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Title: The Journal of Abel Jansz Tasman
Author: Abel Jansz Tasman
Edited by G H Kenihan.
No.: 0400771h.html
Edition: 1
Language: English
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Date first posted: October 2004
Date most recently updated: October 2004

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Start of this Project Gutenberg of Australia eBook
THE JOURNAL OF ABEL TASMAN, Edited by G H Kenihan.

* * * * *

ebook producer's note: No publication date was given for this book. It was
probably published between 1960 and 1964. The source of the material is not
given. It is apparent that the translation of 'INSTRUCTIONS TO TASMAN FOR
HIS VOYAGE OF 1644' is reproduced from "Early Voyages to Terra Australis,
now Called Australia", edited by R H Major, first published in 1859.
The 'JOURNAL OF ABEL JANSZ TASMSN 1642' is reproduced from 'ABEL JANSZOON
TASMAN'S JOURNAL', edited by J E Heeres, first published in 1898.
Both of these works are available as ebooks at Project Gutenberg of Australia.

THE JOURNAL

OF

ABEL JANSZ TASMAN

1642.

 

WITH DOCUMENTS RELATING

TO HIS EXPLORATION

OF AUSTRALIA IN 1644.


CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION.
TASMAN'S JOURNAL.
INSTRUCTIONS TO TASMAN FOR HIS VOYAGE OF 1644.

ILLUSTRATIONS.


INTRODUCTION.

By the year 1642 the star of Spanish Admiralty had waned in the Pacific Ocean.

The Dutch East India Company, clutching for trade and empire, was ready to grasp the Spanish legacy of great voyages of discovery.

The lure of the supposed great southern continent and all that it might bring was a subject of serious discussion by the Governor-General and Council in the Castle at Batavia.

Long sections of the west, north and southern coasts of Australia were known. Indeed for nearly 25 years the west coast had been a shore of disaster for the Company as ship after ship drove onto its outlying reefs and islands.

In 1642 Governor General Anthony Van Diemen was ready to try again, this time far south of the normal trade routes.

The commander he chose was Abel Jansz Tasman who, at the age of 39, had 10 years of service with the Company behind him.

His Journal of the voyage is a remarkable document. While extracts relating to his coastings of Tasmania and New Zealand have been frequently quoted by historians the full journal has not been printed for nearly 70 years. It also puts the voyage into true perspective as one of the great feats of Pacific exploration. For Tasman's instructions were not only concerned with the discovery of the supposed Terra Australis.

The Council of Batavia was just as anxious for proof of a southern sea passage to Chile and the rediscovery of the Solomon Islands, as well as further exploration of the New Guinea coastline.

For those with a particular interest in navigation two points should be kept in mind when following the Journal. Firstly Tasman's longitudes are reckoned from Teneriffe which is approximately 16 1/2 degrees west of Greenwich. The miles quoted in the daily run of the ships are Dutch miles, each approximately four times as great as our present English land mile.

Of Tasman's 1644 voyage around the northern and north-west Australian coastline only the sailing instructions printed following the journal plus a chart have ever come to light. His journal of that great voyage has been lost.

Soon after the 1644 voyage Tasman was made a member of the Council of Justice at Batavia and elevated to the rank of Commander.

He continued in the service of the Company until 1653 and we have knowledge of him trading to Siam in 1647 and fighting against the Spanish in the Philippines in 1648.

Tasman died in Batavia after his retirement and, while the year is uncertain, there is evidence to indicate that it was probably 1659.

While his voyage of discovery established him as the greatest of the early Dutch explorers and added to the knowledge of the south-west Pacific and the Australian coastline, both were commercial failures for the Dutch East India Company.

The fact that Tasman brought back no news of lands profitable for trade or exploitation may well be responsible for the lack of interest that the Dutch showed in Australia and the south-west Pacific area from the mid-17th century onwards.

Not for another 125 years, with the first voyage of Captain Cook, would the discoveries of Tasman be followed up. From that point on the fruits of exploration went to the British people.


TASMAN'S JOURNAL.

Journal or Description drawn up by me, Abel Jansz Tasman, of a voyage made from the town of Batavia in East India for the discovery of the unknown South land in the year of our Lord 1642, the 14th of August. May God Almighty vouchsafe His blessing on this work.

Amen.

 

This day August 14, A.D. 1642, we set sail from the roads of Batavia with two ships, the Yacht Heemskerk and the Flute Zeehaan, the wind being north-east with good weather. On the same day in the evening the Zeehaan ran aground near the island of Rotterdam, but got afloat again in the night without any notable damage, after which we continued our voyage to the Straits of Sunda.

Item the 15th.

Towards evening we went to Mr. Sweers, who was on board the Yacht Bredam, from whom we understand that at Bantam point there lay at anchor a galiot, newly arrived from the Netherlands; at night we anchored off Anjer in 22 fathom, where we refitted our ship which was disabled to such a degree that we could not possibly have put to sea in her.

Item the 16th.

The wind continuing east with a steady breeze, the current running fast from Sunda Strait; at night we weighed anchor with the wind blowing from the land, set sail and shaped our course so as to pass between the Prince Islands and Cracatouw.

Item the 17th.

In the morning we had the Prince Islands south-west and Cracatouw north-west by north of us, the wind being south-east, our course south-west by west; at noon we had the southernmost of the Prince Islands east-south-east of us at 5 miles distance, ourselves being in 6 degrees 20 minutes Southern Latitude and 124 degrees Longitude; in the afternoon we drifted in a calm; in the said afternoon it was resolved that from Sunda Strait we shall sail 200 miles to the south-west by west, as far as 14 degrees South Latitude; from there to the west-south-west as far as 20 degrees South Latitude, and from there due west as far as the island of Mauritius.

Item the 18th.

Latitude by estimation 6 degrees 48 minutes, longitude 123 degrees 20 minutes, the wind south-east with good weather, course kept south-west by west as resolved on in council on the 17th, sailed 13 miles; at night we had heavy rains with thunder and lightning.

Item the 19th.

At noon we found the latitude to be 8 degrees 38 minutes, the longitude 120 degrees 35 minutes; we sailed 36 miles; course kept by estimation south-west by west, but we find we are more to the south; wind south-east by east, top-gallant gale; variation of the compass 3 degrees north-westerly.

Item the 20th.

At noon Latitude observed 10 degrees, Longitude 118 degrees 30 minutes; wind south-east by east, top-gallant gale, course kept south-west by west, sailed 36 miles, good weather and smooth water.

Item the 21st.

At noon Latitude observed 11 degrees 12 minutes, Longitude 116 degrees 42 minutes; wind south-east, top-gallant gale, course kept south-west by west, sailed 32 miles; we saw numbers of birds and estimated ourselves to be in the longitude of the Cocos Isles (Keeling Islands) variation 5 degrees North-West.

Item the 22nd.

At noon Latitude observed 13 degrees 31 minutes, Longitude 114 degrees 40 minutes; wind south-east, top-gallant gale, course kept south-west by west sailed 36 miles.

Item the 23rd.

At noon Latitude observed 13 degrees 57 minutes, Longitude 112 degrees 23 minutes; wind south-east with a steady breeze, course kept south-west by west, sailed 40 miles, the sea still running high from the south-west and south-south-west.

Item the 24th.

At noon Latitude observed 14 degrees 29 minutes, Longitude 109 degrees 41 minutes; wind south-east with a steady breeze, course kept west by south, sailed 40 miles.

Item the 25th.

At noon Latitude observed 15 degrees 13 minutes, Longitude 107 degrees 20 minutes, the estimated Latitude being 15 degrees 28 minutes; wind south-east with a steady breeze, course kept west-south-west slightly westerly, sailed 38 miles; variation 8 degrees 20 minutes North-West.

Item the 26th.

At noon Latitude observed 16 degrees, Longitude 105 degrees 12 minutes, the estimated Latitude being 16 degrees 7 minutes; wind south-south-east, top-gallant gale, course kept west-south-west slightly westerly, sailed 36 miles; variation 11 degrees.

Item the 27th.

At noon Latitude observed 16 degrees 40 minutes, Longitude 103 degrees; wind south-east but east in the evening, light top-gallant gale, course kept west-south-west, sailed 26 miles; variation 12 degrees 30 minutes. 

Item the 28th.

At noon Latitude estimated 17 degrees 7 minutes south, Longitude 102 degrees  2 minutes; wind variable with a dark sky, course kept west-south-west sailed 18 miles.

Item the 29th.

At noon estimated Latitude 17 degrees 50 minutes, Longitude 100 degrees 34 minutes; in the afternoon  variable winds; at 3 glasses in the first watch we again had the wind south-south-east, top-gallant gale, course kept west-south-west, sailed 28 miles.

Item the 30th.

At noon estimated Latitude 18 degrees 51 minutes, Longitude 97 degrees 58 minutes; wind south-east with light showers, course kept west-south-west, sailed 40 miles; about noon the Zeehaan broke her spritsail yard.

Item the last.

At noon estimated Latitude 19 degrees 55 minutes, Longitude 95 degrees 14 minutes; wind south-south-east, unsteady with drizzling rain, course kept west-south-west, sailed 42 miles, shortly after noon I compared notes with the skippers and steersmen, when we found the average latitude to be 19 degrees 49 minutes and the do. longitude 95 degrees 24 minutes; we continued to run west-south-west until the evening and then west, being in the longitude of the island of Mauritius.

Item the 1st of September.

At noon estimated Latitude 20 degrees 28 minutes, Longitude 92 degrees 19 minutes; wind south-east with a steady breeze and drizzling rain, course kept west by south, sailed 42 miles.

Item the 2nd.

At noon estimated Latitude 20 degrees 28 minutes, Longitude 89 degrees 29 minutes; wind east-south-east with a steady breeze, drizzling rains and high seas, course kept west, sailed 40 miles; variation of the compass needle 20 degrees North-West.

Item the 3rd.

At noon observed Latitude 20 degrees 36 minutes, Longitude 86 degrees 56 minutes; wind east-south-east, top-gallant gale with good weather, course kept west, sailed 36 miles.

Item the 4th.

At noon estimated Latitude 19 degrees 55 minutes, Longitude 85 degrees 13 minutes; wind easterly, light top-gallant gale, course kept west-north-west, sailed 26 miles; variation 22 degrees 30 minutes; at night at the end of the first watch we saw land; we lay a-trying with clewed sails all night.

Item the 5th.

In the morning we saw that it was the island of Mauritius; we steered for it and came to anchor before it at about 9 o'clock, we being then in Latitude 20 degrees, Longitude 83 degrees 48 minutes. When we saw the island of Mauritius we were by estimation still 50 miles east of it.

Item the 6th.

We sent 6 sailors, three belonging to the Zeehaan and three to our ship, together with one of our second mates, to the wood to assist the huntsmen there in capturing game and bring the same down to our ships. At noon we saw a ship outside the bay before the entrance, which ship came to anchor near us about 4 hours later, when we understood her to be the Arent, which had sailed from the Texel on the 23rd of April last in company with the ships Salmander and Zutphen, the Yacht Leuwerick and the galiot Visscher, the said ships and yachts having parted company with her at the Zoute islands in order to continue their voyage to Batavia. The said Arent brought a quantity of provisions such as victuals and ammunition of war, together with a number of soldiers and sailors for the island of Mauritius. The officers of the said Yacht reported to Commander Van der Stel that on the 27th ultimo they had got to Diego Rodrigos, believing it to be Mauritius, seeing that it is in the same longitude as the latter island; that there they had found a French ship lying at anchor on the roadstead; that they could not clearly make out whence this ship had come, owing to the evasive answers they received from the crew, some saying they had come from Diepen, others from the Red Sea, and that they were bound for the Mascarinas or were going to call at Madagascar; that they had sailed from Diego Rodrigos at the same time with the French ship and had parted company with her on the 5th instant at noon; that they were still in sight of her in the evening, at which time they saw that she shaped her course west-south-west. On this report the Commander aforesaid straightways despatched some men to the north-west side of the island in order to ascertain whether the Frenchman could have gone thither, the Commander presuming that the Frenchman might have attempted to mislead our people to get an opportunity of cutting some ebony wood there, which we were bound to prevent him from doing.

Item the 7th.

We were engaged nearly all day repairing our ropes and tackle; considering that our rigging was old, weak and not much to be depended on we added three more large ropes to the rigging on both sides the main and foremast in order to steady the same; towards evening we got 8 head of goats and one pig from shore.

Item the 8th.

In the morning we sent to the Zeehaan four out of the 8 goats received yesterday; also sent for one more sailor in her whom, together with one of our own men, we despatched to shore to assist the huntsmen and the men who went ashore on the 6th instant.

Item the 9th.

We sent one of our carpenters together with 7 or 8 sailors from our ship and from the Zeehaan to the wood in order to cut down timber; in the afternoon we wrote an order to the officers of the Zeehaan, enjoining them to serve out to each of their men no more than half a mutchkin of arrack as his daily ration. Then Worshipful Van der Stel informs us that he has got positive orders from the Honourable Governor-General and Councillors of India not to serve out more than one small glass of arrack to each of his men, and this only to such as are cold, wet and dirty. In order to maintain peace among the men and prevent discontent, ill-will and envy as far as in us lies we have therefore deemed it best to serve out only half a small glass of arrack to our men while we are lying in this roadstead.

Item the 10th.

We sent our Skipper Ide Tjercxz to bring on board of us the Honourable Van der Stel with whom we discussed the question whether it would not be needed for our ships, and advantageous to the Company, before sailing from here to continue our destined voyage to appoint a place of rendezvous, the rather as the Honourable Governor-General and Councillors of India have expressly and instantly enjoined and recommended the appointing of such a place of rendezvous in our instructions; after due deliberation we summoned on board of us all our skippers, first and second mates, and informed them that we desired all persons present to give their advice in writing what place were best to fix upon for a rendezvous, in case we should get separated from each other by rough weather, storms or other accidents (which we hope will be spared us and God in his mercy advert) to the end that we may join company again; and that, after being made acquainted with each person's advice, we shall resolve upon such a line of action as shall be serviceable to the Company and to the furtherance of our voyage. In the evening we got from shore 8 goats and 2 hogs; our carpenter Jan Joppen also returned on board, reporting that they had cut down a number of trees for timber but that no more fitting was to be had at that place.

Item the 11th.

In the morning our skipper, together with the carpenter aforesaid, went to the wood in the boat for the purpose of fetching thence the timber, and took the same to the fortress of Frederik Heyndrick, there to be sawn into boards of the most fitting dimensions. In the afternoon we sent 4 goats and one hog to those on board the Zeehaan.

Item the 12th.

In the morning our boat went to the wood a second time, and again took some logs to the fortress aforesaid. Towards the evening we again received 12 goats, half of which we sent to the Zeehaan. Our skipper reported that one of our sailors, Joris Claesen van Bahuys by name, had badly hurt himself in handling a log that was to be sawn ashore; on which we forthwith sent on shore our chief and assistant barbers to examine the patient and give him the requisite attendance.

Item the 13th.

Nothing worth mentioning occurred today except that we sent a bag of rice to our men in the wood and fished our main-yard.

Item the 14th.

We again received from shore 4 goats and 2 hogs, of each of which we sent half to the Zeehaan. In the evening the men despatched by the Honourable Van der Stel on the 6th instant returned, reporting that in none of the bays they had seen any sign of the French ship.

Item the 15th.

In the morning we sent ashore our chief boatswain and boatswain's mate with a number of sailors and a quantity of cordage in order to make ropes.

Item the 16th.

The Yacht Cleyn Mauritius sailed from here in order to fetch ebony from a spot about 10 miles to the eastward, to serve as cargo for the Arent; having got near the entrance of the bay she cast anchor because unable to beat out owing to strong wind. Towards noon the Honourable Van der Stel and Tasman convened on board the admiral the councils of the Fortress of Frederick Hendrik of the ships Heemskerk and Zeehaan and of the Yacht Arent, and submitted to the Council what was next resolved upon, as may be seen from this day's resolution. Towards the evening our second mate Chryn Hendricx, whom on the 6th instant we had dispatched to the huntsmen in the wood, returned on board bringing 10 head of goats; this day we ordered one of the second mates of the Zeehaan to go to the wood in our second mate's stead.

Item the 17th.

In the morning we sent our other second mate Carsten Jurriaens to the wood with six sailors to cut firewood; towards the evening we delivered 4 out of the 10 goats received yesterday to those on board the Zeehaan. This day by order of Commander Van der Stel and in pursuance of yesterday's resolution we took out of the Yacht Arent for the behoof of our ship and the Zeehaan the goods following, to wit:

Item the 18th.

Nothing occurred worth mentioning except that we fished our foremast at the back and got from shore 6 head of hogs, out of which at nightfall we gave three to the quartermaster of the Zeehaan.

Item the 19th.

The carpenters caulked the ship on the outside, stopped all the leaks they could find, and furthermore overhauled everything and duly pitched the seams.

Item the 20th.

I went shooting early in the morning in the west part of the island of Mauritius in company with Mr. Van der Maerzen, subcargo and second in command in the fortress of Fredrick Hendrick; we returned on board towards noon with 13 wild birds. This day we had a number of sawn boards brought from shore and a quantity of rope made ashore.

Item the 21st.

In the morning the Yacht Cleyn Mauritius got clear of the bay and set sail for her destination to fetch ebony for the cargo of the Arent; from the 16th instant when she left this roadstead she had been unable to beat out owing to the strong east-south-east trade-wind. This day we made a new main-top and fished the foremast near the top-yard on both sides; in the evening we received from shore 10 head of cattle to wit: 7 goats and 3 hogs.

Item the 22nd.

In the morning ourselves and Gerrit Jansz, Skipper in the Zeehaan, together with a number of sailors with axes, went ashore to the wood in order to procure fitting timber for top-yards, anchor-stocks and mizzen-yards etc., for the purposes of our further voyage; we returned towards evening bringing a piece of round timber proper for fishing a top-yard, and also an anchor-stock for ourselves and two ditto for the Zeehaan.

Item the 23rd.

We fetched from the wood 3 anchor-stocks and a round piece of timber for a top-yard with a quantity of firewood, and got a boatload of water from a watercourse east of the fortress of Fredrick Henrick.

Item the 24th.

We brought from shore a boatload of firewood and three ditto of water. Towards the evening we received in the huntsmen's boat 5 goats and three hogs, of which the same evening we handed three goats and one hog into the boat of the Zeehaan; during the night in the second watch we got on board another boat with 7 casks of water.

Item the 25th.

In the morning at daybreak there was a light breeze blowing from the land, at first from the north-north-east, afterwards somewhat fresher from north-west by west and west-north-west, which was the first land-breeze we had from the time we had come to anchor here. This day two pinnaces of firewood and two boatloads of water were fetched from shore; item our pilot-major Francoys Jacobsz and Mr. Gilsemans made a surveying of the coast.

Item the 26th.

We convened the council of the Heemskerk and the flute Zeehaan and resolved upon sailing from here on the 4th proximo, as may be more detailedly seen from today's resolution.

Item the 27th.

We sent our second mate Chryn Heyndrickse to the wood to cut firewood.

Item the 28th.

We sent our pinnace and boat to the wood to get firewood.

Item the 29th.

We still kept sending the pinnace and boat ashore for firewood; this day the Yacht Cleyn Mauritius  returned, bringing one of the runaway Madagascar slaves.

Item the last.

We were still busy taking in firewood; towards the evening we got ten goats.

Item the 1st of October.

We were still engaged in taking in firewood with our pinnace and boat; towards the evening we got from shore 9 head of cattle, both he-goats and she-goats.

Item the 2nd.

Still busy taking in firewood and refilling the water-casks which were emptied day by day.

Item the 3rd.

Still kept the boat and pinnace at fetching water and firewood; at dusk we received on board 7 head of cattle, to wit 2 hogs, 4 he-goats and one she-goat.

Item the 4th.

This was the day we had fixed upon for putting to sea but owing to contrary winds we were unable to stand out to sea, so that we were forced to remain at anchor; we therefore despatched the pilot-major Francoys Jacobsz and the first mate of the Zeehaan, Heyndrick Pietersen, to take soundings in the eastern entrance, whence we were to set sail, where they sounded barely 13 feet at high-water at spring-tide.

Item the 5th.

The contrary wind still continuing, we were unable to beat out of the bay, and therefore sent our pinnace with the second mate Carsten Jurriaensz to catch fish with the dragnet, who returning brought a capital lot of fish for the whole of our crew.

Item the 6th.

We warped the kedge-anchor to get out at the south-east entrance and kedged a second time, but were compelled to give it up owing to the strong contrary wind. Towards the evening we learnt that the men sent out to seek the runaway Madagascar slaves had come back without having seen any of them; this day we again got a capital lot of fish for the whole crew.

Item the 7th.

The wind blowing from the east we were still busy with the kedge-anchor; in the evening we came to anchor under the islands in front of the bay in sixty fathom muddy bottom; this bay is very hard to get out of seeing that the south-east wind is continually blowing here; whoever has no urgent business here had better keep out of it.

Item the 8th.

In the morning the weather rainy with a light land-breeze and whirlwinds; we weighed our anchors but had to drop them again owing to contrary winds; about 8 o'clock the wind turned to the north-east by east, we weighed anchor and accordingly ran out to sea south-eastward, for which God be praised and thanked; the southern extremity of this island of Mauritius is in 20 degrees 12 minutes South Latitude and 78 degrees 47 minutes Longitude. We shaped our course to the south-south-east, having the wind north-east, a weak top-gallant gale; at noon we turned our course to the south by east.

Item the 9th.

At noon Latitude observed 21 degrees 5 minutes, Longitude 78 degrees 47 minutes, course kept south, sailed 13 miles with good weather and a light breeze, the wind south-east. This day we drew up a resolution respecting the crew's meals as may be further seen from the same; in the evening we had the island of Mauritius still in sight.

Item the 10th.

At noon Latitude estimated 21 degrees 54 minutes, Longitude 78 degrees 11 minutes; course kept south-west by south, sailed 15 miles, the wind being south-east with a light top-gallant gale; towards daybreak the sea began to run high from the south and we found our mizzen-mast to be quite broken at the partner so that we had to fish it on both sides.

Item the 11th.

At noon Latitude estimated 23 degrees 28 minutes, Longitude 77 degrees 51 minutes; the wind easterly with a light top-gallant gale, course kept south by west, sailed 24 miles.

Item the 12th.

At noon Latitude observed 25 degrees 18 minutes, Longitude 77 degrees 51 minutes; the wind northerly with a light top-gallant gale with good weather, a clear sky and smooth water; course kept south, sailed 28 miles; we again fished our mizzen-mast. Variation 23 degrees 30 minutes North-West.

Item the 13th.

At noon Latitude estimated 27 degrees 26 minutes, Longitude 77 degrees 51 minutes; course kept south, sailed 32 miles, the wind from the north-west; in the morning rain and a top-gallant gale.

Item the 14th.

At noon Latitude observed 29 degrees 20 minutes, Longitude 78 degrees 45 minutes; course kept south-south-east, sailed 29 miles, the wind west and west-south-west with a top-gallant gale; at night at the end of the first watch, the wind becoming south-south-east, we turned to the west. Variation 23 degrees 30 minutes.

Item the 15th.

The wind south-east and east-south-east with a dark sky and a stiff breeze; at noon Latitude estimated 29 degrees 45 minutes, Longitude 78 degrees 57 minutes; course kept south-south-east, sailed 7 miles; towards the evening we got the wind east by south with a drizzling rain.

Item the 16th.

The wind south and south-south-east, at times south-east and east-south-east with a top-gallant gale; at noon we were in 31 degrees 17 minutes South Latitude, and Longitude 78 degrees 13 minutes; course kept south-south-west, sailed 25 miles. Variation 25 degrees 15 minutes.

Item the 17th.

A calm, the wind westerly; course kept south-south-east, sailed 9 miles; at noon Latitude observed 31 degrees 51 minutes, Longitude 78 degrees 26 minutes. Towards noon we got a light top-gallant gale, wind as before. Variation 25 degrees 30 minutes North-West.

Item the 18th.

Good weather with a westerly wind and a top-gallant gale; at noon Latitude observed 33 degrees 56 minutes; course kept south by east, sailed 32 miles. Towards the evening the Zeehaan hove to leeward, whereupon we forthwith made towards her, she calling out to us that the wales to which her shroud-bolts are fixed had got disjoined so that they had to be fished. Variation 24 degrees.

Item the 19th.

About 9 o'clock we got the wind south-south-west with drizzling rain and afterwards it fell a dead calm. At noon Latitude estimated 36 degrees 2 minutes, Longitude 80 degrees; course kept south-south-east, sailed 34 miles, with a top-gallant gale; in the afternoon the wind turned to the south-east and we tacked to the west.

Item the 20th.

Foggy weather with a drizzling rain. At noon Latitude estimated 36 degrees 29 minutes, Longitude 79 degrees 25 minutes; course kept south-west with variable winds and the weather improving; sailed 10 miles; towards the evening the south-south-east wind fell almost to a calm.

Item the 21st.

Variable winds alternating with calms; at noon Latitude observed 36 degrees 22 minutes, Longitude 79 degrees 25 minutes, so that we found we had drifted two miles to northward. Towards evening we got a breeze from the north-west.

Item the 22nd.

Dark drizzly water with a westerly wind and a steady breeze; at noon Latitude estimated 38 degrees 11 minutes, Longitude 78 degrees 57 minutes; course kept south by east, sailed 28 miles. Variation 24 degrees 40 minutes North-West.

Item the 23rd.

In the morning the wind began to blow stiffly from the west-south-west and south-west so that we had to take in our topsail. At noon Latitude estimated 40 degrees 18 minutes, Longitude 80 degrees 46 minutes, course kept south-east by south, sailed 40 miles; in the afternoon we turned our course to the south-east and had heavy showers of rain from time to time.

Item the 24th.

In the morning we took in our bonnets, lowered our foresail down to the stem, and ran on before the wind with our mainsail only; we dared not try to the wind because of the strong gale blowing. This gale was attended with hail and rain to such a degree that we feared the ship would not live through it, but at noon the storm somewhat abated so that we hauled to the wind; we could not see the Zeehaan, for which reason we hauled to the wind to stay for her. At noon Latitude estimated 40 degrees 42 minutes, Longitude 83 degrees 11 minutes; course kept east by south, sailed 30 miles; the wind south-west and south with a violent storm; we kept a sharp lookout for the Zeehaan but could not get sight of her.

Item the 25th.

In the morning we sent a man to the masthead to look out for our partner whom he saw astern, of which we were full glad; the weather getting slightly better we again set our bonnets and drew up the foresail. Towards noon the Zeehaan again joined us. At noon our estimated latitude was 39 degrees 58 minutes and Longitude 84 degrees 11; course kept north-north-east, sailed or drifted 12 miles; at noon we shaped our course to the south-east, with a south-west wind and a steady breeze.

Item the 26th.

Good weather, the wind south-west by west with a top-gallant gale; at noon Latitude observed 41 degrees 34 minutes, Longitude 86 degrees 10 minutes; course kept south-east, sailed 32 miles; the sea still kept running high from the south-south-east; we changed our course to south-east by south and south-south-east; we spoke the Zeehaan and understood that this day a man died on board of her; as we were speaking the Zeehaan she broke her top-yard, which was forthwith replaced by another which they kept in stock. This day average Longitude 86 degrees 14 minutes, Latitude 41 degrees 40 minutes.

Item the 27th.

In the morning before early breakfast we saw a good deal of rock-weed and manna-grass floating about; we therefore hoisted a flag, upon which the officers of the Zeehaan came to board of us; we convened the Council and submitted to their consideration the instructions of the Honourable Governor-General and Councillors of India in case we should see and observe land, shoals, sunken rocks, etc. We then submitted to the council the question whether, now that we observed these signs of land, it would not be best to keep a man at the masthead constantly and make him look out for land, shoals, sunken rocks and other dangers; also what sum had best be fixed upon as a reward to be given to him who should first see land, upon which the Council thought fit to keep a man on the lookout constantly, and to give three pieces-of-eight and a can of arrack to whoever shall first see and observe land, shoals, sunken rocks, etc.; all of which may in extenso be seen from this day's  resolution. At noon our estimated latitude was 43 degrees, and longitude 88 degrees 6 minutes; course kept south-east, sailed 30 miles, the wind being westerly with a top-gallant gale and a drizzling rain. Variation 26 degrees 45 minutes. At night we lay a-trying under reduced sail.

Item the 28th.

At daybreak we made sail again, turned our course south-south-eastward, in dark foggy weather; we still saw seaweeds floating about; at noon we estimated ourselves to be in Latitude 44 degrees 47 minutes South, and Longitude 89 degrees 7 minutes; course kept south-south-east, sailed 29 miles, in a north-westerly and westerly wind with a top-gallant gale; we also saw fragments of trees floating about resembling the leaves of wild bananas; at night we lay a-trying under reduced sail and dared not run on on account of the fog; gradually however the sea began to get smooth; we time after time fired a musket and now and then also a great gun.

