Project Gutenberg Australia
a treasure-trove of literature
treasure found hidden with no evidence of ownership




Title:      The Part Borne by the Dutch in the Discovery of Australia 1606-1765.
Author:     J. E. Heeres
eBook No.:  0501231.txt
Edition:    1
Language:   English
Character set encoding:     Latin-1(ISO-8859-1)--8 bit
Date first posted:          January 2006
Date most recently updated: January 2006

***** A Project Gutenberg of Australia eBook *****

This eBook was produced by: Colin Choat


Project Gutenberg of Australia eBooks are created from printed editions
which are in the public domain in Australia, unless a copyright notice
is included. We do NOT keep any eBooks in compliance with a particular
paper edition.

Copyright laws are changing all over the world. Be sure to check the
copyright laws for your country before downloading or redistributing this
file.

This eBook is made available at no cost and with almost no restrictions
whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms
of the Project Gutenberg of Australia License which may be viewed online at
http://gutenberg.net.au/licence.html

To contact Project Gutenberg of Australia go to http://gutenberg.net.au


Title:      The Part Borne by the Dutch in the Discovery of Australia 1606-1765.
Author:     J. E. Heeres




NOTE:
* Refer to the note at the end of this ebook for an explanation, by Peter
Reynders, of usage regarding 17th Century Dutch Surnames.

* * * * *

THE PART BORNE BY THE DUTCH IN THE DISCOVERY OF AUSTRALIA 1606-1765.

BY

J. E. HEERES, LL. D.
PROFESSOR AT THE DUTCH COLONIAL INSTITUTE DELFT

* * *

PUBLISHED BY THE ROYAL DUTCH GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY
IN COMMEMORATION OF THE XXVth ANNIVERSARY OF ITS FOUNDATION

LONDON
LUZAC & CO, 46 GREAT RUSSELL STREET W. C.
1899

* * *

CONTENTS.

List of books, discussed or referred to in the work

List of Maps and Figures

Introduction

DOCUMENTS:
I.      Dutch notions respecting the Southland in 1595
II.     Notices of the south-coast of New Guinea in 1602
III.    Voyage of the ship Duifken under command of Willem Jansz(oon) and
        Jan Lodewijkszoon Rosingeyn to New Guinea.--Discovery of the
        east-coast of the present Gulf of Carpentaria (1605-1606)
IV.     Fresh expedition to New Guinea by the ship Duifken (1607)
V.      Voyage of the ships Eendracht and Hoorn, commanded by Jacques Le
        Maire and Willem Corneliszoon Schouten through the Pacific Ocean
        and along the north-coast of New Guinea (1616)
VI.     Project for the further discovery of the Southland--Nova
        Guinea (1616)
VII.    Voyage of de Eendracht under command of Dirk Hartogs(zoon).
        Discovery of the West-coast of Australia in 1616: Dirk
        Hartogs-island and -road, Land of the Eendracht or Eendrachtsland
        (1616)
VIII.   Voyage of the ship Zeewolf, from the Netherlands to India, under
        the command of supercargo Pieter Dirkszoon and skipper Haevik
        Claeszoon van Hillegom.--Further discovery of the West-coast of
        Australia (1618)
IX.     Voyage of the ship Mauritius from the Netherlands to India under
        the command of supercargo Willem Jansz. or Janszoon and skipper
        Lenaert Jacobsz(oon). Further discovery of the West-coast of
        Australia.--Willems-rivier (1618)
X.      Further discovery of the South-coast of New-Guinea by the ship
        Het Wapen van Amsterdam? (1619?)
XI.     Voyage of the ships Dordrecht and Amsterdam under commander
        Frederik De Houtman, supercargo Jacob Dedel, and skipper Reyer
        Janszoon van Buiksloot and Maarten Corneliszoon(?) from the
        Netherlands to the East-Indies.--Further discovery of the
        West-coast of Australia: Dedelsland and Houtman's Abrolhos (1619)
XII.    Voyage of the ship Leeuwin from the Netherlands to Java.--Discovery
        of the South-West coast of Australia.--Leeuwin's land (1622)
XIII.   The Triall. (English discovery)--The ship Wapen van Hoorn touches
        at the West-coast of Australia.--New projects for discovery made
        by the supreme government at Batavia (1622)
XIV.    Voyage of the ships Pera and Arnhem, under command of Jan
        Carstenszoon or Carstensz., Dirk Meliszoon and Willem Joosten van
        Colster or Van Coolsteerdt.--Further discovery of the South-West
        coast of New Guinea. Discovery of the Gulf of Carpentaria (1623)
XV.     Voyage of the ship Leiden, commanded by skipper Klaas Hermansz(oon)
        from the Netherlands to Java.--Further discovery of the West-coast
        of Australia (1623)
XVI.    Discovery of the Tortelduif island (rock) (1624?)
XVII.   Voyage of the ship Leijden, commanded by skipper Daniel Janssen
        Cock, from the Netherlands to Java. Further discovery of the
        West-coast of Australia (1626)
XVIII.  Discovery of the South-West coast of Australia by the ship Het
        Gulden Zeepaard, commanded by Pieter Nuijts, member of the Council
        of India, and by skipper Francois Thijssen or Thijszoon (1627)
XIX.    Voyage of the ships Galias, Utrecht and Texel, commanded by
        Governor-General Jan Pieterszoon Coen.--Further discovery of the
        West-coast of Australia (1627)
XX.     Voyage of the ship Het Wapen van Hoorn, commanded by supercargo
        J. Van Roosenbergh.--Further discovery of the West-coast of
        Australia (1627)
XXI.    Discovery of the North-West coast of Australia by the ship Vianen
        (Viane, Viana), commanded by Gerrit Frederikszoon De Witt.--De
        Witt's land (1628)
XXII.   Discovery of Jacob Remessens-, Remens-, or Rommer-river, south of
        Willems-river (before 1629)
XXIII.  Shipwreck of the ship Batavia under commander Francois Pelsaert
        on Houtmans Abrolhos. Further discovery of the West-coast of
        Australia (1629)
XXIV.   Further surveyings of the West-coast of Australia by the ship
        Amsterdam under commander Wollebrand Geleynszoon De Jongh and
        skipper Pieter Dircksz, on her voyage from the Netherlands to
        the East Indies (1635)
XXV.    New discoveries on the North-coast of Australia, by the ships
        Klein-Amsterdam and Wesel, commanded by (Gerrit Thomaszoon Pool
        and) Pieter Pieterszoon (1636)
XXVI.   Discovery of Tasmania (Van Diemensland), New Zealand (Statenland),
        islands of the Tonga- and Fiji-groups, etc. by the ships Heemskerk
        and de Zeehaen, under the command of Abel Janszoon Tasman, Frans
        Jacobszoon Visscher, Yde Tjerkszoon Holman or Holleman and
        Gerrit Jansz(oon) (1642-1643)
XXVII.  Further discovery of the Gulf of Carpentaria, the North and
        North-West coasts of Australia by the Ships Limmen, Zeemeeuw
        and de Bracq, under the command of Tasman, Visscher, Dirk
        Corneliszoon Haen and Jasper Janszoon Koos (1644)
XXVIII. Exploratory voyage to the West-coast of Australia round by the
        south of Java, by the ship Leeuwerik, commanded by Jan Janszoon
        Zeeuw (1648)
XXIX.   Shipwreck of the Gulden or Vergulden Draak on the West-coast of
        Australia, 1656.--Attempts to rescue the survivors, 1656-1658.
        --Further surveyings of the West-coast by the ship de Wakende
        Boei, commanded by Samuel Volckerts(zoon), and by the ship
        Emeloord, commanded by Aucke Pieterszoon Jonck, (1658)
XXX.    The ship Elburg, commanded by Jacob Pieterszoon Peereboom,
        touches at the South-West coast of Australia and at cape Leeuwin,
        on her voyage from the Netherlands to Batavia (1658)
XXXI.   Further discovery of the North-West-coast of Australia by the
        ship de Vliegende Zwaan, commanded by Jan Van der Wall, on her
        voyage from Ternate to Batavia in February 1678
XXXII.  Further discovery of the West-coast of Australia by the ship
        Geelvink, under the skipper-commander of the expedition, Willem De
        Vlamingh, the ship Nijptang, under Gerrit Collaert, and the ship
        het Wezeltje, commanded by Cornelis De Vlamingh (1696-1697)
XXXIII. Further discovery of the North-coast of Australia by the ships
        Vossenbosch, commanded by Maarten Van Delft, de Waijer under
        Andries Rooseboom, of Hamburg, and Nieuw-Holland or Nova-Hollandia,
        commanded by Pieter Hendrikszoon, of Hamburg (1705)
XXXIV.  Exploratory voyage by order of the West-India Company "to the
        unknown part of the world, situated in the South Sea to westward
        of America", by the ships Arend and the African Galley, commanded
        by Mr. Jacob Roggeveen, Jan Koster, Cornelis Bouman and Roelof
        Roosendaal (1721-1722)
XXXV.   The ship Zeewijk, commanded by Jan Steijns, lost on the
        Tortelduif rock (1727)
XXXVI.  Exploratory voyage of the ships Rijder and Buis, commanded by
        lieutenant Jan Etienne Gonzal and first mate Lavienne Lodewijk
        Van Asschens, to the Gulf of Carpentaria (1756)
INDICES. (Persons, Ships, Localities)

* * * * *

LIST OF MAPS AND FIGURES.

* No. 1 Gedeelte der (Part of the) _Orbis terrae compendiosa describtio_
* No. 2 Gedeelte der (Part of the) _Exacta & accurata delineatio cum
  orarum maritimarum tum etjam locorum terrestrium, quae in regjonibus
  China...una cum omnium vicinarum insularum descriptjone ut sunt
  Sumatra, Java utraque_
* No. 3 Zuidoostelijk gedeelte der Kaart (South-eastern part of the Map)
  _Indiae Orientalis Nova descriptio_
* No. 4 Caert van (Chart of) 't Land van d'Eendracht Ao 1627 door HESSEL
  GERRITSZ
* No. 5 Uitslaande Kaart van het Zuidland door HESSEL GERRITSZ (Folding
  chart of the Southland).
* No. 6 Kaart van het Zuidland van (Alap of the Southland by) JOANNES
  KEPPLER en PHILIPPUS ECKEBRECHT, 1630
* No. 7 Kaart van den opperstuurman AREND MARTENSZ. DE LEEUW, der
  Zuidwestkust van Nieuw Guinea en der Oostkust van de Golf van Carpentaria
  (Chart, made by the upper steersman Arend Martensz. De Leeuw, of the
  Southwest coast of New-Guinea and the East-coast of the Gulf of
  Carpentaria)
* No. 8 Kaart van (Chart of) Eendrachtsland, 1658
* No. 9 Kaart van (Chart of) Eendrachtsland, 1658
* No. 10 Kaart van (Chart of) Eendrachtsland, 1658
* No. 11 Kaart van de Noordzijde van 't Zuidland (Chart of the North side
  of the Southland), 1678
* No. 12 Opschrift op den schotel, door Willem De Vlamingh op het
  Zuidland achtergelaten (Inscription on the dish, left by Willem De
  Vlamingh at the Southland), 1697.
* No. 13 Kaart van het Zuidland, bezeild door Willem De Vlamingh, in
  1696-1697 door ISAAC DE GRAAFF (Chart of the South-land, made and
  surveyed by Willem De Vlamingh in 1696-1697)
* No. 14 Uitslaande kaart van den Maleischen Archipel, de Noord- en
  West-kusten van Australië door ISAAC DE GRAAFF (Folding chart of the
  Malay Archipelago, the North- and West-coast of Australia) 1690-1714
* No. 15 Kaart van (Chart of) Hollandia Nova, nader ontdekt anno 1705
  door (more exactly discovered by) de Vossenbosch, de Waijer en de Nova
  Hollandia
* No. 16-17 Kaarten betreffende de schipbreuk der Zeewijk (Charts,
  concerning the shipwreck of the Zeewijk) 1727.
* No. 18 Typus orbis terrarum uit GERARDI MERCATORIS Atlas...De
  Novo...emendatus...studio JUDOCI HONDIJ, 1632.
* No. 19 Wereldkaartje uit het Journaal van de Nassausche Vloot (Little
  map of the world from the Journal of the Nassau fleet), 1626

* * * * *

LIST OF BOOKS DISCUSSED OR REFERRED TO IN THE WORK.

* Aa (PIETER VAN DER), Nauwkeurige Versameling der gedenkwaardigste Zee-
  en Landreysen na Oost- en West-Indiën, Mitsgaders andere Gewesten
  (Leiden, 1707).
* S. d. B. Historie der Sevarambes...Twede druk. t'Amsterdam, By Willem
   de Coup (enz.). 1701. Het begin ende voortgangh der Vereenighde
   Nederlantsche Geoctroyeerde Oost-Indische Compagnie (II). Gedruckt
   in 1646.
* BURNEY, Chronological history of the voyages and discoveries in the
   South Sea, Deel III (London, Luke Hansard, 1813).
* Bandragen tot de taal- land- en volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Indië,
   nieuwe volgreeks, I (1856).
* A F. CALVERT, The Discovery of Australia. (London, Liverpool, 1893).
* G. COLLINGRIDGE, The discovery of Australia. (Sydney, Hayes, 1895).
* Remarkable Maps of the XVth, XVIth & XVIIth centuries. II. III. The
   geography of Australia. Edited by C. H. COOTE (Amsterdam, Frederik
   Muller, 1895).
* L. C. D. VAN DIJK. Mededeelingen uit het Oost-Indisch Archief. No. 1.
   Twee togten naar de Golf van Carpentaria. (Amsterdam, Scheltema, 1859).
* LOUIS DE FREYCINET, Voyage autour du monde, entrepris par ordre du
   roi, executé sur les corvettes de S. M. l'Uranie et la Physicienne,
   pendant les années 1817, 1818, 1819, 1820.--Historique. (Paris, Pillet
   ainé, 1825).
* J. F. GERHARD. Het leven van Mr. N. Cz. Witsen. I (Utrecht, Leeflang,
  1881).
* J. E. HEERES, Bouwstoffen voor de geschiedenis der Nederlanders in den
    Maleischen Archipel, III. ('s Gravenhage, Nijhoff, 1895).
* J. E. HEERES. Dagh-Register gehouden int Casteel Batavia Anno
   1624-1629.
    Uitgegeven onder toezicht van...('s Gravenhage, Nijhoff, 1896).
* Abel Janszoon Tasman's journal of his discovery of Van Diemens land
   and New Zealand in 1642...to which are added Life and Labours of Abel
   Janszoon Tasman by J. E. HEFRES...(Amsterdam, Frederik Muller, 1898).
* Iovrnael vande Nassausche Uloot...Onder 't beleyd vanden Admirael
   JAQUES L'HEREMITE, ende Vice-Admirael Geen Huygen Schapenham, 1623-1626.
   T'Amstelredam, By Hessel Gerritsz ende Jacob Pietersz Wachter. 't Jaer
   1626.
* J. K. J. DE JONGE De opkomst van het Nederlandsch gezag in Oost-Indië,
   1. ('s-Gravenhage, Amsterdam, MDCCCLXIV); IV. (MDCCCLXIX.)
* P. A. LEUPE. De reizen der Nederlanders naar het Zuidland of
Nieuw-Holland, in de 17c en 18c eeuw. (Amsterdam, Hulst van Keulen, 1868).
* LINSCHOTEN (JAN, HUYGEN VAN). Itinerario, Voyage ofte Schipvaert naer
   Oost ofte Portugaels Indiën...'t Amstelredam by Cornelis Claesz. op 't
   VVater, in 't Schriff-boeck, by de Oude Brugghe. Anno CICICXCVI.
* R. H. MAJOR. Early voyages to Terra Australis, now called Australia
  (London, Hackluyt Society, MDCCCLIX).
* GERARDI MERCATORIS atlas sive Cosmographicae Meditationes de Fabrica
   mundi et fabricati figura. De novo multis in locis emendatus novisque
   tabulis auctus Studio IUDOCI HONDIJ. Amsterodami. Sumptibus Johannis
   Cloppenburgij. Anno 1632.
* A. E. NORDENSKIÖLD. Facsimile-Atlas to the early history of
   cartography. (Stockholm, MDCCCLXXXIX).
* A. E. NORDENSKIÖLD. Periplus.--Translated from the Swedish original by
   F. A. Bather. (Stockholm, MDCCCLXXXXVII).
* PURCHAS his Pilgrimes Contayning a History of the World in Sea
   voyages, and lande-Travells by Englishmen and others (HACKLUYTUS
   POSTHUMUS).
* A. RAINAUD. Le Continent Austral. (Paris, Colin, 1893).
* Dagverhaal der ontdekkings-reis van Mr. JACOB ROGGEVEEN...in de jaren
   1721 en 1722. Uitgegeven door het Zeeuwsch Genootschap der
   Wetenschappen.--Te Middelburg, bij de gebroeders Abrahams. 1838.
* TIELE (P. A.) Mémoire bibliographique sur les journaux des navigateurs
   Néerlandais. (Amsterdam, Frederik Muller, 1867).
* TIELE (P. A.), Nederlandsche bibliographic van land- en volkenkunde.
   (Amsterdam, Frederik Muller, 1884).
* N. CZ. WITSEN. Noord- en Oost Tartarije. (1692, enz.)
* C. WYTFLIET. Descriptionis Ptolemaicae augmentum. (1597).

* * * * *

INTRODUCTION.

{Page i}

I.

OCCASION AND OBJECT OF THE PRESENT WORK.

In writing my biography of Tasman, forming part of Messrs. Frederik
Muller and Co.'s edition of the Journal of Tasman's celebrated voyage of
discovery of 1642-1643, I was time and again struck by the fact that the
part borne by the Netherlanders in the discovery of the continent of
Australia is very insufficiently known to the Dutch themselves, and
altogether misunderstood or even ignored abroad. Not only those who with
hypercritical eyes scrutinise, and with more or less scepticism as to its
value, analyse whatever evidence on this point is submitted to them, but
those others also who feel a profound and sympathetic interest in the
historical study of the remarkable voyages which the Netherlanders
undertook to the South-land, are almost invariably quite insufficiently
informed concerning them. This fact is constantly brought home to the
student who consults the more recent works published on the subject, and
who fondly hopes to get light from such authors as CALVERT, COLLINGRIDGE,
NORDENSKIOLD, RAINAUD and others. Such at least has time after time been
my own case. Is it wonderful, therefore, that, while I was engaged in
writing Tasman's life, the idea occurred to me of republishing the
documents relating to this subject, preserved in the State Archives at
the Hague--the repository of the archives of the famous General Dutch
Chartered East-India Company extending over two centuries (1602-1800)--and
in various other places? I was naturally led to lay before Messrs.
Frederik Muller and Co. the question, whether they would eventually
undertake such a publication, and I need hardly add that these
gentlemen, to whom the historical study of Dutch discovery has repeatedly
been so largely indebted, evinced great interest in the plan I submitted
to them.[*]

[* See my Life of Tasman, p. 103, note 10.]

Meanwhile the Managing Board of the Royal Geographical Society of the
Nether lands had resolved to publish a memorial volume on the occasion of
the Society's twenty-fifth anniversary. Among the plans discussed by the
Board was the idea of having the documents just referred to published at
the expense of the Society. The name of jubilee publication could with
complete justice be bestowed on a work having for its object once more to
throw the most decided and fullest possible light on achievements of our
forefathers in the 17th and 18th century, in a form that would appeal to
foreigners no less than to native readers. An act of homage to our
ancestors, therefore, a modest one certainly, but one inspired by the
same feeling which in 1892 led Italy and the Iberian Peninsula to
celebrate the memory of the discoverer of America, and in 1898 prompted
the Portuguese to do homage to the navigator who first showed the world
the sea-route to India.

{Page ii}

How imperfect and fragmentary even in our days is the information
generally available concerning the part borne by the Netherlanders in the
discovery of the fifth part of the world, may especially be seen from the
works of foreigners. This, I think, must in the first place, though not,
indeed, exclusively, be accounted for by the rarity of a working
acquaintance with the Dutch tongue among foreign students. On this
account the publication of the documents referred to would very
imperfectly attain the object in view, unless accompanied by a careful
translation of these pieces of evidence into one of the leading languages
of Europe; and it stands to reason that in the case of the discovery of
Australia the English language would naturally suggest itself as the most
fitting medium of information[*]. So much to account for the bilingual
character of the jubilee publication now offered to the reader.

[* The English translation is the work of Mr. C. Stoffel, of Nijmegen.]

Closely connected with this consideration is another circumstance which
has influenced the mode of treatment followed in the preparation of this
work. The defective acquaintance with the Dutch language of those who
have made the history of the discovery of Australia the object of serious
study, or even, in the case of some of them, their total ignorance of it,
certainly appears to me one, nay even the most momentous of the causes of
the incomplete knowledge of the subject we are discussing; but it cannot
possibly be considered the only cause, if we remember that part of the
documentary evidence proving the share of the Netherlanders in the
discovery of Australia has already been given to the world through the
medium of a leading European tongue.

In 1859 R. H. MAJOR brought out his well-known book _Early Voyages to
Terra Australis, now called Australia_, containing translations of some
of the archival pieces and of other documents pertaining to the subject.
And though, from P. A. LEUPE'S work, entitled _De Reizen der Nederlanders
naar het Juidland of Nzeuw-Holland in de 17e en 18e eeuw_, published in
1868, and from a book by L. C. D. Van Dijk, brought out in the same year
in which MAJOR'S work appeared, and entitled _Twee togten naar de golf
van Carpentaria_; though, I say, from these two books it became evident
that MAJOR'S work was far from complete, still it cannot be denied that
he had given a great deal, and what he had given, had in the English
translation been made accessible also to those to whom Dutch was an
unknown tongue. This circumstance could not but make itself felt in my
treatment of the subject, since it was quite needless to print once more
in their entirety various documents discussed by MAJOR. There was the
less need for such republication in cases which would admit of the
results of Dutch exploratory voyages being exhibited in the simplest and
most effective way by the reproduction of charts made in the course of
such voyages themselves: these charts sometimes speak more clearly to the
reader than the circumstantial journals which usually, though not always,
are of interest for our purpose only by specifying the route followed,
the longitudes and latitudes taken, and the points touched at by the
voyagers. These considerations have in some cases led me only to mention
certain documents, without printing them in full, and the circumstance
that my Tasman publication has been brought out in English, will
sufficiently account for the absence from this work of the journal of
Tasman's famous expedition of 1642/3.[*]

[* I would have the present work considered as forming one whole with my
Tasman publication and with the fascicule of _Remarkable Maps_, prepared
by me, containing the Nolpe-Dozy chart of 1652-3 (Cf. my Life of Tasman,
pp. 75 f). Together they furnish all the most important pieces of
evidence discovered up to now, for the share which the Netherlanders have
had in the discovery of Australia.]

{Page iii}

The documents, here either republished or printed for the first time, are
all of them preserved in the State Archives at the Hague[*], unless
otherwise indicated. They have been arranged under the heads of the
consecutive expeditions, which in their turn figure in chronological
order. This seemed to me the best way to enable readers to obtain a clear
view of the results of the exploratory voyages made along the coasts of
Australia by the Netherlanders of the seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries.

[* My best thanks are due to Jhr. Th. Van Riemsdijk, LL. D., Principal
Keeper, and to Dr. T. H. Colenbrander, Assistant-Keeper, of the State
Archives of the Hague.]

For this and this only, was the object I had in view in selecting the
materials for the present work: once more, as completely and convincingly
as I could, to set forth the part borne by the Netherlanders in the
discovery of the fifth part of the world. I have not been actuated by any
desire to belittle the achievements of other nations in this field of
human activity. The memorial volume here presented to the reader aims at
nothing beyond once more laying before fellow-countrymen and foreigners
the _documentary evidence_ of Dutch achievement in this field; perhaps I
may add the wish that it may induce other nations to follow the example
here given as regards hitherto unpublished documents of similar nature.
Still, it would be idle to deny that it was with a feeling of national
pride that in the course of this investigation I was once more
strengthened in the conviction that even at this day no one can justly
gainsay MAJOR'S assertion on p. LXXX of his book, that "the first
authenticated discovery of any part of the great Southland" was made in
1606 by a Dutch schip the Duifken. All that is asserted regarding a
so-called previous discovery of Australia has no foundation beyond mere
surmise and conjecture. Before the voyage of the ship Duifken all is an
absolute blank.

II.

CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE DUTCH DISCOVERIES ON THE MAINLAND COAST OF
AUSTRALIA.

If one would distribute over chronological periods the voyages of
discovery, both accidental and of set purpose, made by the Netherlanders
on the mainland coast of Australia, it might be desirable so to adjust
these periods, that each of them was closed by the appearance in this
field of discovery and exploration, of ships belonging to other European
nations.

The first period, extending from 1595 to 1606, would in that case open
with the years 1595-6, when JAN HUYGEN VAN LINSCHOTEN, in his highly
remarkable book entitled _Itinerario_, imparted to his countrymen what he
knew about the Far East; and it would conclude with the discovery of
Torres Strait by the Spaniards in 1606, a few months after Willem Jansz.
in the ship Duifken had discovered the east-coast of the Gulf of
Carpentaria, the latter discovery forming the main interest of this
period.

The second period may be made to extend from 1606 to 1622, i.e. from the
appearance of the Spaniards on the extreme north-coast of the fifth part
of the world, to the year in which the English ship Trial was dashed to
pieces on a rock to westward of the west-coast of Australia; the
discovery of this west-coast by the Dutch in and after 1616, and of the
south-western extremity of the continent in 1622, constituting the main
facts of the period.

{Page iv}

We next come to the palmiest period of Dutch activity in the discovery of
Australia (1622-1688), terminating with the first exploratory voyage of
importance undertaken by the English, when in 1688 William Dampier
touched at the north-west coast of Australia. This period embraces the
very famous, at all events remarkable, voyages of Jan Carstensz (1623),
of Pool and Pieterszoon (1636), of Tasman (1642-1644), of Van der Wall
(1678), etc.

The last period with which we wish to deal, lies between Dampier's
arrival and Cook's first visit to these regions (1688-1769), and is of
secondary importance so far as Dutch discoveries are concerned. We may
just mention Willem de Vlamingh's voyage of 1696-1697, and Maerten van
Delft's of 1705; Gonzal's expedition (1756) is not quite without
significance, but the results obtained in these voyages will not bear
comparison with those achieved by the expeditions of the preceding
period. Besides this, the English navigator Dampier and afterwards
Captain Cook now began to inscribe their names on the rolls of history,
and those names quite legitimately outshine those of the Dutch navigators
of _the eighteenth century_. The palmy days of Dutch discovery fell in
_the seventeenth century_.

In some such fashion the history of the Dutch wanderings and explorations
on the coasts of Australia might be divided into chronological periods.
The desire of being clear has, however, led me to adopt another mode of
treatment in this Introduction: I shall one after another discuss the
different coast-regions discovered and touched at by the Netherlanders.

III.

THE NETHERLANDERS IN THE GULF OF CARPENTARIA[*]

[* As regards the period extending from 1595-1644, see also my Life of
Tasman, Ch. XII, pp. 88ff.]

We may safely say that the information concerning the Far East at the
disposal of those Dutchmen who set sail for India in 1595, was
exclusively based on what their countryman JAN HUYGEN VAN LINSCHOTEN, had
told them in his famous _Itinerario_. And as regards the present
Australia this information amounted to little or nothing.

Unacquainted as he was with the fact that the south-coast of Java had
already been circumnavigated by European navigators, VAN LINSCHOTEN did
not venture decidedly to assert the insular nature of this island. It
might be connected with the mysterious South-land, the Terra Australis,
the Terra Incognita, whose fantastically shaped coast-line was reported
to extend south of America, Africa and Asia, in fact to the southward of
the whole then known world. This South-land was a mysterious region, no
doubt, but this did not prevent its coast-lines from being studded with
names equally mysterious: the charts of it showed the names of Beach [*],
the gold-bearing land (provincia aurifera), of Lucach, of Maletur, a
region overflowing with spices (scatens aromatibus). Forming one whole
with it, figured Nova Guinea, encircled by a belt of islands.

[* That the Dutch identified Beach with the South-land discovered by them
in 1616, is proved by No. XI A of the Documents (p. 14).]

{Page v}

So far the information furnished by VAN LINSCHOTEN [*]. At the same time,
however, there were in the Netherlands persons who had other data to go
by. In 1597 CORNELIS WIJTFLIET of Louvain brought out his _Descriptionis
Plolomaicae augmentum_, which among the rest contained a chart on which
not only Java figured as an island, but which also represented New Guinea
as an island by itself, separated from Terra Australis. The question
naturally suggests itself, whether this chart [**] will justify the
assumption that the existence of _Torres Strait_ was known to WIJTFLIET.
I, for one, would not venture to infer as much, seeing that in other
respects this chart so closely reproduces the vague conjectures touching
a supposed Southland found on other charts of the period, that
WIJTFLIET'S open passage between New Guinea and Terra Australis cannot, I
think, be admitted as evidence that he actually knew of the existence of
Torres Strait, in the absence of any indications of the basis on which
this notion of his reposed. Such indications, however, are altogether
wanting: none are found in WIJTFLIET'S work itself, and other
contemporary authorities are equally silent on the point in question
[***].

[* See No. I of the Documents, with charts Nos. 1 and 2.]

[** COLLINGRIDGE, Discovery, p. 219, has a rough sketch of it.]

[*** Cf. also my Life of Tasman, p. 89, and Note 8.]

After this digression let us return to the stand-point taken up by the
North-Netherlanders who first set sail for the Indies in 1595. They "knew
in part" only: they were aware that they knew nothing with certitude. But
their mercantile interests very soon induced them to try to increase and
strengthen their information concerning the regions of the East. What
sort of country after all was this much-discussed New-Guinea, they began
to ask. As early as 1602 information was sought from the natives of
adjacent islands, but these proved to have "no certain knowledge of this
island of Nova Guinea" [*]. The next step taken was the sending out of a
ship for the purpose of obtaining this "certain knowledge": there were
rumours afloat of gold being found in New Guinea!

[* See No. II of the Documents.]

On the 28th of November 1605 the ship Duifken, commanded by Willem
Jansz., put to sea from Bantam with destination for New Guinea. The ship
returned to Banda from its voyage before June of the same year. What were
the results obtained? What things had been seen by Willem Jansz. and his
men? The journal of the Duifken's voyage has not come down to us, so that
we are fain to infer its results from other data, and fortunately such
data are not wanting. An English ship's captain was staying at Bantam
when the Duifken put to sea, and was still there when the first reports
of her adventures reached the said town. Authentic documents of 1618,
1623, and 1644 are found to refer to her voyage. Above all, the journal
of a subsequent expedition, the one commanded by Carstensz. in 1623,
contains important particulars respecting the voyage of his predecessors
in 1605-6. [*]

[* See pp. 28, 42, 43, 45 _infra_. I trust that these data will go far to
remove COLLINGRIDGE'S doubt (Discovery p. 245) as to whether the ship
Duifken sailed farther southward than 8° 15'.]

On the basis of these data we may safely take for granted the following
points. The ship Duifken struck the south-west coast of New Guinea in
about 5° S. Lat., ran along this coast on a south-east course [*], and
sailed past the narrows now known as Torres Strait. Did Willem Jansz.
look upon these narrows as an open strait, or did he take them to be a
bay only? My answer is, that most probably he was content to leave this
point altogether undecided; seeing that Carstensz. and his men in 1623
thought to find an "open passage" on the strength of information given by
a chart with which they had been furnished. [**] This "open passage" can
hardly refer to anything else than Torres Strait. But in that case it is
clear that Jansz. cannot have solved the problem, but must have left it a
moot point. At all events he sailed past the strait, through which a few
months after him Luiz Vaez de Torres sailed from east to west.


[* As regards the names given on this expedition to various parts of this
coast, see my Life of Tasman, pp. 90-91, and chart No. 3 on p. 5
_infra_.]

[** See pp. 47, 66 _infra_.]

{Page vi}

Jansz. next surveyed the east-coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria as far as
about 13° 45'. To this point, the farthest reached by him, he gave the
name of Kaap-Keerweer [Cape Turn-again]. That skipper Jansz. did not
solve the problem of the existence or non-existence of an open passage
between New Guinea and the land afterwards visited by him, is also proved
by the circumstance that even after his time the east-coast of the Gulf
of Carpentaria was also called New Guinea by the Netherlanders. Indeed,
throughout the 17th and 18th centuries the Dutch discoverers continued in
error regarding this point. They felt occasional doubts on this head [*]
it is true, but these doubts were not removed.

[* See _inter alia_ a report of a well-known functionary of the E.I.C.,
G. E. RUMPHUS, dated after 1685 in LEUPE Nieuw-Guinea, p. 86: "The Drooge
bocht [shallow bay], where Nova-Guinea is surmised to be cut off from the
rest of the Southland by a passage opening into the great South-Sea,
though our men have been unable to pass through it owing to the shallows,
so that it remains uncertain whether this strait is open on the other
side."]

The Managers of the E.I.C. did not remain content with this first attempt
to obtain more light [*] as regards these regions situated to eastward,
the Southland-Nova Guinea as they styled it, using an appellation
characteristic of their degree of knowledge concerning it. But it was not
before 1623 that another voyage was undertaken that added to the
knowledge about the Gulf of Carpentaria: I mean the voyage of the ships
Pera and Arnhem, commanded by Jan Carstensz. and Willem Joosten van
Colstjor or Van Coolsteerdt. [**]

[* See pp. 6, 7-8, 13 and note 2 _infra_.]

[** See the Documents under No. XIV (pp. 21 ff.), and especially chart
No. 7 on p. 46.]

On this occasion, too, the south-west coast of New Guinea was first
touched at, after which the ships ran on on an eastern course. Torres
Strait was again left alongside, and mistaken for a Drooge bocht,[*]
"into which they had sailed as into a trap," and the error of New Guinea
and the present Australia constituting one unbroken whole, was in this
way perpetuated. The line of the east-coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria,
"the land of Nova Guinea", was then followed up to about 17° 8' (Staten
river), whence the return-voyage was undertaken [**]. Along this coast
various names were conferred. [***]

[* As regards the attempts to survey and explore this shallow water, see
_infra_ pp. 33-34]

[** See p. 37 below.]

[*** As regards this, see especially the chart on p. 46.--Cf. my Life of
Tasman, pp. 99-100.]

In the course of the same expedition discovery was also made of
Arnhemsland on the west-coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria, and almost
certainly also of the so-called Groote Eyland or Van der Lijns island
(Van Speultsland) [*] The whole of the southern part of the gulf
remained, however, unvisited.

[* See my Life of Tasman, pp. 101-102; and pp. 47-48 below.]

{Page vii}

The honour of having first explored this part of the gulf in his second
famous voyage of 1644 is due to our countryman Abel Janszoon Tasman
together with Frans Jacobszoon Visscher and his other courageous
coadjutors in the ships Limmen Zeemeeuw and Brak. [*] Abel Tasman's
passagie [course] of 1644 lay again along the south-west coast of New
Guinea; again also Tasman left unsolved the problem of the passage
through between New Guinea and Australia: Torres Strait was again
mistaken for a bay. The east-coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria was next
further explored, and various new names were conferred especially on
rivers on this coast, which most probably got the name of Carpentaria
about this time; of the names then given a great many continue to figure
in modern maps. After exploring the east-coast, Tasman turned to the
south-coast of the gulf. In this latter case the results of the
exploration proved to be less trustworthy afterwards. Thus Tasman mistook
for a portion of the mainland the island now known as Mornington Island;
the same mistake he made as regards Maria Eiland in Limmensbocht. For the
rest however, the coast-line also of the south-coast was delineated with
what we must call great accuracy if we keep in mind the defective
instruments with which the navigators of the middle of the seventeenth
century had to make shift. The west-coast of the gulf, too, was skirted
and surveyed in this voyage; Tasman passed between this coast and the
Groote (Van der Lijn's) eiland.

[* See my Life of Tasman, pp. 115-118, and especially chart No. I of the
Tasman Folio. Much information may also be gathered from chart No. 14 of
the present work, since it registers almost the whole amount of Dutch
knowledge about Australia circa 1700.]

The entire coastline enclosing the Gulf of Carpentaria had accordingly
now been skirted and mapped out. The value of Tasman's discoveries in
this part of Australia directly appears, if we lay side by side, for
instance, the chart of the upper-steersman De Leeuw [*], who formed part
of the voyage of 1623, or Keppler's map of 1630 [**]; and Tasman's chart
of 1644 [***], or Isaac De Graaff's made about 1700 [****], which last
gives a pretty satisfactory survey of the results of Tasman's voyage of
1644 so far as the Gulf of Carpentaria is concerned. Although Tasman's
expedition of 1644 did not yield complete information respecting the
coast-line of the Gulf, and although it is easy to point out
inaccuracies, the additions made by this voyage to our knowledge on this
point are so considerable that we may say with complete justice that
while the discovery of the east-coast of the Gulf is due to Jansz. (1606)
and Carstensz. (1623), it was Tasman who made known the south-coast and
the greater part of the west-coast.

[* No. 7 on p. 46.]

[** No. 6 on p. 10.]

[*** Chart No. I in the Tasman Folio.]

[**** No. 14 below.]

More than a century was to elapse before Dutch explorers again were to
visit the Gulf of Carpentaria. In 1756 the east- and west-coast of it
were visited first by Jean Etienne Gonzal and next by Lavienne Lodewijk
van Assehens [*]. The expedition is of little interest as regards the
surveying of the coast-line, but these explorers got into more frequent
contact with the natives than any of their predecessors--what especially
Gonzal reports on this subject, is certainly worth noting. Gonzal also
first touched at the south-west coast of New Guinea, and next, again
without becoming aware of the real character of Torres Strait, sailed to
the east-coast of the Gulf, skirting the same up to about 13° S. Lat.,
after which he crossed to the west-coast. What he did there is of little
interest. Van Asschen's experiences are of even less importance for our
present purpose. One remark of his, however, is worth noting: he states
namely that he found the east-coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria [**] to be
"fully 12 miles more to eastward" than the charts at his disposal had led
him to believe; and it would really seem to be a fact that Tasman had
placed this coast too far to westward.

[* See No. XXXVI _infra_.]

[** The names there conferred by him on various parts of the coast, may
be sufficiently gathered from Document No. XXXVI.]

{Page viii}

IV.

THE NETHERLANDERS ON THE NORTH-WEST COAST OF AUSTRALIA.

In a previous work [*] I have attempted to show that the discovery of
Arnhemsland must beyond any doubt be credited to the voyage of the yacht
Arnhem, commanded by Van Colster or Van Coolsteerdt, which took place in
1623. Since the Journal and the charts of this voyage are no longer
available, we are without the most important data for determining with
certainty between what degrees of longitude the Arnhemsland then
discovered was situated. To westward of it must be sought Van Diemens-
and Maria's-land, touched at in 1636 by Pieter Pieterszoon with the ships
Cleen Amsterdam and Wesell) [**]. There can be no doubt that Pieterszoon
must have sailed far enough to westward to have passed Dundas Strait, and
to have reached the western extremity of Melville Island (Roode hoek =
red point). He took Dundas Strait to be not a strait, but a bay, and
accordingly looked upon Melville Island not as an island, but as a
portion of the mainland (Van Diemensland) [***].

[* See my Life of Tasman, pp. 100-102, and the Documents under No. XIV, 2
_infra_.]

[** See the Documents under No. XXV.]

[*** Maria-land lies immediately to eastward of Van Diemens-land, and to
westward of Arnhems-land.]

In the course of these two voyages of 1623 and 1636, therefore, the whole
of the north-west coast from Melville Bay to Melville Island was surveyed
by Dutch ships. But in the absence of charts made on these voyages it is
impossible for us to say with certainty, whether the coastline can have
been traced with correctness. On this point also more light is thrown by
the well-known chart of 1644, in which the results of Tasman's voyages
are recorded. Tasman sailed along the whole of the coast, but in this
case too, his observations were not on all points accurate. Thus the
situation of Wessel-eiland and the islets south of it, with respect to
the mainland, is not given correctly by him; nor has he apprehended the
real character of Dundas Strait and of Van Diemen's Gulf, so that also
according to him Melville island forms part of the mainland. But for the
rest Tasman's chart also in this case approximately reproduces the
coast-line with so much correctness, that we find it quite easy [*] to
point out on the maps of our time the results of the Dutch voyages of
discovery in this part of the Australian coast.

[* Chart No. 14 below may also be of excellent service here.]

Far more accurate, however, than Tasman's chart is the chart which in
1705 was made of the voyage of the ships Vossenbosch, de Waijer and
Nova-Hollandia, commanded by Maarten van Delft [*]. This chart may at the
same time be of service to elucidate Tasman's discoveries and those of
his predecessors. It is to be regretted, therefore, that it only embraces
a comparatively small portion of the north-west coast, namely the part
extending from the west-coast of Bathurst island and the western
extremity of Melville island to the eastern part of Coburg peninsula and
Croker-island. This time again the real character of Dundas Strait and
Van Diemens Gulf were not ascertained [**].

[* See the Documents under No. XXXIII and Chart No. 15.]

