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Title:      The Journal of Abel Jansz Tasman
Author:     Abel Jansz Tasman
            Edited by G H Kenihan.
eBook No.:  0400771.txt
Edition:    1
Language:   English
Character set encoding:     ASCII--7 bit
Date first posted:          October 2004
Date most recently updated: October 2004

This eBook was produced by: Sue Asscher

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Title:      The Journal of Abel Jansz Tasman
Author:     Abel Jansz Tasman

Edited by G H Kenihan.


ebook producer's note: No publication date was given for this book. It was
probably published between 1960 and 1964. The source of the material is not
given. It is apparent that the translation of 'INSTRUCTIONS TO TASMAN FOR
HIS VOYAGE OF 1644' is reproduced from "Early Voyages to Terra Australis,
now Called Australia", edited by R H Major, first published in 1859.
The 'JOURNAL OF ABEL JANSZ TASMSN 1642' is reproduced from 'ABEL JANSZOON
TASMAN'S JOURNAL', edited by J E Heeres, first published in 1898.
Both of these works are available as ebooks at Project Gutenberg of Australia.



THE JOURNAL

OF

ABEL JANSZ TASMAN

1642.

WITH DOCUMENTS RELATING

TO HIS EXPLORATION

OF AUSTRALIA IN 1644.


...


CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION.

TASMAN'S JOURNAL.

INSTRUCTIONS TO TASMAN FOR HIS VOYAGE OF 1644.


ILLUSTRATIONS.

Reduced facsimile of the first page of the Journal signed by Tasman.

Sketch of Frederick Henricx Bay with Maria's Island shown.

Sketch captioned A view of the land from Maria's Island to Schouten's
Island.

The coast from Schouten's Island to Vanderlin's Island.

General chart of the surveyed coast of Anthony Van Diemen's Land.

A view of Murderer's Bay as you see it from anchor in 15 fathoms. The
sketch illustrates the attack on the Zeehaan's cock-boat.

A view of Abel Tasman's Bay as you see it from anchor in 35 fathoms.

...



INTRODUCTION.

By the year 1642 the star of Spanish Admiralty had waned in the Pacific
Ocean.

The Dutch East India Company, clutching for trade and empire, was ready
to grasp the Spanish legacy of great voyages of discovery.

The lure of the supposed great southern continent and all that it might
bring was a subject of serious discussion by the Governor-General and
Council in the Castle at Batavia.

Long sections of the west, north and southern coasts of Australia were
known. Indeed for nearly 25 years the west coast had been a shore of
disaster for the Company as ship after ship drove onto its outlying reefs
and islands.

In 1642 Governor General Anthony Van Diemen was ready to try again, this
time far south of the normal trade routes.

The commander he chose was Abel Jansz Tasman who, at the age of 39, had
10 years of service with the Company behind him.

His Journal of the voyage is a remarkable document. While extracts
relating to his coastings of Tasmania and New Zealand have been
frequently quoted by historians the full journal has not been printed for
nearly 70 years. It also puts the voyage into true perspective as one of
the great feats of Pacific exploration. For Tasman's instructions were
not only concerned with the discovery of the supposed Terra Australis.
The Council of Batavia was just as anxious for proof of a southern sea
passage to Chile and the rediscovery of the Solomon Islands, as well as
further exploration of the New Guinea coastline.

For those with a particular interest in navigation two points should be
kept in mind when following the Journal. Firstly Tasman's longitudes are
reckoned from Teneriffe which is approximately 16 1/2 degrees west of
Greenwich. The miles quoted in the daily run of the ships are Dutch
miles, each approximately four times as great as our present English land
mile.

Of Tasman's 1644 voyage around the northern and north-west Australian
coastline only the sailing instructions printed following the journal
plus a chart have ever come to light. His journal of that great voyage
has been lost.

Soon after the 1644 voyage Tasman was made a member of the Council of
Justice at Batavia and elevated to the rank of Commander.

He continued in the service of the Company until 1653 and we have
knowledge of him trading to Siam in 1647 and fighting against the Spanish
in the Philippines in 1648.

Tasman died in Batavia after his retirement and, while the year is
uncertain, there is evidence to indicate that it was probably 1659.

While his voyage of discovery established him as the greatest of the
early Dutch explorers and added to the knowledge of the south-west
Pacific and the Australian coastline, both were commercial failures for
the Dutch East India Company.

The fact that Tasman brought back no news of lands profitable for trade
or exploitation may well be responsible for the lack of interest that the
Dutch showed in Australia and the south-west Pacific area from the
mid-17th century onwards.

Not for another 125 years, with the first voyage of Captain Cook, would
the discoveries of Tasman be followed up. From that point on the fruits
of exploration went to the British people.

...


TASMAN'S JOURNAL.


Journal or Description drawn up by me, Abel Jansz Tasman, of a voyage
made from the town of Batavia in East India for the discovery of the
unknown South land in the year of our Lord 1642, the 14th of August. May
God Almighty vouchsafe His blessing on this work.

Amen.

This day August 14, A.D. 1642, we set sail from the roads of Batavia with
two ships, the Yacht Heemskerk and the Flute Zeehaan, the wind being
north-east with good weather. On the same day in the evening the Zeehaan
ran aground near the island of Rotterdam, but got afloat again in the
night without any notable damage, after which we continued our voyage to
the Straits of Sunda.

Item the 15th.

Towards evening we went to Mr. Sweers, who was on board the Yacht Bredam,
from whom we understand that at Bantam point there lay at anchor a
galiot, newly arrived from the Netherlands; at night we anchored off
Anjer in 22 fathom, where we refitted our ship which was disabled to such
a degree that we could not possibly have put to sea in her.

Item the 16th.

The wind continuing east with a steady breeze, the current running fast
from Sunda Strait; at night we weighed anchor with the wind blowing from
the land, set sail and shaped our course so as to pass between the Prince
Islands and Cracatouw.

Item the 17th.

In the morning we had the Prince Islands south-west and Cracatouw
north-west by north of us, the wind being south-east, our course
south-west by west; at noon we had the southernmost of the Prince Islands
east-south-east of us at 5 miles distance, ourselves being in 6 degrees
20 minutes Southern Latitude and 124 degrees Longitude; in the afternoon
we drifted in a calm; in the said afternoon it was resolved that from
Sunda Strait we shall sail 200 miles to the south-west by west, as far as
14 degrees South Latitude; from there to the west-south-west as far as 20
degrees South Latitude, and from there due west as far as the island of
Mauritius.

Item the 18th.

Latitude by estimation 6 degrees 48 minutes, longitude 123 degrees 20
minutes, the wind south-east with good weather, course kept south-west by
west as resolved on in council on the 17th, sailed 13 miles; at night we
had heavy rains with thunder and lightning.

Item the 19th.

At noon we found the latitude to be 8 degrees 38 minutes, the longitude
120 degrees 35 minutes; we sailed 36 miles; course kept by estimation
south-west by west, but we find we are more to the south; wind south-east
by east, top-gallant gale; variation of the compass 3 degrees
north-westerly.

Item the 20th.

At noon Latitude observed 10 degrees, Longitude 118 degrees 30 minutes;
wind south-east by east, top-gallant gale, course kept south-west by
west, sailed 36 miles, good weather and smooth water.

Item the 21st.

At noon Latitude observed 11 degrees 12 minutes, Longitude 116 degrees 42
minutes; wind south-east, top-gallant gale, course kept south-west by
west, sailed 32 miles; we saw numbers of birds and estimated ourselves to
be in the longitude of the Cocos Isles (Keeling Islands) variation 5
degrees North-West.

Item the 22nd.

At noon Latitude observed 13 degrees 31 minutes, Longitude 114 degrees 40
minutes; wind south-east, top-gallant gale, course kept south-west by
west sailed 36 miles.

Item the 23rd.

At noon Latitude observed 13 degrees 57 minutes, Longitude 112 degrees 23
minutes; wind south-east with a steady breeze, course kept south-west by
west, sailed 40 miles, the sea still running high from the south-west and
south-south-west.

Item the 24th.

At noon Latitude observed 14 degrees 29 minutes, Longitude 109 degrees 41
minutes; wind south-east with a steady breeze, course kept west by south,
sailed 40 miles.

Item the 25th.

At noon Latitude observed 15 degrees 13 minutes, Longitude 107 degrees 20
minutes, the estimated Latitude being 15 degrees 28 minutes; wind
south-east with a steady breeze, course kept west-south-west slightly
westerly, sailed 38 miles; variation 8 degrees 20 minutes North-West.

Item the 26th.

At noon Latitude observed 16 degrees, Longitude 105 degrees 12 minutes,
the estimated Latitude being 16 degrees 7 minutes; wind south-south-east,
top-gallant gale, course kept west-south-west slightly westerly, sailed
36 miles; variation 11 degrees.

Item the 27th.

At noon Latitude observed 16 degrees 40 minutes, Longitude 103 degrees;
wind south-east but east in the evening, light top-gallant gale, course
kept west-south-west, sailed 26 miles; variation 12 degrees 30 minutes.

Item the 28th.

At noon Latitude estimated 17 degrees 7 minutes south, Longitude 102
degrees 22 minutes; wind variable with a dark sky, course kept
west-south-west sailed 18 miles.

Item the 29th.

At noon estimated Latitude 17 degrees 50 minutes, Longitude 100 degrees
34 minutes; in the afternoon variable winds; at 3 glasses in the first
watch we again had the wind south-south-east, top-gallant gale, course
kept west-south-west, sailed 28 miles.

Item the 30th.

At noon estimated Latitude 18 degrees 51 minutes, Longitude 97 degrees 58
minutes; wind south-east with light showers, course kept west-south-west,
sailed 40 miles; about noon the Zeehaan broke her spritsail yard.

Item the last.

At noon estimated Latitude 19 degrees 55 minutes, Longitude 95 degrees 14
minutes; wind south-south-east, unsteady with drizzling rain, course kept
west-south-west, sailed 42 miles, shortly after noon I compared notes
with the skippers and steersmen, when we found the average latitude to be
19 degrees 49 minutes and the do. longitude 95 degrees 24 minutes; we
continued to run west-south-west until the evening and then west, being
in the longitude of the island of Mauritius.

Item the 1st of September.

At noon estimated Latitude 20 degrees 28 minutes, Longitude 92 degrees 19
minutes; wind south-east with a steady breeze and drizzling rain, course
kept west by south, sailed 42 miles.

Item the 2nd.

At noon estimated Latitude 20 degrees 28 minutes, Longitude 89 degrees 29
minutes; wind east-south-east with a steady breeze, drizzling rains and
high seas, course kept west, sailed 40 miles; variation of the compass
needle 20 degrees North-West.

Item the 3rd.

At noon observed Latitude 20 degrees 36 minutes, Longitude 86 degrees 56
minutes; wind east-south-east, top-gallant gale with good weather, course
kept west, sailed 36 miles.

Item the 4th.

At noon estimated Latitude 19 degrees 55 minutes, Longitude 85 degrees 13
minutes; wind easterly, light top-gallant gale, course kept
west-north-west, sailed 26 miles; variation 22 degrees 30 minutes; at
night at the end of the first watch we saw land; we lay a-trying with
clewed sails all night.

Item the 5th.

In the morning we saw that it was the island of Mauritius; we steered for
it and came to anchor before it at about 9 o'clock, we being then in
Latitude 20 degrees, Longitude 83 degrees 48 minutes. When we saw the
island of Mauritius we were by estimation still 50 miles east of it.

Item the 6th.

We sent 6 sailors, three belonging to the Zeehaan and three to our ship,
together with one of our second mates, to the wood to assist the huntsmen
there in capturing game and bring the same down to our ships. At noon we
saw a ship outside the bay before the entrance, which ship came to anchor
near us about 4 hours later, when we understood her to be the Arent,
which had sailed from the Texel on the 23rd of April last in company with
the ships Salmander and Zutphen, the Yacht Leuwerick and the galiot
Visscher, the said ships and yachts having parted company with her at the
Zoute islands in order to continue their voyage to Batavia. The said
Arent brought a quantity of provisions such as victuals and ammunition of
war, together with a number of soldiers and sailors for the island of
Mauritius. The officers of the said Yacht reported to Commander Van der
Stel that on the 27th ultimo they had got to Diego Rodrigos, believing it
to be Mauritius, seeing that it is in the same longitude as the latter
island; that there they had found a French ship lying at anchor on the
roadstead; that they could not clearly make out whence this ship had
come, owing to the evasive answers they received from the crew, some
saying they had come from Diepen, others from the Red Sea, and that they
were bound for the Mascarinas or were going to call at Madagascar; that
they had sailed from Diego Rodrigos at the same time with the French ship
and had parted company with her on the 5th instant at noon; that they
were still in sight of her in the evening, at which time they saw that
she shaped her course west-south-west. On this report the Commander
aforesaid straightways despatched some men to the north-west side of the
island in order to ascertain whether the Frenchman could have gone
thither, the Commander presuming that the Frenchman might have attempted
to mislead our people to get an opportunity of cutting some ebony wood
there, which we were bound to prevent him from doing.

Item the 7th.

We were engaged nearly all day repairing our ropes and tackle;
considering that our rigging was old, weak and not much to be depended on
we added three more large ropes to the rigging on both sides the main and
foremast in order to steady the same; towards evening we got 8 head of
goats and one pig from shore.

Item the 8th.

In the morning we sent to the Zeehaan four out of the 8 goats received
yesterday; also sent for one more sailor in her whom, together with one
of our own men, we despatched to shore to assist the huntsmen and the men
who went ashore on the 6th instant.

Item the 9th.

We sent one of our carpenters together with 7 or 8 sailors from our ship
and from the Zeehaan to the wood in order to cut down timber; in the
afternoon we wrote an order to the officers of the Zeehaan, enjoining
them to serve out to each of their men no more than half a mutchkin of
arrack as his daily ration. Then Worshipful Van der Stel informs us that
he has got positive orders from the Honourable Governor-General and
Councillors of India not to serve out more than one small glass of arrack
to each of his men, and this only to such as are cold, wet and dirty. In
order to maintain peace among the men and prevent discontent, ill-will
and envy as far as in us lies we have therefore deemed it best to serve
out only half a small glass of arrack to our men while we are lying in
this roadstead.

Item the 10th.

We sent our Skipper Ide Tjercxz to bring on board of us the Honourable
Van der Stel with whom we discussed the question whether it would not be
needed for our ships, and advantageous to the Company, before sailing
from here to continue our destined voyage to appoint a place of
rendezvous, the rather as the Honourable Governor-General and Councillors
of India have expressly and instantly enjoined and recommended the
appointing of such a place of rendezvous in our instructions; after due
deliberation we summoned on board of us all our skippers, first and
second mates, and informed them that we desired all persons present to
give their advice in writing what place were best to fix upon for a
rendezvous, in case we should get separated from each other by rough
weather, storms or other accidents (which we hope will be spared us and
God in his mercy advert) to the end that we may join company again; and
that, after being made acquainted with each person's advice, we shall
resolve upon such a line of action as shall be serviceable to the Company
and to the furtherance of our voyage. In the evening we got from shore 8
goats and 2 hogs; our carpenter Jan Joppen also returned on board,
reporting that they had cut down a number of trees for timber but that no
more fitting was to be had at that place.