Item the 29th.

In the morning we made sail again, held our course to the south-south-east, spoke the officers of the Zeehaan, because we thought it best to keep our course to eastward so long as the fog should last. Having hailed the friends of the Zeehaan we called out to them whether, seeing that in this fog and darkness it is hardly possible to survey known shores, let alone to discover unknown land, it would not be best and most advisable to shape our course to eastward until the advent of clearer weather and a better prospect; the which they deemed highly advisable; on which account we convened the ship's council with the second mates, and informed them of what the officers of the Zeehaan had said when we had spoken them, together with their opinion and advice; after which we asked all the persons assembled what they thought best to be done; whereupon a unanimous resolution was come to which may in extenso be gathered from this day's resolution and is fully accordant with the opinion of the officers of the Zeehaan. At noon we directed our course to eastward with a north-north-westerly wind and a top-gallant gale; our estimated latitude being 45 degrees 47 minutes, and Longitude 89 degrees 44 minutes; course kept south-south-east sailed 17 miles.

Item the 30th.

At daybreak we again made sail, shaped our course to eastward with a clear sky and a top-gallant gale from the west. At noon Latitude observed 45 degrees 43 minutes, Longitude 91 degrees 51 minutes; course kept east, sailed 22 miles. Variation 26 degrees 45 minutes.

Item the last.

Towards noon a drizzling rain came on with fog, while the wind stiffened more and more, so that we took in our topsails; at noon we also took in our main-sail and ran on before the wind with our foresail, wind and sea running very high. At noon Latitude estimated 47 degrees 4 minutes, Longitude 95 degrees 19 minutes; course kept east-south-east, sailed 50 miles; we then had a storm from the west and held our course to the east.

Item the 1st of November.

In the morning the weather having somewhat improved we made more sail. At noon observed Latitude 46 degrees 9 minutes, Longitude 99 degrees 9 minutes; we were greatly surprised at finding ourselves so far northward as we had estimated ourselves to be in 47 degrees, and now found our latitude to be 46 degrees 9 minutes; course kept east but if we make allowance for the error in our estimation our course is east by north half a point more northerly, and we sailed 40 miles; in the afternoon the weather became foggy, the wind turning to the north-west with a light breeze; we saw a great quantity of rock-weed floating and shaped our course to the south-east, seeing that we were so far to northward; at night we lay a-trying under reduced sail. This day our master-gunner Eldert Luytiens departed this life in the Lord.

Item the 2nd.

In the morning we made sail again, shaping our course to the south-east; the wind north-west with a steady breeze; we sailed with the main-sail set, the weather being very foggy; course kept east-south-east, sailed 25 miles; estimated Latitude 46 degrees 47 minutes, Longitude 101 degrees 23 minutes; we saw still a good deal of rock-weed floating about; at night we again lay a-trying with clewed sails as we dared not run on on account of the fog.

Item the 3rd.

The wind being south-west with a strong breeze we again made sail, held our course to south-eastward, and from time to time had heavy squalls of hail and snow with very cold weather. At noon Latitude observed 46 degrees 47 minutes, Longitude 103 degrees 58 minutes; course kept east by south, sailed 27 miles; between the squalls we could keep a fair lookout so that we kept sailing during the night; we again saw quantities of rock-weed floating about from time to time, and found that we were driven to the north.

Item the 4th.

Wind and weather as before our course still being south-east; at noon we altered our course to eastward; Latitude estimated 48 degrees 25 minutes, Longitude 107 degrees 56 minutes; course kept south-east by east, sailed 40 miles. In the afternoon we desired our skipper and mates to give in their average longitude and southern latitude which, after comparison with our own, we found to average 107 degrees 25 minutes Longitude and 48 degrees 28 minutes South Latitude. After this comparison of notes we convened the ship's council with the second mates, and submitted to their consideration what was subsequently unanimously resolved upon and is found duly specified in today's resolution, to which for briefness sake we refer. Towards evening we again saw various lots of rock-weed floating about, and observed large numbers of tunnies near and roundabout the ship; our boatswain's mate and one of the sailors also saw a seal, from which we surmise that there may be islands hereabouts, since these animals are not likely to go out far to sea; on this account we did not venture to run on full sail, but after supper held northward under reduced sail.

Item the 5th.

In the morning we had rather foggy, hazy and dirty weather with a dark grey sky; we made sail again and at first ran on east by south, seeing that last night we had been driven so far northward. At noon Latitude estimated 48 degrees 25 minutes, Longitude 110 degrees 55 minutes; course kept east and sailed 30 miles.

Item the 6th.

We had a storm from the west with hail and snow, and ran on before the wind with our foresail barely halfway the mast; the sea ran very high and our men begin to suffer badly from the severe cold. At noon Latitude estimated 49 degrees 4 minutes, Longitude 114 degrees 56 minutes; course kept east by south, sailed 49 miles. Variation 26 degrees.

Item the 7th.

We received the notes following from our Pilot major.

Annotations drawn from the terrestrial globe and from the large chart of the South Sea, and on the 7th of November A.D. 1642, handed to the Honourable Commander Abel Jansz Tasman together with our advice.

Imprimis:

The terrestrial globe shows us that the easternmost islands of the Salomonis are in the longitude of fully 220 degrees, reckoning said longitude from the meridian of the islands of Corvo and Floris.

But they are in slightly short of 205 degrees, according to the longitude which starts from the island of Teneriffe, and which is most generally used at present; and on the globe they extend from 7 to 14 to 15 degrees Latitude south of the line equinoctial.

This being duly noted we shall follow the great chart of the South Sea, using the longitude beginning from the Peak of Teneriffe, which is generally used in our day.

First we have Batavia situated in Longitude 127 degrees 5 minutes. And the south-west point of Celebes 11 degrees 20 minutes. More to eastward, so that we get for the longitude of the south-west point of Celebes now from the south-west point of Celebes to the easternmost islands of the Salomonis, where the chart reads Hoorensche eylanden, we reckon 47 degrees 20 minutes. So that we get for the longitude of the Hoorensche islands 185 degrees 45 minutes.

Now from the Hoorensche islands to the Cocos or Verraders islands, discovered by Willem Schouten, we reckon still more to eastward 8 degrees 15 minutes; so that for the longitude of Cocos and Verraders islands we get 194 degrees.

Should one wish to consider the Hoorensche islands, situated in Longitude 185 degrees 45 minutes, to be the easternmost of the Salomonis, then the charts and globe would show a difference of about 19 degrees; but if one should look upon the Cocos and Verraders island, situated in 194 degrees Longitude and 17 1/2 degrees South Latitude, as the easternmost of the Salomonis islands, then the difference between the charts and the globe would amount to no more than 11 degrees, the globe placing the islands 11 degrees more eastward than the charts; now to avoid all mistakes we think it best to disregard the indications to eastward, both of the globe and of the charts.

Hence our advice is that we should stick to the 44th degree South Latitude until we shall have passed the 150th degree of Longitude, and then run north as far as the 40th degree South Latitude, remaining there with an easterly course until we shall have reached the 220th degree of Longitude, after which we should take a northerly course so as to avail ourselves of the trade-wind to reach the Salomonis islands and New Guinea by running from east to west. We cannot but think that, if we find no land up to 150 degrees Longitude, we shall then be in an open sea again, unless we should meet with islands; all which time and experience, being the best of teachers, will no doubt bring to light.

Signed Francoys Jacobsz.

In the morning, the wind still westerly with hail and snow so that we had to run on with a furled foresail as before, and as we could not make any progress in this way, we deemed it best to alter our course to northward upon which, with our ship's council together with our second mates, seeing that we could not speak the friends of the Zeehaan, much less get them on board of us, we resolved first to our course north-eastward, running on to 45 or 44 degrees; having reached the 45th or 44th degree, to direct our course due east until we shall have got to 150 degrees Longitude; as will be found duly specified in today's resolution, to which we beg to refer. At noon Latitude estimated 47 degrees 56 minutes, Longitude 119 degrees 6 minutes; course kept east-north-east, sailed 45 miles.

Item the 8th.

In the morning the weather was somewhat better so that we could set our topsails. At noon Latitude estimated 46 degrees 26 minutes, Longitude 121 degrees 19 minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 32 miles, with unsettled weather and a westerly wind, which is very variable here. At night we ran on under reduced sail. Variation 25 degrees 30 minutes.

Item the 9th.

The wind southerly with a grey sky and a top-gallant gale; at noon Latitude estimated 44 degrees 19 minutes South, Longitude 124 degrees 20 minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 45 miles. At noon the latitude observed was 44 degrees, which does not agree with our estimation as given above. We still saw rock-weed floating about the whole day. At noon we shaped our course east in accordance with the resolution of the 7th instant. Towards evening we dispatched to the officers of the Zeehaan the letter following, together with the Annotations of Pilot-major Francoys Jacobsz, the said papers being enclosed in a wooden canister-shot-case, duly waxed and closely wrapped up in tarred canvas, which case we sent adrift from the stern part of the poop; the letter duly reached its destination and ran as follows:

To the officers of the Zeehaan.

We should have greatly liked to have had your advice on the 7th instant but, time and opportunity being unpropitious, we resolved with the members of our council and our second mates to shape our course north-east as far as 44 degrees South Latitude, and then keep a due east course as far as 150 degrees Longitude; should you agree to this resolution then be pleased to hoist a flag at your stern as a sign of approval that we may duly ratify the resolution. We also request you to do your best to sail in during the night until further orders and, if you should think it possible to come alongside of us in the boat, be pleased to float a flag from the foretop by way of signal, in which case we shall stay for you, seeing that we are very desirous of communicating with you by word of mouth. Farewell. Actum Heemskerk sailing in about 44 degrees South Latitude, this day November 9, 1642.

Signed,

ABEL JANSZ TASMAN.

After reading the above, those of the Zeehaan hoisted the Prince-flag in sign of approbation of our resolution.

Item the 10th.

Good weather with a southerly wind and a top-gallant gale. At noon Latitude estimated 44 degrees; Longitude 126 degrees 45 minutes; course kept east, sailed 26 miles. At noon Latitude observed 43 degrees 20 minutes, the sea running very high from the south-west, at times also from the south-east with heavy swells. Variation 21 degrees 30 minutes.

Item the 11th.

Good weather, the wind westerly with a light breeze. At noon Latitude estimated 43 degrees 20 minutes, Longitude 127 degrees 45 minutes; course kept east, sailed 11 miles. We ran up the white flag, upon which the officers of the Zeehaan came on board of us, when we resolved in the plenary Council to run on in the parallel of about 44 degrees South Latitude from our present longitude (averaging 123 degrees 29 minutes) as far as 195 degrees Longitude, being the meridian of the east side of New Guinea as delineated in the chart, all which may in extenso be seen from this day's resolution to which we beg leave to refer.

Item the 12th.

Good weather and smooth water, the wind westerly with a light top-gallant breeze. At noon Latitude observed 43 degrees 50 minutes, Longitude 129 degrees 17 minutes; course kept east-south-east, sailed 18 miles. Variation 21 degrees.

Item the 13th.

Dark, hazy, foggy weather with a steady breeze; we still see rock-weed floating about every day. At noon Latitude estimated 44 degrees 16 minutes, Longitude 132 degrees 17 minutes; course kept east by south, sailed 33 miles; wind north-west; at noon we turned our course to eastward.

Item the 14th.

Still dark, hazy, drizzling weather, the wind west-north-west with a steady breeze. At noon Latitude estimated 44 degrees 16 minutes south, Longitude 136 degrees 22 minutes; course kept east and sailed 44 miles; the sea still running high from the south-west so that no mainland is yet to be surmised south of us.

Item the 15th.

Good weather and a steady breeze from the west-north-west. At noon Latitude observed 44 degrees 3 minutes, Longitude 140 degrees 31 minutes; course kept east slightly northerly, sailed 45 miles. Variation decreasing 18 degrees 50 minutes North-West. We still saw rock-weed floating about every day.

Item the 16th.

In the morning it was very foggy but the weather cleared up towards noon. Latitude observed 44 degrees 10 minutes, Longitude 144 degrees 42 minutes; course kept east, sailed 45 miles with a steady breeze from the west; in the evening we took the sun's azimuth. Variation 16 degrees.

Item the 17th.

Good weather with a clear sky; we still saw a good deal of rock-weed floating about every day; the sea still running from the south-west. Though we observe rock-weed every day still it is not likely there should be any great mainland to the southward on account of the high seas that are still running from the south. At noon Latitude observed 44 degrees 15 minutes, Longitude 147 degrees 3 minutes; course kept east, sailed 28 miles with a light top-gallant breeze from the west; we estimated that we had already passed the South land known up to the present, or so far as Pieter Nuyts had run to eastward.

Item the 18th.

The wind north-westerly and afterwards northerly with a fog and drizzling rain, a top-gallant gale. At noon Latitude estimated 44 degrees 16 minutes South, Longitude 150 degrees 6 minutes; course kept east, sailed 33 miles. This day we saw a number of whales; at night during the dog-watch we lay a-trying under reduced sail. Variation 12 degrees.

Item the 19th.

Good weather with the wind from the north and afterwards from the north-west, a top-gallant gale. At noon Latitude estimated 44 degrees 45 minutes, Longitude 153 degrees 34 minutes; course kept east by south, sailed 38 miles. At noon Latitude observed 45 degrees 5 minutes so that we are farther to the south than I had estimated; in the morning variation decreasing, 8 degrees North-West. Towards evening there came on a storm from the north and afterwards from the north-west, with hail and snow and very cold weather, so that we had to tack to leeward with our mainsail.

Item the 20th.

The wind west-north-west with a storm of hail and rain; in the morning we had to run on before the wind with a foresail halfway up the mast. At noon Latitude estimated 44 degrees 43 minutes, Longitude 155 degrees 58 minutes; course kept east, sailed 26 miles; Latitude observed 44 degrees 32 minutes; during the night we lay a-trying with our mainsail set.

Item the 21st.

In the morning the weather somewhat better, we again set our topsails and slid out the bonnet of our foresail; turned our course to east-north-east, the wind being westerly and afterwards north-westerly with a top-gallant gale. At noon Latitude estimated 43 degrees 53 minutes, Longitude 158 degrees 12 minutes; at noon Latitude observed 43 degrees 40 minutes; course kept east-north-east, sailed 26 miles. Variation 4 degrees North-West, the sea running very high, both from the north-west and south-west; during the night we lay a-trying under reduced sail.

Item the 22nd.

At daybreak we made sail again, the wind being westerly with a top-gallant gale; there was a heavy swell from the south-west so that there is not likely to be any land to southward. At noon Latitude estimated 42 degrees 58 minutes, Longitude 160 degrees 34 minutes; course kept east-north-east, sailed 28 miles; at noon Latitude observed 42 degrees 49 minutes; we found that our compasses were not so steady as they should be, and supposed that possibly there might be mines of loadstone about here, our compasses sometimes varying 8 points from one moment to another, so that there would always seem to be some cause that kept the needle in motion.

Item the 23rd.

Good weather with a south-westerly wind and a steady breeze; in the morning we found our rudder broken at top in the tiller-hole; we there hauled to windward under reduced sail and fitted a cross-beam to either side. At noon Latitude observed 42 degrees 50 minutes, Longitude 162 degrees 51 minutes; course kept east, sailed 25 miles; we found the variation to the compass to be 1 degree North-West, so that the decrease is a very abrupt one here; by estimation the west side of New Guinea must be north of us.

Item the 24th.

Good weather and a clear sky. At noon Latitude observed 42 degrees 25 minutes, Longitude 163 degrees 31 minutes; course kept east by north, sailed 30 miles; the wind south-westerly and afterwards from the south with a light top-gallant breeze. In the afternoon about 4 o'clock we saw land bearing east by north of us at about 10 miles distance from us by estimation; the land we sighted was very high; towards evening we also saw, east-south-east of us, three high mountains, and to the north-east two more mountains, but less high than those to southward; we found that here our compass pointed due north. In the evening in the first glass after the watch had been set, we convened our ship's council with the second mate's and represented to them whether it would not be advisable to run farther out to sea; we also asked their advice as to the time when it would be best to do so, upon which it was unanimously resolved to run out to sea at the expiration of three glasses, to keep doing so for the space of ten glasses, and after this to make for the land again; all of which may in extenso be seen from today's resolution to which we beg leave to refer. During the night when three glasses had run out the wind turned to the south-east; we held off from shore and sounded in 100 fathom, fine white sandy bottom with small shells; we sounded once more and found black coarse sand with pebbles; during the night we had a south-east wind with a light breeze.

Item the 25th.

In the morning we had a calm; we floated the white flag and pendant from our stern, upon which the officers of the Zeehaan with their steersmen came on board of us; we then convened the Ship's council and resolved together upon what may in extenso be seen from today's resolution to which we beg leave to refer. Towards noon the wind turned to the south-east and afterwards to the south-south-east and the south, upon which we made for the shore; at about 5 o'clock in the evening we got near the coast; three miles off shore we sounded in 60 fathom coral bottom; one mile off the coast we had clean, fine, white sand; we found this coast to bear south by east and north by west; it was a level coast, our ship being 42 degrees 30 minutes South Latitude, and average Longitude 163 degrees 50 minutes. We then put off from shore again, the wind turning to the south-south-east with a top-gallant gale. If you came from the west and find your needle to show 4 degrees north-westerly variation you had better look out for land, seeing that the variation is very abruptly decreasing here. If you should happen to be overtaken by rough weather from the westward you had best heave to and not run on. Near the coast here the needle points due north. We took the average of our several longitudes and found this land to be in 163 degrees 50 minutes Longitude.

This land being the first land we have met with in the South Sea and not known to any European nation we have conferred on it the name of Anthony Van Diemensland in honour of the Honourable Governor-General, our illustrious master, who sent us to make this discovery; the islands circumjacent, so far as known to us, we have named after the Honourable Councillors of India, as may be seen from the little chart which has been made of them.

Item the 26th.

We had the wind from eastward with a light breeze and hazy weather so that we could see no land; according to our estimation we were at 9 1/2 miles distance from shore. Towards noon we hoisted the top-pendant upon which the Zeehaan forthwith came astern of us; we called out to her men that we should like Mr. Gilsemans to come on board of us, upon which the said Mr. Gilsemans straightways came on board of us, to whom we imparted the reasons set forth in the subjoined letter which we enjoined him to take with him on board the Zeehaan, to be shown to Skipper Gerrit Jansz, who is to give orders to her steersmen in accordance with its purport:

The officers of the Flute Zeehaan are hereby enjoined to set down in their daily journals this land which we saw and came near to yesterday in the longitude of 163 degrees 50 minutes, seeing that we have found this to be its average longitude, and to lay down the said longitude as an established point of departure for their further reckonings; he who before this had got the longitude of 160 degrees or more will henceforth have to take this land for his starting-point; we make the arrangement in order to preclude all errors as much as is at all possible. The officers of the Zeehaan are requested to give orders in conformity to her steersmen and to see them acted up to, because we opine this to be their duty; any charts that should be drawn up of this part will have to lay down this land in the average longitude of 163 degrees 50 minutes as hereinbefore stated.

Actum Heemskerk datum ut supra (signed)

ABEL JANSZ. TASMAN.

At noon Latitude estimated 43 degrees 36 minutes South, Longitude 163 degrees 2 minutes; course kept south-south-west, sailed 18 miles. We had 1/2 degree North-West variation; in the evening the wind went round to the north-east, and we changed our course to east-south-east.

Item the 27th.

In the morning we again saw the coast, our course still being east-south-east. At noon Latitude estimated 44 degrees 4 minutes South, Longitude 164 degrees 2 minutes; course kept south-east by east, sailed 13 miles; the weather was drizzly, foggy, hazy and rainy, the wind north-east and north-north-east with a light breeze; at night when 7 glasses of the first watch had run out we began trying under reduced sail because we dared not run on owing to thick darkness.

Item the 28th.

In the morning, the weather still being dark, foggy and rainy, we again made sail, shaped our course to eastward and afterwards north-east by north; we saw land north-east and north-north-east of us and made straight for it; the coast here bears south-east by east and north-west by west; as far as I can see the land here falls off to eastward. At noon Latitude estimated 44 degrees 12 minutes, Longitude 165 degrees 2 minutes; course kept west by south, sailed 11 miles with a north-westerly wind and a light breeze. In the evening we got near the coast; here near the shore there are a number of islets of which one in shape resembles a lion; this islet lies out into the sea at about 3 miles distance from the mainland; in the evening the wind turned to the east; during the night we lay a-trying under reduced sail.

Item the 29th.

In the morning we were still near the rock which is like a lion's head; we had a westerly wind with a top-gallant gale; we sailed along the coast which here bears east and west; towards noon we passed two rocks of which the westernmost was like Pedra Branca off the coast of China; the easternmost was like a tall, obtuse, square tower, and is at about 4 miles distance from the mainland. We passed between these rocks and the mainland; at noon Latitude estimated 43 degrees 53 minutes, Longitude 166 degrees 3 minutes; course kept east-north-east, sailed 12 miles; we were still running along the coast. In the evening about 5 o'clock we came before a bay which seemed likely to afford a good anchorage, upon which we resolved with our ship's council to run into it, as may be seen from today's resolution; we had nearly got into the bay when there arose so strong a gale that we were obliged to take in sail and to run out to sea again under reduced sail, seeing that it was impossible to come to anchor in such a storm; in the evening we resolved to stand out to sea during the night under reduced sail to avoid being thrown on a lee-shore by the violence of the wind; all which may in extenso be seen from the resolution aforesaid to which for briefness sake we beg to refer.

Item the last.

At daybreak we again made for shore, the wind and the current having driven us so far out to sea that we could barely see the land; we did our utmost to get near it again and at noon had the land north-west of us; we now turned the ship's head to westward with a northerly wind which prevented us from getting close to the land. At noon Latitude observed 43 degrees 41 minutes, Longitude 168 degrees 3 minutes; course kept east by north, sailed 20 miles in a storm and with variable weather. The needle points due north here. Shortly after noon we turned our course to westward with a strong variable gale; we then turned to the north under reduced sail.

Item the 1st of December.

In the morning, the weather having become somewhat better, we set our topsails, the wind blowing from the west-south-west with a top-gallant gale; we now made for the coast. At noon Latitude observed 43 degrees 10 minutes, Longitude 167 degrees 55 minutes; course kept north-north-west, sailed 8 miles, it having fallen a calm; in the afternoon we hoisted the white flag upon which our friends of the Zeehaan came on board of us, with whom we resolved that it would be best and most expedient, wind and weather permitting, to touch at the land the sooner the better, both to get better acquainted with its condition and to attempt to procure refreshments for our own behoof, all which may be more amply seen from this day's resolution. We then got a breeze from eastward and made for the coast to ascertain whether it would afford a fitting anchorage; about one hour after sunset we dropped anchor in a good harbour, in 22 fathom, white and grey fine sand, a naturally drying bottom; for all which it behoves us to thank God Almighty with grateful hearts.

Item the 2nd.

Early in the morning we sent our Pilot-major Francoys Jacobsz in command of our pinnace, manned with 4 musketeers and 6 rowers, all of them furnished with pikes and side-arms, together with the cock-boat of the Zeehaan with one of her second mates and 6 musketeers in it, to a bay situated north-west of us at upwards of a mile distance in order to ascertain what facilities (as regards fresh water, refreshments, timber and the like) may be available there. About three hours before nightfall the boats came back, bringing various samples of vegetables which they had seen growing there in great abundance, some of them in appearance not unlike a certain plant growing at the Cape of Good Hope and fit to be used as pot-herbs, and another species with long leaves and a brackish taste, strongly resembling persil de mer or samphire. The Pilot-major and the second mate of the Zeehaan made the following report, to wit:

That they had rowed the space of upwards of a mile round the said point, where they had found high but level land covered with vegetation (not cultivated, but growing naturally by the will of God) abundance of excellent timber, and a gently sloping watercourse in a barren valley, the said water, though of good quality, being difficult to procure because the watercourse was so shallow that the water could be dipped with bowls only.

That they had heard certain human sounds and also sounds nearly resembling the music of a trump or a small gong not far from them though they had seen no one.

That they had seen two trees about 2 or 2 1/2 fathom in thickness measuring from 60 to 65 feet from the ground to the lowermost branches, which trees bore notches made with flint implements, the bark having been removed for the purpose; these notches, forming a kind of steps to enable persons to get up the trees and rob the birds' nests in their tops, were fully 5 feet apart so that our men concluded that the natives here must be of very tall stature, or must be in possession of some sort of artifice for getting up the said trees; in one of the trees these notched steps were so fresh and new that they seemed to have been cut less than four days ago.

That on the ground they had observed certain footprints of animals, not unlike those of a tiger's claws; they also brought on board certain specimens of animals excrements voided by quadrupeds, so far as they could surmise and observe, together with a small quantity of gum of a seemingly very fine quality which had exuded from trees and bore some resemblance to gum-lac.

That round the eastern point of this bay they had sounded 13 or 14 feet at high water, there being about 3 feet at low tide.

That at the extremity of the said point they had seen large numbers of gulls, wild ducks and geese, but had perceived none farther inward though they had heard their cries; and had found no fish except different kinds of mussels forming small clusters in several places.  That the land is pretty generally covered with trees standing so far apart that they allow a passage everywhere and a lookout to a great distance so that, when landing, our men could always get sight of natives or wild beasts, unhindered by dense shrubbery or underwood, which would prove a great advantage in exploring the country.

That in the interior they had in several places observed numerous trees which had deep holes burnt into them at the upper end of the foot, while the earth had here and there been dug out with the fist so as to form a fireplace, the surrounding soil having become as hard as flint through the action of the fire.

A short time before we got sight of our boats returning to the ships, we now and then saw clouds of dense smoke rising up from the land, which was nearly west by north of us, and surmised this might be a signal given by our men, because they were so long coming back, for we had ordered them to return speedily, partly in order to be made acquainted with what they had seen, and partly that we might be able to send them to other points if they should find no profit there, to the end that no precious time might be wasted. When our men had come on board again we inquired of them whether they had been there and made a fire, to which they returned a negative answer, adding however that at various times and points in the wood they also had seen clouds of smoke ascending. So there can be no doubt there must be men here of extraordinary stature. This day we had variable winds from the eastward, but for the greater part of the day a stiff, steady breeze from the south-east.

Item the 3rd.

We went to the south-east side of this bay in the same boats as yesterday with Supercargo Gilsemans and a number of musketeers, the oarsmen furnished with pikes and side-arms; here we found water, it is true, but the land is so low-lying that the fresh water was made salt and brackish by the surf, while the soil is too rocky to allow of wells being dug; we therefore returned on board and convened the councils of our two ships with which we have resolved and determined what is set forth in extenso in today's resolution, to which for briefness sake we refer. In the afternoon we went to the south-east side of this bay in the boats aforesaid, having with us Pilot-major Francoys Jacobsz, Skipper Gerrit Jansz, Isack Gilsemans, supercargo on board the Zeehaan, subcargo Abraham Coomans, and our master carpenter Pieter Jacobsz; we carried with us a pole with the Company's mark carved into it, and a Prince-flag to be set up there, that those who shall come after us may become aware that we have been here, and have taken possession of the said land as our lawful property. When we had rowed about halfway with our boats it began to blow very stiffly, and the sea ran so high that the cock-boat of the Zeehaan, in which were seated the Pilot-major and Mr. Gilsemans, was compelled to pull back to the ships, while we ran on with our pinnace. When we had come close inshore in a small inlet which bore west-south-west of the ships the surf ran so high that we could not get near the shore without running the risk of having our pinnace dashed to pieces. We then ordered the carpenter aforesaid to swim to the shore alone with the pole and the flag, and kept by the wind with our pinnace; we made him plant the said pole with the flag at top into the earth, about the centre of the bay near four tall trees easily recognisable and standing in the form of a crescent, exactly before the one standing lowest. This tree is burnt in just above the ground, and in reality taller than the other three, but it seems to be shorter because it stands lower on the sloping ground; at top, projecting from the crown, it shows two long dry branches, so symmetrically set with dry sprigs and twigs that they look like the large antlers of a stag; by the side of these dry branches, slightly lower down, there is another bough which is quite green and leaved all round, whose twigs, owing to their regular proportion, wonderfully embellish the said bough and make it look like the upper part of a larding-pin. Our master carpenter, having in the sight of myself, Abel Jansz Tasman, Skipper Gerrit Jansz, and Subcargo Abraham Coomans, performed the work entrusted to him, we pulled with our pinnace as near the shore as we ventured to do; the carpenter aforesaid thereupon swam back to the pinnace through the surf. This work having been duly executed we pulled back to the ships, leaving the above-mentioned as a memorial for those who shall come after us, and for the natives of this country, who did not show themselves, though we suspect some of them were at no great distance and closely watching our proceedings. We made no arrangements for gathering vegetables since the high seas prevented our men from getting ashore except by swimming, so that it was impossible to get anything into the pinnace. During the whole of the day the wind blew chiefly from the north; in the evening we took the sun's azimuth and found 3 degrees north-easterly variation of the compass; at sunset we got a strong gale from the north which by and by rose to so violent a storm from the north-north-west that we were compelled to get both our yards in and drop our small bower-anchor.