[** I subjoin the names of localities that are found in this chart, since
the reproduction had to be made on too small a scale to allow of the
names being distinctly visible to the naked eye. Going from west to east
they are the following: Kliphoek, Duivelsklip, Droge Hoek, Boompjeshoek,
Wille Hoek, Noordhoek van Van Diemens Land, Waterplacts, Vuyle Bocht,
Vuijl Eijland, Hoek van Goede Hoop, Hoefyzer Hoek, Fortuyns Hoek, Schrale
Hoek, Valsche Westhoek, Valsche Bocht, Bedriegers Hoek, Westhoek van 3
Bergen's bocht of Vossenbos Ruyge Hoek, Orangie Hoek, Witte Hoek,
Waterplacts, Alkier liggen drie bergen, Toppershoedje, Oosthoek van Drie
Bergens bocht, Scherpen Hoek, Vlacke Hoek, Westhoek en Costhoek (van)
Mariaes Land, Maria's Hoek, de Konijnenberg, Marten Van Delft's baai,
Pantjallings Hoek, Rustenburg, Wajershoek, Hoek van Onier, Hoek van
Canthier, P. Frederiksrivier, Jan Melchers Hoek. Pieter Frederiks Hoek,
Roseboomshoek, W. Sweershoek, Hoek van Calmocrie.]

{Page ix}

V.

THE NETHERLANDERS ON THE WEST- AND SOUTH-WEST COAST OF AUSTRALIA

In the year 1616 the Dutch ship Eendracht, commanded by Dirk Hartogs on
her voyage from the Cape of Good Hope to Batavia unexpectedly touched at
"divers islands, but uninhabited" and thus for the first time surveyed
part of the west-coas of Australia[*]. As early as 1619 this coast, thus
accidentally discovered, was known by the name of Eendrachtsland or Land
van de Eendracht. The vaguenes of the knowledge respecting the coast-line
then discovered, and its extent, is not unaptly illustrated in a small
map of the world reproduced as below, and found in {Page x} GERARDI
MERCATORIS _Atlas sive Cosmographicae Meditationes de Fabrica mundi et
fabricati figura. De novo...auctus studio_ JUDOCI HONDIJ (Amsterodami;
Sumptibus Johannis Cloppenburgij. Anno 1632) [**]. If, however, we
compare this map of the world with KEPPLER'S map of 1630 [***], we become
aware that Hondius has not recorded all that was then known in Europe
respecting the light which since 1616 European explorers had thrown on
the question of the western coast-line of Australia. In Keppler's map,
namely, besides the English discovery of the Trial rocks (1622) [****],
and the name "'T Landt van Eendracht" in fat characters, passing from the
north to the south, we meet with the following names, which the smaller
letters show to have been intended to indicate subordinate parts of
Eendrachtsland: Jac. Rommer Revier [*****], Dirck Hartogs ree, F.
Houtmans aebrooleus and Dedells lant. What is more, Keppler's map also
exhibits the south-west coast of Australia.

[* See on this point the Documents sub No. VII (pp. 8f.).--It will hardly
be denied that these pieces of evidence may justly be called "documents
immediately describing" Hartogs's dicsovery.]

[** For my knowledge of this remarkable atlas I am indebted to Mr. ANTON
MENSING, member of the firm of Messrs. Frederik Muller and Co., of
Amsterdam. These gentlemen kindly enabled me to reproduce this chart for
the present work. I received it too late to allow of its being placed
among the charts accompanying the various documents.]

[*** See Chart No. 6 on p. 10 below.]

[**** See under No. XIII (p. 17) below.]

[***** See on this point p. 54 _infra_ (No. XXII A and note 3).]

[Map No. 18.  Typus orbis terrarum uit GERARDI MERCATORIS Atlas...De
Novo...emendatus...studio JUDOCI HONDIJ, 1632.]

Whence all those names? The answer to this question, and at the same time
various other new features, are furnished by the chart of Hessel
Gerritsz. of 1627 [*] and by the one dated 1618 [**], in which
corrections have been introduced after date. The 1627 chart is specially
interesting. Gerritsz., at the time cartographer in ordinary to the
E.I.C., has "put together this chart of the Landt van d'Eendracht from
the journals and drawings of the Steersmen", which means that he availed
himself of authentic data [***]. He acquitted himself of the task to
admiration, and has given a very lucid survey of the (accidental)
discoveries made by the Dutch on the west-coast of Australia. In this
chart of 1627 the Land of d'Eendracht takes up a good deal of space. To
the north it is found bounded by the "Willemsrivier", discovered in July
1618 by the ship Mauritius, commanded by Willem Janszoon [****].
According to the chart this "river" is in about 21° 45' S. Lat., but
there are no reliable data concerning this point. If we compare Hessel
Gerritsz's chart with those on which about 1700 the results of Willem De
Vlamingh's expedition of 1696-7 were recorded [*****] we readily come to
the conclusion that the ship Mauritius must have been in the vicinity of
Vlaming Head (N.W. Cape) on the Exmouth Gulf. From Willem Janszoon's
statements it also appears that on this occasion in 22° an "island (was)
discovered, and a landing effected." The island extended N.N.E. and
S.S.W. on the west-side. The land-spit west of Exmouth Gulf may very
possibly have been mistaken for an island. From this point then the
Eendrachtsland of the old Dutch navigators begins to extend southward. To
the question, how far it was held to extend, I answer that in the widest
sense of the term ('t Land van Eendracht or the South-land, it reached as
far as the South-coast, at all events past the Perth of our day) [******].
In a more restricted sense it extended to about 25° S.' Lat. In
the latter sense it included the entrance to Shark Bay, afterwards
entered by Dampier, and Dirk Hartogs island, likewise discovered by Dirk
Hartogs.

[* No. 4 on p. 9 _infra_.]

[** No. 5 (folding map).]

[*** It is evident that he did not use all the data then available. Thus,
for instance, he left unused those furnished by the Zeewolf (No. VIII,
pp. 10 ff. below), and those of the ship Leiden (No. XV, p. 49).]

[**** See the Documents under No IX (pp. 12f.).]

[***** Nos. 13 and 14]

[****** Chart No. 14]

{Page xi}

More to southward we find in the chart of 1627 I. d'Edels landt, made in
July 1619 by the ships Dordrecht and Amsterdam, commanded by Frederik De
Houtman and Jacob Dedel [*]. To the north of Dedelsland the coast is
rendered difficult of access by reefs, the so-called (Frederik De)
Houtmans-Abrolhos (now known as the Houtman Rocks), also discovered on
this occasion [**]. To the south, in about 32° S. Lat. [***] Dedelsland
is bounded by the Landt van de Leeuwin, surveyed in 1622 [****]. Looking
at the coast more closely still, we find in about 29° 30, S. Lat. the
name Tortelduyff (Turtle Dove Island), to the south of Houtmans Abrolhos,
an addition to the chart dating from about 1624 [*****].

[* See the documents sub No. XI (pp. 14 ff.). If NORDENSKIÖLD had known
these documents, he would have withheld the second alinea on p. 199 of
his interesting _Periplus_.--The doubts, also, concerning Frederik De
Houtman's share in the discoveries on the west-coast of Australia,
expressed by COLLINGRIDGE (_Discovery_ p. 304), CALVERT (_Discovery_, p.
25), and others, are now likely to be set at rest.]

[** They were then held to lie in 28° 46'. On this point see also the
documents of PELSAERT'S shipwreck (No. XXIII, pp. 55 ff).]

[*** About this latitude, between 32° and 33° S. Lat., also De Houtman
and Dedel estimated themselves to be, when they first came upon land.
They afterwards ran on on a northerly course.]

[**** See the documents sub No. XII (p. 17).]

[***** See No. XVI (p. 50) below, and the highly curious charts Nos. Nos.
16 and 17.]

So much for the highly interesting chart of Hessel Gerritsz of the year
1627. If we compare with it the revised edition of the 1618 chart, we are
struck by the increase of our forefathers' knowledge of the south-west
coast. This revised edition gives the entire coast-line down to the
islands of St. François and St. Pieter (133° 30' E. Long. Greenwich),
still figuring in the maps of our day: the Land of Pieter Nuyts,
discovered by the ship het Gulden Zeepaard in 1627 [*].

[* See No. XVIII (p. 51) below.]

North of Willemsrivier, this so-called 1618 chart has still another
addition, _viz_. G. F. De Witsland, discovered in 1628 by the ship Vianen
commanded by G. F. De Witt [*]. In this case, too, it is difficult to
determine exactly the longitudes between which the coast-line thus
designated is situated. [**] But with great distinctness the chart
exhibits the chain of islands of which the Monte Bello and tha Barrow
islands are the principal, and besides, certain islands of the Dampier
Archipelago, afterwards so called after the celebrated English navigator.
I would have these observations looked upon as hints towards the more
accurate determination of the site of this De Wit's land, and they may be
of the more value since the small scale of the chart renders an exact
determination of it exceedingly difficult.

[* See No. XXI (p. 54) below.]

[** See, however, No. XXI., C. _infra_.]

In Gerritsz's chart of 1627, as well as in the so-called 1618 one, we are
struck by the fact, that on the west-coast the coast-line shows breaks in
various places: De Witt's land is not connected with the coast of
Willems-rivier; the coast-line of Eendrachtsland does not run on; there
is uncertainty as regards what is now called Shark-bay; the coast facing
Houtmans Abrolhos is a conjectural one only; the coast-line facing
Tortelduyf is even altogether wanting; Dedelsland and 't Land van de
Leeuwin are not marked by unbroken lines. This fragmentary knowledge
sufficiently accounts for the fact, that about the middle of the
seventeenth century navigators were constantly faced by the problem of
the real character of the South-land: was it one vast continent or a
complex of islands? And the question would not have been so repeatedly
asked, if the line of the west-coast had been more accurately known.

{Page xii}

Tasman and Visscher [*] did a great deal towards the solution of this
problem, since in their voyage of 1644 they also skirted and mapped out
the entire line of the West-coast of what since 1644 has borne the name
of Nieuw-Nederland, Nova Hollandia, or New Holland, from Bathurst Island
to a point south of the Tropic of Capricorn. In this case also certain
mistakes were committed: they failed, for instance, to recognise the real
character of Bathurst Island, which, like Melville Island, they looked
upon as forming part of the mainland; but if we make due allowance for
the imperfection of their means of observation, we are bound to say that
the coast-line has by them been mapped out with remarkable accuracy [**].

[* I pass by certain other exploratory voyages on the westcoast (see e.g.
No. XXIV. _infra_, etc.).]

[** Cf. Tasman's chart of 1644 in the Tasman Folio.]

About fifteen years after the west-coast was more accurately mapped out
also, to the south of the tropic of Capricorn. In the year 1658 Samuel
Volekersen with the ship de Wakende Boei [Floating Buoy], and Aucke
Pieters Jonck with the ship Emeloord surveyed a portion of the
west-coast, and the charts then made have been preserved [*]. The
coast-line from a point near the Tortelduyf down to past Rottenest (the
large island on which Volkertsen did not confer a name, preferring to
"leave the naming to the pleasure of the Hon. Lord Governor-General") and
the present Perth, were surveyed with special care. In the same year the
ship Elburg, commanded by Jacob Peereboom, brought in further reports
about the Land van de Leeuwin, where she had been at anchor "in Lat. 33°
14' South, under a projecting point" (in Geographe Bay?).

[* See _infra_ No. XXIX., pp. 75 ff., and the charts sub No. XXIX. E, F
and I.]

The surveying of the lines of the west-coast was finally brought to a
close by the exploratory voyage of Willem De Vlamingh in 1696-7 with the
ships Geelvink,  Nijptang, and het Wezeltje. A remarkable chart referring
to this voyage, here reproduced [*], as well as the ISAAC DE GRAAFF chart
[**] of _circa_ 1700, give an excellent survey of the expedition. The
whole coast-line from the so-called Willemsrivier (N.W. Cape) to a point
south of Rottenest, Garden-island and Perth, was now mapped out. And
that, too, with great accuracy. Thus, for instance, the true situation of
the belt of islands enclosing Shark Bay was this time observed with
unerring exactitude, and Shark Bay itself actually discovered, though its
discovery is usually credited to Dampier (August, 1699).

[* No. 13.]

[* No. 14.]

VI.

THE NETHERLANDERS TO EASTWARD OF PIETER NUYTS-LAND.

The south-east- and east-coasts of Australia have never been visited by
the ships of the East India Company. Tasman and Visscher [*] discovered
Tasmania (Van Diemen's land) in 1642, but were unaware of the existence
of what is now known as Bass Strait; they discovered the west-coast of
New Zealand (Staten-land) and certain island-groups east of Australia,
but did not touch at or sight the east-coast of Australia. Of course,
after the discovery of the west-coast of New Zealand and of the
island-groups east of Australia [**], the existence of an east-coast of
Australia to westward of the regions thus discovered, was an indubitable
fact, but this east-coast itself was never visited by the Netherlanders.

[* See the journal of this voyage and the discussion of it in my Tasman
Folio.]

[** In the year 1616 Lemaire and Schouten (No. V), and in 1722 Roggeveen
(No. XXXIV), also touched at various island-groups east of Australia, but
these voyages fall outside the plan of the present work.]

{Page xiii}

VII.

OBJECT OF THE DUTCH VOYAGES FOR THE DISCOVERY OF THE
SOUTH-LAND.--CONCLUSION.

Although it is quite true that the south-east- and east-coasts of the
Australian continent were not discovered by Dutch ships, still it is an
undoubted fact that, so far as is known up to now, the whole of the
Australian coast-line from Prince of Wales Island and York Peninsula and
along the Gulf of Carpentaria, the north- and north-west-coast of
Australia then following, the whole of the west-coast, and the
south-coast down to the islands of St. François and St. Pieter (133° 30'
E. L. Greenwich) were in the 17th century discovered by vessels belonging
to the Netherlands [*].

[* It is true that Dampier touched at the north-west coast in 1688, but
at that time this coast had already been surveyed by Dutch skippers.]

We now come to the question of the object which the Dutch authorities had
in view in arranging for the expeditions that ultimately led to these
discoveries.

In answering this question we shall have to distinguish between two
different categories of voyages: among the voyages undertaken by
Netherlanders that have led to discoveries on the coasts of Australia,
there are some which were not begun with the express purpose of going in
search of unknown lands; but there are others also that were undertaken
expressly with this end in view. Of course the second class only can be
called exploratory expeditions in a more restricted sense--the voyages of
the first category became voyages of discovery through accidental
circumstances.

The discoveries on the west- and south-west coasts of Australia down to
Tasman's time all bore an accidental character. Eendrachtsland was
discovered by accident in the year 1616, and after that time a number of
Dutch ships unexpectedly touched at those shores, thus continually
shedding additional, though always imperfect light on the question of the
conformation of the coast-line. How was it, we may ask, that it was
especially after 1616 that this coast was so often touched at, whereas
there had never been question of this before that time? The question thus
put admits of avery positive answer.

When the Netherlanders set sail for India for the first time, they
naturally took the route which they knew to be followed by the
Portuguese. After doubling the Cape of Good Hope, they directly continued
their voyage on a north-eastern course, along the west-coast, or close by
the east-coast, of Madagascar, and then tried to reach India coming from
the west. To this route there were grave objections both as regards the
winds prevailing in those latitudes, the intense heat soon encountered,
the great number of "shallows or foul islands," etc. Besides, the voyage
was apt to last very long. In 1611, however, certain ships going from the
Netherlands to India followed another route: directly after leaving the
Cape they ran on an eastern course (in about 36° S. Lat.) for a
considerable time, after which they tried to navigate to Java on a
northerly course. The commander of these ships, the subsequent
Governor-General {Page xiv} Hendrik Brouwer, wrote to the Managers of the
E.I.C. about "this fairway" in highly laudatory terms. They adopted the
idea suggested by Brouwer, of henceforth prescribing this route in the
instructions for the commanders and skippers sailing for the Indies,
leaving them a certain scope certainly as regards the latitude in which
the said easterly course was to be followed, and the degree of longitude
up to which it was to be kept. As early as the beginning of 1613 such a
route was enjoined on the ships' captains by the Managers of the E.I.C.
The ship Eendracht also was directed to follow this course: she ran so
far to eastward as to come upon the west-coast of Australia, and the same
thing happened to subsequent vessels.

Although in the sense thus indicated we must here speak of _acczdental_
discoveries on the west-coast, yet the Dutch authorities were fully aware
of the importance of such discoveries. As early as 1618, the Managers of
the E.I.C. were considering the possibility of "discovering the Southern
Lands in passing," and in a letter of September 9, 1620, with reference
to "the discovery of a vast land, situated south of Java...by the ship
Eendracht", etc., they expressly enjoined the G.-G. and Counc. to
dispatch a ship for the purpose of "resuming this work with some hope of
success." The lands discovered were to be mapped out, and efforts made to
ascertain "the situation and condition of the country, its productions,
what commodities it yields, the character of the natives, their mode of
life, etc."

The Managers had not preached to deaf ears: the direction of the
Company's affairs in India was at that time in the hands of Jan
Pieternoon Coen, who, being himself strongly disposed in favour of
extending the Dutch connections with the East [*], eagerly embraced the
idea thus suggested, as is proved by the instructions, dated September
29, 1622, for the ships Haring and Hazewind, "destined for the discovery
of the South-land". [**] Thus we see that one of the projects
contemplated by the Dutch authorities certainly was the dispatching of
ships also to the west-coast of Australia for the purpose of further
discovery and of definitely ascertaining the real state of affairs there.

[* See below.]

[** See below, No. XIII, B (pp. 18 ff.)]

But not for the purpose of further discovery exclusively, although this
continued to be "the principal end in view." The instructions of
September 29, 1622, also point to other motives that led the
Netherlanders to reckon also with regions to be first discovered, in
carrying out their colonial policy. The commanders of this expedition
were "specially to inquire what minerals, such as gold, silver, tin,
iron, lead and copper, what precious stones, pearls, vegetables, animals
and fruits, these lands yield and produce";--the commercial interests of
the E.I.C.--and what was more natural in the case of a trading
corporation?--were to take a foremost place. Wherever possible, also
political connections were to be formed, and the countries discovered
"to be taken possession of". The authorities were even considering the
idea of at some future date "planting colonies" in some of the regions
eventually to be discovered.

Here we have the colonial policy of the E.I.C. of the period to its full
extent: commerce, increase of territory, colonies. And these ideas were
at the bottom of most of the voyages of discovery to the north-coast of
Australia before Tasman, and of Tasman's voyages themselves. The
celebrated voyage of the ship Duifken (1605-6) {Page xv} bears a
character of intentionality, and if we bear in mind that the same ship's
voyage of 1602 had for its professed object the extension of the
Company's mercantile connections, we need not be in doubt as to this
being equally the motive or one of the motives of the expedition on which
she was dispatched in 1605-6. We know, moreover, that New Guinea was then
reported "to yield abundance of gold." The three principles of colonial
policy just mentioned also underlay the voyage undertaken by Jan
Carstensz in 1623; for we know that this commander got the instructions
drawn up for the ships Haring and Hazewind, but not then carried into
effect, since these ships did not sail on their ordained expedition [*].
These principles are found set forth with more amplitude than anywhere
else in the instructions drawn up for Tasman and his coadjutors in 1642
and 1644 [**]. The voyages, then planned, were to be undertaken "for the
enlargement, increase and improvement of the Dutch East India Company's
standing and commerce in the East."

[* See below, p. 21, Note 1.]

[** See these instructions in my Life of Tasman, pp. 131 ff. and 147 ff.]

In the instructions for Tasman's voyage of 1644 the G.-G. and Counc.,
who drew them up, could still refer to "the express commands of the
'Heeren Maijoores" [*] to "attempt the discovery of Nova Guinea and other
unknown Eastern and Southern lands." And it is a fact certainly, that in
the first half of the seventeenth century the Governors-General who
planned these exploratory voyages were in their endeavours supported by
the Managers of the E.I.C. in the mother country [**]: it was especially
Jan Pieterszoon Coen (1619-1623 and 1627-1629), Hendrik Broulwer
(1632-1636) and Antonio van Diemen (1636-1645), who were most efficiently
backed in their efforts for this purpose by their principals at home.
Among these Governors-General Van Diemen holds the foremost place as
regards the furtherance of discoveries by Netherlanders in the Far East:
in the Pacific and on, "the mainland coasts of Australia." It is, with
complete justice, therefore, that a foreign author mentions the name of
Van Diemen as "a name which will ever rank among the greatest promotors
of maritime discovery".[***]

[* Meaning the Managers of the E.I.C.]

[** See also the instructions for the voyage of 1636, p. 64 _infra_.]

[*** BURNEY, Chronological History, III, p. 55. Speaking of Van Diemen,
we must not omit to call the reader's attention to sentiments such as the
following: "Whoever endeavours to discover unknown lands and tribes, had
need to be patient and long-suffering, noways quick to fly out, but
always bent on ingratiating himself" (p. 65 _infra_), a piece of advice
elsewhere taking the form of a command, e.g. p. 66: "You will not carry
off with you any natives against their will". And, sad to say, such
injunctions were often imperiously necessary!]

And this same eminent manager of the Company's interests in India lived
to see at the end of his official career far narrower views about
colonial policy not only take root in the mother-country (where isolated
opinions that way had found utterance long before), but even get the
upper hand in the Company's councils. Van Diemen's policy came ultimately
to be condemned in the Netherlands, whatever homage might there be paid
to his eminent talents, whatever acknowledgment vouchsafed to his great
merits! It may almost be called a matter of course that great differences
of opinions were bound surely, if slowly, to crop up between the Managers
on one hand, and able Governors-General on the other, touching the line
of conduct to be followed by the Netherlanders in the East. The Managers
were in the first place the directors of a trading company: they hardly
looked beyond the requirements of a purely mercantile policy. Eminent
Governors-General on the contrary were conscious {Page xvi} of being more
than this: they were not only the representatives of a body of merchants,
they were also the rulers of a colonial empire which in the East was
looked up to with dread, with hatred also sometimes, to be sure, but at
the same time with respect and awe! There lay the ultimate cause of the
fundamental difference of opinion respecting the colonial policy to be
followed [*]. Van Diemen dreamt a bold dream of Dutch supremacy in the
East and of the East India Company's mastery "of the opulent Indian
trade." To this end he deemed necessary: "harassing of the enemy [**],
continuation and extension of trade, together with the discovering or new
lands." But if he had lived to read the missive [***], his grand projects
would have received an effectual damper as he perused the letter
addressed to him by the Lords Managers, on September 9, 1645, and
containing the passage following: "[We] see that Your Worships have again
taken up the further exploration of the coast of Nova Guinea in hopes of
discovering silver- and gold-mines there. We do not expect great things
of the continuation of such explorations, which more and more burden the
Company's resources, since they require increase of yachts and of
sailors. Enough has been discovered for the Company to carry on trade,
provided the latter be attended with success. We do not consider it part
of our task to seek out gold- and silver-mines for the Company, and
having found such, to try to derive profit from the same; such things
involve a good deal more, demanding excessive expenditure and large
numbers of hands...These plans of Your Worships somewhat aim beyond our
mark. The gold- and silver-mines that will best serve the Company's turn,
have already been found, which we deem to be our trade over the whole of
India..."

[* I have dealt at some length with this subject in Vol. III
('s-Gravenhage, NIJHOFF, 1895) of my _Bouwstoffen voor de geschiedenis
der Nederlanders in den Maleiscken Arckipel_, pp. LVI ff.]

[** The eighty years' war was still going on]

[*** Van Diemen died April 19, 1645.]

Is it wonderful that, where the supreme authorities of the E.I.C.
regarded matters in this light, there was no longer question of
exploratory voyages of any importance? The period of the great voyages of
discovery undertaken by Netherlanders, accordingly terminates with Van
Diemen's death. It is true that occasionally voyages of this nature were
planned [*]; that Australia--not to go further afield--was also visited
now and then in later times, but such visits either bore an incidental
character, or formed part of expeditions undertaken for other purposes
[**], the occasion being then used to "obtain once for all some full and
reliable information touching the situation and coast-lines" of lands
previously discovered.

[* See p. 72 and Note below: 1645 and 1646.]

[** Now, for instance (No. XXVIII, 1648), for the purpose of seeking
another route than the customary one from Batavia to Banda, at another
time (No. XXIX, 1656-1658) to inquire into the fate of a shipwrecked
crew; or to prevent the voyages of William Dampier from entailing
unpleasant consequences for the Dutch E.I.C. (1705, No. XXXIII).--Thus,
in 1718, a Swiss of the name of J. P. Purry submitted to the Managers of
the E.I.C. proposals for the further discovery of Nuytsland. The proposal
was duly reported on, but ultimately laid aside _(Resolutions of the
"Heeren XVII", Oclober 3, 1718, and March 11 1719; Resolution of the
Amsterdam Chamber, April 17, 1719)_.]

Still, we must not omit to mention that at the close of the seventeenth
century a desire to contribute to the enlargement of geographical
knowledge for a moment got a voice in the question of equipping vessels
for expeditions sent out for this purpose. And this scientific impulse
originated in the mother-country [*]. The impulse was undoubtedly given
by the well-known burgomaster of Amsterdam and Manager of the E. I. C.,
_Nicolaas Corneliszoon Witsen, LL D_, author of the work entitled {Page
xvii} _Noord en Oost Tartarije_. He took a diligent part in the
preparations for the voyage of skipper De Vlamingh: "We are having the
vessels manned mainly with unmarried and resolute sailors; I have
directed a draughtsman to join the expedition that whatever strange or
rare things they meet with, may be accurately depicted". And Witsen
anxiously awaited the outcome of De Vlamingh's expedition. He was
disappointed by the results: the commander had indeed "surveyed and made
soundings on the coasts, but had made few landings." At the same time
Manager Witsen mentions not without some satisfaction the results of this
voyage, meagre though they may be in his eyes, in letters to friends both
at home and abroad, imparting to them what he has learned on the subject
[**]. A few years later, however, he bitterly complains of the
indifference of many of his countrymen in those days: "What does Your
Worship care about curious learning from India," he grumbles in a letter
to one of his friends [***] "no, sir, it is money only, not learned
knowledge that our people go out to seek over there, the which is sorely
to be regretted."

[* _Resolution of the "Heeren XVII", August 25, 1692; see also p. 60
infra._]

[** As regards this see J F GEBHARD _Het leven van Witsen_ I., pp. 480 f.:
II. pp. 260 f. (Letter of Witsen to "Dr. Martin Lister, fellow of the
Colledge of Physicians and R. S., concerning some late observations in
Nova Hollandia" October 3, 1698), pp. 299 f. (Letter to Gijsbert Cuper at
Deventer, 1698?) pp. 407, 414, 416]

[*** Witsen to Cuper, August 1, 1712 (GEBHARD p. 480).]

"The which is sorely to be regretted!"...The times of Van Diemen had
failed to return; the spirit by which he was imbued no longer presided
over the debates on colonial matters. But his name is indissolubly bound
up with the palmy days of Dutch discovery in the Far East, initiated by
the East India Company.

Fortunately, in our time Holland again bears a part in what is done by
cultured Europe for the scientific exploration of the unknown regions of
the world. In this field of inquiry the nineteenth century has again
beheld her sons take a place which the achievements of their forefathers
have as it were by right of inheritance assigned to them.

* * * * *
* * *

{Page 1}



DOCUMENTS.



I.


(1595) DUTCH NOTIONS RESPECTING THE SOUTH-LAND IN 1595.


_Itinerario, Voyage ofte Schipvaert, van JAN HUYGEN VAN LINSCHOTEN naer
Oost ofte Portugaels Indien [Itinerary, Voyage or Navigation of J. H. v.
L. to Eastern or Portuguese India]_...t' Amstelredam. By Cornelis Claesz
opt Water, in 't Schrijf-boeck by de Oude Brugghe. Anno CIC.IC.XCVI
(1596?-Ed.)[*].

[* There may have been an earlier edition of this book. At all events,
the Netherlanders who in 1595 undertook the first voyage from Holland to
India, were acquainted with the work either in manuscript or in print.
See the journal of this voyage, kept by Frank Van der Does, one of the
sharers of the expedition, and printed in the second volume of J. K. J.
De JONGE'S well-known book: De Opkomst van het Nederlandsch gezag in
Oost-Indië [The Rise of the Dutch power in the East Indies] ('s
Gravenhage, Amsterdam MDCCCLXIV), pp. 287-372. It may safely be assumed
that Van Linschoten's book contains everything that the Dutch knew of
the East, when in 1595 Dutch vessels were first sent out to those remote
regions. Charts Nos 1 (a part of the _Orbis terrarum combmdiosa
descriptio_. Antverpiae apud joafiem Baptistam Vrient), and 2 (a part of
the _Exacta & accurata delineatio cum orarum maritimarum tum eijam
locorum terrestrium quae in regionibus Chiua...una cum omnium vicinarum
instilarum descriptjone ut sunt Sumatra, Java utraque_...) give a survey
of this knowledge so far as our present purpose is concerned. I have made
use of a copy of Van Linschoten's work in the library of the Leyden
University.]

Pag. 25. Chapter the Twentieth.

Concerning the island of Java Mayor, together with its commodities,
merchandise and dealings, weights, coins and value of the same, and other
particulars.

[Map No. 1.   Gedeelte der (Part of the) _Orbis terrae compendiosa
describtio_]

{Page 2}

South-south-east, facing the farthest extremity of the island of Samatra,
south of the line _equinoctial_, lies the island called _Java Mayor_, or
great _Java_...This island begins in 7 degrees Latitude South, and
extends east by south a length of 150 miles but of its breadth nothing is
known up to now, since it has not yet been explored, nor is this known to
the inhabitants themselves. Some suppose it to be a mainland, [forming
part] of the land called Terra incognita, which would then extend
hitherward from beyond the _C de boa Esperança_ but of this there is no
certitude hitherto, so that it is usually accounted an island...

[Map No. 2.   Gedeelte der (Part of the) _Exacta & accurata delineatio
cum orarum maritimarum tum etjam locorum terrestrium, quae in regjonibus
China...una cum omnium vicinarum insularum descriptjone ut sunt Sumatra,
Java utraque_]

* * * * *

{Page 3}



II.


(1602). NOTICES OF THE SOUTH-COAST OF NEW GUINEA IN 1602.


_Journal or Daily Register_, begun on the 22nd day of April, A.D. 1601,
kept on board the sho Gelderlant...

This 10th day of April 1602.

The meeting of the Plenary Council [*] having been convened by order of
the Lord Admiral [**] to resolve to dispatch the yacht called Duyffken to
the island of Ceram, the Council have drawn up the Instructions
following, which Supercargo Master Claes Gaeff [and] skipper Willem
Cornelisz Schouten will have to act up to.

[* The joint council of all the ships forming the flotilla to which the
Gelderland belonged.]

[** Wolphert Hermanszoon.]

_Imprimis_ he will have to navigate to the island of Ceran, and there
call at the ports or roads following, to wit: Queuin, Quelibara,
Quelilonhen or Goulegoubj [*], and failing these, at certain others where
profitable dealings may be expected...

[* Keffing, Kilwaroc,...Goeli-goeli. These place-names go to show, that
by Ceram are meant the south-eastern extremity of Ceram and the
Ceram-Laut islands.]

_Secondly_, [he will have to inquire] whether there is anything to be had
there besides sago; their way of doing business and in what places; what
commodities had best be sent thither; and to what limits their farthest
navigation extends; also, whether they have any knowledge of Nova Guinea;
whether they have ever sent ships thither, or whether ships from Nova
Guinea have ever come to Ceran. In the island of Banda, actum April the
10th, A.D. 1602, on board the ship Gelderlandt. God send his blessing
unto salvation. Amen.

* * *

Laus deo A.D. 1602 This 15th day of May in the island of Banda.

A brief account of certain islands with which they of the islands of
Ceran and, Banda carry on trade...

They can say nothing certain respecting the island of Nova Guinea, but
say that there are white people living on the south side, inhabited by
Portuguese [*], but [the people of the parts of Ceram visited by the
Dutch] had never seen any Portuguese ships. They can give no information
about their dealings and commodities.

[* If any reliance can be placed on this report, it proves that in 1602
the Portuguese were acquainted with the South(-west) coast of New Guinea.
But considering the fact that the Dutch were utterly unacquainted with
New Guinea, it is _quite possible_ that on this point they misunderstood
the inhabitants of the parts of Ceram visited by them.]

* * * * *

{Page 4}



III.


(1605-1606).VOYAGE OF THE SHIP DUIFKEN UNDER COMMAND OF WILLEM
JANSZ(OON) AND JAN LODEWIJKSZOON ROSINGEYN TO NEW GUINEA.--DISCOVERY OF
THE EAST-COAST OF THE PRESENT GULF OF CARPENTARIA.


A.

_HACKLUYTUS Posthumus or PURCHAS his Pilgrimes Contayning a History of
the World in Sea voyages, & lande-Travells by Englishmen & others._

English Voyages beyond the East-Indies, to the islands of Japan, China,
Cauchinchina, the Philipinae with others; and the Indian navigations
further prosecuted...

THE FOURTH BOOKE.

Chap. II.

Observations of Captaine Iohn Saris, of occurrents which happened in the
East-Indies during his abode at Bantam, from October 1605, till October
1609...

The eighteenth [November 1605] [*] heere [**] departed a small Pinnasse
of the _Flemmings_, for the discovery of the Land called Nova Guinea
which, as it is said, affordeth great store of Gold...

[* Old style: therefore November 28, 1605.]

[** Bantam.]

The fifteenth [*] of June [1606] heere [**] arrived _Nockhoda_ [***]
_Tingall_, a Cling-man from _Banda_, in a _Java_ juncke...

[* Old style: therefore Junr 25, 1606.]

[** Bantam.]

[*** Nachoda or Anachoda: a skipper.]

He told me that the _Flemmings_ Pinasse which went upon discovery for
_Nova Ginny_, was returned to Banda, having found the Iland: but in
sending their men on shoare to intreate of Trade, there were nine of them
killed by the Heathens, which are man-eaters; So they were constrained to
returne, finding no good to be done there.

B.

_Instructions drawn up to serve as a basis for Answers on the part of the
General United E.I.C. to the advice given by the Lords States of Holland
and Westfriesland, touching the Charter of the Australia Company. Laid
before the Council, Aug. 2, 1618._

...So that the E.I.C. opines that in every case the Australia Company
aforesaid ought to be excluded from the Southern parts, situated between
the Meridian passing through the Eastern extremity of Ceylon and the
Meridian lying a hundred miles eastward of the Salomon islands; seeing
that the United East India Company has repeatedly given orders for
discovering and exploring _the land of Nova Guinea and the islands
situated east of the same_, since, equally by her orders, such discovery
was once tried about the year 1606 with the yacht de Duyve by skipper
Willem Jansz and subcargo Jan Lodewijs van Rosingijn, who made sundry
discoveries on the said coast of Nova Guinea, as is amply set forth in
their journals. [*]

[* In 1618, therefore, there must have been extant journals of the
expedition of 1605-6.]

{Page 5}

C.

See _infra_ the _Journal of the voyage Of JAN CARSTENSZOON 1623, at the
dates:_ March 7, May 11, 12, 15.

D.

South-eastern part of the Map _Indiae Orientalis Nova descriptio_ in the
atlas JOANNES JANSSONIUS-MERCATOR-HONDIUS 1633 [*]

[* The whole map is reproduced in _Remarkable Maps_ (II, 7.) See also C.
H. COOTE'S Introduction; P. A. TIELE: Nederlandsche Bibliographic van
Land- en Volkenkunde, s. vv. Janssonius and Mercator, and my Life of
Tasman, p. 91, note I.]


[Map No. 3. Zuidoostelijk gedeelte der Kaart (South-eastern part of the
Map) _Indiae Orientalis Nova descriptio_]

E.

_Instructions for Skipper Commander Abel Jansen Tasman, Skipper
Pilot-Majjr Frans Jacobsen Visscher, and the Council of the Yachts
Limmen, Zeemeeuw, and the Quel de Brack, destined for the further
discovery of Nova Guinea, and of the unknown coasts of the discovered
East- and South-lands, together with the channels and islands presumably
situated between and near the same._

* * *

Both by word of mouth and through the perusal of Journals, Charts and
other writings, it is in the main well-known to you, how the successive
Governors of India, at {Page 6} the express command of our Lords and
Masters the "Heeren XVII", have, in order to the aggrandisement,
enlargement and improvement of the Dutch East India Company's standing
and trade in the East, divers times diligently endeavoured to make timely
discovery of the vast country of Nova Guinea and of other unknown Eastern
and Southern regions; to wit, that four several voyages have up to now
with scant success been made for this desired discovery; of the which
voyages the first was undertaken in the year 16066 with the Yacht 't
Duyffken, by order, of President Jan Willemsz Verschoor (who then managed
the Company's affairs in Bantham), on which voyage the islands of Key and
Arouw were visited in passing, and the unknown south and west coasts of
Nova Guinea were discovered over a length of 220 miles from 5 to 13¾
degrees Southern Latitude, it being only ascertained that vast regions
were for the greater part uncultivated, and certain parts inhabited by
savage, cruel, black barbarians who slew some of our sailors, so that no
information was obtained touching the exact situation of the country and
regarding the commodities obtainable and in demand there.\; our men
having by want of provisions and other necessaries, been compelled to
return and give up the discovery they had begun, only registering in
their chart with the name of Cape Keer-weer the extreme point of the
discovered land in 13¾ degrees Southern Latitude.

In the castle of Batavia, this 29th of January Ao 1644. Signed ANTONIO
VAN DIEMEN, CORNELIS VAN DER LIJN, JOAN MAETSUIJCKER, JUSTUS SCHOUTEN and
SALOMON SWEERS.

* * * * *



IV.


(1607). FRESH EXPEDITION TO NEW GUINEA BY THE SHIP DUIFKE.

Second volume of "_Het begin ende voortgangh der Vereenighde
Nederlantsche Geoctroyeerde Oost-Indische Compagnie._ Gedruckt in den
jaere des Heeren 1646" [Rise and Progress of the United Netherlands
Chartered East India Company. Printed Anno Domini 1646].

A Narrative and Journal of the voyage made from Bantam to the coast of
Choromandel and other parts of India, by Supercargo PAULUS VAN SOLT in
the years 1605 1606, 1607, 1608.

* * *

"On the 4th of March 1607, through God's mercy [we] arrived before the
Castle [of Victoria in Amboyna]...here we found...the yacht Duyfken,
which had come from Nova Guinea"...

* * * * *



V.


(1616). VOYAGE OF THE SHIPS EENDRACHT AND HOORN, COMMANDED BY JACQUES
LE MAIRE AND WILLEM CORNELISZOON SCHOUTEN THROUGH THE PACIFIC OCEAN AND
ALONG THE NORTH-COAST OF NEW GUINEA.

One of the journals of this voyage has been repeatedly printed in various
languages. (See TIELE, Mémoire Bibliographique, pp. 42-62, and the same
writer's Bibliographic Land- en Volkenkunde, s. vv. Begin ende
Voortgangh, Herrera, W. Cz. Schouten, and Spilbergen). I need not,
therefore, go into detail on this point here. The voyage was begun on the
14th of June 1615, and in January 1616 the strait of {Page 7} Le Maire
was discovered. In the Pacific Ocean various islands unknown to the
voyagers were touched at: _inter alia_ Kokos-island (Boscawen or Tafahi),
Verraders-eiland [Traitors' island] (Keppel or Niutabutabu), (Goede) Hoop
island (Nino-fa), the Hoornsche islands (Fotuna and Alofi). Besides,
various islands east of New Guinea were surveyed, and New Ireland, New
Hanover and the north-coast of New Guinea with the islands north of it
(among others Schoutens island), sailed round or touched at.

* * * * *



VI.


(1616). PROJECT FOR THE FURTHER DISCOVERY OF THE SOUTH-LAND NOVA GUINEA.

A.

_Resolution of the Governor-General and Councillors, October 8, 1616._

...Inasmuch as heretofore the Company has taken in hand to dispatch a
ship for the discovery of the South-land-Nova-Guinea and the dependencies
thereof, which project has not been executed owing to other intervening
business, it has been resolved to take the said project once more in hand
at the present time; and that to this end the Lord Admiral...[*] shall
dispatch from Amboyna or Banda the ship de Jager with any other small
yacht that should lie at anchor there, or happen to put into port, in
order to the discovery of the lands aforesaid; seeing that it is much
more convenient to visit those parts starting from here than from the
Netherlands, and that the same can now be done without any inconvenience
or detriment to the Company. And if in Amboyna or Banda no other yacht
besides the ship de Jager should be found available, then the Lord
Admiral shall be free to assign the ship Morgenster for the said
purpose...

[* Steven Van der Haghen.]

B.

_Resolution of the Governor-General and Councillors, October 21, 1616._

...Considering the confident inclination to the said voyage evinced by
the Lord Advocate Dedel [*], and the importance of this enterprise being
conducted with great skill and judgment, it has been determined and
resolved to employ the Advocate aforesaid in the said voyage, to the end
that all things may be conducted in good order, with the requisite
courage and resolution, for which purpose the Hon. Advocate will now
depart for Amboyna with the Lord Admiral...

[* Cornelis Dedel, LL. D.]

C.

_Letter from the Governor-General LAURENS REAEL to the Managers of the
E.I.C., May 10, 1617._

...Mr. Cornelis Dedel, LL. D., had by us been dispatched to this place
[*] from the Moluccas, that with two or three yachts and pinnaces he
might proceed to the discovery of the Southern lands, which undertaking
had heretofore once more by order of...Admiraal Verhagen been engaged in
by Jan Rossangin [**]. But when lying at anchor in Amboyna...Dedel's
ships were employed on other services. [***]

[* Reael was then staying in Banda.]