Item the 11th.

In the morning our skipper, together with the carpenter aforesaid, went
to the wood in the boat for the purpose of fetching thence the timber,
and took the same to the fortress of Frederik Heyndrick, there to be sawn
into boards of the most fitting dimensions. In the afternoon we sent 4
goats and one hog to those on board the Zeehaan.

Item the 12th.

In the morning our boat went to the wood a second time, and again took
some logs to the fortress aforesaid. Towards the evening we again
received 12 goats, half of which we sent to the Zeehaan. Our skipper
reported that one of our sailors, Joris Claesen van Bahuys by name, had
badly hurt himself in handling a log that was to be sawn ashore; on which
we forthwith sent on shore our chief and assistant barbers to examine the
patient and give him the requisite attendance.

Item the 13th.

Nothing worth mentioning occurred today except that we sent a bag of rice
to our men in the wood and fished our main-yard.

Item the 14th.

We again received from shore 4 goats and 2 hogs, of each of which we sent
half to the Zeehaan. In the evening the men despatched by the Honourable
Van der Stel on the 6th instant returned, reporting that in none of the
bays they had seen any sign of the French ship.

Item the 15th.

In the morning we sent ashore our chief boatswain and boatswain's mate
with a number of sailors and a quantity of cordage in order to make
ropes.

Item the 16th.

The Yacht Cleyn Mauritius sailed from here in order to fetch ebony from a
spot about 10 miles to the eastward, to serve as cargo for the Arent;
having got near the entrance of the bay she cast anchor because unable to
beat out owing to strong wind. Towards noon the Honourable Van der Stel
and Tasman convened on board the admiral the councils of the Fortress of
Frederick Hendrik of the ships Heemskerk and Zeehaan and of the Yacht
Arent, and submitted to the Council what was next resolved upon, as may
be seen from this day's resolution. Towards the evening our second mate
Chryn Hendricx, whom on the 6th instant we had dispatched to the huntsmen
in the wood, returned on board bringing 10 head of goats; this day we
ordered one of the second mates of the Zeehaan to go to the wood in our
second mate's stead.

Item the 17th.

In the morning we sent our other second mate Carsten Jurriaens to the
wood with six sailors to cut firewood; towards the evening we delivered 4
out of the 10 goats received yesterday to those on board the Zeehaan.
This day by order of Commander Van der Stel and in pursuance of
yesterday's resolution we took out of the Yacht Arent for the behoof of
our ship and the Zeehaan the goods following, to wit:

6 ropes both large and small.
1 roll canvas.
20 pulleys, both large and small.
1/2 skin for pump-leather.
6 small clew-lines.
1 kedge-anchor.
A parcel of flat-headed nails.
4 pieces of horn for mending the lanterns.

Item the 18th.

Nothing occurred worth mentioning except that we fished our foremast at
the back and got from shore 6 head of hogs, out of which at nightfall we
gave three to the quartermaster of the Zeehaan.

Item the 19th.

The carpenters caulked the ship on the outside, stopped all the leaks
they could find, and furthermore overhauled everything and duly pitched
the seams.

Item the 20th.

I went shooting early in the morning in the west part of the island of
Mauritius in company with Mr. Van der Maerzen, subcargo and second in
command in the fortress of Fredrick Hendrick; we returned on board
towards noon with 13 wild birds. This day we had a number of sawn boards
brought from shore and a quantity of rope made ashore.

Item the 21st.

In the morning the Yacht Cleyn Mauritius got clear of the bay and set
sail for her destination to fetch ebony for the cargo of the Arent; from
the 16th instant when she left this roadstead she had been unable to beat
out owing to the strong east-south-east trade-wind. This day we made a
new main-top and fished the foremast near the top-yard on both sides; in
the evening we received from shore 10 head of cattle to wit: 7 goats and
3 hogs.

Item the 22nd.

In the morning ourselves and Gerrit Jansz, Skipper in the Zeehaan,
together with a number of sailors with axes, went ashore to the wood in
order to procure fitting timber for top-yards, anchor-stocks and
mizzen-yards etc., for the purposes of our further voyage; we returned
towards evening bringing a piece of round timber proper for fishing a
top-yard, and also an anchor-stock for ourselves and two ditto for the
Zeehaan.

Item the 23rd.

We fetched from the wood 3 anchor-stocks and a round piece of timber for
a top-yard with a quantity of firewood, and got a boatload of water from
a watercourse east of the fortress of Fredrick Henrick.

Item the 24th.

We brought from shore a boatload of firewood and three ditto of water.
Towards the evening we received in the huntsmen's boat 5 goats and three
hogs, of which the same evening we handed three goats and one hog into
the boat of the Zeehaan; during the night in the second watch we got on
board another boat with 7 casks of water.

Item the 25th.

In the morning at daybreak there was a light breeze blowing from the
land, at first from the north-north-east, afterwards somewhat fresher
from north-west by west and west-north-west, which was the first
land-breeze we had from the time we had come to anchor here. This day two
pinnaces of firewood and two boatloads of water were fetched from shore;
item our pilot-major Francoys Jacobsz and Mr. Gilsemans made a surveying
of the coast.

Item the 26th.

We convened the council of the Heemskerk and the flute Zeehaan and
resolved upon sailing from here on the 4th proximo, as may be more
detailedly seen from today's resolution.

Item the 27th.

We sent our second mate Chryn Heyndrickse to the wood to cut firewood.

Item the 28th.

We sent our pinnace and boat to the wood to get firewood.

Item the 29th.

We still kept sending the pinnace and boat ashore for firewood; this day
the Yacht Cleyn Mauritius returned, bringing one of the runaway
Madagascar slaves.

Item the last.

We were still busy taking in firewood; towards the evening we got ten
goats.

Item the 1st of October.

We were still engaged in taking in firewood with our pinnace and boat;
towards the evening we got from shore 9 head of cattle, both he-goats and
she-goats.

Item the 2nd.

Still busy taking in firewood and refilling the water-casks which were
emptied day by day.

Item the 3rd.

Still kept the boat and pinnace at fetching water and firewood; at dusk
we received on board 7 head of cattle, to wit 2 hogs, 4 he-goats and one
she-goat.

Item the 4th.

This was the day we had fixed upon for putting to sea but owing to
contrary winds we were unable to stand out to sea, so that we were forced
to remain at anchor; we therefore despatched the pilot-major Francoys
Jacobsz and the first mate of the Zeehaan, Heyndrick Pietersen, to take
soundings in the eastern entrance, whence we were to set sail, where they
sounded barely 13 feet at high-water at spring-tide.

Item the 5th.

The contrary wind still continuing, we were unable to beat out of the
bay, and therefore sent our pinnace with the second mate Carsten
Jurriaensz to catch fish with the dragnet, who returning brought a
capital lot of fish for the whole of our crew.

Item the 6th.

We warped the kedge-anchor to get out at the south-east entrance and
kedged a second time, but were compelled to give it up owing to the
strong contrary wind. Towards the evening we learnt that the men sent out
to seek the runaway Madagascar slaves had come back without having seen
any of them; this day we again got a capital lot of fish for the whole
crew.

Item the 7th.

The wind blowing from the east we were still busy with the kedge-anchor;
in the evening we came to anchor under the islands in front of the bay in
sixty fathom muddy bottom; this bay is very hard to get out of seeing
that the south-east wind is continually blowing here; whoever has no
urgent business here had better keep out of it.

Item the 8th.

In the morning the weather rainy with a light land-breeze and whirlwinds;
we weighed our anchors but had to drop them again owing to contrary
winds; about 8 o'clock the wind turned to the north-east by east, we
weighed anchor and accordingly ran out to sea south-eastward, for which
God be praised and thanked; the southern extremity of this island of
Mauritius is in 20 degrees 12 minutes South Latitude and 78 degrees 47
minutes Longitude. We shaped our course to the south-south-east, having
the wind north-east, a weak top-gallant gale; at noon we turned our
course to the south by east.

Item the 9th.

At noon Latitude observed 21 degrees 5 minutes, Longitude 78 degrees 47
minutes, course kept south, sailed 13 miles with good weather and a light
breeze, the wind south-east. This day we drew up a resolution respecting
the crew's meals as may be further seen from the same; in the evening we
had the island of Mauritius still in sight.

Item the 10th.

At noon Latitude estimated 21 degrees 54 minutes, Longitude 78 degrees 11
minutes; course kept south-west by south, sailed 15 miles, the wind being
south-east with a light top-gallant gale; towards daybreak the sea began
to run high from the south and we found our mizzen-mast to be quite
broken at the partner so that we had to fish it on both sides.

Item the 11th.

At noon Latitude estimated 23 degrees 28 minutes, Longitude 77 degrees 51
minutes; the wind easterly with a light top-gallant gale, course kept
south by west, sailed 24 miles.

Item the 12th.

At noon Latitude observed 25 degrees 18 minutes, Longitude 77 degrees 51
minutes; the wind northerly with a light top-gallant gale with good
weather, a clear sky and smooth water; course kept south, sailed 28
miles; we again fished our mizzen-mast. Variation 23 degrees 30 minutes
North-West.

Item the 13th.

At noon Latitude estimated 27 degrees 26 minutes, Longitude 77 degrees 51
minutes; course kept south, sailed 32 miles, the wind from the
north-west; in the morning rain and a top-gallant gale.

Item the 14th.

At noon Latitude observed 29 degrees 20 minutes, Longitude 78 degrees 45
minutes; course kept south-south-east, sailed 29 miles, the wind west and
west-south-west with a top-gallant gale; at night at the end of the first
watch, the wind becoming south-south-east, we turned to the west.
Variation 23 degrees 30 minutes.

Item the 15th.

The wind south-east and east-south-east with a dark sky and a stiff
breeze; at noon Latitude estimated 29 degrees 45 minutes, Longitude 78
degrees 57 minutes; course kept south-south-east, sailed 7 miles; towards
the evening we got the wind east by south with a drizzling rain.

Item the 16th.

The wind south and south-south-east, at times south-east and
east-south-east with a top-gallant gale; at noon we were in 31 degrees 17
minutes South Latitude, and Longitude 78 degrees 13 minutes; course kept
south-south-west, sailed 25 miles. Variation 25 degrees 15 minutes.

Item the 17th.

A calm, the wind westerly; course kept south-south-east, sailed 9 miles;
at noon Latitude observed 31 degrees 51 minutes, Longitude 78 degrees 26
minutes. Towards noon we got a light top-gallant gale, wind as before.
Variation 25 degrees 30 minutes North-West.

Item the 18th.

Good weather with a westerly wind and a top-gallant gale; at noon
Latitude observed 33 degrees 56 minutes; course kept south by east,
sailed 32 miles. Towards the evening the Zeehaan hove to leeward,
whereupon we forthwith made towards her, she calling out to us that the
wales to which her shroud-bolts are fixed had got disjoined so that they
had to be fished. Variation 24 degrees.

Item the 19th.

About 9 o'clock we got the wind south-south-west with drizzling rain and
afterwards it fell a dead calm. At noon Latitude estimated 36 degrees 2
minutes, Longitude 80 degrees; course kept south-south-east, sailed 34
miles, with a top-gallant gale; in the afternoon the wind turned to the
south-east and we tacked to the west.

Item the 20th.

Foggy weather with a drizzling rain. At noon Latitude estimated 36
degrees 29 minutes, Longitude 79 degrees 25 minutes; course kept
south-west with variable winds and the weather improving; sailed 10
miles; towards the evening the south-south-east wind fell almost to a
calm.

Item the 21st.

Variable winds alternating with calms; at noon Latitude observed 36
degrees 22 minutes, Longitude 79 degrees 25 minutes, so that we found we
had drifted two miles to northward. Towards evening we got a breeze from
the north-west.

Item the 22nd.

Dark drizzly water with a westerly wind and a steady breeze; at noon
Latitude estimated 38 degrees 11 minutes, Longitude 78 degrees 57
minutes; course kept south by east, sailed 28 miles. Variation 24 degrees
40 minutes North-West.

Item the 23rd.

In the morning the wind began to blow stiffly from the west-south-west
and south-west so that we had to take in our topsail. At noon Latitude
estimated 40 degrees 18 minutes, Longitude 80 degrees 46 minutes, course
kept south-east by south, sailed 40 miles; in the afternoon we turned our
course to the south-east and had heavy showers of rain from time to time.

Item the 24th.

In the morning we took in our bonnets, lowered our foresail down to the
stem, and ran on before the wind with our mainsail only; we dared not try
to the wind because of the strong gale blowing. This gale was attended
with hail and rain to such a degree that we feared the ship would not
live through it, but at noon the storm somewhat abated so that we hauled
to the wind; we could not see the Zeehaan, for which reason we hauled to
the wind to stay for her. At noon Latitude estimated 40 degrees 42
minutes, Longitude 83 degrees 11 minutes; course kept east by south,
sailed 30 miles; the wind south-west and south with a violent storm; we
kept a sharp lookout for the Zeehaan but could not get sight of her.

Item the 25th.

In the morning we sent a man to the masthead to look out for our partner
whom he saw astern, of which we were full glad; the weather getting
slightly better we again set our bonnets and drew up the foresail.
Towards noon the Zeehaan again joined us. At noon our estimated latitude
was 39 degrees 58 minutes and Longitude 84 degrees 11; course kept
north-north-east, sailed or drifted 12 miles; at noon we shaped our
course to the south-east, with a south-west wind and a steady breeze.

Item the 26th.

Good weather, the wind south-west by west with a top-gallant gale; at
noon Latitude observed 41 degrees 34 minutes, Longitude 86 degrees 10
minutes; course kept south-east, sailed 32 miles; the sea still kept
running high from the south-south-east; we changed our course to
south-east by south and south-south-east; we spoke the Zeehaan and
understood that this day a man died on board of her; as we were speaking
the Zeehaan she broke her top-yard, which was forthwith replaced by
another which they kept in stock. This day average Longitude 86 degrees
14 minutes, Latitude 41 degrees 40 minutes.

Item the 27th.

In the morning before early breakfast we saw a good deal of rock-weed and
manna-grass floating about; we therefore hoisted a flag, upon which the
officers of the Zeehaan came to board of us; we convened the Council and
submitted to their consideration the instructions of the Honourable
Governor-General and Councillors of India in case we should see and
observe land, shoals, sunken rocks, etc. We then submitted to the council
the question whether, now that we observed these signs of land, it would
not be best to keep a man at the masthead constantly and make him look
out for land, shoals, sunken rocks and other dangers; also what sum had
best be fixed upon as a reward to be given to him who should first see
land, upon which the Council thought fit to keep a man on the lookout
constantly, and to give three pieces-of-eight and a can of arrack to
whoever shall first see and observe land, shoals, sunken rocks, etc.; all
of which may in extenso be seen from this day's resolution. At noon our
estimated latitude was 43 degrees, and longitude 88 degrees 6 minutes;
course kept south-east, sailed 30 miles, the wind being westerly with a
top-gallant gale and a drizzling rain. Variation 26 degrees 45 minutes.
At night we lay a-trying under reduced sail.

