to thieving and murder so that the Ceram Lauers cannot trade
with them except at a distance. They lay their goods down upon the beach
being put up in heaps when the most venturesome among the strange traders
comes forward and makes it understood by gestures and signs how much he
wants for them. Their commerce consists in Tamboxe swords, axes to cut
the trees down, bad cloths, sagoebread, rice, and black sugar; but the
rice and black sugar must be given beforehand to induce them to trade. No
traces of government order or religion are discernible amongst them. They
live together like beasts; those upon the islands erect houses and a kind
of villages, placing their houses commonly upon posts, raised to a
considerable height above the ground. On the continent they have slight
huts covered with leaves like hog-styes; in them lit indiscriminately
men, dogs and hogs, upon the bare sand, otherwise they lie down in any
place where they can but find white sand. They mourn more for the loss of
a dog or hog than for their mothers. They bury their dead hogs and dogs
but not their deceased relations whom they lay down upon high rocks to
decay under the sun and rain till nothing remains but the white bones,
which at length they bury when they think proper Their food consists
chiefly of fishes with which their seas abound and of yams and plantains.
They have no sagoe trees, neither do they know how to prepare the bread
from it if they had any. Their arms are hasagays, clumsy and long arrows
and also a weapon formed from a sort of blue stone or slate pointed at
both ends, having a hole in the middle, in which a stick is put for a
handle. With this they attack one another in such a manner that with one
stroke the skull is crushed to pieces the farther you go to the south the
more savage, tall and ugly the people are, in particular from Lacca-iha
to Oero-goba.

"A certain shallop from Banda, being on the coast which stretches nearly
east from Arou, they found there such large people that one of our
sailors was taken by his sleeve by one of them and shaken like a little
boy; but he was rescued by his shipmates To the south of this place a
great promontory stretches itself to the west called in the map Cape
Falso, and again, to the south of this, is laid down the shallow bight
where it is supposed that Nova Guinea is divided from the South Land by a
strait terminating in the South Sea, though, by reason of the shallowness
our people could not pass it; and thus it remains uncertain whether this
strait goes through or not but in the old Portuguese maps New Guinea is
laid down as an island under the name of Ceira[*1].

[*1) Clearly a mistake. The word means Ceram.]

"I must here remark a circumstance which is but little noticed in
European writings, which is that in some log-books the 'sea between Banda
and the South' Land is called the Milk Sea; the reason for this is that
twice a year the sea thereabouts turns white, and is called by our people
the white water. The so-called little white water comes first with a dark
or new moon, in the latter end of June; the great or second white water
also comes in with a similar dark moon in August, sooner or later
according as the south-east wind sets in fresh. This wind at that time
brings with it in those parts unsettled rainy weather. By daytime the sea
looks natural, but in the night as white as milk or snow and so bright
that it is nearly impossible to distinguish the water from the sky.
At that time it is dangerous to navigate here in small vessels,
the sea making, even in calm weather, a great swell which from
the brightness of the water cannot be discovered before they reach it.
This white water conies first entirely from the south-east, about where
lie the islands of Babba, Tenimmer and Timor Laut, and perhaps wholly
from that great bay made by the South Land and New Guinea. It continues
thus till September, when it is gradually carried by the wind and
currents towards the west, in large broad stripes passing by Amboina and
Boero till about Bouton when it gradually loses itself; this water keeps
itself always distinct from the sea water as if it were divided by a band,
a fact which often frightens inexperienced sailors at night as they think
they are running suddenly upon a great bank. No one has yet been able to
explain this wonder of nature, nor give cause of this quality of the
water to glitter at night. It is thought most probable that it arises
from sulphurous exhalations from the bottom of the sea, rising in this
rough weather to the surface; for that it is impregnated with sulphur is
shown to be likely by the number of sulphur mountains and volcanoes found
everywhere in the south-eastern islands and which perhaps exist in great
number in the South Land. All this, however, is as yet uncertain;
perhaps the chemists might be able to supply some explanation upon the
subject as they have the art of preparing waters which give light in the
night time.

"It may be here asked, what countries are Lucach, Beach and Maletur,
names inscribed in some of our maps, on some parts of that country
which we call South Land or Hollandia Nova. I reply that these names are
perhaps taken from the uncertain and ambiguous narratives of voyages by
Marcus Paulus and Vertomannus, who, perhaps being led astray by the
relations of others, have taken the large island of Timor for the South
Land; for in Timor the traces of the word Maletur remain in Maleto,
situated near Keylako, on the north side of Timor. Thus far the
abovementioned letter."

* * * * * * * *

ACCOUNT OF THE OBSERVATIONS OF CAPTAIN WILLIAM DAMPIER ON THE COAST OF
NEW HOLLAND, IN 1687-88, BEING AN EXTRACT FROM HIS "NEW VOYAGE ROUND THE
WORLD," PUBLISHED IN LOND., 1697, 8 vo., pp. 461.

Being now clear of all the islands, we stood off south, intending to
touch at New Holland, a part of Terra Australia Incognita, to see what
that country would afford us. Indeed, as the winds were, we could not now
keep our intended course (which was first westerly and then northerly)
without going to New Holland, unless we had gone back again among the
islands; but this was not a good time of the year to be among any islands
to the south of the equator unless in a good harbour.

The 31st day we were in latitude 13° 26', still standing to the
southward, the wind bearing commonly very hard at west and, we keeping
upon it under two courses and our myen, and sometimes a main-top-sail
rift. About ten a clock at night we tackt and so to the northward for
fear of running on a shoal, which is laid down in our drafts in latitude
13° 50' or thereabouts; it bearing south by west from the east end of
Timor: and so the island bore from us by our judgments and reckoning.
At three a clock we tackt again and stood S. by W. and S.S.W.

In the morning, assoon as it was day we saw the shoal right ahead; it
lies in 13° 50' by all our reckonings. It is a small spit of land just
appearing above the water's edge, with several rocks about it, 8 or 10
feet above high water. It lies in a triangular form, each side being
about a league and a half. We stemmed right with the middle of it and
stood within half a mile of the rocks and sounded but found no ground.
Then we went about and stood to the north two hours and then tackt and
stood to the southward again, thinking to weather it but could not. So we
bore away on the north side till we came to the east point giving the
rocks a small berth then we trimb'd sharp, and stood to the southward
passing close by it and sounded again but found no ground.

This shoal is laid down in our drafts not above sixteen or twenty leagues
from New Holland; but we did run afterwards sixty leagues due south
before we fell in with it: and I am very confident that no part of New
Holland hereabouts lyes so far northerly by forty leagues as it is laid
down in our drafts. For if New Holland were laid down true, we must of
necessity have been driven near forty leagues to the westward of our
course; but this is very improbable, that the current should set so
strong to the westward, seeing that we had such a constant westerly wind.
I grant that when the monsoon shifts first, the current does not
presently shift, but runs afterwards near a month; but the monsoon had
been shifted at least two months now. But of the monsoons and other
winds, and of the currents, elsewhere, in their proper place. As to these
here, I do rather believe that the land is not laid down true, than that
the current deceived us; for it was more probable we should have been
deceived before we met with the shoal than afterwards: for on the coast
of New Holland we found the tides keeping their constant course, the
flood running N. by E. and the ebb S. by W.

The 4th day of January, 1688, we fell in with the land of New Holland, in
the latitude of 16° 50', having, as I said before, made our course due
south from the shoal that we past by on the 31st day of December. We ran
in close by it, and finding no convenient anchorage, because it lies open
to the N W., we ran along shore to the eastward, steering N.E. by E., for
so the land lies. We steered thus about twelve leagues; and then came to
a point of land, from whence the land trends east and southerly for ten
or twelve leagues: but how afterwards I know not. About three leagues to
the eastward of this point there is a pretty deep bay, with abundance of
islands in it, and a very good place to anchor in or to hale ashore.
About a league to the eastward of that point of anchor January the 5th,
1688, two miles from the shore, in twenty-nine fathoms, good hard sand
and clean ground.

New Holland is a very large tract of land. It is not yet determined
whether it is an island or a main continent; but I am certain that it
joyns neither to Asia, Africa, nor America. This part of it that we saw
is all low even land, with sandy banks against the sea, only the points
are rocky, and so are some of the islands in this bay.

The land is of a dry sandy soil, destitute of water, except you make
wells; yet producing divers sorts of trees: but the woods are not
thick, nor the trees very big. Most of the trees that we saw are
dragon-trees as wesupposed; and these, too, are the largest of any where.
They are about the bigness of our large apple trees, and about the same
height: and the rind is blackish, and somewhat rough. The leaves are of a
dark colour; the gum distils out of the knots or cracks that are in the
bodies of the trees. We compared it with some gum dragon, or dragon's
blood, that was aboard; and it was of the same colour and taste. The
other sorts of trees were not known by anyof us. There was pretty long
grass growing under the trees, but it was very thin. We saw no trees
that bore fruit or berries.

We saw no sort of animals, nor any track of beast, but once, and that
seemed to be the tread of a beast as big as a great mastiff dog. Here are
a few small land birds, but none bigger than a blackbird: and but few sea
fowls. Neither is the sea very plentifully stored with fish, unless you
reckon the manatee and turtle as such. Of these creatures there is
plenty, but they are extraordinarily shy, though the inhabitants cannot
trouble them much, having neither boats nor iron.

The inhabitants of this country are the miserablest people in the world.
The Hodmadods of Monomatapa, though a nasty people, yet for wealth are
gentlemen to these; who have no houses and skin garments, sheep, poultry,
and fruits of the earth, ostrich eggs, etc., as the Hodmadods have; and
setting aside their human shape, they differ but little from brutes. They
are tall, straight-bodied and thin, with small, long limbs. They have
great head, round foreheads, and great brows. Their eye-lids are always
half closed, to keep the flies out of their eyes, they being so
troublesome here that no fanning will keep, them from coming to one's
face; and without the assistance of both hands to keep them off, they
will creep into ones nostrils, and mouth, too, if the lips are not shut
very close. So that, from their infancy, being thus annoyed with these
insects, they do never open their eyes as other people do; and therefore
they cannot see far, unless they hold up their heads as if they were
looking at somewhat over them.

They have great bottle-noses, pretty full lips and wide mouths, the two
fore-teeth of their upper jaw are wanting in all of them, men and women,
old and young: neither have they any beards. They are long-visaged, and
of a very unpleasing aspect, having no one graceful feature in their
faces. Their hair is black, short, and curled, like that of the negroes;
and not long and lank like that common Indians. The colour of their
skins, both of their faces and the rest of their body, is coal black,
like that of the negroes of Guinea.

They have no sort of clothes, but the piece of the rind of a tree ty'd
lyke a girdle about their waists, and a handful of long grass, or three
or four small green boughs, full of leaves, thrust under their girdle to
cover their nakedness.

They have no houses, but lye in the open air without any covering the
earth being their bed and the heaven their canopy. Whether they cohabit
one to one woman, or promiscuously, I know not. But they do live in
companies, twenty or thirty men, women and children together. Their only
food is a small sort of fish, which they get by making wares of stone
across little coves or branches of the sea; every tide bringing in the
little fish, and there leaving them a prey to these people, who
constantly attend there to search at low water. This small fry I take to
be the top of their fishery: they have no instruments to catch great fish,
should they come, and such seldom stay to be left behind at low water,
nor could we catch any fish with our hooks and lines all the while we lay
there. In other places at low water they seek for cockles, mussels and
periwinkles. Of these shell-fish there are fewer still so that their
chiefest dependance is upon what the sea leaves in their wares, which, be
it much or little, they gather up, and march to the places of their
abode. There the old people, that are not able to stir abroad by reason
of their age, and the tender infants, wait their return; and what
Providence has bestowed on them, they presently broil on the coals and
eat it in common. Sometimes they get as many fish as makes them a
plentiful banquet, and at other times they scarce get everyone a taste;
but, be it little or much that they get, every one has his part, as well
the young and tender as the old and feeble, who are not able to go abroad
as the strong and lusty. When they have eaten they lie down till the next
low water, and then all that are able march out be it night or day, rain
or shine, 'tis all one; they must attend the wares or else they must
fast, for the earth affords them no food at all. There is neither herb,
root, pulse, nor any sort of grain for them to eat that we saw; nor any
sort of bird or beast that they can catch, having no instruments
where-withal to do so.

I did not perceive that they did worship anything. These poor creatures
have a sort of weapon to defend their ware or fight with their enemies,
if they have any that will interfere with their poor fishery. They did
endeavour with their weapons to frighten us who, lying ashore, deterr'd
them from one of their fishing places. Some of them had wooden swords,
others had a sort of lances. The sword is a piece of wood shaped
somewhat like a cutlass. The lance is a long strait pole, sharp
at one end, and hardened afterwards by heat. I saw no iron, nor any
other sort of metal; therefore it is probable they use stone hatchets as
some Indians in America do described in chapter iv.

How they get their fire I know not but probably, as Indians do, out of
wood. I have seen the Indians of Bon-Airy do it, and have myself tryed
the experiment. They take a flat piece of wood, that is pretty soft, and
make a small dent in one side of it; then they take another hard round
stick, about the bigness of one's little finger, and sharpening it at one
end like a pencil, they put that sharp end in the hole or dent of the
soft flat piece, and then rubbing or twirling the hard piece between the
palms of their hands, they drill the soft piece till it smokes, and at
last takes fire.

These people speak somewhat through the throat, but we could not
understand one word that they said. We anchored, as I said before,
January the 5th, and seeing men walking on shore, we presently set a
canoe to get some acquaintance with them, for we were in hopes to get
some provisions among them. But the inhabitants, seeing our boat coming,
run away and hid themselves. We searched afterwards three days, in hopes
to find their houses; but found none; yet we saw many places where they
had made fires. At last, being out of hopes to find their habitations, we
searched no farther; but left a great many toys ashore, in such places
where but old wells on the sandy bays.

At last we went over to the islands, and there we found a great many of
the natives: I do believe there were forty on one island, men, women, and
children. The men, at our first coming ashore, threatened us with their
lances and swords; but they were frighted by firing one gun, which we
fired purposely to scare them. The island was so small that they could
not hide themselves; but they were much disordered at our landing,
especially the women and children, for we went directly to their camp.
The lustiest of the women, snatching up their infants ran away howling,
and the little children run after squeaking and bawling, but the men
stood still. Some of the women, and such people as could not go from us,
lay still by a fire, making a doleful noise as if we had been coming
to devour them; but when they saw that we did not intend to harm them
they were pretty quiet, and the rest that fled from us at our first
coming returned again. This, their place of dwelling, was only a fire,
with a few boughs before it, set up on that side the wind was of.

After we had been here a little while the men began to be familiar, and
we clothed some of them, designing to have som e service of them for it;
for we found some wells of water here, and intended to carry two or three
barrels of it aboard. But being somewhat troublesome to carry to the
canoes, we thought to have made these men to carry it for us, and
therefore we gave them some clothes; to one an old pair of breeches to
another a ragged shirt, to a third a jacket that was scarce worth owning,
which yet would have been very acceptable at some places where we had
been, and so we thought they might have been with these people. We put
them on them, thinking that this finery would have brought them heartily
to work for us; and our water being filled in small long barrels, about
six gallons in each, which were made purposely to carry water in, we
brought these, our new servants to the wells, and put a barrel on each of
their shoulders for them to carry to the canoe. But all the signs we
could make were to no purpose, for they stood like statues, without
motion, but grinned like so many monkeys, staring one upon another; for
these poor creatures seem not accustomed to carry burthens, and I believe
that one of our ship boys of ten years old would carry as much as one of
them. So we were forced to carry our water ourselves, and they very
fairly put the clothes off again and laid them down, as if clothes were
only to work in. I. did not perceive that they had any great liking to
them at first, neither did they seem to admire anything that we had.

At another time, our canoe being among these islands seeking for game,
espy'd a drove of these men swimming from one island to another; for they
have no boats, canoes, or bark logs. They took up four of them and
brought them aboard; two of them were middle-aged, the other two were
young men about eighteen or twenty years old. To these we gave boiled
rice, and with it turtle and manatee boiled. They did greedily devour
what we gave them, but took no notice of the ship or any thing in it, and
when they were set on land again they ran away as fast as they could. At
our first coming, before we were acquainted with them or they with us, a
company of them who lived on the main came just against our ship, and
standing on a pretty high bank, threatened us with their swords
and lances by shaking them at us; at last the captain ordered the
drum to be beaten, which was done of a sudden with much vigour, purposely
to scare the poor creatures. They hearing the noise, ran away as fast as
they could drive and when they ran away in haste they would cry, "Gurry,
Gurry", speaking deep in the throat. Those inhabitants also that live on
the main would wander away from us, yet we took several of them. For, as
I have already observed, they had such bad eyes that they could not see
us till we came close to them. We did always give them victuals and let
them go again, but the islanders, after our first time of being among
them, did not stir for us.

When we had been here about a week, we hal'd our ship into a small sandy
cove, at a spring tide, as far as she would float; and at low water she
was left dry, and the sand dry without us near half a mile, for the sea
riseth and falleth here about five fathoms. The flood runs north by east,
and the ebb south by west. All the neep-tides we lay wholly aground, for
the sea did not come near us by about a hundred yards. We had therefore
time enough to clean our ship's bottom, which we did very well. Most of
our men lay ashore in a tent, where our sails were mending; and our
strikers brought home turtle and manatee every day, which was our
constant food.

While we lay here, I did endeavour to persuade our men to go to some
English factory, but was threatened to be turned ashore and left here
for it.

This made me disist, and patiently wait for some more convenient place
and opportunity to leave them than here; which I did hope I would
accomplish in a short time, because they did intend, when they went from
hence, to bear down towards Cape Comorin. In their way thither they
design'd to visit also the Island Cocos, which lieth in latitude 12° 12'
north, by our drafts; hoping there to find of that fruit, the island
having its name from thence.

* * * * * * * *

EXTRACT FROM SLOAN MS. 3236, ENTITLED "THE ADVENTURES OF WILLIAM
DAMPIER, WITH OTHERS [1686-87], WHO LEFT CAPTAIN SHERPE IN THE SOUTH
SEAS, AND TRAVALED BACK OVER LAND THROUGH THE COUNTRY OF DARIEN,"
pp. 445 to 450.

We stood away to the southward, intending to see New Holland and mett
nothing worth observing till the first day of December, and then being in
latit. 13° 50', wee were close aboard a showle which wee lay by for in
the night; it lyes S. by W. from the N.W. end of Timore about seventy
leagues. Wee steered to weather it but could not therefore bore away to
the eastward of it; it lyes in a triangle with many sharp rocks about
water, and on the south side is a small spitt of land.

This showle is laid downe within twenty leagues of New Holland due south,
but wee made our course south, yett run into latitude 16° 55' before wee
made land which is forty odd leagues; so that by our runn, except wee had
a current against us which wee did not perceive, New Holland is laid
downe nearer then it should be to those islands in the south seas by
forty leagues.

The fourth day of January 1687-88 wee fell in with the land to New
Holland in latitude 16° 55', the land low and a deepe sandy bay, but no
shelter for us therefore wee runn downe along the shore which lyes N E.
by E. about twelve leagues; then wee came to a point with an island by
it, but soe neare the maine that wee could not goe within it a league; to
the westward of this pointe is a showle a league from the maine.

From this pointe the land runs more easterly and makes a deepe bay with
many ilands in it; the sixth day wee came into this bay, and anchored
about foare miles to the eastward of the forementioned pointe, in
eighteen fathome water, a mile from the shoare, good clean sand.

I drew a drafte of this land and the bay where we road, but at the
Necquebar[*1], when we oversett our prows, I lost it and some others that
were not in my book; those that I had placed in my book were all
preserved but all wett.

[*1) Nicobar. The circumstance of their canoe upsetting off this island,
and their books and drafts being all wetted and some of them lost, is
also mentioned in the printed editions of Dampier's voyage.]

Wee sent our boate ashoare to speak with the natives but they would not
abide our comeing, soe wee spent three dayes in seekeing their houses,
being in hopes to allure them with toyes to a comerce.

For wee begun to be scarce of provision and did not questione but these
people could relieve us; but after all our search neare the sea side and
in the country wee found ourselves disapointed,' for the people of this
country have noe houses nor any thing like a house neither have they any
sorte of graine or pulse; fresh they have not nor any sorte of cattle not
soe much as catt or dog, for indeed they have noe occasion of such
creatures unless to eat them, for of that food which they have they leave
no fragments. They have noe sorte of fowle neither tame nor wild for the
latter I saw very few in the country neither did wee see any kind of
wilde beast in the country but the track of one.

I believe there are not any of the natives in the country farm from the
sea, for they gett their living out of sea without nett or hooke; but
they build wares with stones cross the bays, and every low water whether
night or day they search those wares for what the sea hath left behinde,
which is all that they have to depend on for livelyhood; some times they
are bountyfully rewarded for their paines' and at other times providence
seemes to be nigardly, scarce giving them a taste instead of a belly
full.' The fish which they take they carry home to their famelyes whoe
lye behinde a few, boughs stuck up to keep the wind from them. All that
are of age to search those wares goe downe at the time of low water,
leaving only the old sicke weake people and children at home, who make a
fire against the coming of their friends to broyle their fish, which they
soone devoure without salt or bread Their habitations are neare those
wares and remove as occasion serves, for they are not troubled with
household goods or clothes, all that they weare is only a piece of rind
about their wastes, under which they thrust either a hand full of long
grasse or some small boughs before to cover their privityes.