[* This almost certainly refers to the voyage of 1605-6 under Willem
Jansz. and Rosengein.]

[* Although, as we see, the project was not carried into execution, I
have thought it good to print the above documents, because they bear
testimony to the earnest intention of the Dutch authorities in India once
more to undertake the discovery of the "South-land" (at the same time the
matter was by no means lost sight of in the Netherlands, as is proved by
a resolution of the Managers of the E.I.C., of October 1616); [and]
because document C in the text is _presumably_ fresh evidence for the
voyage of 1605-6.]

* * * * *

{Page 8}



VII.


(1616). VOYAGE OF DE EENDRACHT UNDER COMMAND OF DIRK HARTOGS(ZOON).
DISCOVERY OF THE WEST-COAST OF AUSTRALIA IN 1616: DIRK HARTOGS ISLAND AND
-ROAD, LAND OF THE EENDRACHT OR EENDRACHTSLAND.

A.

_Letter of Supercargo Cornelis Buysero at Bantam to the Managers of the
East India Company at Amsterdam._

Worshipful, Wise, Provident, very Discreet Gentlemen,...

...The ship Eendracht [*], with which they had sailed from the
Netherlands, after communicating at the Cabo sailed away from them so
far southward as to come upon 6 various islands which were, however,
found uninhabited [**]...

[* Commanded by Dirk Hartogs, or Hartogszoon.]

[* What "uninhabited islands" the ship Eendracht "came upon", Buysero's
letter does not say. Various authentic archival documents of 1618 and
subsequent years, however, go to show that the land afterwards named
Eendrachtsland or Land van de Eendracht, and the Dirk Hartogsreede
(island) must have been discovered on this voyage.]

Bantam, this last day of August, A.D. 1617.
Your Worships' servant to command
CORNELIS BUYSERO [*]

[* Buysero was supercargo at Bantam (DE JONGE, Opkcornst, IV, p. 68,) and
was therefore likely to be well informed as to the adventures of the
ship, which had sailed from the Netherlands in January 1616, departed
from the Cape of Good Hope in the last days of August, and had arrived in
India in December of the same year, as appears from what Steven Van der
Haghen, Governor of Amboyna, writes May 26, 1617: "That in the month of
December 1616, the ship Eendracht entered the narrows between Bima and
the land of Endea near Guno Api (Goenoeng Api) in the south of Java"
(Sapi Straits).]

B.

_See infra Document No. IX, of 1618._

It proves that as early as 1618 the name of Eendrachtsland was known in
the Netherlands.

C.

The subjoined chart (reproduced on the original scale in _Remarkable
Maps_, II, 4) was drawn by HESSEL GFRRITSZ, Cartographer in ordinary to
the East India Company {Page 9} (Ress. of the "Heeren XVII", March 21,
1619 and October 21, 1629). He had accordingly at his disposal the
official documents referring to this discovery.

[Map No. 4. Caert van (Chart of) 't Land van d'Eendracht Ao 1627 door
HESSEL GERRITSZ]

D.

The interesting little folding chart, marked No. 5, is now in the
possession of Jhr. J. E. Huydecoper van Maarsseveen en Nigtevegt, LL. D.,
at Utrecht. It is bound up with the said gentleman's copy of Abel
Janszoon Tasman's journal of his voyage of 1642-3 [*]. The chart clearly
shows that at times in subsequent issues of certain charts the dates
given in the first issue were retained, while numerous corrections were
made in the chart itself.

[* See my Life and Labours of TASMAN, p. 69.]

{Page 10}

E.

Of the chart of which this is a small portion, a complete reproduction
will be found in _Remarkable Maps_, II, 8. In 1630, accordingly, the
discovery of Eendrachtsland was known at Nuremberg.


[Map No. 6. Kaart van het Zuidland van (Alap of the Southland by) JOANNES
KEPPLER en PHILIPPUS ECKEBRECHT, 1630]

* * * * *



VIII.


(1618). VOYAGE OF THE SHIP ZEEWOLF, FROM THE NETHERLANDS TO INDIA,
UNDER THE COMMAND OF SUPERCARGO PIETER DIRKSZOON AND SKIPPER HAEVIK
CLAESZOON VAN HILLEGOM.--FURTHER DISCOVERY OF THE WEST-COAST OF
AUSTRALIA.

_Letter of Supercargo Pieter Dirkszoon to the Managers of the E.I.C. at
Amsterdam, dated June 24, 1618._

A.

Worshipful Wise Provident Very Discreet Gentlemen.

By the ships T'Wapen van Zeelandt, den Eenhoorn and Enckhuyzen (which
with full cargoes arrived at the Cape de bone Esperance from these parts
of India) I have on the 22nd of March last [1618] briefly advised Your
Worships of our safe arrival there...[*]

[* The ship had sailed from the Netherlands in December 1617.]

* * *

{Page 11}

Now with this ship den Witten Beer Your Worships may be pleased to
receive news of the subsequent successful progress of our voyage to this
part of India, viz. that on the 24th of the said month we sailed from the
Taeffelbaey [Table Bay]...in the ship Seewolf for Bantam (pursuant to
Your Worships' orders); in such fashion that by God's grace we soon got
south as far as 37, 38 and 39 degrees, after which we held our course due
east for a thousand miles before turning it northward; so that on the
21st of May following we made the land in Cleyn Java about 6 or 8 miles
east of the island of Bali; after which, passing between Bali and Cleyn
Java, we came to anchor before our factory of Japara on the second day of
June...

Having on the 11th of May reached 21° 15' S. Latitude, we saw and
discovered...land about 5 or 6 miles to windward east of us, which in
consequence we were unable to touch at. We observed it to be a level,
low-lying shore of great length, and looking out from the top-mast we saw
on both ends of it, to north as well as to southward, still other land
which showed high and mountainous. But as the land bore eastward from us,
and we could not have got higher without considerable inconvenience, we
do not know whether it forms an unbroken coast-line, or is made up of
separate islands. In the former case it might well be a mainland coast,
for it extended to a very great length. But only the Lord knows the real
state of affairs. At all events it would seem never to have been made or
discovered by any one before us, as we have never heard of such discovery
[*], and the chart shows nothing but open ocean at this place. According
to our skipper's estimation in his chart the Strait of Sunda was then
N.N.E. of us at about 250 miles' distance; according to the second mate's
reckoning the direction was North East, and according to the first mate's
estimation North East by North. These statements, however, proved
erroneous, since we arrived east of Bali on a north-north-east course. So
that consequently this land bears from Sunda Strait south-south-west, and
ships must arrive in Java eastward of Sunda Strait on a north-by-west or
northern course; on which those who come in sight of this land from
eastward and wish to go to Bantam, may safely base their course. This
much by way of advice...

[* Dirk Hartochs's discovery had not come to their knowledge then.]

On board the ship Seewolff lying at anchor before Jacatra, this 20 of
June, 1618.
Your Worships' obedient Servant
PIETER DIRCXSOON 1618.

B.

_Letter of Skipper Haevick Claeszoon van Hillegom to the Managers of the
E.I.C. at Amsterdam, dated June 24, 1618._

Laus Deo. On board the ship Seewolf lying at anchor before Jaeketerae,
this 24th of June 1618.

Right Worshipful Beloved Gentlemen My Lords Directors of the United
Company at Amsterdam, with friendly greeting, the present, after my best
wishes for the {Page 12} well-being and health of my Worshipful Noble
Masters, serves to express my hope that Your Worships may have duly
received, through Pieter Gertsz, skipper of the ship Enckhuyzen [*], my
letters of the 22nd of March, written in the Taefel Bay, recounting what
had happened on our voyage up to said date. The present further serves to
inform Your Worships of our progress up to this day, as follows. We set
sail from the Cape de bon Esperanse on the 24th of the same month...

[* See _supra_ A.]

On the 5th of May we got into Latitude 28° 26' South, when we saw numbers
of birds many of which seemed to be land-birds, such as a white
tropic-bird and a few scissor-tailed ducks, so that I surmised that we
were near land. Two or three days afterwards we saw sea-weed floating in
large quantities and long strips. On the 10th do. we passed the tropic in
fine weather. On the 11th do. we saw land in 21° 20' S. Lat.: it was a
level, low-lying coast extending to a great length, and bearing mainly
south and north, falling off on both sides with high mountains; we could
not get near it. Whether it was a mainland coast or islands only, is
known to God alone, but from the signs seen at various times I suspect it
to be a mainland. The compass has one point north-westerly variation
here; we saw a good deal of sea-weed floating about, and observed
land-birds up to the 16th degree, both of these being signs of the
proximity of the mainland. This land is a fit point to be made by ships
coming here with the eastern monsoon, in order to get a fixed course for
Java or Sunda Strait; for if you see this land in 21, 22 or 23 degrees,
and shape your course north-north-west and north-by-west you will make
the western extremity of Jaeva. I write this as a matter of certainty,
seeing that we have made the same on a fixed course, and ships following
this course are sure to find it true. On the 21st do. we saw land, to wit,
Kleyn Jaevae; we kept off and on during the night, and at daybreak made
for the land, passing through the strait between Kleyn Jaeva and Baely...

Your  Worships' servant to command

H. CLAESSEN VAN HILLEGOM.

* * * * *



IX.


(1618). VOYAGE OF THE SHIP MAURITIUS FROM THE NETHERLANDS TO INDIA
UNDER THE COMMAND OF SUPERCARGO WILLEM JANSZ OR JANSZOON AND SKIPPER
LENAERT JACOBSZ(OON). FURTHER DISCOVERY OF THE WEST-COAST OF
AUSTRALIA.--WILLEMS-RIVER.

_Letter Of supercargo WILLFM JANSZ(OON) to the Managers of the Amsterdam
Chamber, Oclober 6, 1618._

A.

Worshipful Wise Provident Discreet Gentlemen,

(Sailed 1000 miles to eastward in in 38 degrees with notable success.)

The present serves only to inform you that on the 8th of June last with
the ship Mauritius we passed Cape de bon esperence, with strong westerly
winds, so that we deemed it inadvisable to call at any land, after which
we ran a thousand miles to eastward in 38 degrees Southern Latitude,
though we should have wished to go still further east.

{Page 13}

On the 31st of July we discovered an island and landed on the same, where
we found the marks of human footsteps--on the west-side it extends N.N.E.
and S.S.W.; it measures 15 miles in length, and its northern extremity is
in 22° S. Lat. It bears Eendracht S.S.E. and N.N.W. from the south-point
of Sunda at 240 miles' distance; from there (Eendrachtsland [*])
through God's grace we safely arrived before Bantam on the 22nd of
August...

[* This marginal note was made by an official of the East India Company,
when the letter had reached its destination.]

Done on board the ship 't Wapen van Amsterdam, October 6, 1618.

Your Worships' Obedt. Servant

WILLEM JANSZ.

B.

Worshipful Wise Provident Discreet Gentlemen,

See _the Maps numbered VII, C and D (1616)._

* * * * *



X.


(1619)? FURTHER DISCOVERY OF THE SOUTH-COAST OF NEW-GUINEA BY THE SHIP
HET WAPEN VAN AMSTERDAM? [*]

_Instructions for Tasman 1644._

...In the interim in the year 1619 the ship 't Wapen van Amsterdam,
passing Banda on her way thither, was east on the south-coast of Nova
Guinea where also some of her crew were slain by the barbarian
inhabitants, so that no certain information respecting the situation of
the country was obtained...

[* I place a note of interrogation here. The matter is not quite clear.
For the sake of completeness I mention it here, but without drawing any
conclusion. On p. 95, note 5 of my "Life of Tasman" in Fred. Muller's
Tasman publication I say: "Leupe, Zuidland, p. 35, cites a letter sent by
the Directors to the Gov.-Gen. and Councillors, of Sept. 9, 1620. In this
letter there is question of the discoveries made by d'Eendracht,
Zeewolff, _'t Wapen van Amsterdam_, and quite recently by Commanders
Houtman and D'Edel." When, we may ask, did the ship 't Wapen van
Amsterdam survey the South-land? There certainly was a ship of that name
by the side of another vessel, named Amsterdam _pur et simple_. According
to the Register of departures of vessels of the E.I.C., preserved in the
State Archives at the Hague, this ship set sail from the Netherlands on
May 11, 1613. I have found no reliable trace of later date of this
vessel, and the documents know nothing of any exploration of the
South-land by her. I am inclined to think that Leupe is mistaken here.
The letter itself, which is contained in the copying-book of letters,
preserved in the State Archives, has suffered much from theravages of
time. Between the words "Zeewolff" and "Amsterdam" the paper has suffered
so much that nothing is left of the intervening letters. L. C. D. Van
Dijk, in his Mededeelingen uit het Oost-Indisch archief. Amsterdam,
_Scheltema_, 1859 p. 2, note 2, has also printed the letter in question.
He puts the words: "'t Wapen van" in parentheses, in order to denote that
they are merely conjectural. Leupe may have inadvertently omitted these
parentheses. Perhaps the original text read: "ende Amsterdam". In this
case there would have been two times question of Dedel's voyages: once by
a reference to the ship Amsterdam; and afterwards by mentioning Dedel's
name itself. I must not however omit to make mention here of what the
Instructions for Tasman's second voyage, dated January 29, 1644, say
about an unsuccessful expedition undertaken by the ship 't Wapen van
Amsterdam to the south coast of New Guinea in 1619.]

* * * * *

{Page 14}



XI.


(1619). VOYAGE OF THE SHIPS DORDRECHT AND AMSTERDAM UNDER COMMANDER
FREDERIK DE HOUTMAN, SUPERCARGO JACOB DEDEL, AND SKIPPERS REYER JANSZOON
VAN BUIKSLOOT AND MAARTEN CORNELISZOON(?), FROM THE NETHERLANDS TO THE
EAST-INDIES.--FURTHER DISCOVERY OF THE WEST-COAST OF AUSTRALIA:
DEDELSLAND AND HOUTMAN'S ABROLHOS.

A.

_Letter of Commander_ FREDERIK DE HUTMAN _to Prince Alaurice, October 7,
1619._

Most Noble Highborn Prince,

Most Highborn Prince, my last letter to Your Princely Excellency was
dated May the 20th last from the Taefelbay near Cabo de bonne esperance
with the ship Anna from England...

Now as regards my subsequent progress I would inform Your Excellency that
on the 8th of June we set sail from the Tafelbay with a fair wind with
the ships Dordrecht and Amsterdam, add that on the 19th of July following
we suddenly came upon the Southland of Beach [*] in 32 degrees 20
minutes. We spent a few days there in order to get some knowledge of the
same, but the inconvenience of being unable to make a landing, together
with the heavy gales, prevented us from effecting our purpose, upon which
shaping our course for Java, we got sight of the same on the 19th of
August, and arrived safely before Jacatra on the 3rd of September...

[* Though De Houtman knew of the discovery of Eendrachtsland (see
_infra_), he still uses the name Beach; which clearly proves that in the
early part of the seventeenth century the Netherlanders identified the
discovered South-land with the mysterious land of Beach.]

From Jacatra, this seventh of October, A.D. 1619.

(Signed)

Your Excellency's most devoted Servant

FREDERICK HOUTMAN.

B.

_Letter of_ FREDERIK DE HOUTMAN _to the Managers of the E.I.C., October
7, 1619._

Most Noble Wise Provident Very Discreet Gentlemn,

My last letter to Your Worships was dated May 20th from the Tafelbay...We
next sailed from the Tafelbay with the ships Dordrecht and Amsterdam on
June the 8th...

We ran on with a fair north-west wind as far as 36° 30', in which
latitude we kept this steady breeze with us up to the 17th of July, when
we estimated ourselves to have sailed straight to eastward the space of a
thousand miles. We observed 16° decreasing north-westerly variation of
the compass, and resolved to steer...on a north-east-by-north course,
{Page 15} we then being in 35° 25' Southern Latitude. After keeping the
aforesaid course for about 60 miles, in the evening of the 19th we
suddenly saw land, which we steered away from. On the 20th we found it to
be a mainland coast extending South and North. We resolved to use our
utmost endeavours to obtain some knowledge of this coast, which seemed to
be a very good land, but could find no spot for conveniently landing
owing to the surf and the heavy seas. On the 23rd both the Amsterdam and
our ship lost an anchor each, since our cables were broken by the strong
gale. We kept near the coast till the 28th of July, but owing to the
violent storm could not effect a landing, so that we were forced to leave
the land aforesaid, not without imminent danger of being thrown on it by
the strong gale.

On the 28th we sighted a cape of the said coast, off which we sounded in
from 45 to 70 fathom, but shortly after we got no bottom, and in the
evening the land was out of sight.

On the 29th do. deeming ourselves to be in an open sea, we shaped our
course north-by-east. At noon we were in 29° 32' S. Lat.; at night about
three hours before daybreak, we again unexpectedly came upon a low-lying
coast, a level, broken country with reefs all round it. We saw no high
land or mainland, so that this shoal is to be carefully avoided as very
dangerous to ships that wish to touch at this coast. It is fully ten
miles in length, lying in 28° 46.

On the 2nd of August, the wind becoming contrary, we turned our course
eastward at noon we again sighted a long stretch of land in Lat. 27° 40'
South. We are all assured that this is the land which the ship Eendracht
discovered and made in the year [*], and noways doubt that all the land
they saw in 22, 23, 25 degrees, and which we sighted down to 33 degrees,
is one uninterrupted mainland coast.

[* Left blank.]

When in 26° 20' we were in sight of the land, we had 8 degrees decreasing
northwesterly variation of the compass. We then shaped our course north
and north by west, which leaves it due north, if the variation is
deducted. On the 29th of August we made the south-coast of Java, 60 miles
to eastward of the western extremity of the said island, so that if you
are near this South-land in 23, 24 or 25 degrees S. Lat., and shape your
course north by west, which deducting the variation is due
north-north-west, you will strike the coast of Java [*] miles to eastward
of its south-western extremity. Therefore, in order to have a fixed
course from the Cape to Java, it is advisable to set sail from the Cape
de bonne Esperance in June or July, and to run on an eastern course in 36
and 37 degrees Southern Latitude, until you estimate yourself to have
covered a thousand miles to eastward, after which you had better shape
your course north and north by east, until you get into 26 or 27 degrees,
thus shunning the shoal aforesaid which lies off the South-land in 28°
46'.

[* Left blank.]

When you have reached the 26th or 27th degree, run eastward until you
come in sight of the South-land, and then, as before mentioned, from
there hold your course north by west and north-north-west, and you are
sure to make the western extremity of Java, as shown in the annexed small
chart [*], which I have drawn up for the better assurance. This
South-land, as far as we could judge, seems to be a very fair coast, but
we found it impossible to land on it, nor have we seen any smoke or signs
of inhabitants there; but further investigation is wanted on this point.

[* Not forthcoming.]

On the 25th of August we got into Sonda Strait...

In the fortress of Jacatra, October 7, 1619.
Your Worships' obedient servant
FREDERICK HOUTMAN.

{Page 16}

C.

_Letter of Supercargo_ JACOB DEDEL _to the Managers of the E.I.C.,
October 7, 1619._

Worshipful Wise Provident Gentlemen,

My last letter to you was dated May 20 last, in which I informed you of
my arrival at Cabo de bonne Esperance..., where I found Commander
Houtman...

On the first of June I was ready to set sail for Bantam from Cabo de
bonne Esperance but contrary winds prevented my putting to sea before
June 8th, when I sailed in company with the Hon. Houtman, pursuant to a
resolution of the Plenary Council. The ships were found to have nearly
the same sailing powers, so that we constantly remained in each other's
company. After having had plenty of westerly, south westerly and
southerly winds in 35, 36 and 37 degrees Southern Latitude, with
occasional stiff breezes, we safely made the required distance to
eastward, and on the 19th of July last came upon the south-lands situated
behind Java. We anchored in 14 fathom in 32½ degrees latitude, the bottom
being level and hard; in full sight of the land the sea was 100 fathom
deep, the coast being steep and mountainous, the interior uniformly high,
of which I append a map. We used our best endeavours to make a landing,
which, however, could not conveniently be done owing to the steep coast,
whereupon we resolved to run a little more north, where the coast seemed
easier of access; but the wind steadily blowing very stiffly from the
north under the land, and the tide coming in from the south, we spent a
good deal of time in tacking, until a sudden squall from the west, which
made the coast a lee-shore and made us lose one of our anchors, threatened
to throw us on the coast. We then made all sail, and the wind coming
round a little, we stood out to sea, not deeming it advisable to continue
longer inshore in this bad weather with such large heavy ships and such
costly cargoes as we had entrusted to our care, and with great peril to
lose more precious time, but being contented with having seen the land
which at a more favourable time may be further explored with more fitting
vessels and smaller craft. We have seen no signs of inhabitants, nor did
we always keep near the coast, since it formed large bays which would
have taken up much time. Still we kept seeing the coast from time to
time, until in 27 degrees we came upon the land discovered by the ship
Eendracht, which land in the said latitude showed as a red, muddy coast,
which according to the surmises of some of us might not unlikely prove to
be gold-bearing, a point which may be cleared up in time.

Leaving the 27th degree, we shaped our course north and north by west,
until on the 19th of August we struck the island of Java 70 miles to
eastward of its western extremity...after which we arrived in Sunda
Caleppe Strait on the 23rd of the same month...

This 7th day of October, 1619.

On board the ship Amsterdam at anchor before our fortress of Jacatra.
Your Worships' Servant, JACOB DEDEL.

{Page 17}

D.

_Maps of Hessel Gerritsz, numbered VII C and D. (1616)._

* * * * *



XII.


(1622). VOYAGE OF THE SHIP LEEUWIN FROM THE NETHERLANDS TO
JAVA.--DISCOVERY OF THE SOUTH-WEST COAST OF AUSTRALIA.--LEEUWIN'S LAND.

A.

_Chart of Hessel Gerritsz, VII C (1616)._

I print such of the legends of this chart as refer to the results of this
expedition:

"Duynich landt boven met boomen ende boseage.
Laegh ghelijck verdroncken landt.
't Landt van de Leeuwin beseylt Ao 1622 in Maert [*]. Laegh duynich landt."
[Dunes with trees and underwood at top.--Low land seemingly submerged (by
the tide).--Land made by the ship Leeuwin in March, 1622.--Low land with
dunes].

[* The ship Lecuwin had set sail from the Netherlands on April 20, 1621,
and arrived at Batavia May 15, 1622, after a very long voyage, of which
the G.-G. and Counc. did not fail to complain.]

B.

_Instructions for Tasman 1644._

...likewise, during the same period in the years 1616, 1618, 1619 and
1622, the west coast of the great unknown South-land from 35 to 22
degrees was unexpectedly and accidentally discovered by the ships
d'Eendracht, Mauritius, Amsterdam, Dordrecht and Leeuwin, coming from the
Netherlands...

* * * * *



XIII.


(1622). THE TRIALL (ENGLISH DISCOVERY).--THE SHIP WAPEN VAN HOORN
TOUCHES AT THE WEST-COAST OF AUSTRALIA. NEW PROJECTS FOR DISCOVERY MADE
BY THE SUPREME GOVERNMENT AT BATAVIA.

A.

_Letter from the G.-G. and Counc. to the Managers of the E.I.C.,
September 6, 1622._

...On the 5th of July there arrived here [*] a boat with ten men forming
part of the crew of an English ship, named the Triall, and on the 8th do.
her pinnace with 36 men. They state that they have lost and abandoned
their ship with 97 men and {Page 18} the cargo she had taken in, on
certain rocks situated in Latitude 20° 10' South, in the longitude of the
western extremity of Java. These rocks are near a number of broken
islands, lying very far apart, South-east and North-west, at 30 miles'
distance northwest of a certain island which in our charts is laid down
in 22° S. Lat. [**]. The said ship Triall ran on these rocks in the
night-time in fine weather, without having seen land, and since the heavy
swells caused the ship to run aground directly, so that it got filled
with water, the 46 persons aforementioned put off from her in the
greatest disorder with the boat and pinnace each separately, leaving 97
persons in the ship; whose fate is known to God alone. The boat and
pinnace aforesaid arrived here each separately, without knowing of each
other.

[* Batavia.]

[** See, for instance, the chart of Hessel Gerritsz: VII C (1616).]

The ship 't Wapen van Hoorn [*] has also been in extreme peril; at night
in a hard wind she got so near the land of d'Eendracht or the South-land
of Java that she was in 6 fathom before they saw land, which they could
noways put off from, so that they ran on it. But shortly after the storm
abating, they got the landwind, and came off safe, for which the Lord be
praised.

[* She sailed from the Texel, December 22, 1621, and arrived at Batavia,
July 22, 1622.]

The ships Amsterdam and Dordrecht [*] likewise got into great peril near
the land just mentioned in the year 1619. Whereas it is necessary that
ships, in order to hasten their arrival, should run on an eastward course
for about 1000 miles from the Cape de Bona Esperance between 40 and 30
degrees Southern Latitude, it is equally necessary that great caution
should be used and the best measures taken in order to avoid such
accidents as befell the English ship Triall. They say that they met with
this accident through following the course of our ships; that they intend
to dissuade their countrymen from imitating their example, and that their
masters are sure to take other measures accordingly.

[* See _supra_, p. 10.]

For the further discovery of the lands aforesaid we intend, in conformity
with your orders, to send a ship thither as soon as practicable, for
which purpose we have selected the yacht Hazewint [*]. May God Almighty
preserve all your worships' ships from accidents and bring them safe to
port...

[* See _infra_.]

B.

_Instructions for the yachts Haringh and Hasewint having destination
jointly to discover and explore the South-land, September 29, 1622._

Inasmuch as Our Masters ["Heeren Majores"] earnestly enjoin us to
dispatch hence certain yachts for the purpose of making discovery of the
South-land; and since moreover experience has taught, by great perils
incurred by sundry of our ships--but specially by the late miscarrying of
the English ship Triali on the said coast--the urgent necessity of
obtaining a full and accurate knowledge of the true bearing and
conformation of the said land, that further accidents may henceforth be
prevented as much as possible; besides this, seeing that is highly
desirable that an investigation should be made to ascertain whether the
regions or any part of the same are inhabited, and whether any trade
might with them be established.

_Therefore_, for the purpose before mentioned, we have resolved to fit
out the yachts Haringh and Hasewint for undertaking the said voyage, and
for ascertaining as much of the situation and nature of these regions as
God Almighty shall vouchsafe to allow them.

{Page 19}

You will accordingly set sail from here together, run out of Sunda
Strait, and steer your course for the South-land from the western
extremity of Java, keeping as close to the wind as you will find at all
possible, that by so doing you may avoid being driven too far westward by
the South-easterly winds which generally blow in those waters. You may
therefore run on as far as the 32nd or 33rd degree, if you do not fall in
with land before that latitude; having got so far without seeing land,
you may conclude that you have fallen off too far to westward, for sundry
ships coming from the Netherlands have accidentally come upon the
South-land in this latitude; you will in this case have to turn your
course to eastward, and run on in this direction until you sight land.

In running over to the _South-land_ aforesaid, you will have to keep a
careful lookout, as soon as you get in 14 or 15 degrees, seeing that the
English ship Trial before mentioned got aground in 20° 10' Southern
Latitude on certain sunken rocks, bearing north-east and south-west for a
length Of 7 miles, according to the observation of the English pilot, but
without having seen any mainland thereabouts. But the men who saved
themselves in the pinnace and the boat, and thus arrived here, deposed
that in the latitude of 13 or 14 degrees they had seen sundry pieces of
wood and cane, and branches of trees floating about, from which they
concluded that there must be land or islands near there. The _sunken
rocks_ aforesaid on which the _Triall_ was wrecked, were exactly south of
the western extremity of _Java_ according to the statements made by the
English sailors.

When you shall have come upon the _South-land_ in the said latitude or
near it, you will skirt the coast of the same as far as Latitude 50°, in
case the land should extend so far southward; but if the land should fall
off before you have reached the said latitude, and should be found to
trend eastward, you will follow its eastern extension for some time, and
finding no further extension to southward, you will not proceed farther
east, but turn back. You will do the same if you should find the land to
turn to westward. In returning you will run along the coast as far as it
extends to northward, next proceeding on an eastern course or in such
wise as you shall find the land to extend: in which manner you will
follow the coast as close inshore and as long as you shall find
practicable, and as you deem your victuals and provisions to be
sufficient for the return-voyage, even if in so doing you should sail
round the whole land and emerge to southward.

The main object for which you are dispatched on this occasion, is, that
from 45 or 50 degrees, or from the farthest point to which the land shall
be found to extend southward within these latitudes, up to the
northernmost extremity of the South-land, you will have to discover and
survey all capes, forelands, bights, lands, islands, rocks, reefs,
sandbanks, depths, shallows, roads, winds, currents and all that
appertains to the same, so as to be able to map out and duly mark
everything in its true latitude, longitude, bearings and conformation.
You will moreover go ashore in various places and diligently examine the
coast in order to ascertain whether or no it is inhabited, the nature of
the land and the people, their towns and inhabited villages, the
divisions of their kingdoms, their religion and policy, their wars, their
rivers, the shape of their vessels, their fisheries, commodities and
manufactures, but specially to inform yourselves what minerals, such as
gold, silver, tin, iron, lead, and copper, what precious stones, pearls,
vegetables, animals and fruits, these lands yield and produce.

{Page 20}

To all which particulars and whatever else may be worth noting, you will
pay diligent attention, keeping a careful record or daily journal of the
same, that we may get full information of all your doings and
experiences, and the Company obtain due and perfect knowledge of the
situation and natural features of these regions, in return for the heavy
expenses to which she is put by this expedition.

To all the places which you shall touch at, you will give appropriate
names such as in each instance the case shall seem to require, choosing
for the same either the names of the United Provinces or of the towns
situated therein, or any other appellations that you may deem fitting and
worthy. Of all which places, lands and islands, the commander and
officers of these yachts, by order and pursuant to the commission of the
Worshipful Governor-General Jan Pieterszoon Coen, sent out to India by
their High Mightinesses the States-General of the United Netherlands, and
by the Lords Managers of the General Chartered United East India Company
established in the same, will, by solemn declaration signed by the ships'
councils, take formal possession, and in sign thereof, besides, erect a
stone column in such places as shall be taken possession of; the said
column recording in bold, legible characters the year, the month, the day
of the week and the date, the persons by whom and the hour of the day
when such possession has been taken on behalf of the States-General above
mentioned. You will likewise endeavour to enter into friendly relations
and make covenants with all such kings and nations as you shall happen to
fall in with, and try to prevail upon them to place themselves under the
protection of the States of the United Netherlands, of which covenants
and alliances you will likewise cause proper documents to be drawn up and
signed.

All such lands, islands, etc. as you shall take possession of in the
fashion aforesaid, you will duly mark in the chart in their true
latitude, longitude and bearings, together with the names newly conferred
on the same.

In virtue of the oath of allegiance which each of you generally and
personally has sworn to the Lords States-General, to His Princely
Highness and the Lords Managers, none of you shall be allowed to retain
for his private use or to abstract any written documents, journals,
drawings or observations touching this present expedition, but every one
of you shall be bound on his return hither faithfully to deliver up the
same without exception.

According to the written statements of Jan Huygen [*], and the opinion of
sundry other persons, certain parts of this South-land are likely to
yield gold, a point into which you will inquire as carefully as possible.

[* _Scil_. Van Linschoten.]

For the purpose of making a trial we have given orders for various
articles to be put on board your ships, such as ironmongery, cloths,
coast-stuffs [*] and linens; which you will show and try to dispose of to
such natives as you may meet with, always diligently noting what articles
are found to be most in demand, what quantities might be disposed of, and
what might be obtained in exchange for them; we furthermore hand you
samples of gold, silver, copper, iron, lead and pearls, that you may
inquire whether these articles are known to the natives, and might be
obtained there in any considerable quantity.

[* i. e. drawn from the Coast of Coromandel.]

In landing anywhere you will use extreme caution, and never go ashore or
into the interior unless well-armed, trusting no one, however innocent
the natives may be {Page 21} in appearance, and with whatever kindness
they may seem to receive you, being always ready to stand on the
defensive, in order to prevent sudden traitorous surprises, the like of
which, sad to say, have but too often been met with in similar cases. And
if any natives should come hear your ships, you will likewise take due
care that they suffer no molestation from our men.

When you get near the northern extremity and the east coast of the
South-land, you will diligently inquire whether it yields anywhere
sandal-wood, nutmegs, cloves or other spices; likewise whether it has any
good harbours and fertile tracts, where it would be possible to establish
settlements, which might be expected to yield satisfactory returns. In a
word, you will suffer nothing to escape your notice, but carefully
scrutinise whatever you find, and give us a full and proper report on
your return, by doing which you will render good service to the United
Netherlands and reap special honour for yourselves.

In places where you meet with natives, you will either by adroit
management or by other means endeavour to get hold of a number of
full-grown persons, or better still, of boys and girls, to the end that
the latter may be brought up here and be turned to useful purpose in the
said quarters when occasion shall serve.

The command of the two yachts has been entrusted to Jan Vos, who during
the voyage will carry the flag, convene the council and take the chair in
the same, in virtue of our special commission granted to the said Vos for
the purpose.

Given in the Fortress of jacatra, this 29th of September, A.D. 1622 [*].

[* Unforeseen circumstances prevented the expedition from setting out
(Letter of the G.-G. and Counc. to the Managers, 1 Febr. 1623).]

* * * * *



XIV.


(1623). VOYAGE OF THE SHIPS PERA AND ARNHEM, UNDER COMMAND OF JAN
CARSTENSZOON OR CARSTENSZ, DIRK MELISZOON, AND WILLEM JOOSTEN VAN COLSTER
[*] OR VAN COOLSTEERDT.--FURTHER DISCOVERY OF THE SOUTH-WEST COAST OF NEW
GUINEA. DISCOVERY OF THE GULF OF CARPENTARIA.

[* He replaced Meliszoon after the latter's death in February.]

I.

JOINT VOYAGE OF THE TWO SHIPS.--VOYAGE OF THE PERA BY HERSELF UNDER
CARSTENSZ, AFTER THE ARNHEM HAD PARTED COMPANY WITH HER [*].

[* This took place on April 27.]

A.

_Letter of the G.-G. and Counc. to the Managers of the E.I.C, dated
January 3, 1624._

...In the month of January 1623, Governor Van Speult dispatched from
Amboina the yachts Arnhem and Pera, for the purpose of concluding
treaties of friend ship with the natives of Quey, Aroe and Tenimber, and
of further discovering and {Page 22} exploring the land of Nova Guinea;
as Your Worships may gather from the enclosed document, the islanders
aforesaid have of their own free will placed themselves under the
obedience and dominion of their High Mightinesses the States-General of
the United Netherlands, and have promised to come and trade with our
fortresses in Banda and Amboyna. From there the yachts ran over to Nova
Guinea and skirted the said coast as far as 17° 8' Southern Latitude our
men landed in sundry places, but found nothing but wild coasts, barren
land and extremely cruel, savage and barbarous natives, who surprised and
murdered nine of our men, partly owing to their own negligence; according
to the report we have received of the said coast, there would be nothing
in particular to be got there; what winds, currents, shores, rivers,
bights, capes, forelands and other features of the coast have been
further met with, surveyed and explored, Your Worships may gather from
the enclosed journal and minutes, to which we would beg leave to refer
you for further particulars...

B.

_Journal kept by JAN CARSTENSZ [*] on his voyage to Nova Guinea..._

[* CARSTENSZ got the Instructions originally drawn up for the ships
Haringh and Hazewind. (See VAN DIJK, Carpentaria, pp. 9-10).]

A.D. 1623.

_In the name of God Amen._

JANUARY.

On Saturday the 21st we weighed anchor before Amboyna and set sail from
there, together with the yacht Aernem...On Saturday the 28th...about 3
o'clock in the afternoon...we anchored off the east side of the island of
Quey.

The following night...we made for Aro on an East-by-North and Eastern
course.

On Saturday the 29th in the evening we dropped anchor near the northern
island of Aro.

FEBRUARY.

On the 6th...the wind being south-east by east, we set sail again for the
island which in some charts [*] is called Ceram, and in others de Papues;
course held north-east by north; in the evening N.N.E.; about midnight it
fell a calm; sailed 6 miles.

[* Cf. _Remarkable Maps_ II, 2, II, 3. Under date of March 31 the present
journal once more refers to this mistake in the older charts.]

{Page 23}

In the morning of the 6th the wind was N.E. with a tolerable breeze,
course held N.N.W., we saw high land ahead both on the lee and the
weather bow--at noon latitude 4° 57', sailed three miles on the said
course; for the rest of the day we had a calm, towards the evening the
wind went round to S.E., course held N.E. by E., sailed 4 miles.

On Sunday the 8th the wind was S. by W., with rain; course held N.E. by
E., at noon latitude 4° 27, sailed 4 miles on the said course. We then
went on a N.E. course, with a variable wind, which at last fell to a
calm; towards evening after sunset the wind turned to S. by E., we sailed
with the fore- and mizen-sails only on an E. course, sailed three miles
to E.S.O. [sic] In the night the two yachts ran foul of each other in
tacking, but got no damage worth mentioning. The latter part of the night
we drifted in a calm without sails until daybreak.

In the morning of the 9th we made sail again and with a weak N.E. wind
held our course for the land: somewhat later in the day the wind turned
to N.W., at noon we were in latitude 4° 17' and had the south-coast of
the land east slightly north of us, course and wind as before; in the
evening we were close inshore in 25 fathom clayey ground, but since there
was no shelter there from sea-winds, we again turned off the land, and
skirted along it in the night with small sail, seeing we had no knowledge
of the land and the shallows thereabouts; variable wind with rain.

* * *

NOTE.

The same day the plenary council having been convened, it was determined
and fixed by formal resolution to continue our present course along the
coast, and if we should come upon any capes, bights, or roads, to come to
anchor there for one or two days at the utmost for a landing, in which we
shall run ashore in good order with two well-manned and armed pinnaces,
to endeavour to come to parley with the inhabitants and generally inspect
the state of affairs there; in leaving we shall, if at all practicable,
seize one or two blacks to take along with us; the main reason which has
led us to touch at the island aforesaid being, that certain reports and
writings seem to imply that the land which we are now near to, is the
Gouwen-eylandt [*], which it would be impossible to call at on our
return-voyage in the eastern monsoon, if we are to obey our orders and
instructions.

[* An allusion perhaps to the "provincia aurifera", as the so-called
Beach was sometimes styled; VAN LINSCHOTEN,  we know, had also surmised
the presence of gold in the South-land.]

* * *

In the morning of the 10th, the wind being N.W. by north, being close
inshore, we again held our course for the land; somewhat later in the day
we had West wind with a hard gale, with which we sailed along the coast;
about noon we cast anchor in 12 fathom clayey bottom without any shelter
from the W.N.W. wind; when we were at anchor there, the pinnace of the
Pera, in conformity with the above resolution was sent ashore well-manned
and armed, under command of the sub-cargo, but the heavy rolling of the
sea made it impossible to effect a landing. We accordingly made a man
swim ashore through the surf, who deposited a few small pieces of iron on
the beach, where he had observed numerous human footprints; but as
nothing more could be done, the pinnace went back to the yacht, which we
could not get round to eastward owing to the strong current; we were
accordingly forced to weigh the anchor again, and drift with the current,
and thus ran on along the coast till the first watch, when we cast
anchor, it being a dead calm and we having no knowledge of the water.

In the morning of the 11th we took the sun's altitude, which we found to
be 8°, we being in 14° 14', which makes a difference of 6° 14'. When we
had sailed along the land for about a mile's distance we cast anchor in 9
fathom muddy bottom and sent the pinnace ashore in the same fashion as
last time, but earnestly charged the subcargo to use great caution, and
to treat with kindness any natives that he should meet {Page 24} with,
trying if possible to lay hands on some of them, that through them, as
soon as they have become somewhat conversant with the Malay tongue, our
Lords and Masters may obtain reliable knowledge touching the productions
of their land. At noon we were in Latitude 4° 20'; at night when our men
returned with the pinnace, they informed us that the strong surf had
prevented them from landing, and that they had accordingly, for fully two
miles' distance, rowed up a fresh-water river which fell into the sea
near the yacht, without, however, seeing or hearing any human beings,
except that in returning they had seen numerous human footprints near the
mouth of the river, and likewise two or three small huts made of dry
grass, in which they saw banana-leaves and the sword of a sword-fish, all
which they left intact in conformity with their orders; they also
reported that the interior is very low-lying and submerged in many
places, but that 5, 6, or 7 miles from the coast it becomes hilly, much
resembling the island of Ceram near Banda.

* * *

NOTE.

(The skipper of the Arnem and nine persons along with him, slain by the
savages, in consequence of their want of caution.)

This same day the skipper of the yacht Aernem, Direk Melisz(oon) without
knowledge of myself, of the subcargo or steersman of the said yacht,
unadvisedly went ashore to the open beach in the pinnace, taking with him
15 persons, both officers and along common sailors, and no more than four
muskets, for the purpose of fishing with a seine-net; there was great
disorder in landing, the men running off in different directions, until
at last a number of black savages came running forth from the wood, who
first seized and tore to pieces an assistant, named Jan Willemsz Van den
Briel who happened to be unarmed, after which they slew with arrows,
callaways (spears) and with the oars which they had snatched from the
pinnace, no less than nine of our men, who were unable to defend
themselves, at the same time wounding the remaining seven (among them the
skipper, who was the first to take to his heels); these last seven men at
last returned on board in very sorry plight with the pinnace and one oar,
the skipper loudly lamenting his great want of prudence, and entreating
pardon for the fault he had committed.