Item the 28th.

At daybreak we made sail again, turned our course south-south-eastward,
in dark foggy weather; we still saw seaweeds floating about; at noon we
estimated ourselves to be in Latitude 44 degrees 47 minutes South, and
Longitude 89 degrees 7 minutes; course kept south-south-east, sailed 29
miles, in a north-westerly and westerly wind with a top-gallant gale; we
also saw fragments of trees floating about resembling the leaves of wild
bananas; at night we lay a-trying under reduced sail and dared not run on
on account of the fog; gradually however the sea began to get smooth; we
time after time fired a musket and now and then also a great gun.

Item the 29th.

In the morning we made sail again, held our course to the
south-south-east, spoke the officers of the Zeehaan, because we thought
it best to keep our course to eastward so long as the fog should last.
Having hailed the friends of the Zeehaan we called out to them whether,
seeing that in this fog and darkness it is hardly possible to survey
known shores, let alone to discover unknown land, it would not be best
and most advisable to shape our course to eastward until the advent of
clearer weather and a better prospect; the which they deemed highly
advisable; on which account we convened the ship's council with the
second mates, and informed them of what the officers of the Zeehaan had
said when we had spoken them, together with their opinion and advice;
after which we asked all the persons assembled what they thought best to
be done; whereupon a unanimous resolution was come to which may in
extenso be gathered from this day's resolution and is fully accordant
with the opinion of the officers of the Zeehaan. At noon we directed our
course to eastward with a north-north-westerly wind and a top-gallant
gale; our estimated latitude being 45 degrees 47 minutes, and Longitude
89 degrees 44 minutes; course kept south-south-east sailed 17 miles.

Item the 30th.

At daybreak we again made sail, shaped our course to eastward with a
clear sky and a top-gallant gale from the west. At noon Latitude observed
45 degrees 43 minutes, Longitude 91 degrees 51 minutes; course kept east,
sailed 22 miles. Variation 26 degrees 45 minutes.

Item the last.

Towards noon a drizzling rain came on with fog, while the wind stiffened
more and more, so that we took in our topsails; at noon we also took in
our main-sail and ran on before the wind with our foresail, wind and sea
running very high. At noon Latitude estimated 47 degrees 4 minutes,
Longitude 95 degrees 19 minutes; course kept east-south-east, sailed 50
miles; we then had a storm from the west and held our course to the east.

Item the 1st of November.

In the morning the weather having somewhat improved we made more sail. At
noon observed Latitude 46 degrees 9 minutes, Longitude 99 degrees 9
minutes; we were greatly surprised at finding ourselves so far northward
as we had estimated ourselves to be in 47 degrees, and now found our
latitude to be 46 degrees 9 minutes; course kept east but if we make
allowance for the error in our estimation our course is east by north
half a point more northerly, and we sailed 40 miles; in the afternoon the
weather became foggy, the wind turning to the north-west with a light
breeze; we saw a great quantity of rock-weed floating and shaped our
course to the south-east, seeing that we were so far to northward; at
night we lay a-trying under reduced sail. This day our master-gunner
Eldert Luytiens departed this life in the Lord.

Item the 2nd.

In the morning we made sail again, shaping our course to the south-east;
the wind north-west with a steady breeze; we sailed with the main-sail
set, the weather being very foggy; course kept east-south-east, sailed 25
miles; estimated Latitude 46 degrees 47 minutes, Longitude 101 degrees 23
minutes; we saw still a good deal of rock-weed floating about; at night
we again lay a-trying with clewed sails as we dared not run on on account
of the fog.

Item the 3rd.

The wind being south-west with a strong breeze we again made sail, held
our course to south-eastward, and from time to time had heavy squalls of
hail and snow with very cold weather. At noon Latitude observed 46
degrees 47 minutes, Longitude 103 degrees 58 minutes; course kept east by
south, sailed 27 miles; between the squalls we could keep a fair lookout
so that we kept sailing during the night; we again saw quantities of
rock-weed floating about from time to time, and found that we were driven
to the north.

Item the 4th.

Wind and weather as before our course still being south-east; at noon we
altered our course to eastward; Latitude estimated 48 degrees 25 minutes,
Longitude 107 degrees 56 minutes; course kept south-east by east, sailed
40 miles. In the afternoon we desired our skipper and mates to give in
their average longitude and southern latitude which, after comparison
with our own, we found to average 107 degrees 25 minutes Longitude and 48
degrees 28 minutes South Latitude. After this comparison of notes we
convened the ship's council with the second mates, and submitted to their
consideration what was subsequently unanimously resolved upon and is
found duly specified in today's resolution, to which for briefness sake
we refer. Towards evening we again saw various lots of rock-weed floating
about, and observed large numbers of tunnies near and roundabout the
ship; our boatswain's mate and one of the sailors also saw a seal, from
which we surmise that there may be islands hereabouts, since these
animals are not likely to go out far to sea; on this account we did not
venture to run on full sail, but after supper held northward under
reduced sail.

Item the 5th.

In the morning we had rather foggy, hazy and dirty weather with a dark
grey sky; we made sail again and at first ran on east by south, seeing
that last night we had been driven so far northward. At noon Latitude
estimated 48 degrees 25 minutes, Longitude 110 degrees 55 minutes; course
kept east and sailed 30 miles.

Item the 6th.

We had a storm from the west with hail and snow, and ran on before the
wind with our foresail barely halfway the mast; the sea ran very high and
our men begin to suffer badly from the severe cold. At noon Latitude
estimated 49 degrees 4 minutes, Longitude 114 degrees 56 minutes; course
kept east by south, sailed 49 miles. Variation 26 degrees.

Item the 7th.

We received the notes following from our Pilot major.

Annotations drawn from the terrestrial globe and from the large chart of
the South Sea, and on the 7th of November A.D. 1642, handed to the
Honourable Commander Abel Jansz Tasman together with our advice.

Imprimis:

The terrestrial globe shows us that the easternmost islands of the
Salomonis are in the longitude of fully 220 degrees, reckoning said
longitude from the meridian of the islands of Corvo and Floris.

But they are in slightly short of 205 degrees, according to the longitude
which starts from the island of Teneriffe, and which is most generally
used at present; and on the globe they extend from 7 to 14 to 15 degrees
Latitude south of the line equinoctial.

This being duly noted we shall follow the great chart of the South Sea,
using the longitude beginning from the Peak of Teneriffe, which is
generally used in our day.

First we have Batavia situated in Longitude 127 degrees 5 minutes.
And the south-west point of Celebes 11 degrees 20 minutes.
More to eastward, so that we get for the longitude of the south-west
point of Celebes now from the south-west point of Celebes to the
easternmost islands of the Salomonis, where the chart reads Hoorensche
eylanden, we reckon 47 degrees 20 minutes. So that we get for the
longitude of the Hoorensche islands 185 degrees 45 minutes.

Now from the Hoorensche islands to the Cocos or Verraders islands,
discovered by Willem Schouten, we reckon still more to eastward 8 degrees
15 minutes; so that for the longitude of Cocos and Verraders islands we
get 194 degrees.

Should one wish to consider the Hoorensche islands, situated in Longitude
185 degrees 45 minutes, to be the easternmost of the Salomonis, then the
charts and globe would show a difference of about 19 degrees; but if one
should look upon the Cocos and Verraders island, situated in 194 degrees
Longitude and 17 1/2 degrees South Latitude, as the easternmost of the
Salomonis islands, then the difference between the charts and the globe
would amount to no more than 11 degrees, the globe placing the islands 11
degrees more eastward than the charts; now to avoid all mistakes we think
it best to disregard the indications to eastward, both of the globe and
of the charts.

Hence our advice is that we should stick to the 44th degree South
Latitude until we shall have passed the 150th degree of Longitude, and
then run north as far as the 40th degree South Latitude, remaining there
with an easterly course until we shall have reached the 220th degree of
Longitude, after which we should take a northerly course so as to avail
ourselves of the trade-wind to reach the Salomonis islands and New Guinea
by running from east to west. We cannot but think that, if we find no
land up to 150 degrees Longitude, we shall then be in an open sea again,
unless we should meet with islands; all which time and experience, being
the best of teachers, will no doubt bring to light.

Signed Francoys Jacobsz.

In the morning, the wind still westerly with hail and snow so that we had
to run on with a furled foresail as before, and as we could not make any
progress in this way, we deemed it best to alter our course to northward
upon which, with our ship's council together with our second mates,
seeing that we could not speak the friends of the Zeehaan, much less get
them on board of us, we resolved first to our course north-eastward,
running on to 45 or 44 degrees; having reached the 45th or 44th degree,
to direct our course due east until we shall have got to 150 degrees
Longitude; as will be found duly specified in today's resolution, to
which we beg to refer. At noon Latitude estimated 47 degrees 56 minutes,
Longitude 119 degrees 6 minutes; course kept east-north-east, sailed 45
miles.

Item the 8th.

In the morning the weather was somewhat better so that we could set our
topsails. At noon Latitude estimated 46 degrees 26 minutes, Longitude 121
degrees 19 minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 32 miles, with
unsettled weather and a westerly wind, which is very variable here. At
night we ran on under reduced sail. Variation 25 degrees 30 minutes.

Item the 9th.

The wind southerly with a grey sky and a top-gallant gale; at noon
Latitude estimated 44 degrees 19 minutes South, Longitude 124 degrees 20
minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 45 miles. At noon the latitude
observed was 44 degrees, which does not agree with our estimation as
given above. We still saw rock-weed floating about the whole day. At noon
we shaped our course east in accordance with the resolution of the 7th
instant. Towards evening we dispatched to the officers of the Zeehaan the
letter following, together with the Annotations of Pilot-major Francoys
Jacobsz, the said papers being enclosed in a wooden canister-shot-case,
duly waxed and closely wrapped up in tarred canvas, which case we sent
adrift from the stern part of the poop; the letter duly reached its
destination and ran as follows:

To the officers of the Zeehaan.

We should have greatly liked to have had your advice on the 7th instant
but, time and opportunity being unpropitious, we resolved with the
members of our council and our second mates to shape our course
north-east as far as 44 degrees South Latitude, and then keep a due east
course as far as 150 degrees Longitude; should you agree to this
resolution then be pleased to hoist a flag at your stern as a sign of
approval that we may duly ratify the resolution. We also request you to
do your best to sail in during the night until further orders and, if you
should think it possible to come alongside of us in the boat, be pleased
to float a flag from the foretop by way of signal, in which case we shall
stay for you, seeing that we are very desirous of communicating with you
by word of mouth. Farewell. Actum Heemskerk sailing in about 44 degrees
South Latitude, this day November 9, 1642.

Signed,

ABEL JANSZ TASMAN.

After reading the above, those of the Zeehaan hoisted the Prince-flag in
sign of approbation of our resolution.

Item the 10th.

Good weather with a southerly wind and a top-gallant gale. At noon
Latitude estimated 44 degrees; Longitude 126 degrees 45 minutes; course
kept east, sailed 26 miles. At noon Latitude observed 43 degrees 20
minutes, the sea running very high from the south-west, at times also
from the south-east with heavy swells. Variation 21 degrees 30 minutes.

Item the 11th.

Good weather, the wind westerly with a light breeze. At noon Latitude
estimated 43 degrees 20 minutes, Longitude 127 degrees 45 minutes; course
kept east, sailed 11 miles. We ran up the white flag, upon which the
officers of the Zeehaan came on board of us, when we resolved in the
plenary Council to run on in the parallel of about 44 degrees South
Latitude from our present longitude (averaging 123 degrees 29 minutes) as
far as 195 degrees Longitude, being the meridian of the east side of New
Guinea as delineated in the chart, all which may in extenso be seen from
this day's resolution to which we beg leave to refer.

Item the 12th.

Good weather and smooth water, the wind westerly with a light top-gallant
breeze. At noon Latitude observed 43 degrees 50 minutes, Longitude 129
degrees 17 minutes; course kept east-south-east, sailed 18 miles.
Variation 21 degrees.

Item the 13th.

Dark, hazy, foggy weather with a steady breeze; we still see rock-weed
floating about every day. At noon Latitude estimated 44 degrees 16
minutes, Longitude 132 degrees 17 minutes; course kept east by south,
sailed 33 miles; wind north-west; at noon we turned our course to
eastward.

Item the 14th.

Still dark, hazy, drizzling weather, the wind west-north-west with a
steady breeze. At noon Latitude estimated 44 degrees 16 minutes south,
Longitude 136 degrees 22 minutes; course kept east and sailed 44 miles;
the sea still running high from the south-west so that no mainland is yet
to be surmised south of us.

Item the 15th.

Good weather and a steady breeze from the west-north-west. At noon
Latitude observed 44 degrees 3 minutes, Longitude 140 degrees 31 minutes;
course kept east slightly northerly, sailed 45 miles. Variation
decreasing 18 degrees 50 minutes North-West. We still saw rock-weed
floating about every day.

Item the 16th.

In the morning it was very foggy but the weather cleared up towards noon.
Latitude observed 44 degrees 10 minutes, Longitude 144 degrees 42
minutes; course kept east, sailed 45 miles with a steady breeze from the
west; in the evening we took the sun's azimuth. Variation 16 degrees.

Item the 17th.

Good weather with a clear sky; we still saw a good deal of rock-weed
floating about every day; the sea still running from the south-west.
Though we observe rock-weed every day still it is not likely there should
be any great mainland to the southward on account of the high seas that
are still running from the south. At noon Latitude observed 44 degrees 15
minutes, Longitude 147 degrees 3 minutes; course kept east, sailed 28
miles with a light top-gallant breeze from the west; we estimated that we
had already passed the South land known up to the present, or so far as
Pieter Nuyts had run to eastward.

Item the 18th.

The wind north-westerly and afterwards northerly with a fog and drizzling
rain, a top-gallant gale. At noon Latitude estimated 44 degrees 16
minutes South, Longitude 150 degrees 6 minutes; course kept east, sailed
33 miles. This day we saw a number of whales; at night during the
dog-watch we lay a-trying under reduced sail. Variation 12 degrees.

Item the 19th.

Good weather with the wind from the north and afterwards from the
north-west, a top-gallant gale. At noon Latitude estimated 44 degrees 45
minutes, Longitude 153 degrees 34 minutes; course kept east by south,
sailed 38 miles. At noon Latitude observed 45 degrees 5 minutes so that
we are farther to the south than I had estimated; in the morning
variation decreasing, 8 degrees North-West. Towards evening there came on
a storm from the north and afterwards from the north-west, with hail and
snow and very cold weather, so that we had to tack to leeward with our
mainsail.

Item the 20th.