Item the 4th.

At dawn the storm abated, the weather became less rough and, the land-wind blowing from the west by north, we hove our bower-anchor; when we had weighed the said anchor and got it above the water we found that both the flukes were broken off so far that we hauled home nothing but the shank; we then weighed the other anchor also and set sail forthwith in order to pass to north to landward of the northernmost islands and seek a better watering-place. Here we lay at anchor in 43 degrees South Latitude, Longitude 167 1/2 degrees; in the forenoon the wind was westerly. At noon Latitude observed 42 degrees 40 minutes, Longitude 168 degrees, course kept north-east, sailed 8 miles; in the afternoon the wind turned to the north-west; we had very variable winds all day; in the evening the wind went round to west-north-west again with a strong gale, then to west by north and west-north-west again with a strong gale, then to west by north and west-north-west once more; we then tacked to northward and in the evening saw a round mountain bearing north-north-west of us at about 8 miles distance; course kept to northward very close to the wind. While sailing out of this bay and all through the day we saw several columns of smoke ascend along the coast. Here it would be meet to describe the trend of the coast and the islands lying off it but we request to be excused for briefness sake and beg leave to refer to the small chart drawn up of it which we have appended.

Item the 5th.

In the morning, the wind blowing from the north-west by west, we kept our previous course; the high round mountain which we had seen the day before now bore due west of us at 6 miles distance; at this point the land fell off to the north-west so that we could no longer steer near the coast here, seeing that the wind was almost ahead. We therefore convened the council and the second mates, with whom after due deliberation we resolved, and subsequently called out to the officers of the Zeehaan that, pursuant to the resolution of the 11th ultimo we should direct our course due east, and on the said course run on to the full longitude of 195 degrees or the Salomonis islands, all which will be found set forth in extenso in this day's resolution. At noon Latitude estimated 41 degrees 34 minutes, Longitude 169 degrees, course kept north-east by north, sailed 20 miles; we then shaped our course due east for the purpose of making further discoveries and of avoiding the variable winds between the trade-wind and the anti-trade-wind; the wind from the north-west with a steady breeze; during the night the wind from the west, a brisk steady breeze and good clear weather.

Item the 6th.

In the morning the wind from the south-west with a light breeze; at noon we were in Latitude 41 degrees 15 minutes, Longitude 172 degrees 35 minutes; course kept east, sailed 40 miles; the weather was quite calm and still all the afternoon, the sea running high from all quarters but especially from the south-west; in the evening when the watches were setting we got a steady breeze from the east-north-east and north-east.

Item the 7th.

The wind still continuing to blow from the north-east, the breeze quite as fresh as during the night. At noon Latitude estimated 42 degrees 13 minutes, Longitude 174 degrees 31 minutes; course kept south-east by east, sailed 26 miles. Variation increasing 5 degrees 45 minutes North-West.

Item the 8th.

During the night we had a calm, the wind going round to the west and north-west. At noon Latitude estimated 42 degrees 29 minutes, Longitude 176 degrees 17 minutes; course kept east by south, sailed 20 miles.

Item the 9th.

We drifted in a calm so that by estimation we were carried 3 miles to the south-eastward. At noon Latitude observed 42 degrees 37 minutes, Longitude 176 degrees 29 minutes. Variation 5 degrees. Towards evening we had a light breeze from the west-north-west.

Item the 10th.

Occasional squalls of rain mixed with hail, the wind being westerly with a top-gallant gale. At noon Latitude observed 42 degrees 45 minutes, Longitude 178 degrees 40 minutes; course kept east, sailed 24 miles.

Item the 11th.

Good weather with a clear sky and a westerly wind with a top-gallant gale. At noon Latitude observed 42 degrees 48 minutes, Longitude 181 degrees 51 minutes; course kept east, sailed 38 miles. Variation increasing 7 degrees North-East.

Item the 12th.

Good weather, the wind blowing from the south-south-west and south-west with a steady breeze. At noon Latitude observed 42 degrees 38 minutes, Longitude 185 degrees 17 minutes; course kept east, sailed 38 miles. The heavy swells continuing from the south-west, there is no mainland to be expected here to southward. Variation 7 degrees North-East.

Item the 13th.

Latitude observed 42 degrees 10 minutes, Longitude 188 degrees 28 minutes; course kept east by north, sailed 36 miles in a south-south-westerly wind with a top-gallant gale. Towards noon we saw a large, high-lying land, bearing south-east of us at about 15 miles distance; we turned our course to the south-east, making straight for this land, fired a gun and in the afternoon hoisted the white flag, upon which the officers of the Zeehaan came on board of us, with whom we resolved to touch at the said land as quickly as at all possible, for such reasons as are more amply set forth in this day's resolution. In the evening we deemed it best and gave orders accordingly to our steersmen to stick to the south-east course while the weather keeps quiet but, should the breeze freshen, to steer due east in order to avoid running on shore, and to preclude accidents as much as in us lies; since we opine that the land should not be touched at from this side on account of the high open sea running there in huge hollow waves and heavy swells, unless there should happen to be safe land-locked bays on this side. At the expiration of four glasses of the first watch we shaped our course due east. Variation 7 degrees 30 minutes North-East.

Item the 14th.

At noon Latitude observed 42 degrees 10 minutes, Longitude 189 degrees 3 minutes; course kept east, sailed 12 miles. We were about 2 miles off the coast, which showed as a very high double land, but we could not see the summits of the mountains owing to thick clouds. We shaped our course to northward along the coast, so near to it that we could constantly see the surf break on the shore. In the afternoon we took soundings at about 2 miles distance from the coast in 55 fathom, a sticky sandy soil, after which it fell a calm. Towards evening we saw a low-lying point north-east by north of us, at about 3 miles distance; the greater part of the time we were drifting in a calm towards the said point; in the middle of the afternoon we took soundings in 45 fathom, a sticky sandy bottom. The whole night we drifted in a calm, the sea running from the west-north-west, so that we got near the land in 28 fathom, good anchoring-ground, where, on account of the calm, and for fear of drifting nearer to the shore, we ran out our kedge-anchor during the day-watch, and we are now waiting for the land-wind.

Item the 15th.

In the morning with a light breeze blowing from the land we weighed anchor and did our best to run out to sea a little, our course being north-west by north; we then had the northernmost low-lying point of the day before, north-north-east and north-east by north of us. This land consists of a high double mountain-range, not lower than Ilha Formoza. At noon Latitude observed 41 degrees 40 minutes, Longitude 189 degrees 49 minutes; course kept north-north-east, sailed 8 miles; the point we had seen the day before now lay south-east of us, at 2 1/2 miles distance; northward from this point extends a large rocky reef; on this reef, projecting from the sea, there are a number of high steep cliffs resembling steeples or sails; one mile west of this point we could sound no bottom. As we still saw this high land extend to north-north-east of us we from here held our course due north with good, dry weather and smooth water. From the said low point with the cliffs, the land makes a large curve to the north-east, trending first due east, and afterwards due north again. The point aforesaid is in Latitude 41 degrees 50 minutes south. The wind was blowing from the west. It was easy to see here that in these parts the land must be very desolate; we saw no human beings nor any smoke rising; nor can the people here have any boats, since we did not see any signs of them; in the evening we found 8 degrees North-East variation of the compass.

Item the 16th.

At six glasses before the day we took soundings in 60 fathom anchoring-ground. The northernmost point we had in sight then bore from us north-east by east, at three miles distance, and the nearest land lay south-east of us at 1 1/2 miles distance. We drifted in a calm, with good weather and smooth water; at noon Latitude observed 40 degrees 58 minutes, average Longitude 189 degrees 54 minutes; course kept north-north-east, sailed 11 miles; we drifted in a calm the whole afternoon; in the evening at sunset we had 9 degrees 23 minutes increasing North-East variation; the wind then went round to south-west with a freshening breeze; we found the furthest point of the land that we could see to bear from us east by north, the land falling off so abruptly there that we did not doubt that this was the farthest extremity. We now convened our council with the second mates, with whom we resolved to run north-east and east-north-east till the end of the first watch, and then to sail near the wind, wind and weather not changing, as may in extenso be seen from this day's resolution. During the night in the sixth glass it fell calm again so that we stuck to the east-north-east course; although in the fifth glass of the dog-watch, we had the point we had seen in the evening, south-east of us, we could not sail higher than east-north-east slightly easterly owing to the sharpness of the wind; in the first watch we took soundings once, and a second time in the dog-watch, in 60 fathom, clean, grey sand. In the second glass of the day-watch we got a breeze from the south-east, upon which we tacked for the shore again.

Item the 17th.

In the morning at sunrise we were about one mile from the shore; in various places we saw smoke ascending from fires made by the natives; the wind then being south and blowing from the land we again tacked to eastward. At noon Latitude estimated 40 degrees 31 minutes, Longitude 190 degrees 47 minutes; course kept north-east by east, sailed 12 miles; in the afternoon the wind being west we held our course east by south along a low-lying shore with dunes in good dry weather; we sounded in 30 fathom, black sand, so that by night one had better approach this land aforesaid, sounding; we then made for this sandy point until we got in 17 fathom, where we cast anchor at sunset owing to a calm, when we had the northern extremity of this dry sandspit west by north of us; also high land extending to east by south; the point of the reef south-east of us; here inside this point or narrow sandspit we saw a large open bay upward of 3 or 4 miles wide; to eastward of this narrow sandspit there is a sandbank upwards of a mile in length with 6, 7, 8 and 9 feet of water above it, and projecting east-south-east from the said point. In the evening we had 9 degrees North-East variation.

Item the 18th.

In the morning we weighed anchor in calm weather; at noon Latitude estimated 40 degrees 49 minutes, Longitude 191 degrees 41 minutes; course kept east-south-east, sailed 11 miles. In the morning before weighing anchor, we had resolved with the Officers of the Zeehaan that we should try to get ashore here and find a good harbour; and that as we neared it we should send out the pinnace to reconnoitre; all which may in extenso be seen from this day's resolution. In the afternoon our skipper Ide Tiercxz and our pilot-major Francoys Jacobsz, in the pinnace, and Supercargo Gilsemans, with one of the second mates of the Zeehaan in the latter's cock-boat, went on before to seek a fitting anchorage and a good watering-place. At sunset when it fell a calm we dropped anchor in 15 fathom, good anchoring-ground in the evening, about an hour after sunset, we saw a number of lights on shore and four boats close inshore, two of which came towards us, upon which our own two boats returned on board; they reported that they had found no less than 13 fathom water and that, when the sun sank behind the high land, they were still about half a mile from shore. When our men had been on board for the space of about one glass the men in the two prows began to call out to us in the rough, hollow voice, but we could not understand a word of what they said. We however called out to them in answer, upon which they repeated their cries several times, but came no nearer than a stone shot; they also blew several times on an instrument of which the sound was like that of a Moorish trumpet; we then ordered one of our sailors (who had some knowledge of trumpet-blowing) to play them some tunes in answer. Those on board the Zeehaan ordered their second mate (who had come out to India as a trumpeter and had in the Mauritius been appointed second mate by the council of that fortress and the ships) to do the same; after this had been repeated several times on both sides, and as it was getting more and more dark, those in the native prows at last ceased and paddled off. For more security and to be on guard against all accidents we ordered our men to keep double watches as we are wont to do when out at sea, and to keep in readiness all necessaries of war, such as muskets, pikes and cutlasses. We cleaned the guns on the upper-orlop, and placed them again, in order to prevent surprises, and be able to defend ourselves if these people should happen to attempt anything against us. Variation 9 degrees North-East.

Item the 19th.

Early in the morning a boat manned with 13 natives approached to about a stone's cast from our ships; they called out several times but we did not understand them, their speech not bearing any resemblance to the vocabulary given us by the Honourable Governor-General and Councillors of India, which is hardly to be wondered at, seeing that it contains the language of the Salomonis islands, etc. As far as we could observe these people were of ordinary height; they had rough voices and strong bones, the colour of their skin being brown and yellow; they wore tufts of black hair right upon the top of their heads, tied fast in the manner of the Japanese at the back of their heads, but somewhat longer and thicker, and surmounted by a large, thick white feather. Their boats consisted of two long narrow prows side by side, over which a number of planks or other seats were placed in such a way that those above can look through the water underneath the vessel: their paddles are upwards of a fathom in length, narrow and pointed at the end; with these vessels they could make considerable speed. For clothing, as it seemed to us, some of them wore mats, others cotton stuffs; almost all of them were naked from the shoulders to the waist. We repeatedly made signs for them to come on board of us, showing them white linen and some knives that formed part of our cargo. They did not come nearer, however, but at last paddled back to shore. In the meanwhile, at our summons sent the previous evening, the officers of the Zeehaan came on board of us, upon which we convened a council and resolved to go as near the shore as we could, since there was good anchoring-ground here, and these people apparently sought our friendship. Shortly after we had drawn up this resolution we saw 7 more boats put off from the shore, one of which (high and pointed in front, manned with 17 natives) paddled round behind the Zeehaan while another, with 13 able-bodied men in her, approached to within half a stone's throw of our ship; the men in these two boats now and then called out to each other; we held up and showed them as before white linens, etc., but they remained where they were. The skipper of the Zeehaan now sent out to them his quartermaster with her cock-boat with six paddlers in it, with orders for the second mates that, if these people should offer to come alongside the Zeehaan, they should not allow too many of them on board of her, but use great caution and be well on their guard. While the cock-boat of the Zeehaan was paddling on its way to her those in the prow nearest to us called out to those who were lying behind the Zeehaan and waved their paddles to them, but we could not make out what they meant. Just as the cock-boat of the Zeehaan had put off from board again those in the prow before us, between the two ships, began to paddle so furiously towards it that, when they were about halfway slightly nearer to our ship, they struck the Zeehaan's cock-boat so violently alongside with the stem of their prow that it got a violent lurch, upon which the foremost man in this prow of villains with a long, blunt pike thrust the quartermaster Cornelis Joppen in the neck several times with so much force that the poor man fell overboard. Upon this the other natives, with short thick clubs which we at first mistook for heavy blunt parangs, and with their paddles, fell upon the men in the cock-boat and overcame them by main force, in which fray three of our men were killed and a fourth got mortally wounded through the heavy blows. The quartermaster and two sailors swam to our ship, whence we had sent our pinnace to pick them up, which they got into alive. After this outrageous and detestable crime the murderers sent the cock-boat adrift, having taken one of the dead bodies into their prow and thrown another into the sea. Ourselves and those on board the Zeehaan seeing this, diligently fired our muskets and guns and, although we did not hit any of them, the two prows made haste to the shore, where they were out of the reach of shot. With our fore upper-deck and bow guns we now fired several shots in the direction of their prows, but none of them took effect. There upon our skipper Ide Tercxsen Holman, in command of our pinnace well manned and armed, rowed towards the cock-boat of the Zeehaan (which fortunately for us these accursed villains had let adrift) and forthwith returned with it to our ships, having found in it one of the men killed and one mortally wounded. We now weighed anchor and set sail, since we could not hope to enter into any friendly relations with these people, or to be able to get water or refreshments here. Having weighed anchor and being under sail, we saw 22 prows near the shore, of which eleven, swarming with people, were making for our ships. We kept quiet until some of the foremost were within reach of our guns, and then fired 1 or 2 shots from the gun-room with our pieces, without however doing them any harm; those on board the Zeehaan also fired, and in the largest prow hit a man who held a small white flag in his hand, and who fell down. We also heard the canister-shot strike the prows inside and outside, but could not make out what other damage it had done. As soon as they had got this volley they paddled back to shore with great speed, two of them hoisting a sort of tingang sails. They remained lying near the shore without visiting us any further. About noon skipper Gerrit Jansz and Mr. Gilsemans again came on board of us; we also sent for their first mate and convened the council, with whom we drew up the resolution following, to wit: Seeing that the detestable deed of these natives against four men of the Zeehaan's crew, perpetrated this morning, must teach us to consider the inhabitants of this country as enemies; that therefore it will be best to sail eastward along the coast, following the trend of the land in order to ascertain whether there are any fitting places where refreshments and water would be obtainable; all of which will be found set forth in extenso in this day's resolution. In this murderous spot (to which we have accordingly given the name of Murderers' Bay) we lay at anchor on 40 degrees 50 minutes South Latitude, 191 degrees 30 minutes Longitude. From here we shaped our course east-north-east. At noon Latitude estimated 40 degrees 57 minutes, Longitude 191 degrees 41 minutes; course kept south, sailed 2 miles. In the afternoon we got the wind from the west-north-west when, on the advice of our steersmen and with our own approval, we turned our course north-east by north. During the night we kept sailing as the weather was favourable, but about an hour after midnight we sounded in 25 or 26 fathom, a hard, sandy bottom. Soon after the wind went round to north-west, and we sounded in 15 fathom; we forthwith tacked to await the day, turning our course to westward, exactly contrary to the direction by which we had entered. Variation 9 degrees 30 minutes North-East.

This is the second land which we have sailed along and discovered. In honour of their High Mightinesses the States-General we gave Staten Land, since we deemed it quite possible that this land is part of the great Staten Land, though this is not certain. This land seems to be a very fine country and we trust that this is the mainland coast of the unknown South land. To this course we have given the name of Abel Tasman passage, because he has been the first to navigate it.

Item the 20th.

In the morning we saw land lying here on all sides of us, so that we must have sailed at least 30 miles into a bay. We had at first thought that the land off which we had anchored was an island, nothing doubting that we should here find a passage to the open South Sea; but to our grievous disappointment it proved quite otherwise. The wind now being westerly we henceforth did our best by tacking to get out at the same passage through which we had come in. At noon Latitude observed 40 degrees 51 minutes South, Longitude 192 degrees 55 minutes; course kept east half a point northerly, sailed 14 miles. In the afternoon it fell calm. The sea ran very strong into this bay so that we would make no headway but drifted back into it with the tide. At noon we tacked to northward when we saw a round high islet west by south of us, at about 8 miles distance which we had passed the day before; the said island lying about 6 miles east of the place where we had been at anchor and in the same latitude. This bay into which we had sailed so far by mistake showed us everywhere a fine good land: near the shore the land was mainly low and barren, the inland being moderately high. As you are approaching the land you have everywhere an anchoring-ground gradually rising from 50 or 60 fathom to 15 fathom when you are still fully 1 1/2 or 2 miles from shore. At three o'clock in the afternoon we got a light breeze from the south-east but as the sea was very rough we made little or no progress. During the night we drifted in a calm; in the second watch, the wind being westerly, we tacked to northward.

Item the 21st.

During the night in the dog-watch we had a westerly wind with a strong breeze; we steered to the north, hoping that the land which we had had north-west of us the day before might fall away to northward, but after the cook had dished we again ran against it and found that it still extended to the north-west. We now tacked, turning from the land again and, as it began to blow fresh, we ran south-west over towards the south shore. At noon, Latitude observed 40 degrees 31 minutes, Longitude 192 degrees 55 minutes; course kept north, sailed 5 miles. The weather was hazy so that we could not see land. Halfway through the afternoon we again saw the south coast; the island which the day before we had west of us at about 6 miles distance now lay south-west by south of us at about 4 miles distance. We made for it, running on until the said island was north-north-west of us, then dropped our anchor behind a number of cliffs in 33 fathom, sandy ground mixed with shells. There are many islands and cliffs all round here. We struck our sail-yards for it was blowing a storm from the north-west and west-north-west.

Item the 22nd.

The wind north-west by north and blowing so hard that there was no question of going under sail in order to make any progress; we found it difficult enough for the anchor to hold. We therefore set to refitting our ship. We are lying here in 40 degrees 50 minutes South Latitude and Longitude 192 degrees 37 minutes; course held south-west by south, sailed 6 miles. During the night we got the wind so hard from the north-west that we had to strike our tops and drop another anchor. The Zeehaan was almost forced from her anchor and therefore hove out another anchor likewise.

Item the 23rd.

The weather still dark, hazy and drizzling; the wind north-west and west-north-west with a storm so that to our great regret we could not make any headway.

Item the 24th.

Still rough, unsteady weather, the wind still north-west and stormy; in the morning when there was a short calm we hoisted the white flag and got the officers of the Zeehaan on board of us. We then represented to them that since the tide was running from the south-east there was likely to be a passage through, so that perhaps it would be best, as soon as wind and weather should permit, to investigate this point and see whether we could get fresh water there; all of which may in extenso be seen from the resolution drawn up concerning this matter.

Item the 25th.

In the morning we reset our tops and sailyards, but out at sea things looked still so gloomy that we did not venture to weigh our anchor. Towards evening it fell a calm so that we took in part of our cable. Item the 26th.

In the morning, two hours before day, we got the wind east-north-east with a light breeze. We weighed anchor and set sail, steered our course to northward, intending to sail northward round this land; at daybreak it began to drizzle, the wind went round to the south-east, and afterwards to the south as far as the south-west, with a stiff breeze. We had soundings in 60 fathom, and set our course by the wind to westward. At noon Latitude estimated 40 degrees 13 minutes, Longitude 192 degrees 7 minutes; course kept north-north-west, sailed 20 miles. Variation 8 degrees 40 minutes. During the night we lay to with small sail.

Item the 27th.

In the morning at daybreak we made sail again, set our course to northward, the wind being south-west with a steady breeze; at noon Latitude observed 38 degrees 38 minutes, Longitude 190 degrees 15 minutes; course kept north-west, sailed 26 miles. At noon we shaped our course north-east. During the night we lay to under small sail. Variation 8 degrees 20 minutes.

Item the 28th.

In the morning at daybreak we made sail again, set our course to eastward in order to ascertain whether the land we had previously seen in 40 degrees extends still further northward, or whether it falls away to eastward. At noon we saw east by north of us a high mountain which we at first took to be an island; but afterwards we observed that it forms part of the mainland. We were then about 5 miles from shore and took soundings in 50 fathom, fine sand mixed with clay. This high mountain is in 38 degrees South Latitude. So far as I could observe this coast extends south and north. It fell a calm, but when there came a light breeze from the north-north-east we tacked to the north-west. At noon Latitude estimated 38 degrees 2 minutes, Longitude 192 degrees 23 minutes; course held north-east by east, sailed 16 miles. Towards the evening the wind went round to north-east and north-east by east, stiffening more and more, so that at the end of the first watch we had to take in our topsails. Variation 8 degrees 30 minutes.

Item the 29th.

In the morning at daybreak we took in our bonnets and had to lower our foresail down to the stem. At noon Latitude estimated 37 degrees 17 minutes, Longitude 191 degrees 26 minutes; towards noon we again set our foresail and then tacked to westward, course kept north-west, sailed 16 miles.

Item the 30th.

In the morning, the weather having somewhat improved, we set our topsails and slid out our bonnets. We had the Zeehaan to lee of us, tacked and made towards her. We then had the wind west-north-west with a top-gallant gale. At noon Latitude observed 37 degrees, Longitude 191 degrees 55 minutes; course held north-east, sailed 7 miles. Towards evening we again saw the land bearing from us north-east and north-north-east, on which account we steered north and north-east. Variation 8 degrees 40 minutes North-East.

Item the last.

At noon we tacked about to northward, the wind being west-north-west with a light breeze. At noon Latitude observed 36 degrees 45 minutes, Longitude 191 degrees 46 minutes; course kept north-west, sailed 7 miles. In the evening we were about 3 miles from shore; at the expiration of 4 glasses in the first watch we again tacked to the north; during the night we threw the lead in 80 fathom. This coast here extends south-east and north-west; the land is high in some places and covered with dunes in others. Variation 8 degrees.

Item the 1st of January.

In the morning we drifted in a calm along the coast which here still stretched north-west and south-east. The coast here is level and even, without reefs or shoals. At noon we were in Latitude 36 degrees 12 minutes, Longitude 191 degrees 7 minutes; course kept north-west, sailed 10 miles. About noon the wind came from the south-south-east and south-east; we now shaped our course west-north-west in order to keep off shore since there was a heavy surf running. Variation 8 degrees 30 minutes North-East.

Item the 2nd.

Calm weather. Halfway through the afternoon we got a breeze from the east; we directed our course to the north-north-west; at the end of the first watch, however, we turned our course to the north-west so as not to come too near the shore and prevent accidents, seeing that in the evening we had the land north-north-west of us. At noon we were in Latitude 35 degrees 55 minutes, Longitude 190 degrees 47 minutes; course kept north-west by west, sailed 7 miles. Variation 9 degrees.

Item the 3rd.

In the morning we saw the land east by north of us at about 6 miles distance and were surprised to find ourselves so far from shore. At noon Latitude observed 35 degrees 20 minutes, Longitude 190 degrees 17 minutes, course held north-west by north, sailed 11 miles. At noon the wind went round to the south-south-east, upon which we steered our course east-north-east to get near the shore again. In the evening we saw land north and east-south-east of us.

Item the 4th.

In the morning we found ourselves near a cape, and had an island north-west by north of us, upon which we hoisted the white flag for the Officers of the Zeehaan to come on board of us, with whom we resolved to touch at the island aforesaid to see if we could there get fresh water, vegetables, etc. At noon Latitude observed 34 degrees 35 minutes, Longitude 191 degrees 9 minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 15 miles, with the wind south-east. Towards noon we drifted in a calm and found ourselves in the midst of a very heavy current which drove us to the westward. There was besides a heavy sea running from the north-east here, which gave us great hopes of finding a passage here. This cape which we had east-north-east of us is in 34 degrees 30 minutes South Latitude. The land here falls away to eastward. In the evening we sent to the Zeehaan the pilot-major with the secretary, as we were close to this island and, so far as we could see, were afraid there would be nothing there of what we were in want of; we therefore asked the opinion of the officers of the Zeehaan whether it would not be best to run on, if we should get a favourable wind during the night, which the officers of the Zeehaan fully agreed with. Variation 8 degrees 40 minutes North-East.

Item the 5th.

In the morning we still drifted in a calm, but about 9 o'clock we got a slight breeze from the south-east, whereupon with our friends of the Zeehaan we deemed it expedient to steer our course for the island before mentioned. About noon we sent to the said island our pinnace with the pilot-major, together with the cock-boat of the Zeehaan with Supercargo Gilsemans in it, in order to find out whether there was any fresh water to be obtained there. Towards the evening they returned on board and reported that, having come near the land, they had paid close attention to everything and had  taken due precautions against sudden surprises or assaults on the part of the natives; that they had entered a safe but small bay, where they had found good fresh water, coming in great plenty from a steep mountain, but that, owing to the heavy surf on the shore, it was highly dangerous, nay well-nigh impossible for us to get water there, that therefore they pulled farther round the said island, trying to find some other more convenient water-place elsewhere, that on the said land they saw in several places on the highest hills from 30 to 35 persons, men of tall stature, so far as they could see from a distance, armed with sticks or clubs, who called out to them in a very loud, rough voice, certain words which our men could not understand; that these persons, in walking on, took enormous steps or strides. As our men were rowing about some few in number now and then showed themselves on the hill-tops, from which our men very credibly concluded that these natives in this way generally keep in readiness their assegais, boats and small arms, after their wonted fashions; so that it may fairly be inferred that few, if any, more persons inhabit the said island than those who showed themselves; for in rowing round the island our men nowhere saw any dwellings or cultivated land except just by the fresh water above referred to, where higher up on both sides the running water they saw everywhere square beds looking green and pleasant, but owing to the great distance they could not discern what kind of vegetables they were. It is quite possible that all these persons had their dwellings near the said fresh water. In the bay aforesaid they also saw two prows hauled on shore, one of them seaworthy, the other broken, but they nowhere saw any other craft. Our men having returned on board with the pinnace, we forthwith did our best to get near the shore, and in the evening we anchored in 40 fathom, good bottom, at a small swivel-gun-shot distance from the coast. We forthwith made preparations for taking in water the next day. The said island is in 34 degrees 25 minutes South Latitude and 190 degrees 40 minutes average Longitude.

Item the 6th.