They are people of good stature but very thin and leane I judge for want
of foode. They are black jett I believe their haires would be long if it
was corned out, but for want of combs it is matted up like a negroes
haire. They have all that I saw, two fore teeth of their upper jaw
wanting both men, women and children.

They swim from one iland to the other or toe and from the maine and have
for armes a lance sharpened at one end and burned in the fire to harden
it, and a sword made with wood, which is sharpe on one side; these
weapons, I judge, are cutt with stone hatchetts, as I have seene in the
West India.

The country is all low land, with sand hills by the sea side; within it
is a wood, but not extraordinary thicke; the chiefest trees are dragon
trees, which are bigger than any other trees in the woods: wee found
neither river, brooke, nor springs, but made wells in the sand, which
aforded as good water, where wee watered our ships.

The first spring after wee came hither wee hall'd our ship into a sandy
bay, where shee lay dry all the neepe tides, for it flows there right up
and downe above five fathome; the flood setts north by east and the ebb
setts S. by W.

There are many turtle and manatoe in this bay, which our strikers
supplyed us with all the time we lay there, and one time they mett some
of the natives swimming from one iland to the other and tooke up foure of
them and brought aboard, whoe tooke noe notice of any thing that wee had
noe more than a bruite would; wee gave them some victualls, which they
greedily devoured, and being sett out of the ship ran away as fast as
their leggs (for the ship was now dry on the sand) could carry them. Wee
mett divers of them on the ilands, for they could not run from us there,
but the women and children would be frighted at our approach.

Wee tarried here till the twelfth day of February, in which time wee
cleaned our ship, mended our sailes, and filled our water and when our
time drew neare to depart from thence, I motioned goeing to Fort St.
George, or any settlement where the English had noe fortification, and
was threatened to be turned a shoare on New Holland for it; which made me
disist, intending, by God's blessing, to make my escape the first place I
came neare, for wee were now bound into India for Cape Comorin, if wee
could fetch it.

* * * * * * *

SOME PARTICULARS RELATING TO THE VOYAGE OF WILLEM DE VLAMINGH TO
NEW HOLLAND IN 1696. Extracted from MS. Documents at the Hague.

Of this expedition, which owes its origin to the loss of the ship De
Ridderschap van Hollandt, between the Cape of Good Hope an Batavia, in
the year 1685, reports are to be found in various works, as in Witsen,
Valentijn, the Historische Beschrijving der Reizen, perhaps also in some
others. No coherent account, however, appears to exist, although we read
in the last-mentioned work that a narrative of the voyage was published
in 1701 at Amsterdam.[*1]

[*) This exceedingly scarce printed narrative, which had been zealously
sought for by the editor for several years, and had eluded the search of
previous writers, reached his hands at the very critical moment to admit
of its being translated and inserted in its proper place in the volume,
the next in sequence to the present paper. Although of no great interest
except as an original account of the voyage, it is important to know of
what it consists, and it is the editor's grateful duty to state that it
is solely to the zeal, intelligence, and kindness of Mr. Frederick Müller,
of Amsterdam, that he is indebted for the good fortune of procuring the
use of the document.]

The project originally formed was that the expedition should set out from
Batavia, and the Directors of the Council of the Seventeen write on this
understanding in their dispatch of November 10th, 1695, to the
Governor-General and Council of India; but in the assembly of December
8th and 10th of that year[*1] that plan was abandoned, and it was resolved
that "for various reasons" the expedition should be undertaken from the
Cape of Good Hope, under the command of William de Vlamingh, with orders
to land at the islands of Tristan d'Acunha, on this side of the Cape, and
also at the islands of St. Paul and Amsterdam, to examine and to survey them.

[*1) Appendix I and II.]

For this purpose three ships were fitted out: the frigate De Geelvinck,
commodore Willem de Vlamingh; the hooker De Nijptang, Captain Gerrit
Collaert; and the galiot Weseltje, Captain Cornelis de Vlamingh, son of
the commodore.

"On Thursday, the 2nd of May, 1696, at one o'clock in the morning, the
noble Burgomaster Hinlopen sent the Company's boat, having on board the
Commander Barent Fockesz, with orders that we should put to sea at
daybreak." They accordingly weighed anchor, and set sail northwards
towards England.

On the result of this expedition the Governor-General, and then Council
of India report to the Directors of the Council of Seventeen as follows:--

"For the result of the voyage of the three above-mentioned ships which,
according to the order of the Gentlemen Seventeen of the 10th.
November,1695, and 16th of March, 1696, and according to your instruction
of the 23rd of April of the same year, have prosperously completed their
journey over the islands of Tristan d'Acunha, the Cape islands of
Amsterdam and St. Paulo, and have also arrived here, both crew and
vessels in a tolerably good condition, we shall principally have to refer
you to their journals and notes, together with their maps and some
drawings of those places; all of which, with the draughtsman himself, the
overseer of the infirmary Victor Victorsz, will reach you by the ship's
Lants Welvaren; the drawings, packed up in one box, consisting of eleven
pieces, viz:--

7 of several places on the South Land.
1 of the island Tristan d'Acunha
1 of the island Amsterdam
1 of the island St. Paulo and
1 of the island Mony.

"In addition to these we also enclose some big and small chips of wood
brought by Willem de Vlamingh from the before mentioned South Land, and
described in his journal under the 30th and 31st of December 1696, and
2nd of January 1697, as a kind of scented wood. Upon this we have not
been able to come to any distinct decision; we have, however, had a
portion of it distilled and forward a small bottle of the oil for your
examination by Commander Bichon. Likewise we send a little box containing
shells, fruits, plants, etc., gathered on the coast; these specimens,
however, are of less importance and such as are to be found in a better
condition elsewhere in India. So that, generally speaking with respect to
the South Land along which in conformity with their instructions they
have coasted, and to which their accurate observations have been devoted,
nothing has been discovered but a barren, bare, desolate region; at least
along the coast, and so far as they have penetrated into the interior.
Neither have they met with any signs of habitation, some fires excepted,
and a few black naked men, supposed to have been seen on two or three
occasions at a distance, whom however they could neither come up with nor
speak to. Neither again were any remarkable animals or birds observed,
except principally in the Swan River, a species of black swans three of
which they brought to us alive and should have been sent to Your
Nobilities had they not died one by one shortly after their arrival here.
Neither, so far as we know, have any traces been discovered of the
missing ship De Ridderschap van Holland or of other vessels either there
or at the islands Amsterdam and St. Paul. Consequently in this voyage and
investigation nothing of any importance has been discovered. A singular
memorial was seen by them, On an island situated on or near the South
Land, in 25° latitude was found a pole nearly decayed but still standing
upright, with a common middle-sized tin plate, which had been beaten flat
and attached to the pole, and which was still lying near it. On this
plate the following engraved words were still legible:--

"Anno 1616, the 25th of October, arrived here the ship De Eendraght, from
Amsterdam, the upper-merchant Gilles Mibais from Luijck, Captain Dirck
Hartog from Amsterdam; the 27th ditto set sail for Bantam, under-merchant
Jan Hijn, upper-steersman Pieter Dockes from 5?il. Anno 1616."

This old plate, brought to us by Willem de Vlamingh, we have now handed
over to the commander, in order that he might bring it to Your
Nobilities, and that you look and marvel how it remained through such a
number of years unaffected by air, rain or sun. They erected on the same
spot another pole with a fiat tin plate as a memorial and wrote on it as
to be read in the journals.[*1]

[*1) "Further: '1697, February 4th. Arrived here the ship Geelvinck,
of Amsterdam: captain commandant, Wilhem van Vlaming, of Vlielandt;
assistant, Jan van Bremen, of Copenhagen; first pilot, Michéel Bloem
van Estight, of Bremen; the hooker the Nyptangh: captain Gerrit
Collaert, of Amsterdam; assistant, Theodorus Heermans, of the same
place; first pilot, Gerrit Gerritz, of Bremen; then the galliot
Weseltje: commander, Cornelis van Vlaming, of Vlielandt; pilot, Coert
Gerritzs, of Bremen. Sailed from here with our fleet on the 12th,
to explore the south land, and afterwards bound for Batavia.'"]

And since we are desirous to afford Your Nobilities all possible
information and satisfaction with respect to this voyage, we have given
permission to its former chief, Captain Willem de Vlamingh the elder with
his upper-steersman Michel Blom to return with the last return ships, As
they have not come back yet from Bengal with their vessels the Geelvinch
and Nijptang, but are expected daily we shall leave this for the present
and refer you for further information to their own verbal reports.

We al so found recorded in the notes of the above-mentioned skipper,
Willem de Vlamingh, that on the island of Mony, lying 10° south latitude
and 60-70 miles without Sunda Strait, by which he steered on his
way from the South Land hither, trees arc to be found fit for if ships.
No further explanation however being given as to their abundance or
scarcity or the kind of wood--a small niece only about two spans in
length and less than a finger breadth in thickness, having been brought
to us, and the skipper of the Nijptang and the gezaghebber of the Weseltje,
son of the old Vlamingh, knowing nothing whatever about the subject, we,
in order to settle the point once for all, thought it not unadvisable to set
on foot a further investigation, and accordingly only more despatched the
galiot Weseltje on the 11th of May, in order that a more minute survey
might be taken of the island, adding at the same time a reinforcement of
eight native soldiers, with such instructions for the steersman Cornelis
de Vlamingh, as are to be found in the letter-book under that date and
also under Batavia. According to the diary of the same steersman from May
12 to June 17 kept in the journey, in which they nearly got wrecked, and
owing to the heavy breakers could nowhere effect a landing, and from the
vessel and boat could not perceive anything else but thick brushwood and
a few small crooked trees, none of which was either straight or more than
three fathoms long; so that no expectation remained of finding there
anything useful.

* * * * * * * *

APPENDIX I.

EXTRACT FROM THE RESOLUTIONS OF THE XVII.

Thursday, December 8th, 1695.

The Commissioners of the Chamber of Amsterdam have reported, how the said
Chamber, in accordance with and to fulfil what their Nobilities have by
resolution of the 10th of last month have been ordered to do concerning
the sending of a ship to the South Land,' or the land of d'Eendracht,
having examined and also heard and taken the advice of Commander Hendrich
Pronck and Skipper Willem de Vlamingh, is of opinion; firstly as regards
the South Land, that for certain reasons it should not be undertaken from
Batavia, as previously thought proper, and in favour of which this
Assembly has declared itself by its missive of Nov. 10 last, to the
General and Council, but from the Cape of Good Hope and on the 1st of
Oct. next year; that for this purpose should be equipped and prepared, in
order to go to sea next March, a frigate and two galiots, under command
of and accompanied by the before-mentioned skipper De Vlamingh, with such
instructions as should be deemed necessary, that the said frigate should
be provided with a Greenland shallop--supposed to be better adapted for
putting into harbour and landing than the ordinary shallops in the use of
the Company. Secondly that De Vlamingh should be directed in his
instructions to touch at the islands of St. Paul and Amsterdam, as lying
directly on his track on his way from the cape to the South Land, to
examine their situation and also whether any traces of the crew of
missing vessels especially of the Ridderschap van Hollandt, are to be
found.

After deliberation, the resolution was passed:--

That all the above written shall be further examined by Commissioners
and report to be made of their considerations and resolutions and for
which hereby are requested and commissioned: from the Chamber Amsterdam,
Messrs. Hooft, Geelvinck, Fabritius, and Velsen; from the Chamber
Zeelandt, Messrs. Boddart and Schorer; and from the other Chambers,
those who shall be commissioned by them; with the addition of Mr. van
Spanbrock from the principal participators.

APPENDIX II

Saturday, December 10th, 1695.

Touching the report of the Commissioners, who in compliance with the
Commissarial resolution of the 8th c. have given due attention to the
subject of the search and inquiry after the ship De Ridderschap van
Hollandt and to the inquiry to be connected therewith, viz., as to the
nature of the South Land and of the islands of St. Paul and Amsterdam and
matters connected therewith, together with the sending of an expedition
thither for the purpose of the inquiry;--on deliveration and in conformity
with the advice of the above-mentioned Commissioners, it has been resolved
and found good:--that the said voyage shall be undertaken not from Batavia
as has been heretofore thought good and in favour of which this Assembly
had given instructions in its missive to the General and Council from the
10th of last month, and which is hereby altered in so far--but from the
Cape of Good Hope, and in the beginning of October next; that for this
purpose the Chamber Amsterdam shall equip and get ready for sea by March
next, a suitable frigate, 110-112 feet long, to be built by the said
Chamber and which is to have the name of Geelvinck, together with two
sailing galiots under the command of and accompanied by the skipper Willem
de Vlamingh, provided with such necessaries' as shall be thought proper.

That furthermore the said De Vlamingh shall, if he can do so without much
loss of time and as it were en passant, touch at the islands of Tristan
d'Acunha, on this side of the Cape in 37' south latitude to examine them
as much as he can and under such instructions as shall be handed over to
him. The Chamber Amsterdam being hereby once more requested and
authorized to arrange and carry into execution what has been said above
with regard to the South Land and Tristan d'Achuna and to prepare such
instructions as shall be thought proper. Lastly that De Vlamingh shall in
his instructions be ordered to touch on the islands St. Paul and
Amsterdam, lying directly on his track in....° south latitude, and
to examine their situations; also whether any signs of men from wrecked
ships are to be found, especially from the Ridderschap van Hollandt.

* * * * * * * *

EXTRACT FROM THE JOURNAL OF A VOYAGE MADE TO THE UNEXPLORED SOUTH LAND,
BY ORDER OF OF THE DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY, IN THE YEARS 1696 AND 1697,
BY THE HOOKER DE NYPTANG, THE SHIP DE GEELVINK, THE GALIOT DE WESEL
AND THE RETURN TO BATAVIA PRINTED AT AMSTERDAM, 1701.

On the morning of the 29th December (1696) at half-past two o'clock, we
discovered the South Land, to east north-east of us at from four to five
miles distance. We found the country low, the main coast stretching from
south to north. Our people observed a remarkable fish here, about two
feet long, with a round head and a sort of arms and legs and even
something like hands. They found also several stems of plants. They cast
anchor in from fourteen to fifteen fathoms. At nearly half a league from
the island on the south side that had good holding ground. The wind
south-west by south.

On the 30th December we took counsel, and then with our guns on our arms
put the shallop afloat and with the chief pilot I went on shore to look
round the island. We rowed round to the east corner of the island about a
cannon shot distance from the coast, and found there two fathoms water
with muddy bottom, filled with shells, and occasionally a sandy bottom,
Proceeding a little further, we sounded the little island bearing to the
south of us, and the western most point of the large one bearing
north-west of us; and we found five fathoms, and good and bad bottom by
turns. We afterwards sounded north, the westernmost point bearing N.W.
and by W. of us, and the little island S.W.and had as before
five-fathoms. At nearly a gun shot from the shore we found on the south
east coast of the island seven or eight great rocks, the island being on
this side of a rocky and stony aspect, bearing north-east from us; then
we had eight fathoms both good and bad ground; with here and there a
gulf, where was a straight bank stretching from the coast up to the
nearest rock nearly three quarters of a mile from the coast. Along the
east side there are many capes and gulfs, with white sand, which is found
also round the greater part of the land. It stretches lengthwise from
east to west nearly four leagues, and is about nine leagues in
circumference.

On the 31st of December I again put on shore with our skipper, and
directing my steps into the interior of the island, 1 found several sorts
of herbs, the greater part of which were known to me, and some of which
resembled in smell those of our own country There were also a variety of
trees, and among them one sort the wood of which had an aromatic odour
nearly like that of the Lignum Rhodii. The ground is covered with little
or no soil, but chiefly with white and rocky sand, in ray opinion little
adapted for cultivation. There are very few birds there and no animals,
except a kind of rat as big as a common cat, whose dung is found in
abundance all over the island. There are also very few seals or fish,
except a sort of sardine and grey rock bream. In the middle of the
island, at about half an hour's distance, we found several basins of
excellent water, but brackish, and six or seven paces further a fountain
of fresh water fit to drink. In returning to shore, the crew found a
piece of wood from our own country, in which the nails still remained. It
was probably from a shipwrecked vessel, and three or four leagues from us
some smoke was seen to rise at different points of the main land. The
country had the appearance of being higher than it really is. The coast
is like that of Holland.

On the 1st of January, 1697, the crew went to seek for fuel, and again
saw smoke rising at different points on the mainland. They observed also
the flow and ebb; and our sail-master found on the shore a piece of
planed wood about three feet long and a span broad.

On the 2nd I again went on shore, with out skipper, to examine the island
on the west side, which we found similar to the last. It is to be avoided
for about a league, on account of the great numbers of rocks along the
coast; otherwise it is easily approachable, as from six to seven leagues
from the shore there are soundings at a hundred fathoms. On the mainland
we again saw smoke arising.

On the 3rd, after sunset, we saw a great number of fires burning, the
whole length of the coast on the mainland.

On the 4th, De Vlaming's boat made sail for the mainland. On its return a
council was held with the view of making an expedition to the shore on
the morrow. N.B. Here we have, the headlands inaccurately indicated.

At sunrise on the morning of the 5th, the resolution which had been taken
was put into execution; and I, in company with the skipper, pushed off
to the mainiand with the boats of the three South Land Navigators. We
mustered, what with soldiers and sailors, and two of the blacks that we
had taken with us at the Cape, eighty-six strong well armed and
equipped. We proceeded eastwards; and after an hour's march, we came to a
hut of a worse description than those of the Hottentots. Further on was a
large basin of brackish water, which we afterwards found was a river; on
the bank of which were several footsteps of men, and several small pools;
in which was, fresh water, or but slightly brackish. In spite of our
repeated searches, however, we found no men. Towards evening we
determined to pass the night on shore, and pitched our camp in the wood,
in a place where we found a fire which had been lighted by the
inhabitants, but whom, nevertheless, we did not see. We fed the fire by
throwing on wood, and each quarter of an hour four of our people kept
watch.

On the morning of the 6th at sunrise, we divided ourselves into three
companies, each taking a different route, to try if we could not, by this
means, find some men. After three or four hours we rejoined each other
near the river, without discovering anything beyond some huts and
footsteps. Upon which we betook ourselves to rest. Meanwhile they brought
me the nut of a certain fruit tree, resembling in form the "drioens"[*1],
having the taste of our large Dutch beans; and those which were younger
were like a walnut. I ate five or six of them, and drank the water from
the small pools; but, after an interval of about three hours, I and five
others who had eaten of these fruits began to vomit so violently that we
were as dead men; so that it was with the greatest difficulty that I and
the crew regained the shore, and thence in company with the skipper,
were put on board the galliot, leaving the rest on shore.

[*1) This word, which is perhaps misspelt, does not occur in Nemnick's
polyglot "Lexicon der Naturgeschichte".]

On the 7th the whole of the crew returned on board with the boats,
bringing with them two young black swans. The mouth of the said river
lies in 31° 46'; and at eleven, nine, and seven gunshots from
the mainland, are five and a half fathoms of water on good bottom.
Between the river and Rottenest Island, which is at nearly five leagues
distance, Captain De Vlaming had the misfortune to break his cable.

On the 9th, De Vlaming made sail for the mainland.

On the 10th we followed him with the galliot, and cast anchor off the
mainland, in thirteen fathoms. A council wasimmediately held, and orders
forthwith given to proceed to explore the river with two of the galliot's
boats. The galliot remained in the neighbourhood before the river, while
we went up it with three boats well supplied with guns and ammunition. We
found, at the mouth, from five to six feet of water. We remained a little
time on the shore, and put ourselves on the alert, not to be surprised by
the natives. After sunset we ascended the river, and overcame the current
with our oars; seeing several fires, but no men. About midnight we threw
out our kedge, as we saw no opening although it was moonlight.

On the 11th, at break of day, we again ascended the river, and saw many
swans (our boat knocked over nine or ten) some rotganzen, geese, some
divers, etc., also a quantity of fish, which were frisking on the water.
We also heard the song of the nightingale. Here we thought we saw a crowd
of men; but after rowing on shore we found none, but lighted on a little
pool of fresh water, and within it, at the bottom, a certain herb
smelling like thyme; which was, perhaps, put into it by the inhabitants,
to give the water a more agreeable taste, and make it more wholesome. All
around we saw many footsteps of men, and the impression of a hand on the
sand; the marks of the thumb and fingers shewing plainly that it was
quite recently done. Proceeding further, we found a fire which had been
just lighted, and three small huts, one of which was made with a quantity
of bark of a tree known in India under the name of 'liplap', which, I
think, was intended for a battery. For want of water, we could not go any
further south, and being nearly high and dry withthe boats in the sand,
we resolved, to return, having already ascended the river six or seven
leagues (some thought it was ten) without having discovered anything of
importance. Towards the evening we again went on shore to see if, towards
midnight, we could take the inhabitants by surprise; but not having been
able to attain our object, and the moon meanwhile rising, we allowed
ourselves to glide gently along the river.

On the 12th, two hours before sunrise, seeing several fires, I again went
on shore with our chief pilot, some sailors and the two blacks above
mentioned, We observed eight, and around each of them a heap of branches
of trees, but no men. As it was, therefore, evident that there was no
good to be done here, we returned to our vessel, which we reached about
noon. As regards the country, it is sandy, and in the place where we
were had been planted with a good many shrubs, among which were
some quite three and four fathoms (vademen) thick but bearing no
fruit,--in short, full of prickles and thorns. Several of these
yielded a gum nearly like wax, of a brownish red colour. The men,
the birds, the swans, the rotganzen, koopganzen, the geese, the
cockatooes, the parroquets, etc., all fled at the sight of us. The best
of it is that no vermin is found there; but in the day time one is
terribly tormented with the flies.