The wind west-north-west with a storm of hail and rain; in the morning we
had to run on before the wind with a foresail halfway up the mast. At
noon Latitude estimated 44 degrees 43 minutes, Longitude 155 degrees 58
minutes; course kept east, sailed 26 miles; Latitude observed 44 degrees
32 minutes; during the night we lay a-trying with our mainsail set.

Item the 21st.

In the morning the weather somewhat better, we again set our topsails and
slid out the bonnet of our foresail; turned our course to
east-north-east, the wind being westerly and afterwards north-westerly
with a top-gallant gale. At noon Latitude estimated 43 degrees 53
minutes, Longitude 158 degrees 12 minutes; at noon Latitude observed 43
degrees 40 minutes; course kept east-north-east, sailed 26 miles.
Variation 4 degrees North-West, the sea running very high, both from the
north-west and south-west; during the night we lay a-trying under reduced
sail.

Item the 22nd.

At daybreak we made sail again, the wind being westerly with a
top-gallant gale; there was a heavy swell from the south-west so that
there is not likely to be any land to southward. At noon Latitude
estimated 42 degrees 58 minutes, Longitude 160 degrees 34 minutes; course
kept east-north-east, sailed 28 miles; at noon Latitude observed 42
degrees 49 minutes; we found that our compasses were not so steady as
they should be, and supposed that possibly there might be mines of
loadstone about here, our compasses sometimes varying 8 points from one
moment to another, so that there would always seem to be some cause that
kept the needle in motion.

Item the 23rd.

Good weather with a south-westerly wind and a steady breeze; in the
morning we found our rudder broken at top in the tiller-hole; we there
hauled to windward under reduced sail and fitted a cross-beam to either
side. At noon Latitude observed 42 degrees 50 minutes, Longitude 162
degrees 51 minutes; course kept east, sailed 25 miles; we found the
variation to the compass to be 1 degree North-West, so that the decrease
is a very abrupt one here; by estimation the west side of New Guinea must
be north of us.

Item the 24th.

Good weather and a clear sky. At noon Latitude observed 42 degrees 25
minutes, Longitude 163 degrees 31 minutes; course kept east by north,
sailed 30 miles; the wind south-westerly and afterwards from the south
with a light top-gallant breeze. In the afternoon about 4 o'clock we saw
land bearing east by north of us at about 10 miles distance from us by
estimation; the land we sighted was very high; towards evening we also
saw, east-south-east of us, three high mountains, and to the north-east
two more mountains, but less high than those to southward; we found that
here our compass pointed due north. In the evening in the first glass
after the watch had been set, we convened our ship's council with the
second mate's and represented to them whether it would not be advisable
to run farther out to sea; we also asked their advice as to the time when
it would be best to do so, upon which it was unanimously resolved to run
out to sea at the expiration of three glasses, to keep doing so for the
space of ten glasses, and after this to make for the land again; all of
which may in extenso be seen from today's resolution to which we beg
leave to refer. During the night when three glasses had run out the wind
turned to the south-east; we held off from shore and sounded in 100
fathom, fine white sandy bottom with small shells; we sounded once more
and found black coarse sand with pebbles; during the night we had a
south-east wind with a light breeze.

Item the 25th.

In the morning we had a calm; we floated the white flag and pendant from
our stern, upon which the officers of the Zeehaan with their steersmen
came on board of us; we then convened the Ship's council and resolved
together upon what may in extenso be seen from today's resolution to
which we beg leave to refer. Towards noon the wind turned to the
south-east and afterwards to the south-south-east and the south, upon
which we made for the shore; at about 5 o'clock in the evening we got
near the coast; three miles off shore we sounded in 60 fathom coral
bottom; one mile off the coast we had clean, fine, white sand; we found
this coast to bear south by east and north by west; it was a level coast,
our ship being 42 degrees 30 minutes South Latitude, and average
Longitude 163 degrees 50 minutes. We then put off from shore again, the
wind turning to the south-south-east with a top-gallant gale. If you came
from the west and find your needle to show 4 degrees north-westerly
variation you had better look out for land, seeing that the variation is
very abruptly decreasing here. If you should happen to be overtaken by
rough weather from the westward you had best heave to and not run on.
Near the coast here the needle points due north. We took the average of
our several longitudes and found this land to be in 163 degrees 50
minutes Longitude.

This land being the first land we have met with in the South Sea and not
known to any European nation we have conferred on it the name of Anthony
Van Diemensland in honour of the Honourable Governor-General, our
illustrious master, who sent us to make this discovery; the islands
circumjacent, so far as known to us, we have named after the Honourable
Councillors of India, as may be seen from the little chart which has been
made of them.

Item the 26th.

We had the wind from eastward with a light breeze and hazy weather so
that we could see no land; according to our estimation we were at 9 1/2
miles distance from shore. Towards noon we hoisted the top-pendant upon
which the Zeehaan forthwith came astern of us; we called out to her men
that we should like Mr. Gilsemans to come on board of us, upon which the
said Mr. Gilsemans straightways came on board of us, to whom we imparted
the reasons set forth in the subjoined letter which we enjoined him to
take with him on board the Zeehaan, to be shown to Skipper Gerrit Jansz,
who is to give orders to her steersmen in accordance with its purport:

The officers of the Flute Zeehaan are hereby enjoined to set down in
their daily journals this land which we saw and came near to yesterday in
the longitude of 163 degrees 50 minutes, seeing that we have found this
to be its average longitude, and to lay down the said longitude as an
established point of departure for their further reckonings; he who
before this had got the longitude of 160 degrees or more will henceforth
have to take this land for his starting-point; we make the arrangement in
order to preclude all errors as much as is at all possible. The officers
of the Zeehaan are requested to give orders in conformity to her
steersmen and to see them acted up to, because we opine this to be their
duty; any charts that should be drawn up of this part will have to lay
down this land in the average longitude of 163 degrees 50 minutes as
hereinbefore stated.

Actum Heemskerk datum ut supra (signed)

ABEL JANSZ. TASMAN.

At noon Latitude estimated 43 degrees 36 minutes South, Longitude 163
degrees 2 minutes; course kept south-south-west, sailed 18 miles. We had
1/2 degree North-West variation; in the evening the wind went round to
the north-east, and we changed our course to east-south-east.

Item the 27th.

In the morning we again saw the coast, our course still being
east-south-east. At noon Latitude estimated 44 degrees 4 minutes South,
Longitude 164 degrees 2 minutes; course kept south-east by east, sailed
13 miles; the weather was drizzly, foggy, hazy and rainy, the wind
north-east and north-north-east with a light breeze; at night when 7
glasses of the first watch had run out we began trying under reduced sail
because we dared not run on owing to thick darkness.

Item the 28th.

In the morning, the weather still being dark, foggy and rainy, we again
made sail, shaped our course to eastward and afterwards north-east by
north; we saw land north-east and north-north-east of us and made
straight for it; the coast here bears south-east by east and north-west
by west; as far as I can see the land here falls off to eastward. At noon
Latitude estimated 44 degrees 12 minutes, Longitude 165 degrees 2
minutes; course kept west by south, sailed 11 miles with a north-westerly
wind and a light breeze. In the evening we got near the coast; here near
the shore there are a number of islets of which one in shape resembles a
lion; this islet lies out into the sea at about 3 miles distance from the
mainland; in the evening the wind turned to the east; during the night we
lay a-trying under reduced sail.

Item the 29th.

In the morning we were still near the rock which is like a lion's head;
we had a westerly wind with a top-gallant gale; we sailed along the coast
which here bears east and west; towards noon we passed two rocks of which
the westernmost was like Pedra Branca off the coast of China; the
easternmost was like a tall, obtuse, square tower, and is at about 4
miles distance from the mainland. We passed between these rocks and the
mainland; at noon Latitude estimated 43 degrees 53 minutes, Longitude 166
degrees 3 minutes; course kept east-north-east, sailed 12 miles; we were
still running along the coast. In the evening about 5 o'clock we came
before a bay which seemed likely to afford a good anchorage, upon which
we resolved with our ship's council to run into it, as may be seen from
today's resolution; we had nearly got into the bay when there arose so
strong a gale that we were obliged to take in sail and to run out to sea
again under reduced sail, seeing that it was impossible to come to anchor
in such a storm; in the evening we resolved to stand out to sea during
the night under reduced sail to avoid being thrown on a lee-shore by the
violence of the wind; all which may in extenso be seen from the
resolution aforesaid to which for briefness sake we beg to refer.

Item the last.

At daybreak we again made for shore, the wind and the current having
driven us so far out to sea that we could barely see the land; we did our
utmost to get near it again and at noon had the land north-west of us; we
now turned the ship's head to westward with a northerly wind which
prevented us from getting close to the land. At noon Latitude observed 43
degrees 41 minutes, Longitude 168 degrees 3 minutes; course kept east by
north, sailed 20 miles in a storm and with variable weather. The needle
points due north here. Shortly after noon we turned our course to
westward with a strong variable gale; we then turned to the north under
reduced sail.

Item the 1st of December.

In the morning, the weather having become somewhat better, we set our
topsails, the wind blowing from the west-south-west with a top-gallant
gale; we now made for the coast. At noon Latitude observed 43 degrees 10
minutes, Longitude 167 degrees 55 minutes; course kept north-north-west,
sailed 8 miles, it having fallen a calm; in the afternoon we hoisted the
white flag upon which our friends of the Zeehaan came on board of us,
with whom we resolved that it would be best and most expedient, wind and
weather permitting, to touch at the land the sooner the better, both to
get better acquainted with its condition and to attempt to procure
refreshments for our own behoof, all which may be more amply seen from
this day's resolution. We then got a breeze from eastward and made for
the coast to ascertain whether it would afford a fitting anchorage; about
one hour after sunset we dropped anchor in a good harbour, in 22 fathom,
white and grey fine sand, a naturally drying bottom; for all which it
behoves us to thank God Almighty with grateful hearts.

Item the 2nd.

Early in the morning we sent our Pilot-major Francoys Jacobsz in command
of our pinnace, manned with 4 musketeers and 6 rowers, all of them
furnished with pikes and side-arms, together with the cock-boat of the
Zeehaan with one of her second mates and 6 musketeers in it, to a bay
situated north-west of us at upwards of a mile distance in order to
ascertain what facilities (as regards fresh water, refreshments, timber
and the like) may be available there. About three hours before nightfall
the boats came back, bringing various samples of vegetables which they
had seen growing there in great abundance, some of them in appearance not
unlike a certain plant growing at the Cape of Good Hope and fit to be
used as pot-herbs, and another species with long leaves and a brackish
taste, strongly resembling persil de mer or samphire. The Pilot-major and
the second mate of the Zeehaan made the following report, to wit:

That they had rowed the space of upwards of a mile round the said point,
where they had found high but level land covered with vegetation (not
cultivated, but growing naturally by the will of God) abundance of
excellent timber, and a gently sloping watercourse in a barren valley,
the said water, though of good quality, being difficult to procure
because the watercourse was so shallow that the water could be dipped
with bowls only.

That they had heard certain human sounds and also sounds nearly
resembling the music of a trump or a small gong not far from them though
they had seen no one.

That they had seen two trees about 2 or 2 1/2 fathom in thickness
measuring from 60 to 65 feet from the ground to the lowermost branches,
which trees bore notches made with flint implements, the bark having been
removed for the purpose; these notches, forming a kind of steps to enable
persons to get up the trees and rob the birds' nests in their tops, were
fully 5 feet apart so that our men concluded that the natives here must
be of very tall stature, or must be in possession of some sort of
artifice for getting up the said trees; in one of the trees these notched
steps were so fresh and new that they seemed to have been cut less than
four days ago.

That on the ground they had observed certain footprints of animals, not
unlike those of a tiger's claws; they also brought on board certain
specimens of animals excrements voided by quadrupeds, so far as they
could surmise and observe, together with a small quantity of gum of a
seemingly very fine quality which had exuded from trees and bore some
resemblance to gum-lac.

That round the eastern point of this bay they had sounded 13 or 14 feet
at high water, there being about 3 feet at low tide.

That at the extremity of the said point they had seen large numbers of
gulls, wild ducks and geese, but had perceived none farther inward though
they had heard their cries; and had found no fish except different kinds
of mussels forming small clusters in several places.

That the land is pretty generally covered with trees standing so far
apart that they allow a passage everywhere and a lookout to a great
distance so that, when landing, our men could always get sight of natives
or wild beasts, unhindered by dense shrubbery or underwood, which would
prove a great advantage in exploring the country.

That in the interior they had in several places observed numerous trees
which had deep holes burnt into them at the upper end of the foot, while
the earth had here and there been dug out with the fist so as to form a
fireplace, the surrounding soil having become as hard as flint through
the action of the fire.

A short time before we got sight of our boats returning to the ships, we
now and then saw clouds of dense smoke rising up from the land, which was
nearly west by north of us, and surmised this might be a signal given by
our men, because they were so long coming back, for we had ordered them
to return speedily, partly in order to be made acquainted with what they
had seen, and partly that we might be able to send them to other points
if they should find no profit there, to the end that no precious time
might be wasted. When our men had come on board again we inquired of them
whether they had been there and made a fire, to which they returned a
negative answer, adding however that at various times and points in the
wood they also had seen clouds of smoke ascending. So there can be no
doubt there must be men here of extraordinary stature. This day we had
variable winds from the eastward, but for the greater part of the day a
stiff, steady breeze from the south-east.

Item the 3rd.

We went to the south-east side of this bay in the same boats as yesterday
with Supercargo Gilsemans and a number of musketeers, the oarsmen
furnished with pikes and side-arms; here we found water, it is true, but
the land is so low-lying that the fresh water was made salt and brackish
by the surf, while the soil is too rocky to allow of wells being dug; we
therefore returned on board and convened the councils of our two ships
with which we have resolved and determined what is set forth in extenso
in today's resolution, to which for briefness sake we refer. In the
afternoon we went to the south-east side of this bay in the boats
aforesaid, having with us Pilot-major Francoys Jacobsz, Skipper Gerrit
Jansz, Isack Gilsemans, supercargo on board the Zeehaan, subcargo Abraham
Coomans, and our master carpenter Pieter Jacobsz; we carried with us a
pole with the Company's mark carved into it, and a Prince-flag to be set
up there, that those who shall come after us may become aware that we
have been here, and have taken possession of the said land as our lawful
property. When we had rowed about halfway with our boats it began to blow
very stiffly, and the sea ran so high that the cock-boat of the Zeehaan,
in which were seated the Pilot-major and Mr. Gilsemans, was compelled to
pull back to the ships, while we ran on with our pinnace. When we had
come close inshore in a small inlet which bore west-south-west of the
ships the surf ran so high that we could not get near the shore without
running the risk of having our pinnace dashed to pieces. We then ordered
the carpenter aforesaid to swim to the shore alone with the pole and the
flag, and kept by the wind with our pinnace; we made him plant the said
pole with the flag at top into the earth, about the centre of the bay
near four tall trees easily recognisable and standing in the form of a
crescent, exactly before the one standing lowest. This tree is burnt in
just above the ground, and in reality taller than the other three, but it
seems to be shorter because it stands lower on the sloping ground; at
top, projecting from the crown, it shows two long dry branches, so
symmetrically set with dry sprigs and twigs that they look like the large
antlers of a stag; by the side of these dry branches, slightly lower
down, there is another bough which is quite green and leaved all round,
whose twigs, owing to their regular proportion, wonderfully embellish the
said bough and make it look like the upper part of a larding-pin. Our
master carpenter, having in the sight of myself, Abel Jansz Tasman,
Skipper Gerrit Jansz, and Subcargo Abraham Coomans, performed the work
entrusted to him, we pulled with our pinnace as near the shore as we
ventured to do; the carpenter aforesaid thereupon swam back to the
pinnace through the surf. This work having been duly executed we pulled
back to the ships, leaving the above-mentioned as a memorial for those
who shall come after us, and for the natives of this country, who did not
show themselves, though we suspect some of them were at no great distance
and closely watching our proceedings. We made no arrangements for
gathering vegetables since the high seas prevented our men from getting
ashore except by swimming, so that it was impossible to get anything into
the pinnace. During the whole of the day the wind blew chiefly from the
north; in the evening we took the sun's azimuth and found 3 degrees
north-easterly variation of the compass; at sunset we got a strong gale
from the north which by and by rose to so violent a storm from the
north-north-west that we were compelled to get both our yards in and drop
our small bower-anchor.