Early in the morning we sent to the watering-place the two boats, to wit ours and the cock-boat of the Zeehaan, each furnished with two pederaroes, 6 musketeers, and the rowers with pikes and side-arms, together with our pinnace with the pilot-major Francoys Jacobsz and skipper Gerrit Jansz, with casks for getting fresh water. While rowing towards the shore they saw, in various places on the heights, a tall man standing with a long stick like a pike, apparently watching our men. As they were rowing past he had called out to them in a very loud voice; when they had got about halfway to the watering-place, between a certain point and another large high rock or small island, they found the current to run so strongly against the wind that, with the empty boats, they had to do their utmost to hold their own; for which reason the pilot-major and Gerrit Jansz, skipper of the Zeehaan, agreed together to abstain from exposing the small craft and the men to such great peril, seeing that there was still a long voyage before them and the men and the small craft were greatly wanted by the ships. They therefore pulled back to the ships, the rather as a heavy surf was rolling on the shore near the watering-place. The breeze freshening, we could easily surmise that they had not been able to land, and now made a sign to them from our ship with the furled flag, and fired a gun to let them know that they were at liberty to return, but they were already on their way back before we signalled to them. The pilot-major, having come alongside our ship again with the boats, reported that owing to the wind the attempt to land there was too dangerous, seeing that the sea was everywhere near the shore full of hard rocks without any sandy ground, so that they would have greatly imperilled the men and run the risk of having the water-casks injured or stove in; we forthwith summoned the officers of the Zeehaan and the second mates on board of us, and convened a council in which it was resolved to weigh anchor directly and to run on an easterly course as far as 220 degrees Longitude, in accordance with the preceding resolution; then to shape our course to northward, or eventually due north, as far as Latitude 17 degrees South, after which we shall hold our course due west in order to run straight of the Cocos and Hoorense islands, where we shall take in fresh water and refreshments; or if we should meet with any other island before these we shall endeavour to touch at them, in order to ascertain what can be obtained there; all this being duly specified and set forth at length in this day's resolution, to which for briefness sake we beg leave to refer. About noon we set sail; at noon we had the island due south of us at about 3 miles distance; in the evening at sunset it was south-south-west of us at 6 or 7 miles distance, the island and the rocks lying south-west and north-east of each other. During the night it was pretty calm with an east-south-east wind, our course being north-north-east, very close to the wind, while the tide was running in from the north-east.

Item the 7th.

Good weather, the wind blowing from east by south and east-south-east with a topsail breeze; at noon Latitude observed 33 degrees 25 minutes, Longitude 191 degrees 9 minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 16 miles. The sea is running very high from the eastward, so that in the direction there is not likely to be any mainland. Variation 8 degrees 30 minutes.

Item the 8th.

During the night we had good weather, in the forenoon fog and drizzling rain; during the whole of these twenty-four hours we had the wind from south-east, with a top-gallant gale. At noon Latitude observed 32 degrees 25 minutes, Longitude 192 degrees 20 minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 21 miles. The great swells now come from the south-east. This passage from Batavia to Chili is in smooth water so that there is no objection to following it; we shall hereafter describe this passage in a series of sailing instructions, but at present must omit doing so for valid reasons. Variation 9 degrees North-East.

Item the 9th.

We had variable easterly winds with a light breeze. At noon Latitude estimated 34 degrees 4 minutes, Longitude 192 degrees 43 minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 7 miles; at night we drifted in a calm.

Item the 10th.

In the forenoon it continued calm with a light breeze from the east; at noon Latitude observed 31 degrees 28 minutes, Longitude 192 degrees 43 minutes; course held north, sailed 9 miles; in the afternoon the wind blew from the east-north-east with a light top-gallant breeze, our course still being over to northward close to the wind. In the evening at sunset the wind went round to north by east so that we had to tack to eastward. Variation 10 degrees 20 minutes North-East.

Item the 11th.

The wind still northerly with a light topsail breeze, seas running from the east-south-east and from the south-west at the same time against each other. At noon Latitude estimated 31 degrees 10 minutes south, Longitude 193 degrees 35 minutes; course kept east-north-east, sailed 12 miles. In the afternoon the wind turning to the north-north-west we changed our course to east-north-east; in the evening the wind went round again to west-south-west with a squall of rain, upon which we shaped our course north-eastward. Variation 10 degrees.

Item the 12th.

The wind west-south-west with a topsail breeze, seas still running against each other, both from south-west and south-east. At noon Latitude observed 30 degrees 5 minutes, Longitude 195 degrees 27 minutes; course kept north-east by east, sailed 29 miles; towards evening the wind turned to the west. Variation 9 degrees 30 minutes.

Item the 13th.

Good weather with a clear sky and a westerly wind with a light topsail breeze; at noon Latitude observed 29 degrees 10 minutes, Longitude 196 degrees 32 minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 20 miles; the sea keeps running from the south-west and south-east; in the evening 9 degrees North-East.

Item the 14th.

In the morning we had the wind from the south with a light breeze, the sea still running high both from the south-west and from the south-east as well. At noon Latitude observed 28 degrees 40 minutes, Longitude 197 degrees 5 minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 10 miles; at noon the wind went round to the south-east with a slackening breeze. Up to now we have had westerly winds. Variation 8 degrees 30 minutes North-East.

Item the 15th.

Good weather, the sea running from the south-west is beginning to smooth, so that the swells from the south-west have abated a good deal, but the sea is still running strong from the south-east. At noon Latitude estimated 27 degrees 43 minutes, Longitude 198 degrees 9 minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 20 miles; the wind being south-south-east with a light topsail breeze. According to my estimation we are now 105 miles east of the Salomonis islands but only 62 miles according to the average of our longitude. Variation 8 degrees 15 minutes.

Item the 16th.

Good weather with a clear sky and the wind blowing from the eastward; the sea still running in from all sides; we had a light topsail breeze. At noon Latitude observed 26 degrees 29 minutes, Longitude 199 degrees 32 minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 26 miles. In the evening the wind turned to the south-east.

Item the 17th.

Good weather, with the wind from the south-east, and trade-wind weather. At noon Latitude observed 25 degrees 20 minutes, Longitude 200 degrees 50 minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 25 miles in smooth water. Variation 8 degrees North-East.

Item the 18th.

Good weather with a grey sky and trade-wind weather, the wind blowing from the south with a light topsail breeze. At noon Latitude estimated 24 degrees 18 minutes South, Longitude 201 degrees 45 minutes; course kept north-east and north-east by north, sailed 20 miles with small showers now and then.

Item the 19th.

Good weather; the wind south-east with a steady trade-wind and smooth water. At noon Latitude observed 22 degrees 46 minutes, Longitude 203 degrees 27 minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 33 miles. About two o'clock in the afternoon we saw land bearing from us east by north, at about 8 miles distance. We held our course towards it but could not make it owing to the sharpness of the wind. This island bears a resemblance to two women's breasts when it bears from you east by north at 6 miles distance, and is situated in 22 degrees 35 minutes South Latitude and 204 degrees 15 minutes Longitude. It is not large, about 2 or 3 miles in circumference, and to the view appears a high and barren island. We should have greatly liked to sail close along it in order to ascertain whether we should have any chance of getting fresh water or refreshments there, but we could not get nearer to it on account of the sharpness of the wind; we tacked close to the wind. Seeing that in the great chart of the South Sea there are 4 islands situated in this latitude, I am inclined to believe that this is one of them. Variation 7 degrees 30 minutes.

Item the 20th.

In the morning at sunrise we still saw the island which we had seen the day before; it now lay south-south-west of us at about 6 miles distance; to this island we have given the name of Hooge Pylstaerts island because there were so many pylstaerten (tropic-birds) about it. We had a south-east and south-east by south wind, with trade-wind weather and a topsail breeze. At noon Latitude observed 21 degrees 50 minutes, Longitude 204 degrees 45 minutes; course kept north-east by east, sailed 24 miles. About one o'clock in the afternoon we saw land, bearing from us east at about 8 miles distance; we steered our course for it, and at night lay to with small sail. Variation 7 degrees 15 minutes North-East.

Item the 21st.

In the morning we had a calm; we had the southernmost island east by south of us at about five miles distance; we shaped our course for the northernmost island which is in 21 degrees 50 minutes South Latitude, Longitude 205 degrees 29 minutes, and sailed to the north-west of the island where we dropped anchor in 25 fathom, coral bottom. The place where we came to anchor is in 21 degrees 20 minutes South Latitude and Longitude 205 degrees 29 minutes. These two islands are nearly south-east and north-west of each other; we could see through between them, where there was a passage about 1 1/2 mile in width. The one to the south-east was the highest, the northernmost one being a low-lying island, much like Holland. To the northernmost we gave the name of Amsterdam because of the abundance of refreshments we got there, and the southernmost we christened Middleburch. At noon a small prow with three men in it put off from land and came near our ship; these men were naked, of a brown colour and slightly above the ordinary stature; two of them had long, thick hair on their heads, the third wore his close cut; they had only their privities covered with a curious small bit of cloth; their prow was a very narrow one, covered in to a good distance in front and abaft; their paddles were of ordinary length, with blades broad in the middle; they called out to us several times, to which we responded in the same way, but we could not understand each other. We showed them white linen, throwing overboard a piece upwards of 1 1/2 fathom in length, which they seeing paddled towards it, but as it had sunk to a considerable depth under the water the foremost man in the prow jumped out and dived for it. He remained under water for a very long time, but at last reappeared with the linen and got into the prow again, where he put it several times atop of his head, in sign of gratitude. They then gradually approached us with their prow, upon which we threw out to them a piece of wood to which we had fastened two large nails; we then handed out to them a small Chinese looking-glass with a string of Chinese beads, which they drew up into their prow by means of a long stick, to which they tied one of their fish-hooks with a small fishing-line, which they handed up to us to show their gratitude. This fish-hook was made of mother-of-pearl and shaped like a small anchovy. They repeatedly put the string of beads and the looking-glass on their heads; the middlemost man in the prow tied the nails round his neck, but as the looking-glass was closed with a slide they could not see themselves in it. We therefore handed down another to them which they looked into, and laid on their heads. We now showed them an old coconut and a fowl, and with aid of our vocabulary inquired after water, hogs, etc.; they did not understand us nor we them, but they constantly kept pointing to the shore. When we had made them a present of the objects aforementioned, and had shown them the coconut and the fowl, they at last paddled back to shore again and made signs to us, as if they were going to fetch the like from shore. At noon and in the afternoon we saw numbers of people walking along the shore, some of them with small white flags which we surmised to be signs of peace and amity. We therefore also hoisted our white flag astern, upon which there came alongside our ship a small prow with four persons in it; they were able-bodied men, having their bodies painted black from the waist to the thighs, their necks hung round with leaves; they carried a small white flag and a cloth made of the bark of trees. They fastened the said flag to the stem of our boat. The outriggers of their prow were trimmed with shells and conches. From these presents and from the embellishments of their prow, which seemed to be distinguished above the others, we concluded that this prow had been sent off by the king or chief of the country. We therefore presented these men with a small Chinese looking-glass, a knife, a piece of dungaree, and one or two nails. We filled a rummer of wine for them, from which we first drank ourselves lest they should think we were going to poison them or do them other harm; having taken the rummer they poured out the wine and took the rummer on shore with them. Shortly afterwards a great number of prows came alongside, some of them with 5 or 6, others with 10 or 12 coconuts, all of which we bartered against old nails; three or four coconuts against a double middle-sized nail. Some of them came swimming from the land with coconuts, all of which we bartered with them. After some time an aged man came on board of us to whom all the others paid honour, so that we concluded him to be one of their chiefs. We conducted him to the cabin; he did us reverence by inclining his head down to our feet; we paid our respects to him in return after our own fashion, and showed him a cup with fresh water which he showed us by signs to be obtainable on shore; we then presented him with a knife, a small looking-glass, and a piece of dungaree. As they were leaving the cabin one of the natives was caught in the act of stealing the skipper's pistol and a pair of slippers. We took these articles from him again without showing the least dissatisfaction. Many of these people had the lower part of the body painted black down to the knees, some had a mother-of-pearl shell hanging on the breast. Towards evening about 20 prows came close to our ships, which all stationed themselves side by side in regular order. Before coming alongside they made a good deal of noise, crying out repeatedly "Woo, woo, woo," etc., upon which those in our ship sat down. The said prows then came alongside, bringing a present from the king, consisting of a fine large hog, a number of coconuts, and some yams; the bearer of these presents being the same person who brought us the small white flag and the cloth of bark. We presented them in return with a common dish such as we use at meals, and a piece of copper-wire; we also bartered a few coconuts, baccovos, yams and a hog, etc., against nails and beads; about nightfall they all left our ship except one who remained to sleep on board of the Heemskerk.

Item the 22nd.

Early in the morning again a number of boats came alongside with coconuts, yams, baccovos, bananas, hogs and fowls, all of which we bartered with them; to wit, a young hog against a small fathom of dungaree, a fowl against a nail or a string of beads; coconuts, yams, bananas, etc., against old nails. Several women, both young and old, also came on board of us, the oldest of them having the little finger of both hands cut off, but not so the young women; what this meant we could not ascertain. About 8 o'clock the old man of the day before again came on board, bringing us 2 hogs in return for which we presented him with a silver-mounted knife and 8 or 9 nails. We conducted him below and went all over the ship with him, and caused one of our great guns to be fired, at which they were greatly frightened and ran away in amazement, but when they saw that no one was the worse for it they were soon set at ease again. We presented this old man with a piece of figured satin, a hat and a shirt, which we put on him. About noon 32 small and one large ditto, furnished with sails, and like those delineated in Jacob la Maire's journal No. came alongside. From these prows 18 strong men and a few females stepped on board of our ship, bringing with them as a present a few bark-mats and fruits such as coconuts, yams and other roots which we had no knowledge of. We presented the leader of these persons with a shirt, a pair of drawers, a small looking-glass and a few beads; we put the shirt and the drawers on him, in which he thought himself very gallantly attired. Among these 18 persons there was a bony, corpulent man with a St. Thomas arm, and a woman who had a small natural beard growing about the mouth. We made the second mate of the Zeehaan come on board of us with his trumpet, and one of her sailors with a violin, and from time to time had them blow and play tunes together with our own trumpeter and one of our sailors who could play the German flute, at which music they were greatly astonished. Meanwhile we had a number of water-casks lowered into our boat and the Zeehaan's cock-boat that our men might together with these people go and see whether there was any fresh water to be obtained here, as had been determined in our resolution; we placed a first mate in command of each of the boats while our skipper Ide Tjercxz and Supercargo Gilsemans accompanied them in our pinnace, into which we also put the old man and the leader of the natives who had last come on board, these two undertaking to show the watering-place to our men. We also put a number of musketeers into our pinnace, for though these natives seem to be good-natured enough it is impossible to know what they hide in their hearts, for which reason we armed our people to be prepared for all accidents. When our boats had rowed a considerable distance along the north-east side of this land they were finally conducted to three small wells, from which water had to be dipped up by means of a coconut-shell. This water was quite unfit to be drunk, of a dirty greenish colour, and there was so little of it that it would have been of little use even if it had been good to drink. The people who had pointed out these wells to our men now led them inland to a kind of pleasance and to an elegant baleye or raised and roofed platform, where our men were invited to sit down on handsome mats; but the natives brought them nothing but two coconut-shells filled with water, one for their chieftain and the other for our skipper. Towards the evening our men returned on board with a live hog and reported that there was no chance of getting water there. In the course of this day we obtained by barter upwards of 40 hogs, giving in exchange for each of them a double middle-sized nail and half a fathom of old canvas; and besides about 70 fowls, for each of which we gave a double middle-sized nail, etc., and a quantity of yams, coconuts and other fruit in exchange for beads. In the evening one of the chiefs had a roasted pig, some yams and other roots brought on board of us. The natives here have no knowledge of tobacco or of smoking of any kind; their women have the body covered from the waist to the knees with mats made of the leaves of trees, the rest of the body being naked; they wear their hair shorter than the men; the beards of the latter are as a rule the length of three or four finger's breadths, the hair on the upper lip being cut pretty short so that their mustachios are no longer than about two straw's breadths. We saw no arms worn by these people so that it was all peace and amity here. The current is not strong here, the flood runs south-west and the ebb north-east, which in our estimation makes it high-water with a south-westerly moon; the rise and fall of the tide is about 7 or 8 feet.

Item the 23rd.

In the morning we went to the shore with Skipper Gerrit Jansz and our two boats together with the pinnace for the purpose of digging wells to obtain fresh water; when coming ashore we forthwith went to the wells and made signs to the chief that the wells would have to be made larger, upon which he directly ordered his men to do this work for us. He then went with us to the baleye or platform, and caused a mat to be spread on which we seated ourselves. When we were seated he had refreshments brought in, such as fresh milk and cream, fresh fish and various kinds of fruit, of which there is great abundance here, and in every way showed us respect and friendship. They then asked us where we had come from and where were going, upon which we told them that we had been at sea for a hundred days and upwards, at which they were greatly astonished; we also told them that we had come there in search of fresh water, hogs, fowls, etc., to which they answered that they had plenty of them, as many as we wished.

We then got 8 casks filled with water, and they presented us with four live hogs and a number of fowls, coconuts, bananas, etc. In return we offered them one fathom of linen, 6 nails and six strings of beads, for which they cordially thanked us. We then went up to the white flag with the three chiefs, signifying to them that we wished to leave the said flag near the platform in sign of peace and amity, at which they expressed great satisfaction and put the flag on their heads one after the other, thereby giving to understand that they desired nothing but our friendship. They next fastened the flag to the baleye as a sign that they had made a covenant with us. As the bottom here is steep and abruptly falling off our anchor lost its hold by the trade-wind in the afternoon, so that we drifted out to sea without our being able to prevent it; we did our best to haul our anchor on the bow but, as we had but few men on board, we could not secure it before midnight. In the course of this day we still got by barter a number of pigs and fowls, so that in all we have got for the two ships a hundred head of hogs, 150 fowls and a reasonable quantity of coconuts, yams and other fruit; we were compelled to stay on board the Zeehaan for the night since we could not get on board our own ship.

Item the 24th.

In the morning the Heemskerk had drifted fully 4 miles to leeward of this island; the flute Zeehaan having weighed anchor, we got near each other again on the forenoon so that we could get on board our own ship. We then ordered the steersmen of the Zeehaan to come on board of us, also whereupon we convened the council and submitted to the consideration of all persons assembled the points following: seeing that we have been forced to leave this island by an accident and against our will, seeing that there is small chance for us to come near it again except with great loss of time, seeing that there is hardly any water worth mentioning to be obtained there, whether it would not be best and most advisable to proceed on our voyage in accordance with the proceeding resolution, and in case we should meet with other islands to touch at the same, all which was approved by the council as may be seen from the resolution under this day's date. At the place where we had been at anchor there were two islets, high but small, about 1 or 1 1/2 miles in circumference, bearing from us north by west at 7 or 8 miles distance. We now set our course north-eastward with a steady, south-easterly trade-wind. At noon we had the two islets aforesaid due east of us at 4 miles distance. These islets we estimated to lie in 20 degrees 50 minutes South Latitude, Longitude 206 degrees 46 minutes. About 3 o'clock in the afternoon, east-north-east of us at four or five miles distance, we again saw a low-lying island of pretty large extent. We steered straight for it. Shortly afterwards we saw east of us 3 small islets, likewise in the south-east 2 small islets, all of them low-lying; the farthest were at about 3 or 4 miles distance south-east of us. We now set our course due east-north-east, towards the largest of them, and anchored in 12 fathom, shelly bottom, at a swivel-gunshot distance from shore on the west side of the island; about an hour before sunset we had at the western extremity a large high island north-west by north of us at about 8 or 9 miles distance; and close to this, but more to eastward and north-west of us, still another island, round and a good deal higher still than the previous one, in height and size resembling Cracatouw in Zunda straits, at the same distance from us; furthermore from the north to the north-east by north we saw 7 more small islets at about 3 or 4 miles distance from us. All these islands are surrounded by a steep, abruptly descending ground so that it is impossible to approach them sounding; on which account one has to anchor by sight, close inshore; almost all of them are surrounded by coral reefs. Variation 7 degrees North-East.

Item the 25th.

Early in the morning several prows came alongside with coconuts, yams, bananas, etc., to be bartered against nails of which their very desirous. There seemed to be few people living in the said island; some who seemed to be the most notable of them came on board of us and were by us presented with small pieces of linen, knives, small looking-glasses, etc. We then gave them to understand by signs that we were in want of fresh water, upon which they signified to us that this was to be obtained on shore in great plenty. We therefore resolved to send ashore the pilot-major Francoys Jacobsz and Skipper Gerrit Jansz with our pinnace together with the two boats, taking with them one of these natives to point out the watering-place to them. We handed into the pinnace a knife, a small looking-glass and a little flag in token of peace, and signified to them that we did not want to have their water without reward or payment. About two hours before sunset our pinnace returned with the Skipper and the pilot-major who reported that, on landing, they had seen from 60 to 70 persons seated on the beach, who, as they thought, formed the entire male population of the island; they had no arms but seemed to be a kind and peaceable sort of people; our men also saw many women and children; they conducted our men into the interior by a good path. These people proved to be exceedingly thievish for they stole whatever they could lay hands on, men and women alike. Our men followed them about 2/3 of a mile into the interior, where they came to a fresh inland piece of water, fully 1/4 mile in circumference, and no less than 1 1/2 or 2 fathom above the level of the sea, but they did not know it was so near the shore; as they were going along the said piece of water they found it to be at the northern side of the island, at about a musket-shot distance from the sea, where there was a good sandy bay for landing with the boats, the water being conveniently smooth for embarking the casks; out at sea before the said sandy bay there was a coral reef on which the surf broke with great violence; and since the said coral reef has an opening on the west side it will be possible for our boats at low water to row along the shore and inside the coral reef into the smooth water. But in order to get to the sandy beach the water must first have risen about  1/2 or 2 feet higher. This bay was on the north side of the islet and, as our ships were lying on the north-west side, they had to row upwards of a mile along the shore. They were very glad to have found this fresh water. About three hours after sunset our two boats came alongside with filled water-casks, having been prevented from coming earlier by the falling of the water, which here rises and falls about 8 feet. In this fresh water aforesaid they had seen numbers of wild ducks swimming, which were not all shy or afraid of men. These natives brought on board several coconuts and gourds full of water; also some fruit and hogs, but not many; they had prows with sails, as well as smaller ones; their dress, appearance and manners are like those of the inhabitants of the other island, except that as a rule the men have shorter and thinner hair than the others; the women are, comparatively speaking, just as strong and able-bodied as the men. This island is in Latitude 20 degrees 15 minutes, average Longitude 206 degrees 19 minutes; we gave to it the name of Rotterdam, seeing that here we got our casks filled with water. Variation 6 degrees 20 minutes North-East.

Item the 26th.

This day we fetched for each of the ships two more boatloads of water, each consisting of 10 or 11 casks, both great and small; we also bartered still a good many coconuts, bananas and other fruit against beads and old nails.

Item the 27th.

We still kept taking in water and bartering refreshments; before sunset we had again got on board two boatloads of water for each ship.

Item the 28th.

In the morning at early dawn myself with Skipper Gerrit Jansz again went to the watering-place with our two boats and the pinnace. Our main purpose was to shoot wild ducks but we could not get any. As we were engaged in putting off from shore with the loaded boats one of the natives approached with the intention of secretly carrying off a long pike, which he had actually snatched from the boat and hid under water; but one of our men saw him, upon which the thief, becoming aware of this, ran into the wood with the pike as quickly as his legs would carry him. The other natives seeing this ran after him with great speed, beckoning to our men to remain where they were because they were going to bring him back. They really did so, so that we had the pike returned to us. The natives here are excessively licentious, wanton and thievishly inclined, so that a man had need of Argus' hundred eyes to look about him. In the evening before sunset we again had got on board two boat-loads of water for each of the ships, so that up to now we already have 26 hogsheads quite filled, only about 10 hogsheads and casks being still empty; we also obtained by barter a considerable quantity of coconuts, bananas, baccovos and other fruit, so that at these islands we were well provided with refreshments and fresh water for which God be thanked.

Item the 29th.

We again sent ashore the pilot-major with our boats together with the pinnace to fetch water, but in the afternoon the wind began to blow so stiffly from the north that the men in the Zeehaan's boat had to let 5 casks of water run out at the bung-hole while rowing, and to throw the casks overboard; afterwards they had to let go 4 more casks, so that they got on board without any fresh water; our own boat managed to come alongside with 7 full casks, and to bring the empty casks with her, but they had had plenty of trouble in doing so.

Item the 30th.

We summoned our friends of the Zeehaan on board of us and, having convened the council, we read out to them our instructions, after which we requested every member of the council, if he should know of anything to the advantage and profit of the Honourable Company that might be unknown to ourselves, to inform us of the same and to assist us with all needful zeal and diligence. We likewise earnestly and kindly entreated each of the members assembled to act in every respect in such fashion as he intends to answer for on his return to Batavia before the Honourable Governor-General and Councillors of India. We likewise resolved if this wind should continue to set sail from here with our ships tomorrow; but if it should go round to eastward we shall directly make arrangements for getting all our casks filled with water; all of which may be seen set forth in extenso in this day's resolution, to which we beg leave to refer.

In this day's meeting of the council we also resolved upon the articles following, which shall be read to our men and posted up on the quarter-deck, that every man may comport himself accordingly:

Seeing that on the 27th instant at night we have found that some persons, even officers, do not properly stand their ordained watches, the which in many cases might cause hurt and peril to our ships and crews, in order to prevent such inconveniences and perils for the future the plenary council of the ships Heemskerk and Zeehaan has this day resolved and ordered that whoever shall, after now, be found sleeping or neglecting to keep a proper lookout, whether on watch or on the lookout, shall for the first offence be flogged by the partners of his watch; for the second offence, besides being flogged, he shall forfeit a month's pay; for the third offence he shall be deprived of six months' pay, and for the fourth offence he shall be deprived of his office and forfeit his pay or, if the offender should be a sailor, be forced to serve without pay.

According to the same articles all persons on board, none excepted, are strictly forbidden to use or carry about their persons any live matches, candles, or other lights of any sort, unless such matches, candles etc. shall be wanted in the discharge of office or for the requirements of the ship's service, and be used with the knowledge of the ship's officers; all this on pain of being put in irons for eight days in succession, and of forfeiting a month's pay over and above this.

Likewise after the watches have been set no one shall be permitted to make any noise whatever, but each person shall keep watch over such places as have been assigned to his care by the Commander, the skipper, the steersmen or the quartermasters; all this on pain of summary punishment.

The men on watch shall, whether by day or by night, not allow anyone to come on board except with the consent of the commander, the skipper, or the supercargo, on pain of corporal punishment.

Given on board the Heemskerk, at anchor in Latitude 20 degrees 15 minutes, average Longitude 206 degrees 19 minutes, south of the line equinoctial. This 30th day of January A.D. 1643.

Signed,

ABEL JANSZ. TASMAN.

Item the last.

In the morning we again set out the boats, together with our pinnace, to fetch water, but as the weather began to darken and to look variable. We made a signal for them to return, upon which they came back at once. At noon we, that is to say myself, our skipper, the pilot-major, the skipper and the supercargo of the Zeehaan and the secretary, went on shore with the two boats and the pinnace for the purpose of taking leave of the natives, since it was our intention to depart from here. As soon as we had landed a great multitude of people assembled. We asked two persons who seemed most notable of them after the chief of this district. They conducted us into the interior by narrow, cramped, dirty and miry paths (it having rained very hard for one or two days without interruption). We were first led to the south side of the island where a large number of coconut-trees stood side by side in regular order. Thence they went with us to the east side of the island where six large prows were lying at anchor, each two of them being fastened together by means of a floor of planks and carrying a mast. Here were also one or two small houses ornamented a little above the common, to wit, fenced all round with a bamboo enclosure. After leaving this place we came to a lake or piece of brackish inland water, about a mile in circumference. After staying here for some time we again asked after the Aisy or Latouw (which in their speech means king or chieftain). They then pointed to the far side of this water and, as the sun was close to the horizon already, we returned to our boats along a different path. Both in going and returning we saw many enclosures or gardens with plots elegantly squared and planted with all sorts of earth-fruit. In several places we saw bananas and other fruit-trees, most of them growing so straight that they were good to look at, on all sides emitting a most agreeable and gratifying smell and fragrance. From which we concluded that these people (who had the shape of men but inhuman manners and customs) were by no means destitute of human intelligence. About two hours before sunset we returned on board. These islands are in their average longitude 185 miles more to eastward than the Salomonis islands and, according to my estimation, are situated 230 miles east of the easternmost Salomonis islands. These natives know nothing of religion or the service of God, nor have they either idols, other relics, or priests. Still they are very superstitious for I have seen one of these persons take up a watersnake which came floating by his prow, lay it upon his head with great reverence, and then put it into the water again. They will never kill any of the flies which are very plentiful here and cause trouble enough, however many cover their bodies. While we were at anchor here our chief mate happened to kill a fly in the presence of one of the chieftains, who showed himself greatly incensed at this. The people of this island have no king or chief and are without any government. Still they have some knowledge of evil and punish evil-doers, but not through the arm of justice, all the non-culprits as a rule taking part in the execution of the punishment. We have seen the proof of this at a time when we were fetching water, and one of the natives had carried off one of our pikes, with which he ran off into the wood. We had seen him do it and signified to the others our anger. They seeing this, ran after him and, having taken the pike from him brought it back to us a great distance, and punished the thief or evil-doer like this: they took an old coconut and battered his back with it until the nut got cracked; we could not find out if this is their usual practice or was on this occasion done for our sake only.

Item the 1st of February.