* * *

In the evening the wind West with a very stiff breeze, so that we did not
sail in the night, considering our ignorance of these waters and our fear
of cliffs and shallows that might lie off the coast, which in every case
we had to keep near to, if we wanted to get further north.

On Sunday morning the 12th we set sail again with a stiff breeze from the
west; we held our course E. by S. along the land, and sailed 14 miles
that day; in the evening we altered our course to E.S.E., with a N.W.
wind; in the night we had variable wind and weather, so that we kept
drifting; in the day-watch the skipper of the Aernem, Direk Melisz., died
of the wounds received the day before, having suffered grievous pains
shortly before his death.

In the morning of the thirteenth the wind was N.E. with fair weather and
little wind, so that we ran near the land again; at noon we were in Lat.
4° 25'; the wind West with a very stiff breeze, course held East by
South, and by computation sailed 10 miles until the evening; in the night
the wind was variable; towards daybreak it came on to rain; at 2½ miles'
distance from the low-lying land we were in 28 fathom, black sandy
bottom, the land bearing East and West.

In the morning of the 14th the wind was East with a faint breeze, which
continued for the rest of the day; we kept tacking; in the evening the
wind was N.E. by N. with a very strong current setting westward.

{Page 25}

On the 15th before daybreak the wind was N. by W. with a stiff breeze,
course held East by South; in the morning we took the sun's altitude at
sunrise, which we found to be 7 degrees; at night ditto 21° 30'; the
difference being divided by two comes to 7° 15'; somewhat later in the
day, the wind being N.E. by N., we were five miles or upwards from the
land in 33 fathom, drifting rapidly to westward; at noon we were in Lat.
4° 51', the wind W. by N.; course held N.E. by E. towards the land;
shortly after the wind became due North; from the morning to the evening
we had sailed 6 miles, and in 36 hours had been driven back, i.e.
westward, at least 11 miles.

This same day the plenary council having been convened, it has been
deemed advisable to appoint another skipper in the Aernem in the room of
the deceased, to which place has been appointed a young man, named Willem
Joosten van Colster [*] second mate in the Pera, as being very fit for
the post, while at the same time the second mate Jan Jansz has been named
first mate in the said yacht.

[* Or Van Coolsteerdt, as the Summary (see _infra_) has at this date.]

(Mountains covered with snow.)

In the morning of the 16th we took the sun's altitude at sunrise, which
we found to be 5° 6'; the preceding evening ditto 20° 30'; the difference
being divided by two Comes to 7° 42'. increasing North-easterly
variation; the wind N. by E.; we were at about 1½ mile's distance from
the low-lying land in 5 or 6 fathom, clayey bottom; at a distance of
about 10 miles by estimation into the interior, we saw a very high
mountain-range in many places white with snow, which we thought a very
singular sight, being so near the line equinoctial. Towards the evening
we held our course E. by S. along half-submerged land in 5, 4, 3 and 2
fathom, at which last point we dropped anchor; we lay there for five
hours, during which time we found the water to have risen 4 or 5 feet; in
the first watch, the wind being N.E., we ran into deeper water, and came
to anchor in 10 fathom, where we remained for the night.

In the morning of the 17th the wind was N.E. with a faint breeze with
which we set sail, course held S.E.; at noon we were in Lat. 5° 24', and
by estimation 5 miles more to eastward than on the 15th last, seeing that
a very strong current had driven us fully 11 miles to westward; in the
evening we found ourselves at 3 miles' distance from the land, and
dropped anchor in 15 fathom, having in the course of the day sailed three
miles E. by S. and E.S.E.

In the morning of the 18th the wind was N.E. with a strong breeze and a
strong current setting to the west; in the afternoon the wind went round
to the S.W., so that we meant to set sail with it, but as it fell a dead
calm we had to remain at anchor.

In the morning of the 19th the wind was N.E. by N., so that we made sail,
keeping an E.S.E. course along the coast, with a strong current setting
westward; at noon we were in Lat. 5° 27'; it then fell calm and we had
continual counter-currents, so that we cast anchor in 14 fathom, having
sailed 2½ miles; the land bearing from us E.S.E., slightly South; towards
the evening the wind went round to S.S.W., so that we set sail again and
ran on S.E. 1 mile; when it became dark we cast anchor in 6 fathom.

At noon on the 20th the wind was S. and shortly after S.W., with which we
set sail, keeping our course E. by S. and S.O. along the land in 6
fathom; in the evening we cast anchor at about 3 miles' distance from the
land, having sailed 5 miles this day.

{Page 26}

On the 21st the wind was N.E. by N. with a weak breeze and the current
running south straight from the land, which is no doubt owing to the
outflow of the rivers which take their source in the high mountains of
the interior. The eastern part of the high land, which we could see, bore
from us N.E. and N.E. by N; in the morning we set sail with a N.W. wind
and fair weather course held S.E. by E. and S.E. for three miles, and
then S.S.E. for five miles; in the evening we dropped anchor in 7 fathom
about 3 miles from the land, the wind blowing hard from the west with
violent rains.

In the morning of the 22nd the wind was N., a strong gale with rain and a
strong current setting westward, so that we were compelled to remain at
anchor; towards the evening the wind went round to W.S.W., with dirty
weather, so that we got adrift by our anchor getting loose, upon which we
dropped our large anchor to avoid stranding; in the afternoon the storm
subsided and we had variable winds.

In the morning of the 23rd we set sail, course held S.E. with a S.W. wind
and violent rains; when we had run a mile, the heavy swells forced us to
drop anchor; in the afternoon we lifted anchor with great difficulty and
peril owing to the violent rolling of the yacht, and set sail, but
shortly after, the yacht Aernem making a sign with her flag that she
could not manage to heave her anchor, we cast anchor again.

In the morning of the 24th the weather was unruly, with a W. wind and a
very hollow sea; in the afternoon the weather getting slightly better,
both the yachts set sail again with the wind as before, holding a S. by
E. course; in the evening we dropped anchor in 14 fathom, having sailed 4
miles S.S.E., and found the land to extend E.S.E. ever since the 20th
instant.

In the morning of the 25th we set sail with a N.N.W. wind, sailing 4
miles on an E.S.E. course, and then 5 miles on a S. by E. and S.S.E.
course, after which the foretop-mast of the Aernem broke, so that we were
both compelled to drop anchor in 10 fathom about 4 miles from the land.

In the morning of the 26th we set sail to get near the Aernem and speak
to her crew, who were engaged in repairing the rigging and replacing the
foremast; we both drifted with the current in the teeth of the wind, and
thus ran 3 miles, when the Aernem cast anchor 1½ mile from us on the
weather-side; in the evening there was a strong current from the W.S.W.
with rain, which lasted the whole night.

* * *

NOTE.

(Here end the mountains of the western extremity of Nova Guinea.)

The high-lying interior of Ceram ends here, without showing any opening
or passage (through which we might run north according to our plan), and
passes into low-lying half-submerged land, bearing E.S.E. and S.E. by E.,
extending in all likelihood as far as Nova Guinea, a point which with
God's help we mean to make sure of at any cost; on coming from Aru to the
island of Ceram, the latter is found to have a low-lying foreland
dangerous to touch at, since at 6, 8 and 9 miles' distance from the same,
the lofty mountains of the interior become visible, the low foreland
remaining invisible until one has got within 3 or 4 miles from the land;
the high mountains are seen to extend fully thirty miles to eastward,
when you are north of Aru; as seen from afar, the land seems to have
numerous pleasant valleys and running fresh-water rivers; here and there
it is overgrown with brushwood and in other places covered with high
trees; but we are unable to give any information as to what fruits,
metals and animals it contains, and as to the manner of its cultivation
since the natives whom {Page 27} we found to be savages and man-eaters,
refused to hold parley with us, and fell upon our men who suffered
grievous damage; after the report, however, of some of the men of the
yacht Aernem, who being wounded on the 11th aforementioned, succeeded in
making their escape, the natives are tall black men with curly heads of
hair and two large holes through their noses, stark naked, not covering
even their privities; their arms are arrows, bows, assagays, callaways
and the like. They have no vessels either large or small, nor has the
coast any capes or bights that might afford shelter from west- and
south-winds, the whole shore being clear and unencumbered, with a clayey
bottom, forming a good anchoring-ground, the sea being not above 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 fathom in depth at 1, 2 and more miles' distance from
the land, the rise and fall of the water with the tides we found to be
between 1½ and 2 fathom.

* * *

In the morning of the 27th the wind was W.N.W. with dirty weather and a
very high sea, so that the Aernem was unable so heave her anchor in order
to get near us, on which account we both of us remained at anchor the
whole day; towards the evening the weather became much worse with pouring
rains, so that we dropped another anchor; in the day-watch the cable of
our large anchor broke without our perceiving it, and the other anchor
getting loose, we drifted slowly to eastward; the land here extended
E.S.E. and W.S.W.

In the morning of the 28th the Aernem was no longer in sight, so that we
resolved to set sail in order to seek her; holding our course S.W., we ran
on for three miles, after which we saw on our lee land bearing S.W. which
we would not sail clear of; we therefore dropped anchor in 9 fathom, the
weather still continuing dirty with rain and wind, and a strong ebb from
the E.S.E. running flat against the wind; the water rising and falling
fully two fathom at every tide.

MARCH.

On the first the wind was W. by N. with rain: we find that in these
latitudes the southern and northern moon makes high water; at noon we
weighed anchor and drifted with the current, which set strongly to
westward.

On the second the wind was west with fair weather, with which we found it
impossible to weather the land; in the evening we were in Lat. 6° 45'.

In the morning of the third the wind was W., with a strong gale and rain;
at noon we had fair weather so that myself and the council determined to
set sail on a Northern course in order to seek the yacht Aernem; when we
had run on the said course for the space of 5 glasses, we saw the said
yacht N.W. of us, but since the current ran very strong in our teeth, we
dropped anchor in 10 fathom.

In the morning of the 4th the wind was north, with which we set sail in
order to get near the Aernem; but when we had sailed for an hour, the
headwind and counter-current forced us to drop anchor.

The yacht aforesaid, which was lying above the wind and the current, now
weighed her anchor and dropped the same near the Pera, after which the
skipper of the Aernern came on board of us in the pinnace, and informed
me that they had very nearly lost the yacht in the storm before
mentioned, since all the seas they had shipped had found their way into
the hold, which got so full of water that the greater part of their rice,
powder and matches had become wet through; this same day I sent the
skipper and the steersman of the Pera on board the yacht Aernem in order
to inquire into her condition, and ascertain whether she was so weak and
disabled as had been reported to me; since the persons committed reported
that the yacht was very weak and disabled above the waterline, it has
been resolved that the main-topmast, which they had already taken down by
way of precaution, should not be put up again provisionally.

{Page 28}

The same day we set sail again with the wind as before, course held S.W.,
and after running on for two miles, we cast anchor again in 11 fathom.

In the morning of the 5th we set sail again, with a W. wind; course held
S.S.W. when we had run on for two miles we got change of weather with
variable winds, in the evening we came to anchor in 13 fathom...

* * *

On the 6th we set sail again before daybreak, the wind being West; course
held S.S.W., sailed three miles; about noon, the wind blowing straight
for the coast, we cast anchor in 5½ fathom at a mile's distance from the
coast, and, in conformity with the resolution, fetched a light anchor
from the yacht Aernem.

(Keerweer, formerly mistaken for island.)

In the morning of the 7th we set sail again, the wind being N.E., course
held W., in order to get a little farther off the land; when we had run a
mile, we dropped anchor in 5½ fathom, and I went ashore myself with two
well-manned and armed pinnaces, because on the 6th aforesaid we had seen
4 or 5 canoes making from the land for the yachts; when we got near the
land we saw a small canoe with three blacks; when we rowed towards them,
they went back to the land and put one of the three ashore, as we
supposed, in order to give warning for the natives there to come in great
numbers and seize and capture our pinnaces; for as soon as we made
towards them, they tried to draw us on, slowly paddling on towards the
land; at last the "jurebass"(?) swam to them, with some strings of beads,
but they refused to admit him; so we made signs and called out to them,
but they paid little or no attention, upon which we began to pull back to
the yacht without having effected anything; the blacks or savages seeing
this, slowly followed us, and when we showed them beads and iron objects,
they cautiously came near one of our pinnaces; one of the sailors in the
pinnace inadvertently touching the canoe with one of his oars, the blacks
forthwith began to attack our men, and threw several callaways into the
pinnace, without, however, doing any damage owing to the caution used by
the men in her; in order to frighten them the corporal fired a musket,
which hit them both, so that they died on the spot; we then rowed back to
the yachts. To the place on the coast where the aforesaid incident took
place, we have given the name of Keerweer (= Turn again) in the new
chart, seeing that the land here trends to S.W. and West; its latitude
being 7°.

On the 8th we had a strong gale from the S.S.W. the whole day, with rain
and unsteady weather, so that we thought it best to remain at anchor.

In the morning of the 9th the weather was fair, and the wind west, so
that we set sail on a N.N.W. course; when we had run one mile we saw two
groups of canoes putting off from shore and making for us, one consisting
of 7, and the other of 8 small canoes; as we were lying close to the wind
and could not weather the land with it, we came to anchor in 3 fathom;
one of the canoes aforesaid came so near us, that we could call out to
her, but the second group aforesaid kept quiet, upon which the canoe
which had been near us, paddled towards this second group; from their
various gestures we saw and understood sufficiently that their intentions
had from the first been anything but peaceable, but God's Providence
prevented them from carrying their wicked plans into effect; in the
evening we set sail again with the current, the wind being west and our
course held N.N.W. in the first watch we turned our course S.W. and S.W.
by W., on which we sailed the whole night, until about daybreak we found
the water shallowing and dropped anchor in 2½ fathom, having sailed 5
miles.

[* _Scil._ by the men of the ship Duifken (see the extract
below).--Princess Marianne Strait and Prince Frederik Hendrik island.
(There is no reference in the text for this footnote--Ed.)]

{Page 29}

In the morning of the 10th we set sail again, the wind being W.N.W., on a
S.W. course; at noon we were in Lat. 7° 35'; in the evening we came to
anchor in 3 fathom muddy bottom, at about 1½ mile's distance from the
land.

* * *

NOTE

That it is impossible to land here with boats or pinnaces, owing to the
clayey and muddy bottom into which a man will sink up to the waist, the
depth of the water being no more than 3 or 4 fathom at 3 or 4 miles'
distance from the land; the land is low-lying and half-submerged, being
quite under water at high tide; it is covered with wild trees, those on
the beach resembling the fir-trees of our country, and seemingly bearing
no fruit; the natives are coal-black like the Caffres; they go about
stark naked, carrying their privities in a small conch-shell, tied to the
body with a bit of string; they have two holes in the midst of the nose,
with fangs of hogs of swordfishes through them, protruding at least three
fingers' breadths on either side, so that in appearance they are more
like monsters than human beings; they seem to be evil-natured and
malignant; their canoes are small and will not hold above 3 of 4 of them
at most; they are made out of one piece of wood, and the natives stand up
in them, paddling them on by means of long oars; their arms are arrows,
bows, assagays and callaways, which they use with great dexterity and
skill; broken iron, parangs and knives are in special demand with them.
The lands which we have up to now skirted and touched at, not only are
barren and inhabited by savages, but also the sea in these parts yields
no other fish than sharks, sword-fishes and the like unnatural monsters,
while the birds too are as as wild and shy as the men.

* * *

In the morning of the 11th, the wind being W.N.W. and the weather fair,
we set sail on a S.S.W. course along the coast in 4, 3½ and 2½ fathom
muddy bottom; towards the evening we saw no more land ahead of us, the
farthest extremity falling off quite to eastward, and extending east by
south; we accordingly ran S.S.E., but it was not long before we got into
2 fathom water and even less. We therefore went over to the north, and in
the evening dropped anchor in' fathom, having this day sailed eight miles
to S.S.W.

In the morning of the 12th the wind blew from the N.W.; in the forenoon I
rowed to the land myself with the two pinnaces well-manned and armed, in
order to see if there was anything worth note there; but when we had got
within a musket-shot of the land, the water became so shallow that we
could not get any farther, whereupon we all of us went through the mud up
to our waists, and with extreme difficulty reached the beach, where we
saw a number of fresh human foot-prints; on going a short distance into
the wood, we also saw twenty or more small huts made of dry grass, the
said huts being so small and cramped that a man could hardly get into
them on all fours, from which we could sufficiently conclude that the
natives here must be of small stature, poor and wretched; we afterwards
tried to penetrate somewhat {Page 30} farther into the wood, in order to
ascertain the nature and situation of the country, when on our coming
upon a piece of brushwood, a number of blacks sprang out of it, and began
to let fly their arrows at us with great fury and loud shouts, by which a
carpenter was wounded in the belly and an assistant in the leg: we were
all of us hard pressed, upon which we fired three or four muskets at them
killing one of the blacks stone-dead, which utterly took away their
courage; they dragged the dead man into the wood, and we, being so far
from the pinnaces and having a very difficult path to go in order to get
back to them, resolved to return and row back to the yachts.

(The Valsch Caep is 8 degrees 15 minutes south of the equator and 70
miles S.E. of Aru.)

The The same day at low tide we saw a large sandbank, S.E., S., and S.W.
of us, where we had been with the yacht on the 11th last, the said
sandbank extending fully 4 miles W., S.W. and W. by S. of the land or
foreland; on which account we have in the new chart given to the same the
name of de Valsch Caep [*]; it is in Lat. 8° 15' South, and about 70
miles east of Aru.

[* The South-west point of Prince Frederik Hendrik island.]

* * *

NOTE

That the land which we have touched at as above mentioned, is low-lying
and half-submerged to northward, so that a large part of it is under
water at high tide; to the south it is somewhat higher and inhabited by
certain natives who have built huts there; so far as we could ascertain
the land is barren, covered with tall wild trees; the natives quite black
and naked without any covering to hide their privy parts; their hair
curly in the manner of the Papues: they wear certain fish-bones through
the nose, and through their ears pieces of tree-bark, a span in length,
so that they look more like monsters than like human beings: their
weapons are arrows and bows which they use with great skill.

* * *

On the 13th the wind was N., the weather fair, and the current stronger
to west than to northward; we set sail in the forenoon, holding our course
W.N.W. in order to get into deeper water; when we had run some distance,
we got into eight feet of water; upon which we turned back and towards
evening came to anchor in 2 fathom.

On the 14th the weather was fair, the wind N. by W., the current running
strongly to S.W., as before; at noon we sent out the two pinnaces to take
soundings; they rowed as far as 2 miles W.N.W. of the yachts, and nowhere
found more than 1½ and 2 fathom of water; the same day, seeing that the
weather is now getting more constant every day, it was resolved to put up
again the main-topmast in the yacht Aernem, which had been taken down
before on account of bad weather.

On the 15th the wind was N.N.E. with good weather and the current as
strong as before; we set sail at noon with the tide running from the
N.W., hoping to get into deeper water, but having been tacking about till
the evening, we were by counter-currents forced to come to anchor in
three fathom.

On the 16th the weather was good, the wind being N.E. by N.; we set sail
in the forenoon; in the course of the day we had a calm; towards the
evening the wind went round to W.S.W., course held N.N.W. along the
shallows in 2½ and 2 fathom; in the evening we came to anchor in 3
fathom; we find that in these parts the currents set very strongly to
south-west, as before mentioned, and that the water rises and falls fully
1½ and 2 fathom at each tide.

{Page 31}

On the 17th the wind was East; we set sail, holding a W.N.W. and W. by N.
course, and thus got into deeper water upwards of 5 fathom; at noon we
were in Lat. 8° 4'; in the evening we cast anchor in 6 fathom, having
sailed 4 miles W.S.W.

In the morning of the 18th the weather was good with a W. wind; in the
afternoon we set sail with the rising tide running from the west; course
held S.W. by S. in 6 fathom. when we got into deeper water than 7 and 8
fathom, we altered our course to S.E. by E. and E.S.E. in 10, 12, 14, 18,
20, 26 and 28 fathom; towards evening we went on an Eastward course,
having sailed 5½ miles on the aforesaid course from the morning to the
evening, and 9 miles to eastward from the evening till the morning.

On the 19th the wind was W., course held E., with the Valsch Caep N.N.E.
of us at 5 miles' distance, the land extending N. by W.; the water being
24 fathom here, we went over to E.N.E. and sailed 4 miles, when we got
into 6 fathom, where we cast anchor about 4 miles from the land.

On the 20th the wind was N.N.E., with good weather; we set sail, holding
our course as before in 6 fathom. at night we dropped anchor in 5½
fathom, having sailed 7½ miles this day.

On the 21st we set sail again in the morning with a N.N.W. wind, keeping
a N.E. course for 4 miles in 4 fathom; in the afternoon we went over to
eastward sailing 8 miles; in the evening we came to anchor in 7 fathom,
near an island situated a mile or upwards South and North of the
mainland; a quarter of a mile N. by E. and S. by W. of the island there
is a rock with two dry trees on it.

On the 22nd, the council having been convened, it has finally been
resolved to land with two pinnaces properly manned and armed, seeing that
the coast is covered with cocoa-inut trees here, and the land seems to be
higher, better and more fertile than any we have seen before; and since
we could not get ashore on account of the shallowness of the water, the
muddy bottom and other inconveniencies, we rowed to the small island
aforementioned; while we were making inspection of it, the yacht Aernem
got adrift owing to the violent current and the strong gale, and ran foul
of the bows of the Pera, causing grievous damage to both the ships; this
accident detained our yachts for some days, and without God's special
providence they would both them have run aground.

On the 23rd, the weather being good, and the council having once more
been convened, I proposed to try every possible means to get the Aernem
into sailing trim again, in the first place by constructing another
rudder. This we found impossible since there were no new square rudders
in either of the yachts; we were accordingly compelled to try some
makeshift, and in order to be able to continue our voyage and avoid
abandoning the yacht, it was finally resolved that with the available
materials there should be constructed a rudder after the manner of the
Chinese and Javanese; for this purpose the Pera will have to give up her
main-top mast, the rest of the required wood to be cut on the land, and
we shall tarry here until the rudder has been replaced.

On the 24th while our men were engaged on the rudder, the subcargo rowed
to the small island aforesaid with the two pinnaces, in order to get
fresh water for the Aernem, which was very poorly supplied with the same,
and in the evening he returned on board again with four casks of water,
which he had got filled with extreme difficulty.

{Page 32}

On the 25th, the yacht Aernem being in sailing trim again, for which God
be thanked, we set sail again with good weather and a favourable wind,
holding our course along the land in 5½, 6, and 6½ fathom; in the evening
we cast anchor in 2½ fathom about 2 miles from the land, having sailed 10
miles this day.

* * *

NOTE

(The Vleermuys-Eylandt is in 8 degrees 8 minutes Lat., 40 miles east of
the Valsch Caep.)

That the island aforesaid is in 8° 8' Southern Latitude, about a mile
south and north of the mainland as before mentioned; it is pretty high,
having a great number of wild trees on the east-side, and being quite
bare on the west-side. It is about a quarter of a mile in circumference,
and is surrounded by numerous cliffs and rocks, overgrown with oysters
and mussels, the soil is excellent and fit to be planted and sown with
everything; by estimation it bears a hundred full-grown cocoanut-trees
and a great many younger ones; we also observed some banana- and
oubi-trees; we besides found fresh water here, which comes trickling
through the clay in small rills, and has to be gathered in pits dug for
the purpose; the island also contains large numbers of bats living in the
trees, on which account we have given to it the name of Vleermuys-Eylant
[Bats' Island] in the new chart. We have seen no huts or human beings in
it, but found unmistakable signs that there had been men here at some
previous time.

* * *

(Clappes Cust [Cocoanut Coast].)

On the 26th the weather was good, the wind N.N.W., course held S.E. by E.
along the land in 5 fathom. In the forenoon 4 small canoes put off from
the land and followed us; we waited for them to come alongside, and found
they were manned with 25 blacks, who had nothing with them except their
arms; they called out and made signs for us to come ashore; we then threw
out to them some small pieces of iron and strings of beads, at which they
showed great satisfaction; they paid little or no attention to the gold,
silver, copper, nutmegs and cloves which we showed them, though they were
quite ready to accept these articles as presents. Their canoes are very
skilfully made out of one piece of wood, some of them being so large that
they will hold 20 and even more blacks. Their paddles are long, and they
use them standing or sitting; the men are black, tall and well-built,
with coarse and strong limbs, and curly hair, like the Caffres, some of
them wearing it tied to the neck in a knot, and others letting it fall
loose down to the waist. They have hardly any beards; some of them have
two, others three holes through the nose, in which they wear fangs or
teeth of hogs or sword-fishes. They are stark-naked and have their
privities enclosed in a conch shell, fastened to the waist with a bit of
string; they wear no rings of gold, silver, copper, tin, or iron on their
persons, but adorn themselves with rings made of tortoise shell or
terturago (_Spanish_ tortuga?), from which it may be inferred that their
land yields no metals or wood of any value, but is all low-lying and
half-submerged, as we have actually found it to be; there were also among
them some not provided with paddles, but wearing two strings of human
teeth round their necks, and excelling all the others in ugliness; these
men carried on the left arm a hammer with a wooden handle and at one end
a black conch-shell, the size of a man's fist, the other end by which
they hold it, being fitted with a three-sided bone, not unlike a piece of
stag's horn; in exchange for one of these hammers they were offered a
rug, some strings of {Page 33} beads and bits of iron, which they
refused, though they were willing to barter the same for one of the boys,
whom they seemed to have a great mind to. Those who carry the hammers
aforesaid would seem to be noblemen or valiant soldiers among them. The
people are cunning and suspicious, and no stratagems on our part availed
to draw them near enough to us to enable us to catch one or two with
nooses which we had prepared for the purpose; their canoes also contained
a number of human thigh-bones, which they repeatedly held up to us, but
we were unable to make out what they meant by this. Finally they asked
for a rope to tow the yacht to shore, but soon got tired of the work, and
paddled back to the land in a great hurry.

In the evening we cast anchor in three fathom about 3 miles from the
land, having sailed 13 miles this day.

In the morning of the 27th the wind was W.N.W. with a stiff breeze,
course held S.E. by S. and S.E., on which we sailed 7 miles, and
afterwards E.S.E. 5 miles, in 5½, 5 and 3 fathom; in the evening we came
to anchor in 6½ fathom, 3½ miles from the land; a quarter of a mile
farther to landward we saw a sandbank, on which the Aernem struck but got
off again, for which God be praised.

On the 28th we set sail again, with a N.W. wind, on an eastern course
towards the land, in various depths, such as 7, 9, 12, 4 and 5½ fathom;
at noon we were in 9° 6' S. Lat., having sailed 5 miles; from noon till
the evening we ran on an E. by S. course a distance Of 4 miles in 18, 12,
9, 7, 5 and 2 fathom, after which we cast anchor, and sent out the
pinnace to take soundings; the water being found to become deeper nearer
the coast, we again weighed anchor and sailed to the land, casting anchor
finally in 4 fathom three miles from the coast.

In the morning of the 29th the wind was N.N.E. with fine weather; in the
forenoon it was deemed advisable to send off the boat of the Pera with
thirteen men and the steersman of the Aernem and victualled for four
days, in order to take soundings and skirt the land, which extended
E.N.E., for a distance of 7 or 8 miles.

On the 30th the wind was N. with good weather, so that we also sent out
the pinnace of the Aernem in order to take soundings in various
directions 2 or 3 miles from the yachts; at low water we saw various
sandbanks and reefs lying dry, to wit E.S.E., S.S.W. and W.; in the
afternoon the pinnace of the Aernem returned on board, having found
shallows everywhere at 2 miles' distance. Towards the evening the boat of
the Pera also returned, when we heard from the steersman that they had
been E. by S. and E.S.E. of the yachts, at about 8 miles' distance, where
they had found very shallow water, no more than 7, 8, 9 and 10 feet,
which extended a mile or more, and was succeeded by depths Of 2, 2½, 3, 5
and 7 fathom; they had found the land to extend E. and E. by N., and to
be very low-lying and muddy, and overgrown with low brushwood and wild
trees.

On the 31st the wind was N.N.E. with rain. In the afternoon I rowed with
the two pinnaces to one of the reefs in order to examine the state of
things between the yachts and the land, which space had fallen dry at low
tide; in the afternoon the skipper of the Pera also got orders to row to
the land with the boat duly manned and armed, in order to ascertain
whether anything could be done for the service of our Masters, and to
attempt to get a parley with the inhabitants and to get hold of one or
two of them, if practicable; very late in the evening the boat returned
on board, and we were informed by the skipper that, although it was high
water, they could not come nearer than to a pistol-shot's distance from
the land owing to the shallow water and the soft mud; they also reported
the land to be low-lying and half-submerged, overgrown with brushwood and
wild trees.

* * *

{Page 34}

NOTE.

(The Drooge Bocht, where we were compelled to leave the western extremity
of Nova Guinea is in 9 degrees 20 minutes S. Lat.)

After hearing the aforesaid reports touching the little depths sounded to
eastward, we are sufficiently assured that it will prove impossible any
longer to follow the coastline which we have so long skirted in an
eastward direction, and that we shall, to our great regret, be compelled
to return the same way we have come, seeing that we have been caught in
the shallows as in a trap; for this purpose we shall have to tack about
and take advantage of the ebb, and as soon as we get into deeper water,
to run south to the sixteenth degree or even farther, if it shall be found
advisable; then turn the ships' heads to the north along the coast of
Nova Guinea, according to our previous resolution taken on the 6th of
March last; as mentioned before, we were here in 9° 6' S. Lat., about 125
miles east of Aru, and according to the chart we had with us and the
estimation of the skippers and steersmen, no more than 2 miles from Nova
Guinea, so that the space between us and Nova Guinea seems to be a bight
to which on account of its shallows we have given the name of drooge
bocht [*] [shallow bight] in the new chart; to the land which we had run
along up to now, we have by resolution given the name of 't Westeinde van
Nova Guinea (Western extremity of N. G.), seeing that we have in reality
found the land to be an unbroken coast, which in the chart is marked as
islands, such as Ceram and the Papues, owing to misunderstanding and
untrustworthy information.

[* Entrance of Torres Strait.]

APRIL.

On the first the wind was W. by S. with good weather; we weighed anchor
and drifted with the ebb running from the N.E. when we had run 1½ mile
with the tide to the S.W., we came to anchor again in 6 fathom.

On the second, the wind being W. by N., we tried to tack about to the W.
with the ebb-tide in 4, 5 and 6 fathom; we had variable winds the whole
day; towards the evening we cast anchor in 4 fathom three miles from the
land, having this day progressed 4 miles to the W. and W. by N.

On the third we set sail again at daybreak, the wind being N., course
kept W.N.W. in 7, 2, and 2½ fathom, the water in these parts being of
greatly varying depths, so that we had to keep sounding continually; in
the afternoon we dropped anchor in 4 fathom, having drifted 2½, miles
with the ebb-tide.

On the 4th, the wind being N.E. by N., we set sail again with good
weather: in the afternoon we ran on with the tide and cast anchor in 7
fathom, having lost sight of the land, and sailed 8 miles W. and W. by N.

* * *

NOTE.

Here we managed with extreme difficulty and great peril to get again out
of the shallows aforesaid, into which we had sailed as into a trap,
between them and the land, for which happy deliverance God be praised;
the shallows extend South and North, from 4 to 9 miles from the mainland,
and are 10 miles in length from East to West.

{Page 35}

On the fifth we set sail again at daybreak, the wind being E.N.E., on
courses varying between S.W. and S., by which we got into deeper water,
between 14 and 26 fathom, and sailed 18 miles in the last 24 hours.

On the sixth the wind was S.W. with rain, course held S.E.; at night we
were in Lat. 9° 45', having sailed 11 miles to the E.S.E. in the last 24
hours.

On the 7th, the wind being S.S.E., we ran on an Eastern course in 15 or
16 fathom, and sailed 4 miles till the evening; at nightfall we went over
to S.E., and cast anchor in 4 fathom, but as the yacht was veering round,
we got into 2 fathom, having sailed three miles E.S.E. during the night.

In the morning of the 8th we clearly saw several stones lying on the
sea-bottom, without perceiving any change in the water in which we had
sounded 26 fathom; so that the land here, which we did not see, is highly
dangerous to touch at, but through God's providence the yachts did not
get aground here; at noon we set sail, being in 10° 15' S. Lat., the wind
being W. by S. and afterwards variable; we sailed S.S.W. till the next
morning, in 10 and 10½ fathom, and covered 6 miles.

On the 9th the wind was N. with rain, course held S.E.; at night the wind
went round to S.E.; we therefore came to anchor in 11 fathom, having
sailed 5 miles this day.

In the morning of the 10th the wind was E.N.E., course held S.E. in 9,
10, and 11 fathom; at night the wind blew from the S.E., upon which we
cast anchor, having sailed 5 miles this day.

On the 11th the wind was E. by N. with a fair breeze, course kept S.S.E.;
at noon we were in 11° 30'; the whole of this day and night we tried to
get south with variable winds and on different courses, and sailed 22
miles in the last 24 hours; course kept S.E.

In the morning of the 12th the wind was S.E. with good weather; at
sunrise we saw the land of Nova Guinea [*], showing itself as a low-lying
coast without hills or mountains; we were then in 13½ fathom, clayey
bottom; course held S.S.W.; at noon we were in Lat. 11° 45' South, having
sailed 10 miles on a S.E. course in the last 24 hours.

[* York Peninsula.]

In the morning of the 13th the wind was S.E. by E. and we were in 24
fathom; we still saw the land aforementioned and found it to be of the
same shape as before; course held S.W.; at noon we were in 12° 53'; for
the rest of day and night we tried to get south with the winds aforesaid
and on varying courses, having sailed 22 miles in the last 24 hours;
course kept S.W.

On the 14th the wind was E. by S., course held S. by E. along the land in
11, 12, 13, and 14 fathom; at noon we were in Lat. 13° 47', the land
being no longer in sight. The rest of the day and the whole night we
tried to get the land alongside with divers winds and on varying courses
in 7, 6, 6, 4, 3, and 2½ fathom; towards daybreak we were so near the
land that one might have recognised persons on shore.

In the morning of the 15th the wind blew hard from the East; course held
S. by E. in 3 and 2½ fathom along a sandbank, situated about one mile
from the mainland; at noon we were in 14° 36. The land which we have
hitherto seen and followed, extends S. and N.; it is low-lying and
without variety, having a fine sandy beach in various places. In the
afternoon we dropped anchor owing to the calm, having sailed {Page 36} 11
miles South. Great volumes of smoke becoming visible on the land, the
subcargo [*] got orders to land with the two pinnaces, duly manned and
armed, and was specially enjoined to use his utmost endeavours for the
advantage of Our Masters; when the pinnaces returned at nightfall, the
subcargo reported that the pinnaces could get no farther than a stone's
throw from the land, owing to the muddy bottom into which the men sunk to
their waists, but that they had in various places seen blacks emerging
from the wood, while others lay hid in the coppice; they therefore sent a
man ashore with some pieces of iron and strings of beads tied to a stick,
in order to attract the blacks; but as nothing could be effected and the
night was coming on, they had been forced to return to the yachts.

[* Pieter Lintiens. (Summary).]

In the morning of the 16th, being Easter-day, the wind was East; we set
sail, holding our course S. by E.; at noon we were in 14° 56'; in the
evening we came to anchor in 5 ½fathom, having sailed 10½ miles, course
kept South.

In the morning of the 17th the wind was S. by W., with rain and the tide
setting to the south; at noon the wind went round to East, so that we
made sail, course held S. by W., along the land in 4½ fathom; towards the
evening, it fell a calm, so that we dropped anchor with the ebb, after
which I went ashore myself with the two pinnaces duly provided with men
and arms; we went a considerable distance into the interior, which we
found to be a flat, fine country with few trees, and a good soil for
planting and sowing, but so far as we could observe utterly destitute of
fresh water. Nor did we see any human beings or even signs of them; near
the strand the coast was sandy with a fine beach and plenty of excellent
fish.

In the morning of the 18th the wind was E.N.E., course held S. by W.
along the land; about noon, as we saw persons on the beach, we cast
anchor in 3½ fathom clayey bottom; the skipper of the Pera got orders to
row to land with the two pinnaces, duly provided for defence; in the
afternoon when the pinnaces returned, we were informed by the skipper
that as soon as he had landed with his men, a large number of blacks,
some of them armed and others unarmed, had made up to them; these blacks
showed no fear and were so bold, as to touch the muskets of our men and
to try to take the same off their shoulders, while they wanted to have
whatever they could make use of; our men accordingly diverted their
attention by showing them iron and beads, and espying vantage, seized one
of the blacks by a string which he wore round his neck, and carried him
off to the pinnace; the blacks who remained on the beach, set up dreadful
howls and made violent gestures, but the others who kept concealed in the
wood remained there. These natives are coal-black, with lean bodies and
stark naked, having twisted baskets or nets round their heads; in hair
and figure they are like the blacks of the Coromandel coast, but they
seem to be less cunning, bold and evil-natured than the blacks at the
western extremity of Nova Guinea; their weapons, of which we bring
specimens along with us, are less deadly than those we have seen used by
other blacks; the weapons in use with them are assagays, shields, clubs
and sticks about half a fathom in length; as regards their customs and
policy and the nature of the country, Your Worships will in time be able
to get information from the black man we have got hold of, to whom I
would beg leave to refer you...

On the 19th, the wind being S.E., we remained at anchor, and since the
yachts were very poorly provided with firewood, the skipper of the Pera
went ashore with the two pinnaces duly manned and armed; when the men
were engaged in cutting wood, {Page 37} a large number of blacks upwards
of 200 came upon them, and tried every means to surprise and overcome
them, so that our men were compelled to fire two shots, upon which the
blacks fled, one of their number having been hit and having fallen; our
men then proceeded somewhat farther up the country, where they found
several weapons, of which they took some along with them by way of
curiosities. During their march they observed in various places great
quantities of divers human bones, from which it may be safely concluded
that the blacks along the coast of Nova Guinea are man-eaters who do not
spare each other when driven by hunger.

On the 20th, the wind being S.E., we set sail on a S.S.W. course; at noon
we came to anchor with the ebb-tide running from the South, in 3½ fathom
clayey bottom, and ordered the skipper to go ashore with the two
pinnaces, duly provided for defence, and diligently inquire into the
state of things on shore, so far as time and place should allow; when he
returned in the evening, he informed us that the surf had prevented them
from getting near the strand, so that there could be not question of
landing.

In the morning of the 21st, the wind being S.E., we set sail; course held
S.S.W. along the land; at noon we were in 15° 38'; in the evening we came
to anchor with the ebb in 3½ fathom.

In the morning of the 22nd the wind was E.N.E., course held South; at
noon we were in 16° 4'; the wind being W. by N. we dropped anchor towards
the evening in 2½ fathom, about one mile from the land.

On the 23rd the wind was N.N.E., with a stiff breeze, so that we set sail
on a S.S.W. course along the land in 3½, 3, 2½ and 2 fathom, clayey
bottom; at noon we were in 16° 32'; for the rest of the day we tried to
get south with variable winds, and towards the evening came to anchor in
3 fathom close inshore.

On the 24th the wind was E. by S., course held S.S.W. along the land in
2½, 3½ and 4½ fathom, clayey bottom; at noon we were in 17° 8'. This same
day the council having been convened, I submitted to them the question
whether it would be advisable to run further south, and after various
opinions had been expressed, it was agreed that this would involve divers
difficulties, and that the idea had better be given up: we might get into
a vast bay, and it is evident that in these regions in the east-monsoon
north-winds prevail, just as north (?) of the equator south-winds prevail
in the said monsoon: we should thus fall on a lee-shore; for all which
reasons, and in order to act for the best advantage of the Lords
Managers, it has been resolved and determined to turn back, and follow
the coast of Nova Guinea so long to northward as shall be found
practicable; to touch at divers places which shall be examined with the
utmost care, and finally to turn our course from there to Aru and
Quey...it was furthermore proposed by me and ultimately approved of by
the council, to give 10 pieces of eight to the boatmen for every black
they shall get hold of on shore, and carry off to the yachts, to the end
that the men may use greater care and diligence in this matter, and Our
Masters may reap benefit from the capture of the blacks, which may
afterwards redound to certain advantage.

On the 25th the skipper of the Pera got orders to go ashore with the two
pinnaces well-manned and armed, in order to make special search for fresh
water, with which we are very poorly provided by this time; about noon
the skipper having returned, informed us that he had caused pits to be
dug in various places on the coast, but had found no fresh water. _Item_
that on the strand they had seen 7 small huts made of dry hay, and also 7
or 8 blacks, who refused to hold parley with them. In the afternoon I
went up a salt river for the space of about half a mile with the two
pinnaces; {Page 38} we then marched a considerable distance into the
interior, which we found to be submerged in many places, thus somewhat
resembling Waterland in Holland, from which it may be concluded that
there must be large lakes farther inland; we also saw divers footprints
of men and of large dogs, running from the south to the north; and since
by resolution it has been determined to begin the return-voyage at this
point, we have, in default of stone caused a wooden tablet to be nailed
to a tree, the said tablet having the following words carved into it:
"Anno 1623 den 24n April sijn hier aen gecomen twee jachten wegen de
Hooge Mogende Heeren Staten Genl."