Item the 4th.

At dawn the storm abated, the weather became less rough and, the
land-wind blowing from the west by north, we hove our bower-anchor; when
we had weighed the said anchor and got it above the water we found that
both the flukes were broken off so far that we hauled home nothing but
the shank; we then weighed the other anchor also and set sail forthwith
in order to pass to north to landward of the northernmost islands and
seek a better watering-place. Here we lay at anchor in 43 degrees South
Latitude, Longitude 167 1/2 degrees; in the forenoon the wind was
westerly. At noon Latitude observed 42 degrees 40 minutes, Longitude 168
degrees, course kept north-east, sailed 8 miles; in the afternoon the
wind turned to the north-west; we had very variable winds all day; in the
evening the wind went round to west-north-west again with a strong gale,
then to west by north and west-north-west again with a strong gale, then
to west by north and west-north-west once more; we then tacked to
northward and in the evening saw a round mountain bearing
north-north-west of us at about 8 miles distance; course kept to
northward very close to the wind. While sailing out of this bay and all
through the day we saw several columns of smoke ascend along the coast.
Here it would be meet to describe the trend of the coast and the islands
lying off it but we request to be excused for briefness sake and beg
leave to refer to the small chart drawn up of it which we have appended.

Item the 5th.

In the morning, the wind blowing from the north-west by west, we kept our
previous course; the high round mountain which we had seen the day before
now bore due west of us at 6 miles distance; at this point the land fell
off to the north-west so that we could no longer steer near the coast
here, seeing that the wind was almost ahead. We therefore convened the
council and the second mates, with whom after due deliberation we
resolved, and subsequently called out to the officers of the Zeehaan
that, pursuant to the resolution of the 11th ultimo we should direct our
course due east, and on the said course run on to the full longitude of
195 degrees or the Salomonis islands, all which will be found set forth
in extenso in this day's resolution. At noon Latitude estimated 41
degrees 34 minutes, Longitude 169 degrees, course kept north-east by
north, sailed 20 miles; we then shaped our course due east for the
purpose of making further discoveries and of avoiding the variable winds
between the trade-wind and the anti-trade-wind; the wind from the
north-west with a steady breeze; during the night the wind from the west,
a brisk steady breeze and good clear weather.

Item the 6th.

In the morning the wind from the south-west with a light breeze; at noon
we were in Latitude 41 degrees 15 minutes, Longitude 172 degrees 35
minutes; course kept east, sailed 40 miles; the weather was quite calm
and still all the afternoon, the sea running high from all quarters but
especially from the south-west; in the evening when the watches were
setting we got a steady breeze from the east-north-east and north-east.

Item the 7th.

The wind still continuing to blow from the north-east, the breeze quite
as fresh as during the night. At noon Latitude estimated 42 degrees 13
minutes, Longitude 174 degrees 31 minutes; course kept south-east by
east, sailed 26 miles. Variation increasing 5 degrees 45 minutes
North-West.

Item the 8th.

During the night we had a calm, the wind going round to the west and
north-west. At noon Latitude estimated 42 degrees 29 minutes, Longitude
176 degrees 17 minutes; course kept east by south, sailed 20 miles.

Item the 9th.

We drifted in a calm so that by estimation we were carried 3 miles to the
south-eastward. At noon Latitude observed 42 degrees 37 minutes,
Longitude 176 degrees 29 minutes. Variation 5 degrees. Towards evening we
had a light breeze from the west-north-west.

Item the 10th.

Occasional squalls of rain mixed with hail, the wind being westerly with
a top-gallant gale. At noon Latitude observed 42 degrees 45 minutes,
Longitude 178 degrees 40 minutes; course kept east, sailed 24 miles.

Item the 11th.

Good weather with a clear sky and a westerly wind with a top-gallant
gale. At noon Latitude observed 42 degrees 48 minutes, Longitude 181
degrees 51 minutes; course kept east, sailed 38 miles. Variation
increasing 7 degrees North-East.

Item the 12th.

Good weather, the wind blowing from the south-south-west and south-west
with a steady breeze. At noon Latitude observed 42 degrees 38 minutes,
Longitude 185 degrees 17 minutes; course kept east, sailed 38 miles. The
heavy swells continuing from the south-west, there is no mainland to be
expected here to southward. Variation 7 degrees North-East.

Item the 13th.

Latitude observed 42 degrees 10 minutes, Longitude 188 degrees 28
minutes; course kept east by north, sailed 36 miles in a
south-south-westerly wind with a top-gallant gale. Towards noon we saw a
large, high-lying land, bearing south-east of us at about 15 miles
distance; we turned our course to the south-east, making straight for
this land, fired a gun and in the afternoon hoisted the white flag, upon
which the officers of the Zeehaan came on board of us, with whom we
resolved to touch at the said land as quickly as at all possible, for
such reasons as are more amply set forth in this day's resolution. In the
evening we deemed it best and gave orders accordingly to our steersmen to
stick to the south-east course while the weather keeps quiet but, should
the breeze freshen, to steer due east in order to avoid running on shore,
and to preclude accidents as much as in us lies; since we opine that the
land should not be touched at from this side on account of the high open
sea running there in huge hollow waves and heavy swells, unless there
should happen to be safe land-locked bays on this side. At the expiration
of four glasses of the first watch we shaped our course due east.
Variation 7 degrees 30 minutes North-East.

Item the 14th.

At noon Latitude observed 42 degrees 10 minutes, Longitude 189 degrees 3
minutes; course kept east, sailed 12 miles. We were about 2 miles off the
coast, which showed as a very high double land, but we could not see the
summits of the mountains owing to thick clouds. We shaped our course to
northward along the coast, so near to it that we could constantly see the
surf break on the shore. In the afternoon we took soundings at about 2
miles distance from the coast in 55 fathom, a sticky sandy soil, after
which it fell a calm. Towards evening we saw a low-lying point north-east
by north of us, at about 3 miles distance; the greater part of the time
we were drifting in a calm towards the said point; in the middle of the
afternoon we took soundings in 45 fathom, a sticky sandy bottom. The
whole night we drifted in a calm, the sea running from the
west-north-west, so that we got near the land in 28 fathom, good
anchoring-ground, where, on account of the calm, and for fear of drifting
nearer to the shore, we ran out our kedge-anchor during the day-watch,
and we are now waiting for the land-wind.

Item the 15th.

In the morning with a light breeze blowing from the land we weighed
anchor and did our best to run out to sea a little, our course being
north-west by north; we then had the northernmost low-lying point of the
day before, north-north-east and north-east by north of us. This land
consists of a high double mountain-range, not lower than Ilha Formoza. At
noon Latitude observed 41 degrees 40 minutes, Longitude 189 degrees 49
minutes; course kept north-north-east, sailed 8 miles; the point we had
seen the day before now lay south-east of us, at 2 1/2 miles distance;
northward from this point extends a large rocky reef; on this reef,
projecting from the sea, there are a number of high steep cliffs
resembling steeples or sails; one mile west of this point we could sound
no bottom. As we still saw this high land extend to north-north-east of
us we from here held our course due north with good, dry weather and
smooth water. From the said low point with the cliffs, the land makes a
large curve to the north-east, trending first due east, and afterwards
due north again. The point aforesaid is in Latitude 41 degrees 50 minutes
south. The wind was blowing from the west. It was easy to see here that
in these parts the land must be very desolate; we saw no human beings nor
any smoke rising; nor can the people here have any boats, since we did
not see any signs of them; in the evening we found 8 degrees North-East
variation of the compass.

Item the 16th.

At six glasses before the day we took soundings in 60 fathom
anchoring-ground. The northernmost point we had in sight then bore from
us north-east by east, at three miles distance, and the nearest land lay
south-east of us at 1 1/2 miles distance. We drifted in a calm, with good
weather and smooth water; at noon Latitude observed 40 degrees 58
minutes, average Longitude 189 degrees 54 minutes; course kept
north-north-east, sailed 11 miles; we drifted in a calm the whole
afternoon; in the evening at sunset we had 9 degrees 23 minutes
increasing North-East variation; the wind then went round to south-west
with a freshening breeze; we found the furthest point of the land that we
could see to bear from us east by north, the land falling off so abruptly
there that we did not doubt that this was the farthest extremity. We now
convened our council with the second mates, with whom we resolved to run
north-east and east-north-east till the end of the first watch, and then
to sail near the wind, wind and weather not changing, as may in extenso
be seen from this day's resolution. During the night in the sixth glass
it fell calm again so that we stuck to the east-north-east course;
although in the fifth glass of the dog-watch, we had the point we had
seen in the evening, south-east of us, we could not sail higher than
east-north-east slightly easterly owing to the sharpness of the wind; in
the first watch we took soundings once, and a second time in the
dog-watch, in 60 fathom, clean, grey sand. In the second glass of the
day-watch we got a breeze from the south-east, upon which we tacked for
the shore again.

Item the 17th.

In the morning at sunrise we were about one mile from the shore; in
various places we saw smoke ascending from fires made by the natives; the
wind then being south and blowing from the land we again tacked to
eastward. At noon Latitude estimated 40 degrees 31 minutes, Longitude 190
degrees 47 minutes; course kept north-east by east, sailed 12 miles; in
the afternoon the wind being west we held our course east by south along
a low-lying shore with dunes in good dry weather; we sounded in 30
fathom, black sand, so that by night one had better approach this land
aforesaid, sounding; we then made for this sandy point until we got in 17
fathom, where we cast anchor at sunset owing to a calm, when we had the
northern extremity of this dry sandspit west by north of us; also high
land extending to east by south; the point of the reef south-east of us;
here inside this point or narrow sandspit we saw a large open bay upward
of 3 or 4 miles wide; to eastward of this narrow sandspit there is a
sandbank upwards of a mile in length with 6, 7, 8 and 9 feet of water
above it, and projecting east-south-east from the said point. In the
evening we had 9 degrees North-East variation.

Item the 18th.

In the morning we weighed anchor in calm weather; at noon Latitude
estimated 40 degrees 49 minutes, Longitude 191 degrees 41 minutes; course
kept east-south-east, sailed 11 miles. In the morning before weighing
anchor, we had resolved with the Officers of the Zeehaan that we should
try to get ashore here and find a good harbour; and that as we neared it
we should send out the pinnace to reconnoitre; all which may in extenso
be seen from this day's resolution. In the afternoon our skipper Ide
Tiercxz and our pilot-major Francoys Jacobsz, in the pinnace, and
Supercargo Gilsemans, with one of the second mates of the Zeehaan in the
latter's cock-boat, went on before to seek a fitting anchorage and a good
watering-place. At sunset when it fell a calm we dropped anchor in 15
fathom, good anchoring-ground in the evening, about an hour after sunset,
we saw a number of lights on shore and four boats close inshore, two of
which came towards us, upon which our own two boats returned on board;
they reported that they had found no less than 13 fathom water and that,
when the sun sank behind the high land, they were still about half a mile
from shore. When our men had been on board for the space of about one
glass the men in the two prows began to call out to us in the rough,
hollow voice, but we could not understand a word of what they said. We
however called out to them in answer, upon which they repeated their
cries several times, but came no nearer than a stone shot; they also blew
several times on an instrument of which the sound was like that of a
Moorish trumpet; we then ordered one of our sailors (who had some
knowledge of trumpet-blowing) to play them some tunes in answer. Those on
board the Zeehaan ordered their second mate (who had come out to India as
a trumpeter and had in the Mauritius been appointed second mate by the
council of that fortress and the ships) to do the same; after this had
been repeated several times on both sides, and as it was getting more and
more dark, those in the native prows at last ceased and paddled off. For
more security and to be on guard against all accidents we ordered our men
to keep double watches as we are wont to do when out at sea, and to keep
in readiness all necessaries of war, such as muskets, pikes and
cutlasses. We cleaned the guns on the upper-orlop, and placed them again,
in order to prevent surprises, and be able to defend ourselves if these
people should happen to attempt anything against us. Variation 9 degrees
North-East.

Item the 19th.