Seeing that at present we find ourselves provided with plenty of refreshments and that we have got nearly all our casks filled with water, for which the Ruler of all things be fervently thanked and praised, and that for some days past the wind has been continually blowing from the north, which makes the coast near the watering-place a lee-shore, so that we are unable to fill our remaining casks, therefore we have deemed it advisable to continue our voyage, for which reason early this morning we weighed anchor and set sail to northward with a favourable breeze from the east.

Item the 2nd.

At noon we had the southernmost of the high islands south-south-east and the northernmost south-east by south of us at about 6 or 7 miles distance. At noon Latitude observed 19 degrees 20 minutes, Longitude 205 degrees 55 minutes, course held from the island north-north-west, sailed 15 miles. These high islands are situated north-north-west slightly more to westward of the island where we got water at 7 or 8 miles distance. Halfway the afternoon we saw another island north-east by east of us at about 7 miles distance, also pretty high; the wind blowing from the east with a light breeze.

Item the 3rd.

In the morning we still saw the island which in the previous evening we had north-east by east of us; we now had it east-south-east of us at about 8 miles distance. At noon Latitude observed 18 degrees 18 minutes, Longitude 205 degrees 55 minutes; course held north, sailed 15 miles; the wind blowing from the east-south-east and south-east with trade-wind weather, a clear sky and smooth water.

Item the 4th.

Good weather and a clear sky with smooth water; in the morning we estimated ourselves to have passed the 17th degree, on which account we turned our course to westward in accordance with the resolution. At noon Latitude estimated 16 degrees 40 minutes, Longitude 205 degrees 25 minutes; course kept north by west, sailed 25 miles; the wind being east-south-east and south-east with a topsail breeze and trade-wind weather; towards the evening we had a few squalls with thunder and lightning.

Item the 5th.

We continued to have trade-wind weather with the wind as before, a topsail and smooth water. At noon Latitude observed 16 degrees 30 minutes, Longitude 203 degrees 12 minutes; course held west, sailed 32 miles; at noon we set our course west by south in order to reach the 17th degree, and had a good lookout kept so as not to sail past the Cocos or Verraders islands; during the night when three glasses of the dog-watch had run out we saw land, upon which we immediately hauled aboard our larboard tacks and ran southward till seven glasses in the same watch were out, when we tacked to the north again.

Item the 6th.

In the morning we again saw land, to wit three small islets, on all sides surrounded by shoals and reefs; we tacked about to the south and saw a large reef to westward stretching as far as the south, which we sincerely regretted; this land is fully 8 or 9 miles in length; straight ahead there were also breakers which we were unable to pass. Seeing that we could clear neither the reef straight ahead nor another which lay north of us we observed to leeward a small space about two ship's lengths wide where there were no breakers; for this we made since there was no other way of escape; we passed between the rocks in 4 fathom, though not without great anxiety; all about here there are reefs and 18 or 19 islands, but the shoals which abound here and are very dangerous render it impossible for ships to pass between them. These islands are in 17 1/2 degrees or thereabouts for we got no latitude. At noon we estimated ourselves to be in 17 degrees 9 minutes South Latitude, Longitude 201 degrees 35 minutes, course held west-south-west, sailed 25 miles with a steady trade-wind from the east-south-east. We should have greatly liked to have come to anchor near one of these islands but could find no roadstead on account of the numberless shoals and reefs that run out to sea from all these islands. At noon we turned our course to northward in order if possible to get clear of all these shoals in the daytime. Towards the north too we saw numerous shoals everywhere, which it would be difficult to pass through. At length however we found an opening and sailed through between the reefs, but to our great regret had to leave these isles because we found no ground for anchoring. In the evening we saw three hills which we thought to be islands. During 5 glasses of the first watch we again made for the land in order to avoid the shoal ahead of us. The wind was blowing from the east and we sailed with our mainsail set. When 5 glasses of the first watch were out we tacked to northward and ran northward till daybreak, when we saw the island which on the previous evening we had seen north by west of us.

Item the 7th.

We kept sailing to the north close to the wind with our mainsail set, the wind being north-east with a strong gale and showers of rain and a high sea running from the north. The Pilot-major thought that the islands which we had been near to on the 6th instant are the islands which in the large chart are found south-west of the Hoornsche islands; for which reason he was of the opinion that we ought to shape our course to northward close by the wind in order to keep clear of the coast of New Guinea, since this is a lee-shore and the season unfavourable so that it might prove impossible to put off from shore again. In the morning we came close upon an island, therefore tacked to the south until daybreak when we turned to the north again, the wind blowing a storm from the north-east; we therefore tacked to the north-west with small sail. At noon Latitude estimated 16 degrees, Longitude 200 degrees 48 minutes; course kept north-west by north, sailed 21 miles.

Item the 8th.

The wind kept blowing very strong from the north-east and north-north-east with a great deal of rain. We still sailed close to the wind with small sail. Having called the Pilot-major aft we asked him whether he persisted in his opinion that these were the islands he had mentioned the day before. He answered in the affirmative and added that in his opinion we ought to steer northward directly if the wind should allow of it. Owing to the rough and stormy weather we could not get our friends of the Zeehaan on board of us nor even speak them; upon which we convened the council of the Heemskerk, together with the two second mates, and submitted to their consideration the opinion given by the Pilot-major; asking all of them to give us their own opinions in writing that from these collective advices we might draw up a resolution which we accordingly did in the afternoon. Wind and weather as before; at noon we estimated ourselves to be in 15 degrees 29 minutes South Latitude, Longitude 199 degrees 31 minutes; course kept west-north-west, sailed 20 miles, in accordance with the advices resolved upon this day.

We should have liked to have convened the councils of both ships, but were prevented from so doing by the turbulence of the weather with rain and wind; for which reason we summoned the council of the ship Heemskerk, together with the two second mates, and represented to them that for many days past we have had such weather that at times we could hardly see to a distance of two or three ship's lengths, and that on the 6th instant we had been entangled between islands and shoals to such a degree that we could only with difficulty get clear of the same. These islands are 18 or 20 in number so far as we could count them, though it is quite possible that there are more since, owing to the darkness of the weather, it was very difficult to count them. These islands are situated full in the course of Jacob la Maire, but since in this latitude he ran on for 430 miles due west and did not find any such islands there we might conclude that these islands do not lie in the line of the said course. But in the great chart of the South Sea certain islands are marked which agree with these as regards their latitude; but this would make a difference with our reckoning of more than 200 miles, the said islands being marked in the chart so many miles more to westward. Now during this long voyage we have almost continually been sailing eastward and westward, often with storms and tempests, for which reason the proverb which says that guesswork often shoots wide of the mark may well be applicable to us, and we be so far out in our reckoning.

For all these reasons it is our opinion that, wind and weather permitting, we should from here run due north as far as the 4th degree of Southern Latitude and then due west as far as the coast of New Guinea, seeing that the weather we now have is such that one might easily miss a known coast, let alone an unknown one; that there is no good anchorage there, and a lee-shore besides, so that we should run great risk of losing our ships and men alike, and that we are in the bad season here, when the south-east trade-wind and the northern monsoon meet each other, which cannot fail to cause much rain and rough weather.

Given on board the ship Heemskerk this day the 8th of February, A.D. 1643 in 15 degrees 29 minutes Southern Latitude and 199 degrees 31 minutes Longitude.

Signed,

ABEL JANSZ TASMAN.

This day the 8th of February A.D. 1643, our ships being in the estimated latitude of 15 degrees 23 minutes, Longitude 198 degrees 4 minutes, the Honourable Commander Abel Jansz Tasman has enjoined the council of the ship Heemskerk, each member to give his opinion in writing respecting the course to be held from here, whether to the west-north-west or more northerly, in order in the most convenient way to make the coast of New Guinea or the islands situated at the north-east point.

Therefore we, so far as regards ourselves, will give our opinion as follows: in the first place it is now the bad season and the period of rain in the Moluccas, and here we have every day rain and strong north-east winds which cause the east side of New Guinea to be a lee shore; also it is a rule all over the East Indies the nearer a lee shore the worse weather. If one wants to make the coast of New Guinea in the latitude of the Salomonis islands, partly in accordance with the directions and instructions given, though not constituting a positive command, this could not be done without incurring the risk of being cast into a bay from which it might be difficult or impossible to beat out again; and since the east side of New Guinea is still unknown it is quite possible that there may be plenty of small islands and shoals to eastward of the said Land of New Guinea, such as we have already met with before and, having no secure anchorage in such rough weather, in which it is impossible to keep a proper lookout, we might happen to be cast on the shore before we had become aware of the same.

For which reason we think that from here we should sail northward as close to the wind as shall be found practicable as far as 4 or 5 degrees South Latitude; the object of our advice being to avoid all risks and prevent our being thrown on a lee-shore, seeing that the coast falls away there, whence we could run to the west in the first instance and next regulate ourselves by wind and weather.

Signed,

FRANCOYS JACOBSZ.

Whereas on the 8th instant we are now having a good deal of rough weather, both with rain and strong north winds, so that we can hardly carry mainsails and cannot see to a quarter of a mile distance, the Commander had convened the council of the Heemskerk, together with the second mates, and desired each of them to give in his opinion in writing; I therefore state as my opinion that we ought to direct our course as far to northward as wind and weather shall permit, nay even due north or north by east, as far as 2 or 3 degrees South Latitude, to avoid being cast on the lee-shore of New Guinea; seeing that we are in the bad season here and it is quite possible that we may have got farther to westward than our account makes it, since on the 6th instant we came across 20 or 21 islands lying in 17 degrees 10 minutes South Latitude, which were not seen by Jacob la Maire.

This day the 8th of February 1643 on board the Yacht Heemskerk, Latitude estimated 15 degrees 43 minutes, Longitude 199 degrees 7 minutes.

Signed,

IDE TJERRXZ HOLMAN.

This day the 8th of February A.D. 1643. Whereas in my estimation we are now in Latitude 15 degrees 47 minutes, Longitude 198 degrees 10 minutes, the weather having been stormy for several days past and the Honourable Commander having desired each of us to give his advice in writing regarding the course to be held and up to what latitude; it would be my advice that we ought to steer on a north-west course as far as 3 degrees of Latitude south of the Equator and afterwards to westward.

Signed,

CARSTEN JURRIAENSZ.

To the Honourable Mr. Abel Jansz. Tasman.

It is my advice that from here, being the estimated southern latitude of 15 degrees 44 minutes, and the longitude of 198 degrees 19 minutes, we should steer our course as far to northward as shall be found practicable so as to avoid being cast on the land of New Guinea, as far as the southern latitude of 6 or 7 degrees, since we are now getting on for the bad season here when the winds are blowing from the north-east and north-north-east, and there is much rain and a difficult lookout to be expected and, if we should happen to be thrown on a lee-shore with our ships, there would be small chance of getting them off again, owing to want of sailing wind, and we might easily fall into peril with our ships and cargoes; therefore in my opinion it is better to stick to the course aforesaid and, when we have got so far with the aid of God, to direct our course to westward and try to make the land of New Guinea, and afterwards to steer our course for the land of Gilolo. Given thus on board the Yacht Heemskerk, A.D. 1643, the 8th of February.

Signed by me,

CHRYN HENDRECXZ DE RATTE.

Item the 9th.

The wind blowing from the north with rain and a strong gale. We kept sailing with our mainsail set, the sea being very rough and running very high from the north and north-west. At noon Latitude estimated 15 degrees 29 minutes, Longitude 198 degrees 8 minutes; course held west, sailed 20 miles. In the evening we tacked about to the east, hauled up our foresail, and in this way ran on close to the wind with our mainsail and mizzen-sail set until the end of the first watch; we then loosened our foresail again and tacked about to westward. In the day-watch we set our great topsail but before long had to take it in again.

Item the 10th.

We still had variable weather with rain and wind, the sea running from all directions, so that the water is very rough and we are experiencing very unfavourable weather for discovering anything, which is now quite impossible to all this dark, hazy, drizzling weather. At noon Latitude estimated 15 degrees 19 minutes South, Longitude 197 degrees 20 minutes; course held north-west by north, sailed 12 miles. For the last five days past we have been without seeing either sun, moon or stars. In the evening we lowered the foresail down to the stem and lay to with mainsail and mizzen-sail.

Item the 11th.

The storm still raging from the north, and the sea still running very high from all sides, with dark, foggy, drizzling, rainy weather and a good deal of lightning. At noon Latitude estimated 15 degrees 5 minutes South Latitude, Longitude 196 degrees 6 minutes; course held west by north, sailed and drifted 18 miles.

Item the 12th.

After breakfast it began to clear up to some extent, so that we set our great topsail; the sun broke through the clouds, and it seemed as if the weather was going to change; the sea is however still running very high, mainly from the west-south-west. At noon Latitude observed 15 degrees 3 minutes, Longitude 195 degrees 50 minutes; course held west, sailed 18 miles; halfway the afternoon we again got the same rainy and stormy weather we had had before, so that we had to take in our great topsail and to sail with two mainsails without bonnets; the wind is mainly blowing from the north and north-north-west and is exceedingly variable. In the evening we steered to the east until midnight then tacked about to the west; during the night we had a pouring rain, so that the water seemed to come down in torrents, accompanied by thunder and lightning.

Item the 13th.

In the morning, the weather being somewhat better and the sea having calmed down to some extent, we set our topsails but without sliding out the bonnets. We continued to have occasional showers and the wind still blew from the north; during the last twenty-four hours we sailed and drifted 12 miles to west-south-west. At noon Latitude estimated 15 degrees 21 minutes south, the Latitude observed being 15 degrees 38 minutes, Longitude 194 degrees 4 minutes; the sea is becoming a good deal smoother; during the night we lay to with small sail.

Item the 14th.

The wind north-west and north-north-west with good weather, though it was still thick, hazy and dark, so that it was difficult to keep a lookout. We sent the pilot-major with the secretary to the Zeehaan to require the opinions in writing of her officers. At noon Latitude observed 16 degrees 20 minutes, Longitude 193 degrees 35 minutes; course held south-west, sailed 10 miles.

The following are the advices of our friends on board the Zeehaan:

This day the 14th of February of the year 1643. Whereas the Commander had this day sent the pilot-major and his secretary on board of us to hear our advices as regards the shaping of our courses, and secondly in what latitude it would be best to touch at the land of New Guinea; my advice touching the point referred to is that we had best touch at the land aforesaid in 4 or 5 degrees South Latitude. The reason why I would advise to touch at this land so far to northward is as follows: we have had very rough weather for 6 or 7 days past and been in fear of getting into a bay or being cast on a lee-shore; in the latitude aforesaid we should come upon the land in a known latitude; and if we have touched at the land in the said latitude it is likely we shall be able to get to the south if the time at our disposal shall permit us to do so. It is consequently my opinion that we should shape our course as far to northward as possible until we got to the latitude aforesaid and then steer due west until in the latitude aforesaid we come in sight of New Guinea. At this time of writing we were by account in Latitude 15 degrees 49 minutes south, Longitude 194 degrees 37 minutes.

Signed,

GERRIT JANSZ.

Advice or reasons why and for what cause we hold it most expedient to navigate to the north.

Whereas Your Worship has been pleased to ask us to give in our opinion or advice touching the question submitted to us in writing yesterday, my judgment in this matter is as follows: since we are at present in Latitude 15 degrees 55 minutes south, Longitude 194 degrees 24 minutes, and the weather here about this time of the year would seem to be very variable, while in this region of the world we are as it were at the mercy of winds blowing from all the four quarters, and we do not know how near we have sailed to the land of New Guinea, except what in this respect we can gather from the terrestrial globe and the great chart of the South Sea, we trust that the islands made by the Honourable Commander are the Salomonis islands, seeing that in longitude and latitude we have found them to agree with the indications in the chart of the Portuguese; the said islands cannot have been seen by Schoutens and therefore they may be the land of New Guinea which, according to the Portuguese chart, we might also happen to fall in with.

For the reason above given it is therefore my opinion, regard being had to the roughness of the weather and to the possibility that we may be nearer to the said land than we suspect, to the fact that we do not know its trend in this latitude and what bays, inlets, bights, shoals and the like there may be in and about it, to the risk that with these northerly winds we may by storm or rough weather be cast and driven on a lee-shore, which would grievously endanger both ship and cargo; it is therefore, I repeat, my opinion that we ought to steer our course north-north-west to the known part of New Guinea about as far as 4 or 5 degrees Southern Latitude, and by so doing avoid all perils as much as possible. Given on board the flute-ship the Zeehaan this 15th of February, 1643.

Signed,

Your devoted servant,

J. GILSEMANS.

My advice is that we ought to make the land of New Guinea in 5 or 6 degrees South Latitude, seeing that for six days past we have had exceedingly rough weather; that if we should be driven into a bay we might get such weather that it would prove impossible for us to beat out of it; I think that we ought to shape our course as far to northward as the wind will allow us till we got to the latitude aforesaid, and then steer westward in order to make the land of New Guinea. We are at present in Latitude 16 degrees 3 minutes, and Longitude 195 degrees 27 minutes on the 14th of February 1643.

Signed,

HENDRICK PIETERSZ.

This day the 14th of February, 1643. Whereas for 6 or 7 days past we have now had north wind with dark, rough and dirty weather, so that we may very well be nearer land than we suspect, and run the risk of being driven into a bay from which with a northerly wind and this unsettled weather it would be very difficult for us to get out again, therefore my advice is that we should run on as far as 5 or 6 degrees South Latitude, so as to make the coast of New Guinea on the north side; and I further think that we should shape our course as far northward as the wind will allow us until we arrive at the said latitude, and then steer to westward in order to touch at New Guinea. This day at noon we are in Latitude 15 degrees 57 minutes South, and Longitude 195 degrees 49 minutes.

Signed by me,

PIETER NANNINGHZ. DUYTS.

This day the 14th of the month of February, our ship being in 15 degrees 57 minutes South Latitude, and the middle longitude of 195 degrees 10 minutes, and the Honourable Commander desiring to be informed of the reasons why we should set our course so far to northward as we had fixed upon, I give it as my opinion that, since we have now had a violent storm with rain and dark weather these 6 or 7 days past, and do not know whether we are still far from shore or near it, and whether we may not again be driven into some bay or be cast on shoals or reefs, as happened to us on the 6th instant, we ought to attempt to make New Guinea in 5 or 6 degrees southern latitude to the end that we may be able to get off shore on a northerly course; it being further my advice that we should set our course as high to northward as shall be found possible, in order to reach that latitude aforesaid and then steer to westward until we get to the land of New Guinea.

Signed by me,

CORNELIS YSBRANTSZ ROOLOL.

Item the 15th.

Still dark, foggy weather with rain and the wind from the north-west and west-north-west with a light breeze; we tacked this way and that so that we made no progress, having the wind almost flat against us. At noon Latitude estimated 16 degrees 30 minutes South, Longitude 193 degrees 35 minutes; course held south, drifted 2 miles. Towards the evening we got a violent squall of rain from south-west and set our course to northward. In the first watch it fell a calm so that we drifted in a calm the whole of the night.

Item the 16th.

In the morning we kept drifting in a calm. During the last 24 hours we made no progress owing to the dead calm.

Item the 17th.

We had a variable breeze alternating with dead calm so that again we failed to make any progress. Towards the evening the wind became south-west with rain, upon which we shaped our course to the north; after a short time however it fell a calm again so that we did not sail more than two miles to northward. Latitude estimated 16 degrees 22 minutes, Longitude 193 degrees 35 minutes.

Item the 18th.

It continued calm until noon; we remained in the same latitude and longitude as before; at noon we got a light breeze from the south-east with occasional showers.

Item the 19th.

The wind still south-east with rain. At noon Latitude observed 15 degrees 12 minutes, longitude 193 degrees 35 minutes; course kept north, sailed 18 miles. We still had dark, rainy weather every day, very unhealthy, and no chance of a lookout to discover land.

Item the 20th.

Still thick, dark, foggy, rainy weather with the sea running from all directions, and variable winds, now a calm, now a breeze. At noon Latitude observed 13 degrees 45 minutes, Longitude 193 degrees 35 minutes; course held north, sailed 21 miles.

Item the 21st.

The wind still variable from the west and north-west going up to north; we set our course close by the wind to northward; the sea is still very rough with copious rains. At noon Latitude estimated 13 degrees 21 minutes, Longitude 193 degrees 35 minutes; course held north, sailed 6 miles; in the afternoon we ran to northward. During the night we drifted in a calm for the space of 12 glasses, after which we got a breeze from the north, when we tacked to westward.

Item the 22nd.

In the morning the wind was still northerly with a good deal of rain, we still held our course to westward close by the wind, and had very heavy swells from the north-west. The weather was dark, drizzly, and foggy; now strong gales, now a sudden calm. At noon we made out by account to be in Latitude 13 degrees 5 minutes South, Longitude 192 degrees 57 minutes; course held west-north-west, sailed 10 miles. In the afternoon the wind went round to the north-east and east. Towards the evening the wind became south-east, and then south, with much rain and a strong gale. During the night we lay to with small sail; we also saw a number of logs floating about.

Item the 23rd.

A westerly wind with a storm, thick, dark weather and much rain; at times we could hardly see to a distance of two ship's lengths; the sea was very rough, running from all sides. At noon Latitude estimated 12 degrees 10 minutes, Longitude 192 degrees 57 minutes; course held north, sailed 14 miles; during the night we sailed northward close to the wind.

Item the 24th.

In the morning we set our topsails. We had the wind from the west-north-west and north-west with a stiff gale and frequent showers, the sea being still very rough. At noon Latitude estimated 11 degrees 2 minutes, Longitude 192 degrees 28 minutes; course held north-north-east, sailed 18 miles. In the afternoon we had to take in our topsails and ran over to northward close to the wind; during the night we lay to with one sail since we dared not sail on, there being no lookout, from fear we might come upon land or shoals.

Item the 25th.

In the morning we made sail again; when day broke we saw that the Zeehaan had her mizzen-mast broken; we then hoisted our foresail, hailed the Zeehaan, and asked her how she was getting on; they replied that they could help themselves until the weather should improve; her mizzen-mast is broken in such a way that she can still carry a small mizzen-sail. The wind was still blowing from the north-west and north-west by west with a storm, much rain, and dark weather; we went over to northward close to the wind; at noon Latitude estimated 10 degrees 31 minutes south, Longitude 193 degrees; course held north-east, sailed 11 miles; during the night we again lay to with small sail.

Item the 26th.

The wind blowing pretty stiffly from the north-west, still with a good deal of rain and dark weather. I cannot understand how it is that such a steady westerly wind is blowing here so far into the South Sea unless it should be that the western monsoon is continually blowing over New Guinea and coming on stiffly, pressed on a good way into the South Sea with the trade-wind blowing lightly. For 21 days past now we have not had a single dry day. At noon Latitude estimated 9 degrees 48 minutes south, Longitude 193 degrees 43 minutes; course held north-east, sailed 15 miles; during the night we lay to with small sail.

Item the 27th.

In the morning we made sail again, set our course over to northward close to the wind with the wind blowing from the north-west and north-north-west, and thick, dark, drizzly, rainy weather, but the sea beginning to become smoother; at noon Latitude estimated 9 degrees south, Longitude 194 degrees 32 minutes; course held north-east, sailed 17 miles; at night when 6 glasses in the first watch were out the wind went round to the north and we turned our course to westward.

Item the last.

The wind still blowing from the north and north-north-west with thick, foggy, drizzly, rainy weather, our course held westerly still. At noon Latitude estimated 8 degrees 48 minutes south, Longitude 194 degrees 2 minutes; course kept west-north-west, sailed 8 miles.

Item the 1st of March.

Good weather with smooth water and a northerly but variable wind; we turned our course to westward. At noon Latitude observed 9 degrees 5 minutes, Longitude 193 degrees 21 minutes; course held west-south-west, sailed 11 miles. In the evening we got a squall of rain from the west and for the rest of the night drifted in a calm.

Item the 2nd.

Towards daybreak we got a light breeze from the north and set our course to westward. At noon Latitude observed 9 degrees 11 minutes, Longitude 192 degrees 46 minutes; held our course west slightly southerly, east, west and west by south betweenwhiles, sailed 12 miles, with variable winds and weather. Variation of the compass 10 degrees North-East.

Item the 3rd.

Wind and weather very unsettled, with much rain and very variable winds, alternating between a dead calm and gales so strong that we could hardly carry sail; we estimated that in the last 24 hours we had sailed 8 miles; course held west, Latitude estimated 9 degrees 11 minutes south, Longitude 192 degrees 14 minutes; in the evening we had very much rain again and drifted in a calm.

Item the 4th.

Wind and weather continued variable with much rain, the wind keeping however between the south-west and north. We are in hopes however that the weather will soon get better. At noon Latitude estimated 8 degrees 55 minutes, Longitude 191 degrees 57 minutes; course held north-north-west, sailed 5 miles.

Item the 5th.

Wind and weather still variable with heavy rains. This variable weather has now lasted for a month past during which we have made little progress and have continually been holding our courses between the south-west and north but we hope things will soon mend. At noon Latitude estimated 8 degrees 32 minutes south, Longitude 191 degrees 42 minutes; course held north-north-west, sailed 8 miles. Variation 10 degrees 30 minutes North-East.

Item the 6th.

Still variable winds with a good deal of rain, violent squalls alternating with sudden calms; a man who should wish to describe all these chops and changes of wind and weather might be kept doing nothing else but write. At noon Latitude estimated 8 degrees 8 minutes south, Longitude 191 degrees 42 minutes; course held north, sailed 6 miles.

Item the 7th.

Still thick, dark, drizzly, rainy weather with variable wind and weather and a very rough sea; the wind continues keeping between the west-south-west and north-west; we have the wind straight ahead. At noon Latitude estimated 8 degrees 17 minutes south, Longitude 191 degrees 1 minute; course kept west by south, sailed 12 miles. This day we saw a great many birds.

Item the 8th.

Still thick, dark, drizzly, rainy weather with the wind as before; we therefore kept tacking about with the starboard forward in order to get as far to westward as possible; but we fear we shall get no good wind before the close of the western monsoon; we have heavy rains every day. At noon Latitude estimated 7 degrees 46 minutes south, Longitude 190 degrees 47 minutes; course held north-north-west and west, sailed 9 miles. Towards the evening the wind began to stiffen so that we had to take in our topsails and to sail with mainsails.

Item the 9th.

We kept sailing with our mainsails set with a storm from the north-west and north-north-west and in thick, dark, foggy, drizzling weather; we had a great deal of rain which is doing us a great deal of harm bodily, and the sea is very rough. At noon Latitude estimated 8 degrees 33 minutes south, Longitude 190 degrees 1 minute; course held south-west, sailed 16 miles; during the night we lay to with small sail for the space of 16 glasses because we dared not sail full speed.

Item the 10th.

In the morning we again set our foresail and went over to westward; we had the wind from the north-north-west with very unsettled weather and heavy rains; we set our large topsail but had to take it in again directly on account of bad weather. At noon Latitude estimated 9 degrees south, Longitude 189 degrees 33 minutes; course held south-west, sailed and drifted 10 miles; during the night we set our course to westward with small sail.

Item the 11th.

Still dark, foggy, drizzly, rainy weather, with a northerly wind but very unsteady; in the morning we had a north-north-east wind and set our course close to the wind. At noon Latitude estimated 9 degrees 12 minutes south, Longitude 188 degrees 29 minutes; course held west by south, sailed 17 miles. In the afternoon we saw that those on board the Zeehaan brailed up their mainsail and took in their foretopsail, upon which we forthwith let fall our foresail to stay for her and inquire whether she had broken anything. When she came near us we understood that her mainsail was torn to pieces and that they were engaged in repairing it.

Item the 12th.

Still unsettled weather; we had variable winds from the northern quarter. At noon Latitude estimated 8 degrees 48 minutes south, Longitude 187 degrees 29 minutes; course held west-north-west, sailed 16 miles; after midnight we drifted in a calm.

Item the 13th.

Still dark, thick weather; in the afternoon we drifted in a calm, the sea still running very high from the north-west; at noon Latitude estimated 8 degrees 48 minutes south, Longitude 186 degrees 48 minutes; course held west, sailed 10 miles. During the night we got a light breeze from the south and turned our course to the north-west.

Item the 14th.

The wind from the south but almost a calm; good dry weather and the sea still running from the north-west. We saw some boughs of trees floating but did not sight any land. During the night the wind went round to the south-east with a light breeze. At noon Latitude observed 10 degrees 12 minutes, our estimation being 1 2/3 degree to northward than the latitude now got by observation. We had not been able to observe the latitude for 12 days past owing to the thick, dark, drizzly weather we had every day with heavy rains. According to our estimation our longitude was 186 degrees 14 minutes; course held north-west, sailed 13 miles. Variation 8 degrees 45 minutes North-East.

Item the 15th.

Good weather, the sea beginning to go down but the surges are still running against each other. The wind blew from the south-east with the weather improving; course held north-west, sailed 12 miles. At noon Latitude observed 9 degrees 33 minutes, Longitude 185 degrees 40 minutes. Variation 8 degrees North-East.