[A.D. 1623, on the 24th of April there arrived here two yachts dispatched
by their High Mightinesses the States-General]. We have accordingly named
the river aforesaid Staten revier in the new chart. (The Staten Revier is
in 17 degrees 8 minutes.)

On the 26th, seeing that there was no fresh water here, of which we stood
in great need, that we could hold no parley with the natives, and that
nothing of importance could be effected, we set sail again, the wind
being E.N.E., with a stiff breeze, course held N. along the land; at noon
we were in Lat. 16° 44'; at night we came to anchor in 4 fathom close
inshore.

* * *

NOTE

That the yacht Aernem, owing to bad sailing, and to the small liking and
desire which the skipper and the steersman have shown towards the voyage,
has on various occasions and at different times been the cause of serious
delay, seeing that the Pera (which had sprung a bad leak and had to be
kept above water by more than 8000 strokes of the pump every 24 hours)
was every day obliged to seek and follow the Aernem for one, two or even
more miles to leeward.

* * *

(The yacht Aernem left the Pera.)

On the 27th, the wind being E. by S. with good weather, the skipper of
the Pera rowed ashore with the two pinnaces duly provided for defence, in
order to seek fresh water, but when he had caused several pits to be dug,
no water was found; we therefore set sail forthwith, holding a S.E. by E.
course along the land; at noon we were in Lat. 16° 30', and with a W. by
N. wind made for the land, sailing with our foresail only fully two hours
before sunset, in order to wait for the Aernem which was a howitzer's
shot astern of us; in the evening, having come to anchor in 3½ fathom 1½
mile from the land, we hung out a lantern, that the Aernem might keep
clear of us in dropping anchor, but this proved to be useless, for on
purpose and with malice prepense she away from us against her
instructions and our resolution, and seems to have set her course for Aru
(to have a good time of it there), but we shall learn in time whether she
has managed to reach it.

In the morning of the 28th the wind was E. by S. and the weather very
fine; the skipper once more went ashore with the pinnace in order to seek
water, but when several pits had been dug in the sand, they found none;
we therefore set sail again on a N.E. by N. course along the land in 2,
3, 4 and 5 fathom, but when we had run a distance Of 2½ Miles, a violent
landwind drove us off the land, so that we had to drop anchor in 3
fathom, the blacks on shore sending up such huge clouds of smoke from
their fires that the land was hardly visible; at night in the first watch
we set sail again and after running N.N.E. for 3½ miles, we came to
anchor in 2 fathom.

In the morning of the 29th the wind was S.E., with good weather; course
held N.E. by E. along the land in 2½ and 3 fathom; when we had run 1½
mile we came {Page 39} to anchor in 2 fathom, and landed here as before
in order to seek freshwater; we had some pits dug a long way from the
strand, but found no fresh water; the blacks showed themselves from afar,
but refused to come to parley, nor did we succeed in luring any towards
us by stratagem; at noon we were in 16° 10' near a river which in the
chart is marked Nassauw revier: when we saw that we could do nothing
profitable here, we set sail with an E. wind on a N.N.E. course along the
land, and came to anchor in the evening in 2½ fathom. (The Nassauw revier
is in 16 degrees 10 minutes Lat.)

In the morning of the 30th the wind was S.E. with steady weather; course
held N.N.E. along the land in 3 fathom; at noon we were in 15° 39', and
came to anchor in 2½ fathom; we landed also here as before with the
pinnace in order to look for water, and to see if we could meet with any
natives; after digging a number of pits we found no water, so that we set
sail again and came to anchor in the evening in 2½ fathom.

MAY.

In the morning of the 1st the wind was E.; the skipper once more rowed
ashore with the pinnace, and having caused three pits to be dug he at
last found fresh water forcing its way through the sand; we used our best
endeavours to take in a stock of the same; about 400 paces north of the
farthest of the pits that had been dug, they also found a small
fresh-water lake, but the water that collected in the pits was found to
be a good deal better.

In the morning of the 2nd the wind was E.N.E., and went round to S.W.
later in the day; we continued taking in water.

On the 3rd we went on taking in water as before; the wind was N.E., and
about noon turned to S.W.. I went ashore myself with 10 musketeers, and
we advanced a long way into the wood without seeing any human beings; the
land here is low-lying and without hills as before, in Lat. 15° 20' it is
very dry and barren, for during all the time we have searched and
examined this part of the coast to our best ability, we have not seen one
fruit-bearing tree, nor anything that man could make use of; there are no
mountains or even hills, so that it may be safely concluded that the land
contains no metals, nor yields any precious woods, such as sandal-wood,
aloes or columba; in our judgment this is the most arid and barren region
that could be found anywhere on the earth; the inhabitants, too, are the
most wretched and poorest creatures that I have ever seen in my age or
time; as there are no large trees anywhere on this coast, they have no
boats or canoes whether large or small; this is near the place which we
touched at on the voyage out on Easter-day, April the 16th; in the new
chart we gave given to this spot the name of Waterplaets [*]; at his
place the beach is very fine, with excellent gravelly sand and plenty of
delicious fish.(Waterplaats is in 15 degrees 13 minutes Lat.)

[* Mitchell River.]

(Vereenichde revier.)

In the morning of the 4th the wind was E.N.E. with good weather, course
held N. in 7½ fathom. we could just see the land; at noon we were in 15°
12' Lat.; slightly to northward we saw a river to which we have given the
name of Vereenichde revier: all through the night the wind was W., course
held N.N.E. towards the land.

In the morning of the 5th the wind was E., course held N.; at noon we
were in 14° 5' Lat.; shortly after the wind went over to W., upon which
we made for the land {Page 40} and cast anchor in 2 fathom; I went ashore
myself in the pinnace which was duly armed; the blacks here attacked us
with their weapons, but afterwards took to flight; upon which we went
landinward for some distance, and found divers of their weapons, such as
assagays and callaways, leaning against the trees; we took care not to
damage these weapons, but tied pieces of iron and strings of beads to
some of them, in order to attract the blacks, who, however, seemed quite
indifferent to these things, and repeatedly held up their shields with
great boldness and threw them at the muskets; these men are, like all the
others we have lately seen, of tall stature and very lean to look at, but
malignant and evil-natured.

In the morning of the 6th, the wind being East, we set sail on a N.
course along the land in 3 and 4 fathom; at noon when we were in 13° 29'
Lat., the wind was W.; in the evening it went round to East, upon which
we dropped anchor in 3 fathom.

In the morning of the 7th the wind was S.E. with fine weather; the
skipper went ashore with the pinnace, with strict orders to treat the
blacks kindly, and try to attract them with pieces of iron and strings of
beads; if practicable, also to capture one or more; when at noon the men
returned they reported that on their landing more than 100 blacks had
collected on the beach with their weapons, and had with the strong arm
tried to prevent them from coming ashore; in order to frighten them, a
musket was accordingly fired, upon which the blacks fled and retreated
into the wood, from where they tried every means in their power to
surprise and attack our men; these natives resemble the others in shape
and figure; they are quite black and stark naked, some of them having
their faces painted red and others white, with feathers stuck through the
lower part of the nose; at noon, the wind being E., we set sail on a N.
course along the land, being then in 13° 26 Lat.; towards the evening the
wind went round to W. and we dropped anchor in 3½ fathom.

(The River Coen is 13 degrees 7 minutes Lat.)

In the morning of the 8th, the wind being E.S.E. with good weather, I
went ashore myself with 10 musketeers; we saw numerous footprints of men
and dogs (running from south to north); we accordingly spent some time
there, following the footprints aforesaid to a river, where we gathered
excellent vegetables or pot-herbs; when we had got into the pinnace
again, the blacks emerged with their arms from the wood at two different
points; by showing them bits of iron and strings of beads we kept them on
the beach, until we had come near them, upon which one of them who had
lost his weapon, was by the skipper seized round the waist, while at the
same time the quartermaster put a noose round his neck, by which he was
dragged to the pinnace; the other blacks seeing this, tried to rescue
their captured brother by furiously assailing us with their assagays; in
defending ourselves we shot one of them, after which the others took to
flight, upon which we returned on board without further delay; these
natives resemble all the others in outward appearance; they are
coal-black and stark naked with twisted nets round their heads; their
weapons are assagays, callaways and shields; we cannot, however, give any
account of their customs and ceremonies, nor did we learn anything about
the thickness of the population, since we had few or no opportunities for
inquiring into these matters; meanwhile I hope that with God's help Your
Worships will in time get information touching these points from the
black we have captured, to whose utterances I would beg leave to refer
you; the river aforesaid is in 13° 7' Lat., and has in the new chart got
name of Coen river, in the afternoon the wind being W., we set sail on a
N. course along the land, and in the evening came to anchor in 3 fathom.

* * *

{Page 41}

NOTE

That in all places where we landed, we have treated the blacks or savages
with especial kindness, offering them pieces of iron, strings of beads
and pieces of cloth, hoping by so doing to get their friendship and be
allowed to penetrate to some considerable distance landinward, that we
might be able to give a full account and description of the same; but in
spite of all our kindness and our fair semblance [*] the blacks received
us as enemies everywhere, so that in most places our landings were
attended with great peril; on this account, and for various other reasons
afterwards to be mentioned, we have not been able to learn anything about
the population of Nova Guinea, and the nature of its inhabitants and its
soil; nor did we get any information touching its towns and villages,
about the division of the land, the religion of the natives, their
policy, wars, rivers, vessels, or fisheries; what commodities they have,
what manufactures, what minerals whether gold, silver, tin, iron, lead,
copper or quicksilver. In the first place, in making further landings we
should have been troubled by the rainy season, which might have seriously
interfered with the use of our muskets, whereas it does no harm to the
weapons of the savages; secondly, we should first have been obliged to
seek practicable paths or roads of which we knew nothing; thirdly, we
might easily have been surrounded by the crowds of blacks, and been cut
off from the boats, which would entail serious peril to the sailors with
whom we always effected the landings, and who are imperfectly versed in
the use of muskets; if on the contrary we had had well-drilled and
experienced soldiers (the men best fitted to undertake such expeditions),
we might have done a good deal of useful work; still, in spite of all
these difficulties and obstacles, we have shunned neither hard work,
trouble, nor peril, to make a thorough examination of everything with the
means at our disposal, and to do whatever our good name and our honour
demanded; the result of our investigation being as follows:

[* A curiously subjective way of looking at things!]

The land between 13° and 17° 8' is a barren and arid tract, without any
fruit-trees, and producing nothing fit for the use of man; it is
low-lying and flat without hills or mountains; in many places overgrown
with brushwood and stunted wild trees; it has not much fresh water, and
what little there is, has to be collected in pits dug for the purpose;
there is an utter absence of bays or inlets, with the exception of a few
bights not sheltered from the sea-wind; it extends mainly N. by E. and S.
by W., with shallows all along the coast, with a clayey and sandy bottom;
it has numerous salt rivers extending into the interior, across which the
natives drag their wives and children by means of dry sticks or boughs of
trees. The natives are in general utter barbarians, all resembling each
other in shape and features, coal-black, and with twisted nets wound
round their heads and necks for keeping their food in; so far as we could
make out, they chiefly live on certain ill-smelling roots which they dig
out of the earth. We infer that during the eastern monsoon they live
mainly on the beach, since we have there seen numerous small huts made of
dry grass; we also saw great numbers of dogs, herons and curlews, and
other wild fowl, together with plenty of excellent fish, easily caught
with a seine-net; they are utterly unacquainted with gold, silver, tin,
iron, lead and copper, nor do they know anything about nutmegs, cloves
and pepper, all of which spices we repeatedly showed them without their
evincing any signs of {Page 42} recognising or valuing the same; from all
which together with the rest of our observations it may safely be
concluded that they are poor and abject wretches, caring mainly for bits
of iron and strings of beads. Their weapons are shields, assagays, and
callaways of the length of 1½ fathom, made of light wood and cane, some
with fish-bones and others with human bones fastened to their tops; they
are very expert in throwing the said weapons by means of a piece of wood,
half a fathom in length, with a small hook tied to it in front, which
they place upon the top of the callaway or assagay.

* * *

(The Waterplaets is in 12 degrees 33 minutes Lat.)

In the morning of the 9th, the wind being E.S.E., with good weather, we
set sail on a N.N.E. course along the land, and when we had run on for 2
miles, came to anchor in 9 fathom close inshore; I went ashore in person
with ten musketeers, and found many footprints of men and of large dogs,
going in a southerly direction., we also came upon fresh water flowing
into the sea, and named the place de Waeterplaets. The land here is
higher than what we have seen to southward, and there are numerous reefs
close to the sandy beach; the place is in 12° 33'; in the afternoon the
wind was S.W., course held as before; from the Waterplaets aforesaid to a
high cape there is a large bay, extending N.E. by N. and S.W. by S. for 7
miles; in the evening we dropped anchor in 4½ fathom.

In the morning of the 10th the wind being E.S.E., with steady weather, we
set sail on a W.N.W. course; at noon we were in 12° 5'. I went ashore
myself with the skipper, and as before found many footprints of men and
dogs, going to the south. The land here is high and hilly, with reefs
near the sandy beach; as we were pulling back to the yacht, some armed
savages showed themselves, upon which we landed again and threw out some
pieces of iron to them, which they picked up, refusing, however, to come
to parley with us; after which we took to the pinnace again.

In the morning of the 11th, the wind being E.S.E. with good weather, we
set sail again on a N.N.E. course along the land; in the afternoon we
sailed past a large river (which the men of the Duifken went up with a
boat in 1606, and where one of them was killed by the arrows of the
blacks); to this river, which is in 11° 48' Lat., we have given the name
of revier de Carpentier in the new chart.

[* Rivier Batavia in DE LEEUW'S chart.]

In the morning of the 12th the wind was E.S.E., with pleasant weather; I
went ashore myself with the skipper, and found upwards of 200 savages
standing on the beach, making a violent noise, threatening to throw their
arrows at us, and evidently full of suspicion; for, though we threw out
to them pieces of iron and other things, they refused to come to parley,
and used every possible means to wound one of our men and get him into
their power; we were accordingly compelled to frighten them by firing one
or two shots at them, by which one of the blacks was hit in the breast
and carried to the pinnace by our men, upon which all the others retired
to the hills or dunes; in their wretched huts on the beach we found
nothing but a square-cut assagay, two or three small pebbles, and some
human bones, which they use in constructing their weapons and scraping
the same; we also found a quantity of black resin and a piece of metal,
which the wounded man had in his net, and which he had most probably got
from the men of the Duyfken; since there was nothing further to be done
here, we rowed back to the yacht, the wounded man dying before we had
reached her; at noon we set sail with a S.W. wind on a N.N.E. course
along the land, and as it fell calm, came to anchor after having run on
for 2 miles.

{Page 43}

In the morning of the 13th, the wind being S.E. with good weather, we set
sail on a N.E. by N. course in upwards Of 7 fathom about 2 miles from the
land; at noon we were in 11° 16' Lat., the wind being E.; in the evening
we came to anchor in 2 fathom near a river, which we have named Revier
van Spult in the chart.

(The Waterplaets in 10 degrees 50 minutes Lat.)

On the 14th we made sail again before daybreak, with a S.E. wind and
steady weather; from the 9th of this month up to now we have found the
land of Nova Guinea to extend N.N.E. and S.S.W., and from this point
continuing N. and S. I went ashore here myself with the skipper and 10
musketeers and found a large number of footprints of men and dogs going
south; we also came upon a very fine fresh-water river, flowing into the
sea, whence fresh water can easily be obtained by means of boats or
pinnaces; the river is in 10° 50', and is marked Waterplaets in the
chart. The land here is high, hilly, and reefy near the sandy beach;
seeing that nothing profitable could be effected here, we returned to the
yacht, which was lying-by under small sail; towards the evening we were
at about 1 mile's distance from three islets, of which the southernmost
was the largest; five miles by estimation farther to northward we saw a
mountainous country, but the shallows rendered (or render) it impossible
for us to get near it; in almost every direction in which soundings were
taken, we found very shallow water, so that we sailed for a long time in
5, 4, 3, 2½, 2, 1½ fathom and even less, so that at last we were forced
to drop anchor in 1½ fathom, without knowing where to look for greater or
less depths; after sunset we therefore sent out the pinnace to take
soundings, which found deeper water a long way S.W. of the pinnace, viz.
2, 3, and 4½ fathom; we were very glad to sail thither with the yacht,
and cast anchor in 8½ fathom, fervently thanking God Almighty for his
inexpressible mercy and clemency, shown us in this emergency as in all
others.

In the morning of the 15th, the wind being S.E. with good weather, we set
sail on a W. course, which took us into shallower water of 2, 2½ and 3
fathom; we therefore went over to S.W., when we came into 3½, 4, 5, 6
fathom and upwards; we had lost sight of the land here, and found it
impossible to touch at it or follow it any longer, owing to the shallows,
reefs and sandbanks and also to the E. winds blowing here; on which
account it was resolved and determined--in order to avoid such imminent
perils as might ultimately arise if we continued to coast along the land
any longer--to turn back and hold our course first for the Vleermuijs
Eijlant; we therefore stood out to sea on a W. course in 9½ fathom and
upwards, having sailed 17 miles in 24 hours, kept west, and finding no
bottom in 27 fathom.

* * *

NOTE

That in our landings between 13° and 11° we have but two times seen black
men or savages, who received us much more hostilely than those more to
southward; they are also acquainted with muskets, of which they would
seem to have experienced the fatal effect when in 1606 the men of the
Duyffken made a landing here.

* * *

In the morning of the 16th, the wind was E.S.E. with good weather, the
Eastern monsoon having set in; course held N.N.W., at noon we were in 10°
27', having sailed 30 miles in 24 hours.

{Page 44}

In the morning of the 17th the weather was good with a strong wind;
course held as before; at noon we were in 8° 43'; towards the evening, in
18 and 19 fathom, we saw from the main-topmast land N.E. of us, when we
were in 8° 19'; towards daybreak we passed a shallow Of 4 and 4½ fathom,
on which we changed our course to S.W., having sailed 30 miles in 24
hours.

In the morning of the 18th, sailing in 5½ fathom, we saw land, being the
western extremity of Nova Guinea; course held W., with a strong wind; at
noon latitude as before; during the night we sailed with small sail along
the land on the course aforesaid, having run 27 miles in 24 hours.

On the 19th, the wind as before, course held N.; at noon we were in 7°
57' Lat.; we ran on the same course for the rest of the day and night.

In the morning of the 20th there was a strong wind; we were in 18 fathom
and by estimation in 7° Lat., we therefore ran on a W. course towards the
islands which are said to lie in this latitude; sailed 24 miles in 24
hours.

On the 21st the wind was as before, and since we saw no land or signs of
land, which by the ships' reckoning and by estimation we ought to have
seen, if there had been any here, we changed our course to northward, in
order to run to the latitude of 5°, in which Aru is situated.

In the morning of the 22nd we were in 5° 38' Lat., with the wind as
before, and since we estimated ourselves to be in the latitude of Aru, we
turned our course westward; about noon we saw the island of Aru ahead of
us...without seeing any signs of the yacht Aernem, which on the 17th of
April last, in 17°, near the coast of Nova Guinea, had with malice
prepense sailed away from the Pera, while the Aruese, who came forthwith
alongside with their prows, also declared not to have seen the said
yacht...

JUNE.

In the evening of the 8th we came to anchor before the castle of Amboyna,
having therewith brought our voyage to a safe conclusion by the merciful
protection of God Almighty, who may vouchsafe to grant prosperity and
success in all their good undertakings to their High Mightinesses the
States-General, to his Excellency the Prince of Orange etc., to the Lords
Managers of the United East India Company and to the Worshipful Lord
General and his Governors.

Continuing for ever
Their High Mightinesses' etc. obedient and affectionate servant
(signed)
JAN CARSTENSZOON.

{Page 45}

C.

A SUMMARY ABSTRACT [*] OF THE JOURNAL OF THE MAIN INCIDENTS BEFALLEN IN
THE VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY TO EASTWARD WITH THE YACHTS PERA AND AERNEM.
BEGUN THIS 21ST OF JANUARY A.D. 1623.

[* In a great number of passages this abstract merely copies the
authentic journal verbatim; I accordingly transcribe such parts only as
would seem to have a certain supplementary value.]

A.D. 1623.

_In the name of God Amen._

JANUARY.

In the morning of Saturday the 21st we weighed anchor before Amboyna and
set sail with the western monsoon together with the yacht Arnem...

MARCH.

On the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th we skirted the land with
the wind and course aforesaid, and came to anchor at about a mile's
distance from the land. I went ashore in person with the pinnaces duly
manned and armed...[*]

[* What follows in the original is an almost verbatim transcript of the
corresponding passages in the authentic journal.]

(Keerweer formerly mistaken for islands)

To this place or part of the land where the aforesaid happened, we have
in the new chart given the name of Keer-Weer [Turn-again], seeing that
the land here bends to S.W. and West, in 7° Latitude; the place, which
has formerly been mistaken for a group of islands by the men of the yacht
Duijfken in the year 1606 [*],  lies about 50 miles S.E. by East of
Aro...

[* The passage in the text furnishes interesting evidence respecting the
voyage of the yacht Duifken in 1606; a fact that has so often been called
in question, or even flatly denied.]

On the 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st [of March]
[*] with a W.N.W. wind in 2, 2½, 3 and 4 fathom, we got clear of the
shallows which we had previously run into as into a trap; we managed to
do so by tacking and taking advantage of the current, so that in the
evening of the 21st aforesaid we came to anchor in 7 fathom near an islet
situated one mile or upwards S. and N. of the mainland...

[* A comparison with the authentic journal at the dates given, will
enable the reader to ascertain the points which the yachts had then
reached.]

On the 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th [of April] we tried
on divers courses, such as S.E. and S.E. by E., to make the land of Nova
Guinea, until on the 8th aforesaid in the night-time we ran in between
certain reefs, where by God's providence the yachts were preserved from
taking harm; after which on the 12th aforesaid we sighted the land of
Nova Guinea in 11° 45', our yachts being in 13½ fathom, clayey bottom.

On the 18th [of April], after running southward between 5 and 6 miles, we
saw a large number of blacks on the beach; we therefore dropped anchor
and sent the skipper ashore with the two pinnaces; who, by offering them
pieces of iron and strings of beads, caused some of the blacks to draw
near, so that he could lay hold of one of them, whom with the help of his
men (who met with little resistance) he carried on board...

On the 5th, 6th and 7th [of May] we skirted the coast as before on a
northward course, and repeatedly endeavoured to effect a landing, but
were in every case treated by the savages in hostile fashion, and forced
to return to the yachts...

On the 11th [of May] we sailed close inshore past a large river (which in
1606 the men of the yacht Duijfken went up with the boat, on which
occasion one of them was killed by the arrows of the natives), situated
in 11° 48' Lat., to which river we have in the new map given the name
of...[*]

Always continuing
Their High Mightinesses' etc. obedient and affectionate servant
J. CARSTENSZOON.

[* Carpentier, erased in the original MS. Cf. my Life of Tasman, p. 100,
note 4.]

{Page 46}

D.

CHART MADE BY THE UPPER STEERSMAN AREND MARTENSZ. DE LEEUW, WHO TOOK PART
IN THE EXPEDITION [*].

[* The original of this chart, of which a full-sized reproduction is
given in _Remarkable Maps_, II, 5, is preserved in the State Archives at
the Hague. There would seem to have been still more charts of this
voyage: see VAN DIJK Carpentaria, p. 37, note 3.]

[Map No. 7. Kaart van den opperstuurman AREND MARTENSZ. DE LEEUW, der
Zuidwestkust van Nieuw Guinea en der Oostkust van de Golf van Carpentaria
(Chart, made by the upper steersman Arend Martensz. De Leeuw, of the
Southwest coast of New-Guinea and the East-coast of the Gulf of
Carpentaria)]

{Page 47}

2.

VOYAGE OF THE ARNHEM ALONE UNDER THE COMMAND OF VAN COOLSTEERDT, AFTER
THE SHIP PERA AND HERSELF HAD PARTED COMPANY ON THE 27TH OF APRIL, 1623.

A.

_Letter from the Governor of Banda to the Governor-General Pieter De
Carpentier, May 16, 1623._

Noble, Worshipful, Wise, Valiant and very Discreet Sir,

* * *

The day before yesterday...we sighted...a ship. We forthwith presumed it
to be Mr. Carstens, or perhaps one of the Yachts Pera or Arnehem...The
ship turned out to be the Arnehem, which during the preceding night had
lost her rudder...

(They) have not done much worth mentioning, for at the place where the
chart [*] they had with them, led them to expect an open passage, they
did not find any such, so that they could not get to the island they
wished to reach...[**]

[* It is highly probable that this is another allusion to a chart of the
voyage of Willem Janszoon with the Duifken in 1605-1606, because other
documents concerning this expedition of the Arnhem and the Pera put it
beyond a doubt that they had on board a chart of the voyage of the ship
Duifken. In that case the passage in the text proves that Willem Janszoon
already suspected the existence of Torres Strait, since the "open
passage" can hardly refer to anything else.]

[** The remaining part of the letter refers to the time when the two
ships were still together, and contains nothing new.]

Done in the Castle of Nassauw at Nera in the island of Banda, this 16th
of May, A.D. 1623. (signed) ISACK De BRUNE.

B.

_Letter from the Governor-General Antonio Van Diemen to "Commander"
Gerrit Thomaszoon Pool, February 19, 1636._

Worshipful, Provident, very Discreet Sir,

* * *

With the present we also [*] send you a chart of the coasts made A.D.
1623 by the Yachts Pera and Arnhem, together with a small map of the
South-land as surveyed by divers ships coming from the Netherlands, both
of which may be of use to Your Worship [**]...

Done in the Castle of Batavia, February 19, A.D. 1636.

(signed) ANTONIO VAN DIEMEN

[* _Vis_. together with the Instructions of Febr. 19 for Pool's
expedition to the Southland; see _infra_.]

[** To wit, with a view to the voyage just referred to.]

C.

_Instructions for Pool, Febr. 19, 1636._

...Failing ulterior instructions, we desire you to sail as quickly as
possible from Banda to Arnhems and Speultsland, situated between 9 and 13
degrees Southern Latitude, discovered A.D., 1623, as you may further see
from the annexed chart [*]...

[* This, then, is the chart of the "coasts made A.D. 1623 by the yachts
_Pera_ and _Arnhem_"; for the "small map" handed to Pool, in the second
place referred to in the above letter of Febr. 19, 1636, refers to
surveyings of the west-coast of Australia by ships going from the
Netherlands to India, and can therefore have nothing to do with the
expedition of 1623. Arnhems- and Van Speults-Land were accordingly
discovered on the voyage of the Pera and the Arnhem. Now the journal of
the Pera shows that she did _not_ discover them, so that we are led to
the conclusion that Arnhems- and Van Speults Land were discovered by the
ship Arnhem.]

{Page 48}

D.

_Letter from the Governor-General and Councillors to the Managers of the
E.I.C., December 28, 1636._

...[The ships of Pool's expedition touched at] the native village of
Taranga, situated at the south-western extremity of Arouw, and then
sailed southward, hoping to be able to run on an easterly course in order
to execute their orders; they, however, met with strong south-east winds
and very high seas besides; in 11 degrees S.L. they discovered vast
lands, to which they gave the names of Van Diemen's and Maria's Land, and
which we suspect to be Arnhems or Speults's islands, though they extend
in another direction than the latter [*].

[* Cf. as regards the situation of Arnhem's and Van Speult's Lands my
Lite of Tasman, pp. 101 and 102, and the charts there referred to. Of the
Nolpe-Dozy chart, of which there is question in note 4 on p. 102 of the
book just mentioned, a reproduction will be found in _Remarkable Maps_,
with a note by myself.]

The council of the said yachts, finding they could not run on an eastern
course, after discovering and surveying Arnhem's Land twenty miles to
westward, resolved to steer their course northward again past the islands
of Timor and Tenember, and thus return to Banda, where they arrived on
July 7...

E.

_Instructions for Tasman, 1644._

...The third voyage was undertaken from Amboyna in the month of January
1623 with the Yachts Pera and Arnhem, commanded by Commander JAN
CARSTENS, for the purpose of entering into friendly relations with the
inhabitants of the islands of Key, Arou and Tenimber, and of exploring
Nova Guinea and the South-lands, on which occasion alliances were made
with the islands aforesaid and the south-coast of Nova Guinea was further
discovered...but owing to untimely separation the Yacht Arnhem, after
discovering the large islands of Arnhem and Speult, returned to Amboyna
unsuccessfully enough, while the Yacht Pera, continuing her voyage,
navigated along the south coast of Nova Guinea as far as a shallow bay in
10 degrees, and afterwards along the west coast of the same land as far
as Cape Keer-Weer, whence she further explored the coast to southward as
far as 17 degrees near the Staten river, where she saw the land
stretching farther to westward, after which she returned again to
Amboyna...

* * * * *

{Page 49}



XV.


(1623) VOYAGE OF THE SHIP LEYDEN COMMANDED BY SKIPPER KLAAS
HERMANSZ(OON) FROM THE NETHERLANDS TO JAVA.--FURTHER DISCOVERY OF THE
WEST-COAST OF AUSTRALIA.

_Journal kept on board the ship Leyden from the Texel to Batavia, 1623._

Laus Deo. This 9th day of July, A.D. 1623 in the ship _Leyden_...

On the 15th do. Latitude 27° 15'; during the last twenty-four hours we
sailed 16 miles East by North and East-north-east...At noon we saw a
large dead fish floating near our ship, with a great many birds perched
on its carcase.

On the 16th do. Latitude 26° 27'; sailed 16 miles in 24 hours North by
east...

On the 17th do. Latitude 27° 23'; from last night sailed 16 miles
East-south-east...

On the 18th do. Latitude 27° 25'; sailed 24 miles East-south-east, East
by South and East-north-east, on the whole keeping an eastward course...

On the 19th do. Latitude 27' 20'. sailed due east 20 Miles in 24 hours...

On the 20th do. Latitude 27° 20' sailed 20 miles these 24 hours
North-east, East-north-east and East, with a light breeze, fair weather,
and a West-south-west wind; course held east.

On the 21st do. in the morning we sighted Eendrachtsland in Latitude 27°
at about 6 miles' distance South-west by west; we sounded off it in 61
fathom fine gravel bottom, the land showing outwardly like Robben Island
in the Taffel Bay; at noon in Latitude 26° 43' we shaped our course to
northward, and afterwards drifted in a calm.

On the 22nd do. Latitude 26` 36, sailed and drifted about 4 miles, at
about 8 miles' distance North~north-west from the land. We sighted
everywhere a hilly coast with large bays, with low-lying land in between,
the whole covered with dunes; we drifted in a calm, our course being
North-west by West.

On the 23rd do. Latitude 26° 3'; during the last twenty-four hours we
mostly drifted in a calm at about 3 or 4 miles' distance from the coast;
here we sighted a large inlet, looking like a river or bay. We sounded in
80 fathom, good sandy bottom; in the afternoon there was a light breeze
from the South-south-west, our course being North-west by West. In the
evening we saw the farthest extremity of the land north by east at six
miles' distance from us.

On the 26th do. Latitude 25° 48', we did our best to keep off the land,
which extended North-north-west and East-south-east. The land looked like
the west-coast of England with many reddish rocks; out at sea there were
plenty of cliffs and sunken rocks; at noon the wind went round to
South-west afterwards to the south; we held our course North-west by
North. In the evening the endmost land lay North by east of us at about 7
miles' distance.

On the 27th do. WILLEMTGEN JANSZ., wedded wife Of WILLEM JANSZ. of
Amsterdam, midshipman, was delivered of a son, who got the name of
SEEBAER VAN NIEMELANT. At noon Latitude 24° 15', sailed northward both in
a calm and with variable winds, generally on a North-by-west course...[*]
miles, our course being north, and the wind south with a fine breeze.

[* Left blank.]

On the 29th do. Latitude 20° 56'.

On the 30th do. Latitude 18° 56'; the wind being east, we could not get
higher than north. We saw a good deal of rock-weed floating about, and
plenty of fish near the ship...

* * * * *

{Page 50}



XVI.


(1624) DISCOVERY OF THE TORTELDUIF ISLAND (ROCK).

A.

_Daily Register [*] of what has happened here at Batavia from the first
of January, A.D. 1627._

[* This Daily Register has been edited by me ('s Gravenhage, Nijhoff,
1896).]

...On the 21st [of June] there arrived here from the Netherlands the
advice-yacht Tortelduiff...which had left the Texel...on the 16th of
November, 1623...

B.

_Hessel Gerritsz Charts, 1627 [*] (Nos. 4 and 5.--VII, C, D)._

[* The situation of Tortelduif island was accordingly known as early as
1677. The voyage Of 1623-1624 is the only one made to India by the ship
of that name (see LEUPE, Zuidland, p. 48). If we take for granted that
this ship gave its name to the island (rock), which is highly probable,
then the name must have been conferred in 1624. The note of interrogation
in the text is only meant to ward off the charge of over-hasty inference
on my part.]

* * * * *



XVII.


(1626) VOYAGE OF THE SHIP LEIJDEN, COMMANDED BY SKIPPER DANIEL
JANSSEN COCK, FROM THE NETHERLANDS TO JAVA.--FURTHER DISCOVERY OF THE
WEST-COAST OF AUSTRALIA.

Copy of the Journal kept by me DANIEL JANSSEN COCK, Captain and Skipper
of the ship LEIJDEN, which set sail on the 17th of May 1625, of all that
has occurred during the voyage.

* * *

Praise God. April 1626.

26 do. Latitude 29½ degrees, sailed 36 miles...

27 do. Latitude 27 2/3 degrees, sailed 28 miles; course held north-east;
the wind being south and south-west, I had the top-gallants set. God
grant what is best for us. Amen. Course kept North-north-east.

28 do. In the morning we took the sun's azimuth: between 7 and 8 degrees
to northward, the rise being 16 degrees. We sighted land, being the
Southland, at 10 miles' distance. We found a strong current here, with a
depth Of 40 fathom. The current set to eastward or straight against the
land. In the evening we shaped our course to North-west.

29 do. Latitude slightly under 26°. the weather was calm, so that we ran
along the coast, North and at times North-north-west. In the evening I
saw the endmost (?) land north-east of me; the wind blowing from the
south.

30 do. In the morning I took the sun's azimuth: between 9 and 10 degrees
to northward, the rise being 16½ degrees, remains 7½ degrees. At noon
Latitude 24° 47'. Course held North by west, with a southerly wind;
sailed 18 miles; in the evening it fell calm...

* * * * *

{Page 51}



XVIII.


(1627) DISCOVERY OF THE SOUTH-WEST COAST OF AUSTRALIA BY THE SHIP
HET GULDEN ZEEPAARD, COMMANDED BY PIETER NUIJTS, MEMBER OF THE COUNCIL OF
INDIA, AND BY SKIPPER FRANÇOIS THIJSSEN OR THIJSZOON.

A.

_Dail Register of what has happened here at Batavia from the first of
January, 1627 [*]._

[* On p. 307 of my edition of the Daily Register of 1624-1629.]

...On the 10th [of April] there arrived here from the Netherlands the
ship t' Gulden Seepaart fitted out by the Zealand Chamber [*], having on
board the Hon. Pieter Nuyts, extraordinary Councillor of India, having
sailed from there on the 22nd of May, 1626...

[* The Register of outgoing vessels of the E.I.C. shows that the
skipper's name was François Thijssen or Thijszoon.]

B.

_Hessel Gerritsz-Huydecoper Chart (No. 5.--VII D)._

This chart has 't land van Pieter Nuijts (discovered January 26 [*],
1627) and the islands of Sint François and Sint Pieter.

[* Some of the charts have February, but most of them January. This month
is also mentioned as the time of the discovery in the instructions for
Pool (1636, see _infra_) and for Tasman (1644). Cf. my Life of Tasman,
pp. 97f.]

* * * * *



XIX.


(1627) VOYAGE OF THE SHIPS GALIAS, UTRECHT AND TEXEL, COMMANDED BY
GOVERNOR-GENERAL JAN PIETERSZOON COEN.
FURTHER DISCOVERY OF THE WEST-COAST OF AUSTRALIA.

A.

_Letter of Jan Pieterszoon Coen to the Directors of the E.I.C._

Most Noble Wise Provident Very Discreet Gentlemen,

The present is a copy of our letter written from Illa de Mayo on the 15th
of  April last...On July the 22nd we sailed from the Tafelbay with the
ships Galias, Utrecht and Texel. When coming out to sea we got the wind
from the south, so that we could not sail higher than the Cape, and lost
eight days during which we made no progress. Then getting a favourable
wind we remained together in 37½ degrees Southern Latitude up to the 10th
of August; the following night, however, the rudder of the Galias broke
in a strong wind, so that the ship became ungovernable, and the sails
were dashed to pieces, in consequence of which she got separated from the
other two ships, who had failed to observe the accident of the Galias
owing to the darkness; {Page 52} the next day, the rudder having been
repaired, we continued our voyage with the Galias, and in the afternoon
of the 5th of September in 28½ degrees S. Lat. came upon the land of
d'Eendracht. We were at less than half a mile's distance from the
breakers before perceiving the same, without being able to see land. If
we had come upon this place in the night-time, we should have been in a
thousand perils with our ship and crew. In the plane charts the
reckonings of our steersmen were still between 300 and 350 miles from any
land, so that there was not the slightest suspicion of our being near
any, although the reckoning of the chart with increasing degrees showed
only 120 miles, and the reckoning by the terrestrial globe only 50 miles
distance from the land. But to this little attention had been paid. It
seems certain now that the miscalculation involved in the plane chart
from Cabo de bon' Esperança to the Southland in 35 degrees latitude gives
an overplus of more than 270 miles of sea, a matter to which most
steersmen pay little attention, and which has brought, and is still daily
bringing, many vessels into great perils. It would be highly expedient if
in the plane charts most in use, between Cabo de bon' Esperança and the
South-land south of Java, so much space were added and passed over in
drawing up the reckonings, as is deducible from the correct longitude
according to the globosity of earth and sea. We would request Your
Worships to direct attention to this point, and have such indications
made in the plane chart as experts shall find to be advisable; a matter
of the highest importance, which if not properly attended to involves
grievous peril to ships and crews (which God in his mercy avert).

In this plane chart the South-land also lies fully 40 miles more to
eastward than it should be, which should also be rectified.

On the 20th of September we struck the South-coast of Java about 50 or 60
miles eastward of its western extremity...

Your Worships' obedt. servant
J.P. COEN.

At Batavia, October 30, 1627.

* * * * *



XX.


(1627) VOYAGE OF THE SHIP HET WAPEN VAN HOORN, COMMANDED BY SUPER
CARGO J. VAN ROOSENBERGH.
FURTHER DISCOVERY OF THE WEST-COAST OF AUSTRALIA.

_Letter Of Supercargo J. Van Roosenbergh to the Directors of the E.I.C.,
November 8, 1627._

Worshipful Wise Provident Very Discreet Gentlemen,

You have no doubt received my letter from Illa de Mayo...

On the 7th of September we resolved to run for the South-land, that we
might be near Java before the middle of October. On the 17th do. we
sighted the land of d'Eendracht near Dirck Hartochs reede [road-stead],
at about 7 miles' distance from us; the land was of middle height,
something like D'overen [Dover] in England; it is less low than has been
asserted by some, and of a whitish hue, so that at night it cannot be
seen before one is quite close to it. When by estimation we were at two
miles' distance from the land, the coast seemed to have a foreshore
consisting of small hills here and there. According to our observations
the land lay quite differently from what the chart would have us believe,
to wit, North by West and North-north-west, from a point three miles
south of the aforesaid height to a point 8 or 9 miles north of it; which
were the farthest points seen by us; this constituting a difference Of 3½
{Page 53} points with the chart, which makes it North-north-east and
South-south-west. We cast the lead five miles off the shore in 75 fathom,
muddy bottom mixed with small red pebbles, and five glasses afterwards,
two miles off shore, in 55 fathom sandy bottom, for hardly anything was
found sticking to the lead when heaved. We had seen no other signs of
land beyond gulf-weed floating about in small quantities just as in the
Sargasso Sea, and some land-birds flying high overhead. The many-coloured
birds which we met near the islands of Tristan de Aconcha, left us two
days before, just as they did when we got near Cabo de bone Esperança, so
that they would seem to dislike the land. Instead of them, we saw a black
bird with a white tail, having white streaks here and there under its
wings; a bird, it seems, of rare occurrence. Three or four days before we
also saw a number of sanderlings. Close inshore we also saw a quantity of
cuttlebone, but the pieces were very small and scattered, so that they
could hardly be seen in hollow water, except by paying very close
attention to them and only 6 or 8 miles off shore, seeing that the steady
west-wind prevents their getting out to sea, which they would certainly
do, if now and then the wind blew from the east for a few days in
succession. Careful estimations based on the globosity of the earth will
give the best signs after all. By estimation we have got into...[*]
Longitude, some of our steersmen having got one or two degrees more, some
less, which in the plane charts makes a considerable difference, about
217 miles by calculation. I repeat that since I have seen the land a good
deal earlier, it will be expedient in the plane chart to mark out a
distance of about 200 miles, to westward of St. Paulo island and to
eastward of Madagascar, the said distance to be passed over in drawing up
reckonings, seeing that the plane chart involves serious drawbacks; the
same might well be done to eastward of the Cape, in such fashion as Your
Worships' cartographers and other experts, such as Master C. J. Lastman,
shall find to be most expedient for the Company's service. Seeing that we
had nothing to do near the coast, and there was a fair wind blowing for
us to make use of, we deemed it advisable that night to run north-west,
and the next morning, having got north into 20 degrees S. Lat., from
there to hold a north by-west course for Java, whither God Almighty may
in safety conduct ourselves and those who shall come after us.