Early in the morning a boat manned with 13 natives approached to about a
stone's cast from our ships; they called out several times but we did not
understand them, their speech not bearing any resemblance to the
vocabulary given us by the Honourable Governor-General and Councillors of
India, which is hardly to be wondered at, seeing that it contains the
language of the Salomonis islands, etc. As far as we could observe these
people were of ordinary height; they had rough voices and strong bones,
the colour of their skin being brown and yellow; they wore tufts of black
hair right upon the top of their heads, tied fast in the manner of the
Japanese at the back of their heads, but somewhat longer and thicker, and
surmounted by a large, thick white feather. Their boats consisted of two
long narrow prows side by side, over which a number of planks or other
seats were placed in such a way that those above can look through the
water underneath the vessel: their paddles are upwards of a fathom in
length, narrow and pointed at the end; with these vessels they could make
considerable speed. For clothing, as it seemed to us, some of them wore
mats, others cotton stuffs; almost all of them were naked from the
shoulders to the waist. We repeatedly made signs for them to come on
board of us, showing them white linen and some knives that formed part of
our cargo. They did not come nearer, however, but at last paddled back to
shore. In the meanwhile, at our summons sent the previous evening, the
officers of the Zeehaan came on board of us, upon which we convened a
council and resolved to go as near the shore as we could, since there was
good anchoring-ground here, and these people apparently sought our
friendship. Shortly after we had drawn up this resolution we saw 7 more
boats put off from the shore, one of which (high and pointed in front,
manned with 17 natives) paddled round behind the Zeehaan while another,
with 13 able-bodied men in her, approached to within half a stone's throw
of our ship; the men in these two boats now and then called out to each
other; we held up and showed them as before white linens, etc., but they
remained where they were. The skipper of the Zeehaan now sent out to them
his quartermaster with her cock-boat with six paddlers in it, with orders
for the second mates that, if these people should offer to come alongside
the Zeehaan, they should not allow too many of them on board of her, but
use great caution and be well on their guard. While the cock-boat of the
Zeehaan was paddling on its way to her those in the prow nearest to us
called out to those who were lying behind the Zeehaan and waved their
paddles to them, but we could not make out what they meant. Just as the
cock-boat of the Zeehaan had put off from board again those in the prow
before us, between the two ships, began to paddle so furiously towards it
that, when they were about halfway slightly nearer to our ship, they
struck the Zeehaan's cock-boat so violently alongside with the stem of
their prow that it got a violent lurch, upon which the foremost man in
this prow of villains with a long, blunt pike thrust the quartermaster
Cornelis Joppen in the neck several times with so much force that the
poor man fell overboard. Upon this the other natives, with short thick
clubs which we at first mistook for heavy blunt parangs, and with their
paddles, fell upon the men in the cock-boat and overcame them by main
force, in which fray three of our men were killed and a fourth got
mortally wounded through the heavy blows. The quartermaster and two
sailors swam to our ship, whence we had sent our pinnace to pick them up,
which they got into alive. After this outrageous and detestable crime the
murderers sent the cock-boat adrift, having taken one of the dead bodies
into their prow and thrown another into the sea. Ourselves and those on
board the Zeehaan seeing this, diligently fired our muskets and guns and,
although we did not hit any of them, the two prows made haste to the
shore, where they were out of the reach of shot. With our fore upper-deck
and bow guns we now fired several shots in the direction of their prows,
but none of them took effect. There upon our skipper Ide Tercxsen Holman,
in command of our pinnace well manned and armed, rowed towards the
cock-boat of the Zeehaan (which fortunately for us these accursed
villains had let adrift) and forthwith returned with it to our ships,
having found in it one of the men killed and one mortally wounded. We now
weighed anchor and set sail, since we could not hope to enter into any
friendly relations with these people, or to be able to get water or
refreshments here. Having weighed anchor and being under sail, we saw 22
prows near the shore, of which eleven, swarming with people, were making
for our ships. We kept quiet until some of the foremost were within reach
of our guns, and then fired 1 or 2 shots from the gun-room with our
pieces, without however doing them any harm; those on board the Zeehaan
also fired, and in the largest prow hit a man who held a small white flag
in his hand, and who fell down. We also heard the canister-shot strike
the prows inside and outside, but could not make out what other damage it
had done. As soon as they had got this volley they paddled back to shore
with great speed, two of them hoisting a sort of tingang sails. They
remained lying near the shore without visiting us any further. About noon
skipper Gerrit Jansz and Mr. Gilsemans again came on board of us; we also
sent for their first mate and convened the council, with whom we drew up
the resolution following, to wit: Seeing that the detestable deed of
these natives against four men of the Zeehaan's crew, perpetrated this
morning, must teach us to consider the inhabitants of this country as
enemies; that therefore it will be best to sail eastward along the coast,
following the trend of the land in order to ascertain whether there are
any fitting places where refreshments and water would be obtainable; all
of which will be found set forth in extenso in this day's resolution. In
this murderous spot (to which we have accordingly given the name of
Murderers' Bay) we lay at anchor on 40 degrees 50 minutes South Latitude,
191 degrees 30 minutes Longitude. From here we shaped our course
east-north-east. At noon Latitude estimated 40 degrees 57 minutes,
Longitude 191 degrees 41 minutes; course kept south, sailed 2 miles. In
the afternoon we got the wind from the west-north-west when, on the
advice of our steersmen and with our own approval, we turned our course
north-east by north. During the night we kept sailing as the weather was
favourable, but about an hour after midnight we sounded in 25 or 26
fathom, a hard, sandy bottom. Soon after the wind went round to
north-west, and we sounded in 15 fathom; we forthwith tacked to await the
day, turning our course to westward, exactly contrary to the direction by
which we had entered. Variation 9 degrees 30 minutes North-East.

This is the second land which we have sailed along and discovered. In
honour of their High Mightinesses the States-General we gave Staten Land,
since we deemed it quite possible that this land is part of the great
Staten Land, though this is not certain. This land seems to be a very
fine country and we trust that this is the mainland coast of the unknown
South land. To this course we have given the name of Abel Tasman passage,
because he has been the first to navigate it.

Item the 20th.

In the morning we saw land lying here on all sides of us, so that we must
have sailed at least 30 miles into a bay. We had at first thought that
the land off which we had anchored was an island, nothing doubting that
we should here find a passage to the open South Sea; but to our grievous
disappointment it proved quite otherwise. The wind now being westerly we
henceforth did our best by tacking to get out at the same passage through
which we had come in. At noon Latitude observed 40 degrees 51 minutes
South, Longitude 192 degrees 55 minutes; course kept east half a point
northerly, sailed 14 miles. In the afternoon it fell calm. The sea ran
very strong into this bay so that we would make no headway but drifted
back into it with the tide. At noon we tacked to northward when we saw a
round high islet west by south of us, at about 8 miles distance which we
had passed the day before; the said island lying about 6 miles east of
the place where we had been at anchor and in the same latitude. This bay
into which we had sailed so far by mistake showed us everywhere a fine
good land: near the shore the land was mainly low and barren, the inland
being moderately high. As you are approaching the land you have
everywhere an anchoring-ground gradually rising from 50 or 60 fathom to
15 fathom when you are still fully 1 1/2 or 2 miles from shore. At three
o'clock in the afternoon we got a light breeze from the south-east but as
the sea was very rough we made little or no progress. During the night we
drifted in a calm; in the second watch, the wind being westerly, we
tacked to northward.

Item the 21st.

During the night in the dog-watch we had a westerly wind with a strong
breeze; we steered to the north, hoping that the land which we had had
north-west of us the day before might fall away to northward, but after
the cook had dished we again ran against it and found that it still
extended to the north-west. We now tacked, turning from the land again
and, as it began to blow fresh, we ran south-west over towards the south
shore. At noon, Latitude observed 40 degrees 31 minutes, Longitude 192
degrees 55 minutes; course kept north, sailed 5 miles. The weather was
hazy so that we could not see land. Halfway through the afternoon we
again saw the south coast; the island which the day before we had west of
us at about 6 miles distance now lay south-west by south of us at about 4
miles distance. We made for it, running on until the said island was
north-north-west of us, then dropped our anchor behind a number of cliffs
in 33 fathom, sandy ground mixed with shells. There are many islands and
cliffs all round here. We struck our sail-yards for it was blowing a
storm from the north-west and west-north-west.

Item the 22nd.

The wind north-west by north and blowing so hard that there was no
question of going under sail in order to make any progress; we found it
difficult enough for the anchor to hold. We therefore set to refitting
our ship. We are lying here in 40 degrees 50 minutes South Latitude and
Longitude 192 degrees 37 minutes; course held south-west by south, sailed
6 miles. During the night we got the wind so hard from the north-west
that we had to strike our tops and drop another anchor. The Zeehaan was
almost forced from her anchor and therefore hove out another anchor
likewise.

Item the 23rd.

The weather still dark, hazy and drizzling; the wind north-west and
west-north-west with a storm so that to our great regret we could not
make any headway.

Item the 24th.

Still rough, unsteady weather, the wind still north-west and stormy; in
the morning when there was a short calm we hoisted the white flag and got
the officers of the Zeehaan on board of us. We then represented to them
that since the tide was running from the south-east there was likely to
be a passage through, so that perhaps it would be best, as soon as wind
and weather should permit, to investigate this point and see whether we
could get fresh water there; all of which may in extenso be seen from the
resolution drawn up concerning this matter.

Item the 25th.

In the morning we reset our tops and sailyards, but out at sea things
looked still so gloomy that we did not venture to weigh our anchor.
Towards evening it fell a calm so that we took in part of our cable.

Item the 26th.

In the morning, two hours before day, we got the wind east-north-east
with a light breeze. We weighed anchor and set sail, steered our course
to northward, intending to sail northward round this land; at daybreak it
began to drizzle, the wind went round to the south-east, and afterwards
to the south as far as the south-west, with a stiff breeze. We had
soundings in 60 fathom, and set our course by the wind to westward. At
noon Latitude estimated 40 degrees 13 minutes, Longitude 192 degrees 7
minutes; course kept north-north-west, sailed 20 miles. Variation 8
degrees 40 minutes. During the night we lay to with small sail.

Item the 27th.

In the morning at daybreak we made sail again, set our course to
northward, the wind being south-west with a steady breeze; at noon
Latitude observed 38 degrees 38 minutes, Longitude 190 degrees 15
minutes; course kept north-west, sailed 26 miles. At noon we shaped our
course north-east. During the night we lay to under small sail. Variation
8 degrees 20 minutes.

Item the 28th.

In the morning at daybreak we made sail again, set our course to eastward
in order to ascertain whether the land we had previously seen in 40
degrees extends still further northward, or whether it falls away to
eastward. At noon we saw east by north of us a high mountain which we at
first took to be an island; but afterwards we observed that it forms part
of the mainland. We were then about 5 miles from shore and took soundings
in 50 fathom, fine sand mixed with clay. This high mountain is in 38
degrees South Latitude. So far as I could observe this coast extends
south and north. It fell a calm, but when there came a light breeze from
the north-north-east we tacked to the north-west. At noon Latitude
estimated 38 degrees 2 minutes, Longitude 192 degrees 23 minutes; course
held north-east by east, sailed 16 miles. Towards the evening the wind
went round to north-east and north-east by east, stiffening more and
more, so that at the end of the first watch we had to take in our
topsails. Variation 8 degrees 30 minutes.

Item the 29th.

In the morning at daybreak we took in our bonnets and had to lower our
foresail down to the stem. At noon Latitude estimated 37 degrees 17
minutes, Longitude 191 degrees 26 minutes; towards noon we again set our
foresail and then tacked to westward, course kept north-west, sailed 16
miles.

Item the 30th.

In the morning, the weather having somewhat improved, we set our topsails
and slid out our bonnets. We had the Zeehaan to lee of us, tacked and
made towards her. We then had the wind west-north-west with a top-gallant
gale. At noon Latitude observed 37 degrees, Longitude 191 degrees 55
minutes; course held north-east, sailed 7 miles. Towards evening we again
saw the land bearing from us north-east and north-north-east, on which
account we steered north and north-east. Variation 8 degrees 40 minutes
North-East.

Item the last.

At noon we tacked about to northward, the wind being west-north-west with
a light breeze. At noon Latitude observed 36 degrees 45 minutes,
Longitude 191 degrees 46 minutes; course kept north-west, sailed 7 miles.
In the evening we were about 3 miles from shore; at the expiration of 4
glasses in the first watch we again tacked to the north; during the night
we threw the lead in 80 fathom. This coast here extends south-east and
north-west; the land is high in some places and covered with dunes in
others. Variation 8 degrees.

Item the 1st of January.

In the morning we drifted in a calm along the coast which here still
stretched north-west and south-east. The coast here is level and even,
without reefs or shoals. At noon we were in Latitude 36 degrees 12
minutes, Longitude 191 degrees 7 minutes; course kept north-west, sailed
10 miles. About noon the wind came from the south-south-east and
south-east; we now shaped our course west-north-west in order to keep off
shore since there was a heavy surf running. Variation 8 degrees 30
minutes North-East.

Item the 2nd.

Calm weather. Halfway through the afternoon we got a breeze from the
east; we directed our course to the north-north-west; at the end of the
first watch, however, we turned our course to the north-west so as not to
come too near the shore and prevent accidents, seeing that in the evening
we had the land north-north-west of us. At noon we were in Latitude 35
degrees 55 minutes, Longitude 190 degrees 47 minutes; course kept
north-west by west, sailed 7 miles. Variation 9 degrees.

Item the 3rd.

In the morning we saw the land east by north of us at about 6 miles
distance and were surprised to find ourselves so far from shore. At noon
Latitude observed 35 degrees 20 minutes, Longitude 190 degrees 17
minutes, course held north-west by north, sailed 11 miles. At noon the
wind went round to the south-south-east, upon which we steered our course
east-north-east to get near the shore again. In the evening we saw land
north and east-south-east of us.

Item the 4th.

In the morning we found ourselves near a cape, and had an island
north-west by north of us, upon which we hoisted the white flag for the
Officers of the Zeehaan to come on board of us, with whom we resolved to
touch at the island aforesaid to see if we could there get fresh water,
vegetables, etc. At noon Latitude observed 34 degrees 35 minutes,
Longitude 191 degrees 9 minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 15 miles,
with the wind south-east. Towards noon we drifted in a calm and found
ourselves in the midst of a very heavy current which drove us to the
westward. There was besides a heavy sea running from the north-east here,
which gave us great hopes of finding a passage here. This cape which we
had east-north-east of us is in 34 degrees 30 minutes South Latitude. The
land here falls away to eastward. In the evening we sent to the Zeehaan
the pilot-major with the secretary, as we were close to this island and,
so far as we could see, were afraid there would be nothing there of what
we were in want of; we therefore asked the opinion of the officers of the
Zeehaan whether it would not be best to run on, if we should get a
favourable wind during the night, which the officers of the Zeehaan fully
agreed with. Variation 8 degrees 40 minutes North-East.

Item the 5th.

In the morning we still drifted in a calm, but about 9 o'clock we got a
slight breeze from the south-east, whereupon with our friends of the
Zeehaan we deemed it expedient to steer our course for the island before
mentioned. About noon we sent to the said island our pinnace with the
pilot-major, together with the cock-boat of the Zeehaan with Supercargo
Gilsemans in it, in order to find out whether there was any fresh water
to be obtained there. Towards the evening they returned on board and
reported that, having come near the land, they had paid close attention
to everything and had taken due precautions against sudden surprises or
assaults on the part of the natives; that they had entered a safe but
small bay, where they had found good fresh water, coming in great plenty
from a steep mountain, but that, owing to the heavy surf on the shore, it
was highly dangerous, nay well-nigh impossible for us to get water there,
that therefore they pulled farther round the said island, trying to find
some other more convenient water-place elsewhere, that on the said land
they saw in several places on the highest hills from 30 to 35 persons,
men of tall stature, so far as they could see from a distance, armed with
sticks or clubs, who called out to them in a very loud, rough voice,
certain words which our men could not understand; that these persons, in
walking on, took enormous steps or strides. As our men were rowing about
some few in number now and then showed themselves on the hill-tops, from
which our men very credibly concluded that these natives in this way
generally keep in readiness their assegais, boats and small arms, after
their wonted fashions; so that it may fairly be inferred that few, if
any, more persons inhabit the said island than those who showed
themselves; for in rowing round the island our men nowhere saw any
dwellings or cultivated land except just by the fresh water above
referred to, where higher up on both sides the running water they saw
everywhere square beds looking green and pleasant, but owing to the great
distance they could not discern what kind of vegetables they were. It is
quite possible that all these persons had their dwellings near the said
fresh water. In the bay aforesaid they also saw two prows hauled on
shore, one of them seaworthy, the other broken, but they nowhere saw any
other craft. Our men having returned on board with the pinnace, we
forthwith did our best to get near the shore, and in the evening we
anchored in 40 fathom, good bottom, at a small swivel-gun-shot distance
from the coast. We forthwith made preparations for taking in water the
next day. The said island is in 34 degrees 25 minutes South Latitude and
190 degrees 40 minutes average Longitude.