On the 13th, in the morning before daybreak, we held a council; and in
order to be able to take soundings nearer the coast, the galliot and two
boats made sail at about three o'clock in the morning watch. We took our
course, therefore, along the coast most frequently N.N.W., sometimes a
little north and west. We were in 31° 43' latitude, and sounded
generally at a cannon-shot or a cannon shot and a half from the
coast. Here and there we came to several large rocks, and had fifteen,
twelve, nine, and eight fathoms water. Towards noon we passed an opening
which, might well have been a river; and towards sunset we again made
sail for the coast.

On the morning of the 14th we again made sail for the coast, and found
the same depth as before but principally fifteen fathoms of brackish
water, being then in 30° and 40' latitude.

On the 15th, after having held a council, we made sail along the coast,
and found the latitude 30° 17'. In different places towards
the south we saw a great smoke and vapour arising, and we went with our
boats on shore, and we found nearly a league from the shore, a rock; and
a gunshot from thence two fathoms water, and from that to the coast four,
five, six, three, two and a three, five, eight, five, three, and two
fathoms, mostly foul bottom, not adapted for anchoring; and on the
south-west side there are generally breakers. There two corners extend
south and north from the gulf; the soil dry and sandy, and but little
adapted for the habitation of animals, still less of men. We had nearly
proceeded a league and a half inland, but we saw no men nor fresh water,
but several footsteps of men, and steps like those of a dog and of the
cassowary. Nor did we see any trees, but only briars and thorns. One of
our people said that he had seen a red serpent. Some others said that as
soon as we reached the shore, they saw a yellow dog leaping from the wild
herbage, and throwing itself into the sea, as if to amuse himself
with swimming. What truth there was in these statements, I do not know.
At all events I did not see either of these things myself. At two o'clock
we returned with our chief pilot on board.

On the 16th my companion went with the boats ashore, and marched onwards
with his crew in order for one hour and a half; but returned on board in
the evening without having made any discovery.

On the 17th the boats returned on shore, and directed their course then
more towards the south than they had hitherto done, and brought on board
from an island a quantity of sea-mews. The latitude 30° 42
minutes. Nothing new.

The 20th, returning to the shore, I found nothing but a great plain very
barren; many rocks on the coast; and the depth sixteen, fourteen, eleven,
eight, six, five, three, and two fathoms; the anchorage difficult.

On the 21st our boat once more went on shore, but without learning
anything new. The latitude was 29° 47'. Along the coast, the
wind south; the course N. and N.N.W. Towards evening we saw breakers
ahead, and sounded twenty-six, twenty, sixteen, and suddenly three
fathoms. We held close on the wind, and immediately got greater depth. It
was a reef, which stretched four or five leagues from the coast.

On the 22nd I started for the shore with our under-pilot. Being nearly
three leagues from the coast, and sailing along it for some leagues, we
found, close under the shore, ten and nine fathoms; a steep coast with
constant breakers. On landing we found, et two hundred paces from the
shore, a brackish stream, along which we walked landwards for a quarter
of an hour. The middle was rather deep, and the fish pretty plentiful. We
should have followed it further, but, the time being too short, we
returned, and on the road saw many footprints like those of a dog; but
saw no men, nor animals, nor trees, the country here being twice ac barren
as what we had before seen. Towards evening we returned together on board.

On the 21st (sic) our boat again made sail for the land, and keeping
along the shore, we found that here, in between 28 and 29°,
tolerably good anchorage might be found. The land is tolerably high. Our
chief pilot returning on board after dinner, informed us that he had seen
on the shore three or four men, and several more on the little downs
beyond, all quite naked, black, and of our own height; but that he had
not been able to get near them on account of the current; that afterwards,
rowing a little further, they had landed and found a lake, which extended
far into the country like a river. It was of brackish taste, and though
white had a reddish tinge caused by the bottom, which was of red sand
and mud. At noon we were in latitude 28° 16'; and at five o'clock,
after dinner, we anchored in a gulf, in eighteen fathoms water, good
holding ground, sand and mud, at about a cannon's shot from the shore.

On the 25th, early in the morning, I landed with nine of our crew, our
under pilot, together with the commandant of De Vlaming's soldiers, his
Dardewaak, and thirty-one soldiers. On reaching the shore, we found a
good many oysters; we put ourselves in marching order, but from the
fatigue occasioned by the excessive heat, and the obstructions on the
road from brushwood, we were obliged occasionally to rest ourselves, till
we reached the mountains, where we took our rest. But if the road had
been difficult, a greater trouble was yet in store for us; for finding no
fresh water, we thought we should have fainted with thirst, From this
point we could see our vessels, and wished a thousand times over that we
were on board again. However, the commandant of the soldiers, with two
men, went down, and soon came up to us again, with a look of
satisfaction, bringing news that he had discovered some fresh water, and
also a little hut, and about an hour's distance from our camp, some
footsteps, of the length of eighteen inches; upon which we resolved,
although it was beginning to be dark, to bend our steps in that
direction, an effort which, from the quantity of brushwood and the
approach of night, could not be made without much difficulty. On arriving
at the drinking place, we found a great pool, but the water was slightly
brackish. We encamped there, and having arranged that there should be a
soldier constantly on the watch as sentry, we passed the night there in
the best manner we could.

On the 26th, in the morning before sunrise, we continued our journey, and
shortly reached the aforesaid little hut, which had a good many
egg-shells around it, but the eighteen inch footsteps changed into
ordinary ones. This night also re remained on shore, and encamped again
near the pool. Although we were divided, we met with no men nor cattle,
but nothing but wild brushwood.

On the 27th, at the point of day, we betook ourselves to the shore, and
thence to our vessels, which we reached near noon: the crew complained
greatly of sore eyes.

On the 28th, having held a council before sunrise, we braced our sails,
and put to sea an hour and a half after dinner, the wind being S.S.W.
quarter W. in latitude, in 27° 50'. Shortly after, we again
steered for the coast N.E., and by N. to N.W. and N.N.W., hugging the
shore.

The 29th we still kept along the shore, the land high and rocky latitude
27° 40'.

The 30th the land rather high, until five o'clock in the afternoon watch,
when we cast anchor in an extensive gulf, which probably must have been
that named "Dirk Hartog's Reede."

On the 31st, two boats entered the gulf to explore it, and two others to
go fishing, which brought back in the evening a good quantity. The same
evening the chief pilot reported that they had been in the gulf, but had
seen nothing further to shew whether the part to the north of the gulf
were an island or not. They saw there a number of turtles.

On the 1st of February, early in the morning, our little boat went to the
coast to fish: our chief pilot, 'with De Vlaming's boat again went into
the gulf, and our skipper went on shore to fix up a commemorative tablet.

On the 2nd, we took three great sharks, one of which had nearly thirteen
little ones, of the size of a large pike. The two captains (for De
Vlaming had also gone on shore) returned on board late in the evening,
having been a good six or seven leagues a way. Our capttain brought with
him a large bird's head and related that he had seen two nests, made of
boughs, which were full three fathoms in circumference.

On the 3rd, Vlaming's chief pilot returned on board, he reported that he
had explored eighteen leagues, and that it was an island. He brought with
him a tin plate, which in the lapse of time had fallen from a post to
which it had been attached, and on which was cut the name of the captain,
Dirk Hartog, as well as the names of the first and second merchants, and
of the chief pilot of the vessel De Eendragt, which arrived here in the
year 1616, on the 25th October, and left for Bantam on the 27th of
the same month.

On the 4th of February, before daylight, we set sail, steering
our course along the island and at half-past two in the afternoon, we
cast anchor in sixteen fathoms on the N.E. of Dirk Hartog's Reede, the
gulf above mentioned in the latitude of 25° 40'. The two boats
took soundings all along the coast, N.E. and by N.W., but could not
see the country for the fog.

On the 5th, we took five turtles on the island, and having then held a
council, and prepared and provisioned our vessel and that of De Vlaming,
we, that is, our captain, under-pilot, and myself, and De Vlaming with
his Dardewaak and under-master and oarsmen, with close-reefed sails, the
wind being at south and rather high, set sail, steering along the island,
where we landed at nightfall at nearly four or five leagues distance from
our vessels.

On the 6th, still a good deal of wind. This day we made but little
progress and returned on shore at night. We saw a great many turtles, and
in the corner of a rock a very large nest, made like a stork's nest.

On the 7th, a good wind. In the evening we took a fish of immense size,
of which twenty-four of us partook. It had exactly the natural taste of
the ray. There remained enough for thirty more persons to feed on. We
slept on shore.

The 8th, in the morning, fair weather. We set sail for what the chief
pilot had pointed out to us a river, and up which we proceeded full three
leagues, but found it to be different from what it appeared. There were,
in fact, two rivers, which, for some time invisible, afterwards
reappeared and formed an island eastwards, a full half league from the
coast, in three, two, and one feet of water, surrounded on all sides by
rocks, and sand, and stones. We presently returned, being prevented by
the drought from approaching within half a league of the shore. We had a
heavy storm, and received the first rain of the South Land. In the
evening we returned on shore and encamped in a very unpropitious spot, at
once barren and wild.

On the 9th we steered for the mainland, which we reached near noon. This
coast extends with a winding N.E. to N. and S.W. to S. The coast is
steep, the sand of a reddish colour, rocky, dry and forbidding. In order
to get some good water, we made the crew dig several holes, but the
water was so salt that it could not be drunk without injury to health.
We saw several ducks. Sailing, along the coast, we reached a basin of
water, like a river, which gave us great hope of getting some fresh water.
Therefore with the flow we weathered the cape, and after sailing
half-an-hour reached a basin of round form, but in which we only found
salt water. All round it we dug several holes, but, in spite of all
our labour, we could find no fresh water. This night we spent in the
boat and De Vlaming on shore. Thunder, lightning and rain.

On the 10th of February, after midnight, withthe high tide, we set sail
from the above-mentioned basin of water, and then, as before, kept along
the coast at the distance of three or four leagues. Again we went ashore,
ascended a mountain, saw a valley, and beyond it a water course. Two men
immediately ran in haste to dig, but nowhere found fresh water, although
they saw all about several footprints of men. Setting sail from hence we
returned on board three hours after sunset and learned that on Friday,
the 8th of the month, our vessels had been compelled by the driving of
the sea to put out a league and a half from the shore, and had cast
anchor in seventeen fathoms; the shallop of the galliot had upset and the
carpenter was drowned, and De Vlaming's boat damaged. From De Vlaming's
vessel two dead men had been cast into the sea on the same day.

On the 11th, De Vlaming came on board in the morning. Having passed all
the night in a stormy sea, in latitude 25° 22' and being unable to cast
anchor, we were compelled to make sail.

On the 12th we held a council; and before noon made sail, holding our
course toward the north north-east and north along the coast, and in the
evening giving it a wide berth.

On the morning of the 13th we made sail for the coast, which bore off us
S. and N., and before noon saw a cape and three island two of which were
but small. Turning the cape, we held close on the wind in a great winding
of the coast, on the southward tack, and on various tacks 17, 15, 12, and
9 to 4 fathoms water. At five o'clock in the afternoon we made our course
W. to S. with a south wind, latitude 24°, 40'. In the evening we
cast anchor.

During the 14th we tacked continually all day, and in the evening cast
anchor.

On the morning of the 15th, in weighing anchor our cable would not hold,
but we saved our anchor. We set sail and cast anchor in the evening.

On the 16th we were tacking till the afternoon, steering towards the
north with a south wind, the shore bearing from us to the west, but we
kept afloat that night.

On the 17th we again neared the coast, which we held close, sailing
smartly with a south wind. The coast stretched south and north. We were
in 24° latitude, and the compass we laid at 5°.

On the 18th, in the morning, we braced our sails and steered along the
coast N.N.W.and N.W.Towards noon we saw breakers ashore. We were in
latitude 22°, 26', and we were tacking the whole day.

On the 19th, in the morning, we again kept along the coast, the land more
or less steep, but very low toward the south. Our course N.E. We saw a
considerably larger cape, from which a bank stretched out into the sea.
We kept close on the wind which was at S.W., and found ourselves in
latitude 21°, 34'. When we had passed the cape we came to the end
of the coast, and reached the river known as William's River, and
sailing up it, found ground but little suited for anchoring. We
therefore put out for the sea.

On the 20th we tacked towards De Vlaming, and in the evening cast anchor
near him. Latitude 21°, 28'. We held another council.

On the 21st, in the morning, we put to sea towards the N.W. latitude 21
degrees. Held once more a council. Received from De Vlaming three half
barrels of water. Half-an-hour after sun-rise, our captain came from on
board De Vlaming's vessel, from which five cannon shot were fired and
three from our vessel, as a signal of farewell to the miserable South
Land; and we steered our course N.N.W., in 135° of longitude from
the South Land.

* * *

From the date of the 22nd February to the 10th March inclusive, the
journal only gives the points of the wind, the time and course of the
ship towards Java.

* * * * * * * *

ACCOUNT OF THE OBSERVATIONS OF CAPTAIN WILLIAM DAMPIER ON THE COAST
OF NEW HOLLAND IN 1699, BEING AN EXTRACT FROM "A VOYAGE TO NEW
HOLLAND, ETC., IN THE YEAR 1699." Vol. III, 3rd ed., 1729 pp.75-107.

Having fair weather and the winds hanging southerly I jog'd on to the
eastward to make the Cape. On the third of June we saw a sail to
leeward of us, showing English colours. I bore away to speak with her,
and found her to be the Antelope of London, commanded by Captain Hammond,
and bound for the Bay of Bengal in the service of the New-East-India
Company. There were many passengers aboard, going to settle there
under Sir Edward Littleton, who was going chief thither: I went
aboard and was known by Sir Edward and Mr. Hedges, and kindly
received and treated by them and the commander; who had been
afraid of us before, though I had sent one of my officers aboard. They
had been in at the Cape, and came from thence the day before, having
stocked themselves with refreshments. They told me that they were by
reckoning 60 miles to the west of the Cape. While I was aboard them a
fine small westerly wind sprang up; therefore I shortened my stay with
them because I did not design to go in to the Cape. When I took leave I
was presented with half a mutton, 12 cabbages, 12 pumpkins, 6 pound of
butter, 6 couple of stock-fish, and a quantity of parsnips; sending them
some oatmeal which they wanted.

From my first setting out from England I did not design to touch at the
Cape; and that was one reason why I touched at Brazil, that there I might
refresh my men and prepare them for a long run to New Holland. We had not
yet seen the land, but about 2 in the afternoon we saw the Cape land
bearing east at about 16 leagues distance: and, Captain Hammond being
also bound to double the Cape, we jog'd on together this afternoon and
the next day, and had several fair sights of it; which may lay ahead.

To proceed: having still a westerly wind I jog'd on in company with the
Antelope till Sunday June the 4th, at 4 in the afternoon, when we parted;
they steering away for the East Indies and I keeping an east-south-east
course, the better to make my way for New Holland: for though New Holland
lies north-easterly from the Cape yet all ships bound towards the coast,
or the Straits of Sunda, ought to keep for a while in the same parallel,
or in a latitude between 35 and 40, at least a little to the south of the
east, that they may continue in a variable winds way; and not venture too
soon to stand so far to the north as to be within the verge of the
tradewind, which will put them by their easterly course. The wind
increased upon us; but we had yet sight of the Antelope, and of the land
too, till Tuesday the 6th June: and then we saw also by us an innumerable
company of fowls of divers sorts; so that we looked about to see if there
were not another dead whale, but saw none.

The night before, the sun set in a black cloud, which appeared just like
land, and the clouds above it were gilded of a dark red colour. And on
the Tuesday, as the sun drew near the horizon, the clouds were gilded
very prettily to the eye, though at the same time my mind dreaded the
consequences of it. When the sun was now not above 2° high it
entered into a dark smoky-coloured cloud that lay parallel with the
horizon, from whence presently seemed to issue many dusky blackish beams.
The sky was at this time covered with small hard clouds (as we call such
a lie scattering about, not likely to rain) very thick one by another;
and such of them as lay next to the bank of clouds at the horizon were of
a pure gold colour to 3 or 4° high above the bank. From these to
about 10° high they were redder and very bright; above them they
were of a darker colour still, to about 60 or 70° high, where the
clouds began to be of their common colour. I took the more particular
notice of all this because I have generally observed such coloured clouds
to appear before an approaching storm: and, this being winter here and
the time for bad weather, I expected and provided for a violent blast of
wind by reefing our topsails, and giving a strict charge to my officers
to hand them or take them in if the wind should grow stronger. The wind
was now at west-north-west a very brisk gale. About 12 o'clock at night
we had a pale whitish glare in the north-west which was another sign, and
intimated the storm be near at hand; and, the wind increasing upon it, we
presently handed our topsails, furled the mainsail, and went away only
with our foresail. Before 2 in the morning it came on very fierce, and we
kept right before wind and sea, the wind still increasing: but the ship
was very governable, and steered incomparably well. At 8 in the morning
we settled our foreyard, lowering it 4 or 5 foot, and we ran very
swiftly; especially when the squalls of rain or hail from a black cloud
came overhead, for then it blew excessive hard. These, though they did
not last long, yet came very thick and fast one after another. The sea
also ran very high; but we running so violently before wind and sea we
shipped little or no water; though a little washed into our upper deck
ports; and with it a scuttle or cuttlefish was cast up on the carriage of
a gun.

The wind blew extraordinary hard all Wednesday the 7th of June but abated
of its fierceness before night: yet it continued a brisk gale till about
the 16th, and still a moderate one till the 19th day; by which time we
had run about 600 leagues: for the most part of which time the wind was
in some point of the west, namely from the west-north-west to the south
by west. It blew hardest when at west or between the west and south-west,
but after it veered more southerly the foul weather broke up: this I
observed at other times also in these seas, that when the storms at west
veered to the southward they grew less; and that when the wind came to
the east of the south we had still smaller gales, calms, and fair
weather. As for the westerly winds on that side the Cape, we like them
never the worse for being violent, for they drive us the faster to the
eastward; and are therefore the only winds coveted by those who sail
towards such parts of the East Indies as lie south of the equator; as
Timor, Java, and Sumatra; and by the ships bound for China, or any other
that are to pass through the Straits of Sunda. Those ships having once
passed the Cape keep commonly pretty far southerly, on purpose to meet
with these west winds, which in the winter season of these climates they
soon meet with; for then the winds are generally westerly at the Cape,
and especially to the southward of it: but in their summer months they
get to the southward of 40° usually ere they meet with the
westerly winds. I was not at this time in a higher latitude than 36°
40', and oftentimes was more northerly, altering my latitude
often as winds and weather required; for in such long runs it is
best to shape one's course according to the winds. And if in steering to
the east we should be obliged to bear a little to the north or south of
it it is no great matter; for it is but sailing 2 or 3 points from the
wind when it is either northerly or southerly; and this not only eases
the ship from straining but shortens the way more than if a ship was kept
close on a wind, as some men are fond of doing.

On 19th of June we were in latitude 34° 17' south and
longitude from the Cape 39° 24' east, and had small gales
and calms. The winds were at north-east by east and continued in some
part of the east till the 27th day. When it having been some time at
north-north-east it came about at north and then to the west of the
north, and continued in the west-board (between the north-north-west and
south-south-west) till the 4th of July; in which time we ran 782 miles;
then the winds came about again to the east, we reckoning ourselves to be
in a meridian 1100 leagues east of the Cape; and, having fair weather,
sounded, but had no ground.

We met with little of remark in this voyage, besides being accompanied
with fowls all the way, especially pintado-birds, and seeing now and then
a whale: but as we drew nigher the coast of New Holland we saw frequently
3 or 4 whales together. When we were about 90 leagues from the land we
began to see seaweeds, all of one sort; and as we drew nigher the shore
we saw them more frequently. At about 30 leagues distance we began to see
some scuttle-bones floating on the water; and drawing still nigher the
land we saw greater quantities of them.

July 25th, being in latitude 26° 14' south and longitude east
from the Cape of Good Hope 85° 52', we saw a large garfish
leap 4 times by us, which seemed to be as big as a porpoise. It was now
very fair weather, and the sea was full of a sort of very small grass or
moss, which as it floated in the water seemed to have been some spawn of
fish; and there was among it some small fry. The next day the sea was
full of small round things like pearl, some as big as white peas; they
were very clear and transparent, and upon crushing any of them a drop of
water would come forth: the skin that contained the water was so thin
that it was but just discernable. Some weeds swam by us so that we did
not doubt but we should quickly see land. On the 27th also some weeds
swam by us, and the birds that had flown along with us all the way almost
from Brazil now left us, except only 2 or 3 shearwaters. On the 28th we
saw many weeds swim by us and some whales, blowing. On the 29th we had
dark cloudy weather with much thunder, lightning, and violent rains in
the morning; but in the evening it grew fair. We saw this day a
scuttle-bone swim by us, and some of our young men a seal, as it should
seem by their description of its head. I saw also some bonetas, and some
skipjacks, a fish about 8 inches long, broad, and sizable, not much
unlike a roach; which our seamen call so from their leaping about.

The 30th of July, being still nearer the land, we saw abundance of
scuttle-bones and seaweed, more tokens that we were not far from it; and
saw also a sort of fowls, the like of which we had not seen in the whole
voyage, all the other fowls having now left us. These were as big as
lapwings; of a grey colour, black about their eyes, with red sharp bills,
long wings, their tails long and forked like swallows; and they flew
flapping their wings like lapwings. In the afternoon we met with a
rippling tide or current, or the water of some shoal or overfall; but
were past it before we could sound. The birds last mentioned and this
were further signs of land. In the evening we had fair weather and a
small gale at west. At 8 o'clock we sounded again; but had no ground.