[* Left blank.]

On the 27th do. in the evening, when it had got dark, the water suddenly
turned as white as butter-milk, a thing that none of those on board of us
had ever seen in their lives, and which greatly surprised us all, so
that, concluding it to be caused by a shallow of the sea, we set the
foresail and cast the lead, but since we got no bottom, and with the
rising moon the water again resumed its usual colour, we made all sail
and ran on full speed, satisfied that the strange colour had been caused
by the sky, which was very pale at the time. On the 28th in the morning
very early, the water became thick, and shortly after we sighted land,
being two islands, each of them about 2 miles in length; at 4 miles'
distance from the land we cast the lead in 65 fathom sandy bottom. At
noon in Latitude 8°, three miles off shore, we found ourselves to have
run too far to eastward, wherefore we held our course to westward up to
the 2nd of October, when by God's grace we passed the Princen islands,
and arrived off Bantham on the 9th do. By estimation the land of
d'Eendracht is marked in the chart fifty miles too far to eastward, which
should also be rectified...

Done in the ship 't Wapen van Hoorn, November 8, A.D. 1627, lying at
anchor before Batavia.

Your Worships' obedt. Servant
J. V. ROOSENBERGH.

* * * * *

{Page 54}



XXI.


(1628) DISCOVERY OF THE NORTH-WEST COAST OF AUSTRALIA BY THE SHIP
VIANEN (VIANE, VIANA), COMMANDED BY GERRIT FREDERIKSZOON DE WITT.--DE
WITT'S LAND.

A.

_Letter of the Governor-General and Councillors to the Managers of the
E.I.C. November 3, 1628._

...[We] thought fit to give orders for the ship Vyanen [*] to sail to the
strait of Balamboan. [She] sailed [from Batavia] thither on the 14th of
January, and from there stood out to sea on the 25th do. She was by
head-winds driven so far to south-ward that she came upon the South-land
beyond Java where she ran aground, so that she was forced to throw
overboard 8 or 10 lasts of pepper and a quantity of copper, upon which
through God's mercy she got off again without further damage...

[* That commander Gerrit Frederikszoon De Witt, was on board this ship,
is proved by an original letter of his, dated August 6, 1628 (Hague State
Archives).]

B.

_See the Hessel Gerritsz--Huydecoper Chart (No 5.--VII D), which has G. F.
De Witts-land._

C.

_Instructions for Tasman, 1644 [*]._

[* The well-known chart of TASMAN, 1644 (see my Life of, Tasman, pp.
71-73) also has the name G. F. De Witt's Land.]

...Meanwhile in the year 1627 the ship t' Gulde
Zeepaert,...discovered...the south coast of the great Southland, and in
the following year 1628 the ship Viana, homeward bound from Batavia,
equally unexpectedly discovered the coast of the same land on the north
side in the Southern Latitude of 21 degrees, and sailed along it a
distance of about 50 miles; none of these discoveries, however, resulting
in the obtaining of any considerable information respecting the situation
and condition of this vast land, it only having been found that it has
barren and dangerous coasts, green, fertile fields and exceedingly
savage, black, barbarian inhabitants...

* * * * *



XXII.


(before 1629) DISCOVERY OF JACOB REMESSENS-, REMENS-, OR
ROMMER-RIVER, SOUTH OF WILLEMS RIVER [*].

[* I do not know the date of this discovery. Since Pelsaert was
acquainted with it, it must have taken place before 1629 or 1628. It
cannot have been much earlier, as the name is not found in Hessel
Gerritsz's charts. I must mention, however, that Leupe has found a
steersman of the name of Jacob Remmetsz referred to in the archives of
the E.I.C. about the year 1619.]

A.

_Daily annotations of Pelsaert, 1629 (See infra)._

...This 16th [of June]...we were in Latitude 22 degrees 17 minutes. I
intended to sail to Jacop Remmessens river.

{Page 55}

B.

_Keppler Map (No. 6.--VII E)._

* * * * *



XXIII.


(1629). [*] SHIPWRECK OF THE SHIP BATAVIA UNDER COMMANDER FRANÇOIS
PELSAERT ON HOUTMANS ABROLHOS [**].--FURTHER DISCOVERY OF THE WEST-COAST
OF AUSTRALIA.

[* In the year 1628 certain other Dutch vessels sighted or touched at the
west-coast of Australia on their outward voyage to India (see LEUPE,
_Zuidland_, p. 58; my edition of the Daily Register of Batavia, p. 341).
What we know on this point is without interest. I merely mention the fact
here, without entering into particulars.]

[** The fact and the particulars of this shipwreck have become
sufficiently known, the narrative of it having been published repeatedly
and in different languages (see TIELE, Mémoires bibliographiques, pp.
262-268; _Id_. Bibliographie Land- en Volkenkunde, pp. 172, 190-191,
258f.--Cf. e.g. also MAJOR, Early Voyages, pp. LXXXIX--XCII; 59-74). I
accordingly print in the text only what is strictly necessary; but I give
almost _in extenso_ Pelsaert's journal of his exploratory voyage along
the west-coast of Australia.]

A.

_Woeful diurnal annotations [of Commander PELSAERT] touching the loss of
our ship Batavia, run aground on the Abrolhos, or rocks of Fredrick
Houtman, situated in 28½ degrees S. Lat., at 9 miles' distance from the
Southland._

On the fourth of June [1619], it being Whitmonday, with a light, clear
full moon, about two hours before daybreak...I felt the ship's rudder
strike the rocks with a violent horrible shock. Upon which the ship's
course was forthwith checked by the rocks...I rushed on deck, and found
all the sails atop; the wind south-west; our course during the night had
been north-east by north, and we were now lying amidst thick foam. Still,
at the moment, the breakers round the ship were not violent, but shortly
after the sea was heard to run upon us with great vehemence on all
sides...

[When] day broke, we found ourselves surrounded by cliffs and shoals...

I saw no land that I thought would remain above water at high tide,
except an island, which by estimation was fully three miles from the
ship. I therefore sent the skipper to two small islets or cliffs, in
order to ascertain whether our men and part of our cargo could be landed
there. About 9 o'clock the skipper returned, informing me that it was
well-nigh impossible to get through the rocks and cliffs, the pinnace
running aground in one place, and the water being several fathom deep in
another. As far as he could judge, the islands would remain above water
at high tide. Therefore, moved by the loud lamentations raised on board
by women, children, sick people, and faint-hearted men, we thought it
best first to land the greater part of our people...

[On June 5] at their earnest instances to move me, it was determined, as
shown by the resolution, that we should try to find fresh water in the
neighbouring islands, or on the mainland coast in order to save their
lives and our own; and that, if no water should be found, we should in
that case at the mercy of God with the pinnace continue our voyage to
Batavia, there to make known our calamitous and unheard-of disasters...

{Page 56}

This day the 6th do...[we] set sail in the pinnace, and on this day
touched at two separate islands, where we found at best some brackish
water, which had collected in the cavities of the rocks on the beach
after the rain, but it was largely mixed with seawater. On the 7th do. we
remained here, in order to repair our pinnace with a plank, for we found
that without this it would have been impossible to reach the mainland...

On the 8th do. in the morning we set sail from this island for the
mainland...

At noon we were in 28° 13' Lat., and shortly after sighted the mainland,
which we estimated to lie 6 miles north by west of our ship. The wind
blew from the west, and we sounded 25 and 30 fathom about 3 o'clock in
the afternoon. During the night we kept off the land, and after midnight
shaped our course for it again.

In the morning of the 9th we were still about 3 miles from the land, the
wind being mainly north-west with some rain; in the last 24 hours we
covered 4 or 5 miles by estimation, course held north by west. The land
here extends chiefly north by west and south by east. It is a barren,
rocky coast without trees, about the height of Dover in England.

We here saw a small inlet, and some low land with dunes, which we meant
to touch at, but on nearer approach we found a heavy sea and violent
breakers on the shore, while at the same time the swell from the west
suddenly began to run towards the land so strongly and so high, that we
could hardly keep off it, the less so as the storm always rose in
violence.

On the 10th do. we kept holding off and on for twenty-four hours owing to
the strong wind, while the storm from the north-west, which stood on the
boat we had taken with us, forced us to cut the same adrift and to throw
overboard a part of the bread we had with us, together with other things
that were in the way, since we could not keep the water out of our
pinnace.

During the night we were in great peril of foundering owing to the
violent gale and the hollow seas. We could not keep off the land, because
we did not venture to carry sail, and so were wholly at the mercy of wind
and waves, while it kept raining the whole night.

On the 1lth do. in the morning the weather began somewhat to abate, the
wind turning to west-south-west, upon which we held our course to
northward, but the sea was still very rough.

On the 12th do. at noon we were in Lat. 27°; we ran close along the land
with a south-east wind, but could find no means to get near the land with
the pinnace, owing to the violent surf; we found the coast falling off
very steeply, without any foreland or inlets, such as other lands are
found to have: in short it seemed to us a barren, accursed earth without
leafage or grass.

On the 13th do. at noon we were in Lat. 25° 40'; we found ourselves
drifting very rapidly northward, having rounded the point where the land
extends mainly N.N.E. and S.S.W. During the last 24 hours our course was
chiefly north. The coast was steep, consisting of red rock, without
foreland, of the same height almost everywhere, and impossible to touch
at owing to the breakers.

On the 14th do. in the morning there was a faint breeze, but during the
day it fell a dead calm. At noon we were in Lat. 24°; course held N.,
with a S.E. wind; during the whole of the day the current carried us
northward against our will, for we {Page 57} were running along the land
with small sail. In the afternoon we saw smoke rising up from the land;
we accordingly rowed to shore in order to land if possible, with our
spirits somewhat raised, for I concluded that if there were men, there
must be water too. Coming near the shore, I found it to be a steeply
rising coast, full of rocks and stones, with the surf running violently;
nevertheless 6 of our men swam ashore, and we remained at anchor with the
pinnace in 25 fathom outside the surf. The men now searched for water
everywhere until nightfall, without, however, finding any; they also saw
four men coming up to them, creeping on all fours, but when our men all
of a sudden emerged from a depression of the ground, and approached them,
they sprang to their feet, and ran off in full career, all which we could
distinctly see from the pinnace. They were black men, stark naked,
without the least covering. In the evening our men swam on board again,
all of them grievously wounded by the rocks on which they been dashed by
the breakers. We therefore weighed anchor again to seek a better place
for landing, and ran on during the night with small sail close along the
shore, but out of the reach of the surf.

On the 15th do. in the morning we were near a point of the coast off
which a large reef extended about a mile in length, we ran in between the
land and this reef, which we estimated to be in 23° Lat., and thus sailed
along the coast, along which there was another reef, inside which the
water seemed to be very smooth and still; we did our best to get inside
this second reef, but did not find an opening before noon, when we saw a
passage where there was no surf, we ran into it, but found it to be full
of stones, and sometimes no more than one or two feet deep.

This coast had a foreshore covered with dunes about a mile in width,
before you come to the higher part. We therefore began to dig in divers
places, but the water proved to be salt; some of us went to the higher
land, where by good luck we found in a rock a number of cavities, in
which a quantity of rain-water had collected. It also seemed that a short
time before there had been natives there, for we found some crab-shells
lying about and here and there fire-ashes. Here we somewhat quenched our
cruel thirst, which almost prevented us from dragging ourselves along,
for since the loss of our ship we had had no more than one or two
mutchkins daily, without any wine or other drink. Besides quenching our
own thirst, we here gathered about 80 cans of water, and remained there
for the night.

On the 16th do. in the morning we continued our exploration in order to
find out whether there were more water-pits in the mountains, but our
search was fruitless, for it seemed not to have rained there for a long
time past, and we found no traces of running water, the higher ground
being again very barren and unpromising, without any trees, shrubs or
grass, but with plenty of high ant-hills in all directions. These
ant~hills consisted of earth thrown up, and from afar somewhat resembled
huts for the abode of men.

We also found such multitudes of flies here, which perched on our mouths
and crept into our eyes, that we could not keep them off our persons. We
likewise saw 8 blacks here, each of them carrying a stick in his hand;
they came within a musketshot's distance of us, but when we went up to
them, they ran off, and we could not get them to stop, that we might come
near them. Towards noon, when we found there was no more water to be had,
we set sail again, and passed through another opening of the reef a
little more to northward. We were here in 22° 17' Lat. I intended to run
on to Jacop Remessens river, but the wind went round to North-east, so
that we could not keep near the land, and seeing that we were now more
than {Page 58} 100 miles from those we had left behind on the
island-rocks, and that up to now we had not found water enough to assist
them all, but only so much as would afford two mutchkins daily to
ourselves, we were compelled to resolve to do our best in order with
God's help to continue our voyage to Batavia as expeditiously as
possible, that the Hon. Lord Governor-general might order measures to be
taken for the succour of those we had left behind...

On the 7 th do. [of July] we arrived in the road-stead of Batavia at
nightfall.

God be thanked and praised.

B.

_Diurnal anotations on my [PELSAERT'S] second voyage to the South-land,
by order of the Hon. Lord Governor-general Jan Pietersen Coen, with the
Yacht Sardam, for the purpose of rescuing and bringing hither the men
belonging to our lost ship Batavia, together with the ready money and the
goods that it shall be found possible to salve._

This day the 15th Of July We set sail in the morning with the
land-wind...

This day the 1st of September at noon we were in 29° 16' Southern
Latitude [*], with a variable wind, so that we found it impossible to get
to eastward.

[* The ship had already sailed farther south than Houtman's Abrolhos.]

On the 2nd do. the wind went round to the north with a top-gallant gale;
at noon we were in 30° 16' S.L. and found we had drifted a long way to
southward; in the evening the wind turned to the north-west; course held
N.E. by north.

On the 3rd do. in the morning the wind was blowing from the west; we saw
a good deal of rock-weed floating about and also a number of
cuttle-bones. We therefore turned our course to eastward, and at noon we
saw the mainland of the South-land, extending N.N.W. and S.S.E.; we were
at about 3 miles' distance from it and saw the land extending southward
for 4 miles by estimation, where it was bounded by the horizon. We
sounded here in 25 fathom, fine sandy bottom. It is a treeless, barren
coast with a few sandy dunes, the same as to northward; we were in 29°
16' Southern Latitude, turned our course to north-west, the wind being
W.S.W., but the hollow seas threw us close to the land, so that in the
evening we had to drop anchor at one mile's distance from it; at two
glasses in the first watch our anchor was broken in two, so that we had
to bring out another in great haste.

On the 4th do. in the morning the wind was S.W. by S., still with a very
hollow swell. During the day the wind went round to S.S.W., upon which we
weighed anchor and got under sail before noon. We stood out to sea on a
W.N.W. course in order to get off the lee-shore. At noon we were in 28°
50' S.L., where the land began to fall off one point, to wit North by
west and South by east. In the afternoon the wind went round to the
south, and we shaped our course westward. Towards evening we became aware
of a shoal straight ahead or west of us, at only a musket-shot's
distance, we being in 25 fathom fine sandy bottom. We turned the rudder
and ran off it half a mile to E.S.E., where we came to anchor in 27
fathom fine bottom; from noon till the evening we had been sailing on a
W.N.W. course, and we were now at 5 miles' distance from the mainland. In
the night it fell a dead calm with fine weather and a south-by-east wind.

{Page 59}

On the 5th do. in the morning the wind being S.S.E. with lovely weather,
we weighed anchor and sailed S.S.W. for an hour, at the end of which we
observed more breakers, shallows and islets ahead of us and alongside our
course; the wind then turned more to eastward, so that we could run to
the south and S.S.E. This reef or shoal extended S.S.W. and N.N.E.; along
it we sounded in 27, 28 and 29 fathom sandy bottom; at 11 o'clock in the
forenoon we had lost sight of the mainland; at noon we were in 28° 59' S.
Lat., the extremity of the reef lying W.S.W. of us, and we being in 50 or
60 fathom, foul steep bottom. In the afternoon the wind began to abate,
but the current carried us to the west, while the rocks here fell off far
to westward, we being at about 87 miles' distance from the mainland by
estimation. We had a dead calm the whole night and drifted along the
rock, on which we heard the waves break the whole time.

On the 6th do. in the morning we had lost sight of the rocks; about 10
o'clock the wind began to blow from the W.N.W., so that we ran nearly in
the direction of the rocks. At noon we were in 28° 44' S. Lat.; it began
to blow hard from the N.W., so that in the afternoon we kept tacking off
and on, and found ourselves carried northward by the current. In the
evening we stood out to sea away from the rocks again, and sounded in 40
fathom foul rocky bottom; this shallow here extends seaward S.E. and N.W.
In the evening it began to blow very hard, so that we had to run on with
shortened mainsails, the wind being variable.

On the 7th do. in the morning the wind abated, so that we made sail
again; at noon we found our latitude to be 29° 30'; we went over to
northward to get sight of the mainland again, but the wind suddenly
turned sharply to W.N.W., so that we had to stand out to sea again.

On the 8th do. at noon we were in 29° 7' S. Lat., course held N.E. In the
evening we saw the breakers again. We therefore stood out to sea on a
west-south-west course the whole night with a north-west-wind; and it
began to blow so hard that we had again to take in the topsails.

On the 9th do. in the morning we shaped our course to the land again; at
noon we were in Lat. 29° and for the rest of the day we kept tacking off
and on; towards the evening there blew a storm from the N.W., so that we
could hardly keep our main-sails set.

On the 10th do. we made sail again in the morning; at noon we were in 29°
30' S. Lat., with a westerly wind and a top-gallant gale.

On the 11th do. it was calm in the morning, but with a very hollow sea,
while the wind blew from the W.N.W., so that we could not get to the
north, if we did not wish to come upon or near the rocks. At noon we were
in 28° 48' S. Lat. The wind continued variable, so that in the night we
had to drift with our foresail set until daybreak.

On the 12th do. we made sail again at daybreak, shaping our course to the
east. We ran on till noon, when we found ourselves to be in in 28° 13' S.
Lat. We therefore ran somewhat more to the south again, in order to reach
the latitude Of 28° 20' exactly; the wind was south-west with a heavy
swell of the sea. In the afternoon, two hours before sunset we again
sighted the rocks, which we estimated to be still two miles from us. We
cast the lead in 100 fathom fine sandy bottom, but when we had come to
half a mile's distance, we sounded 30 fathom foul rocky bottom. In the
night we shaped our course two points more to seaward, and in the
daywatch made for the land again.

{Page 60}

On the 13th do., three hours after sunrise we again sighted breakers
ahead, and having made up our reckoning, we found we had lost a mile
north, since the wind had been S.S.E. This proved to be the northernmost
extremity of the Abrolhos. Therefore, since I found we always came too
high or too low, and it was very dangerous to touch at them from the
outside owing to the high swells and foul bottom, I resolved to keep
tacking off the outermost shoal. After this we went over again nearly to
weatherward with a S.S.E. wind, keeping an eastern course. When we had
got inside a small distance, we directly had a fine sandy bottom in from
30 to 35 fathom; at noon we were in 28° S. Lat., shortly after we again
saw the mainland of the Southland. In the evening, as it began to blow
hard, we came to anchor at about 2 miles' distance from the land in 30
fathom, fine bottom.

On the 14th do. there was a stiff gale from the S.S.E., so that we could
not get in our anchor, and remained here all day.

On the 15th do. the wind was still equally strong, but towards noon it
got somewhat calmer, so that we could get in our anchor. At noon we were
in 27° 54' S. Lat. We kept tacking the whole day with a S.S.E. wind, in
order to gain the south, and at night found we had gained two miles. When
it got dark, we again came to anchor in 30 fathom fine bottom.

On the 16th do. at daybreak we again weighed anchor; the wind being
W.S.W., we went over nearly to southward. At noon we were in
Latitude...degrees...minutes [*]. The wind then turned first to the west
and afterwards to the north, so that we could sail on a south-west
course; towards the evening we saw the rocks on which our good ship
Batavia had miscarried, and I was sure I saw the high Island, but our
steersmen contended that it was other land. Two hours after sunset we
again came to anchor in 26 fathom fine sandy bottom.

[* Left blank.]

On the 17th do. at daybreak we again weighed anchor with a northerly
wind; we were now still about 2 miles from the high island and made for
it. When at noon we had got near the island we saw smoke rising up from a
long island, two miles to westward of the wreck, and also from another
islet [*], close to the wreck, at which we were all of us greatly
rejoiced, hoping to find the greater part [**] or almost all the people
alive. Therefore, when we had come to anchor, I went in a boat to the
highest island, which was quite close to us, taking with me a cask of
water, a cask of bread, and a small keg of wine; when I had got there I
did not see any one, at which we were greatly astonished. I sprang
ashore...

[* This islet was named Batavia's Kerkhof [Churchyard] by the survivors;
another of the rocks got the name of Robben-eiland [Seals' island].]

[* This proved actually to be the case. I have thought it needless to
print those parts of the journal which tell the adventures of the
castaways, since they have repeatedly been narrated in other works.]

On the 15th [of November, 1629] the wind was S.S.W., with seemingly fine
weather. Therefore, in the name of God, we weighed anchor and set sail
from these luckless Abrolhos for the mainland on an East-north-east
course, for the purpose of seeking there the skipper and four other men,
who on the 14th last were with their boat cut off from ship by a storm,
after which we had resolved to continue our return-voyage to Batavia with
the utmost expedition. The spot where the ship or wreck lies, is in 28°
36' or 40', and the place near the high Island where we have been at
anchor with the Yacht, in 30 or 32 minutes, north-north-west of the
wreck. But after the shipwreck the steersmen had in one of the islands
taken the latitude Of 28 degrees 8 minutes, and 28 degrees 20 minutes,
which mistake has caused no little loss of time and misunderstanding on
our part in seeking out these places...

{Page 61}

The sea abounds in fish in these parts; they are mainly of three kinds,
but very different in shape and taste from those caught on other coasts.
All the islands about here are low-lying atolls or coral-islets and
rocks, except two or three large islands, in one of which, a long time
before we came here, they had found two pits filled with water, but
during the time we were here, the water in these pits became very
brackish or salt, so as to be unfit for human consumption. In the other
island, near which the Yacht lay at anchor, after burning away the
brushwood or thicket, we also came upon two pits filled with water, which
were discovered quite by accident...since they had only a small hole at
top, that would admit a man's arm, but below we found a large cistern or
water-tank under the earth; after which with mattocks and sledge-hammers
we widened the hole so as to be able to take out the water conveniently.
Besides, we found in these islands large numbers of a species of cats,
which are very strange creatures; they are about the size of a hare,
their head resembling the head of a civet-cat; the forepaws are very
short, about the length of a finger, on which the animal has five small
nails or fingers, resembling those of a monkey's forepaw. Its two
hind-legs, on the contrary, are upwards of half an ell in length, and it
walks on these only, on the flat of the heavy part of the leg, so that it
does not run fast. Its tail is very long, like that of a long-tailed
monkey; if it eats, it sits on its hind-legs, and clutches its food with
its forepaws, just like a squirrel or monkey. Their manner of generation
or procreation is exceedingly strange and highly worth observing. Below
the belly the female carries a pouch, into which you may put your hand;
inside this pouch are her nipples, and we have found that the young ones
grow up in this pouch with the nipples in their mouths. We have seen some
young ones lying there, which were only the size of a bean, though at the
same time perfectly proportioned, so that it seems certain that they grow
there out of the nipples of the mammae, from which they draw their food,
until they are grown up and are able to walk. Still, they keep creeping
into the pouch even when they have become very large, and the dam runs
off with them, when they are hunted.

In these two islands we also found a number of grey turtle-doves, but no
other animals. Nor is there any vegetation beyond brushwood, and little
or no grass. This and what has hereinbefore been related is all that we
have experienced and met with about these Abrolhos.

We shall therefore now shape our course for the mainland of the
Southland, to which we are navigating. About noon we were close inshore,
running along the coast with small sail at about half a mile's distance
from it, in order to see if we could not descry any men or signs of men,
until the afternoon, when we saw a small column of smoke rise up from the
higher land, but it soon vanished. Nevertheless we anchored there in 21
fathom fine sandy bottom, in order to look for the skipper with his men,
but the smoke did not appear again, and no one showed on the beach, from
which we concluded that the smoke had been made by the natives, who now
did not venture to show themselves. As it blew very hard, we remained at
anchor here for the night.

On the 16th do. in the morning we weighed anchor again with a S.S.E. wind
and a top-gallant gale. We again ran close along the land with small sail
at about a howitzer's shot's distance from the surf. Towards noon we
sighted the inlet which we had meant to run into on the 8th of June last,
when we were seeking water with the pinnace, and {Page 62} where we were
befallen by a storm from the north-west, which would certainly have sent
us to destruction, if God had not miraculously saved us. Here we saw
divers smoke-clouds rising up, which gladdened us all with the hope that
our men might be there. I therefore sent the pinnace ashore directly for
the purpose of getting certain information regarding the place and the
clouds of smoke we had seen; the men in her, after rounding a steep
point, where we had suspected the presence of water, discovered a running
streamlet, of which the water was brackish near the sea, but quite fresh
higher up; they also found a great many human footprints and continuous
footpaths leading to the mountains, and saw numerous clouds of smoke, but
the blacks kept themselves in concealment, and no human being was seen.

Formerly, when we were sailing about here with the pinnace, we had also
been close inshore, but did not then see any men or smoke-clouds at this
place. Thinking this a fitting opportunity, I have here sent on shore the
two condemned delinquents [*] Wouter Loos and Jan Pelgrom de By, of
Bemmel, in a sampan provided with all necessaries. God grant that this
punishment may ultimately redound to the service of the Company, and that
the two delinquents may come off with their lives, so as to be able to
give trustworthy information about these parts. This inlet is in 27° 51'.
In the afternoon, seeing there was no hope or chance of finding the
skipper, we made sail and shaped our course to north-west, two points off
the land, because it began to blow hard, and in the evening we turned to
west-north-west...[**].

[* They had been sentenced to being marooned.]

[* The ship returned to Batavia on the 5th of December.]

* * * * *



XXIV.


(1635). [*] FURTHER SURVEYINGS OF THE WEST-COAST OF AUSTRALIA BY THE
SHIP AMSTERDAM UNDER COMMANDER WOLLEBRAND GELEYNSZOON DE JONGH AND
SKIPPER PIETER DIRCKSZ, ON HER VOYAGE FROM THE NETHERLANDS TO THE EAST
INDIES.

[* In 1629 the west-coast of Australia in the neighbourhood of Dirk
Hartogsz Roads was touched at by Dutch vessels, and in 1632 the Trialls
were passed by Dutch ships on the outward voyage. What we know about
these two points is of no interest as regards our subject.]

_Journal of Commander WOLLEBRAND GELEYNSZOON DE JONGH._ [*]

[* I know this journal only from what LEUPE extracts from it in his
"Zuidland", pp. 62 ff. (the passages in question being given above), and
from certain written notes from Leupe's hand. From the latter I have
learned _inter alia_, the name of the skipper, the date of departure from
the Texel (December 26, 1634), and the date of arrival at Batavia (June
24, 1635).]

...[May 25] Last night when two glasses of the first watch were out, we
got a slight breeze from the N.W., which gradually stiffened, so that
there was a fair breeze at the latter end of this watch, which kept
blowing through the night till the following forenoon, when the wind
turned to W. by N. and W.N.W. with a squall of rain, it blowing a strong
top-gallant gale until the evening, course kept E. by N. until one hour
after daybreak when we sighted the South-land.

We went over to port directly, keeping a N.E. and N.E. by E. course until
noon, when we stood out to sea from the land, on a W. and W. by S. course
with a top-gallant gale. We took the latitude, which we found to be 25°
16' South, but of {Page 63} this we are not quite sure; we were not able
to take the sun's azimuth, either in the morning or in the evening; we
sailed 20 miles until we saw the land, from which we were at 4 or 4½
miles' distance by estimation, on an E. by N. course, and on various
courses during the day, course N.N.E. for 6 or 7 miles.

We had made this land in 4 months and 20 days. We saw a good deal of
rock-weed floating past our ship, and also a small Saturn-gull, and not
above 6 or 7 other gulls; the swell ran strongly from the south-west and
afterwards more from the south; along the land the sea was tolerably
smooth.

We adjusted our compasses at 4° north-westerly variation. In the morning
of the same day about two hours after sunrise, when prayers were over, we
saw the south-land straight ahead to the great joy of all of us; it was
east of us, at about 3 or 5 miles' distance by estimation, when we got
sight of it; it was a low-lying coast extending mainly N.N.E. and S.S.W.
as given in the chart, so far as we could see. We immediately began to
sail close-hauled to port on a N.E. and N.E. by E. course, sometimes a
little higher and at other times a little lower, until three glasses in
the afternoon had run out, when we got a squall of rain with the wind
going over to W.N.W., upon which we ran north again, since at noon owing
to the nearly contrary wind we had gone over to W. in order to keep off
the land. We now shaped our course to north, at times to N. by W. nearly
as high as we could sail and the wind would allow us.

The land which we saw, and from which at noon we were at no more than 1½
or two miles' distance by estimation, we judged to be the land of
d'Eendracht, and the land which we were near to at noon Dirck
Hartochsz-Roads, for we had before us a large bay or bight between two
capes. In the bay we could see no land from the main-topmast, but so far
as we could discern the surf ran through the whole bay from the one cape
to the other.

The land shows various white plots near the seaside, and in many places
rises very steeply so far as we could see.

The breakers on the coast were very strong, but there were no rocks or
shallows near the coast on which we could see the surf break, except at
the cape north of Dirck Hartochs Roads, off which there seemed to be a
small shoal or rock on which the surf broke, but it may as well have been
a landspit running southward out to sea from the cape.

As soon as we got sight of the land, we cast the lead, and took soundings
in 90 fathom whitish sandy bottom with small shells, at about 4½ or 5
miles' distance from the land; in the middle of the forenoon we cast the
lead again and touched the bottom in 75 fathom coarse and fine sand,
mixed with small shells, at a little under 3 miles' distance from the
land; we saw a good deal of rock-weed float alongside.

At noon we sounded in 55 fathom, at about two miles' distance from the
shore, straight in front of Dirck Hartochsz Roads, greyish sand.

{Page 64}

About 2 o'clock in the afternoon we sounded in 50 fathom white, clean
sand-bottom, with very small, thin shells, at about i½ mile's distance by
estimation from the northern extremity of Dirck Hartochsz. Roads, and two
miles from the southern extremity of the road-stead just mentioned.

Towards the evening after supper, we cast the lead and sounded in 50
fathom grayish sand-bottom, at about 2½ miles' distance by estimation
from the land, and about 3 miles to northward of Dirck Hartochsz Roads.

At night when 4 glasses of the first watch were out, we cast the lead and
sounded in 50 fathom grayish sand with small shells, estimating ourselves
to be about 3 miles off the land, and about 7 miles to northward of Dirck
Hartochsz. Roads.

At the latter end of the first watch when seven glasses were out, we cast
the lead and touched the bottom in 48 fathom, but could not make out how
far we were from the land (since it was night, and we could not see the
coast), except from our course, by which we estimated the distance to be
4 miles.

In the second watch when three glasses had run out, we cast the lead
again and sounded in 47 fathom sandy bottom as before; we kept sounding
every two or three glasses during the whole night until sunrise and found
80 fathom sandy bottom; we saw no land, but from our course and rate of
progress we deemed ourselves to be at 9½ miles' distance from the nearest
land, estimating our latitude, from the observation we took on the 26th
do. at noon, and from our rate of progress, to be 24° South. But we did
not see any land again throughout the day, and left off sounding, since
our skippers and steersmen, judging from their estimations and from the
course we kept (being north, and two points off the land according to the
trend of the coast), were of opinion that we could get no bottom, so that
we thought it needless to go on sounding...

* * * * *



XXV.


(1636). NEW DISCOVERIES ON THE NORTH-COAST OF AUSTRALIA BY THE SHIPS
KLEIN-AMSTERDAM AND WESEL, COMMANDED BY (GERRIT THOMASZOON POOL AND)
PIETER PIETERSZOON.

[* Pool was killed on the South-west coast of New Guinea, April 28, 1636,
and was succeeded in the command of the ships by Pieter Pieterszoon.
Unlike my treatment of Carstensz's voyage in 1623, the present account
will not embrace the further discovery of the South-west coast of New
Guinea. I had to give the route followed along this coast in 1632 because
it throws light on the expedition under Willem Jansz. in 1605/6.]

A.

_Instructions for Commander Gerrit Thomasz Pool and the Council of the
Yachts Cleen Amsterdam and Wesel, destined for the discovery of the lands
situated east of Banda, and furthermore of the South-land, thence
extending to the South-west._

Inasmuch as for a long time past the "Heeren Majores" have been very
instantly recommending to us the discovery of the South-land, and still
continue to do so, and we have frequently discussed the matter
with...even before his departure, therefore it has been resolved and
determined in the Council of India that you shall be employed with the
Yachts Cleen Amsterdam and Wesel in the said discovery of the lands east
of Banda and of the South-land extending to westward.

You will set sail from Amboyna for Banda, in the name of God, With the
said yachts Cleen Amsterdam and Wesel on the first of April next, and
when you shall have arrived there, you will communicate these Orders and
Instructions to the Lord Governor Acoley.

Whom by these presents we enjoin to hand you in writing all such ampler
information as during his residence at Banda His Worship shall have
collected touching the {Page 65} lands and islands situated east of
Banda, at the same time letting you know where and in what islands His
Worship thinks some profit to be obtainable for the Company, or how
massoye bark and fitting men may be got, which order will in that case
have to be first executed.

And in case you should obtain no additional information, we would have
you set sail from Banda as speedily as possible for Arnhems- and Speults
land, situated between 9 and 13 degrees Southern Latitude, discovered
A.D. 1623, as you will more fully see from the appended chart; these are
the large lands; you will endeavour to ascertain what may be obtained
from there, whether these lands are peopled, and what the natives subsist
on.

After touching at the said islands you will cross over in order to strike
the land of Nova Guinea likewise discovered A.D. 1623, by the Yachts Pera
and Arnhem as far as 17° 8' Southern Latitude, which we surmise to be the
South-land extending to westward from the said latitude as far as 26
degrees or as far as the land of de Eendracht.

The men of the Yachts Pera and Arnhem have, as before mentioned, sailed
along this coast from about 4 degrees to 17 degrees 8 minutes, and have
landed at various places, where they found nothing but barren coasts and
lands, and utterly barbarian, cruel, wild natives, who surprised nine of
our men fishing, and assassinated the same. The various strands, rivers,
bays, points and the trend of this coast you will gather from the chart
aforesaid.

From the farthest point discovered, which as before mentioned, is in Lat.
17° 8' South, you will skirt the coast as far as Houtmans Abrolhos in 28
and 29 degrees, and farther still, if your provisions hold out, if the
condition of your crews will allow of it, and if your Yachts are proof
against the rough seas that prevail in the Southern Ocean in 33 and 34
degrees; after which you will return to Batavia through Sunda Strait,
trying in passing to touch at the Trials, that further information about
this rock and its situation may in this way be obtained.

In sailing along the coast you will have all bays and inlets you may meet
with, diligently examined, and keep a sharp look-out for the discovery of
channels or openings that might afford a passage into the South Sea,
since we surmise that such passage must be looked for to northward rather
than to southward, considering the breadth of the South-land between 28
and 32 or 33 degrees.

In case you should discover channels leading to the South Sea, or should
find the South-land to consist of islands, you will endeavour to pass
through or between the same, diligently observing the mouths and outlets,
and then returning again through the same passage in order to proceed
with your discovery along the north-side.

In landing with small craft you will use great circumspection, and your
treatment of the natives that should allow you to come to parley, must
and ought to be marked by great kindness, wary caution, and skilful
judgment; slight misdemeanours on the part of such natives, such as petty
thefts and the like, which they should commit against you, you will
suffer to pass unnoticed, that by so doing you may draw them unto you,
and not inspire them with aversion to our nation. Whoever endeavours to
discover unknown lands and tribes, had need to be patient and
long-suffering, noways quick to fly out, but always bent on ingratiating
himself.

We have put on board your ships various kinds of merchandise and
minerals, which you will show to the people whom you should come to
parley with, partly that by so doing you may come to know whether any of
these goods are produced by their country, partly in order to see what
desire and inclination they evince to our mercantile commodities, and
what goods they might be ready to offer in exchange for the same.

{Page 66}

Close attention should be paid to the disposition of the people, their
character, condition and humours; to the religion they profess and to
their manner of government; their wars, their arms and weapons; the food
they eat and the clothes they wear, and what they mainly subsist on.

Careful observation should be made, and exact records kept, of the winds
and currents, the rains and tides etc. which you shall meet with in this
your intended voyage.

You will make due observation also of all lands, islands, strands,
rivers, bays, points, rocks, reefs, cliffs, shallows and whatever else
appertains to the same; of all which you will have accurate surveyings
made, showing the true bearings, longitude and latitude, in accordance
with the circumstances under which you shall get sight and knowledge of
the same.

For this purpose availing yourselves of the services of Subcargo Pieter
Pietersen...

You will not carry off with you any natives against their will, but if a
small number of them should be found willing to come hither of their own
accord, you will grant them passage...

Commander Francisco Pelsert, having A.D. 1629 put ashore there two Dutch
delinquents, who had in due form of justice been sentenced to forfeit
their lives [*], you will grant passage to the said persons, if they
should be alive to show themselves, and should request you to be brought
hither.

[* See _ante_, p. 62.]

It would be a thing highly desirable for ships bound from the Netherlands
to India, if on the coast of the South-land between 26 and 28 degrees a
fitting place for obtaining refreshments and fresh water could be
discovered, seeing that mainly about that latitude scorbut and other
disorders begin to show themselves, at times carrying off numbers of men
even before they reach Batavia.

Finally, as hereinbefore mentioned, we shall expect you back here through
Sunda Strait, if no obstacles come in your way to prevent this, and if
the land is found to extend in one unbroken coast~line, as we surmise it
to do, of which your experience will be our teacher.

It should furthermore be noted that we are convinced that the west-coast
of Nova Guinea, or the land discovered as far as Lat. 17° 8' South by the
Yachts Pera and Arnhem, forms one whole with the South-land, a point
which in drawing up these Instructions we have taken for granted.

Therefore, if you should find the contrary to be the case, a matter of
which we will by no means deny the possibility, and if the South-land
should by you be found to be an island, you will sail southward along the
coast of Nova Guinea, as far as the 32nd degree S.L., and thence on a
westerly course touch at the eastern extremity of the South-land, which
in January 1627 was discovered by the ship t'Zeepaart. When you shall
have made the South-land on this course, you will run one degree more to
southward near the islands of St. Pieter and François, that by so doing
you may obtain full certainty that from that point the coast-line trends
to westward. After which you will run northward again, skirting the
Southland, past de Witsland, as far as Houtman's shoal and furthermore to
33 or 34 degrees, if wind and weather shall permit, returning thence to
Batavia, as hereinbefore mentioned.

{Page 67}

In conclusion, we wish you all the blessin of the Lord, a prosperous
voyage and safe return, hoping at the same time that this voyage may
redound to the advantage of the Company, to the glory of our country, and
to your especial honour. Amen.

Done in the Castle of Batavia, this 19th of February, A.D. 1636.
(Signed)
ANTHONIO VAN DIEMEN, PHILIP LUCASZ, ARTUS GYSELS and JAN VAN DER BURCH.

B.

_Daily Register of Batavia._

October 1636.

The 6th do.

This day in the afternoon there arrived here from Amboyna the Yacht Cleyn
Wesel, having on board the subcargo Pieter Pietersen, who...after the
lamentable assassination of Commander Gerrit Thomasz Pool on the coast of
Nova Guinea, had succeeded to the latter's office, and with the Yachts
Cleen Amsterdam and Wesel had returned to Amboyna by way of Banda,
reporting in substance as follows, both by word of mouth and by the
journal kept during the voyage and the Resolutions duly registered,
touching what happened in the course of the expedition, to wit...

On the 6th of June [they came to anchor] before the native village of
Taranga at the south-western extremity of Arouw, in order...to provide
themselves with certain necessaries...

On the 9th of June, being duly revictualled, he had set sail again from
the said native village of Taranga, shaping his course to southward in
order to endeavour to get to eastward by some means or other, so as to
accomplish his ordained voyage; but when he had got to southward as far
as the 11th degree of latitude, he had not only found and met with the
east- and south-east-winds blowing constantly with great vehemence and
hollow seas, but had also come upon a new land; in such fashion that,
seeing no chance of getting to eastward for the accomplishment of his
voyage, since such voyage will have to take place in the beginning of the
western monsoon, he resolved with his council to give up further
investigations to eastward, to explore and survey the situation of the
newly discovered Van Diemensland, also called Arnhems or Speultsland,
and, having gathered the required information, to run northward again for
the purpose of obtaining perfect knowledge of the islands of Timor and
Tenember; and all this having been duly effected, to return to Banda etc.