Item the 6th.

Early in the morning we sent to the watering-place the two boats, to wit
ours and the cock-boat of the Zeehaan, each furnished with two
pederaroes, 6 musketeers, and the rowers with pikes and side-arms,
together with our pinnace with the pilot-major Francoys Jacobsz and
skipper Gerrit Jansz, with casks for getting fresh water. While rowing
towards the shore they saw, in various places on the heights, a tall man
standing with a long stick like a pike, apparently watching our men. As
they were rowing past he had called out to them in a very loud voice;
when they had got about halfway to the watering-place, between a certain
point and another large high rock or small island, they found the current
to run so strongly against the wind that, with the empty boats, they had
to do their utmost to hold their own; for which reason the pilot-major
and Gerrit Jansz, skipper of the Zeehaan, agreed together to abstain from
exposing the small craft and the men to such great peril, seeing that
there was still a long voyage before them and the men and the small craft
were greatly wanted by the ships. They therefore pulled back to the
ships, the rather as a heavy surf was rolling on the shore near the
watering-place. The breeze freshening, we could easily surmise that they
had not been able to land, and now made a sign to them from our ship with
the furled flag, and fired a gun to let them know that they were at
liberty to return, but they were already on their way back before we
signalled to them. The pilot-major, having come alongside our ship again
with the boats, reported that owing to the wind the attempt to land there
was too dangerous, seeing that the sea was everywhere near the shore full
of hard rocks without any sandy ground, so that they would have greatly
imperilled the men and run the risk of having the water-casks injured or
stove in; we forthwith summoned the officers of the Zeehaan and the
second mates on board of us, and convened a council in which it was
resolved to weigh anchor directly and to run on an easterly course as far
as 220 degrees Longitude, in accordance with the preceding resolution;
then to shape our course to northward, or eventually due north, as far as
Latitude 17 degrees South, after which we shall hold our course due west
in order to run straight of the Cocos and Hoorense islands, where we
shall take in fresh water and refreshments; or if we should meet with any
other island before these we shall endeavour to touch at them, in order
to ascertain what can be obtained there; all this being duly specified
and set forth at length in this day's resolution, to which for briefness
sake we beg leave to refer. About noon we set sail; at noon we had the
island due south of us at about 3 miles distance; in the evening at
sunset it was south-south-west of us at 6 or 7 miles distance, the island
and the rocks lying south-west and north-east of each other. During the
night it was pretty calm with an east-south-east wind, our course being
north-north-east, very close to the wind, while the tide was running in
from the north-east.

Item the 7th.

Good weather, the wind blowing from east by south and east-south-east
with a topsail breeze; at noon Latitude observed 33 degrees 25 minutes,
Longitude 191 degrees 9 minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 16 miles.
The sea is running very high from the eastward, so that in the direction
there is not likely to be any mainland. Variation 8 degrees 30 minutes.

Item the 8th.

During the night we had good weather, in the forenoon fog and drizzling
rain; during the whole of these twenty-four hours we had the wind from
south-east, with a top-gallant gale. At noon Latitude observed 32 degrees
25 minutes, Longitude 192 degrees 20 minutes; course kept north-east,
sailed 21 miles. The great swells now come from the south-east. This
passage from Batavia to Chili is in smooth water so that there is no
objection to following it; we shall hereafter describe this passage in a
series of sailing instructions, but at present must omit doing so for
valid reasons. Variation 9 degrees North-East.

Item the 9th.

We had variable easterly winds with a light breeze. At noon Latitude
estimated 34 degrees 4 minutes, Longitude 192 degrees 43 minutes; course
kept north-east, sailed 7 miles; at night we drifted in a calm.

Item the 10th.

In the forenoon it continued calm with a light breeze from the east; at
noon Latitude observed 31 degrees 28 minutes, Longitude 192 degrees 43
minutes; course held north, sailed 9 miles; in the afternoon the wind
blew from the east-north-east with a light top-gallant breeze, our course
still being over to northward close to the wind. In the evening at sunset
the wind went round to north by east so that we had to tack to eastward.
Variation 10 degrees 20 minutes North-East.

Item the 11th.

The wind still northerly with a light topsail breeze, seas running from
the east-south-east and from the south-west at the same time against each
other. At noon Latitude estimated 31 degrees 10 minutes south, Longitude
193 degrees 35 minutes; course kept east-north-east, sailed 12 miles. In
the afternoon the wind turning to the north-north-west we changed our
course to east-north-east; in the evening the wind went round again to
west-south-west with a squall of rain, upon which we shaped our course
north-eastward. Variation 10 degrees.

Item the 12th.

The wind west-south-west with a topsail breeze, seas still running
against each other, both from south-west and south-east. At noon Latitude
observed 30 degrees 5 minutes, Longitude 195 degrees 27 minutes; course
kept north-east by east, sailed 29 miles; towards evening the wind turned
to the west. Variation 9 degrees 30 minutes.

Item the 13th.

Good weather with a clear sky and a westerly wind with a light topsail
breeze; at noon Latitude observed 29 degrees 10 minutes, Longitude 196
degrees 32 minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 20 miles; the sea
keeps running from the south-west and south-east; in the evening 9
degrees North-East.

Item the 14th.

In the morning we had the wind from the south with a light breeze, the
sea still running high both from the south-west and from the south-east
as well. At noon Latitude observed 28 degrees 40 minutes, Longitude 197
degrees 5 minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 10 miles; at noon the
wind went round to the south-east with a slackening breeze. Up to now we
have had westerly winds. Variation 8 degrees 30 minutes North-East.

Item the 15th.

Good weather, the sea running from the south-west is beginning to smooth,
so that the swells from the south-west have abated a good deal, but the
sea is still running strong from the south-east. At noon Latitude
estimated 27 degrees 43 minutes, Longitude 198 degrees 9 minutes; course
kept north-east, sailed 20 miles; the wind being south-south-east with a
light topsail breeze. According to my estimation we are now 105 miles
east of the Salomonis islands but only 62 miles according to the average
of our longitude. Variation 8 degrees 15 minutes.

Item the 16th.

Good weather with a clear sky and the wind blowing from the eastward; the
sea still running in from all sides; we had a light topsail breeze. At
noon Latitude observed 26 degrees 29 minutes, Longitude 199 degrees 32
minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 26 miles. In the evening the wind
turned to the south-east.

Item the 17th.

Good weather, with the wind from the south-east, and trade-wind weather.
At noon Latitude observed 25 degrees 20 minutes, Longitude 200 degrees 50
minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 25 miles in smooth water.
Variation 8 degrees North-East.

Item the 18th.

Good weather with a grey sky and trade-wind weather, the wind blowing
from the south with a light topsail breeze. At noon Latitude estimated 24
degrees 18 minutes South, Longitude 201 degrees 45 minutes; course kept
north-east and north-east by north, sailed 20 miles with small showers
now and then.

Item the 19th.

Good weather; the wind south-east with a steady trade-wind and smooth
water. At noon Latitude observed 22 degrees 46 minutes, Longitude 203
degrees 27 minutes; course kept north-east, sailed 33 miles. About two
o'clock in the afternoon we saw land bearing from us east by north, at
about 8 miles distance. We held our course towards it but could not make
it owing to the sharpness of the wind. This island bears a resemblance to
two women's breasts when it bears from you east by north at 6 miles
distance, and is situated in 22 degrees 35 minutes South Latitude and 204
degrees 15 minutes Longitude. It is not large, about 2 or 3 miles in
circumference, and to the view appears a high and barren island. We
should have greatly liked to sail close along it in order to ascertain
whether we should have any chance of getting fresh water or refreshments
there, but we could not get nearer to it on account of the sharpness of
the wind; we tacked close to the wind. Seeing that in the great chart of
the South Sea there are 4 islands situated in this latitude, I am
inclined to believe that this is one of them. Variation 7 degrees 30
minutes.

Item the 20th.

In the morning at sunrise we still saw the island which we had seen the
day before; it now lay south-south-west of us at about 6 miles distance;
to this island we have given the name of Hooge Pylstaerts island because
there were so many pylstaerten (tropic-birds) about it. We had a
south-east and south-east by south wind, with trade-wind weather and a
topsail breeze. At noon Latitude observed 21 degrees 50 minutes,
Longitude 204 degrees 45 minutes; course kept north-east by east, sailed
24 miles. About one o'clock in the afternoon we saw land, bearing from us
east at about 8 miles distance; we steered our course for it, and at
night lay to with small sail. Variation 7 degrees 15 minutes North-East.

Item the 21st.

In the morning we had a calm; we had the southernmost island east by
south of us at about five miles distance; we shaped our course for the
northernmost island which is in 21 degrees 50 minutes South Latitude,
Longitude 205 degrees 29 minutes, and sailed to the north-west of the
island where we dropped anchor in 25 fathom, coral bottom. The place
where we came to anchor is in 21 degrees 20 minutes South Latitude and
Longitude 205 degrees 29 minutes. These two islands are nearly south-east
and north-west of each other; we could see through between them, where
there was a passage about 1 1/2 mile in width. The one to the south-east
was the highest, the northernmost one being a low-lying island, much like
Holland. To the northernmost we gave the name of Amsterdam because of the
abundance of refreshments we got there, and the southernmost we
christened Middleburch. At noon a small prow with three men in it put off
from land and came near our ship; these men were naked, of a brown colour
and slightly above the ordinary stature; two of them had long, thick hair
on their heads, the third wore his close cut; they had only their
privities covered with a curious small bit of cloth; their prow was a
very narrow one, covered in to a good distance in front and abaft; their
paddles were of ordinary length, with blades broad in the middle; they
called out to us several times, to which we responded in the same way,
but we could not understand each other. We showed them white linen,
throwing overboard a piece upwards of 1 1/2 fathom in length, which they
seeing paddled towards it, but as it had sunk to a considerable depth
under the water the foremost man in the prow jumped out and dived for it.
He remained under water for a very long time, but at last reappeared with
the linen and got into the prow again, where he put it several times atop
of his head, in sign of gratitude. They then gradually approached us with
their prow, upon which we threw out to them a piece of wood to which we
had fastened two large nails; we then handed out to them a small Chinese
looking-glass with a string of Chinese beads, which they drew up into
their prow by means of a long stick, to which they tied one of their
fish-hooks with a small fishing-line, which they handed up to us to show
their gratitude. This fish-hook was made of mother-of-pearl and shaped
like a small anchovy. They repeatedly put the string of beads and the
looking-glass on their heads; the middlemost man in the prow tied the
nails round his neck, but as the looking-glass was closed with a slide
they could not see themselves in it. We therefore handed down another to
them which they looked into, and laid on their heads. We now showed them
an old coconut and a fowl, and with aid of our vocabulary inquired after
water, hogs, etc.; they did not understand us nor we them, but they
constantly kept pointing to the shore. When we had made them a present of
the objects aforementioned, and had shown them the coconut and the fowl,
they at last paddled back to shore again and made signs to us, as if they
were going to fetch the like from shore. At noon and in the afternoon we
saw numbers of people walking along the shore, some of them with small
white flags which we surmised to be signs of peace and amity. We
therefore also hoisted our white flag astern, upon which there came
alongside our ship a small prow with four persons in it; they were
able-bodied men, having their bodies painted black from the waist to the
thighs, their necks hung round with leaves; they carried a small white
flag and a cloth made of the bark of trees. They fastened the said flag
to the stem of our boat. The outriggers of their prow were trimmed with
shells and conches. From these presents and from the embellishments of
their prow, which seemed to be distinguished above the others, we
concluded that this prow had been sent off by the king or chief of the
country. We therefore presented these men with a small Chinese
looking-glass, a knife, a piece of dungaree, and one or two nails. We
filled a rummer of wine for them, from which we first drank ourselves
lest they should think we were going to poison them or do them other
harm; having taken the rummer they poured out the wine and took the
rummer on shore with them. Shortly afterwards a great number of prows
came alongside, some of them with 5 or 6, others with 10 or 12 coconuts,
all of which we bartered against old nails; three or four coconuts
against a double middle-sized nail. Some of them came swimming from the
land with coconuts, all of which we bartered with them. After some time
an aged man came on board of us to whom all the others paid honour, so
that we concluded him to be one of their chiefs. We conducted him to the
cabin; he did us reverence by inclining his head down to our feet; we
paid our respects to him in return after our own fashion, and showed him
a cup with fresh water which he showed us by signs to be obtainable on
shore; we then presented him with a knife, a small looking-glass, and a
piece of dungaree. As they were leaving the cabin one of the natives was
caught in the act of stealing the skipper's pistol and a pair of
slippers. We took these articles from him again without showing the least
dissatisfaction. Many of these people had the lower part of the body
painted black down to the knees, some had a mother-of-pearl shell hanging
on the breast. Towards evening about 20 prows came close to our ships,
which all stationed themselves side by side in regular order. Before
coming alongside they made a good deal of noise, crying out repeatedly
"Woo, woo, woo," etc., upon which those in our ship sat down. The said
prows then came alongside, bringing a present from the king, consisting
of a fine large hog, a number of coconuts, and some yams; the bearer of
these presents being the same person who brought us the small white flag
and the cloth of bark. We presented them in return with a common dish
such as we use at meals, and a piece of copper-wire; we also bartered a
few coconuts, baccovos, yams and a hog, etc., against nails and beads;
about nightfall they all left our ship except one who remained to sleep
on board of the Heemskerk.

Item the 22nd.