We kept on still to the eastward, with an easy sail looking out sharp:
for by the many signs we had I did expect that we were near the land. At
12 o'clock in the night I sounded and had 45 fathom, coarse sand and
small white shells. I presently clapped on a wind and stood to the south,
with the wind at west, because I thought we were to the south of a shoal
called the Abrolhos (an appellative name for shoals as it seems to me)
which in a chart I had of that coast is laid down in 27° 28'
latitude stretching about 7 leagues into the sea. I was the day
before in 27° 38' by reckoning. And afterwards, steering
east by south purposely to avoid it, I thought I must have been to the
south of it: but sounding again at 1 o'clock in the morning August the
first, we had but 25 fathom, coral rocks; and so found the shoal was to
the south of us. We presently tacked again, and stood to the north, and
then soon deepened our water; for at 2 in the morning we had 26 fathom
coral still: at 3 we had 28 coral ground: at 4 we had 30 fathom, coarse
sand, with some coral: at 5 we had 45 fathom, coarse sand and shells;
being now off the shoal, as appeared by the sand and shells, and by
having left the coral. By all this I knew we had fallen into the north of
the shoal, and that it was laid down wrong in my sea-chart: for I found
it lie in about 27° latitude, and by our run in the next day I
found that the outward edge of it, which I sounded on, lies 16 leagues
off shore. When it was day we steered in east-north-east with a fine
brisk gale; but did not see the land till 9 in the morning, when we saw
it from our topmast-head, and were distant from it about 10 leagues;
having then 40 fathom water, and clean sand. About 3 hours after we saw
it on our quarter-deck, being by judgment about 6 leagues off, and we had
then 40 fathom, clean sand. As we ran in this day and the next we took
several sights of it, at different bearings and distances; from which it
appeared as you see. And here I would note once for all that the
latitudes marked in the draughts, or sights here given, are not the
latitude of the land, but of the ship when the sight was taken. This
morning, August the first, as we were standing in, we saw several large
seafowls, like our gannets on the coast of England, flying 3 or 4
together; and a sort of white seamews, but black about the eyes, and with
forked tails. We strove to run in near the shore to seek for a harbour to
refresh us after our tedious voyage; having made one continued stretch
from Brazil hither of about 114° designing from hence also to
begin the discovery I had a mind to make on New Holland and New Guinea.
The land was low, and appeared even, and as we drew nearer to it, it made
(as you see in Table iv, No. 3, 4, 5)[*1] with some red and some white
cliffs; these last in latitude 26 10 south, where you will find 54 fathom
within 4 miles of the shore.

[*1) It has not been deemed necessary for the present purpose to
reproduce these plates.]

About the latitude of 26° south we saw an opening, and ran in,
hoping to find a harbour there: but when we came to its mouth, which was
about 2 leagues wide, we saw rocks and foul ground within, and therefore
stood out again: there we had 20 fathom water within 2 mile of the shore.
The land everywhere appeared pretty low, flat and even; but with steep
cliffs to the sea; and when we came near it there were no trees, shrubs
or grass to be seen. The soundings in the latitude of 26° south,
from about 8 or 9 leagues off till you come within a league of the shore,
are generally about 40 fathom; differing but little, seldom above 3 or 4
fathom. But the lead brings up very different sorts of sand, some coarse,
some fine; and of several colours, as yellow, white, grey, brown, bluish
and reddish.

When I saw there was no harbour here, nor good anchoring, I stood off to
sea again, in the evening of the second of August, fearing a storm on a
lee shore, in a place where there was no shelter, and desiring at least
to have sea-room: for the clouds began to grow thick in the western
board, and the wind was already there, and began to blow fresh almost
upon the shore; which at this place lies along north-north-west and
south-south-east. By 9 o'clock at night we had got a pretty good offing;
but, the wind still increasing, I took in my main topsail, being able to
carry no more sail than two courses and the mizzen.

At 2 in the morning August 3rd, it blew very hard, and the sea was much
raised; so that I furled all my sails but my mainsail. Though the
wind blew so hard we had pretty clear weather till noon: but then
the whole sky was blackened with thick clouds, and we had some rain,
which would last a quarter of an hour at a time, and then it would
blow very fierce while the squalls of rain were over our heads; but
as soon as they were gone the wind was by much abated, the stress
of the storm being over. We sounded several times, but had no ground
till 8 o'clock August the 4th in the evening; and then had 60 fathom
water, coral ground. At 10 we had 56 fathom fine sand. At 12 we had
55 fathom, fine sand, of a pale bluish colour. It was now pretty
moderate weather; yet I made no sail till morning; but then, the wind
veering about to the south-west, I made sail and stood to the north: and
at 11 o'clock the next day August 5 we saw land again, at about 10
leagues distance. This noon we were in latitude 25° 30',
and in the afternoon our cook died, an old man, who had been sick a great
while, being infirm before we came out of England.

The 6th of August in the morning we saw an opening in the land and we ran
into it, and anchored in 7 and a half fathom water, 2 miles from the
shore, clean sand. It was somewhat difficult getting in here, by reason
of many shoals we met with: but I sent my boat sounding before me. The
mouth of this sound, which I called Shark's Bay, lies in about 25°
south latitude, and our reckoning made its longitude from the Cape of
Good Hope to be about 87°; which is less by 195 leagues than is
usually laid down in our common charts, if our reckoning was right and
our glasses did not deceive us. As soon as I came to anchor in this bay
(of which I have given a plan) I sent my boat ashore to seek for fresh
water: but in the evening my men returned, having found none. The next
morning I went ashore myself, carrying pickaxes and shovels with me, to
dig for water: and axes to cut wood. We tried in several places for water
but, finding none after several trials, nor in several miles compass, we
left any farther search for it and, spending the rest of the day in
cutting wood, we went aboard at night.

The land is of an indifferent height, so that it may be seen 9 or 10
leagues off. It appears at a distance very even; but as you come nigher
you find there are many gentle risings, though none steep nor high. It is
all a steep shore against the open sea: but in this bay or sound we were
now in the land is low by the seaside, rising gradually in within the
land. The mould is sand by the seaside, producing a large sort of
samphire, which bears a white flower. Farther in the mould is reddish, a
sort of sand producing some grass, plants, and shrubs. The grass grows in
great tufts as big as a bushel, here and there a tuft: being intermixed
with much heath, much of the kind we have growing on our commons in
England. Of trees or shrubs here are divers sorts; but none above 10 foot
high: their bodies about 3 foot about, and 5 or 6 foot high before you
come to the branches, which are bushy and composed of small twigs there
spreading abroad, though thick set, and full of leaves; which were mostly
long and narrow. The colour of the leaves was on one side whitish, and on
the other green; and the bark of the trees was generally of the same
colour with the leaves, of a pale green. Some of these trees were
sweet-scented, and reddish within the bark, like the sassafras, but
redder. Most of the trees and shrubs had at this time either blossoms or
berries on them. The blossoms of the different sort of trees were of
several colours, as red, white, yellow, etc., but mostly blue: and these
generally smelt very sweet and fragrant, as did some also of the rest.
There were also beside some plants, herbs, and tall flowers, some very
small flowers, growing on the ground, that were sweet and beautiful, and
for the most part unlike any I had seen elsewhere.[*1]

[*1) In Dr. Brown's Prodromus Florce Novice Hollandiae et Insulae Van
Diemen, occurs the following under the family of Goodenoviae: "Genus
Scaevolae et Diaspasi propinquum, sed ab iisdem sat distinctum, dixi in
memoriam Gulielmi Dampier, navarchi et peregrinatoris celeberrimi, in
variis suis itineribus nature semper assidui observatoris, nec
botanicem negligentis, qui oram occidentalem Novae Hollandiae bis
visitavit, cujus regionis plant aliquae depictae:, in relatione itineris
extant, et inter ineditas secum reportatas (quarum plures nunc in Museo
Oxoniensi asservantur) Dampiera incana fuit.]

There were but few land-fowls; we saw none but eagles of the larger sorts
of birds; but 5 or 6 sorts of small birds. The biggest sort of these were
not bigger than larks; some no bigger than wrens, all singing with great
variety of fine shrill notes; and we saw some of their nests with young
ones in them. The water-fowls are ducks (which had young ones now, this
being the beginning of the spring in these parts) curlews, galdens,
crab-catchers, cormorants, gulls, pelicans; and some waterfowl, such as I
have not seen anywhere besides.

The land animals that we saw here were only a sort of raccoons,
different from those of the West Indies, chiefly as to their legs;
for these have very short forelegs; but go jumping upon them as the
others do (and like them are very good meat) and a sort of guanos, of
the same shape and size with other guanos, described (vol. i, p. 57),
but differing from them in 3 remarkable particulars: for these had a
larger and uglier head, and had no tail: and at the rump, instead of the
tail there, they had a stump of a tail which appeared like another head;
but not really such, being without mouth or eyes: yet this creature
seemed by this means to have a head at each end; and, which may be
reckoned a fourth difference, the legs also seemed all 4 of them to
be forelegs, being all alike in shape and length, and seeming by
the joints and bending to be made as if they were to go indifferently
either head or tail foremost. They were speckled black and yellow
like toads, and had scales or knobs on their backs like those of
crocodiles, plated onto the skin, or stuck into it, as part of the skin.
They are very slow in motion; and when a man comes nigh them they will
stand still and hiss, not endeavouring to get away. Their livers are also
spotted black and yellow: and the body when opened has a very unsavoury
smell. I did never see such ugly creatures anywhere but here. The iguanas
I have observed to be very good meat: and I have often eaten of them with
pleasure; but though I have eaten of snakes, crocodiles and alligators,
and many creatures that look frightfully enough, and there are but few I
should have been afraid to eat of if pressed by hunger, yet I think my
stomach would scarce have served to venture upon these New Holland
iguanas, both the looks and the smell of them being so offensive[*1].

[*) Trachydosaurus rugosus. Family of lizards Scincidae.]

The sea fish that we saw here (for here was no river, land, or pond of
fresh water to be seen) are chiefly sharks. There are abundance of them
in this particular sound, and I therefore give it the name of Shark's
Bay. Here are also skates, thornbacks, and other fish of the ray kind
(one sort especially like the sea-devil) and garfish, bonetas, etc. Of
shellfish we got here mussels, periwinkles, limpets, oysters, both of the
pearl kind and also eating-oysters, as well the common sort as long
oysters; beside cockles, etc., the shore was lined thick with many other
sorts of very strange and beautiful shells, for variety of colour and
shape, most finely spotted with red, black, or yellow, etc., such as I
have not seen anywhere but at this place. I brought away a great many of
them; but lost all except a very few, and those not of the best.

There are also some green turtle weighing about 200 pounds. Of these we
caught 2 which the water ebbing had left behind a ledge of rock, which
they could not creep over. These served all my company 2 days; and they
were indifferent sweet meat. Of the sharks we caught a great many which
our men eat very savourily. Among them we caught one which was 11 foot
long. The space between its two eyes was 20 inches, and 18 inches from
one corner of his mouth to the other. Its maw was like a leather sack,
very thick, and so tough that a sharp knife could scarce cut it: in which
we found the head and bones of a hippopotamus; the hairy lips of which
were still sound and not putrefied, and the jaw was also firm, out of
which we plucked a great many teeth, 2 of them 8 inches long and as big
as a man's thumb, small at one end, and a little crooked; the rest not
above half so long. The maw was full of jelly which stank extremely:
however I saved for a while the teeth and the shark's jaw: the flesh of
it was divided among my men; and they took care that no waste should be
made of it.

'Twas the 7th of August when we came into Shark's Bay; in which we
anchored at three several places, and stayed at the first of them (on the
west side of the bay) till the 11th. During which time we searched about,
as I said, for fresh water, digging wells, but to no purpose. However we
cut good store of firewood at this first anchoring-place; and my company
were all here very well refreshed with raccoons, turtle, shark, and other
fish, and some fowls; so that we were now all much brisker than when we
came in hither. Yet still I was for standing farther into the bay, partly
because I had a mind to increase my stock of fresh water, which was began
to be low; and partly for the sake of discovering this part of the coast.
I was invited to go further by seeing from this anchoring-place all open
before me; which therefore I designed to search before I left the bay. So
on the 11th about noon I steered farther in, with an easy sail because we
had but shallow water: we kept therefore good looking-out for fear of
shoals; sometimes shortening, sometimes deepening the water. About 2 in
the afternoon we saw the land ahead that makes the south of the bay, and
before night we had again shoalings from that shore: and therefore
shortened sail and stood off and on all night under, 2 topsails,
continually sounding, having never more than 10 fathom, and seldom less
than 7. The water deepened and shoaled so very gently that in heaving the
lead 5 or 6 times we should scarce have a foot difference. When we came
into 7 fathom either way we presently went about. From this south part of
the bay we could not see the land from whence we came in the afternoon:
and this land we found to be an island of 3 or 4 leagues long, as is seen
in the plan, but it appearing barren I did not strive to go nearer it;
and the rather because the winds would not permit us to do it without
much trouble, and at the openings the water was generally shoal. I
therefore made no farther attempts in this south-west and south part of
the bay, but steered away to eastward to see if there was any land that
way, for as yet we had seen none there. On the 12th in the morning we
passed by the north point of that land and were confirmed in the
persuasion of its being an island by seeing an opening to the east of it,
as we had done on the west. Having fair weather, a small gale, and smooth
water, we stood further on in the bay to see what land was on the east of
it. Our soundings at first were 7 fathom, which held so a great while,
but at length it decreased to 6. Then we saw the land right ahead that in
the plan makes the east of the bay. We could not come near it with the
ship, having but shoal water; and it being dangerous lying there, and the
land extraordinary low, very unlikely to have fresh water (though it had
a few trees on it, seemingly mangroves) and much of it probably covered
at high-water, I stood out again that afternoon, deepening the water, and
before night anchored in 8 fathom, clean white sand, about the middle of
the bay. The next day we got up our anchor; and that afternoon came to an
anchor once more near 2 islands and a shoal of coral rocks that face the
bay. Here I scrubbed my ship; and, finding it very improbable I should
get anything further here, I made the best of my way out to sea again,
sounding all the way: but, finding by the shallowness of the water that
there was no going out to sea to the east of the two islands that face
the bay, nor between them, I returned to the west entrance, going out by
the same way I came in at, only on the east instead of the west side of
the small shoal to be seen in the plan; in which channel we had 10, 12,
and 13 fathom water, still deepening upon us till we were out at sea. The
day before we came out I sent a boat ashore to the most northerly of the
2 islands, which is the least of them, catching many small fish in the
meanwhile with hook and line. The boat's crew returning told me that the
isle produces nothing but a sort of green, short, hard, prickly grass,
affording neither wood nor fresh water; and that a sea broke between the
2 islands, a sign that the water was shallow. They saw a large turtle and
many skates and thornbacks, but caught none.

It was August the 14th when I sailed out of this bay or sound, the mouth
of which lies, as I said, in 25° 5', designing to coast
along to the north-east till I might commodiously put in at some other
part of New Holland. In passing out we saw 3 water-serpents swimming
about in the sea, of a yellow colour, spotted with dark brown spots. They
were each about 4 foot long, and about the bigness of a man's wrist, and
were the first I saw on this coast, which abounds with several sorts of
them. We had the winds at our first coming out at north and the land
lying north-easterly. We plied off and on, getting forward but little
till the next day: when the wind coming at south-south-west and south we
began to coast it along the shore to the northward, keeping at 6 or 7
leagues off shore; and sounding often, we had between 40 and 46 fathom
water, brown sand with some white shells. This 15th of August we were in
latitude 24° 41'. On the 16th day at noon we were in 23° 22'. The
wind coming at east by north we could not keep the shore aboard,
but were forced to go farther off, and lost sight of the land.
Then sounding we had no ground with 80 fathom line; however the
wind shortly after came about again to the southward, and then we jog'd
on again to the northward and saw many small dolphins and whales, and
abundance of scuttle-shells swimming on the sea; and some water-snakes
every day. The 17th we saw the land again, and took a sight of it.

The 18th in the afternoon, being 3 or 4 leagues offshore, I saw a shoal
point, stretching from the land into the sea a league or more. The sea
broke high on it; by which I saw plainly there was a shoal there. I stood
farther off and coasted alongshore to about 7 or 8 leagues distance: and
at 12 o'clock at night we sounded, and had but 20 fathom hard sand. By
this I found I was upon another shoal, and so presently steered off west
half an hour, and had then 40 fathom. At one in the morning of the 18th
day we had 85 fathom: by two we could find no ground; and then I ventured
to steer alongshore again, due north, which is two points wide of the
coast (that lies north-north-east) for fear of another shoal. I would not
be too far off from the land, being desirous to search into it wherever I
should find an opening or any convenience of searching about for water,
etc. When we were off the shoal point I mentioned where we had but 20
fathom water, we had in the night abundance of whales about the ship,
some ahead, others astern, and some on each side blowing and making a
very dismal noise; but when we came out again into deeper water they left
us. Indeed the noise that they made by blowing and dashing of the sea
with their tails, making it all of a breach and foam, was very dreadful
to us, like the breach of the waves in very shoal water, or among rocks.
The shoal these whales were upon had depth of water sufficient, no less
than 20 fathom, as I said; and it lies in latitude 22° 22'.
The shore was generally bold all along; we had met with no shoal at sea
since the Abrolho Shoal, when we first fell on the New Holland coast in
the latitude of 28, till yesterday in the afternoon, and this night.

This morning also when we expected by the chart we had with us to have been
11 leagues offshore we were but 4; so that either our charts were faulty,
which yet hitherto and afterwards we found true enough as to the lying of
the coast, or else here was a tide unknown to us that deceived us; though
we had found very little of any tide on this coast hitherto. As to our
winds in the coasting thus far, as we had been within the verge of the
general trade (though interrupted by the storm I mentioned) from the
latitude of 28, when we first fell in with the coast: and by that time we
were in the latitude of 25 we had usually the regular tradewind (which is
here south-south-east) when we were at any distance from shore: but we
had often sea and land-breezes, especially when near shore, and when in
Shark's Bay; and had a particular north-west wind, or storm, that set us
in thither. On this 18th of August we coasted with a brisk gale of the
true tradewind at south-south-east, very fair and clear weather; but,
hauling off in the evening to sea, were next morning out of sight of
land; and the land now trending away north-easterly, and we being to the
northward of it, and the wind also shrinking from the south-south-east to
the east-south-east (that is, from the true tradewind to the seabreeze,
as the land now lay) we could not get in with the land again yet awhile,
so as to see it, though we trimmed sharp and kept close on a wind. We
were this 19th day in latitude 21° 42'. The 20th we were in
latitude 19° 37' and kept close on a wind to get sight of
the land again, but could not yet see it. We had very fair weather, and
though we were so far from the land as to be out of sight of it, yet we
had the sea and land-breezes. In the night we had the land-breeze at
south-south-east, a small gentle gale; which in the morning about
sunrising would shift about gradually (and withal increasing in strength)
till about noon we should have it at east-south-east, which is the true
sea breeze here. Then it would blow a brisk gale, so that we could scarce
carry our topsails double reefed: and it would continue thus till 3 in
the afternoon, when it would decrease again. The weather was fair all the
while, not a cloud to be seen; but very hazy, especially nigh the
horizon. We sounded several times this 20th day and at first had no
ground; but had afterwards from 52 to 45 fathom, coarse brown sand, mixed
with small brown and white stones, with dints besides in the tallow.

The 21st day also we had small land breezes in the night and seabreezes
in the day: and as we saw some seasnakes every day, so this day we saw a
great many, of two different sorts or shapes. One sort was yellow, and
about the bigness of a man's wrist, about 4 foot long, having a flat tail
about 4 fingers broad. The other sort was much smaller and shorter, round
and spotted black and yellow. This day we sounded several times, and had
45 fathom sand. We did not make the land till noon, and then saw it first
from our topmast-head. It bore south-east by east about 9 leagues
distance; and it appeared like a cape or head of land. The seabreeze this
day was not so strong as the day before, and it veered out more; so that
we had a fair wind to run in with to the shore, and at sunset anchored in
20 fathom, clean sand, about 5 leagues from the bluff point; which was
not a cape (as it appeared at a great distance) but the easternmost end
of an island, about 5 or 6 leagues in length and 1 in breadth. There were
3 or 4 rocky islands about a league from us between us and the bluff
point; and we saw many other islands both to the east and west of it, as
far as we could see either way from our topmast-head: and all within them
to the south there was nothing but islands of a pretty height, that may
be seen 8 or 9 leagues off. By what we saw of them they must have been a
range of islands of about 20 leagues in length, stretching from
east-north-east to west-south-west and, for ought I know, as far as to
those of Shark's Bay; and to a considerable breadth also (for we could
see 9 or 10 leagues in among them) towards the continent or mainland of
New Holland, if there be any such thing hereabouts: and, by the great
tides I met with a while afterwards, more to the north-east, I had a
strong suspicion that here might be a kind of archipelago of islands and
a passage possibly to the south of New Holland and New Guinea into the
great South Sea eastward; which I had thoughts also of attempting in my
return from New Guinea (had circumstances permitted) and told my officers
so: but I would not attempt it at this time because we wanted water and
could not depend upon finding it there. This place is in the latitude of
20° 21', but in the chart that I had of this coast, which
was Tasman's, it was laid down in 19° 50', and the shore is
laid down as all along joining in one body or continent, with some
openings appearing like rivers; and not like islands, as really they are.
See several sights of it, Table 4 Numbers 8, 9, and 10. This place lies
more northerly by 40' than is laid down in Mr. Tasman's chart: and
beside its being made a firm, continued land, only with some openings
like the mouths of rivers, I found the soundings also different from what
the pricked line of his course shows them, and generally shallower than
he makes them; which inclines me to think that he came not so near the
shore as his line shows, and so had deeper soundings, and could not so
well distinguish the islands. His meridian or difference of longitude
from Shark's Bay agrees well enough with my account, which is 232
leagues, though we differ in latitude. And to confirm my conjecture that
the line of his course is made too near the shore, at least not far to
the east of this place, the water is there so shallow that he could not
come there so nigh.