Item the 16th.

Good, quiet weather with a bright sun which we have not had for 6 weeks past. At noon Latitude observed 8 degrees 46 minutes, Longitude 184 degrees 51 minutes; course held north-west, sailed 17 miles. Variation 9 degrees.

Item the 17th.

Good weather and smooth water, the wind easterly with a light breeze. At noon Latitude observed 8 degrees 7 minutes, Longitude 184 degrees 11 minutes; course held north-west, sailed 14 miles.

Item the 18th.

Good weather with an easterly wind and a light breeze with smooth water; at noon Latitude observed 7 degrees 40 minutes, Longitude 183 degrees 33 minutes; course held north-west, sailed 12 miles. Variation 9 degrees; in the afternoon the breeze began somewhat to stiffen.

Item the 19th.

Still good weather with a clear sky and a topsail breeze with the wind from the east. The sea begins to run from the east and north-east. At noon Latitude observed 6 degrees 25 minutes, Longitude 182 degrees 27 minutes; course held north-west, sailed 23 miles.

Item the 20th.

Good weather and smooth water with occasional squalls of rain from the east and east-south-east, with a light topsail breeze; at noon Latitude found 5 degrees 15 minutes, Longitude 181 degrees 16 minutes; course held north-west, sailed 25 miles. At noon we shaped our course to westward. Variation 9 degrees North-East.

Item the 21st.

Still always good weather with a light breeze from the east and north-east with occasional showers and smooth water; the swells however are not running from the  orth-east. At noon Latitude observed 5 degrees 25 minutes, Longitude 180 degrees 20 minutes; course kept west by south, sailed 14 miles.

Item the 22nd.

The weather continuing good with smooth water and a weak top-gallant breeze from the east and east-north-east trade-wind; at noon Latitude estimated 5 degrees 2 minutes, Longitude 178 degrees 32 minutes; course held west, sailed 27 miles. At noon we saw land straight ahead of us at about 4 miles distance; in order to run north of it we set our course first west by north and then west-north-west; towards evening we sailed close along the land north-west. These islands are close upon thirty in number but very small, the largest of them being not more than 2 miles in length; the rest are all small fry, all of them being surrounded by a reef; to north-west there runs off from this another reef on which there are three coconut trees by which it is easily recognisable. These are the islands which Le Maire has laid down in the chart; they are at about 90 miles distance from the coast of New Guinea. In the evening we still saw land north-north-west of us; we therefore turned our course over to north-north-east close to the wind in order to steer north of all shoals, brailed up our foresail, and in this way drifted until daybreak.

To these isles we have given the name of Islands of Onthong Faua, because of the great resemblance they bear to the latter; they are also surrounded by reefs and appear as shown here when they are south-west of you at 2 miles distance.

Item the 23rd.

At daybreak we made sail again, set our course to westward, and then had the small islands we had passed the previous day south of us at about 3 miles distance. The wind blew from the east and north-east, with a dark grey sky and trade-wind weather. At noon Latitude estimated 4 degrees 31 minutes South, Longitude 177 degrees 18 minutes; course held west-north-west, sailed 20 miles. During the night at the end of the first watch we lay to and dared not run on from fear we might come upon the island to which Le Maire has given the name of Marcken.

Item the 24th.

In the morning we made sail again, shaping our course to westward. Towards noon we saw land right ahead of us; this land was very low-lying and showed as two islands bearing south-west and north-west from each other; the northernmost bears some resemblance to the island of Marcken in the Zuyder Zee, as Jacob Le Maire says, for which reason he gave to it the name of Marcken. At noon Latitude observed 4 degrees 55 minutes, Longitude 175 degrees 30 minutes; course held west as far as we could estimate but we find that there is a strong current setting to the south; we sailed 20 miles with a wind east and east-south-east, and trade-wind weather with a light topsail breeze. In the evening we brought our course round to north so as to run north of the island. During the night we drifted in a calm and stood for the island aforesaid.

This island appears as here shown when it is west of you at 2 miles distance; this island has by Le Maire been named Marcken because of the strong resemblance it shows with the said island.

Item the 25th.

In the day-watch we heard the surf break on the shore; it being still quite calm we forthwith got out our pinnace and boat in order to tow us clear of the reef or shoal; the current and the sea however carried us some distance towards the reef. We found no anchorage here which we greatly regretted. About 9 o'clock a prow of the said island came alongside, containing 7 persons and about 20 coconuts; we exchanged a dozen of these for 3 strings of beads and 4 double middle-sized nails; the said coconuts seemed to have grown wild and were of poor quality. The people looked rough and savage with blacker skins than those in the islands where we took in refreshments; they were also less polite and went stark naked except that they wore before their privities a small covering, seemingly made of cotton, which was hardly large enough to conceal from view their yard and testicles. Some of them had their hair cut short, others wore it tied up like the villains of the Murderers Bay. One of them wore two feathers right on the top of his head just like horns; another wore a ring through his nose but we could not find out what the ring was made of; their prow was sharply pointed in front and behind like the wings of a seagull, but not elegantly shaped and rather the worse for wear and tear; they carried arrows and two bows and did not seem to set any store by the beads and nails, nay utterly to despise the same. We then got the wind from the south and fortunately got off the reef with the aid of it. The prow then paddled off to shore again. We saw another small prow approach us but it could not come near us in consequence of a sudden gust of wind. We now set our course to northward in order to get clear of the shoals and reefs. These islands are 15 or 16 in number, the largest of them being about a mile in length, and the other looking like houses; they all lie together surrounded by a reef. The said reef runs off from the islands to the north-west side; at about a swivel-gun shot distance from the islands there stands a group of trees, level with the water; two miles farther to the north-west there is another small islet like Toppershoetje (a small sailor's hat) the reef extends another half mile farther into the sea so that the reef runs out to sea in a north-westerly direction fully 3 miles from the islands. At noon Latitude estimated 4 degrees 34 minutes South, Longitude 175 degrees 10 minutes; course held north-west, sailed 7 miles; about noon the wind went round to north-west and then to northward; we turned our course west, after which began to blow from the north-north-east with a light breeze, upon which we set our course to the north-west; during the night, the weather being quiet with a northerly wind, we turned more to westward.

Item the 26th.

Good weather and smooth water with a north-easterly wind and a light breeze. At noon Latitude observed 4 degrees 33 minutes, Longitude 174 degrees 30 minutes; course held west, sailed 10 miles. We found that there was a strong current here setting southward, on which account we turned our course north-westward again. Variation 9 degrees 30 minutes North-East.

Item the 27th.

Wind and weather as before. At noon Latitude observed 4 degrees 1 minute, Longitude 173 degrees 36 minutes; course held north-west by west, sailed 16 miles; at noon we shaped our course to westward in order to run in sight of the islands lying eastward to the coast of New Guinea, and thence to cross to the mainland coast, which will thus become better known. Variation 9 degrees 30 minutes North-East.

Item the 28th.

Still good weather, the wind blowing from the east with a light breeze and smooth water. At noon Latitude observed 4 degrees 11 minutes, Longitude 172 degrees 32 minutes; course held west, sailed 16 miles; towards noon we saw land straight ahead and at noon we were still at about 4 miles distance from it. This island is in 4 degrees 31 minutes South Latitude and 172 degrees 16 minutes Longitude; it lies 46 miles to the west and west by north of the islands which Jacob Le Maire had named Marcken. During the night we drifted in a calm.

To these islands Le Maire has given the name of Green Islands because they looked green and beautiful; they appear as shown here when the easternmost is south and the westernmost south-west of you at 2 miles distance.

Item the 29th.

In the morning we found that the current was setting us towards the islands. At noon Latitude observed 4 degrees 20 minutes, Longitude 172 degrees 17 minutes. The whole of this day we drifted in a calm so that in the last twenty-four hours we have drifted 5 miles to the south-west. Halfway the afternoon two small prows came from shore alongside; they had two wings or outriggers, their paddles being small and thick in the blade, poorly made as it seemed to us; one of the prows had 6, the other 3 men in it. When they were about 2 ship's lengths from us one of the six men who were in the one prow broke one of his arrows in two, put one half into his hair and held the other half in his hand, apparently wishing thereby to show friendly feelings towards us; these men were stark naked, their bodies quite black, with curly hair like Caffres, but not so woolly as the hair of the latter, nor were their noses quite as flat. Some wore white bracelets, seemingly of bone, round their arms; others had their faces daubed with lime, and wore on the forehead a piece of tree-bark about the breadth of three fingers. They carried nothing but arrows, bows and calleweys (javelins) we called out to them a few words from our vocabulary of the language of New Guinea but the only word they seemed to understand was Lamas, which means coconuts. They always kept pointing to the land. We presented them with two strings of beads and two large nails, together with an old napkin, in return for which they gave us an old coconut which was all they had with them, after which they paddled to shore again. Towards the evening it was still calm with a very light breeze from the north-east; we drifted quite close to the islands and had to get out the boats to keep us off the shore by towing. At the close of the dog-watch we at length got clear of these islands. There are two large islands and three small ones, the latter lying on the west side. To these islands Le Maire has given the name of the Green islands. West-north-west of us we still saw a high island with 2 or 3 very small ones, and to westward of us we besides saw some very high land which looked like a mainland coast. But the truth of this only time can show. Variation 9 degrees North-East.

Item the 30th.

Weather improving with a light breeze from the north-east; still engaged in towing; we found that the current was setting us to the southward. At noon Latitude observed 4 degrees 25 minutes, Longitude 172 degrees; course held west, sailed or drifted 4 miles; in the evening we had St. Jans island north-west of us at about 6 miles distance.

Item the last.

Still good and quiet weather, with an easterly wind and smooth water. At noon Latitude observed 4 degrees 28 minutes, Longitude 171 degrees 42 minutes; course held west, sailed 6 miles; at noon we hoisted the white flag and pendant, upon which our friends of the Zeehaan came on board of us, with whom we resolved upon what is in extenso set forth in this day's resolution.

Item the 1st of April, A.D. 1643.

We got the coast of New Guinea alongside in 4 degrees 30 minutes South Latitude, at a point which the Spaniards call Cabo Santa Maria. At noon Latitude observed 4 degrees 30 minutes, Longitude 171 degrees 2 minutes; course held west, sailed 10 miles. Variation 8 degrees 45 minutes.

Item the 2nd.

Still good, quiet weather, with a variable breeze. We did our best to sail along the coast which here bears from Sint Jans island north-west and south-east; north-west of this there is still another high island, somewhat larger than St. Jans island from which it is 10 miles distant; to this second island we have given the name of Anthony Caens island. This is situated due north of Cabo Santa Maria. At noon Latitude observed 4 degrees 9 minutes, Longitude 170 degrees 41 minutes; course held north-west, sailed 10 miles; we then had Cabo Santa Maria south of us so that the cabo aforesaid lies in longitude 170 degrees 41 minutes, according to our estimation. In the evening we ran inshore in order to make better progress with the land-wind. When four glasses in the first watch were out we got the wind from shore with a light breeze and shaped our course along the shore.

Item the 3rd.

In the morning there was still a light land-breeze, our course still north-west along the coast. About 9 o'clock we saw a vessel full of men coming from shore; the said vessel was curved at both ends like the corre-corre of Tarnaten; she lay still a while beyond the reach of our great guns and then returned to shore again. At noon Latitude estimated 3 degrees 42 minutes South, Longitude 170 degrees 20 minutes; course held north-west, sailed 10 miles. Towards evening the wind began to blow from the east-south-east with a light breeze; we kept steering north-west along the coast. This land seems to be very pleasant but the worst of it was that we could get no anchorage here. During the night we had thunder and lightning, with rain and variable breezes.

Item the 4th.

We still kept sailing along the coast which here stretched north-west by west and south-east by east. It is a beautiful coast with many bays. We passed an island situated at 12 miles distance from Anthony Caens island, the two bearing from each other north-west and south-east. To this island we have given the name of Gardenys island. At noon Latitude estimated 3 degrees 22 minutes, Longitude 169 degrees 50 minutes; course held north-west by west, sailed 9 miles; the wind still variable with light breezes and calms; in the evening we got the land-wind, with rain, thunder and lightning; we therefore did our best to sail along the shore.

Item the 5th.

In the morning we still had the land-wind with a light breeze. Towards noon we came upon another island at 10 miles distance from Gardenys island, the two bearing from each other west-north-west and east-south-east. Inshore of this island we saw some prows lying, which we supposed to be engaged in fishing, for which reason we have to this island given the name of Fishers island. Towards noon we saw 6 prows ahead of us, three of which came paddling so near our ship that we let 2 or three pieces of old canvas, 2 strings of beads and two old nails drift towards them; they did not seem to care for the canvas, and the other things too hardly excited their attention; but they kept pointing to their heads, from which we concluded that they wanted turbans. These people seemed to be very shy, and by their gestures afraid of shot; they did not come near enough for us to discern whether they were armed. They were very black and stark naked, having only their privities covered with a few green leaves. Some of them had black hair, others hair of another colour. Their prows had outriggers and each of them carried 3 or 4 persons, but owing to the distance we could not discern any other details. When they had thus been pottering a long while near about the ships, and at times called out to us, to which we replied in the same way, though we did not understand each other, they paddled back to shore. At noon Latitude estimated 3 degrees, Longitude 169 degrees 17 minutes; course held west-north-west, sailed 10 miles; in the afternoon we had the wind north-west with a light breeze.

Item the 6th.

In the morning it was calm. Halfway the forenoon we again saw 8 or 9 prows come from the said island, three of which paddled to the Zeehaan and 5 to our ship. Some of them contained 3, others 4, and some few 5 persons. When they were about two stones cast from us they left off paddling and called out to us; we could not understand them but made signs for them to come nearer, upon which they paddled round in front of our ship, and kept loitering ahead of us a long time without coming alongside. At length one of our quartermasters took off his belt and held it up to them from afar. Upon this one of these prows came alongside our ship; we gave them a string of beads and our quartermaster also handed his belt out to them, for  which all we got in return was a piece of the pith of a sago-tree, which was the only commodity they had with them. Meanwhile the other prows, seeing that their comrades received no hurt, also came paddling alongside. None of these prows contained any arms or anything with which they could have done us harm. We at first suspected they might be villains who were intent on mischief and in search of booty since they affected such timidity. Had our suspicions proved true they would have been warmly received, for which we had made all due preparations, although the cook was not ready yet with the morning meal. We called out to them the words Anieuw, Oufi, Pouacka, etc. (meaning coconuts, yams, hogs, etc.) which they seemed to understand, for they pointed to the shore as if they wanted to say: they are there. Then they paddled to shore with great quickness and regularity but, since the breeze began to freshen, we did not see them again. These natives are dark brown, nay almost as black as the blackest Caffre; they have hair of various colours, owing to the lime with which they powder it; their faces are smeared with red paint except their foreheads. Some of them wore a thick bone through the lower part of the nose, about half the thickness of a little finger. For the rest they wore nothing on their bodies except some green leaves covering their privities. Their prows were new, trimly made up, and adorned with wood-carving in front and behind, with one outrigger each; their paddles were not long or broad, and pointed at the end, etc. At noon the wind went round to south-east with a fair breeze; we shaped our course west by north along the coast; Latitude observed 2 degrees 53 minutes, Longitude 168 degrees 59 minutes; course held west-north-west, sailed 5 miles; in the afternoon we made good progress. During the night there was land-wind with a light breeze.

Item the 7th.

In the morning we continued drifting in a calm. In the forenoon there came again 20 prows hovering near and about the ships but, like those of the previous day, they kept out of reach of gun-shot. We repeatedly made signs to them upon which they at length made bold to paddle alongside of us. They had nothing in their prows except in one of them three coconuts, of which we got one in exchange for a string of beads. We thought we should have got all three of them for it, but they absolutely refused to part with the other two. Another man had a shark (which in their tongue they called Ilacxz) which we also bartered against three strings of beads; a third again had a dorado or dolphin, which one of our sailors exchanged for an old cap. Some of them had a number of small fishes which they threw to our men, but they proved not worth eating. Finally three or four of these people came on board of our ship, looked about them in great amazement, and walked about the ship as if they were intoxicated; a curious circumstance truly, for in their small prows they paddled about for miles out to sea without any signs of sea-sickness, but in a large ship like ours they seem to get intoxicated by the motion caused of the swell of the sea. They had no arms with them, or anything which they could have hurt us. They seemed to subsist by fishing for some of them carried wooden eel-spears. After they had been on board for a while they left together and paddled back to shore with a good deal of bustle and with loud shouts. We remained lying there during the afternoon or drifted in a calm. Farther to westward the land begins to be very low, but the coast stretched west by north and west-north-west as far as we could see. At noon Latitude estimated 2 degrees 35 minutes, Longitude 168 degrees 25 minutes; course held west by north, sailed 9 miles. In the afternoon we still saw high land west by north and west of the cape aforesaid; this land we estimated to be fully 10 miles from us. We drifted in a calm but, soon getting a light breeze from the eastward, we endeavoured to get near the highland to westward. The current setting along this coast is steadily in our favour so that every day we made more progress to westward than we apparently proceeded over the water. In the course of the night we passed a large bay or inlet.

Item the 8th.

In the morning, reaching the west side of the bay, we came upon four small low-lying islets along which we held our course; when we were past these islets we again came upon 3 small islets lying together west of the others which we had passed at noon. At noon Latitude estimated 2 degrees 26 minutes, Longitude 167 degrees 39 minutes, the wind blowing from the east-south-east but variable; course held west by north, sailed 12 miles. Variation 10 degrees North-East. South-west by west of us we had a low-lying cape, north of which there were two low islets. From this point the land begins gradually to fall away to southward. About 6 o'clock in the evening we had these two islets south by west of us and the nearest land we saw, being level and low-lying, lay south-west by south of us at about 4 miles distance. We all the time held our course along the coast.

Item the 9th.

In the morning at sunrise we drifted in a calm; the point of the southernmost land we saw lay south-east by east of us at about 2 1/2 miles distance where the coast falls off very abruptly. We then had another low-lying small islet south-south-west of us at about 2 miles distance. We did our best to sail close along the said point but were prevented from so doing owing to the calm. At noon Latitude observed 2 degrees 33 minutes, Longitude 167 degrees 4 minutes; course held west-south-west, sailed 7 miles. Variation 10 degrees. In the afternoon we steered for the point as before.

Item the 10th.

During the last twenty-four hours we made pretty good progress to southward. Owing to the calm and for other reasons we endeavoured to get to southward as quickly as possible, partly to explore the coasts and partly to find a passage southward. At noon we found the southernmost point to bear from us east-north-east and the northernmost ditto north-north-east. At noon Latitude observed 3 degrees 2 minutes, Longitude 167 degrees 4 minutes; course held south, sailed 12 miles. In the afternoon we kept steering south; towards evening the wind went round to north-north-west. In order to get near to the land again we shaped our course east-south-east and south-east, at times rough, light variable winds with rain greatly troubling us. After midnight we again drifted in a calm in smooth water.

Item the 11th.

At noon we drifted in a calm without being able to take the latitude. We still saw the land stretching north-east of us, to wit the most easterly point, the most westerly point bearing from us north-north-east and north by east. At noon Latitude estimated 3 degrees 28 minutes, Longitude 166 degrees 51 minutes; course kept south-west by west, half a point westerly, sailed 7 miles. In the second watch we had a light breeze from the east-north-east; we turned our course over to south-east close by the wind but afterwards it fell a calm again.

Item the 12th.

Three glasses in the day-watch having run out we felt so violent a shock of earthquake that none of our men, however sound asleep, remained in his hammock, but all came running on deck in amazement, thinking the ship had struck on a rock. The feeling was as if the keel were dragging over coral rock but when we cast the lead we got no bottom. After this there were repeated slight shocks of earthquake, but none so strong as the first; at first with calm weather but shortly afterwards with heavy rains; the wind variable and sometimes a calm. We endeavoured to get as far to southward as possible. About 3 o'clock in the afternoon the wind was west with a light breeze. At noon Latitude observed 3 degrees 45 minutes, Longitude 167 degrees 1 minute; course held south-south-east, sailed 6 miles. Afterwards we turned our course due south-east and then saw a small, round, low-lying islet south by west of us at 4 1/2 or 5 miles distance. During the night heavy rains with variable weather.

Item the 13th.

In the morning the wind came from the north-east with a light breeze; we saw high land with several mountains and low-lying land between them from the south-west by west to the east-south-east. As far as we could make out we were in a large bay. We kept doing our best to get southward. At noon Latitude estimated 4 degrees 22 minutes, Longitude 167 degrees 18 minutes; course held south-south-east, sailed 10 miles. In the afternoon we drifted in a calm without being able to take soundings; the water here is as smooth as in a river without any motion, which made us the more believe we were in a large bay; but what the truth is we shall learn in time. During the night we had variable winds with now and then a calm. In the evening we had some mountains and hills south-south-west of us, towards which we shaped our course as much as possible.

Item the 14th.

In the morning we saw land from the east-north-east to the south-south-west and afterwards in the west-south-west. We hoped (although in vain) to find a passage between the two, but when we came nearer we found that it was a bay, and that the land all joined to westward. Therefore with a north-north-west wind we shaped our course west by south as high as we could sail, and about 3 or 4 o'clock in the afternoon came upon a reef which we judged to be usually level with the water, and which with the present sea-wind we could hardly sail clear of, the said reef lying 2 miles from shore as near as we could estimate. At noon Latitude observed 5 degrees 27 minutes, Longitude 166 degrees 57 minutes; course held south-south-west, sailed 15 miles. Variation 9 degrees 15 minutes North-East. Towards evening we got a light breeze from the north-north-east. During the night we again drifted in a calm.

Item the 15th.

We continued to have variable winds and calms so that we made little progress. At noon Latitude estimated 5 degrees 18 minutes, Longitude 166 degrees 36 minutes; course held west-north-west, sailed 6 miles. Variation 9 degrees North-East. In the evening the high island was due north-west of us at 6 miles distance.

Item the 16th.

We kept drifting in a calm and had the most westerly land we saw west by south and west-south-west of us. The land here from the one point to the other begins to extend mainly west by north, and shows from time to time high mountains with some pleasant, large, deep valleys. In the evening the high island was north-west by north of us at 2 1/2 or 3 miles distance. At noon Latitude estimated 5 degrees 5 minutes, Longitude 166 degrees 27 minutes; course held north-west, sailed 4 miles. Through the whole night we had calm weather.

Item the 17th.

In the morning we still drifted in a calm; about three hours before noon we had the high island north-east of us at 3 miles distance. We then got a light breeze from the south-east, upon which we set our course due west. We now had the two islands opposite each other. At noon Latitude observed 5 degrees 8 minutes, Longitude 166 degrees; course held west, half a point northerly, sailed 8 miles. Variation 8 degrees 45 minutes North-East. In the afternoon we again drifted in a calm; in the evening at sunset the high island was east by north of us at 6 or 7 miles distance, and the western extremity of a high range of mountains in New Guinea south-west by south of us at 6 or 7 miles distance. During the night it was calm again.

Item the 18th.

In the morning at sunrise the high mountain aforesaid was south by west of us at 6 or 7 miles distance. In the forenoon we got a light breeze from the south-west, upon which we turned our course over to westward, as close to the wind as possible, in smooth water. At noon Latitude observed 5 degrees, Longitude 165 degrees 37 minutes; course held west by north and west-north-west, sailed 5 miles with variable winds and a calm now and then. At noon the high mountain was south of us; at about four o'clock in the afternoon it was south by east of us so that since noon we had drifted about 2 miles to westward. We next saw where the land extended to westward, another high mountain south-west by south of us. The wind being south-south-west, then but very light, we turned our course over to westward close by the wind; at night we had a fair breeze from the south-east but already at the end of the second watch it fell calm again.

Item the 19th.

In the forenoon we had a light breeze from the south, our course being west-south-west. At noon Latitude observed 5 degrees 9 minutes, Longitude 164 degrees 50 minutes; course held west by south, sailed 12 miles. Variation 9 degrees North-East. At noon we had a round high islet, situated three miles off the mainland coast of New Guinea, due south of us at 2 1/2 miles distance. We set our course west-south-west, after which west by north of us we also saw land, which was supposed to be islands since we found the mainland coast of New Guinea to extend due west only. In the afternoon, the wind being south-east, we still stuck to our west-south-west course. At two o'clock in the afternoon we came upon a rocky reef which was only a fathom under water; from the masthead we saw, northward of the reef aforesaid, several more small reefs, between which the sea seemed to be deep; we ran round south of them and saw more reefs still, south of us. We accordingly passed between the two groups of reefs, and in quiet weather set our course west-south-west. We had the round high island which at noon was south of us, south-east of us now at a distance of about four miles, so that this reef aforesaid is north-west by west of the high round island at 4 miles distance. This reef is in 5 degrees 10 or 12 minutes South Latitude. The most northerly point of the mountains, which we had up to now taken to be islands, was west-north-west of us at about 7 miles distance, which indications will be sufficient to recognise these shoals by in future. In the evening the southern point of a high island was west by north of us at about 5 1/2 or 6 miles distance; we set our course as much due west as we could, with light variable winds.

Item the 20th.

At noon we had the most southerly point of the island north-west by west of us at 2 or 2 1/2 miles distance; in the evening the centre of the island was north-east of us at 1 1/2 miles distance, and the south point of another and higher island west-north-west of us at 6 or 7 miles distance. We set our course west by north. At noon Latitude observed 5 degrees 4 minutes, Longitude 164 degrees 27 minutes; course held west by north, sailed 6 miles with variable winds and an occasional calm. Variation 8 degrees 30 minutes. In the evening we again drifted in a calm, but shortly after the wind became east with a fair breeze. At night at the setting of the second watch we came close to the island and saw a large flame issue steadily from the top of the mountain. This is the volcano which Willem Schouten refers to in his journal. In order to pass between the mainland of New Guinea and this island we drifted the night without sails set, and thus waited for the day. While drifting we constantly heard the heavy ripple of the current which carried us to westward, which was greatly in our favour. On the same island we saw many fires close to the water, and also halfway up the high mountains, so we concluded it to be a thickly peopled country; it lies in the latitude of ---- degrees ----  minutes. As we were here sailing along the coast of New Guinea we had frequent calms and constantly saw pieces of wood floating about, the size of small trees, also bamboos and other lumber from shore, coming down the rivers, which made us conclude that there must be many rivers, and that it must be a fine country. We held our course north-west along the coast.

Item the 21st.

In the morning the centre of the island was east of us at 3 miles distance, the south-east point being east-south-east and south-east by east, the northern point north-east by east of us; the nearest land on the mainland coast was south-west of us at 1 1/2 or 1 3/4 miles distance. We then saw one more island north-west of us at about 8 miles distance, which Willem Schouten had named the high islands, and that justly since it is very high. At noon Latitude observed 4 degrees 30 minutes, Longitude 163 degrees 13 minutes; course held west by north, sailed 20 miles with a variable wind. In the evening at sunset the wind became east with a light breeze. We had sailed to the north-west since noon, and now shaped our course north-west by west with a fair breeze, and afterwards west-north-west, so that in the evening the centre of the island was due north-west of us at 4 miles distance. At the close the 6th glass in the first watch, as we were in the narrowest part of the passage between the mainland and the island, we found that at this point of the mainland of New Guinea there begins a low-lying coast which then trends west-north-west and north-west by west. Accordingly at the end of the first watch we took in all sails and let the ship drift with only the mizzen-sail set in order to await the day and avoid all perils; but since the current was setting here to the west we made more progress as measured by the land we passed than was apparent from our advance over the water. The mountain burnt with a steady flame issuing straight from the top.

Item the 22nd.

In the morning in the day-watch we again made sail and set our course to west-north-west. At sunrise we got into very pale-coloured water and at first thought we had come upon a shoal, for which reason we forthwith turned our course to the north. At this time we had the high burning mountain east-south-east and south-east by east of us at 7 miles distance. At night the flames were very violent. We had another high but small island north-north-east of us at 4 or 5 miles distance; the most westerly point of the mainland we saw being west-north-west of us at 4 miles distance, and a large river south-south-west of us at 2 miles distance. The north-north-west course lies between two high islets situated close together. Westward of these we saw still more land, to wit, three more islands. The mainland coast here extends chiefly to west-north-west. We took soundings here but found no bottom although we had sailed one mile from the low-lying land. We again set our course west-north-west along the coast, and this day passed six small islets, all of which we left on our starboard. At noon Latitude observed 3 degrees 39 minutes, Longitude 161 degrees 38 minutes, the wind being east and east-south-east, also at times east-north-east but variable; course held west-north-west, half a point northerly; sailed 27 miles. In the afternoon we got a fair breeze from the east-north-east; course held as before. We found here a low-lying land full of rivers, and saw many trunks of trees and other wood, together with a great quantity of green brushwod, come floating from the rivers with a flow of whitish sandy water. This low land forms a cape here, and when you have passed this point the land trends away to westward, so that a large bay is formed here, the two points however bearing from each other west-north-west. In the evening the eastern extremity of the most westerly island of the six was north-east by north of us at 1 1/2 miles distance. We had at that time another high island alongside west by north of us at 5 miles distance; we set our course west-north-west and north-west by west. At the end of the first watch we had the centre of the island south-west of us at one mile distance; we then set our course west-north-west with an easterly wind; at midnight a heavy shower of rain.