In conformity with this resolution the said Pieter Pietersen has surveyed
the newly discovered land for the space Of 20 miles from East to West; he
has seen many fires and frequent clouds of smoke, but no natives, houses,
prows or fruit-trees, although he has paddled close along the shore with
an orangbay, and gone ashore in sundry places, finding the land wild and
barren; wherefore, not having been able to come to parley with any of the
inhabitants, on the 20th of June, as previously resolved upon, he ran to
the north from a certain Red point jutting out into the sea to northward,
where the land falls off abruptly to the west, for the purpose of making
the islands of Timor and Tenember...

{Page 68}

C.

_Journal of the voyage to Nova Guinea, 1636._

...In the early morning of Friday [June 6]...we arrived before the native
village of Taranga...

On Monday the 9th do. At daybreak the wind was S.E...we set sail from
Taranga...shaping our course to the S.S.W.

We could take no latitude at noon...

In the first watch we sailed S.S.W. the space of about 3 glasses; the
wind was S.E. with a fair breeze, and afterwards E.S.E.; we sailed to
southward for the time of 12 glasses; at the beginning of the day-watch
the wind was E.N.E. with a fresh breeze; we sailed S.E. for about eight
glasses...

On Tuesday the 10th do. In the morning about breakfast-time the wind blew
from the E.N.E. as before...

We estimated ourselves to have sailed 9½ miles on a generally Southern
course from last night to the present night.

On Wednesday the 11th do. Course held S.S.E...We had sailed on a Southern
and S. by E. course about 11 miles by estimation during the last 24
hours...

On Thursday the 12th do. The wind E.S.E. as before...At noon we were in
Lat. 10° 2', so that I find we are farther to southward as would accord
with our estimation and our courses kept, on which account I believe the
current must have driven us a good deal to S.S.E.. In the afternoon the
sky was overcast, the wind E.S.E. and S.E. by E. with a light breeze; we
sailed to S. by W. with our mainsails set. Towards the evening the water
became all of a sudden very smooth and of a pale colour; after sunset we
cast the lead in 40 fathom good anchoring ground, fine sand, but could
see no land: we took in our foresail and sailed in the night with the
mainsail only to avoid press of sail. We estimated ourselves to have
sailed about 12 miles on a general S.W. by S. course during the last 24
hours. In the night the wind was E. by S., E.S.E. and S.E. by E. with
fine, lovely, clear weather and a top-gallant gale; throughout the night
our average course was S., we cast the lead now and then in 42, 39, 38,
36 and 25 fathom good anchoring-ground.

On Friday the 13th do., the wind was nearly S.E., with a top-gallant gale
and smooth water; course S.S.W. and S. by W.; the water was very pale in
colour, but we could see no land; the weather was lovely and clear; at
noon we found ourselves to be in 10° 50' S.L.

Shortly after noon we cast the lead in 32 fathom good anchoring-ground;
at four glasses in the afternoon we saw the land S.E. by S. of us, at
about 6 miles' distance from us it was a low-lying coast with small
hills; about 6 miles farther to westward we also saw land, not connected
with the first land, but upwards of three miles distant from the same.

Towards the evening it fell a calm; at sunset there was a faint breeze
from the S.S.E.; we made out the extremity of the land to be at about 3
miles' distance S.E. by S. of us; we were still in 32 fathom good
anchoring-ground; we accordingly went over to eastward, but when shortly
before the setting of the watch, the wind went down still more and began
to turn to the N.W., we dropped anchor in 29 fathom good
anchoring-ground.

{Page 69}

On Saturday the 14th do. the current began to set to the S.E. in the
morning, and the wind to blow hard from the E.S.E., so that we could not
carry mainsails then; we weighed anchor and set sail on a South and
South-by-east course. The water gradually shallowed, and seeing that we
could not make the easternmost land, we ran to the westernmost, where we
came to anchor at about a musket-shot's distance from the land in 10
fathom good anchoring-ground. Close along the shore the land is somewhat
rock and reefy here; this land extends here about 3 miles S.E. by S. and
N.W. by N., both slightly more to South and North. In the afternoon we
sent out our small boat to take soundings close inshore; on returning the
men reported that until they came to the reefs they had found no less
than 3½ fathom good anchoring-ground. Off the point near which we lay at
anchor, a river ran landinward; we hoisted the white flag, and caused the
little boat to paddle close along the shore. We saw smoke, indeed, in
many parts of the inland, but no natives, houses or vessels. This land is
not high, chiefly level, thickly covered with trees, and with a sandy
beach at the seaside. We had taken no latitude at noon; the tide seems to
run from the N.W. here; in the night at the latter end of the first watch
we could take the latitude by the stars and found it to be 12° 8' South.

On Sunday the 15th do. at daybreak the wind blew hard from the E.S.E.; it
was mainsail weather; we convened the Plenary Council and resolved with
the same further to explore this land to the north-west and to use all
possible diligence to get knowledge touching the island of Timor, as will
be found more amply set forth in this day's Resolution.

As we were weighing our anchor, a lanyard and a pulley got broken; we
shaped our course to N.W. by N. and N.N.W. Having sailed the space of
about 2 miles, we came to a point, between which point and another point,
a distance of about 4 miles, the land extends W.N.W. and E.S.E. with
hardly any curve, and with rocks and reefs along the shore. Off this
point the surf and the breakers ran very strongly, as if there were a
shoal there, seeing that the wind and the current were opposed to each
other. We therefore sailed along the coast at less than a mile's distance
from the same in 12, 11 and 10 fathom good anchoring-ground. In many
places we saw great clouds of smoke landinward, but no fruit-trees,
houses, vessels or natives; the land seems to be quite wild. Towards the
evening we cast anchor in 9 fathom good anchoring-ground at about half a
cannonshot's distance from the land; the aforesaid point was E. by N. of
us at upwards of half a mile's distance; during the night we had violent
squalls from the E.S.E. with a thick, foggy sky; landinward we observed a
number of fires.

On Monday the 16th do. in the early morning the wind blew from the E.S.E.
as before with sudden violent squalls. As we were weighing our anchor,
the lanyard-pulley broke, and shortly after our anchor-cable snapped off
at about three fathom's distance from the anchor, so that we lost the
latter. As we were setting our foresail, a musket-shot was fired from the
Yacht Wesel, upon which we dropped our other anchor again; when towards
the evening the weather had somewhat improved, we sent our orangbay to
the Wesel, to learn the meaning of the musket-shot; when the men
returned, they informed us that the Wesel had also lost an anchor, but
that the buoyrope had remained entire, so that we remained here till the
following day in order to recover the same.

On Tuesday the 17th do. towards noon we were informed that the buoy-rope
of the Wesel had broken of its own accord close to the anchor, so that
they had also lost their anchor, upon which forthwith weighing the
anchors of both the Yachts, we found that the cables had also been
damaged through rubbing against hidden stones and rocks.

{Page 70}

As beforementioned, the coast here extends W.S.W. for the space of about
4 miles, with hardly any curve; at 3/8 of a mile's distance from the land
there is already 8 and 7 fathom, good clayey bottom; the wind still blew
from the S.E. and E.S.E. with a steady stiff gale; towards the evening we
came to anchor in 7 fathom good anchoring-ground, at about half a mile's
distance from the land, having the point E.S.E. of us at less than a
mile's distance.

Up to now we have seen no men, vessels or houses; we should certainly
have landed with the boats here and there, but that they were both of
them stove in, and had first to be thoroughly overhauled before they
could be used. During the night the weather was lovely and calm.

On Wednesday the 18th do., the wind blowing from the E.S.E., the weather
was calmer, fairer and steadier than before. We gave a coat of tar to
both our yachts, and remained at anchor the whole of this day, chiefly in
order to see if we could not get sight of natives here or there and come
to parley with the same, but we waited in vain for them. During the night
the weather was bright, fair and clear, the wind blowing from the S.S.E.,
S.E., and E.S.E.

On Thursday the 19th do. at daybreak, the wind being E.S.E. with fair
weather and a weak breeze, we weighed anchor and shaped our course to
W.S.W., slightly more to westward. (The land here extends with a great
curve and river as far as the Witte Hoeck [White point], known by the
white sand-hill near the strand when you come from the east).

At 4 glasses after breakfast we came near a stony, rocky reef, which we
kept outside or to seaward of in 8 and 9 fathom. The eastern extremity of
it is less than a mile to the S.W., slightly more southerly, of the Witte
Hoeck, and the western extremity upwards of mile to the S.W. by S.,
slightly more southerly, of the same; the reef extends S.E. by S. and
N.W. by N.; it is not very long or broad, and there were violent breakers
upon it.

When we had weathered the reef, we again ran W.S.W. at less than a mile's
distance from the land, in 8, 9, 7 and 5 fathom good anchoring-ground.
From the Witte Hoeck the land trends nearly to W.S.W. with a slight
curve, as far as one can see; close to the sea the beach is chiefly
sandy, with small, low sand-hills here and there.

The whole day we saw a good deal of smoke landinward; at noon we were in
exactly 11° S.L. From this Witte Hoeck the land trends to W.S.W.,
slightly westerly, with a slight curve for the space of upwards of 3
miles; from there to W.N.W. with a strong curve the space of upwards of
two miles, as far as a point, off which point, at less than half a mile's
distance to N.E. by E., there is a small island on all sides surrounded
by shoals and reefs; beyond this island the land falls off to the S.W.,
making a curve of 2 miles at least but afterwards it trends to the N.W.
again. This island bears from the land about N.W. and S.E.; the beach is
sandy with reefs here, and there.

At sunset it fell a calm, and we came to anchor in 8 fathom good
anchoring-ground at about a mile's distance from the land, having the
island S.S.E. of us at upwards of a mile's distance. Shortly after we saw
two fires on the beach beyond the island. We estimated ourselves to have
sailed about 8 miles this day; during the night the wind blew from the S.
and S.S.W. with lovely weather. We found little or no current running
here.

{Page 71}

On Friday the 20th do. we set sail at daybreak with a weak breeze from
the S.; we kept mainly at a mile's distance from the land in 7 and 7½
fathom good anchoring-ground. In the course of the day the wind went over
to N.E., after which we ran N.W.; at noon we got near the Roode Hoeck
[red point], situated N.W. of the island aforesaid at about 5 miles'
distance; upwards of half a mile's distance from here the land falls off
to W. by W.; from this point a large reef was seen running out to sea the
length of upwards of 1½ mile, which reef being unable to weather because
we sailed so close to the wind, we came to anchor in 7½ fathom good
anchoring-ground, at half a mile's distance from the land; the Roode
Hoeck was S.W. and S.W. by S. of us at upwards of half a mile's distance;
we saw smoke rising in various places.

On Saturday the 21st do. we set sail with a S.S.E. and S.E. by S. wind, a
weak breeze and lovely weather. Here, from the point, the land extended
to S. by W. and S.S.W. as far as one could see, with a slight curve only.
The reef above referred to runs out to sea in a northward direction from
the Roode Hoeck upwards of two miles, and from there very far to
westward, upwards of 1½ mile from the land. It consists of sandy shoals,
having a small hill or rock above water; alongside it the depth was 7, 6,
5 and 4 fathom, uneven bottom. And since the wind blew from the S.E. by
S. as before, so that we could not make the land again, we resolved to
run N.E. We accordingly shaped our course to the N.N.E. for the purpose
of touching at Timor with the help of Almighty God, and take surveyings
of the same.

In or near this land, which in our chart [*] we have named Van
Diemensland, we have seen no men, houses, fruit-trees or prows, although
we ventured to inspect it paddling with our orangbay close along the
shore; the boats of both the yachts being unfit for use, stove in, and
under repair. About 2 glasses after noon, the wind was N.E., N.N.E., and
N.E. by N. with calm and steady weather. At sunset we estimated ourselves
to have the Roode Hoeck S.S.E. of us at 6 miles' distance; during the
night there was a weak breeze from the E.S.E., N.E. by E. and also N.E.;
course held N.N.W., N. by W. and also N., with bright, lovely and clear
weather.

[* This chart is wanting.]

On Sunday the 22nd do. in the morning the wind was E.S.E. with a lovely
breeze and top-gallant weather; course held N.E. At noon we took the
latitude and found it to be 10° 10' South...[*]

[* The further progress of the voyage has no interest connected with our
present subject.]

* * * * *

{Page 72}



XXVI.


(1642-1643). DISCOVERY OF TASMANIA (VAN DIEMENS LAND), NEW ZEALAND
(STATENLAND), ISLANDS OF THE TONGA AND FIJI GROUPS, ETC. BY THE SHIPS
HEEMSKERK AND DE ZEEHAEN UNDER THE COMMAND OF ABEL JANSZOON TASMAN, FRANS
JACOBSZOON VISSCHER, YDE TJERKSZOON HOLMAN OR HOLLEMAN, AND GERRIT
JANSZ(OON).

_See_ Frederik Muller and Co's _Tasman Folio._

* * * * *



XXVII.


(1644). FURTHER DISCOVERY OF THE GULF OF CARPENTARIA, THE NORTH-
AND NORTH-WEST-COAST OF AUSTRALIA BY THE SHIPS LIMMEN, ZEE MEEUW AND DE
BRACQ UNDER THE COMMAND OF TASMAN, VISSCHER, DIRK CORNELISZOON HAEN AND
JASPER JANSZOON KOOS.

A.

_See_ Frederik Muller and Co's _Tasman Folio._

B.

_Letter of the Governor-General and Councillors to the Governor of Banda,
November 29, 1644._

...We shall not recount here how...Tasman had coasted along the land of
Nova Guinea and the South-land without finding any channel or opening up
to Willems River, from where he has returned hither through Sunda Strait,
but would refer Your Worship to the annexed extract from their journals,
which we request you to peruse with attention, and to order...Dortsman
[*] or any other person whom you shall charge with the voyage to
Timorlaut, in case their plans touching these islands should succeed
speedily and prosperously, and they should still have time at their
disposal, to make for the great river which our men have christened
Waterplaets, in 12 degrees Southern Latitude and 160¼ degrees Longitude,
to sail up the same river landinward, in which there is the less
difficulty, since the river, being deep and wide, can be sailed up by the
yacht, which can conveniently turn, veer and tack in it...

[* Adriaan Dortsman had been ordered on a voyage of discovery east and
south of Banda. This voyage took place in 1645 and 1646, but Australia
was not visited on that occasion.]

* * * * *

{Page 73}



XXVIII.


(1648). EXPLORATORY VOYAGE TO THE WEST-COAST OF AUSTRALIA ROUND BY
THE SOUTH OF JAVA, BY THE SHIP LEEUWERIK, COMMANDED BY JAN JANSZOON
ZEEUW.

A.

A.

_Instructions for the officers of the Yacht den Leeuwerik...June 27,
1648._

Having learned by the ships last arrived here from Banda, what poor
rice-crops they had in those quarters last year, so that, had not they
received some timely supplies of this grain from Amboyna, they would have
been put to exceeding inconvenience; and having besides seen from the
letter of Governor Cornelis Willemse van Outhoorn that also this year
they are under serious apprehensions of the like scarcity, in case
supplies from Batavia should be long in coming.

Therefore we have lately resolved in our Council to make an express
shipment thither at this time of year...chiefly and principally that, if
this voyage should have the expected success, which may the Almighty
grant in His mercy, we may in future be sure that such voyage could be
made every year after the arrival of the first ships from there, and the
said important Government be by us duly assisted...as regards rice and
other necessaries.

This Yacht, which we consider to be of strong build and a good sailer,
having by us been assigned for this purpose...you will weigh anchor in
the name of God early to-morrow, set sail, and use your utmost endeavours
to get clear of Sunda Strait as soon as possible, and thus gain the
open...

As soon as you shall have got clear of the Prince islands...you will from
there shape your course directly to the south, straight across the sea,
thus sailing by the wind without looking right or left, until you shall
have come to 32 or 33 degrees S.L., where with the help of God you will
meet with the westerly trade-winds; and when you are quite sure of having
got the same, without the least doubt on your part, you will direct your
course to the South-land, trying to make it and get it alongside in 25 or
26 degrees Southern Latitude, where the coast is generally of easy
access, the land being of moderate height and somewhat resembling the
coast of England.

Having reached the South-land in such fashion as we have just indicated,
you will keep the coast alongside, and not leave the same, but use your
best endeavours to skirt it, not parting with it until you have weathered
the Vuylen hoecq (Foul Point); after which you may leave the coast, and
cross over from there, next using the easterly and south-easterly winds
which you will meet with in those waters, for running in sight of the
islands of Arou, Tenember and Damme or any of these, and then making
straight for Banda with the utmost expedition, which port you will with
God's help conveniently reach in the manner hereinbefore described.

As we have already said, the accomplishment of this voyage at this season
of the year (in which only strong headwinds are blowing along the
ordinary route to Banda and other quarters nearer home) is of very great
importance to the Honourable Company...

We herewith hand you a new chart of the South-land, which you may avail
yourselves of in due time, and we noways doubt you will find the same of
great use to {Page 74} you, of which we hope afterwards to receive your
report. Seeing that the waters you are going to navigate are for the
greater part little known as yet, and that accordingly many noteworthy
things are not unlikely to occur in your voyage, we hereby likewise
earnestly enjoin you, not only to keep a complete and elaborate journal
of this voyage, but also to make due observation of the direction of the
winds, the trend of the coasts, the situation of bays, inlets and capes,
and properly to note and make drawings of the same, that on your return
you may be able to hand us a full and perfect report of the whole
undertaking, thus furnishing fresh material for the correction of the
charts now in use, and perhaps also of the courses to be kept...

Given in the Castle of Batavia, June 27, A.D. 1648.

(Signed) CORNELIS VAN DER LIJN, FRANÇOIS CARON, CAREL RENIERSZ, JOCHUM R.
VAN DEUTECOM, and GERARD DEMMER.

B.

_Letter of the G.-G. and Councillors to the Managers of the E.I.C.,
January 18, 1649._

...[We have dispatched to Banda] the yacht den Leeuwerck on the 28th of
June of last year...through Sunda Strait, in order, if possible, to make
the voyage to Banda along this route north of the South-land. Which
undertaking has succeeded to our complete satisfaction but especially to
the great joy of our Banda people, for which the Almighty be
praised...since this success is undoubtedly of great advantage to the
General Company, and makes it quite sure that in cases of shipwreck or
other accidents we shall always be able to send succour and supplies to
Banda and the quarters on this side of it along this newly discovered
route...which, on receipt of the first advices in May next, may be done
by the route abovementioned along the South-land. How this voyage was
undertaken and successfully accomplished as far as Banda in the space of
two months and 23 days, your Worships may be pleased to gather from the
annexed daily journal and Chart [*] of Skipper Jan Jansz Zeeuw.

[* Journal and chart are both of them wanting.]

Written in Your Worships' Castle of Batavia, this 18th of January, A.D.
1649.

Your Worships' faithful servants the Governor-General and Councillors of
India:

CORNELIS VAN DER LIJN, F. CARON, CAREL REINIERS, J. P. VAN DUTECUM,
GERARD DEMMER.

* * * * *

{Page 75}



XXIX.


(1656-1658). SHIPWRECK OF THE GULDEN OR VERGULDEN DRAAK ON THE
WEST-COAST OF AUSTRALIA, 1656.--ATTEMPTS TO RESCUE THE SURVIVORS,
1656-1658.--FURTHER SURVEYINGS OF THE WEST-COAST BY THE SHIP DE WAKENDE
BOEI, COMMANDED BY SAMUEL VOLCKERTS(ZOON), AND BY THE SHIP EMELOORD,
COMMANDED BY AUCKE PIETERSZOON JONCK, 1658.

A.

_Letter of the G.-G. and Counc. to the Managers of the E.I.C, December 4,
1656._

...On the 7th June there arrived here...from the South-land the cock-boat
of the yacht den Vergulden Draeck with 7 men, to our great regret
reporting that the said yacht had run aground on the said South-land in
30 2/3 degrees, on April the 28th, that besides the loss of her cargo, of
which nothing was saved, 118 men of her crew had perished, and that 69
men who had succeeded in getting ashore, were still left there. For the
purpose of rescuing these men, and of attempting to get back by divers or
other means any part of the money or the merchandises that might still be
recoverable, we dispatched thither on the said errand on the 8th of the
said month of June [*], the flute de Witte Valeq, together with the yacht
de Goede Hoop, which after staying away for some time were by violent
storms forced to return without having effected anything, and without
having seen any men or any signs of the wreck, although the said Goede
Hoop has been on the very spot where the ship was said to have
miscarried...[**]

[* The day following that on which the report regarding the Vergulde
Draak had reached Batavia.]

[** Some of the men of the Goede Hoop had gone ashore, but had not
returned.--The Witte Valk had touched at the Southland, but by "bad
weather and the hollow sea" had been compelled to return without having
effected anything.]

In the Castle of Batavia, December 4, A.D. 1656.
Your Worships' Obedt. Servts. the Governor-General and Councillors of India
JOAN MAETSUYKER, CAREL HARTZINCK, JOAN CUNAEUS, NICOLAES VERBURCH, D. STEUR.

B.

_Daily Register of Batavia, 1657._

[July] the 8th. Late in the evening there arrived in the road-stead here,
and came to anchor, the small flute de Vinck of the Zealand Chamber,
which had sailed [from the Netherlands] on December 24, 1656...she came
hither via the Cape of Good Hope and the South-land...

The skipper further reports that, according to the order and instructions
handed him by Commander [*] Riebeeck, he had touched at the South-land,
but it being the bad monsoon on the said coast, they had found it
impossible to sail along the coast so far {Page 76} as to look after the
wreck and the men of the lost ship den Draeck; for in the night of June 8
(having the previous day seen all signs of land, and the weather being
very favourable) they had come to anchor in 29° 7' S.L., and the
estimated Longitude of 130° 43', in 25 fathom coarse sandy bottom mixed
with coral; the following morning at daybreak they saw the breakers on
the reef at the end of which they were lying at anchor, and on one side
ahead of them, the South-land, which there showed as a low-lying coast
with dunes; upon which they weighed anchor and continued sailing along
the coast in order to keep near the land, which was still in sight the
day following; but the weather began to become so much worse and the
breakers on the coast were so violent, that it was a fearful sight to
behold, upon which they shaped their course a little more to seaward. On
the 10th and 11th they kept sailing along the coast in 40 or 50 fathom,
but seeing their chances of touching at the coast this time get less and
less, and the weather continuing very unruly with violent storms of
thunder and lightning, they resolved to keep off the coast, and drifted
on without sail. On the 12th they made small sail, the wind continuing to
blow from the S. and S.S.W., and also from the S.S.E., and shaped their
course for Batavia...

[* Of the Cape of Good Hope.]

C.

_Letter of the G.-G. and Counc. to the Managers of the E. I. C., December
14, 1658._

...By our previous letters we informed Your Worships that on the first of
January last we dispatched from here to the...Southland the galiots De
Waeckende Boeij and Emeloort, for the purpose of making search for the
crew of the lost ship de Vergulden Draecq, and of ascertaining whether
they were still alive. The said ships returned to this place on the 19th
of April following, after exploring the coast about the place of the
disaster each of them for herself, since they had got separated; having
in different places sent manned boats ashore, and fired many cannon shots
time after time both by day and night, without, however, discovering any
Netherlanders or any traces of the wreck, excepting a few planks
[etc.]...which must undoubtedly be looked upon as remnants of the said
ship...We herewith hand you the journals of the galiots [*]
aforesaid...together with the small charts of the coast drawn up on board
each of them[**]...

[* See D and H _infra_]

[* See E, F and I _infra_.]

Written in Your Worships' Castle of Batavia, December 14, 1658.

* * *

JOAN MAETSUYKER, CAREL HARTSINCK, A.D. V. v. OULDTSHOORN, N. VERBURCH, D.
STEUR, PIETER STERTHEMIUS.

{Page 77}

D.

_Daily Journal kept by skipper SAMUEL VOLKERSENN on board the flute de
Waeckende Boeij, sailing in the same from Battavia to the Southland. A.D.
1658 [*]._

[* On December 21, 1657 the G-G. and Counc. resolved to dispatch to the
South-land the ships de Wakende Boei and Emeloord, for the purpose of
making another attempt at rescuing what might still be rescued of the
men, the cargo, etc. of the Vergulde Draak; "and also to get perfect
knowledge, once for all, of the situation and trend of the said coast,
with its shoals, reefs and shallows." The journals of the skippers of
both vessels are preserved in the Hague State Archives. After mature
consideration I have deemed it needless to print the said journals here,
seeing that MAJOR, Terra Australis, refers to them on pp. 77-90, and
gives the substance of the information contained in them (LEUPE,
Zuidland, pp. 105 ff. has printed certain parts of the two journals). But
above all, the charts made on this expedition, which are here carefully
reproduced, give a more convenient survey of the results of it than could
be done by the journals themselves, which for the rest contain little
that is of interest for our present purpose.]

E.

_Chart of Eendrachisland_, 1658, on a small scale.

[Map No. 8. Kaart van (Chart of) Eendrachtsland, 1658]

{Page 78}

F.

_Chart of Eendrachisland_, 1658, on a larger scale.

[Map No. 9. Kaart van (Chart of) Eendrachtsland, 1658]

{Page 79}

G.

_A brief account of the west-coast of the South-land._

The South-land has sandy dunes forming many points on the sea-side; the
dunes all consist of loose sand overgrown with grass into which a man
will sink up to his ankles, and leave deep footprints on withdrawing his
feet.

About a mile more or less off shore, there is as a rule a rocky reef, on
which the breakers may be seen to dash violently in many places, the
depth above the reef being in several places, 1, 1½ and even 2 fathom, so
that pinnaces and boats may get over it for the purpose of landing, there
being deeper water close inshore, but all of it with a rocky, sharp
coral-bottom, so that it is difficult to land there, and much harder
still to keep a pinnace at anchor with a drag; except in a place about 9
miles north of the island, where there are three rocks close to the
shore, which are connected by a rocky reef, behind which you may
conveniently lie at anchor and effect a landing with pinnaces or boats;
but the bottom is foul and rocky everywhere.

Inward, the land is pretty high, with hills of even height, but barren
and wild to look at, except near the island where a great many trees are
seen.

In slightly under 32° S. Lat. there is a large island, at about 3 miles'
distance from the mainland of the South-land; this island has high
mountains, with a good deal of brushwood and many thornbushes, so that it
is hard to go over; here certain animals are found, since we saw many
excrements, and besides two seals and a wild cat, resembling a civet-cat,
but with browner hair. This island is dangerous to touch at, owing to the
rocky reefs which are level with the water and below the surface, almost
along the whole length of the shore; between it and the mainland there
are also numerous rocks and reefs, and slightly more to southward there
is another small island.

This large island to which we have been unwilling to give a name, leaving
this matter to the Honourable Lord Governor-General's pleasure, may be
seen at 7 or 8 miles' distance out at sea in fine weather. I surmise that
brackish or fresh water might be obtainable there, and likewise good
firewood, but not without great trouble.

Two good and certain landmarks of the West-coast of the Southland:

Firstly: If in these regions you observe about 11 degrees variation of
the compass, you may be sure of not being at more than 18 or 20 miles'
distance from the land.

Secondly: If you see rock-weed floating about, you may be assured that
you will sound the bottom in 70, 60, 50, 40, 30 fathom or less.

At foot:

Your obedient Servant
(signed)
SAMUEL VOLCKERSEN.

H.

_Daily Journal kept by Skipper AUCKE PIETERS JONCK, skipper of the galiot
Emeloordt, on her voyage from Battavia to the South-land, A.D. 1658 [*]_

[* See preceding note.]

{Page 80}

I.

_Chart of Eendrachisland, 1658_

[Map No. 10. Kaart van (Chart of) Eendrachtsland, 1658]

* * * * *

{Page 81}



XXX.


(1658). THE SHIP ELBURG, COMMANDED BY JACOB PIETERSZOON PEEREBOOM,
TOUCHES AT THE SOUTH-WEST COAST OF AUSTRALIA AND AT CAPE LEEUWIN, ON HER
VOYAGE FROM THE NETHERLANDS TO BATAVIA [*].

[* The ship Elburg arrived at Batavia on July 16, 1658.]

_Letter of the G.-G. and Counc. to the Managers of the E.I.C., December
14, 1658._

...The flute Elburgh, Jacob Pietersz. Peereboom master, in coming hither
struck the South-land in 31½ degrees S.L., and the estimated longitude of
117°, where, at about 2½ miles' distance from the land, she was by the
strong wind and the hollow sea forced to come to anchor in 22 fathom, not
without great peril of being lost; but after 12 days' hard trying they at
length got off again and into the open, for which God's name be praised.
Meanwhile, in 33° 14' S.L., round a projecting point, they have found a
good anchoring-place, where they have been at anchor in 20 fathom, and
where the skipper, together with one of the steersmen, the sergeant and 6
soldiers landed round Leeuwinnen cape, finding there three black men,
hung with skins like those at Cape de Bonne Esperance, with whom,
however, they could not come to parley.

On the spot where the blacks had been sitting, our men found a burning
fire, near which there lay a number of assagays, together with three
small hammers, consisting of a wooden handle to one end of which a hard
pebble was fastened by means of a kind of wax or gum, the whole strong
and heavy enough to knock out a man's brains.

A little farther inward they came upon a number of huts, without any
persons in them, and in various spots they found rills of fresh water,
and here and there large quantities of the wax or gum aforesaid, of which
we beg leave to hand you a small sample herewith, together with one of
the said hammers, the wax or gum being of a red colour, and emitting an
agreeable smell after being rubbed for some time...

* * * * *



XXXI.


(1678). FURTHER DISCOVERY OF THE NORTH COAST OF AUSTRALIA BY THE
VLIEGENDE ZWAAN, COMMANDER VAN DER WALL, ON HER VOYAGE TERNATE TO
BATAVIA, IN FEBRUARY 1678.[*]

[* The ship sailed from Ternate in December, 1677, and arrived at Batavia
"by way of Timor and thus along Nova Guinea, without passing through
Sunda Strait" (_Letter of the G.-G. and Counc. to the Managers of the
E.I.C. May 8, 1678_).]

_Chart of "the north side of the Southland and surveyed with the flute de
Vliegende Zwaan in the month of February, by Jan Van Der Wall," A.D.
1678_ [*].

[* This chart is the only evidence of this voyage known to me. LEUPE,
Zuidland, also, has not found anything else concerning it.]

{Page 82}

[Map No. 11. Kaart van de Noordzijde van 't Zuidland (Chart of the North
side of the Southland), 1678]

* * * * *

{Page 83}



XXXII.


(1696-1697). FURTHER SURVEYINGS OF THE WEST-COAST OF AUSTRALIA BY
THE SHIP GEELVINK, COMMANDED BY THE SKIPPER-COMMANDER OF THE EXPEDITION,
WILLEM DE VLAMINGH, THE SHIP NIJPTANG UNDER GERRIT COLLAERT, AND THE SHIP
HET WESELTJE, COMMANDED BY CORNELIS DE VLAMINGH. [*]

[* In November and December 1695 the Managers of the E.I. Company
(_Resolutions of the Heeren XVII of November 10, December 8 and 10, 1695_)
resolved to dispatch a flotilla to the South-land or the land of
d'Eendracht, this time starting from the Cape of Good Hope. Willem De
Vlamingh was appointed commander-in-chief of the expedition. He was also
instructed to inquire into the fate of the ship de Ridderschap van
Holland, which had miscarried on her voyage from the Cape to Batavia in
1694.]

A.

_Letter of the Governor-General and Councillors to the Managers of the
E.I.C. at the Amsterdam Chamber, November 30, 1697._

...As regards the results of the voyage of the three...vessels aforesaid
[de Geelvink, de Nijptang and het Wezeltje], which, pursuant to the
letters of the "Heeren XVII" of November 10, 1695, and March 16, 1696,
and in accordance with Your Worships' Instructions of April 23 of the
same year, have successfully accomplished their voyage by way of the
Tristan de Cunha Islands and the Cape of Good Hope, furthermore via the
islands of Amsterdam and St. Paulo, and along the land of d'Eendragt or
the South-land, and have arrived here in good condition as regards ships
and crews, we shall in the main beg leave to refer you to the journals
kept on board the said ships, and to their annotations, together with the
charts and a number of drawings of the said places, all which will be
handed to Your Worships by the bearer of the same, Almoner Victor
Victorszoon, who is now homeward bound in the ship Slants Welvaren. The
drawings are packed in a case to the number of 11, to wit:

7 of divers places in the South-land,
1 of the island of Tristan de Cunha,
1 of the island of Amsterdam,
1 of the island of St. Paulo, and
1 of the island of Mony [*].

[* I have not found these drawings.--In the seventeenth-century charts
Mony is South-west of Java.]

{Page 84}

We besides beg to forward to you a number of larger and smaller disks of
wood, brought over from the said South-land by skipper Willem de
Vlamingh, concerning which wood he had noted in his journal at the dates
December 30 and 31, 1696, and January 2, 1697, that it was odoriferous, a
point which we have not been able to verify here, although we have
directly ordered a small portion of it to be distilled, and beg to hand
you with the rest a small bottle of the oil thus gained for Your
Worships' examination...together with a box containing shells collected
on the beach, fruits, plants, etc., the whole, however, of little value
and decidedly inferior to what elsewhere in India may be found of the
same description; so that in general in this part of the South-land,
which in conformity with their instructions they have diligently skirted,
surveyed and observed, they have found little beyond an arid, barren and
wild land, both near the shore and so far as they have been inland,
without meeting with any human beings, though now and then they have seen
fires from afar, some of the men fancying that two or three times they
have seen a number of naked blacks, whom however they have never been
able to come near to, or to come to parley with; nor have they found
there any peculiar animals or birds, excepting that especially in the
Swaene-revier [*] they have seen a species of black swans, three of which
they have brought to Batavia alive, which we should have been glad to
send over to Your Worships, but that shortly after their arrival here
they all of them died one after another. Nor, so far as we know, have
they met with any vestiges of the lost ship de Ridderschap van Hollant or
of any other bottoms, either in those parts or near the islands of
Amsterdam and St. Paulo, so that in sum nothing of any importance has
been discovered in this exploratory voyage. Only, we must not omit to
mention that in an island situated in 25° S.L. near or before the
South-land, they have found fastened to a pole, which though half-rotten
stood still erect, a common pewter dish of medium size, which had been
flattened and nailed to the pole aforesaid, where they found it still
hanging; the said dish bearing the following words engraved on it, still
distinctly legible:

[* Opposite to the Rottenest island.]

"A.D. 1616, on the 25th of October there arrived here the ship den
Eendragt, of Amsterdam; supercargo Gillis Miebais, of Liege; skipper
Dirck Hartog, of Amsterdam; she set sail again for Bantam, on the 27th
do.; subcargo Jan Steyn, upper-steersman Pieter Ledocker van Bil."

This old dish which skipper Willem de Vlaming brought us, has now
likewise been handed to the Commander [*] in order to be delivered to
Your Worships, who with us will no doubt stand amazed that the same has
for so long a series of years been preserved in spite of its being
exposed to the influence of sky, rain and sun [**].

[* Viz. of the fleet with which this letter was sent to the Netherlands.]

[* The dish would seem to be no longer extant.]

In the same spot they have again erected a new pole with a flattened
pewter dish nailed to it in commemoration of their visit, having first
had the following inscription engraved on the dish, as is more amply set
forth in the Journals:

"A.D. 1697, on the 4th of Febr. there arrived here the ship de Geelvinck,
skipper Willem de Vlaming, of Vlieland; assistant Joannes van Bremen, of
Copenhaguen; upper-steersman Michiel Blom, of Bremen; the hooker de
Nijptang, skipper Gerrit Collart, of Amsterdam; assistant Theodorus
Heermans, of do.; upper-steersman Gerrit Gerrits, of Bremen; the galiot
't Weseltje, master Cornelis de Vlaming, of Vlieland; steersman Coert
Gerrits, of Bremen; the whole of our flotilla sailed from here on the
12th do., in order to explore the South-land with destination for
Batavia" [*]

[* This dish was afterwards brought to Paris by the French expedition,
with the ships l'Uranie and la Physicienne (1817-1820), (see L. DE
FREYCINET, _Voyage autour du monde, sur les corvettus l'Uranie et la
Physicienne_, Historique, Paris, 1825. pp. 449, 482-486) and would seem
to be no longer extant there. An evidently inaccurate copy of the
inscription engraved on the dish, is here reproduced on a reduced scale
from _Planche 14_ of the _Atlas Historique_ accompanying De Freycinet's
work.]

[Map No. 12. Opschrift op den schotel, door Willem De Vlamingh op het
Zuidland achtergelaten (Inscription on the dish, left by Willem De
Vlamingh at the Southland), 1697.]

{Page 85}

And since it is our intention, in order to let Your Worships have the
more information and satisfaction touching this voyage, to dispatch to
the Netherlands again in the last return-ships sailing from here, the
ex-leader of the expedition, Skipper Willem de Vlaming Senior, together
with his upper-steersman Michiel Blom, they having not yet returned from
Bengal with their ships Geelvinck and Nijptang, but being expected every
day, therefore we shall not trouble Your Worships with further
particulars, but would beg leave to refer you to their verbal reports for
ampler information touching their experiences in the said expedition...

In the Castle of Batavia, on the last day of November, 1697.

B.

_Journal kept by Skipper WILLEM DE VLAMINGH on his voyage with the ships
de Geelvinck, Nijptang and T'Weseltje via Trestan da Cunha, the Cape, the
islands of Peter and Paul, and the South-land to Batavia, begun on May 3,
1696, and ended March 20, 1697. [*]_

[* This is the only journal of this voyage that I have found in the Old
Colonial Archives at the Hague. I have not printed it here--so far as the
South-land is concerned, it wil be found printed in LEUPE, Zuidland, pp.
153-184--for two reasons: 1st because it differs only slightly from a
journal of the voyage printed in 1701, of which MAJOR, Terra Australis,
pp 120-133 gives a translation; and 2nd, because the two charts
immediately following in the text (Nos. 13 and 14) give an excellent
survey of the results of this voyage of discovery.]

{Page 86}

C.

_Chart of the South-land, made and surveyed by Willem De Vlamingh in
1696-1697. [*]_

[* This chart was not made on the voyage, but is the work of ISAAC DE
GRAAFF, cartographer to the E.I.C. from 1690 to 1714.]

[Map No. 13. Kaart van het Zuidland, bezeild door Willem De Vlamingh in
1696-1697 door ISAAC DE GRAAFF (Chart of the South-land, made and
surveyed by Willem De Vlamingh in 1696-1697)]


{Page 87}

D.

_Chart of the Malay Archipelago, the north- and west-coasts of Australia,
etc. [*]_

[* This chart is likewise the work of ISAAC DE GRAAFF (1690-1714). It
gives a survey of the results of De Vlamingh's voyage, and may also do
duty as a general record of the Dutch discoveries on the north- and
west-coast of Australia in the 17th century. The dotted (uncertain) line
on the N.W. coast is supplemented by the chart of Van der Wall's
discovery in 1678 (No. 11).]

_(See folding Chart, marked No. 14.)_

[Map No. 14. Uitslaande kaart van den Maleischen Archipel, de Noord- en
West-kusten van Australië door ISAAC DE GRAAFF (Folding chart of the
Malay Archipelago, the North- and West-coast of Australia) 1690-1714]

* * * * *



XXXIII.


(1705). FURTHER DISCOVERY OF THE NORTH-COAST OF AUSTRALIA BY THE
SHIPS VOSSENBOSCH, COMMANDED BY MAARTEN VAN DELFT, DE WAIJER UNDER
ANDRIES ROOSEBOOM, OF HAMBURG, AND NIEUW-HOLLAND OR NOVA-HOLLANDIA,
COMMANDED BY PIETER HENDRIKSZOON, OF HAMBURG.

A.

_Instructions_ (by the G.-G. and Counc., dated January 20, 1705) _for the
officers of the Frigate de Geelvink, along with the Pinnace de Kraanvogel
and the Patchiallang Nova Guinea, destined to set out for the outside
coast of the said Nova Guinea; as also for the Flute Vossenbos, together
with the Pinnace de Doradus [*] and the Patchiallang Nieuw Holland,
having destination for the bay of Hollandia Nova._

[* Afterwards replaced by the pinnace de Waijer.]

[Various] considerations have determined us to dispatch you from here on
a cruise, in such fashion that the frigate Geelvinck together with the
pinnace Craanvogel and the patchiallang Nova Guinea, mentioned in the
heading of the present, will first run from here directly for Banda...and
from Banda continue their voyage to the coast of Nova Guinea.

In the same manner we annex sailing instructions for the officers of the
ship Vossenbosch, which together with the pinnace de Doratus and the
patchiallang Nieuw Holland, likewise above mentioned, will first run for
our Castle of Concordia in Timor, and then continue her voyage to
Hollandia Nova, in such fashion as you will for your guidance find
further amplified below...

You will in the first place have diligently to observe, whether there is
anywhere a passage from the outside to the inside, and this not only as
regards Nova Guinea, but also as concerns Hollandia Nova, so that these
orders...will have to be acted up to not only by the officers of the
Geelvinck, but also by those of the Vossenbosch; and you should take
special care, in case you should find such real or seeming passage, not
to run too far into it, lest you should be carried away by currents in
the same, and run the risk of accidents; on which account the examination
of such passages should nowise be undertaken by the frigate or by the
flute, but only by a pinnace or patchiallang; never to any farther
distance than the experienced sailors in the same shall deem advisable to
enable a safe return out of the said passages, and in no case so far as
to get out of anchoring depth...