But to proceed: in the night we had a small land-breeze, and in the
morning I weighed anchor, designing to run in among the islands, for they
had large channels between them, of a league wide at least, and some 2 or
3 leagues wide. I sent in my boat before to sound, and if they found
shoal water to return again; but if they found water enough to go ashore
on one of the islands and stay till the ship came in: where they might in
the meantime search for water. So we followed after with the ship,
sounding as we went in, and had 20 fathom, till within 2 leagues of the
bluff head, and then we had shoal water, and very uncertain soundings:
yet we ran in still with an easy sail, sounding and looking out well, for
this was dangerous work. When we came abreast of the bluff head, and
about 2 mile from it, we had but 7 fathom: then we edged away from it,
but had no more water; and, running in a little farther, we had but 4
fathoms; so we anchored immediately; and yet when we had veered out a
third of a cable we had 7 fathom water again; so uncertain was the water.
My boat came immediately aboard, and told me that the island was very
rocky and dry, and they had little hopes of finding water there. I sent
them to sound, and bade them, if they found a channel of 8 or 10 fathom
water to keep on, and we would follow with the ship. We were now about 4
leagues within the outer small rocky islands, but still could see nothing
but islands within us; some 5 or 6 leagues long, others not above a mile
round. The large islands were pretty high; but all appeared dry and
mostly rocky and barren. The rocks looked of a rusty yellow colour, and
therefore I despaired of getting water on any of them; but was in some
hopes of finding a channel to run in beyond all these islands, could I
have spent time here, and either get to the main of New Holland, or find
out some other islands that might afford us water and other refreshments;
besides, that among so many islands we might have found some sort of rich
mineral or ambergris, it being a good latitude for both these. But we had
not sailed above a league farther before our water grew shoaler again,
and then we anchored in 6 fathom hard sand.

We were now on the inner side of the island, on whose outside is the
bluff point. We rode a league from the island and I presently went
ashore, and carried shovels to dig for water, but found none. There grow
here 2 or three sorts of shrubs, one just like rosemary; and therefore I
called this Rosemary Island. It grew in great plenty here, but had no
smell. Some of the other shrubs had blue and yellow flowers; and we found
2 sorts of grain like beans: the one grew on bushes; the other on a sort
of creeping vine that runs along on the ground, having very thick broad
leaves and the blossom like a bean blossom, but much larger, and of a
deep red colour, looking very beautiful. We saw here some cormorants,
gulls, crab-catchers, etc., a few small land-birds, and a sort of white
parrot, which flew a great many together. We found some shellfish, namely
limpets, periwinkles, and abundance of small oysters, growing on the
rocks, which were very sweet. In the sea we saw some green-turtle, a
pretty many sharks, and abundance of water-snakes of several sorts and
sizes. The stones were all of rusty colour, and ponderous.

We saw a smoke on an island 3 or 4 leagues off; and here also the bushes
had been burned, but we found no other sign of inhabitants: it was
probable that on the island where the smoke was there were inhabitants,
and fresh water for them. In the evening I went aboard, and consulted
with my officers whether it was best to send thither, or to search among
any other of these islands with my boat; or else go from hence, and coast
alongshore with the ship till we could find some better place than this
was to ride in, where we had shoal water and lay exposed to winds and
tides. They all agreed to go from hence; so I gave orders to weigh in the
morning as soon as it should be light, and to get out with the
land breeze.

According, August the 23rd, at 5 in the morning we ran out, having a
pretty fresh land-breeze at south-south-east. By 8 o'clock we were got
out, and very seasonably; for before 9 the seabreeze came on us very
strong, and increasing, we took in our topsails and stood off under 2
courses and a mizzen, this being as much sail as we could carry. The sky
was clear, there being not one cloud to be seen; but the horizon appeared
very hazy, and the sun at setting the night before, and this morning at
rising, appeared very red. The wind continued very strong till 12, then
it began to abate: I have seldom met with a stronger breeze. These strong
seabreezes lasted thus in their turns 3 or 4 days. They sprang up with
the sunrise; by 9 o'clock they were very strong, and so continued till
noon, when they began to abate; and by sunset there was little wind, or a
calm till the land-breezes came; which we should certainly have in the
morning about 1 or 2 o'clock. The land-breezes were between the
south-south-west and south-south-east. The seabreezes between the
east-north-east and north-north-east. In the night while calm we fished
with hook and line and caught good store of fish, namely, snapper, bream,
old-wives, and dogfish. When these last came we seldom caught any others;
for if they did not drive away the other fish, yet they would be sure to
keep them from taking our hooks, for they would first have them
themselves, biting very greedily. We caught also a monkfish, of which I
brought home the picture.

On the 25th of August we still coasted alongshore, that we might the
better see any opening; kept sounding, and had about 20 fathom clean
sand. The 26th day, being about 4 leagues offshore, the water began
gradually to shoal from 20 to 14 fathom. I was edging in a little towards
the land, thinking to have anchored; but presently after the water
decreased almost at once, till we had but 5 fathom. I durst therefore
adventure no farther, but steered out the same way that we came in; and
in a short time had 10 fathom (being then about 4 leagues and a half from
the shore) and even soundings. I steered away east-north-east coasting
along as the land lies. This day the seabreezes began to be very moderate
again, and we made the best of our way alongshore, only in the night
edging off a little for fear of shoals. Ever since we left Shark's Bay we
had fair clear weather, and so for a great while still.

The 27th day we had 20 fathom water all night, yet we could not see land
till 1 in the afternoon from our topmast-head. By 3 we could just discern
land from our quarter-deck; we had then 16 fathom. The wind was at north
and we steered east by north, which is but one point in on the land; yet
we decreased our water very fast; for at 4 we had but 9 fathom; the next
cast but 7, which frighted us; and we then tacked instantly and stood
off: but in a short time the wind coming at north-west and
west-north-west we tacked again, and steered north-north-east and then
deepened our water again, and had all night from 15 to 20 fathom.

The 28th day we had between 20 and 40 fathom. We saw no land this day but
saw a great many snakes and some whales. We saw also some boobies and
noddy-birds; and in the night caught one of these last. It was of another
shape and colour than any I had seen before. It had a small long bill, as
all of them have, flat feet like ducks' feet; its tail forked like a
swallow, but longer and broader, and the fork deeper than that of the
swallow, with very long wings; the top or crown of the head of this noddy
was coal-black, having also small black streaks round about and close to
the eyes; and round these streaks on each side a pretty broad white
circle. The breast, belly, and underpart of the wings of this noddy were
white; and the back and upper part of its wings of a faint black or smoke
colour. See a picture of this and of the common one, Birds Figures 5 and
6. Noddies are seen in most places between the tropics, as well in the
East Indies, and on the coast of Brazil, as in the West Indies. They rest
ashore a-nights, and therefore we never see them far at sea, not above 20
or 30 leagues, unless driven off in a storm. When they come about a ship
they commonly perch in the night, and will sit still till they are taken
by the seamen. They build on cliffs against the sea, or rocks, as I have
said.

The 30th day being in latitude 18° 21' we made the land
again, and saw many great smokes near the shore; and having fair weather
and moderate breezes I steered in towards it. At 4 in the afternoon I
anchored in 8 fathom water, clear sand, about 3 leagues and a half from
the shore. I presently sent my boat to sound nearer in, and they found 10
fathom about a mile farther in; and from thence still farther in the
water decreased gradually to 9, 8, 7, and 2 mile distance to 6 fathom.
This evening we saw an eclipse of the moon, but it was abating before the
moon appeared to us; for the horizon was very hazy, so that we could not
see the moon till she had been half an hour above the horizon: and at 2
hours, 22' after sunset, by the reckoning of our glasses, the
eclipse was quite gone, which was not of many digits. The moon's centre
was then 33° 40' high.

The 31st of August betimes in the morning I went ashore with 10 or 11 men
to search for water. We went armed with muskets and cutlasses for our
defence, expecting to see people there; and carried also shovels and
pickaxes to dig wells. When we came near the shore we saw 3 tall black
naked men on the sandy bay ahead of us: but as we rowed in they went
away. When we were landed I sent the boat with two men in her to lie a
little from the shore at an anchor, to prevent being seized; while the
rest of us went after the 3 black men, who were now got on the top of a
small hill about a quarter of a mile from us, with 8 or 9 men more in
their company. They seeing us coming ran away. When we came on the top of
the hill where they first stood we saw a plain savannah, about half a
mile from us, farther in from the sea. There were several things like
haycocks standing in the savannah; which at a distance we thought were
houses, looking just like the Hottentots' houses at the Cape of Good
Hope: but we found them to be so many rocks. We searched about these for
water, but could find none, nor any houses, nor people, for they were all
gone. Then we turned again to the place where we landed, and there we dug
for water.

While we were at work there came nine or 10 of the natives to a small
hill a little way from us, and stood there menacing and threatening of
us, and making a great noise. At last one of them came towards us, and
the rest followed at a distance. I went out to meet him, and came within
50 yards of him, making to him all the signs of peace and friendship I
could; but then he ran away, neither would they any of them stay for us
to come nigh them; for we tried two or three times. At last I took two
men with me, and went in the afternoon along by the seaside, purposely to
catch one of them, if I could, of whom I might learn where they got their
fresh water. There were 10 or 12 natives a little way off, who seeing us
three going away from the rest of our men, followed us at a distance. I
thought they would follow us: but there being for a while a sandbank
between us and them, that they could not then see us, we made a halt, and
hid ourselves in a bending of the sandbank. They knew we must be
thereabouts, and being 3 or 4 times our number, thought to seize us. So
they dispersed themselves, some going to the seashore and others beating
about the sandhills. We knew by what rencounter we had had with them in
the morning that we could easily outrun them; so a nimble young man that
was with me, seeing some of them near, ran towards them; and they for
some time ran away before him. But he soon overtaking them, they faced
about and fought him. He had a cutlass, and they had wooden lances; with
which, being many of them, they were too hard for him. When he first ran
towards them I chased two more that were by the shore; but fearing how it
might be with my young man, I turned back quickly, and went up to the top
of a sandhill, whence I saw him near me, closely engaged with them. Upon
their seeing me, one of them threw a lance at me, that narrowly missed
me. I discharged my gun to scare them but avoided shooting any of them;
till finding the young man in great danger from them, and myself in some;
and that though the gun had a little frighted them at first, yet they had
soon learnt to despise it, tossing up their hands, and crying pooh, pooh,
pooh; and coming on afresh with a great noise, I thought it high time to
charge again, and shoot one of them, which I did. The rest, seeing him
fall, made a stand again; and my young man took the opportunity to
disengage himself, and come off to me; my other man also was with me, who
had done nothing all this while, having come out unarmed; and I returned
back with my men, designing to attempt the natives no farther, being very
sorry for what had happened already. They took up their wounded
companion; and my young man, who had been struck through the cheek by one
of their lances, was afraid it had been poisoned: but I did not think
that likely. His wound was very painful to him, being made with a blunt
weapon: but he soon recovered of it.

Among the New Hollanders whom we were thus engaged with, there was one
who by his appearance and carriage, as well in the morning as this
afternoon, seemed to be the chief of them, and a kind of prince or
captain among them. He was a young brisk man, not very tall, nor so
personable as some of the rest, though more active and courageous: he was
painted (which none of the rest were at all) with a circle of white paste
or pigment (a sort of lime, as we thought) about his eyes, and a white
streak down his nose from his forehead to the tip of it. And his breast
and some part of his arms were also made white with the same paint; not
for beauty or ornament, one would think, but as some wild Indian warriors
are said to do, he seemed thereby to design the looking more terrible;
this his painting adding very much to his natural deformity; for they all
of them have the most unpleasant looks and the worst features of any
people that ever I saw, though I have seen great variety of savages.
These New Hollanders were probably the same sort of people as those I met
with on this coast in my Voyage round the World; for the place I then
touched at was not above 40 or 50 leagues to the north-east of this: and
these were much the same blinking creatures (here being also abundance of
the same kind of flesh-flies teasing them) and with the same black skins,
and hair frizzled, tall and thin, etc., as those were: but we had not the
opportunity to see whether these, as the former, wanted two of their
fore-teeth.

We saw a great many places where they had made fires; and where there
were commonly 3 or 4 boughs stuck up to windward of them; for the wind
(which is the seabreeze) in the daytime blows always one way with them;
and the land breeze is but small. By their fireplaces we should always
find great heaps of fish-shells, of several sorts; and it is probable
that these poor creatures here lived chiefly on the shellfish, as those I
before described did on small fish, which they caught in wires or holes
in the sand at low-water. These gathered their shellfish on the rocks at
low-water; but had no wires (that we saw) whereby to get any other sorts
of fish: as among the former I saw not any heaps of shells as here,
though I know they also gathered some shellfish. The lances also of those
were such as these had; however they being upon an island, with their
women and children, and all in our power, they did not there use them
against us, as here on the continent, where we saw none but some of the
men under head, who come out purposely to observe us. We saw no houses at
either place; and I believe they have none, since the former people on
the island had none, though they had all their families with them.

Upon returning to my men I saw that though they had dug 8 or 9 foot deep
yet found no water. So I returned aboard that evening, and the next day
being September 1st I sent my boatswain ashore to dig deeper, and sent
the seine with him to catch fish. While I stayed aboard I observed the
flowing of the tide, which runs very swift here, so that our nun-buoy
would not bear above the water to be seen. It flows here (as on that part
of New Holland I described formerly) about 5 fathom: and here the flood
runs south-east by south till the last quarter; then it sets right in
towards the shore (which lies here south-south-west and north-north-east)
and the ebb runs north-west by north. When the tides slackened we fished
with hook and line, as we had already done in several places on this
coast; on which in this voyage hitherto we had found but little tides:
but by the height and strength and course of them hereabouts it should
seem that if there be such a passage or strait going through eastward to
the great South Sea, as I said one might suspect, one would expect to
find the mouth of it somewhere between this place and Rosemary Island,
which was the part of New Holland I came last from.

Next morning my men came aboard and brought a rundlet of brackish water
which they got out of another well that they dug in a place a mile off,
and about half as far from the shore; but this water was not fit to
drink. However we all concluded that it would serve to boil our oatmeal,
for burgoo, whereby we might save the remains of our other water for
drinking, till we should get more; and accordingly the next day we
brought aboard 4 hogsheads of it: but while we were at work about the
well we were sadly pestered with the flies, which were more troublesome
to us than the sun, though it shone clear and strong upon us all the
while, very hot. All this while we saw no more of the natives, but saw
some of the smokes of some of their fires at 2 or 3 miles distance.

The land hereabouts was much like the part of New Holland that I formerly
described, it is low but seemingly barricaded with a long chain of
sandhills to the sea, that lets nothing be seen of what is farther within
land. At high water, the tides rising so high as they do, the coast shows
very low; but when it is low water it seems to be of an indifferent
height. At low-watermark the shore is all rocky, so that then there is no
landing with a boat: but at high water a boat may come in over those
rocks to the sandy bay which runs all along on this coast. The land by
the sea for about 5 or 600 yards is a dry sandy soil, bearing only shrubs
and bushes of divers sorts. Some of these had them at this time of the
year, yellow flowers or blossoms, some blue, and some white; most of them
of a very fragrant smell. Some had fruit like peascods; in each of which
there were just ten small peas; I opened many of them, and found no more
nor less. There are also here some of that sort of bean which I saw at
Rosemary Island: and another sort of small, red, hard pulse, growing in
cods also, with little black eyes like beans. I know not their names, but
have seen them used often in the East Indies for weighing gold; and they
make the same use of them at Guinea, as I have heard, where the women
also make bracelets with them to wear about their arms. These grow on
bushes; but here are also a fruit like beans growing on a creeping sort
of shrub-like vine. There was great plenty of all these sorts of
cod-fruit growing on the sandhills by the seaside, some of them green,
some ripe, and some fallen on the ground: but I could not perceive that
any of them had been gathered by the natives; and might not probably be
wholesome food.

The land farther in, that is lower than what borders on the sea, was so
much as we saw of it very plain and even; partly savannahs, and partly
woodland. The savannahs bear a sort of thin coarse grass. The mould is
also a coarser sand than that by the seaside, and in some places it is
clay. Here are a great many rocks in the large savannah we were in, which
are 5 or 6 foot high, and round at top like a haycock, very remarkable;
some red, and some white. The woodland lies farther in still; where there
were divers sorts of small trees, scarce any three foot in circumference;
their bodies 12 or 14 foot high, with a head of small knibs or boughs. By
the sides of the creeks, especially nigh the sea, there grow a few small
black mangrove trees.

There are but few land animals. I saw some lizards; and my men saw two or
three beasts like hungry wolves, lean like so many skeletons, being
nothing but skin and bones: it is probable that it was the foot of one of
those beasts that I mentioned as seen by us in New Holland. We saw a
raccoon or two, and one small speckled snake.

The land-fowls that we saw here were crows (just such as ours in England)
small hawks, and kites; a few of each sort: but here are plenty of small
turtledoves that are plump, fat and very good meat. Here are 2 or 3 sorts
of smaller birds, some as big as larks, some less; but not many of either
sort. The sea-fowl are pelicans, boobies, noddies, curlews, sea-pies,
etc., and but few of these either.

The sea is plentifully stocked with the largest whales that I ever saw;
but not to compare with the vast ones of the northern seas. We saw also a
great many green-turtle, but caught none; here being no place to set a
turtle-net in; here being no channel for them, and the tides running so
strong. We saw some sharks, and paracoots; and with hooks and lines we
caught some rock-fish and old-wives. Of shellfish, here were oysters both
of the common kind for eating, and of the pearl kind: and also wilks,
conches, mussels, limpets, periwinkles, etc., and I gathered a few
strange shells; chiefly a sort not large, and thick-set all about with
rays or spikes growing in rows.

And thus having ranged about a considerable time upon this coast without
finding any good fresh water, or any convenient place to clean the ship,
as I had hoped for: and it being moreover the height of the dry season,
and my men growing scorbutic for want of refreshments, so that I had
little encouragement to search further, I resolved to leave this coast
and accordingly in the beginning of September set sail towards Timor.

* * * * * * * *

A WRITTEN DETAIL OF THE DISCOVERIES AND NOTICEABLE OCCURRENCES IN THE
VOYAGE OF THE FLUYT "VOSSENBOSCH," THE SLOOP "D'WAIJER," AND THE
PATSJALLANG "NOVA HOLLANDIA," DESPATCHED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA,
ANNO 1705, FROM BATAVIA BY WAY TIMOR TO NEW HOLLAND; COMPILED AS WELL
FROM THE WRITTEN JOURNALS AS FROM THE VERBAL RECITALS OF THE RETURNED
OFFICERS, BY THE COUNCIL EXTRAORDINARY, HENDRICK SWAARDECRON AND
CORNELIS CHASTELIJN, COMMISSIONED FOR THAT PURPOSE, AND FORMING THEIR
REPORT TO. HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR GENERAL, JAN VAN HORN AND THE
COUNCIL OF INDIA.

My Lords.--Before entering into a detail of matters of note occurring on
the abovementioned voyage, it may not perhaps be superfluous to offer a
few preliminary observations, in order to throw a clearer light upon the
subject; briefly these:--that the above mentioned vessels having, in
accordance with the instructions delivered to the crew by your
excellency, on the twentieth of January of this year, weighed anchor from
the port of Batavia on the 23rd of the same month, heard on their way, at
Rembang on the east coast of Java, how the sloop "Doriados", which had
been destined for this voyage instead of the "Waijer", had been disabled,
but has been helped on its way by friendly vessels to Timor, and thence
to New Holland.

They arrived on the twelfth of February before Copang, on the island of
Timor, where they were obliged, by bad weather, to remain for twenty days,
until the second of March. A month later, namely on the second of April,
they explored the north-west corner of Van Diemen's Land, without having
so far observed anything remarkable on this voyage, except for fifty or
sixty miles straight north and south from this point, the land is
elevated, and along the whole of this coast there was continually found
from fifty to twenty, and fewer fathoms' water; besides, that on the
passage from Timor, the compasses were on the sixth of March affected by
the thunder and lightning to such a degree that the north-end of the
needle pointed due south, and was brought home in that position.