Item the 23rd.

In the morning the wind continued easterly; we kept our course west-north-west as before. In the forenoon we passed so much wood, pieces of tree-trunks, bamboo and other brushwood that it seemed as if we were sailing in a river, from all which we concluded that there must be a great river hereabouts and, since the current set us from the land, we shaped our course to westward and afterward west by south in order to get the coast alongside again. At noon Latitude estimated 3 degrees 1 minute, Longitude 160 degrees 3 minutes, the wind blowing from the east, course held west-north-west, sailed 26 miles. At two o'clock in the afternoon we again came near the mainland coast; in the evening we again set our course west-north-west, straight along the coast. In the afternoon a prow came to the Zeehaan from the mainland.

Item the 24th.

In the morning course and wind as before, with a fair breeze; at noon we took no latitude, though the weather was good; we estimated ourselves to be in Latitude 2 degrees 22 minutes South, Longitude 158 degrees 36 minutes, the wind east; course held west-north-west, sailed 26 miles. Variation 8 degrees North-East. In the afternoon we had rain, but at night at the end of the second watch we saw straight ahead low land with fires; we lay to with one sail close to the wind in order to await the day and drifted. During the night Latitude observed 2 degrees 20 minutes.

Item the 25th.

In the morning at daybreak we again made sail, and with an easterly wind shaped our course to westward towards the land we had seen during the night with the fires on the said land. We found it to consist of three low-lying islets, lying near to the mainland coast, about 5 miles to the eastward of the island of Moa, which we got sight of shortly afterwards. We then steered for the said island of Moa and made for the roadstead on the west side of the island, casting anchor in 12 fathom, good, grey, sandy bottom. This day we had much rain, the sea running fast from the north-west. When we had cast anchor a large number of small prows came swarming near and about our ships, loitering a long while before venturing to come alongside. We therefore tied a number of beads to pieces of firewood, which we threw out to them, on which almost all of them came on board of us, bringing with them no more than three coconuts. Making use of Jacob Le Maire's Vocabulary we gave them to understand that we wanted hogs, fowls, coconuts, bananas, and other refreshments, upon which they paddled to shore to fetch them, and returned towards noon, bringing with them, some four, others 5 or 6 coconuts, with a lot of unripe bananas, all of which we obtained of them by barter, 5 or 6 for an old nail or a string of beads, and 12 or 14 coconuts for a knife; they also brought us some fish both smoked and fresh. At noon Latitude observed 2 degrees 11 minutes, Longitude 156 degrees 47 minutes; the wind east, course held west by north, sailed 28 miles. In the evening when all the prows had left us we sent our pinnace to fetch our friends of the Zeehaan on board of us, with whom we resolved upon what is in extenso set forth in this day's resolution to which we beg leave to refer.

Item the 26th.

Early in the morning again a large number of prows with coconuts and unripe bananas came alongside. It seemed that the natives here had nothing else to dispose of. This day we obtained by barter so many coconuts that each of the men of our crew got five of them, but the natives brought little else than coconuts and unripe bananas, together with some fish, both fresh and smoked, all of which commodities we obtained of them by barter. This day we had 2 low-lying islets west of us. About 4 o'clock in the afternoon we sighted the island of Arymoa, north-west by west of us at 8 or 9 miles distance according to our estimation. As we were lying off the island here we found the wind to blow north-east from the sea by day, and south-east from the land by night; we also found the current to set here steadily to westward at such a rate that in a calm we should be sure to drift 4, 5 or 6 miles in twenty-four hours. The prows of the natives here are very narrow, about a foot in breadth.

Item the 27th.

In the morning the wind was south-west. Latitude observed here 2 degrees 10 minutes, Longitude 156 degrees 47 minutes. This day there came again a large number of prows alongside our ships, some of them from other islands in the neighbourhood and others from the mainland, bringing nothing but coconuts, unripe bananas and some fresh and smoked fish, almost all of which we obtained by barter. Among the said prows there were two large ones with 18 or 20 men in each of them, all of them armed with bows and arrows, and also with javelins and harpoons. These natives were almost quite black and went naked, having only a small covering to hide their privities from view. They could all of them exactly imitate whatever words they heard our men pronounce, a sure sign that their language is copious and difficult to pronounce, which we also infer from their using the letter R in so many of their words, some of them even containing as many as three R's. This day we got so many coconuts that we served out 6 coconuts and some bananas to each of our men. In the evening we again summoned our friends of the Zeehaan on board of us, and represented to them that we had come to the conclusion that we were lying not before Moa, but before Jamna, and asked them whether they did not think it best for us to weigh anchor tomorrow before daybreak and run for Moa, where we are likely to get more refreshments than here, which was assented to by the council, as may be seen from today's resolution.

Item the 28th.

In the morning at 4 glasses in the day-watch we weighed anchor and sailed with small sail to the island of Moa, where we dropped anchor at about noon in 10 fathom, stiff ground. As soon as we had dropped anchor numerous prows with coconuts and bananas came alongside. At noon Latitude estimated 2 degrees 5 minutes, Longitude 156 degrees 28 minutes; course held west by north, sailed 5 miles. In the afternoon at the end of 6 glasses there came a large prow from the mainland with 19 men in her, bringing a number of coconuts, which those on board the Zeehaan obtained by barter. This day we got so many coconuts by exchange that we served out 6 of them to each of our men.

Item the 29th.

In the morning again a large number of small prows came alongside with coconuts, unripe bananas, etc., which we all obtained by giving in exchange old nails, beads and knives, so that this day we served out 4 coconuts to each of our men. Towards the evening a large number of prows came alongside among them one with 11 persons in her, bringing with them a large quantity of coconuts which we all obtained of them by barter. Towards the evening we summoned on board of us our friends of the Zeehaan with whom we resolved to weigh anchor and proceed on our voyage as soon as wind and tide should serve.

Item the last.

In the morning a strong wind was blowing from the west-north-west, and the sea running very high, so that during all this day we could do nothing to give effect to our resolution of the previous day, to set sail from Moa and continue our voyage, but were compelled to remain at anchor. This day we again obtained by barter a number of coconuts, as many as the natives brought to our ships.

Item the 1st of May.

As the wind still continued west-north-west we had to remain at anchor, since we had the current against us, so that we should have done no good by trying to tack; this day we got some more coconuts.

Item the 2nd.

We still remained at anchor because the west-north-west wind kept blowing with a stiff, steady breeze, and the current was setting steadily to eastward. We had rain now and then but most of the time dry weather. In the forenoon we got still a large number of coconuts, but in the afternoon no more prows came alongside owing to the stiff breeze. During the night we had pretty good weather and always west wind.

Item the 3rd.

In the morning several prows again came alongside. Our men being engaged in washing the deck, one of our sailors standing on the wales to hand up the bucket, was shot at with an arrow and hit in the thick part of the leg above the thigh; we immediately made some of our men fire among the prows with muskets, so that one of the natives was hit in the arm. Shortly after we weighed anchor, ran inwards to the spot where Jacob Le Maire had formerly been at anchor with the ship Eendracht, and dropped our anchor from the bows between the two islands in smooth water. The natives on shore, seeing that we came sailing inwards with both ships, waved with branches and seemed full of fear that we might come with hostile intentions. They immediately sent on board of us the man who had been discharging arrows against our ship to make his peace with us which was done. Then the other natives again came on board as before, but they did not venture to demand as much for their commodities as before, and were content to take what we offered them. This day we again got a few prows alongside with coconuts, which we all obtained of them by barter, so that we could serve out 9 coconuts to each of our men.

Item the 4th.

In the morning the wind kept always blowing from the west-north-west, so that we were forced to remain here; this day again numerous prows came alongside with coconuts, which we all obtained of them by exchange, so that we could serve out 7 coconuts to each of our men.

Item the 5th.

The west-north-west wind still continuing in the morning we remained lying at anchor. This day we got only a few coconuts on board, all of them very young ones, so that it would seem that most of the coconuts of this island had already been gathered.

Item the 6th.

About 8 o'clock in the morning there sprung up a light land-breeze, so that we weighed our anchors and set sail in order to continue our voyage. We were already under sail when some more prows with coconuts came alongside. From these islands, both Hamna and Moa, we have got 6000 coconuts for the two ships, and about 100 bunches of bananas, all which we obtained by barter for beads, old rusty nails, and pieces of iron hoops, which we ground on one side, and to which we fitted wooden handles so as to resemble knives, for which they were very eager. When we had got to a quarter of a mile distance outside the bay it fell calm so that we had to drop anchor in 9 fathom, stiff ground.

Item the 7th.

In the morning the wind went about slightly to landward but inclining to a calm; we continued trying to get a little more off the land. In the forenoon the wind was west by south with a fair breeze, course held north-north-west. In the afternoon the wind became north-north-west, on which we tacked about, steering west by south. In the evening at the setting of the first watch of the island Arymoa was north-west of us at about 3 miles distance; we then turned our course over to northward again and kept our course north by west without making much progress, since the sea ran very strong from the north-west. During the night the wind was west-south-west.

Item the 8th.

In the morning at sunrise we had the largest island of Arymoa due south-west of us at about 3 miles distance; the wind continued west by south and west-south-west; course still held north-north-west. In the afternoon we had good weather. Latitude observed 1 degree 30 minutes, Longitude 156 degrees 22 minutes; course held north by west, sailed 8 3/4 miles. Variation 8 degrees North-East. We had the most north-westerly point of the island of Arymoa south-west and south-west by south of us at 5 or 6 miles distance. We then turned our course over to south-west with a west-north-west wind and a light breeze. In the evening at sunset we had the western point of the island of Arymoa south-west by south of us at about 3 1/2 miles distance in calm weather with the wind west-north-west; we still tacked to south-west. During the first and second watch of the night we drifted in a calm, the sea still running from the west-north-west. At the end of the second watch we got a light breeze from the south-east upon which we set our course due west.

Item the 9th.

In the morning the wind was south by east inclining to a calm. At sunrise we had the island of Arymoa south by east of us at about 3 or 4 miles distance; we still continued to steer west. At noon we got a light breeze from the north. The island of Arymoa then lay south-east by east of us at 3 or 4 miles distance, our course being always west. At noon Latitude observed 1 degree 35 minutes, Longitude 155 degrees 25 minutes; course held west by south, sailed 7 miles. Variation 7 degrees 30 minutes. In the afternoon the wind became north-north-west with good weather. In the evening at sunset the north side of Arymoa lay east by south of us at 7 miles distance. We took soundings here in 67 fathom, at about 3 miles distance from the mainland, which was very low-lying here. The wind being north-west we made for the coast and got into gradually shallowing water, 50, 40, 30 and 35, all good bottom; when 6 glasses in the first watch were out we sounded in 24 fathom, upon which we tacked about, since the wind at times was blowing more from shore, so that when about midnight the wind had gone round to south-west we set our course north-west along the coast.

Item the 10th.

In the morning the wind was south, our course remaining as before. We continually sailed here in thick muddy water of green colour, along a low coast which, by reason of this discharge of water, we supposed to be full of rivers, but we remained so far from shore that we could not well discern any rivers. Before noon having set our course north-west we found that the current caused by the discharge of the rivers was steadily setting us off the land. At noon Latitude observed 1 degree 17 minutes, Longitude 155 degrees 12 minutes; course held west-north-west, sailed 12 miles with variable winds. In the afternoon the wind abated and in the evening in the first watch we drifted in a calm; in the second watch the wind was variable.

Item the 11th.

At noon the wind came from the south-east with a light breeze. We turned our course west by south in order to get the land alongside again since we did not see any. At noon Latitude observed 1 degree 3 minutes, Longitude 154 degrees 28 minutes; course held west, sailed 12 miles. Variation 6 degrees 50 minutes North-East. In the evening with a south-south-east wind we set our course due west. All through the night we had a fair breeze with occasional calms. It seems however that the wind is getting to some extent influenced by the eastern monsoon. This day we had smooth water; the clouds which for some time past had been driving from the north-west were now at a standstill. We passed some low-lying land here.

Item the 12th.

In the morning the wind was east by north, our course being west. We again saw land, lying west by south of us, and set our course straight for it, when we found it to be Willem Schoutens island. At noon we had the northern point of it due west of us at about 6 miles distance in good weather. At noon Latitude observed 54 degrees, Longitude 153 degrees 17 minutes, with an east-south-east wind; course held west, sailed 18 miles. We continued sailing along it. About an hour before sunset 6 prows put off from Schoutens island to have a look at us, each prow containing 20, 24, or 25 men, but they were too shy to come alongside; these prows were about the length of the vessels of the Moluccas, but not so broad; the men were very expert paddlers, and seemed to be quick and intelligent; this land, about 18 or 19 miles in length, seems to be fairly well populated. In the evening at sunset we had the northern point of Willem Schoutens island west-south-west of us at about 1 1/2 miles distance, so that we constantly saw the surf break on the shore. This day in the evening a heavy slow swell rose, coming from the north; what it means we shall learn in time. The wind still blowing from the east with a light breeze. In the evening we set our course west towards the most westerly point so that we sailed along the coast all night.

Item the 13th.

In the morning we were at about 2 miles distance from the western point of Willem Schoutens island, which was almost due south-west by south of us; another islet, lying north-west by north of the point just mentioned at about 3 or 4 miles distance, bore from us north-west. We kept sailing westward along the coast until the said point was east of us, and then, in order to get the mainland coast alongside again, we set our course west-south-west. In the afternoon we got the wind from the south with a fair breeze. At noon Latitude estimated 54 minutes, Longitude 152 degrees 6 minutes; course held west, sailed 18 miles with an east wind. Variation 6 degrees 30 minutes North-East. In the afternoon the wind turned to the south-east with rainy weather. We then sighted land again, south-south-west of us; it was a low-lying coast, forming part of the mainland of New Guinea. From here we set our course due west; during the night we had a fair breeze.

Item the 14th.

In the morning we were again close to the mainland coast of New Guinea. Here the interior was very high like Il do Fermoza; but the foreland was almost everywhere low or level. We kept sailing to westward along the coast towards the cape of Good Hope. At noon Latitude observed 48 minutes, Longitude 150 degrees 31 minutes; course held west, sailed 24 miles with an east wind. In the afternoon there was a light breeze; in the evening it fell a calm; we saw the Cape of Good Hope west and west by south of us at about 6 miles distance. Eastward of the cape of Good Hope the land begins to be very high until quite close to the shore, without having any low foreland; the land is somewhat higher than the island of Fermoza. We continued on our west by north course to the cape of Hope, the sea now running from the north-east. During the night we had dark weather with a drizzling rain, the wind being very variable; afterwards we drifted in a calm.

Item the 15th.

At noon we had the cape of Good Hope south of us at 3 miles distance; Latitude estimated 41 minutes, Longitude 149 degrees 53 minutes; course held west by north, sailed 12 miles. Variation 6 degrees North-East; the wind variable. In the afternoon the wind was east-north-east with calm weather. We set our course to westward to the west side of the bay which Willem Schoutens had sailed into, but had to return from. During the night we drifted in a calm and made little progress.

Item the 16th.

In the morning we were still drifting in a calm, and saw the western point of the land at the west side of the bay aforesaid; this western point lay west of us at about 7 miles distance. At noon it was calm and we had the western point of the bay south-south-west of us; we set our course west by north. At noon Latitude observed 16 minutes, Longitude 149 degrees 9 minutes; course held west-north-west, sailed 12 miles. Variation 5 degrees 50 minutes; the weather calm; in the afternoon it was calm too, but since the current was carrying us to westward our progress was greater as measured by the land we passed than by our advance over the water. This day we saw several small islands near the western point; we steered our course towards them west by south. In the evening at sunset the westernmost point of the mainland we saw bore from us west slightly southerly, at 3 or 4 miles distance, and a small islet lying off the said point, west slightly northerly, at 3 or 4 miles distance. Between the mainland and New Guinea and the island last mentioned we saw the open sea due west of us. We drifted in a calm; at midnight the land-breeze sprung up and we set our course west by north in order to run outside the said islet; during the night we had variable winds alternating with calms.

Item the 17th.

Early in the morning we were close under this island aforesaid at about one mile distance; we then came upon a shoal and, when sailing over it, we sounded in the shallowest part 9 fathom, rocky bottom. When we were past the shoal just mentioned we got deeper water again; but shortly after, when we had the island south by east of us, we could see the bottom, the sea being only 7 fathom deep here, bottom as before; this shoal runs off to north-west from the land aforesaid. We kept holding our course west by south, and saw still more islands ahead, west of us 5 or 6 of them. At noon the island we had passed bore from us east at about 3 miles distance. During these twenty-four hours we had advanced 9 miles on a west slightly southerly course. Latitude estimated 20 minutes south of the equator, Longitude 148 degrees 34 minutes; course held west one third of a point southerly, sailed 9 miles. In the evening at sunset there lay west-north-west and north-west by west of us 7 or 8 small islands in a row, bearing from each other west by north and east by south. We then passed a number of rocks all overgrown with brushwood; these we left on our starboard, and four more small islands to larboard, the latter lying near the mainland coast. The coast of New Guinea here is full of small bays and projecting points; but there is almost everywhere deep water so that we run on a mile only from shore; about 4 glasses in the first watch, off a pretty large bay, we were about 2/3 mile from shore. We took soundings here in forty fathom, sandy bottom, where we forthwith anchored. Here we had a large island west by south of us at about 6 miles distance where in the evening we had seen a passage through between the mainland coast and the said island.

Item the 18th.

Early in the morning with the landwind we weighed anchor and set sail for the narrows between the mainland coast and the islands in order to pass through. Shortly afterward we drifted in a calm; about noon a light breeze from the west and the current were against us, so that we were carried back, and at length came to anchor in 16 fathom between an island and a rock which lay level with the water, the bottom being small coral. At noon Latitude estimated 26 minutes, Longitude (not recorded) sailed 6 miles. As we lay here the current began to run much stronger in the afternoon; we are here in 26 minutes South Latitude; variation 5 1/2 degrees North-East. About four o'clock in the afternoon the current began to change, the ebb-tide running here to west and the flood to east, so that a west-south-west moon makes high-water here; but since we cannot be far from the western extremity of New Guinea, as the coast begins to trend southward here, it is quite possible that the two tides meet here at the extremity of New Guinea, since before we had the flood from the east everywhere along the coast of New Guinea. As there was no moon we remained at anchor during the night for safety. This afternoon several prows came close to our ship; the men in them said they were Ternatans and spoke the language of Ternate, spoke with them a long time, and with kind words tried to get them on board of us, but they pretended to be timid and afraid; from which we concluded that these men must have been Tydorese. They returned to the shore with their prows, the wind being west with good weather. During the night we had a violent current to westward and frequent whirling currents so that, our anchor quitting its hold, we had to pay out more cable. For the rest it was calm all through the night.

Item the 19th.

In the morning the current again began to westward; we weighed anchor and went under sail, the wind being south by west with good weather; we set our course south-east by east over to landward, with good dry weather. In the passage we generally sounded from 25 to 45 and 50 fathom. At this point there was a good deal of  roken land as may be seen in our chart of the same. At noon Latitude observed 35 minutes, Longitude (not recorded); course held west-south-west, sailed 7 miles, the wind being south by west and variable; we tacked about to landward since the wind became south with occasional calms. In the forenoon, the current setting from the south-south-west, we anchored in 35 fathom, good sandy bottom. In the afternoon it fell a dead calm. During the night we had variable currents.

Item the 20th.

In the morning the current ran slightly to south-west and was variable, the wind blowing from the south-east with a light breeze. We did our best to tack to the south and pass through between the islands. But a contrary wind and calms prevented us from making any considerable progress. We sailed here over a shoal where we sounded 5 fathom, sandy bottom mixed with shingle, but soon afterwards 25, 30, and 40 fathom, same bottom. In the forenoon the wind blew from the south so that we went over to eastward; shortly after noon, the wind being south-south-west, we again came upon the shoal aforesaid and, as the current was setting strong to the north-east, we cast anchor in 5 fathom. At this point here the current runs very strangely, so that in my opinion no certain information can be given concerning it. Who comes here immediately see it, and must shape his course accordingly. This point aforesaid of New Guinea mainly consists of broken land which would take more time in mapping out than we think necessary to bestow on it. We are satisfied with having discovered a good passage through, which in future may be of great use to the Company's ships coming from Peru or Chili at the time of the eastern monsoon. During the night the wind was southerly with a strong current setting to the south-west and we remained at anchor.

Item the 21st.

In the morning before daybreak, with the current setting to the south-west and the wind blowing from the south-east, we weighed anchor and went under sail with a steady gale and our course set to the south-west. In the forenoon the wind went about to south by east so that we made no progress by tacking. About noon we therefore cast anchor under a small island in 25 fathom, pretty good bottom, in Latitude 38 minutes South, Longitude (not recorded) course held south, sailed one mile with a south by east wind; it being our intention, with the first favourable wind and current that should offer on the coast of New Guinea or near it, to steer our course for the south until we shall have passed the latitude of Cape Wedda in the island of Gilolo, from where we can cross as far north as possible. We sailed close to shore here in order to get some firewood, of which there was great plenty here. When arrived on the said island we certainly observed signs of men but did not see any natives. It would seem that the only persons landing on this island are fishermen who dry their fish here at certain seasons of the year and then carry the same to other places to be sold there. Near this islet and round the whole point along and between the islands there are everywhere currents as strong (as the old saw has it) as the tide before Flushing pier-head. In these parts the flood runs northward and the ebb southward, but almost everywhere here the tides follow the direction of the coast, of the islands and passages, narrows and straits. In the evening at the end of the first watch, the wind being south-south-east, we set sail, endeavouring by tacking to run to the south with a steady breeze.

Item the 22nd.

In the morning, the wind continuing southerly, we kept endeavouring to run to the south as before, but about noon were again forced to come to anchor in 35 fathom, sandy bottom, near a small island about 2 miles south-east by east of the island where we had previously been at anchor, so that in these twenty-four hours we advanced no more than 2 miles south-east by east. At noon Latitude observed 40 minutes, Longitude (not recorded) course held south-east by east, sailed 12 miles.

Item the 23rd.

In the morning, the wind being south-east but inclining to a calm, we set sail and endeavoured to run to the south. In the forenoon the wind was variable so that at noon we had progressed about 4 miles to the south by east. At noon Latitude estimated 55 minutes, Longitude (not recorded) course held south by east, sailed 4 miles, with variable winds. Variation 4 degrees 30 minutes. Here we again came close under a number of islands but at first found no anchorage. The coast of New Guinea in these parts is continually running in and out, with so many windings and so many large and small islands that there is no counting them. During the greater part of the night we drifted in a calm; in the evening we had had soundings in 50 fathom.

Item the 24th.

In the morning we drifted in a calm as before; in the forenoon, the wind blowing from the south by east, we did our best by tacking to run to the south, but we made little progress. At noon Latitude observed 1 degree 6 minutes, Longitude (not recorded) course held south-west by west, sailed 3 miles, the wind being south inclining to a calm. We convened the council with the second mates of the ships Heemskerk and Zeehaan, in which meeting it was resolved and determined that we should shape our course above the point of Wedde and towards Ceram, and further navigate to Batavia, seeing that at this season of the year there is no other course possible owing to contrary winds and counter-currents; all which is in extenso set forth in the resolution this day drawn up touching this matter. In the course of the night we came close to a small islet which we could not weather, so that we were obliged to anchor there for some time in 11 fathom, coarse sandy bottom; as we were lying at anchor we found that the current was setting pretty strong to westward.

Item the 25th.

In the morning, the wind being east-south-east, we weighed anchor and set sail; we passed through between the two islets. This day we had many variable winds alternating with calms and rains; we kept doing our best to run to the south. At noon Latitude observed 1 degree 15 minutes, Longitude (not recorded) course held south-west by west, sailed 4 miles with variable winds. During the night we set our course due south by west and passed a large island to larboard of us.

Item the 26th.

At noon we took no latitude. Latitude estimated 1 degree 38 minutes, Longitude (not recorded) course held south by west, sailed 11 miles with variable winds. South-east of us we again saw a large island about 8 miles in length. It extended mainly east-north-east and west-south-west with many small islands lying off it on the north-west side. We then set our course south-south-west to run to westward of all these small islands. In the evening before sunset we still saw 2 high islets north-west by west of us at about 7 or 8 miles distance, for which we set our course. We then saw south-south-west of us the whole extent of the coast of Ceram; we steered straight for it in good calm weather, the wind then being north-west. During the first and second quarter of the night we drifted in a calm; in the day-watch we got the wind from the north with rain.

Item the 27th.

In the morning the wind was chiefly west; the point of the large island which we had passed the previous evening now bore from us north-east by north at about 5 miles distance; the wind being westerly with good calm weather we turned our course over to southward close by the wind towards the coast of Ceram, from which at noon we were still 5 miles distant, to wit from the centre of Ceram. At noon Latitude observed 2 degrees 40 minutes, Longitude (not recorded) course held south-south-west, sailed 11 miles with variable winds alternating with calms. At sunset we were still 2 or 2 1/2 miles off the land; the wind continuing westerly, we endeavoured to run westward, northward of Ceram. During the night we advanced about 5 or 6 miles with variable winds; in the day-watch it was mostly calm.

Item the 28th.

In the morning variable winds with rain, thunder and lightning. Since the landwind was partly blowing from the south we tacked about to westward. We were now right off the small islands which lie, 6 together, close to the coast of Ceram, and had the middle of the said coast south-south-west of us at about 3 miles distance. At noon the westernmost of the said small islands were south-south-east of us at about 3 or 2 1/2 miles distance. Today in the forenoon we had had rain. At noon Latitude estimated 2 degrees 48 minutes South, middle longitude 146 degrees 15 minutes; course held west by south, sailed 10 miles; in the afternoon we had dry weather, the wind being south-south-east with a light variable breeze.

Item the 29th.

At noon we had the island of Boona west-south-west of us at about 5 miles distance; we set our course close along the coast with the intention of running southward through the straits of Nassouw; at noon Latitude estimated 2 degrees 52 minutes South, Longitude 145 degrees 15 minutes; course held west a quarter of a point southerly, sailed 15 miles with the wind southerly but variable. In the afternoon it was calm, and then the wind went round to westward of the south with a fair breeze, so that in the night we were forced to run northward of Boona; during the night the wind blew from the south; we set our course for the island of Boure as close to the wind as possible.

Item the 30th.

In the morning we were close under the mainland coast of Boure, along the north side of which we sailed with good weather and a fair breeze from the south. At noon we had the north-western point of Boure, known by the name of Tannewary, south by east of us at 1 1/2 miles distance. At noon Latitude estimated 3 degrees 8 minutes South, Longitude 143 degrees 52 minutes; course held west by south, sailed 21 miles; in the afternoon we drifted in a calm under wind going round to westward; we tacked about to the south in order to be near the land in the evening as we expected the landwind; during the night we got a light land-breeze; course held west by south along the land.

Item the 31st.

In the forenoon we had variable winds alternating with calms. At noon we had the western point of Boure, known by the name of Tamahoo, south of us about 3 miles distance. About one o'clock in the afternoon, the wind becoming south with a steady breeze, we set our course over to westward. At noon Latitude estimated 3 degrees 15 minutes, Longitude 147 degrees 17 minutes; course held west by south. Towards evening the wind went round to the south-east; we shaped our course to south-west with a steady breeze and good dry weather. During the night, at the end of the first watch, the wind became east-south-east and we set our course south-west by west for the entrance of the strait of Botton, because we intended to pursue our course through the said strait and then to the Booqueroenis.

Item the 1st of June.

In the morning the wind kept blowing from the east-south-east with good dry weather and a fair breeze; we set our course west-south-west for the northern point of the island of Botton. At noon Latitude observed 4 degrees 13 minutes, Longitude 141 degrees 5 minutes; course held south-west by west, sailed 26 miles with an east-south-east wind. In the afternoon we sighted the strait of Botton. We sailed in the strait in the evening and during the night with variable winds alternating with calms, and endeavoured to continue our voyage through the strait to the south.

Item the 2nd.

In the morning at sunrise we had advanced into the strait a distance of about 3 miles. In the afternoon we drifted in a calm, the current being against us. We cast anchor close to the coast of Boutton in 26 fathom, stiff ground; here we found two junks at anchor, of which the Supercargo forthwith came on board of us and showed us their passports which they had obtained from the Honourable Governor Gerrit Demmer, with which passports they were going to Byma to return afterwards to Amboyna or to Batavia. The names of the Anachgoddes of the junks were Mouna and Jurregan Wanga, besides there was still a free black, Hendrick Jansz of Solor, ensign of the Green Beggars. From them we learned that the Honourable Anthony Caen had arrived at Amboyna with a number of vessels with destination for Ternate. They also told us that the ship Hollandia was reported to have been lost on her way from Batavia to Amboyna, but whether this is true we shall learn in time. At noon Latitude estimated 4 degrees 32 minutes, Longitude 141 degrees 3 minutes; course held west-south-west, sailed 13 miles with variable winds. During the night when 4 glasses in the first watch had run out and the current began to set southwards we set sail; all through the night the wind was very variable but chiefly south; we did what we could by tacking.