{Page 88}

And furthermore, as sailing instructions for the officers of the flute
[Vossenbosch], over and above that which should be applicable to them in
the instructions given up to now, it has been resolved to enjoin them
that having reached Timor...they will thence set sail from the
north-eastern extremity of the said island, and shape their course
south-eastward as far as 11° S. Lat. and 148½° Longitude, whence on an
eastward course they will run in sight of Van Diemensland in Hollandia
Nova, which point is said to consist altogether of islands, a matter that
will thus be cleared up. From there this coast will have to be further
followed to eastward as far as Aarnemsland and the Drooge eyland, which
will have to be skirted and surveyed both on the inside and outside;
next, the coast aforesaid will have to be followed as far as Van der
Lijns eiland, which you will examine in the same way as you have done the
Drooge eyland. You will then continue your voyage as far as Lemmens bogt
and Abel Tasmans baay and Waterplaats, and from there run for Cape Van
Diemen, which having rounded you will follow the coast of Carpentaria in
a northward direction along Sweeris, Van der Ljns, Van Diemens and Staten
rivers, until you have passed the Nassauw river, which according to the
chart has its mouth beset with numerous sand-banks and shallows. Next,
running past Cape Keerweer, the Carpentier river, the Hooge eyland and
the Groote vuyle imbocht, together with the Oranjen river, and having
rounded the great projecting point of the Meeuen river, you will run
along the bay of Keerweer then following, always along the coast in a
westerly direction, past the Doodslagers revier, de Waterplaets, until
you have got beyond Goening Apy, Moordenaers revier and the Wesels
eyland, and also beyond Speelmans river and Rijkloffs bays, after which
you will make the point of Ony, whence you will cross over along Keffing
in Banda, as has already been noted in passing...

The commander of the flute Vossenbosch aforesaid, in case the whole bight
of Nova Hollandia, owing to adverse weather or defects of the ship,
cannot be made according to these our instructions so as to enable her to
be back in Banda at the end of September, will be empowered with the
advice of the ship's council, from the Drooge eylant aforesaid to cross
over to the Meeuen river, situated nearly N.W. and S.E. of each other,
and thereby to shorten the voyage to that extent, always provided that no
other means can be found...

If in...Nova Hollandia you should happen to come upon unknown Indians, of
whom you might without violence or risk, and of their own free will,
bring two or three with you hither, such men might possibly prove of
great use in subsequent voyages, but this point we leave to your own
judgment and discretion, as you shall find circumstances to shape
themselves.

Victuals and provisions for all your ships for the space of 10 months
have been ordered on board here...

In the Castle of Batavia, January 20, 1705.

{Page 89}

B.

_A Report and account [dated October 6, 1705] of what has been discovered
and found noteworthy in the voyage of the flute Fossenbosch, the pinnace
d'Waijer and the patsjallang Nova Hollandia, dispatched from Batavia to
Hollandia Nova aforesaid by way of Timor, by the Supreme Government
of India, A.D. 1705; as collected and digested from the written
journals [*] and verbal narratives of the officers returned, by the
Councillors-Extraordinary HENRICK SWAARDECROOM and CORNELIS CHASTELIJN,
commissioned for this purpose; the whole to serve as a report to be
delivered to His Worship Governor-General JOAN VAN HOORN and the Lords
Councillors of India. [**]_

[* I have not found these journals.]

[* I have not printed this Report, 1st because it has been edited by
LEUPE in _Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde van
Nederlandsck-Indie_, Nieuwe Volgreeks, I, pp. 193-201; 2nd because an
English translation of it is given in MAJOR, Terra Australis, pp. 165-173;
3rd because chart No. 15 excellently represents the results of this
voyage. The reproduction being on a reduced scale, some names of places
are not so clearly legible as could be wished, but they will be found
referred to in my Introduction.]

C.

_Chart of Hollandia Nova, further discovered A.D. 1705 by the ships
Vossenbosch, de Wajer and Nova Hollandia, which left Timor on March 2
[*]._

[* On July 12 the ships discontinued their voyage of discovery, and
returned to Banda, where they arrived about a fortnight later.]

{Page 90}

[Map No. 15. Kaart van (Chart of) Hollandia Nova, nader ontdekt anno 1705
door (more exactly discovered by) de Vossenbosch, de Waijer en de Nova
Hollandia]

* * * * *



XXXIV.


(1721-1722). EXPLORATORY VOYAGE BY ORDER OF THE WEST-INDIA COMPANY
"TO THE UNKNOWN PART OF THE WORLD, SITUATED IN THE SOUTH SEA TO WESTWARD
OF AMERICA", BY THE SHIPS AREND AND TIENHOVEN, AND THE AFRICAN GALLEY,
COMMANDED BY MR. JACOB ROGGEVEEN, JAN KOSTER (IN THE SHIP AREND),
CORNELIS BOUMAN (IN THE SHIP TIENHOVEN), AND ROELOF ROSENDAAL (IN THE
AFRICAN GALLEY).

Although the history of this voyage, begun from the Texel on August 1,
1721, does not form part of the subject here treated, I mention it in
passing merely to note that among other places the ships touched at
Paasch-eiland, and at the Paumatos and Samoa island-groups, and reached
Java along the north-coast of New Guinea. The journal of this voyage is
preserved in the Hague State Archives and has been edited by the Zealand
Genootschap der Wetenschappen. (Middelburg, 1838).

* * * * *

{Page 91}



XXXV.


(1727).THE SHIP ZEEWIJK, COMMANDED BY JAN STEIJNS, LOST ON THE
TORTELDUIF ROCK.

A.

_Letter of the G.-G. and Counc. to the Managers of the E.I.C., October
31, 1728._

...On the 26th of April there arrived here quite unexpectedly with the
patchiallang de Veerman a note from the ex-skipper and the subcargo of
the Zealand ship Zeewijk, Jan Steijns and Jan Nebbens, written from Sunda
Strait...informing us that the said ship, after sailing from the Cape of
Good Hope [*] on April 21 [1727], had on June 9 following run aground on
the reef situated before the islands called Fredrik Houtmans Abriolhos
near the South-land in 29° S.L., also known as the Tortelduijf islands;
that favoured by good weather the men had saved from the wreck all kinds
of necessaries, and with the loosened woodwork had constructed a kind of
vessel, with which they had set out from there on the 26th of March, and
arrived in the aforesaid strait on the 21st of April last...

[* The ship had sailed from the Netherlands, November 7, 1726.]

[We] have found...not only that the ex-skipper Jan Steijns has, against
his positive instructions and against the protests of the steersmen, too
recklessly sailed near the South-land, and thereby been the cause of this
disaster, but also that he has attempted to impose upon his superiors by
falsified journals, hoping thereby, if possible, to conceal his grievous
mistake...

The situation of the islands on whose outermost reef the ship Zeewijk has
run aground, is shown by the annexed small chart [*]. They lie out of
sight of the South-land, and are partly overgrown with brushwood, edible
vegetables, etc...here have been discovered not only a number of wells
dug by human hands, but also certain vestiges of a Dutch ship, presumably
also lost on the reef aforesaid...

[* To the Netherlands were sent "two charts of the situation of the Reef,
and of the islands aforementioned" (charts 16 and 17 _below_).]

[Map No. 16. Kaarte betreffende de schipbreuk der Zeewijk (Chart,
concerning the shipwreck of the Zeewijk) 1727.]

[Map No. 17. Kaarte betreffende de schipbreuk der Zeewijk (Chart,
concerning the shipwreck of the Zeewijk) 1727.]

B.

_Journal or daily register, kept [by the second steersman Adriaan (Van)
de Graeff] on board the sho Zeewijk;_ after the miscarriage of the same,
_on the wreck stuck fast on a rocky reef near the unknown Southland;_ and
a few days after, _in the island [*]._

[* This journal is of no interest for our purpose, and I mention it _pro
memoria_ only. The charts sufficiently record the results.]

C.

_Chart drawn by JAN STEIJNS. (No. 16)._

D.

_Chart drawn by ADRIAAN (VAN) DE GRAAF [*]. (No. 17.)_

[* Later in the XVIII century (_inter alia_ in 1755 and 1765) the
West-coast of Australia was again visited by Dutch ships, but what we
know about this point is of no significance.]

* * * * *

{Page 92}



XXXVI.


(1756). EXPLORATORY VOYAGE OF THE SHIPS RIJDER. AND BUIS, COMMANDED
BY LIEUTENANT JEAN ETIENNE GONZAL AND FIRST LAVIENNE LODEWIJK VAN
ASSCHENS, TO THE GULF OF CARPENTARIA.

_Report of the "Master Cartographer" at Batavia, GERRIT DE HAAN, to the
G.-G., and Counc. September 30, 1756._

Pursuant to Your Honourable Worships' highly honoured orders, the
undersigned has the honour to submit to Your Honourable Worships a report
concerning the voyage made by the small bark-ships de Rijder and de Buijs
to the South-land, so far as the same has been touched at by them, as
Your Honourable Worships may be pleased further to gather from the
annexed charts [*].

[* I have not found either these charts or any journals of this
expedition.]

On the 8th of February, 1756 the two ships set sail together from this
roadstead...

On March 26 they were overtaken by a violent storm off the Banda islands,
so that they got separated, and the ship Buijs, finding it impossible to
stand out to sea, entered the port of Banda on March 28; the ship Rijder
held out with fore- and mizen-sails struck until the weather got better,
and not knowing that the ship Buys had returned to port, continued her
voyage. On April 4 those on board the ship Rijder sighted Cape Falso in
Lat. 7° 54' S., in 5 and 4½ fathom; they then shaped their course to the
S.E. and afterwards to the S.S.E., until on April 10 they saw the high
land of Carpentaria, known by the name of hoog Eijland, near which they
found an island not known to the chart, to which island they gave the
name of Rijders Eijland. From the hooge Eyland a reef runs out to sea a
distance of nearly three miles coming close to the Rijders Eyland...They
then shaped their course along the land in order to get into the bay, in
depths Of 8, 7, 7½, 6½ fathom sandy bottom, at which last depth they came
to anchor on April the 16th, where they estimated themselves to be about
two miles off shore. On the 17th do. they went ashore with the boat for
the first time in order to ascertain the nature of the coast. On landing
they found a number of cabins constructed of the bark of trees; they also
saw a man who fled into the wood at their approach, and a small prow or
species of vessel also made of bark, together with some fishing-tackle
and a kind of assagays made of branches of trees, from 4 to 9 feet long,
tipped at one end with a small piece of bone ground to a sharp point. The
fishing-lines seemed to be twisted out of fibrous bark, and, instead of
hooks, had pointed claws of beasts fastened to them. The land was
overgrown with tall grass, and they saw a number of fine dells or
valleys, through which flowed various small rills of fresh water; the
trees were very tall and straight, of regular growth and of different
kinds, some of which would, as they presumed, furnish excellent timber
for ships' masts, yards, etc. The soil was very rich, and on the whole
the country looked very promising. They remained there, making various
landings, and taking in firewood and water, till the 26th of April, when
they put to sea again...shaping their course E.N.E. close to the wind in
depths Of 5, 6 or 7 fathom, following the trend of the coast till they
had got into 10° 30' S. Lat., where they cast anchor on April 28, in
order to explore the land also in this latitude. They found nothing worth
mentioning, however, {Page 93} except a few more cabins or huts of the
kind before described, the inmates of which took to the wood as soon as
our men appeared. They dragged the boat on the {Page 94} beach here, and
repaired the same, remaining there till the 13th of May, waiting for the
ship de Buys. On that day they resolved to continue their voyage, shaping
their course along the land as high as they could in order to keep the
same alongside; but they lost sight of the land all the same, and became
aware that the said land lay at least one degree more to southward than
the chart had led them to believe. On the 24th of May they again sighted
the land in 12° 18' S. Lat.; it showed as a very low-lying coast, whose
trend they followed close inshore. In Lat. 12° 26' South they cast anchor
in 10 fathom good anchoring-ground. As they were lying at anchor at about
1 or 1½ mile's distance from the shore, they saw two of the prows above
described paddle up to the ship, each of them containing two men, who,
when they had got near the ship, by signs and cries began to signify to
our men that they wished them to come ashore. The following day, being
the 26th of May, our men went ashore at daybreak, and on landing found
several persons there, who, however, all took to flight directly. They
also saw two dogs, not unlike so-called Bengal jackals. The persons who
had fled, shortly after returned to them, when they found them armed with
the assagays above described. They were accompanied by a number of
females who had their privities covered with a kind of small mats. The
natives then all of them sat down on the beach near our men, who made
signs to them that they were seeking fresh water; upon which the natives
got up and signified to our men their willingness to show them the places
where water was obtainable. Nor were our men deceived, for after walking
on along the beach for some time, they were conducted to a pleasant
valley with fine trees such as those above described. This seemed to be
the dwelling-place of the natives, for our men saw here more women and
children and also a number of primitive dwellings, merely consisting of
sheltered places under the trees partly covered in with bark. The water
which they found here, welled up out of the earth in pits dug by human
hands. After having inspected the whole place, they went back to the
beach, where they found the two prows in which the natives had previously
approached the ship. As our men were seated on the beach, nineteen
natives came up to them, all of them with bodies daubed over with red;
when the said natives were by our men treated to some arrack with sugar,
they began to make merry and even struck up a kind of chant, at the
conclusion of which they retired to the wood again.

In the morning of the 27th our men went ashore again for the purpose of
attempting to get hold of one or two natives, but did not succeed in
doing so that day, because they landed too late to lure the natives to
the beach. Early in the morning of the 28th they again landed in order to
execute their plan; on their arrival the natives came up to them dancing
and singing, sat down close to them, laid aside their so-called assagays
or weapons, and again enjoyed the liquor with which our men plied them.
While they were thus making merry, our men seized hold of two of them
[*], upon which the others jumped to their feet, snatched up their
assagays and began to throw them at our people without, however, wounding
any one; except that the ship's clerk, who in flying tried to seize one
of the natives round the body, was in the scuffle slightly wounded in the
hand; upon this, our men fired a volley, wounding one of the natives, who
thereupon all of them fled into the bush. Our people then tried to drag
to the boat the two men they had got hold of, but as they were tying
their {Page 95} arms and legs together, one of them by frantic biting and
tearing contrived to get loose and effect his escape. Shortly after
upwards of fifty natives again made their appearance, throwing assagays,
but they also took to their heels, when our people let off another volley
of musketry, after which our men succeeded in carrying off their one
prisoner to the boat.

[* A sorry return for kindness received!]

{Page 96}

On the 29th of May, the wind being S.E. and S.E. by E. with a top-gallant
gale, they put to sea again, running S.S.W. close by the wind in from 10
to 11 fathom good anchoring-ground. At noon they found their latitude to
be 12° 31' South, and dropped anchor in 10 fathom good anchoring-ground,
at about 1 or 1½ mile's distance from the land, their compasses showing
3° 49' north-easterly variation.

On the 30th of May, as they were lying at anchor, two small prows came to
within half a mile of the ship and then paddled back to shore.

On the 31st of May, the wind being East and E.S.E., with a top-gallant
gale, they set sail close to the wind on a southerly course. At noon they
took the latitude of 12° 44' South, having passed depths of 10 and 10½
fathom. At sunset the countercurrent forced them to drop anchor before
the Mosselbaaij.

On the 1st of June, the wind being E.S.E. and S.E. by E. with a weak
top-gallant gale, they set sail over depths of 10½, 11, 12 and latterly
10½ fathom again, good anchoring ground, upon which they dropped anchor
in the forenoon. At noon it fell a calm, and they took the latitude of
12° 51' South, the compasses showing 3° 3' north-easterly variation.

In the morning of June 2 the wind varied between East, E.S.E., and S.E.,
and then went round to S.W. by S.; they sent the boat ashore in search of
fresh water, since in the latitude they had now reached the chart showed
a fresh-water river. When the boat returned alongside, they were informed
that there was an excellent watering-place close by, where the water came
rushing down the rocks, and also a fine inland lake, near which the men
had seen a great number of birds of various kinds, together with certain
foot-prints of large animals. In the drawing or chart this spot has been
named Rijders waterplaats situated in 12° 57' S. Lat.

On the 3rd of June, the wind blowing from the East to E.S.E. with a fresh
breeze, they set sail for the watering-place aforesaid in 11, 10, 11½,
9½, 9 and 8 fathom, good anchoring ground and muddy sand, in which they
dropped anchor at two glasses in the afternoon.

From the 4th to the 12th of June they overhauled the ship, took in water
and firewood, and repaired the boat. During this time no natives were
seen by them.

On the 13th of June, the wind being E.S.E. and S.E. by E. with a weak
top-gallant gale, they put to sea again, following the trend of the coast
on a course between W.S.W. and S. by E...over depths of 8, 8½, 9, and 10
fathom, good anchoring-ground with pebbles and small shells. At noon they
took the latitude of 12° 2' South, and in the afternoon the head-current
forced them to come to anchor.

On the 14th of June, the wind varying between S.E. by E. and South, they
set sail running close by the wind on a southerly and S. by E. course in
9, 9½, 10 and 11 fathom sandy bottom. At noon their estimated course and
distance performed since sunrise were S.S.W. half a point westerly, and
2½ miles, the latitude taken being 13° 8' South. In the afternoon the
wind was S.S.W. by W. with a weak breeze and occasional calms; they
sounded from 11 to 8 fathom sandy bottom with black spots and pebbles; at
the depth last mentioned they came to anchor at the first glass of the
dog-watch, slightly to southward of de Rijdershoek, about 1 or 1¼ mile
off shore, the compasses showing 3° 45' north-easterly variation.

{Page 97}

On the 15th of June the wind blew from the S.E. to the E.S.E. in the
morning and during the day, with a moderate and fresh breeze. At sunrise
they went ashore with the boat in search of whatever might be worth
noting. At noon they took the latitude of 13° South. Towards sunset the
boat returned alongside, reporting that, as they were pulling ashore, and
were at about a quarter of a mile's distance from the land, a canoe in
shape like those before described came paddling up to them, containing
two men who made signs for them to come ashore; and when with great
difficulty they had got ashore through the surf, the two natives of the
canoe had already fled into the bush; shortly after, however, eleven men
and five females again came running up to them, armed with the assagays
hereinbefore described, who directly tried to take our men's hats off
their heads, and on being prevented from doing so, forthwith prepared to
throw their weapons; but when our men fired a shot, they all fled except
a youth, whom our people carried on board along with the canoe aforesaid,
this man being the younger of the two natives brought hither. Our men had
also come upon a large pond containing fresh water, which, however, was
difficult to get to the ship. On the whole the country looked promising
enough, and when cultivated would probably prove very fertile. The
natives mainly subsist on the roots of trees and wild fruits such as
batatas or oubis, together with small quantities of fish which they catch
in their canoes. They also seemed to have some knowledge of gold, when
lumps of the same were shown them. Round by the south the natives are
somewhat more tractable than those farther to northward. Between the 11th
and 12th degrees the trend of the coast is S.W. by S. and N.E. by N.,
next S.S.W. and N.N.E. down to the 13th degree; then running on due south
as far as the eye reaches. The coast is mainly level without any reefs,
and may be approached sounding.

On the 16th of June...they resolved to depart from there, since the
season was passing, and they could only with great difficulty make any
headway or run higher, while, besides, they had only two anchors and
cables left. They then shaped their course to westward for Aarnems land.
At noon they took the latitude of 13° 3' South course held as before.

On the 17th of June in the forenoon the wind was E. by S. and E.S.E. with
a moderate and fresh top-gallant gale, stiffening to a reefed topsail
gale. At noon their estimated course and distance performed in the last
24 hours were W. by N. 25½ miles; estimated Latitude 12° 44' South;
Latitude taken 12° 36' South; course held as before; no land in sight.

From the 18th to the 23rd their course was mainly westerly, with variable
winds and good weather.

On the 24th of June the wind was S.E. by S., E.S.E. and S.E. by E. in the
morning and forenoon, with a stiff reefed topsail-gale. Shortly after
noon they sighted the mainland of Nova Hollandia, S.S.W. of them, showing
as a very low-lying coast; they passed over depths of 15, 14, 13, 12, 11,
10, 9, and 8½ fathom, good anchoring ground and muddy sand, keeping a
N.W. by W. course, since the shallows prevented them from running nearer
to the land than where they could just sight it from the ship's deck;
they next got into 9, 10 and 11 fathom again as before, and dropped
anchor at sunset.

On the 25th of June the wind was S.S.E. to S.E. in the morning and
forenoon with a moderate top-gallant gale, a brightening sky and good
weather. At daybreak, as they were weighing anchor, the cable snapped
off, and the buoy having disappeared, they thus lost their third anchor,
so that they had only one left. They therefore resolved to call at the
island of Timor, and shaped their course to N.W. by W. over {Page 98}
depths of 11, 10, 10½ and 8 fathom; they next steered higher in order to
get into deeper water, and thus passed over 12, 7,  8, 15, 9, 10, 12, 14,
13, 7, 5, 3½, 4, 5, 6, afterwards running up to 20 fathom, muddy bottom.
At noon their estimated course and distance performed were N.W. by W.
slightly Northerly, 5½ Miles; their estimated latitude 11° 30' South;
Latitude taken 11° 37' South; estimated distance from the land 9 or 9½
miles.

They next shaped their course to north-west in these known waters, and on
the 3rd of July following sighted the island of Rottie to westward of
them...

The ship de Buys, having, as hereinbefore mentioned, put into the port of
Banda on the 28th of March, and having there again been provided with all
necessaries, set sail from there again on April 1, shaping her course to
eastward. On April 23 she sighted the land of Carpentaria, and the
so-called Cape Keerweer, when she was in the observed latitude Of 12° 58'
South, so that the land was found to be at least 12 miles more to
eastward than it was believed to be. They had sounded depths of 20, 18,
15, 13, 12, and 11½ fathom, sandy bottom, at which last depth they came
to anchor shortly after sunset.

On the 24th of April the wind was E.S.E. by S. in the morning and
forenoon with a weak top-gallant gale and fine weather; at daybreak they
got their boat ready and made her sail ahead of them in order to take
soundings; they then weighed anchor and set sail, keeping an E.N.E. and
N.E. course close to the wind in 11½, 12, 13, 12, and 11½ fathom, sharp
sandy bottom with small pebbles. At noon their estimated latitude was 12°
54' South, and their estimated distance from the land 4 or 4½ miles. At
sunset they observed Cape Keerweer E. ¼ point N. of them, and the
interior point looking to the river E.N.E. They had sounded depths of
11½, 10½, 11, and 12 fathom sandy bottom, at which last depth they came
to anchor just after sunset. In the course of the day they had seen a
good deal of smoke ascend from the land.

On April the 25th the wind was E., E.N.E., and N.N.E. in the morning and
forenoon, with a weak breeze and fine weather. They weighed anchor at
daybreak and set sail on a northern course close by the wind over depths
of 12, 14, 15 and 17 fathom sandy bottom. At noon their estimated
latitude was 12° 42' South; the wind continued variable with occasional
calms; the land here showed level with a red and white beach; the
interior seemed to be covered with straight, tall trees as far as the eye
reached. At sunset they came to anchor and during the night had a
moderate top-gallant gale with good weather.

On the 26th of April the wind was E. and E. by S. in the morning and
forenoon, with a fresh breeze and fine weather. At daybreak they weighed
anchor and set sail, shaping their course between N.N.W. and N.N.E.; in
the forenoon they observed a pretty high hill N.E. by N. ¼ point N. and a
red point N.N.E. ½ point E. of them. They also came upon a deep bay or
bight named Vliegenbaay, in which the trees on shore were hardly visible
from the top-mast. The N. corner of the said bay is here known by the
name of Aschens hoek. At noon their estimated latitude was 12° 16' South.
They also saw columns of smoke rising up, and thought they could discern
men and cabins. At sunset they came to anchor in 12½ fathom. During the
night the wind was variable.

On the 27 th of April the wind was E. by S.E. in the morning and forenoon
with a fresh topsail breeze, a covered sky and dry weather. At daybreak
they weighed anchor and set sail on a N.N.E. course over depths between
12½ and 14 fathom good anchoring-ground. The land here begins to fall off
to eastward. They here saw a {Page 99} river with an island lying off its
mouth, the river being known as Batavia River, and the island as Buys
Eijland. At noon they took the approximate latitude of 11° 38' South.
They repeatedly saw columns of smoke rising up from the land; in the
afternoon they came to anchor in 11 fathom coarse sand, about 4 miles Off
the shore.

On the 28th of April the wind was E. and E.S.E. in the morning and
forenoon; they weighed anchor and set sail on a N.E. course. At noon they
took the latitude of 11° 29' South, being then 3½ miles off shore, and
having passed depths of 11 and 10 fathom, coarse sand and good
anchoring-ground. In the afternoon the wind blew from the E.S.E., S.E.,
S., S.S.W., with a moderate top-gallant gale and fine weather; course
held N.E. by E. and N.E.½% point N.; they still kept sailing along
low-lying land only.

On the 29th of April the wind was S.S.E. and S.E. in the morning and
forenoon, with a fresh topsail breeze; at daybreak they weighed anchor
and set sail on courses between N.N.E. and N.N.W. over depths of 10, 12,
10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 7,  8, 9 fathom, hard foul bottom; they estimated
themselves to be at 3 miles' distance off the land. At noon their
estimated latitude was 11° 3' South; in the afternoon the wind blew from
the S.E. with a fresh topsail breeze. At 2 o'clock they came to anchor,
since they estimated themselves to be close to Van Spults river; at 3
miles' distance from the land they were in 8 fathom.

On the 30th of April the wind was S.E. by E. and S.E. in the morning and
forenoon, with a fresh breeze. They got the boat ready for the purpose of
taking soundings ahead. At noon their estimated latitude was 10° 56'; at
4 o'clock they had nearly lost sight of the boat, and fired a gun charged
with ball in order to recall the same, but the boat not returning, they
kept a light burning at the top-mast, and during the night fired a gun
now and then. In this way they waited for the boat until the 12th of May,
when they finally resolved to depart from there, since their stock of
water and firewood would not allow of their waiting longer. On board the
missing boat were two steersmen, to wit, Hendrick Snijders and Pieter van
der Meulen, one quartermaster and five common sailors.

On the 12th of May the wind was E.S.E. and S.E. in the morning and
forenoon, with a moderate top-gallant gale and good weather. At daybreak
they weighed anchor and set sail on a western course from the shallows,
passing over depths of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 fathom fine grey sand. At noon
their estimated latitude was 10° 55' South. In the afternoon and during
the night they had good weather with occasional showers of rain; next
running W.N.W., they sighted the island of Timoor Laudt on the 20th of
May.

...From the above Your Honourable Worships will gather that Lieutenant
Jean Etienne Gonzal, in command of the small bark de Rijder, has executed
Your Honourable Worships' honoured orders, so far as the shores of the
Land of Carpentaria are concerned; but that no exploration of the
interior has been undertaken as enjoined by Your Honourable Worships'
instructions [*] and no landing has been effected on the coast of Nova
Hollandia, because they had only one anchor left, so that such landing
was judged too hazardous to be undertaken. Of the part borne in this
expedition by the first mate Lavienne Lodewijk Aschens who was in command
of the small bark de Buys, the undersigned can make Your Honourable
Worships no report worth any serious consideration, since his statements
and annotations are so misleading that it is evident {Page 100} at first
sight that he can never have had any first-hand knowledge or ocular view
of the matters referred to by him, seeing that he has hardly ever been
nearer to the land than 3 miles off it, at which distance, however, he
pretends to have seen a river with a small island before its mouth,
together with natives, cabins, etc.; all which seems impossible to the
undersigned on a level coast such as this, nor has he made any landing on
the said coast, although, contrary to Your Honourable Worships' orders,
he has sailed along it from the south to the north a distance Of 40
miles, before the mishap of the loss of the boat came to pass, as Your
Honourable Worships may further gather from the annexed rough sketch of a
chart [**] of the coast sent in by him...

[* I have not printed these instructions, as they are not of sufficient
interest for our purpose.]

[* I have not found this chart.]

[At foot:]
Your Honourable Worships' Obedient Servant
[signed]
W. G. DE HAAN.
[in margine:] Batavia, September 30, 1756.

* * * * *

[Map No. 5. Uitslaande Kaart van het Zuidland door HESSEL GERRITSZ
(Folding chart of the Southland).]

* * * * *

{Page 101}



INDEX OF PERSONS.


Asschens, (Lavienne Lodewijk Van)
Bewindhebbers der Nederlandsche Oost-Indische Compagnie, (Heeren Majores)
Blom, (Michiel)
Bounian, (Cornelis)
Bremen, (Joannes Van)
Brouwer, (Hendrik)
Buysero, (Cornelis)

Carstensz (oon), Jan
Chastelijn, (Cornelis)
Claeszoon van Hillegom, (Haevick)
Cock, (Daniel Janssen)
Coen, (Jan Pieterszoon)
Collaert, (Gerrit)
Cook, (James)
Coolsteerdt of Colster, (Willem Joosten Van)
Corneliszoon, (Maarten)

Dampier, (William)
Dedel, (Cornelis)
Dedel, (Jacob)
Delft, (Maarten Van)
Diemen, (Antonio Van)
Dircksz, (Pieter)
Dirkszoon, (Pieter)
Dortsman, (Adriaan)

Eckebrecht, (Philippus)
Engelschen

Gerrits, (Coert)
Gerrits, (Gerrit)
Gerritsz, (Hessel)
Gonzal (Jean Etienne)
Gouverneur-Generaal en Raden (Hooge Regeering) te Batavia
Graaff, (Isaac De)
Graeff, (Adriaan Van de)

Haan, (W. Gerrit De)
Haen, (Dirk Corneliszoon)
Haghen, (Steven Van der)
Hartogs(zoon), (Dirk)
Heermans, (Theodorus)
Hendrikszoon, (Pieter)
Hermansz(oon), Klaes
Holman, (Yde Tjerkszoon)
Hoorn, (Joan Van)
Houtman, (Frederik De)

Jacobsz(oon), Lenaert
Jansz., (Jan)
Jansz(oon), Gerrit
Janszoon van Buiksloot, (Reyer)
Jansz(oon), Willem, Koopman
Jansz(oon), Willem, schipper
Jansz., (Willemtje)
Jonck, (Aucke Pieterszoon)
Jongh, (Wollebrand Geleynszoon De)

Keppler, (Joannes)
Koos, (Jasper Janszoon),
Koster, (Jan)

Lastman, (C. I.)
Ledoecker van Bil(?), (Pieter)
Leeuw (Arend Martensz. De)
Le Maire, (Jacques)
Linschoten, (Jan Huygen van)
Lintiens (Pieter)
Lijn, (Cornelis Van der)

Maetsuyker, (Joan)
Melisz(oon), Dirk
Meulen, (Pieter Van der)
Miebaise, (Gilles)

Nebbens, (Jan)
Nuijts, (Pieter)

Peereboom, (Jacob Pieterszoon)
Pelsaert, (François)
Pieterszoon, (Pieter)
Pool, (Gerrit Thomaszoon)
Portugeezen,
Purry, (J. P.)

Reael, (Laurens)
Roggeveen, (Jacob)
Rooseboom, (Andries)
Roosenbergh, (J. Van)
Roosendaal, (Roelof)
Rosingeyn, (Jan Lodewijkszoon)
Rumphius, (G. E.)

Schouten, (Willem Corneliszoon)
Seebaer van Nieuwelant
Snijders, (Hendrik)
Spanjaarden
Speult, (Herman Van)
Staten-Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden
Steyn, (Jan)
Steyns, (Jan)
Swaardecroon, (Hendrik)

Tasman, (Abel Janszoon)
Thijssen of Thijszoon, (François,)
Torres, (Luis Vaez de)

Verschoor, (Jan Willemsen)
Victorszoon, (Victor)
Visscher, (Frans Jacobszoon)
Vlamingh, (Cornelis De)
Vlamingh, (Willem De)
Volckertsz(oon) (Samuel)
Voss, (Jan)

Wall, (Jan Van der)
West-Indische Compagnie
Willemsz. van den Briel, (Jan)
Witsen, (Nicolaas Corneliszoon)
Witt, (Gerrit Frederikszoon De)
Wytfliet, (Cornelis)

Zeeuw, (Jan Janszoon), 73-74.

{Page 103}



INDEX OF SHIPS.


Afrikaansche Galei, (De)
Amsterdam, (De)
Arend, (De)
Arnhem, (De)

Batavia, (De)
Bracq, (De)
Buys, (De)

Doradus, (De)
Dordrecht, (De)
Duifken (Het)

Eendracht, (De), onder Dirk Hartogs
Eendracht, (De), onder Le Maire en Schouten
Elburg, (De)
Emeloord, (De)

Galias, (De)
Geelvink, (De)
Goede Hoop, (De)
Gulden of Vergulden Draak, (De)
Gulden Zeepaard (Het)

Haring, (De)
Hazewind, (De)
Heemskerk, (De)
Hoorn, (De)

Klein-Amsterdam, (De)

Leeuwerik, (De)
Leeuwin, (De)
Leiden, (De)
Limmen, (De)

Mauritius, (De)

Nova-Hollandia, (De)
Nijptang, (De)

Pera, (De)

Ridderschap van Holland
Rijder, (De)

Texel (De)
Tienhoven, (De)

Utrecht (De)

Vianen, (Viane, Viana), De
Vink, (De)
Vliegende Zwaan, (De)
Vossenbosch, (De)

Wakende Boei, (De)
Wapen van Amsterdam, (Het)
Wapen van Hoorn, (Het)
Waijer, (De)
Wezel, (De)
Wezeltje, (Het)
Witte Valk, (De)

Zeehaen, (De)
Zeemeeuw, (De)
Zeewolf, ( De)
Zeewijk, (De)

{Page 104}



INDEX OF LOCALITIES.


Abel Tasmans baai
Abel Tasman's passagie
Alofi
Alhier liggen, bergen
Arnhemsland
Asschenshoek


Barrom-eilanden
Bass-Straat
Batavia's kerkhof
Batavia (Rivier)
Bathurst-eiland
Beach
Bedriegershoek
Boompjeshoek
Boscawen, zie Tafahi
Buyseiland

Caap Falso, zie Valsche Kaap
Carpentaria (Golf van)
Carpentaria ('t Land van)
Carpentier, (Rivier De)
Ceram of de Papues (onzeker, uncertain)
Clappes Cust, zie Klapperkust
Coburg-schiereiland
Coen (Rivier)

Dampier-archipel
Dedelsland
De Witt's land
Dirk Hartogseiland
Dirk Hartogsreede
Drie Bergen's bocht
Drooge bocht
Drooge eiland
Droge Hoek
Duivelsklip
Dundas-straat

Eendrachtsland
Exmouth Gulf

Fidji-groep
Fortuynshoek
Fotuna
Frederik Houtman (Klippen van), zie Houtmans Abrolhos

Garden-island
Geographe Bay
Groote eiland (Het)
Groote vuile inbocht

Hoefijzer-hoek
Hoek van Calmoerie
Hoek van Canthier
Hoek van Goede Hoop
Hoek van Onier
Hooge eiland (Het), aan Australië's Westkust. (High-island)
Hooge land van Carpentaria of Hoog eiland
Hoop (de Goede), zie Nino-fa.
Hoornsche eilanden, zie Fotuna en Alofi.
Houtmans Abrolhos (Houtman's Rocks)

I. d'Edels landt, zie Dedelsland.

Jacob Remessens (Remens- of Rommerrivier)
Jan Melcher's Hoek
Java (Mayor of Groot-)
Java (Zuidkust van)

Kaap Van Diemen
Keerweer (Kaap) aan de Golf van Carpentaria
Keerweer (aan de Zuidwestkust van Nieuw-Guinea,)
Keppel, zie Niutabutabu.
Klapperkust
Kliphoek
Kokoseiland; zie Tafahi.
Konijnenberg

Land van de Eendracht, zie Eendrachtsland.
Land van de Leeuwin
't Land van Nova-Guinea
Land van Pieter Nuijts; zie Nuijtsland.
Leeuwin (Kaap)
Leeminnenhoek, zie Kaap Leeuwin.
Limmensbocht
Lucach

Maarten Van Delft's baai
Maletur
Maria-eiland
Maria's Hoek
Maria's Land
Meeuwenrivier
Melville-baai
Melville-eiland
Mitchell River
Monte Bello-eilanden
Mornington-eiland
Mosselbaai

Nassau (Rivier)
Nieuw-Guinea (Noordkust van)
Nieuw-Guinea of Nova Guinea (Zuidwestkust van)
Nieuw-Holland
Nieuw-Nederland
Nieuw-Zeeland
Nino-fa
Niutabutabu
Noordcust van Australië
Noordwestkust van Australië
Northwest Cape
Nova Hollandia
Nuijtsland

Oostkust van Australië
Oranjehoek
Oranjerivier

Paasch-eiland
Pantjallingshoek
Paumotoe-groep
Perth
Pieter Frederik's Hoek
Pieter Frederik's rivier
Prinses Marianne-straat
Prins Frederik Hendrik-eiland
Prins Wales-eiland

Robben-eiland
Roode Hoek
Rooseboomshoek
Rottenest (Eiland)
Rustenburg
Rijders-eiland
Rijdershoek
Rijders Waterplaats

Sarnoa-groep
Scherpe Hoek
Schrale Hoek
Sharks Bay
Sint François (Eiland)
Sint Pieter (Eiland)
Sneeuwbergen, (Mountains covered with snow)
Southland (see Zuidland).
Sp(e)ult, (Rivier Van)
Speultsland or -eiland (Van)
Statenland, zie Nieuw-Zeeland.
Staten-rivier
Steenbokskeerkring
Sweers-rivier

Tafahi
Tasmanië
Terra Australis
Terra incognita
Tonga-groep
Toppershoedje
Torres-straat
Tortelduif-eiland (Turtle Dove island)
Triall (De)

Valsche Bocht
Valsche Kaap
Valsche Westhoek
Van der Lijns-eiland, zie Groote eiland.
Van der Lijn's rivier
Van Diemens-golf
Van Diemensland
Van Diemens-land, zie Tasmanië
Van Diemen's rivier
Vereenigde rivier
Verraders-eiland, zie Niutabutabu.
Vlakke hoek
Vlaming-head
Vleermuis-eiland, (Het)
Vossenbos' ruige hoek
Vuile Bocht
Vuil eiland, viii.
Vuile Hoek (Foul point)

Waterplaats
Waterplaats bij Van Diemensland, (Noordkust van Anstralië)
Waterplaats (10° 50')
Waterplaats (12° Z.B. en 160 1/3° O.L.)
Waterplaats (12° 33')
Waterplaats (15° 30')
Waijershoek
Wessel-eiland
Westeinde van Nova Guinea
Westkust van Australië
Willems-rivier
Witte Hoek
W. Sweers'hoek

York, (Schiereiland, Peninsula)

Zuidland, (Het)
Zuidwestkust van Australië
Zuidzee, (De)
Zwanerivier



THE END



17TH CENTURY DUTCH SURNAMES by PETER REYNDERS, (SEPTEMBER 2004.)

Surnames, in the meaning of family names, were relatively uncommon in the
United Provinces (Holland) in the sixteenth and early seventeenth
century. Most people identified themselves using patronymics--a reference
to the first name of their father--as a second name. They were registered
as such at birth. Willem Janszoon would have been the son of Jan (i.e.
Jan's zoon). If Willem J. had a son called Thomas he would have been
registered as Thomas Willemszoon. Because it was unwieldy to spell the
full patronymic, it was common practice to abbreviate written names by
omitting the 'oon' and adding an abbreviation point, Jansz., or by using
the so called internal abbreviation Janszn without such point. The name
was however always pronounced in full and generally still is in the
Netherlands where this bit of common knowledge is taught at school.

Therefore when writing for readers in the English speaking world where
this kind of abbreviation is not recognized as such, we should always
write the name in full, Janszoon, Jacobszoon, Bastiaenszoon, etc., when
referring to people of that period. If we do not, we cause the person to
be known by another name one syllable shorter in the English speaking
world. We inadvertently mislead.

Jansz, Jansen, Janssen, Janzen etc are known as petrified (or frozen)
patronymics and were derived from Janszoon when it became more common
(and under Napoleon legally compulsory) to have a family name. These are
the surnames that still exist today; Janszoon is not in use any more, but
for one family. The shorter unabbreviated name Jansz therefore is
typically NOT a name from the early 17th century.

Historians in Australia, unaware of this bit of linguistic inside
information, have faithfully copied abbreviated names from 17th century
documents and subsequent publications, often without the abbreviation
point and as a result the family names such as Jansz, Jansen, Jantsen,
etc. were widely used to indicate Australia's first recorded European
mariner. There seems to be an effort being made today by those in the
know, including by people of the State Library of NSW, the Duyfken Replica
Foundation, the VOC Historical Society, Australia on the Map 1606-2006,
etc., to call the gentleman in question (Willem) Janszoon with two
syllables including in writing. And it is catching on as it is not hard
to understand how this 'Jansz error' crept into Australian history.

Some publishers of English historical literature when correctly presented
by authors with text containing these patronymics with the abbreviation
point added, have simply removed the points arguing that this 'full stop'
in the middle of sentences is confusing for the English reader, thereby
wrongly embedding the abbreviated name as the real one in the readers'
minds. This happened for example with the text of "Batavia's Graveyard"
according the Cambridge educated historian Mike Dash, its author. This is
the more reason to write the full name in the first place.

The message therefore is simple: do not use abbreviated patronymics when
writing, in English, about 16th and 17th century Dutchmen and nobody will
be confused.


* * *
* * *





This site is full of FREE ebooks - Project Gutenberg Australia