This point of Van Diemen's land having been thus explored, they occupied
themselves, from the second of April to the twelfth of July, in visiting
the bays, head lands, islands, rivers, etc., to the best of their ability
according to their instructions. But not being sufficiently provided with
fresh provisions for so long a voyage, many men on board began to suffer
and also to die, from severe sickness, principally fever, acute pains in
the head and eyes, and above all, dropsy so that they were compelled to
resolve on returning, and to direct their course to Banda; the
patsjallang however alone arrived there; the fluit "Vossenbosch", and the
sloop "Waijer", being forced by unfavourable weather and the weakness of
the crew, to pass that government, and to hold on towards Macassar, as
your nobilities will have already learnt by the papers from Banda and
Macassar. The skipper, upper and under steersman, with most of the petty
officers and sailors of the "Vossenbosch" being already dead, and their
incomplete journals alone having reached us, the new maps moreover, made
by the direction of the skipper Martin van Delft, having been improperly
detained at Macassar, we are not at present in a position to forward the
same complete information on the subject, which the arrival of these maps
would have enabled us to give, as they contain many new names which could
not possibly be found in the limited compass of the Company's former
charts. According to their own accounts, they have only been able to visit
a strip of land of about sixty miles long, on coast E. and W., including
merely a very small portion of that great bay, which it was recommended
to them to sail over and explore as much as possible.

The daily courses, winds, currents, depths, reefs, soundings,' variations
of the compass, and the like observations, more especially depending upon
the art of the steersman, are to be found in the above-mentioned
journals, and shall here be passed over as out of place, in a compendious
report like the present. We shall here principally follow the logbook of
the skipper Martin van Delft, of the "Vossenbosch", and that of the under
steersman Andries Roseboom of the sloop "Waijer", as the journals of the
captain of the patsjalling, Pieter Fredericks of Hamburg, and of the
steersman of the "Vossenbosch", notwithstanding their general usefulness,
do not afford any additional information as they merely describe the same
subject.

Besides the journals, some depositions and other papers of the same kind
have reached us, referring to the loss of anchors, ropes sails the
courses and bearings of the ship as recorded on board the
"Vossenbosch", none of them however of a nature to call for further
observation here. At the same time we cannot omit to mention two papers,
written by the captain of the patsjallang, and entered in the register of
Banda, under the letters D.E., containing brief notes of the ship's
course, the names of, and dates of departure from, the places visited
during the voyage together with the currents encountered, which documents
could be forwarded to you, if desired, together with the above-mentioned
journals of the skipper of the "Vossenbosch", and the captain of the
"Waijer", and the new maps should they arrive here from Macassar, since
the maps of the patsjallang have not been drawn up with due regard to the
proper soundings, distances and other requisites, and are, therefore, not
to be depended upon.

Continuing our summary of the voyage, we would observe, that from the
commencement of the exploration of Van Diemen's land they noticed at
several points on the strand signs of men such as smoke and the like. The
first inlet within the north point of that land, which was visited by
them and called the Roseboom's Bay, runs dead inland, throwing out
several branches on both sides. No fresh water is found here. At that
time they saw no men, but merely some signs of inhabitants. However on
their leaving the bay, some of the natives were caught sight of, running
away with their children and dogs, as soon as they perceived our
countrymen; and no opportunity was obtained of getting speech of any of
them.

The coast here is level. The names Casuaris and Varckenskoek, were given
to the points E. and W. of this bay; of two other projecting points on
the W. side, which turned out to be islands, one was named Goede Hoop,
and the other Kuijle Eijland; they found on the former of them a little
water, but brackish and in small quantity.

Between these two islands or headlands, some natives were met by the men
on the thirty-first of April, who did not retire, but ran hastily towards
an eminence, or small hill, and with obvious, signs and gestures
attempted to drive them away. No one was able to understand their
language, which, according to the skipper Martin van Delft, seems to
resemble in some respects that of Malabar; but even this is by no means
clear. The colour and stature of these men appears from the description
given to resemble most that of the Indians of the east; but they go stark
naked without any regard to age or sex, as was constantly observed by our
sailors from the above-mentioned date, until their departure. The only
exception to this rule were the women who had children with them, these
alone wearing a light covering of leaves or such-like over their middle.
The whole number of these islanders did not exceed fourteen or fifteen
men; seeing that our people could not be induced by their grimaces,
violent gestures, yelling and florishing of assegais, and all kinds of
weapons, to retreat from the shore, they were imprudent enough to throw
some of their assegais, or rather sharpened sticks at our men, with the
intention of wounding and intimidating them; but their chief, or one who
at least appeared to be so, being hit by a ball from the single musket
that was fired at them in return, the rest began to run quickly away,
being very agile and well made.

The women are tall and slim, with very large mouth and small eyes; the
head of both sexes is curly, like that of the Papuan islanders, and a
yellow or red ointment, prepared from turtle fat, seems to be used as an
ornament. The nature of these tribes is foul and treacherous, as was
apparent at the last moment, when our people were on the point of
departing. Eight islanders attacked and wounded two sailors, with the
hope of seizing upon their clothes, and that after having conversed with
these men for weeks, eaten and drunk with them, visited them on board and
being allowed to examine everything to their great admiration, after
having received presents, and also on their part regaled our people with
fish and crabs. Besides this, their bad disposition came to light in the
case of the man who had been previously wounded by our party as before
mentioned; when he afterwards was assisted and bandaged, and had every
possible attention shown him by our men, he tore the linen to pieces and
threw it away into a corner; notwithstanding that at other times these
natives appeared particularly greedy after linen, knives, beads, and such
toys.

They however possess nothing which is of value themselves, and have
neither iron nor anything like mineral ore or metal, but only a stone
which is ground and made to serve as a hatchet. They have no habitations
either houses or huts; and feed on fish, which they catch with harpoons
of wood, and also by means on nets, putting out to sea in small canoes,
made of the bark of trees, which are in themselves so fragile, that it is
necessary to strengthen them with cross-beams.

Some of them had marks on their bodies, apparently cut or carved, which,
as it seemed to our people, were looked upon by them as a kind of
ornament. They eat sparingly and moderately, whereby they grow up always
active and nimble; their diet seems to consist of fish, and a few roots
and vegetables, but no birds or wild animals of any kind are used as food,
for though animal food exists and was found by our men in abundance,
the natives appeared to be indifferent to it.

According to the notes of the captain of the sloop "Waijer", from the
14th of June, about five hundred people with women and children, were met
on one occasion about two miles inland; at night also they were descried
sitting around several fires among the bushes; nothing however was seen
in their possession of any value. Our men might also easily have taken
and brought over to Batavia with them, two or three of the natives who
daily came on board, but the skipper of the "Vossenbosch", following out
his instructions to the letter, would not allow them to be taken without
their full consent, either by falsehood or fraud, and as no-one
understood their language, nothing was to be done in the matter
consequently they remained in their own country.

The country here is for the most part level, and no mountains are to be
seen, except a remarkable eminence, which at a distance has the
appearance of three mountains, as noted in the journal of the skipper,
under date May the 25th. The soil seems productive, if cultivated, but
the whole extent of the coast is bordered by sands or downs. In no part
were any remarkable trees noticed, much less any of an aromatic and spice
kind.

The second bay after the Rooseboom's Bay just described between Tigers
and Wolfs-point, visited by our countrymen, has the appearance of a wide
river, but is salt; as however nothing remarkable was found there, we
shall let the journal of the skipper, on the date May 12th, speak for
itself, it being described in the account of the commander of the
"Waijer", under the name of the Bessia River.

The third inlet visited by the expedition is rather large, its E. point
being named Kaijams, and its W. Oranjes-hoek. The tides flow here with
great force, and the Patsjallang sailed between eight and ten miles
inland, without finding any diminution in the saltness of the water; as
the bottom, and the general aspect still remain the same, it was supposed
by our people, that this inlet runs right through to the south of New
Holland, and not only this, but also others both E. and W. of the angle
of Van Diemen's land.

From this it seems to follow, that the South Land in a great measure
consists of islands,--a supposition not at all improbable considering
how on its south side, from the point called Leeuwin in the year 1622, to
Nuyts-land, discovered in 1627, it is entirely girt and surrounded by
innumerable islands, although these things had better be left to a more
accurate examination of the country, and a more matured judgment. But
there is another consideration in favour of this supposition, namely, the
rude and barbarous character, and malicious disposition of the
above-mentioned islanders, as it has been frequently remarked, that such
serious defects are much more generally found among islanders than among
the inhabitants of continents. However, be this as it may, we shall only
further remark, that the Patsjallang, owing to the strength of the
current, was not able to proceed, but was obliged to return to the
Vossenbosch, having first discovered within this inlet an island, five
miles in circumference, on which was found very good drinking water and a
tiger was met with; a number of snipes also were seen on another island,
which lay at the entrance of this strait, and of which more is said in
the journal of the sloop Waijer, under the date of the eighteenth and
nineteenth of May. The weather here was observed to become much colder.

The fourth inlet of those visited by the expedition, called Delft
Bay, runs five or six miles inlend, and demands little further notice than
as to its position and depths, both of which are to be found clearly
stated in the journals and maps, also that it is called on one side of
its mouth, Rustenburg, and on the other side in the old maps, it is known
under the name of Maria's land, in which district the inhabitants were so
stupid, that they attempted to tow the patsjallang, while lying at
anchor, with three little canoes, but seeing that no progress was made,
they tried to effect their object by tugging at the anchor. This also
proving ineffectual, they returned to the shore. Our men employed
themselves daily in fishing, the fish here being plentiful, but of no
great size, and attempted to arrest the increasing sickness on board.

The fifth and last inlet E. visited by our people, is bounded on one side
by the promontory of Lonton, on the other side by the point of Callemore
(names given to them by the crew), although the last mentioned point may
rather he called an island than a promontory, since the inlet runs round
it and again joins the sea. In front of the point Lonton, also an island
was found, called by them Schildpads island; nothing remarkable is to be
recorded of this place, except that at night, by moonlight, an immense
number of black birds, as large as pigeons, were met by the patsjallang
"Hollandia Nova", which flock continued to pass for half an hour; also
that the inhabitants became so much accustomed to our people, that they
assisted them in procuring and carrying water; but afterwards they could
not conceal their malicious disposition, as we have already narrated.

This last inlet is called Vossenbosch Bay, and also has before the
promontory of Calice a small island, where stands a solitary tree, by
which it may be recognised.

Thus, thinking we have briefly stated the origin, the adventures, the
results and the return of this expedition, so far as they could be
investigated, we shall here conclude.

We are, etc.,
Hk. SWAARDECROON, Cs. CHASTELIJN. (S.) J.S.CRAINE.
Batavia Castle, Oct. 6, 1705.

* * * * * * * *

THE HOUTMAN'S ABROLHOS IN 1727, TRANSLATED FROM A PUBLICATION ENTITLED
"DE HOUTMAN'S ABROLHOS." AMSTERDAM, 1857, 8 vo. BY P. A. LEUPE,
CAPTAIN OF MARINES IN THE DUTCH NAVY.

The ten years which elapsed between 1720 and 1730 were a period replete
with disaster to the East India Company, arising from the losses they
experienced of ships and men, both on their passage out to India and on
their return[*]. Among the number is the Zeeland ship "Zeewyk", which, built
in 1725, sailed from the roads of Rammekens to Batavia, under command of
the skipper Jan Hijns, on the 7th of November, 1726. After peculiar
mishaps the Zeewyk came to anchor on the 22nd of March, 1727, before the
fort of Good Hope in Table Bay, and after taking in fresh provision
there, pursued, on the 9th of June, her voyage on the 21st of April,
1727, when by the carelessness of the skipper, she was wrecked on the
Houtmans Abrolhos.

[* Appendix V.]

By the instructions[*] for the sailing in the autumn from the Netherlands to
Java, amongst other things it is also enjoined: "The Cape of Good Hope
being doubled, it is thought good that you sail in an E. Direction
between 36° and 39° S. lat., until you have reached a point eight hundred
miles E. of the Cape of Good Hope; that you then direct our course as
much N. as E., in such a manner that, on reaching 30 S. lat., you should
find yourself about 950 or 1000m. from the Cape of Good Hope.

[* Given in the Assembly of the Seventeen, on the 7th December, 1619.]

"These 950 or 1000 m. from the Cape being attained, it is advisable--wind
and weather permitting--that you bear down upon the land Eendraght
at 27° S. lat., or more to the N., so as to take thence such a course as
will enable you to clear the Tryals Shoals[*], lying about 20° S. lat.,
without danger, and to touch at the south coast of Java with ease, in
order to have the weather-gage of the Straits of Sunda, and thus reach
these straits without loss of time. It must be understood that this is
about the time when the east monsoon blows south of the line, and that
the said 900 or 1000 miles E. of the Cape may be reached between the
beginning of March and the end of September. Observe, that the distance
between the Cape and the land of Eendraght is, in reality, much shorter
than the chart shows; and it may happen, by the aid of currents, that the
route may be found even shorter than it really is, so that the land might
be reached in much less time than we are led to expect. Remember, also, that
the land of Eendraght has, south of 27° lat., many perilous sandbanks,
and that the soundings are of sharp rocks. Consequently, extreme caution,
and the constant use of the lead at night and in stormy weather, is
indispensably necessary, as at seven, six, or five miles from the coast
the soundings are found to be one hundred, eighty, or seventy fathoms."

[* Appendix IV.]

To these "perilous sandbanks and soundings of sharp rocks" belong also
the Frederick Houtman Abrolhos, which, according to Horsburgh[*], lie at 29°
10' S. lat., and 113° 57' E. long., and upon which many a ship of the
company will have perished; since, in addition to the Batavia in 1629,
the Vergulde Draeck in 1656, the Ridderschap van Holland in 1693, and the
Zuysdorp in 1711, two others occur in the list here subjoined as lost
between the Cape of Good Hope and Batavia.

[* The western limit of these dangerous shoals, in long. 113° 20' E.,
and the south-easternmost patch called Turtle Dove, is in lat. 29° 10',
long. 113° 57'. Horsburgh,, London, 1838.]

The Englishmen who visited these sandbanks in 1840 found several remains
of wrecked ships; thus writes Mr. Crawford Pako:[*]

[* Sic in original. The editor does not find this name in the English
navy. There is, in all probability, a mistake in the transcript of the
word given as Pako. The passage quoted is stated in a note to have
occurred in a letter dated March 31st, 1853, addressed to Captain Wipff
of the Dutch navy, then commanding the corvette Sumatra off Sydney.]

"I will relate a few circumstances which were of great interest to us, as
marking the position of ancient voyagers, who two hundred years before
were similarly engaged to ourselves, and undergoing trial and probation
such as we were then exposed to.

"Finding anchorage for our ship at the S.E. part of the southern group,
near to a narrow strip of sand on the edge of the reef, which was
scarcely large enough to be called an island, we found on it some remains
of large timber, evidently a beam of a ship, through it an iron bolt of
considerable dimensions; but corrosion had gone on so steadily so many
years, that the slightest touch reduced it to the size of small wire.
Near this were found various other fragments, which most probably had
been part of the same vessel; but the most remarkable item was a copper
coin of the East India N. Company, a doit bearing the date 1620 (I
think), which was good evidence that these were some of the remains of
commodore Pelsart, in the ship Batavia. So the anchorage which we
occupied was named by us Batavia Roads, and that particular group
Pelsart's Group. On another island at the west side of the same group we
found many other relics of more recent date, among which another doit,
which was dated 1700, which we concluded marked the position of the loss
of the Zeewijk in 1720. On this island we found a large number of small
glass bottles, about the size and form of a Dutch cheese, very orderly
arranged in rows on the ground; a few very large glass bottles of similar
form; some large brass buckles which had been gilded, and much of the
gilt still existed. Numerous small clay pipes, which served to solace our
crew with the help of tobacco, as doubtless they had done long ago for
former owners. And one brass gun, about three pounds calibre, with a iron
swivel, the iron, however, was diminished by corrosion to nearly nothing;
it had a moveable chamber for loading it, which was fitted for a square
hole, on the upper part of the gun near the breech. But what was most
remarkable about it was that vermilion paint was still on the muzzle. The
island on which this was found we called Gun Island, and the passage
between the Pelsart Group and the middle one was called Zeewyk Channel."

I have had the good fortune to find among the papers of the late East
India Company, what was written by the Government of Batavia about the
loss of the ship Zeewijk to the directors at home, together with a map
made by the skipper Jan Steyns, while on these shoals.

"TO THE DIRECTORS OF THE ASSEMBLY OF THE SEVENTEEN, ETC.

"On the 26th of April a letter[*1] unexpectedly came to hand by the
patchialang "De Veerman", from the late skipper and under-merchant of the
Zeeland ship "Zeewyk", Jan Steyns and Jan Nibbens, written from the
Straits of Sunda, but without date communicating the fact that this
vessel, after leaving the Cape of Good Hope on the 21st. of April, had
been wrecked, on the 9th of June, on the reef lying before the islands
Frederick Houtman's Abrolhos, situated near the Southland, in S. lat.
29°, and otherwise called the Tortelduyff's Islands. The crew had, in
favourable weather, succeeded in recovering all kinds of necessaries from
the wreck, and had constructed from the fragments of the ship a vessel,
on which, setting out the 22nd of March, they arrived in the above
straits on the 21st of April, numbering eighty-two souls, and bringing
with them the moneys of the Company contained in ten chests to the value
of Fl. 315,836:1:8. All this will more clearly appear from the
subjoined copy of the letter (together with a list of the survivors,
their names and rank on board before the wreck), to which we respectfully
refer you, as also to an extract from the resolution passed
on that day. From this will also be seen the care shown by us for
the recovery of the money, in our despatching at once to the distressed
vessel (which was suffering from want of fresh water) the advocat-fiscal
of India, Mr. Jacob Graafland, with two commissioners from the Council of
Justice, assisted by the secretary and usher of the court, provided with
the necessary vessels, together with one sergeant, two corporals, and
twelve privates, and there was also found a small slip[*2], without
signature, written by the skipper, in which he complains of the
outrageous behaviour of the crew, so that we could not but conclude that
some of the company's chests must have been broken open, and the contents
stolen, as it very frequently happens under such unfortunate
circumstances. Wherefore the above-mentioned commissioners were duly
instructed to take means to prevent the concealment of the company's
moneys. But the precaution proved unnecessary, as they arrived here
happily on the 30th, to the great relief of the company's heavy losses of
money, with the above-mentioned vessel and the ten money chests, which
were found to be complete according to the invoice. In addition to this
was also received a small bag, containing two hundred and seven pieces of
Spanish reals, handed over by the Directors of the Chamber, Middelburg,
in Zeeland, to the officers of this ship, for the purchase of fresh
provisions, which also was saved. Moreover various sums in silver ducats,
as specified in the memorial, a copy of which is subjoined, were found
upon the crew. On that same day, namely, the 30th of April,
the advocat-fiscal was instructed to report to the government as to
whether an action could be brought by it against the pretended owners,
who had fetched that money out of the wreck, the fact of their having it
in their possession being in our opinion a violation of the law which
forbids the export of coined money to private persons. His answer is to
be found in a copy subjoined. But afterwards he was obliged, as a matter
of official duty, to put the law in force, and an indictment was
accordingly issued against the claimants before the Council of Justice,
whose decision is still pending. We are nevertheless of the opinion that
salvage ought to be allowed to the men who, at no inconsiderable danger
to themselves, brought the money from the wreck. The journals kept on the
voyage, as far as they were saved and brought over, were, in accordance
with the resolution of the 30th of April, handed over to the
Equipagemeester, Coenrad Mels, and a committee of skippers, under the
presidence of the above-mentioned fiscal, as it appeared to us rather
doubtful whether the ship had not been wrecked in an inexcusable manner.
And, indeed, it was subsequently proved by the report of the committee,
that the former skipper, Jan Steyns, had not only run too near the
Southland, contrary to his orders, and in opposition to the protests of
the steersmen, and thereby caused that disaster: but had also contemplated
deceiving the government by altered and falsified journals, in order to
hide as much as possible his indefensible conduct. Whereupon, on the 17th
of August, it was determined to indict the said Jan Steyns before the
Court of Justice, and he has since been placed under arrest.[*3]

[*1) Appendix I and III.]

[*2) Appendix II]

[*3) These pages have not been sent over.]

"The position of the islands against the most outlying reef of which the
Zeewyk was wrecked, is shown by the accompanying maps. They lie out of
sight of the Southland, and are partly overgrown with some edible wild
plants. On them were found not only some excavated wells, but also some
signs of a Dutch ship, probably wrecked against the above-mentioned reef,
which might have been the "Fortuyn" or "Aagtekerke", whose crew may have
died or perished at sea on their way hither. This also seems to have been
the fate of the boat of the Zeewyk, which, under the command of the
upper-steersman Pieter Langeweg, with eleven common sailors and the
papers of the Company, had set out for this port shortly after the wreck
of the ship, in order to give information of the mishap and to ask for
assistance. Up to this time nothing has been heard of it.