Item the 3rd.

We kept tacking as before, the wind being southerly. At noon we were full in the first narrows, with the wind northerly but with frequent calms. At noon Latitude estimated 4 degrees 54 minutes South, Longitude 140 degrees 59 minutes; course kept south by west, sailed 6 miles. In the afternoon we had heavy rains; shortly before the evening we anchored in a calm one mile past the first narrows in 30 fathom, good stiff ground, the current setting to northward. About midnight with still water we weighed anchor and set sail but there was hardly any breeze, so that we made little progress.

Item the 4th.

In the morning we still drifted in a calm. At noon Latitude estimated 5 degrees 10 minutes South, Longitude 140 degrees 56 minutes; course kept south by west, sailed 4 miles with variable winds. At 4 o'clock in the afternoon we got the wind from the south-east and set our course south-south-west straight for the narrows lying close to Boutton; this is the narrowest part of the strait of Boutton, where we cast anchor after midnight close to the island in 12 fathom, stiff ground.

Item the 5th.

Early in the morning we weighed anchor in a calm but, as the ebb-tide had nearly run out, two hours before noon we anchored in the middle of the narrows with our kedge-anchor in 45 fathom, hard bottom. At noon Latitude estimated 5 degrees 5 minutes South, Longitude 140 degrees 52 minutes; course kept south by west, sailed 3 1/2 miles with variable winds and rain. In the afternoon at early ebbtide and in a calm, being engaged in weighing our kedge-anchor, we found that it had got under a rock and were forced to let it go, continuing our voyage to Boutton, so as in the evening to get clear of the straits south of Boutton, with a south wind alternating with calms. In the evening after the setting of the first watch the steward's mate Jan Pietersz of Meldrop, whom we had put on board the flute-ship until such time as we should arrive at Batavia, on account of certain charges that had been brought against him, and of misdemeanours of which he was suspected, let himself overboard into the sea by means of rope and swam to shore at Botton. During the night the wind was northerly with a light breeze; course held west-south-west.

Item the 6th.

In the morning the middle of the island of Camboona was north-west of us at about 2 1/2 miles distance; the wind being easterly and our course held west by south. At noon we had the western point of Camboona north by west of us at 3 miles distance. At noon Latitude estimated 5 degrees 43 minutes, Longitude 140 degrees 11 minutes; course held west-south-west, sailed 11 miles. In the afternoon we had a steady breeze from the east by south. During the night at the end of the second watch we passed the islet known as the Booquernoenis in good, clear, dry weather.

Item the 7th.

At noon we had the western point of the high land of Turatte north-north-east of us at about 3 miles distance; course held west-north-west along the coast in dry weather and with a steady east wind. At noon Latitude estimated 6 degrees South, Longitude 138 degrees 1 minute; course held west half a point southerly, the wind being east with a steady breeze. In the evening at sunset we set our course west by south, straight for the great shoal which we passed over at midnight in 13 fathom, rocky bottom.

Item the 8th.

In the morning we had a steady south-east wind. About 3 hours before noon we passed over a large rocky reef, sounding 6 fathom in the shallowest part. We quite distinctly saw the bottom which was strewn with large stones. At noon Latitude observed 6 degrees 2 minutes, Longitude 135 degrees 21 minutes; course held west, sailed 40 miles with a south-east wind; afterwards we set our course west by south in good weather.

Item the 9th.

South-east monsoon with good, dry weather. At noon the island of Maduere was by estimation at 8 miles distance, south-south-west of us. At noon Latitude observed 6 degrees 15 minutes; course held west by south, sailed 26 miles; Longitude 133 degrees 49 minutes.

Item the 10th.

Good dry weather; we took soundings in 35 fathom. At noon Latitude observed 6 degrees 26 minutes, Longitude 132 degrees 29 minutes; course held west by south, sailed 20 miles; in the evening we had the western extremity of the island of Lubock north by west of us at 4 miles distance.

Item the 11th.

In the morning the wind kept blowing from the south-east; we saw the line of the coast of Java, near Lubuan; at noon it fell a calm; Latitude estimated 6 degrees 26 minutes, Longitude 131 degrees 23 minutes; course held west, sailed 16 1/2 miles. We had here both sea and landwind; a light mild breeze; in the afternoon the wind became south with a fair breeze. We set our course west; in the evening the mountain of Lubuan was due south of us; then we also saw the high mountain of Japare, and the islet of Mandelycke, which bore from us due west by south, at about 6 miles distance.

Item the 12th.

In the morning we drifted in a calm; towards noon the sea-wind sprang up from the north-east; course held west by south. At noon we had the islet of Mandelycke east by south of us at 4 miles distance, and the central land of Crymon Java north-north-west of us at 6 miles distance. At noon Latitude observed 6 degrees 27 minutes, Longitude 130 degrees 33 minutes; course held west by south half a point westerly, sailed 12 miles with land and sea-wind. In the afternoon, the wind becoming north-east with a fair breeze, we set our course west by north. In the evening at sunset the island of Crymon Java lay north-east by north north-north-east of us; we continued sailing on a west by north course as before.

Item the 13th.

In the morning the wind was south-east; at noon we had the mountain of Cerebon south-east by south of us, and the Boomtjes island west of us at 10 miles distance by estimation; course held as before in calm weather. At noon Latitude observed 6 degrees, Longitude 129 degrees 3 minutes; course held west by north, sailed 23 miles with land and sea-wind. We then shaped our course west by south in order to make Poulo Rakit and the coast of Java; in the evening at sunset we had Poulo Rakit west by north of us at about 5 miles distance, the wind being east-south-east with calm weather, the mountain of Cerabon bearing from us south by west. During the night we kept sailing along the coast with the landwind in 20 or 21 fathom, stiff ground.

Item the 14th.

In the morning we passed the point with the grove of trees; we had the landwind with a fair breeze and thus sailed along the land in depths of from 18 to 15 fathom, until we got near the shallows of the Schadelycken Hoek. At noon Latitude estimated 6 degrees 3 minutes South, Longitude 127 degrees 59 minutes; course held west, sailed 21 miles. At noon we came upon the shallows of the Schadelycken Hoek which we rounded sounding in 7 or 8 fathom. At the end of the shoal we saw an English ship lying with flags from her main and mizzen-tops; on our approach she weighed anchor and sailed eastward, but for what port we do not know. In the evening at sunset we had the point of Carauan south-west of us at about 4 miles distance. We set our course along the coast, having the wind still along shore; during the night we passed through between the islands of Leyden and Enckhuyzen; when we had advanced a quarter of a mile between these islands we dropped anchor in 11 fathom, stiff ground; Latitude estimated 6 degrees 12 minutes, Longitude 127 degrees 18 minutes; course held west by north and west-north-west, sailed 11 miles.

Item the 15th.

In the morning at daybreak I went to Batavia in the pinnace. God be praised and thanked for this happy voyage.

Amen.

Done in the ship Heemskerk, date as above.

Your Worships' obedient and ever obliged servant,

ABEL JANS TASMAN.


INSTRUCTIONS TO TASMAN FOR HIS VOYAGE OF 1644.

EXTRACT FROM THE BOOK OF DESPATCHES FROM BATAVIA; COMMENCING JANUARY THE 15TH, 1644, AND ENDING NOVEMBER THE 29TH FOLLOWING.

Instructions for the commodore, Captain Abel Jansz Tasman, the skipper chief-pilot, Franz Jacobsz Visser, and the counsel of the yachts Limmen and Zeemeuw, and the tender de Brak, destined for a nearer discovery of New Guinea and the unknown coasts of the discovered east and south lands, together with the channels and the islands supposed to be situated between and near them.

The several successive administrations of India, in order to enlarge and extend the trade of the Dutch East India company, have zealously endeavoured to make an early discovery of the great land of New Guinea and other unknown east and southerly countries, as you know by several discourses, and maps, journals, and papers communicated to you. But hitherto with little success, although several voyages have been undertaken.

1st. By order of the president, John Williamson Verschoor, who at that time directed the company's trade at Bantam, which was in the year 1606, with the yacht the Duyfken, who in their passage sailed by the islands Key and Aroum, and discovered the south and west coast of New Guinea for about 220 miles (880) from 5 to 13 3/4 degrees south latitude: and found this extensive country, for the greater part desert, but in some places inhabited by wild, cruel black savages, by whom some of the crew were murdered; for which reason they could not learn anything of the land or waters, as had been desired of them, and by want of provisions and other necessaries they were obliged to leave the discovery unfinished: the furthest point of the land was called in their map Cape Keer-Weer, situated in 13 3/4 degrees South.

The second voyage was undertaken with a yacht in the year 1617 by order of the Fiscal D'Edel, with little success, of which adventures and discoveries, through the loss of their journals and remarks, nothing certain is to be found.

From this time the further discoveries of the unknown east and south countries were postponed until the year 1623 on account of there being no ships to spare; but in the interim, in the year 1619, a ship named the Arms of Amsterdam, destined to Banda, drove past that place and touched at the south coast of New Guinea, where some of the crew were murdered by the savage inhabitants, wherefore they acquired no certain knowledge of the country.

But in the meantime, in the years 1616, 1618, 1619 and 1622, the west coast of this great unknown south land from 35 to 22 degrees South Latitude was discovered by outward-bound ships, and among them by the ship Eendraght; for the nearer discovery of which the governor-general, Jan Pietersz Coen (of worthy memory) in September, 1622, despatched the yachts De Haring and Harewind; but this voyage was rendered abortive by meeting the ship Mauritius, and searching after the ship Rotterdam.

In consequence of which, by order of His excellency, the third voyage was undertaken in the month of January 1623, with the yachts Pera and Arnhem out of Amboina, under the command of Jan Carstens; with order to make a nearer friendship with the inhabitants of the islands Key, Aroum, and Tenimber, and better to discover New Guinea and the south lands, when an alliance was made with the said islands and south coast of New Guinea nearer discovered. The skipper, with eight of the crew of the yacht Arnhem, was treacherously murdered by the inhabitants; and after a discovery of the great islands Arnhem and the Spult (by an untimely Separation) this yacht, with very little success, came back to Amboina.  But the yacht Pera, persisting in the voyage, sailed along the south coast of New Guinea to a flat cove on this coast, situated in 10 degrees south latitude, and ran along the west coast of this land to Cape Keer-Weer, from thence discovered the coast farther southward as far as 17 degrees South to Staten River (from this place what more of the land could be discerned seemed to stretch westward) and from thence returned to Amboina.

In this discovery were found everywhere shallow water and barren coast; islands altogether thinly peopled by divers cruel, poor, and brutal nations, and of very little use to the Company. Countries may be seen on the maps which were made of them.

Through the little success of this third voyage, but mostly because no ships could be spared, the discovery was again omitted until 1636, but in the interim, in the year 1627, the south coast of the great south land was accidentally discovered by the ship Gulde Zeepard, outward bound from Fatherland, for the space of 250 miles (1000) and again accidentally in the year following, 1628, on the north side in the latitude of 21 degrees South, by the ship Vianen, homeward bound from India when they coasted about 50 miles (200) without gaining any particular knowledge of this great country, only observing a foul and barren shore, green fields and very wild, black, barbarous inhabitants; all which, by the loss of the ship Batavia and the cruelties and miseries which followed from that, if fully proved, and was experienced by the crew of the yacht Sardam, in their course along this coast.

At last the fourth voyage was undertaken (in our government) in the month of April 1636 from Banda with the yachts Clyn, Amsterdam and Wesel, under the command of Gerrit Tomasz Pool for the discovery of the east and south lands; when they first discovered the coast of New Guinea in 3 1/2 degrees south latitude, and coasted about sixty miles (240) to the eastward to 5 degrees South, when the commodore Pool, with three of the crew (by the barbarous inhabitants) was murdered at the same place where the skipper of that yacht Arnhem was killed in the year 1623.

Notwithstanding which the voyage was assiduously continued under the supercargo Pieter Pietersz and, the islands Key and Arnoum visited by very strong easterly winds, they could not reach the west coast to New Guinea but, shaping their course very near south, described the coast of Arnhem or Van Diemen's Land in 11 degrees south latitude, and sailed along the coast for 30 miles (120) without seeing any people, but many signs of smoke; when, turning towards the north, they visited the unknown islands of Timor Laut and the known islands of Tenimber, Kauwer, etc., but without ever being able to converse with the inhabitants who were a very timid people when, after three months cruising, they returned in July to Banda, without (in this voyage) having done or discovered anything of consequence; which may be seen by the journals and maps.

After the little success in these voyages nothing further was attempted on discovery to the eastward, but last year (under your direction) the discovery of the remaining unknown south lands was assiduously reattempted; and in that remarkable voyage was that great unknown Staten and Van Diemen's Land discovered from 35 to 43 degrees south latitude, and at the same time the (so long wished for) passage to the South Sea, but it is unnecessary to relate more here as you are perfectly acquainted with all particulars.

But to obtain a thorough knowledge of these extensive countries, the discovery whereof has been begun (in consequence of the intention of the Company and the recommendation of our masters) now only remains for the future to discover whether New Guinea is one continent with that great south land, or separated by channels and islands lying between them; and also whether that New Van Diemen's Land is the same continent with these two great countries or with one of them or, if separated from them, what islands may be dispersed between New Guinea and the unknown south land when, after more experience and knowledge of all the said known and unknown countries, we shall be better enabled for further undertakings.

After considering all that is above related and, by our estimate of the present strength of the Company's naval forces, it is found that, without prejudice to the ordinary trading and warlike expeditions, two or three yachts could be spared, it is therefore resolved in the Council of India to equip the yachts Limmen, the Zeemeuw, and the Brak for the further discovery of the east and south lands to furnish them well with all necessaries, and commit them to your conduct, in confidence that you will with courage, vigilance, prudence, good order, and the requisite perseverance, skilfully direct this important voyage in such a manner as to be capable to give an account on your return fully to our contentment.

1st. You shall early tomorrow morning, after mustering your men, proceed to sea in company and steer a course to Macassar, Amboina, and Banda, as the service of the Company shall require, and by separate instructions you are commanded, by which you are entirely to regulate your voyage to the above places.

On your arrival at Amboina and Banda you shall plentifully stock your yachts with water, fuel, and all other necessaries; in the time you are there the crews are to be supplied with all sorts of fresh provisions, and well provided for the voyage, for which purpose this shall be an order to the vice-governors Gerrit Demmer and Cornelis Witzen, to whom you have to communicate your instructions and demand in writing the further knowledge they may have of the countries situated to the east of Banda; and particularly the journal of the commodore Carstens, which we think may still be found there, and be of some service to you on the voyage.

But by this we by no means intend you shall spend time unprofitably, but despatch everything so assiduously that you may leave Banda in the latter end of February, when the west monsoon had set in, fixing, with the advice of the council, instructions for the signals at the beginning of your voyage, in which particularly is to be inserted by what method the yachts may join, in case (which God prevent) they by storm or other accidents were separated, upon which the good success of the intended voyage chiefly depends.

After fulfilling your orders at Amboina and Banda you shall (as is mentioned) in the latter end of February (or sooner if possible) undertake in the name of God the voyage you are ordered upon, and steer your course eastward between and in view of the islands Tenimber, Key, and Aroum, to the point True or False Cape situated in 8 degrees on the south of New Guinea; from which place you are to continue eastward along the coast till 9 degrees south latitude, crossing prudently the cove at that place looking about the high island or Spelut's River with the yachts for a harbour, and to inspect into the state of the country; dispatching the tender Brak for two or three days into the cove in order to discover whether within the great inlet there is not to be found an entrance into the South Sea which soon may be determined by the current of the streams. From this place you are to coast along the west coast of New Guinea to the farthest discoveries in 170 degrees South latitude, following this coast farther as it may run west of southward.

But it is to be feared you will meet in these parts with South-East trade-winds, by which it will be difficult to keep the coast on board, if stretching to the South-East, but notwithstanding this endeavour by all means to proceed, by reason that we may be sure whether this land is divided from the great known south continent or not, which by the great and slow swell from the South-East may well be perceived; in which case you shall try (if possible) to run so far to the South-East as the New Van Diemen's Land, and from thence to the islands of St. Peter and St. Francois, to learn the situation of these to the northward, and at the same time to be assured (which is much wished for) a passage to the South Sea between them and the known south land, which found (as we presume and hope) you ought, returning through the discovered passage, to steer along the east coast of the known south land according to its trending, following its direction to the westward to De Wit's Land and William's River in 22 degrees south latitude, when the known south land would be entirely circumnavigated and discovered to be the largest island of the globe.

But if (as we presume) the land of New Guinea is joined to the south land and in consequence is one continent, you will be enabled by the South-East trade-wind to run along the north coast from 17 to 22 degrees South, and this entirely to discover this land from whence (if wind and weather by any means will permit) you shall steer along the land of De Eendragt to Houtman's Abrolhos, and come to an anchor at a fit place thereabout; and endeavour to find a chest containing eight thousand rix dollars that remained in the wreck of the ship Batavia, a brass half cartow having fallen on that chest when it foundered at that place in the year 1629, and which the crew of the yacht Sardam dragged for in vain. At the same time you shall (if possible) recover that piece, by this you will render service to the Company, for which reason be not negligent in the discharge of your duty.

Likewise inquire at the continent thereabout after two Dutchmen who, having forfeited their lives, were put on shore by the commodore Francois Pelsart, if still alive, in which case you may make your inquiries of them about the situation of these countries, and if they entreat you to that purpose give them passage hither; on this occasion you ought to search for a good water and refreshing place about the 26 or 28 degrees South latitude, which would be a desirable thing for the outwardbound ships.

But if the late time of the year and the appearance of storms will not permit you to reach Houtman's Shoal which, after experience, we leave to yours and the council's own judgment, consider how you have to sail again from William's River to the east, along the coast of the south land and from De Wit's Land, by the help of the South-East trade-wind, to run across very near eastward to complete the discovery of Arnhem's and Van Diemen's Lands; and to ascertain perfectly whether these lands are not one and the same island, and what these places produce; likewise what other islands besides Baly, Sumbava, and Timor may be situated about the south land.

After all this (by the help of God) shall be fortunately transacted, which we hope can be done before the end of the month of June (having either reached Houtman's Abrolhos or Van Diemen's Land) you have to steer your course to the south coast of Java, and along the coast through the Strait of Sunda to return to Batavia: at which place we shall expect you in July following attended with good success.

Of all the lands, countries, islands, capes, points or coves, inlets, bays, rivers, shoals, reefs, sands, cliffs, rocks, etc., which you meet with and pass in this discovery, as well upon the coast of New Guinea and the south land, as in the Indian Ocean and inland seas, you are to make accurate maps and circumstantial descriptions and to draw perfectly the views and from, for which purpose a draughtsman is to go along with you.

Be particularly careful about longitude and latitude, in what direction and at what distances all coasts, islands, capes, points, bays and rivers are situated from one and the other, and what are the marks by which they may be known, as mountains, hills, trees, or buildings to be seen thereupon.

Take a thorough survey of the depth of the water near the shore and of the sunken rocks, the rapid current of the rivers at the points, how and by what marks they are to be avoided, and if the bottom is hard, soft, sharp, flat, sloping, or steep, and if they may be approached or not, by the soundings; upon what marks the best anchoring places in harbours and bays are to be found, how the inlets and rivers are to be entered, what winds usually blow in the different parts; the course of the streams, whether ebb and flood are regulated by the moon or wind; what alterations of monsoon, rains or dry weather you experience; and observed farther diligently to remark and note down (which is the duty of all able pilots) whatever may be of service in future voyages to the discovered countries.

The time of the year will doubtless not permit, by the shortening of the days, to lose any time, but carefully and diligently to proceed; for the above reason it is consequence to discover as much and in as short a time as possible.

Nevertheless to discover in a proper manner the coasts of the east, and south land, it will be necessary in good time now and then to anchor in proper places, always looking for and choosing such bays and harbours as with the least danger may be entered and left, where you may lie in safety, and which by accidental winds or for other reasons you may soon quit.

But be particularly careful, circumspect and prudent in landing with small craft, because (as above-mentioned) at several times New Guinea has been found to be inhabited by cruel wild savages and, as it is uncertain what sort of people the inhabitants of the south lands are, it may ratherbe presumed that they are also wild and barbarous savages than a civilised people, for which reason you ought always to be upon your guard and well armed; because in all countries of the globe experience has taught us no savages are to be trusted, by reason they always suppose people who appear so unexpectedly and strangely to them are only come to invade their country; all which is proved in the discovery of America and the Indies, by the surprise and murdering many careless and unwary discoverers, many times to the ruin of their voyages.

When you meet and converse with any of these savages behave well and friendly to them; do not take notice of little affronts or thefts which they practice upon you, because resentment might create disgust; but try by all means to engage their affection to you, the better to learn from them the state of their country, particularly if any thing for the service of the company may be done there.

You are also to inquire as much as time will permit into the productions of their country, the fruits and animals, the buildings, the shape and faces of the people, their clothing, arms, morals, manners, food, trade, religion, government, war, and everything worthy of remark; particularly whether they are peaceable or malicious.

You are to show the samples of the goods which you carry along with you, to inquire what materials and goods they possess, and what is wanted of ours; all which you are closely to observe, well to annotate, and correctly to describe; for which reason you are to keep a very circumstantial journal wherein all particulars may be perfectly inserted, by which upon your return you may give a satisfactory report to us.

If any country be discovered peopled by a civilised nation (as apparently will not be the case) you may depend more upon them than upon the wild savages; try to converse with their governors and subjects, and to establish an acquaintance; inform them you come there to trade, show them the goods in proper order; for this purpose laden on board both the yachts and the tender, amounting to the sum of 2809 guilders, 17 stivers, and three penningen, of all which the junior merchants have to keep books in proper order, by which they (when called upon) may be enabled to give a satisfactory account.

Showing the samples and goods, you and the junior merchants are carefully to remark what good the strange nations most esteem and to which they are most inclined; likewise inquire what merchants and goods they possess, particularly after gold and silver, and whether these metals are held in great esteem; to keep them ignorant of the precious value seem not greedily after it; if they offer to barter for your goods seem not to convert these minerals, but show them copper, tutenag (zinc) pewter and lead, as if these were of more value to us. If you find them inclined to trade keep the goods which they seem most greedy after at so high a value that none may be sold nor bartered without great profit, likewise take nothing but what you are convinced will turn out profitable to the Company, which in trading you will learn. It will be particularly necessary to bring samples of the most rare things to be found there, and of all the rest exact account, to see what return from thence can be made, and for the future may be serviceable.

You are prudently to prevent all insolences and maltreatment of the ship's crew against the discovered nations, and to take care by no means to insult them in their houses, gardens, ships, possessions, nor women, etc. Likewise not to carry away any inhabitant against their will, but if a few voluntarily should be inclined to go along with you then you are permitted to bring them to this place.

We have here expressed in general our intentions respecting a voyage you are to undertake but, as upon all that may occur no precise orders can be given, we leave the rest to your zeal, vigilance and good conduct, likewise to the council's prudent dispositions, in a full hope and confidence you will in this expedition be so vigilant as to succeed to the service of the Company, when we will not be backward to recompense your endeavours as you may merit; for if in this voyage are discovered any countries, islands or passages profitable to the Company we promise you by this to reward the conductors and well-behaving ships' crew with such premiums as we shall find their good service to have merited, upon which you all may depend. Likewise you are to fix a competent premium to those who first shall perceive an unknown country, island, shoal, rock, or dangerous foul ground, in order to avoid as much as possible all misfortunes.

To prevent any other European nation from reaping (perhaps) the fruits of our labour and expenses in these discoveries you are everywhere to take possession, in the name and by the orders of the Dutch East India Company, of the countries and islands you may arrive at not inhabited by savages; to put up some signs, for instance, plant trees, sow some fruit trees, erect a stone or post, and to cut or carve in them the arms of the Netherlands or of the Company, and in what year and at what time such a land was discovered and taken in possession, declaring further in intention by the first opportunity to send people thither from hence, and to establish a colony to secure the property near to us.

But if it happens (which is not unlikely) that you discover some countries or islands that may have a polished government you are to endeavour with its chiefs or governors (in the name as above) to make contract upon the most advantageous terms you possibly can obtain, including a resignation (if they are inclined to do such) or permission to frequent the place exclusive of all other nations; or other advantages for the Company; all which you must note down circumstantially in your journals, expressing the names and qualities of those whom you shall have treated, to serve the Company when it may be wanted.

In order this dangerous voyage, according to these instructions and our good intentions, may be well regulated and finished, good order kept among the crew, right and justice administered conformable to the general articles; and everything (which upon so dangerous and long a voyage may happen to be required) be done and transacted to the greatest service of the Company; we appoint by this the Honourable Abel Jansz Tasman commodore of the three yachts and the crew which sail with them; we authorise him to hoist the pendant on board the yacht Limmen, to assemble the council, and whereof he is to be constantly president: command in consequence the officers, soldiers and sailors (nobody excepted) appointed upon the yachts Limmen, De Zeemeuw, and De Brak, to acknowledge and obey him as their chief and commander; to support him by good advice and assiduity, to the forwarding of the voyage and the ordered discovery of the unknown countries, as is the duty of vigilant and faithful servants, in such a manner as, upon return, everyone may be able to answer.

The council of the three yachts shall consist of the following persons:

By this council shall all occurring business towards forwarding the voyage, fulfilling our orders, and administering of justice, be concluded upon and transacted: if it so happen there is an equal number of votes the commodore is to have two votes; but in cases of navigation and discovery of countries the second mates shall also assist with advising votes, all which the commodore shall collect, and determine by the majority of the concluding votes, taking care to have all resolutions instantly truly registered and strictly complied with the service of the Company.

In the council of each particular yacht the junior merchant or bookkeeper and high boatswains shall be called as directed in the orders of our masters.

If the commodore Tasman (which God forbid) should decease such a person shall succeed him as in our sealed act is nominated, which in every respect conformable to this instruction in manner his predecessor commanded, and (as is right) he shall be obeyed.

The yachts are manned with 111 persons, and amongst them one officer and 16 soldiers. Namely:

All well provided with all necessary ammunition, tools, and utensils, and for eight months plentifully victualled. Manage everything well and orderly, take notice you see the ordinary portion of two meat and two pork days, and a quarter of vinegar, a half quarter of sweet oil per week, and a half quarter of arrack per day regularly distributed. Each yacht carries a leaguer and 120 quarts of strong arrack (the Brak is provided from the Zeemeuw) which must be carefully distributed in the cold climate for the health of the people. Notwithstanding you are plentifully stocked with waterbuts manage particularly fresh water and fuel to prevent wanting it; as you would then be obliged to search after it, to the retarding of your voyage, or return without success, to your shame and the great detriment of the Company, which has been at great expense in equipping these yachts; and for these reasons, by industry and prudence, ought to be prevented from suffering.

We give then no further instruction and leave to your and the council's good conduct and advice what you will have more to do upon this voyage; only recommending seriously in all emergencies to use such prudence as may keep the Company's valuable ships and people out of all dangers as much as can be done. For the better to answer this purpose we do not approve the commodore much to leave shipboard, but to stay in the yacht, unless (with advice of the council) the Company's service may require the contrary in order to avoid the object being neglected by any unforeseen misfortune in this important voyage.

To conclude this instruction we wish you the protection and blessings of Omnipotence, which we pray to inspire you with manly courage for the intended discoveries, and after finishing to return in safety, to the expanding of His glory, reputation to the mother country, the service of the Company, our contentment, and to your own everlasting honour.

Out of the castle, Batavia, this 29th day of January, 1644, signed,

ANTONIO VAN DIEMEN, CORNELIS VAN DER LYN, JOAN MAATSUIKER, JUSTUS SCHOUTEN, AND SALOMON SWEERS.


South land seal-up Commission for the Successor of the Commodore Abel Jansz Tasman, in case of his Decease.

In consideration of the uncertainty of life in the human race, and the disorders which many times arise from the loss of those in command, and to prevent as much as possible all evil, we have found good to order, as we do by this: that if the skipper, commodore Abel Jansz Tasman, upon this voyage of discovery should decease (which God forbid) the skipper of the yacht the Zeemeuw, Dirk Cornelisz Haan, shall succeed in his place, shall be acknowledged and obeyed as chief, and receive and follow this our instruction given to Tasman as given to himself.

In this case, for the service of the Company, is this our meaning and desire.

Out of the castle, Batavia, day and date as above.


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THE JOURNAL OF ABEL TASMAN.

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