"We cannot without painful feelings think of the heavy misfortunes, from
which the Company has been a sufferer during the last nine or ten years,
especially in the loss of many ships and treasures, which mishaps have to
our great concern been considerably increased in number, not only by the
disaster which befell the ship "Luchtenberg", on the Wielingen, on the
Zeeland Banks, shortly after leaving port, as communicated to us by the
Directors of several Chambers, and particularly by the letter from
Amsterdam of the 8th of January; but also by the misfortunes that befell
the other ships that had sailed for this country in company with that
ship on the 2nd of November, 1727, and were obliged to put into several
harbours in a disabled state. Again, by the stranding on the 3rd of July,
in Table Bay, of the ships Middenrack, Stabroeck, and Haarlem, of which
the Middenrack was dashed to pieces and lost all hands, except the few
who were on shore at the time, while the two others were driven so close
on shore that all hope of safety was abandoned, but succeeded so far as
to run their prow aground, whereby the crew and money were saved, and the
remainder of the cargo was recovered from the ship undamaged by the sea
water. The cargoes of these two stranded ships together with three boxes
containing amber from the Middenrack, which was washed ashore, have
already been brought over by the ships Meyenberg and Nieuwvliet,
they having, through God's blessing, happily ridden through this awful
storm from the N.W., not without extreme danger. The ship Hillegonde also
lost its rudder and goodgings, and had to be helped into Saldanha Bay.
Thus we shall not be able to make use of it here for some time to come,
any more than, as we fear, of the ships Berkenrode and Heenhoven, which
had not yet appeared at the Cape on the 18th of July. This is the more
alarming, as the Heenhoven, on the 9th of February, in the north, at
about 570 L., parted through stress of weather from the consorts
Meyenberg and Haerbroeck, in whose company it had left Zeeland on the
24th of January. However we hope soon to welcome the arrival of the
above-mentioned two ships, under the blessing of the Most High, who also
is besought henceforth to ward off all disasters from the ships and the
establishment of the company, and to make them prosperous in all things;
so that the crew of the outward-bound ships may not be afflicted so
severely by sickness and death, as has been the case of late with several
ships, to such an extent, that it has been necessary to reinforce them
one from the other at the Cape; whereby, since the departure of the ship
Meerlust, in sixteen ships from Holland, only 1375 sailors, 575 soldiers,
and 40 artisans, in all 1990 paid servants, including the sick, have come
over."

Castle, Batavia, Oct. 30th, 1728


APPENDIX, NO. I.

TO HIS EXCELLENCY, AND THE NOBLE COUNCILLORS OF THE NETHERLANDISH INDIA

We take the liberty of informing you, that, in sailing from the Cape of
Good Hope to Batavia with the company's late ship Zeewyck, we were
wrecked on a reef on the ninth of June, 1727, at seven o'clock in the
evening, in the first watch.

The reef against which the vessel struck, is surrounded by a very high
and heavy surf, and runs in the shape of a half moon. On the inner side
lie many small islands, called Frederick Houtman's Ambrollossen
(Abrolhos), which we gained on the eighteenth of June and upon which we
remained from that day, until we had fetched from the wreck everything
that seemed to us necessary for the preservation of our life, spars,
ropes, timber and provisions. As soon as we had got these materials on
shore, our carpenter at once set to work with his men, by order of the
officers, and by the help of the common people, to build a vessel,
so that we might save our lives, if it pleased Gad. We called it the
Sloepie, that is, the little sloop, made up from the wreck of the
Zeewyck. When it was ready for sea, we made sail with a south wind
and fair weather on the twenty-sixth of March, having with us the
money chests of the company, as well as provisions for the voyage.
We continued to enjoy favourable weather throughout the voyage,
and so arrived by God's blessing, on the twenty-first of April, 1728, in
the Straits of Sunda, eighty-two souls, of whom, we herewith subjoin a
list for the information of your nobility and council. We beg to wish you
and the council from the bottom of our heart, every prosperity and
happiness, and present respectfully our humble services.

Yours etc.,
(S.) JAN. STEYNS.
JAN. NOBBENS.

APPENDIX II.

My High Excellency, together with the Council of the Netherlandish India,
I pray of you most urgently to send me help and assistance against these
robbers of the money and the goods of the wreck Zeewyk, who have divided
the money and goods among themselves. I am stark naked; they have taken
everything from me. 0, my God! They have behaved like wild beasts to me,
and everyone is master. Worse than beasts do they live; it is impossible
that on board a pirate ship things can be worse than here, because
everyone thinks that he is rich, from the highest to the lowest of my
subordinates. They say among themselves, "Let us drink a glass to your
health, ye old ducats!" I am ill and prostrate from scurvey.

APPENDIX III

EXTRACT FROM THE DELIBERATION AND RESOLUTIONS IN THE COUNCIL OF INDIA

Monday, April 26th, 1728.

At five o'clock this afternoon we received a letter by the patchialang De
Veerman, very unexpectedly and fortunately, from the former skipper and
under-merchant of the ship Zeewyk, bound for these parts, written in the
Straits of Sunda, but undated, reporting the wreck of the ship on the
reef lying before the Islands Frederick Houtman's Abrolhos, near the
Southland, at 280 L., on the 9th of June of last year. The crew having
afterwards fetched several necessaries from the wreck, made from the
timber a sloop or vessel, on board of which eighty-two souls have reached
these straits, together with the money taken out by the ship, consisting
of three tuns, according to the double invoice received. But, besides that
letter, there also came to hand a little card, unsigned, apparently in
the handwriting of the skipper, in which he complains in unmistakable
terms of the behaviour of the crew so that we cannot but suppose that the
money chests have been broken open, in order that so splendid a booty
might be divided. Therefore, on the motion of the Governor-General, it
was resolved to send out at once to the assistance of the suffering
vessel and crew, who were obliged, in default of fresh water, to put up
with salt water for some time. Accordingly the brigantine De Hoop, and
the sloop De Olyftack, and the patchialangs De Snip and the before named
Veerman, being made ready by order of his excellency, the advocat-fiscal
of India, Mr. Jacob Graafland, with two commissioners from the Council of
Justice, assisted by the secretary and usher, together with one sergeant,
two corporals, and twelve private soldiers, were dispatched, in order
that the ready money might be secured without delay, as much of it, that
is, as might still be found. Further, a thorough search was to be made
after the remainder, both among the crew and in all the corners and nooks
of the sloop, which has been put together by them.

This said sloop no other vessels shall be allowed to approach, with the
sole exception of that on board of which the commissioners are; so that
all possibility may be removed from any clandestine transfer of the
stolen booty to another crew, and of the noble company's being thus
injured by a complot of a gang of expert thieves. The guilty ones
shall be seized and subjected to an exemplary punishment, as a warning
to all other evil doers in similar lamentable and fatal occurrences.

J.J. HENDRICKS, Secr.

APPENDIX IV.

The Trials. About two hundred years have elapsed since the instructions
here mentioned were drawn up, and still these cliffs belong to the
"doubtfuls." To what is this to be attributed? Do they in reality not
exist at all? The Governor-General, Antonio Van Diemen, to whom the
science of geography is so deeply indebted did not doubt their existence.
He thus writes to the Governor of Mauritius, Adrian van der Hael,
on the 2nd of September, 1643.

"The yacht Cleen Mauritius, has like the former ships bound for these
parts, not seen anything of the Trials. This, however, proves
nothing. Those who could discover those shoals (as they are usually
called) in coming from your country, must be ordered to touch at the
Southland at about 270 S.L., or Dirk Hartog's Reede; they must then sail
as far north as 20°, when they would find themselves about fifty miles E.
of the Trials. They then have to sail W., as there is no doubt that they
lie in 20° S.L."

It may also not be unnecessary to quote in full the following statement,
taken from the "Vertooninge van Eylanden, Custen, Havens, en Bayen a°
1757, door den E. Capiteyn D. van Schilde en Schipper P. Hoogendorp
(H.S.)"

Extract from the journal of the skipper. Franchoys Buscop, on his voyage
out in the ship t' Vaderland Getrouw, under date July 21st, 1707[*], about
his falling in with the Trials.

[* On board of this ship, Mr. Jacob Roggeveen was a
passenger, who, a few years later, became celebrated by his voyage
round the world, and was afterwards made a Counsel of Justice at Batavia.]

In the morning, at seven o'clock, in the day watch, we saw the littie
islands of the Trials' Shoals, at E. by E. well E., about five miles from
us, being three in number, the most southerly of them running up to a
sharp point and hanging over towards the S.E. being at its top a little
rounder than the one in the middle, but lower than the north one, and a
little more pointed. We also saw a high pointed cliff south of the
islands.

Shortly afterwards we saw the surf breaking E.N.E.½ N. a short mile
from us, and four from the island. We at once turned away towards the
S.W., heaved the lead, and found fifty-seven fathoms water, with a bottom
of fine sand and rocks.

Shortly afterwards we encountered a storm with rain from the S.W. and
S.S.W. by S. Turned again to the W., ran in that direction till noon, then
put our course N.W.; heaved the lead and found sixty-five fathoms, bottom
as before. Took the bearings of the pointed island, lying E.N.E., at five
and a half to six miles distance from us, and found the longitude to be
124° 34'; I had calculated it at 123° 6', so that by the position of
these islands we were 1° 28' more to the E. than we imagined. S.L. 20°
34'. I then corrected my reckonings. Afternoon wind S. and S.S.E., blowing
at top-sail and top-gallant-sail breeze, with fog and drizzle. In the
evening, again heaved the lead, but found no bottom. Shortened sail in
order to heave the lead during the night. First watch, water of a pale
tint. Heaved the lead several times, but no bottom found. Held on at N.W.
to the beginning of the day-watch; steered N.; wind at night S.S.E. and
S.E., top-sail and top-gallant-sail breeze.[*]

[* The Zeeland ship Vaderland Getrouw, sailed from Rammekens on the 6th
of January, 1707, arrived on the 5th of May at the Cape, left Table Bay
on the 31st of the same month, and came to anchor before Batavia on the
5th of August.--U. S. Nautical Magazine and Naval Journal, 1856, No. 4.]

According to a letter in the "Nautical Magazine" of the year 1843, p.
392, the Trials were also seen by the Dutch ship Jacobus, captain
Louwerens. It is worthy of remark, that this observer places them in the
same longitude, whilst the latitude differs by about 1°.

The late veteran captain C. Brandligt has assured me that he saw them;
but he could not find the journals by which he wished to prove the
statement to me.

"Rocks and shoals in the ocean have been frequently seen and their true
position given, but on further search could not be found. Now, scientific
men may dream, but I am under a strong impression that they do exist;
but, from some unknown causes, the ocean has its rise and fall, and they
are seen at the lowest ebb only."


* * * * *


INDEX

[Page numbers are not shown in this ebook. Refer to the HTML version
if page numbers are required. 'v.' = 'vide', or 'refer to'.]

* * *

Aagtekerke, perhaps wrecked off the Houtman's Abrolhos, 182

Aberts, Pieter, skipper, one of the survivors of the "Vergulde Draeck," 77

Abrolhos, v. Houtman's Abrolhos

Albuquerque, in 1511 sent A. de Breu and F. Serrano, with three ships to
Banda and Malacca, lx

Alexander VI, Pope, Bull on the discoveries, xxxvii

Alvaro de Mendana, discovers the Solomon Islands, the Marquesas, Queen
Charlotte's Islands, attempts to establish a Colony on Santa Cruz, lxx

Ambrollossen, Frederic Houtman, v. Houtman's Abrolhos

Amsterdam, island, drawing of, brought back by Vlamingh, in 1696, 113

Amsterdam, shallop, expedition to the South Land under the command of G.
T. Pool, 75

Antelope, of London, under the command of Captain Hammond, met by
Dampier, 13

Ant-hills, taken for habitations, 65

Aratus, speaks of a southern continent, xiii

Arias, Dr. Juan Luis, memorial to Philip III, urges the necessity of the
discovery of the southern hemisphere, for the sake of converting the
natives before the English and Dutch heretics might do it, 1; extract
from De Silva's treatise, 3; prophecies, 4; the southern hemisphere not
all water, 12; fertile, habitable, 15; rich in metals, pearls, animals,
fruits, 16; A. Mendana de Meyra's discoveries, 17; P. F. de Quiros, 18;
J. Fernandez, 20; Indians of Taumaco indicate a continent southwards,23;
portion of the South Land already visited, larger than Europe, 24; the
decline of Spain, caused by the neglect of exploration, 25; final less of
the crown threatened, 28

Arms of Amsterdam, ship, touched at the south coast of New Guinea, in
1619, part of the crew murdered by the natives, 44

Aristotle, speaks of a southern continent, xiii

Arnhem, island, discovery, 45

Arnhem, yacht, voyage to New Guinea, 44; skipper and eight of the crew
murdered, 45

Atlantis, island of, described by Pla to,ii

Aucke, Pietersz Jonck, v. Jonck

AUSTRALIA. Regarded as forming part of New Guinea and the great southern
continent, iv-xi; indications on maps in the sixteenth century, iv, xii,
lxv; its coasts touched by the Dutch in the seventeenth, v; secrecy of
the Portuguese, ib.; of the Dutch East India Company vi; statement of Sir
W. Temple, ib.; quotations from early writers, xii; early maps with
indications, xiv; assertion of the discovery by the Chinese, ib.; Binot
Paulmier de Gonneville the supposed first discoverer, xx; the Portuguese
claim to the discovery, xxi; the Spanish claim, xxii; Magalhaens' claim,
xxii; Dr. Martin on the map of Dourado, xxiii; the tract laid down is
either Tierra del Fuego or New Guinea, xxvi; other indications on maps of
its discovery by the Portuguese, ib.; Dalrymple's disparagement of
Captain Cook, xxxi; its refutation by Metz, xxxii; account, by Barbié de
Bocage, of a hydrographic atlas which he supposed to be drawn by N.
Val-lard, of Dieppe, in 1547, xxxv; Gomez de Sequeira, xlvi; Barros'
narrative, xlvi; Sequeira driven to Tobi or Lord North's Island, xlviii;
account of the island, xlix; Australia shown to be the country described
in those maps, li; the "Londe of Java," lii; P. Crignon on J.
Parmentier's voyage, lix; the Portuguese, not the French, the real
discoverers, lx; the quoted French maps copied after Parmentier, lxi;
Parmentier's information derived from the Portuguese, lxii; the discovery
before 1542, lxiv; explorations by the Spanish in the sixteenth century,
lxx; P. Fernandez de Quiros, lxx; Australia del Espirito Santo, lxxiv;
first authenticated discovery made by a vessel from Holland in 1606,
lxxviii; the Duyfhen, 1 xxix; the Eendraght, under Dirk Hartog, lxxx;
plates on Dirk Hartog's Island, lxxxii; Bishop Hall's Terra Australis,"
lxxxiv; Zeachen, erroneously described as "the discoverer of Arnheim's
Land, lxxxv; the Land of Edel, lxxxvi; Houtman's Abrolhos, ib.; Eendraght
Land, lxxxvii; the Pera and Arnhem, ib.; the south discovered in 1627 by
the Gulde Zeepard, lxxxviii; De Witt's Land, lxxx ix; a foul and barren
shore, inhabitants wild, black, ib.; wreck of the Batavia on the
Houtman's Abrolhos, ib.; account of the natives, xci; G. T. Pool's, P.
Pietersen's expedition, xciii; A. J. Tasman's expedition and
instructions, ib.; narrative missing, xciv; outline of Tasman's voyage
inlaid in the floor at the Stadhuis at Amsterdam, xcv; on maps, cxvi;
fragment of the account in Witsen's notes, xcviii; description of the
natives, xcix; Carpentaria not discovered by Carpenter, Van Diemen's Land
not discovered by Van Diemen, c; the great south land called New Holland,
ciii; wreck of the Vergulde Draeck, cv; Waeckende Boey and Emeloort sent
to the rescue, description and chart of the west coast, cvi; J. Sadeur's
"Terre Australe," cvii; W. de Vlamingh's voyage, cviii; Dampier's
description of the natives, ib.; expedition in the Roebuck, cx; last
Dutch voyage under Martin v. Delft, cxiii; accounts of the discoveries of
the eastern coast entirely wanting before Cook, cxvii; name Australia
given by Flinders, ib.; memorial of Arias to Philip III respecting the
exploration of the Southern Land, 1; treatise of Fray Juan da Silva, ib.;
necessity proved from the scripture, obligation from the agreement with
the Catholic Church, 4; physical proofs of the existence and
habitability, 14; richness in metals and stones, 16; discoveries already
made, 17; all tends to prove the greatness, populousness, and richness of
the southern continent, 24; Luis Vaez de Torres on Quiros' discoveries,
31; San Valerio, las Virgines, Santa Polonia, 32; Matanza, skirmish with
the natives, 34; Taomaco, inhabitants white and red, some coloured,
others black and mulattoes, agreeable people, slavery in use amongst
them; they name more than forty islands, 36; Chucupia islands, ib.; Santa
Maria island, 37; possession taken of the Ray San Felipe y Santjago, and
the land del Espirito Santo, ib.; people black and naked, ib.; departure
of the Capitana, 38; pass an archipelago of islands, 39; description of
the inhabitants, 40; find Mahometans at the termination of this land,
ib.; instructions for the new expedition by the yachts Limmen, Zeemeuw,
and Brak under Tasman, 43; former voyages towards New Guinea and the
South Laud undertaken for the Dutch East India Company, 44; Staten and
Van Diemen's Land found, also the passage to the South Sea, 47; Voyage
and shipwreck of F. Pelsart in the Batavia, 59; people on shore savages,
black, and quite naked, 64; country flat without vegetation, very large
ant-hills only in view, 65; quantities of flies, ib.; see eight savages
with clubs, ib.; T. G. Pool's voyage, 75; description of the natives,
their weapons,etc.,76- 88; wreck of the Vergulde Draeck and expeditions
undertaken, 67; seen by the "Pinck,"85; headdress of the natives a kind
of crown, 87; a wild cat and two seals seen, 84; natives use small
hammers with wooden handles, and heads of hard stone, 88; description of
the west coast by Volkersen, 89; the natives believe in some divinity in
the serpent, 95; Australia supposed to be divided from New Guinea by a
strait terminating in the South Sea, 97; sea between N. and Banda, called
"Milk Sea," on account of its turning white, 97; Dampier's account, 99;
in his time unknown whether an island or a continent, 101; dry soil, yet
producing trees, mostly dragon trees, 101; no animals, or beasts, few
birds, few fish, but manatree and turtle; description of inhabitants,
102; their habits, etc., 103; no particular worship; weapons; no metal;
language not known, 104; unsuccessful attempt to make them carry water;
indifferent to cloth, 106; Dampier took several of them, 107; W.
Dampier's adventures, from a Sloan MS., 108; W. de Vlamingh's voyage,
112; a kind of scented wood found, 113; description of country and
natives, 114; the inscription plate of the Eendraght, 115; expedition by
the Nijptang, Geelvinck and Wesel, 120; a remarkable fish with a kind of
arms and legs, 121; aromatic trees, rats as big as cats, 121; coast like
that of Holland, easily approachable; smoke and fires seen on the main
land, 122; nut of a certain tree causing vomiting; two black swans, 123;
swans, rotgansen, geese, divers, 125; no trees, but briars and thorns,
126; two nests three fathoms in circumference,129; Dampier's voyage in
1699, 134; first signs of the land, 138; curious birds, scuttle-bones,
sea-weeds, 139; soundings show coral ground, 140; landing attempted, 141;
trees very short, 143; birds, animals, raccoons, curious guanos, 144;
fish, 145; turtle weighing two hundred pounds, water serpents, 148; sea
snakes, 151; Bluff-point, Rosemary Island, 154; fight with some natives,
158; account of them, 160; further description of the coast and its
produce, 163; want of water, 164; discoveries of the Vossenbosch, D'
Waijer and Nova Hollandia, 165; description of the islanders, 169; about
five hundred met with, 170; the supposition of Australia being an island,
strengthened by the natives' rude and barbarous character, 171; natives
of Maria's Land try to tow the pats-j allang, 172; the Houtman's
Abrolhos, 174

Bachian islands, king of, assisted by Quiros' force, 41

Bandeira, Viscount Sa' de, claim for the discovery of Australia by
Magalhaens, xxii

Barbie de Bocage, notice of a hydro-graphical atlas of New Holland, drawn
by N. Vallard, xxxv

Barros, on Gomez de Sequeira's voyage, xlvi

Bass's Straits, "Baye neufve," in the old maps, lviii

Batavia, book of dispatches, v. Book

Batavia, under Francis Pelsart, wrecked on the coast of New Holland, 59;
a chest with money to be recovered, 50; remains found 178; account of the
wreck, and in Thevenot, lxxxix; in. Harris, xc

Bay perdue, on the old maps, lvii

Baye neufve, perhaps Bass's Straits, lviii

Beach v. Boeach

Berkenrode, ship, uncertainty about her fate, 183

Bessia river, name given to the second bay after Rooseboom's Bay, 171

Binot Paulmier de Gonneville, supposed discovery of Australia, xviii
journals lost, xix

Bocage, Barbie de v. Barbie

Boeach, misspelt for Lucach or Lochac, xvii

Book of dispatches, from Batavia, extract; instructions for the
expedition for the discovery of New Guinea, 43

Bosphorus (Sepharat), meaning Spain, 10

Botany Bay, originally called Stingray, afterwards from the variety of
plants, Botany Bay; not the Coste des Herbaiges on the early maps, xxxiv

Bowrey, captain, a copy of Tasman's map in his handwriting, xcvi

Brak, equipped for the expedition to New Guinea, 47

Breu, Antonio, going to Banda, in 1511, lx

Brosses, de, correcting Prevost's misstatement on the discovery of
Carpentaria, c

Brazil, discovery by the Portuguese, xxxviii

Buscop, Franchoys, skipper, extract from his journal, on the "Trials,"
187

Cabral, discovery of Brazil, xxxviii

Callemore, point of, on the South Land, 172

Calice, promontory, on the South Lana, 172

Cambodia, the Lochac of Marco Polo, xvi

Cano, Sebastian de, one of the commissioners appointed to decide about
the right of possession of the Moluccas, xl

Cape Keer Weer, (turn again), the furthest point of New Guinea reached by
the Duyfhen, lxxx

Cape York, the very large islands, seen by Torres, in 11° S. L., lxxv

Capitana, expedition under Quiros, 31; crew mutinous, 34 • departs
suddenly and treacherously, 38

Carpentaria, discovery falsely attributed to Carpenter, xcix;
misstatement corrected, c; Dubois on Carpenter, cii

Carpenter, the supposed discoverer of Carpentaria, c

Carstens, Jan, despatched by J. P. Coen with the Pera and Arnhem from
Amboina, murdered by the natives of New Guinea, lxxxvii, 44

Castanheda, narrative of the discovery of New Guinea, xlii

Casuaris, name Of the east point in the Roseboom's Bay, 168

Cecco d'Ascoli, map of, xiv

Ceira, name of New Guinea on the old Portuguese maps; mistake for Ceram, 97

Ceram Lauers, trade with the natives of New Guinea, 96

Ceramers v. Ceram Lauers

Charles V. sells his right to the Moluccas to John II, xli

Chastelijn, Cornelis, account of the discoveries, 165

Chinese, supposed to have been acquainted with Australia before the
Europeans, xiv

Chucupin, island, 36

Clyn Amsterdam, expedition to New Guinea, 46

Coen, Jan Pietersz, despatches the Pera and Arnhem, lxxxvii

Collaert, Gerrit, captain of the Nijptang, 113

Cook, captain Dalrymple's insinuations, xxxi : established the separation
between New Holland and New Guinea, xciv

Cornelis, Jerome, super cargo of the Batavia, conspiracy, 69; taken
prisoner, 71; executed, 74

Cote dangereuse, in the old maps, xxxii, lvii

Cote des Herbaiges, in the old maps, xxxiv, lviii

Crawford, Pako, v. Pako

Crignon, Pierre, on Parmentier; lix, lxii

Dalrymple, Alexander, on Thevenot's map, xxxi; translation of Torres
relation of Quiros' discoveries, 31

Dangerous coast, so called by Captain Cook, supposed to be the Cote
dangereuse of the maps, xxxii, lvii

Dampier's voyage, cviii, cix, 99, 108, 134

De Brosses, v. Brosses

De Breu, Antonio, v. Breu

De Bandeira, Sa', Viscount, v. Bandeira

De Gonneville,B. Paulmier, v. Gonneville

De Legaspi, Lopez, v. Legaspi

Del Espiritu Santo, discovery, 37

Delft Bay, on the coast of New Holland, 172

Delft, Martin van, voyage, cxiii; extract from his logbook, 167

De Mendana, v. Mendana

De Meneses, v. Meneses

De Metz, Gauthier, v. Metz

De Saavedra, v. Saavedra

De Santarem, Vicomte, v. Santarem De Silva, Fray Juan, v. Silva

De Sequeira, Gomez, v. Sequeira

De Torres, Luis Vaez, v. Torres

De Villalobos, Ruy Lopez, v. Villalobos

De Vlamingh, v. Vlamingh

De Witt's Land, coasted by the Vianen, lxxxix

Dirk Hartog's Island, plate, lxxxi

Dirk Hartog's Roads, lxxxi

Dispatches, Book of, from Batavia, v. Book of Dispatches

Doriados, sloop, destined for the expedition to New Holland, disabled, 165

Dourados map, xxiii

Draeck, v. Vergulde Draeck

Du Bocage, Barbie, v. Barbie

Dubois, "Vies des Gouverneurs Generaux," on Carpentaria, cii

Dutch discoveries on the coast of Australia, lxxvii

Dutch East India Company, charged with exclusiveness, vi; defended, ix

Dutchmen, two, exposed by Pelsart, to be looked after, 50

Duyfhen, yacht, expedition to New Guinea; first authenticated discovery
of the South Land, lxxix; discovery of the south and west coast of New
Guinea, 43

Dwaers-in-den-wegh, island, 68

D'Waijer, sloop, discoveries, 165

Edel, commander of a ship visiting the coast of New Holland; discovery of
Edel's Land on the west coast, lxxxvi

Eendraght, ship, discoveries, lxxxi, 44; pole with tin plate of the
Eendraght, found by Vlamingh, 115

Eendraght, land, 177

Elburgh, flyboat, touches the South Land, 87

Emeloort, galiot, sent in search of the Vergulde Draeck, 80; separated
from the Waeckende Boey, 85

Esquivel, Juan de, assisted by Quiros and his force on one of the Ternate
islands, 41

Ferdinand and Isabella, of Spain, agreement with Don John II, about the
line of demarcation, xx xviii

Fernandez, Juan, said to have discovered the southern continent, lxvi;
discovers the track from Lima to Chili, 20

Fish, a remarkable, with a sort of arms and legs, 121

Flinders, Matthew, suggested the name of Australia, lxxviii, xcvii; on
the account of Delft's voyage, cxv

Fortuyn, perhaps wrecked on the Abrolhos, 182

Four Hollanders' ships voyage; first voyage of the Dutch to the East
Indies, lv

Franciscan order, undertakes the conversion of the southern hemisphere, 7

Franciscus, Monachus, Mappemonde, lxiii

Frederick Houtman's Abrolhos, v. Houtman's Abrolhos

French merchants send a ship to the Indies, xis

Geminus, speaks of a southern continent, xiii

Goede Hoop, yacht, joins the Witte Valck for the rescue of the wreck of
the Vergulde Draeck, 78

Gonneville, Binot Paulmier de, the supposed first discoverer of New
Holland, xx

Gouffre in the old maps, perhaps Oyster Bay in Tasmania, lxiii

Guanos with apparently two heads, 144

Gulde Zeepard, ship, discovery, 45

Gun island, off the Houtman's Abrolhos, 179.

Haarlem, wreck of, in Table Bay, 182 Hale, H. on Tobi island, xlviii

Hall, Bishop, Mundus alter and idem, lxxxiv

Hamelin, Captain of the Naturaliste, finds the tin plate of Vlamingh on
Dirk Hartog's island, lxxxiii

Hammond, Captain of the Antelope, 134

Harewind, yacht, dispatched for New Guinea, 44

Haring, yacht, dispatched for New Guinea, 44

Hartog, Dirk, discoveries, lxxxi

Hasagays, arms of the natives of New Guinea, 96

Heenhoven, ship, uncertainty about its destiny, 183

Hillegonde, ship, accident, 183

Holden, Horace, driven to the Isle of Tobi, xlix

Hondius, Jodocus, map, to illustrate the discoveries of Drake and
Cavendish, lxviii

Hoop, brigantine, sent to the wreck of the Zeewijk, 186

Houtman, Frederick, gives the name to the Houtman's Abrolhos, lxxxvi

Houtman's Abrolhos, discovery, lxxxvi • the Houtman's Abrolhos in 1727,
by Leupe, 176

Instructions for the expedition for the discovery of New Guinea, 43

Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain, agreement with Don John II, about the
line of demarcation, xxxviii

Jacobus, Dutch ship, sees the Trials, 188

Jan de Bremen, of Pelsart's crew, confesses to have caused the
assassination of twenty-seven persons, 72

Jave, la Grande, on the old maps, supposed to be Australia, lii

John II, agreement with Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain, about the line
of demarcation, xxxviii

John II buys the right to the Moluccas from Charles V, xli

Jonck, Aucke Pietersz, skipper of the Emeloort, account, 82

Judaeis, C. de, Speculum Orbis,

Kangaroo, first described by Dampier, cx

Kart, Pieter v. Pita Ka't

Kaijmanshoek, eastern point of the third inlet on the coast of New
Holland, visited by the expedition in 1705, 171

Keer Weer, Cape, (turn again), furthest point reached on New Guinea, by
the Duyfhen in 1606, 44

Kondur, island, described by Marco Polo, xv

Kuijle Eijland, projecting point on the west side of New Holland, 168

Lacca-iha, New Guinea, particularly ugly people, 97

Lants Welvaren, carries drawings, etc., from the expedition of Vlamingh,
to the directors of the council, 113

Leeman, Abraham van Santwigh, upper steersman of the Vergulde Draeck, 82;
journal, 87

Leeuwin, ship, discovery, lxxxvi

Legaspi, Miguel Lopez de, established a Spanish colony at Zebu, lxx

Le Testu, Guillaume, map, xxxvi

Leupe, P. A., description of the Houtman's Abrolhos in 1727, 176

Lima, track to Chili, discovered by J. Fernandez, 20

Limmen, yacht, destined for a nearer discovery of New Guinea, 43;
equipped for the expedition, 47

Lochac, described by Marco Polo, xv

Londe of Java, v. Jave

Lonton, promontory on the fifth inlet on the E. coast of New Holland,
visited by the Vossenborde etc., in 1705, 172

Lopez de Legaspi, v. Legaspi

Lopez de Villalobos, Ruy, v. Villa-lobos

Lord North's island, the island on which Sequeira was driven, xlviii;
description of the natives, xlii, xlix, 1

Louisiade, Torres touching at, lxxiv; description of the inhabitants,
lxxv

Louwerens, Captain of the Jacobus, sees the Trials, 188

Lucach, v. Lochac

Luchtenburg, wreck on the Wielingen, 182

Macrobius, map of the world, tenth century, xiv

Magalhaens, Fernando, not the dis- coverer of Australia, xxi; offers his
services to Spain, sails in search of the Moluccas, xxxix

Magellan, F. v. Magalhaens

Malaiur, island, supposed to be the kingdom of the Malays, xvi

Maleto, v. Maletur

Maletur, misspelt for Maleto, xvii; occurs on maps of the sixteenth
century on or near the Terra Australis, lxiv, 98

Manilius, mentions the southern continent, xii

Marco Polo, map, xiv; account, supposed to refer to Australia, xv

Mare Lantchidol, misspelt for Laut Kidol, or Chidol, "South Sea," xvii

Maria, Santa, island, v. Santa Maria

Maria's Land, point at the Delft Bay; inhabitants very stupid, 172

Martin, Dr., on the map of Dourado, xxiii

Martinez, Joan, Portolano, lxiii

Matanza island, discovered by Torres, 35

Mauritius, ship, discoveries, lxxxvi; met by the expedition to New Guinea
in 1622, 44

Meerlust, ship, 183

Mendana de Meyra, Alvaro de, discoveries of New Guadalcanal, San
Christobal, etc., 17

Meneses, Jorge de, carried to New Guinea, lxiv

Mercator, Indications of Australia, lxvii

Metz, Frederic, refutes Dalrymple's insinuations against Cook, xxxi

Metz, Gauthier de, v. Gauthier

Meyenberg, ship, brings the cargo of the Middenrack and Stabroeck over to
Batavia, 183

Mibais van Luyck, Gilles, first merchant of the Eendraght, lxxxi

Middenrack, wrecks against the Table Bay, 182

Milk-Sea, between Banda and the South Land, 97

Moluccas, dispute between the Portuguese and Spanish, xxxviii; commission
appointed to, xxxix; right to them sold by Charles V to John II, xli

Monterez, Count of, vice-king of Peru, lxxii

Montbret, Coquebert, memoir in the "Bulletin de Sciences," xxxiv

Montanus, Arias, Mappemonde, lxv

Necquebar, v. Nicobar

New Guadalcanal, discovered by Mendana, 17

New Hebrides, the Terra Australis of Quiros, lxxii

New Guinea, discovery, iv; New Guinea and New Holland supposed to form
parts of a southern continent, xi; made an island in Ortelius's 1587
edition, lxvii; expedition under Tasman, instructions, 43; the
inhabitants, 52 ' • de- scription of the country and the natives, 91;
their weapons, manners, etc., 92; the Ceramers, Papoos; further
description of the country and its inhabitants, 95 seqq. New Guinea
supposed to be divided from the South Land by a strait terminating in the
South Sea; New Guinea in the old maps, under the name of Ceira (Ceram), 97

New Holland, v. Australia

Nibbens, Jan, communication about the Zeewijk, 179, 184

Nicobar, island, Dampier's canoe upsetting, all papers lost, 109

Nieuwvliet, carries the cargo of the wrecked Middenrack and Stabroeck to
Batavia, 183

Nobbens, v. Nibbens

Nova Hollandia, patsjallang, discoveries, 165

Nuyts, land of, colony projected, cxv

Nuyts, Pieter, supposed commander of the Gulde Zeepard; country called
after him, lxxxviii

Nijptang, hooker, under Captain Collaert; forms part of Vlamingh's
expedition in 1696, 113

Obadiah; imputed prophecy concerning the conquest of the southern
hemisphere by Spain, 9

Oero-goba, in New Guinea; inhabitants particularly ugly, 97

Olyftack, sloop, sent to the wreck of the Zeewijk, 186

Oranjes, Hoek, point at the inlet of the coast of New Holland visited by
the expedition in 1705, 171

Os Papuos, v. New Guinea

Oyster bay, in Tasmania, lviii

Papoos, at New Guinea, 94

Parmentier, Jean, of Dieppe, voyage to Sumatra, lix

Paulmier de Gonneville, v. Gonneville

Pelsart, Francis, Captain of the Batavia, lxxxix; shipwreck, 59

Pelsart's group, off the Houtman's Abrolhos, 178

Pentam, island, xv; supposed to be Bintam, xvi

Pera, yacht, voyage to New Guinea 44

Petan, occurring on the old maps on or near the Terra Australis, lxiv

Philip III memorial to, by Arias, 1

Philippine islands, settlements attempted by the Spanish, lxx

Pietersen Pieters, v. Pietersz

Pietersz, Pieter, super cargo, takes the command of the expedition to New
Guinea after Pool's death, discovers the coast of Arnhem or Van Diemen's
Land, xciii, 46

Pinzon, Vincent Yanez, discoveries on behalf of Spain, xxxviii

Pita Ka't, gave the natives of Tobi island their form of religion, 1

Plancius, Peter, opens a school for the purpose of teaching the way to
India, lxxviii

Poel, Gerrit Tomaz, v. Pool

Polonia, Sta., v. Santa Polonia

Pool, Gerrit Tomaz, expedition to New Guinea, killed by the natives,
xcii, 46

Portuguese, conceal their discoveries, v, xlii; discover Brazil, xxxviii;
their claim to the discovery of Australia, xxi, xxvi seqq,; had
establishments in the East Indian Islands before 1529, lxi

Portuguese kings, prohibit the exportation of marine charts, v, vi

Portuguese names on the old French maps of New Holland, lix

Pronck, Hendrich, opinion on the expedition to New Holland, 117

Purry, J. P. Memoire sur le Pays des Caffres, etc.; project of founding a
colony in Nuytsland, cxv

Quiros, Pedro Fernandez, chief pilot of Alvaro de Mendana, lxx; memoirs
to L. de Velasco, lxxi; his Terra Australis is New Hebrides, lxxii;
separated from the other two ships, reaches Mexico, lxxiv; addresses
Philip H on account of further explorations, lxxvi; discoveries, 18;
death, lxxvi, 19

Ramusio, on the secrecy of the Portuguese with respect to their
discoveries, v

Ridderschap van Holland, de loss of, causes Vlamingh's expedition in
1696, 112, 114

Riviere de beaucoup d'Iles, xxxii, lvii

Roebuck, Dampier's expedition, cx

Roelandszoon, J. van Wijck, repudiates the charge of covetousness against
the Dutch, vii

Roggeveen, expedition, cxvi

Roggeween, Jakob, passenger of the V aterland Getroun, 187

Roseboom, Andries, of the Waijer, logbook, 167

Roseboom's Bay, visited by the Vossenbosch, etc., 168

Rosemary Island, recently examined by Captain King, cxi; name given by
Dampier, 154

Rotterdam, ship, searched after, 44

Roty, Jean, v. Rotz

Rotz, Jean, maps, xxix

Rustenburg, point at the fourth inlet on the coast of New Holland,
visited by the expedition in 1705, 172

Saavedra, Don Alvaro de, lights on New Guinea, lxiv

Sadeur, Jacques (or Nicolas), "Avantures dans la découverte de la Terre
Australe," cvi

Sago, biscuits made of, sold to the crew of Torres by Mahomedans, 40

Sahul Bank, seen by P. Heywood, cxiv

Sambava, occurs on all the MS. maps of the Great Java, liv

San Christobal island, discovered, 17

Sandy Bay, 162

San Felipe y Santiago, showing signs of being the coast of a southern
continent, 23; discovered, 37

Santa Cruz, discovered by Mendana de Meyra, 18

Santa Maria, discovered and named by Torres, 37

Santa Polonia, island, 32

Santarem, Vicomte de, "Essai sur l'histoire de la Cosmographie...du Moyen
Age," xiii

San Valerio, island, 32

Sardam, frigate, 71

Schildpats island, 172

Schiller, Andries, steward of Pool, 75; killed by the Southlanders, 76

Sea snakes seen by Dampier, 151

Sea, turning white, twice a-year, between Banda and the South Land, 97

Sequeira, Gomez de, voyage, xlvi

Serpent, a divinity of the heathens of New Guinea and New Holland, 95

Serrano, Francisco, goes to Banda in 1511, lx

Silva, Fray Juan de, treatise on the southern hemisphere, 1; extract, 2

Snip, patsjallang, sent to the wreck of the Zeewijck, 186

Solomon islands, discovered by Mendana, lxx

Sondur island, xv

South Land, v. Australia

Southern continent, existence of, believed anterior to Portuguese
discoveries, xiii

Southern India, of Gonneville, being Madagascar, xxi

Spain, claim to the discovery of Australia, xxi

Spult, island, discovery, 45

St. Brandan, island, ii

St. Paul, island, Vlamingh's expedition was to land there, 113

Sta. Maria, v. Santa Maria

Stabroeck, wreck, 182

Steyns, Jan, communication about the wreck of the Zeewijck, 179, 180;
indicted before the court, 181

Strabo, speaks of a southern continent, xiii

Struyck, Nicholas, tract, containing an account of Dampier's voyage, 114

Swans, black, cviii, 114

Taomaco, island, 36

Tasman, Abel Janszen, discovers Tasmania, explores Torres Straits, xciii;
his lost papers quoted by Witsen, xciv; outlines of the coasts visited by
him, represented on the floor of the Stadhuis at Amsterdam, xcv; maps,
xcvi; notes of his voyage by Witsen, xcviii; instructions for the
expedition to New Guinea, 43; map found wrong by Dampier, 152

Temple, Sir William, on the secrecy of the Dutch about their discoveries,
vi

Ternate, on the Moluccas, fortified, xxxvii

Testu, Guillaume le, v. Le Testu

Themara, Francisco, Libro de las costumbres, lxiv

Theopompus, mentions an island beyond the then known world, ii

Thevet, "Cosmographie Universelle," 1575, lxvi

Tierra baiza, lxviii

Tierra del Fuego, discovered by Magelhaens, xxvi; mistaken for New
Guinea, ib.

Tin plate, with the names of Dirk Hartog and others of the Eendraght,
found by Vlamingh's expedition, 130

Toppors-hoetien, island, 68

Tomai, the chief of Taomaco, 36

Tobi island, v. Lord North's island

Torres, Luis Vaez de, commander of the Almirante, lxxiii; discoveries,
20; relation of the discoveries of Quiros, 31

Torres' Straits, name, lxxii; passed by Tasman, xcii

Trial Rocks, opinions on, 186

Tristan d'Acunha, drawing of; Vlamingh's expedition was to land there,
113, 119

Turtledove, shoal, 177

Vaderland, Getrouw, s', extract from the skipper's journal, 187

Valerio, San, v. San Valerio

Vallard, Nicholas, MS. Atlas with his name, xxxv

Van Diemen, Antonio, on the Houtman's Abrolhos, 187

Van Diemen's Land, so named from the governor-general, xciii; northwest
corners explored by the Vossenbosch expedition, 166

Van Keulen, map, xcvi

Van Wijck Roelandszoon, v. Roelandszoon

Varckenshoeck, west point of Rooseboom's Bay, 168

Vaz Dourado, map, xxiii

Veerman, sent to the wreck of the Zeewijck, 186

Vergulde Draeck, expedition, cv; wreck, 77

Vianen, ship, discovery, lxxxix, 45

Villalobos, Ruy Lopez de, attempting a settlement on the Philippine
islands, lxx

Vinck, flyboat, in search of the Vergulde Draeck, 79

Virgenes, islands, 32

Visser, Chief pilot with Tasman, instructions 43

Vlamingh, Cornelis de, captain of the Weseltje, 113

Vlamingh, Willem de, voyage, cviii, 111; inscription on the plate on Dirk
Hartog's island, lxxxi

Volckersen, Samuel, captain of the Waeckende Boey, account, 89

Vossenbosch Bay, on the coast of New Holland, 172

Vossenbosch, fluyt, discoveries, 165 seqq.

Waeckende Boey, sent in search of the wreck of the Vergulde Draeck, cv,
80; loses boat, schuyt, and fourteen men, 84

Water serpents, seen by Dampier, 148

Wesel, yacht, expedition to New Guinea, 46

Weseltje, galiot, unsuccessful expedition to the island of Mony, 116

Weasel, shallop, 75

Weybehays, fighting against Cornelis, 70; takes him prisoner, 71

Wielingen, the, on the Zeeland Bank, 182

Witsen, Burgomaster, his notes the only account of Tasman's voyage,
xcviii; extract from his "Noord en Oost Tartarye," 91

Witte Valck, sent to the rescue of the men and specie of the Vergulde
Draeck, 78

Wytflie, Cornelius, on "Australis Terra," lxix

Wijck J. Roelandszoon, van, v. Roelandszoon

Zeachen, (ship Zeehaen), supposed native of Arnheim made discoverer of
Arnheim's Land, lxxxv

Zebu, Spanish colony founded at, lxx

Zeehaen, ship, lxxxv

Zeemeuw, yacht, destined for the discovery of New Guinea, 43, 47

Zeewijck, wreck, 176; remains found, 179; communication respecting the
wreck, 179

Zeewijk, channel, 179

Zuysdorp, wreck, 178



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