Early in the morning again a number of boats came alongside with
coconuts, yams, baccovos, bananas, hogs and fowls, all of which we
bartered with them; to wit, a young hog against a small fathom of
dungaree, a fowl against a nail or a string of beads; coconuts, yams,
bananas, etc., against old nails. Several women, both young and old, also
came on board of us, the oldest of them having the little finger of both
hands cut off, but not so the young women; what this meant we could not
ascertain. About 8 o'clock the old man of the day before again came on
board, bringing us 2 hogs in return for which we presented him with a
silver-mounted knife and 8 or 9 nails. We conducted him below and went
all over the ship with him, and caused one of our great guns to be fired,
at which they were greatly frightened and ran away in amazement, but when
they saw that no one was the worse for it they were soon set at ease
again. We presented this old man with a piece of figured satin, a hat and
a shirt, which we put on him. About noon 32 small and one large ditto,
furnished with sails, and like those delineated in Jacob la Maire's
journal No. came alongside. From these prows 18 strong men and a few
females stepped on board of our ship, bringing with them as a present a
few bark-mats and fruits such as coconuts, yams and other roots which we
had no knowledge of. We presented the leader of these persons with a
shirt, a pair of drawers, a small looking-glass and a few beads; we put
the shirt and the drawers on him, in which he thought himself very
gallantly attired. Among these 18 persons there was a bony, corpulent man
with a St. Thomas arm, and a woman who had a small natural beard growing
about the mouth. We made the second mate of the Zeehaan come on board of
us with his trumpet, and one of her sailors with a violin, and from time
to time had them blow and play tunes together with our own trumpeter and
one of our sailors who could play the German flute, at which music they
were greatly astonished. Meanwhile we had a number of water-casks lowered
into our boat and the Zeehaan's cock-boat that our men might together
with these people go and see whether there was any fresh water to be
obtained here, as had been determined in our resolution; we placed a
first mate in command of each of the boats while our skipper Ide Tjercxz
and Supercargo Gilsemans accompanied them in our pinnace, into which we
also put the old man and the leader of the natives who had last come on
board, these two undertaking to show the watering-place to our men. We
also put a number of musketeers into our pinnace, for though these
natives seem to be good-natured enough it is impossible to know what they
hide in their hearts, for which reason we armed our people to be prepared
for all accidents. When our boats had rowed a considerable distance along
the north-east side of this land they were finally conducted to three
small wells, from which water had to be dipped up by means of a
coconut-shell. This water was quite unfit to be drunk, of a dirty
greenish colour, and there was so little of it that it would have been of
little use even if it had been good to drink. The people who had pointed
out these wells to our men now led them inland to a kind of pleasance and
to an elegant baleye or raised and roofed platform, where our men were
invited to sit down on handsome mats; but the natives brought them
nothing but two coconut-shells filled with water, one for their chieftain
and the other for our skipper. Towards the evening our men returned on
board with a live hog and reported that there was no chance of getting
water there. In the course of this day we obtained by barter upwards of
40 hogs, giving in exchange for each of them a double middle-sized nail
and half a fathom of old canvas; and besides about 70 fowls, for each of
which we gave a double middle-sized nail, etc., and a quantity of yams,
coconuts and other fruit in exchange for beads. In the evening one of the
chiefs had a roasted pig, some yams and other roots brought on board of
us. The natives here have no knowledge of tobacco or of smoking of any
kind; their women have the body covered from the waist to the knees with
mats made of the leaves of trees, the rest of the body being naked; they
wear their hair shorter than the men; the beards of the latter are as a
rule the length of three or four finger's breadths, the hair on the upper
lip being cut pretty short so that their mustachios are no longer than
about two straw's breadths. We saw no arms worn by these people so that
it was all peace and amity here. The current is not strong here, the
flood runs south-west and the ebb north-east, which in our estimation
makes it high-water with a south-westerly moon; the rise and fall of the
tide is about 7 or 8 feet.

Item the 23rd.

In the morning we went to the shore with Skipper Gerrit Jansz and our two
boats together with the pinnace for the purpose of digging wells to
obtain fresh water; when coming ashore we forthwith went to the wells and
made signs to the chief that the wells would have to be made larger, upon
which he directly ordered his men to do this work for us. He then went
with us to the baleye or platform, and caused a mat to be spread on which
we seated ourselves. When we were seated he had refreshments brought in,
such as fresh milk and cream, fresh fish and various kinds of fruit, of
which there is great abundance here, and in every way showed us respect
and friendship. They then asked us where we had come from and where were
going, upon which we told them that we had been at sea for a hundred days
and upwards, at which they were greatly astonished; we also told them
that we had come there in search of fresh water, hogs, fowls, etc., to
which they answered that they had plenty of them, as many as we wished.
We then got 8 casks filled with water, and they presented us with four
live hogs and a number of fowls, coconuts, bananas, etc. In return we
offered them one fathom of linen, 6 nails and six strings of beads, for
which they cordially thanked us. We then went up to the white flag with
the three chiefs, signifying to them that we wished to leave the said
flag near the platform in sign of peace and amity, at which they
expressed great satisfaction and put the flag on their heads one after
the other, thereby giving to understand that they desired nothing but our
friendship. They next fastened the flag to the baleye as a sign that they
had made a covenant with us. As the bottom here is steep and abruptly
falling off our anchor lost its hold by the trade-wind in the afternoon,
so that we drifted out to sea without our being able to prevent it; we
did our best to haul our anchor on the bow but, as we had but few men on
board, we could not secure it before midnight. In the course of this day
we still got by barter a number of pigs and fowls, so that in all we have
got for the two ships a hundred head of hogs, 150 fowls and a reasonable
quantity of coconuts, yams and other fruit; we were compelled to stay on
board the Zeehaan for the night since we could not get on board our own
ship.

Item the 24th.

In the morning the Heemskerk had drifted fully 4 miles to leeward of this
island; the flute Zeehaan having weighed anchor, we got near each other
again on the forenoon so that we could get on board our own ship. We then
ordered the steersmen of the Zeehaan to come on board of us, also
whereupon we convened the council and submitted to the consideration of
all persons assembled the points following: seeing that we have been
forced to leave this island by an accident and against our will, seeing
that there is small chance for us to come near it again except with great
loss of time, seeing that there is hardly any water worth mentioning to
be obtained there, whether it would not be best and most advisable to
proceed on our voyage in accordance with the proceeding resolution, and
in case we should meet with other islands to touch at the same, all which
was approved by the council as may be seen from the resolution under this
day's date. At the place where we had been at anchor there were two
islets, high but small, about 1 or 1 1/2 miles in circumference, bearing
from us north by west at 7 or 8 miles distance. We now set our course
north-eastward with a steady, south-easterly trade-wind. At noon we had
the two islets aforesaid due east of us at 4 miles distance. These islets
we estimated to lie in 20 degrees 50 minutes South Latitude, Longitude
206 degrees 46 minutes. About 3 o'clock in the afternoon, east-north-east
of us at four or five miles distance, we again saw a low-lying island of
pretty large extent. We steered straight for it. Shortly afterwards we
saw east of us 3 small islets, likewise in the south-east 2 small islets,
all of them low-lying; the farthest were at about 3 or 4 miles distance
south-east of us. We now set our course due east-north-east, towards the
largest of them, and anchored in 12 fathom, shelly bottom, at a
swivel-gunshot distance from shore on the west side of the island; about
an hour before sunset we had at the western extremity a large high island
north-west by north of us at about 8 or 9 miles distance; and close to
this, but more to eastward and north-west of us, still another island,
round and a good deal higher still than the previous one, in height and
size resembling Cracatouw in Zunda straits, at the same distance from us;
furthermore from the north to the north-east by north we saw 7 more small
islets at about 3 or 4 miles distance from us. All these islands are
surrounded by a steep, abruptly descending ground so that it is
impossible to approach them sounding; on which account one has to anchor
by sight, close inshore; almost all of them are surrounded by coral
reefs. Variation 7 degrees North-East.

Item the 25th.

Early in the morning several prows came alongside with coconuts, yams,
bananas, etc., to be bartered against nails of which their very desirous.
There seemed to be few people living in the said island; some who seemed
to be the most notable of them came on board of us and were by us
presented with small pieces of linen, knives, small looking-glasses, etc.
We then gave them to understand by signs that we were in want of fresh
water, upon which they signified to us that this was to be obtained on
shore in great plenty. We therefore resolved to send ashore the
pilot-major Francoys Jacobsz and Skipper Gerrit Jansz with our pinnace
together with the two boats, taking with them one of these natives to
point out the watering-place to them. We handed into the pinnace a knife,
a small looking-glass and a little flag in token of peace, and signified
to them that we did not want to have their water without reward or
payment. About two hours before sunset our pinnace returned with the
Skipper and the pilot-major who reported that, on landing, they had seen
from 60 to 70 persons seated on the beach, who, as they thought, formed
the entire male population of the island; they had no arms but seemed to
be a kind and peaceable sort of people; our men also saw many women and
children; they conducted our men into the interior by a good path. These
people proved to be exceedingly thievish for they stole whatever they
could lay hands on, men and women alike. Our men followed them about 2/3
of a mile into the interior, where they came to a fresh inland piece of
water, fully 1/4 mile in circumference, and no less than 1 1/2 or 2
fathom above the level of the sea, but they did not know it was so near
the shore; as they were going along the said piece of water they found it
to be at the northern side of the island, at about a musket-shot distance
from the sea, where there was a good sandy bay for landing with the
boats, the water being conveniently smooth for embarking the casks; out
at sea before the said sandy bay there was a coral reef on which the surf
broke with great violence; and since the said coral reef has an opening
on the west side it will be possible for our boats at low water to row
along the shore and inside the coral reef into the smooth water. But in
order to get to the sandy beach the water must first have risen about 1
1/2 or 2 feet higher. This bay was on the north side of the islet and, as
our ships were lying on the north-west side, they had to row upwards of a
mile along the shore. They were very glad to have found this fresh water.
About three hours after sunset our two boats came alongside with filled
water-casks, having been prevented from coming earlier by the falling of
the water, which here rises and falls about 8 feet. In this fresh water
aforesaid they had seen numbers of wild ducks swimming, which were not
all shy or afraid of men. These natives brought on board several coconuts
and gourds full of water; also some fruit and hogs, but not many; they
had prows with sails, as well as smaller ones; their dress, appearance
and manners are like those of the inhabitants of the other island, except
that as a rule the men have shorter and thinner hair than the others; the
women are, comparatively speaking, just as strong and able-bodied as the
men. This island is in Latitude 20 degrees 15 minutes, average Longitude
206 degrees 19 minutes; we gave to it the name of Rotterdam, seeing that
here we got our casks filled with water. Variation 6 degrees 20 minutes
North-East.

Item the 26th.

This day we fetched for each of the ships two more boatloads of water,
each consisting of 10 or 11 casks, both great and small; we also bartered
still a good many coconuts, bananas and other fruit against beads and old
nails.

Item the 27th.

We still kept taking in water and bartering refreshments; before sunset
we had again got on board two boatloads of water for each ship.

Item the 28th.

In the morning at early dawn myself with Skipper Gerrit Jansz again went
to the watering-place with our two boats and the pinnace. Our main
purpose was to shoot wild ducks but we could not get any. As we were
engaged in putting off from shore with the loaded boats one of the
natives approached with the intention of secretly carrying off a long
pike, which he had actually snatched from the boat and hid under water;
but one of our men saw him, upon which the thief, becoming aware of this,
ran into the wood with the pike as quickly as his legs would carry him.
The other natives seeing this ran after him with great speed, beckoning
to our men to remain where they were because they were going to bring him
back. They really did so, so that we had the pike returned to us. The
natives here are excessively licentious, wanton and thievishly inclined,
so that a man had need of Argus' hundred eyes to look about him. In the
evening before sunset we again had got on board two boat-loads of water
for each of the ships, so that up to now we already have 26 hogsheads
quite filled, only about 10 hogsheads and casks being still empty; we
also obtained by barter a considerable quantity of coconuts, bananas,
baccovos and other fruit, so that at these islands we were well provided
with refreshments and fresh water for which God be thanked.

Item the 29th.

We again sent ashore the pilot-major with our boats together with the
pinnace to fetch water, but in the afternoon the wind began to blow so
stiffly from the north that the men in the Zeehaan's boat had to let 5
casks of water run out at the bung-hole while rowing, and to throw the
casks overboard; afterwards they had to let go 4 more casks, so that they
got on board without any fresh water; our own boat managed to come
alongside with 7 full casks, and to bring the empty casks with her, but
they had had plenty of trouble in doing so.

Item the 30th.

We summoned our friends of the Zeehaan on board of us and, having
convened the council, we read out to them our instructions, after which
we requested every member of the council, if he should know of anything
to the advantage and profit of the Honourable Company that might be
unknown to ourselves, to inform us of the same and to assist us with all
needful zeal and diligence. We likewise earnestly and kindly entreated
each of the members assembled to act in every respect in such fashion as
he intends to answer for on his return to Batavia before the Honourable
Governor-General and Councillors of India. We likewise resolved if this
wind should continue to set sail from here with our ships tomorrow; but
if it should go round to eastward we shall directly make arrangements for
getting all our casks filled with water; all of which may be seen set
forth in extenso in this day's resolution, to which we beg leave to
refer.

In this day's meeting of the council we also resolved upon the articles
following, which shall be read to our men and posted up on the
quarter-deck, that every man may comport himself accordingly:

Seeing that on the 27th instant at night we have found that some persons,
even officers, do not properly stand their ordained watches, the which in
many cases might cause hurt and peril to our ships and crews, in order to
prevent such inconveniences and perils for the future the plenary council
of the ships Heemskerk and Zeehaan has this day resolved and ordered that
whoever shall, after now, be found sleeping or neglecting to keep a
proper lookout, whether on watch or on the lookout, shall for the first
offence be flogged by the partners of his watch; for the second offence,
besides being flogged, he shall forfeit a month's pay; for the third
offence he shall be deprived of six months' pay, and for the fourth
offence he shall be deprived of his office and forfeit his pay or, if the
offender should be a sailor, be forced to serve without pay.

According to the same articles all persons on board, none excepted, are
strictly forbidden to use or carry about their persons any live matches,
candles, or other lights of any sort, unless such matches, candles etc.
shall be wanted in the discharge of office or for the requirements of the
ship's service, and be used with the knowledge of the ship's officers;
all this on pain of being put in irons for eight days in succession, and
of forfeiting a month's pay over and above this.

Likewise after the watches have been set no one shall be permitted to
make any noise whatever, but each person shall keep watch over such
places as have been assigned to his care by the Commander, the skipper,
the steersmen or the quartermasters; all this on pain of summary
punishment.

The men on watch shall, whether by day or by night, not allow anyone to
come on board except with the consent of the commander, the skipper, or
the supercargo, on pain of corporal punishment.

Given on board the Heemskerk, at anchor in Latitude 20 degrees 15
minutes, average Longitude 206 degrees 19 minutes, south of the line
equinoctial. This 30th day of January A.D. 1643.

Signed,

ABEL JANSZ. TASMAN.

Item the last.

In the morning we again set out the boats, together with our pinnace, to
fetch water, but as the weather began to darken and to look variable. We
made a signal for them to return, upon which they came back at once. At
noon we, that is to say myself, our skipper, the pilot-major, the skipper
and the supercargo of the Zeehaan and the secretary, went on shore with
the two boats and the pinnace for the purpose of taking leave of the
natives, since it was our intention to depart from here. As soon as we
had landed a great multitude of people assembled. We asked two persons
who seemed most notable of them after the chief of this district. They
conducted us into the interior by narrow, cramped, dirty and miry paths
(it having rained very hard for one or two days without interruption). We
were first led to the south side of the island where a large number of
coconut-trees stood side by side in regular order. Thence they went with
us to the east side of the island where six large prows were lying at
anchor, each two of them being fastened together by means of a floor of
planks and carrying a mast. Here were also one or two small houses
ornamented a little above the common, to wit, fenced all round with a
bamboo enclosure. After leaving this place we came to a lake or piece of
brackish inland water, about a mile in circumference. After staying here
for some time we again asked after the Aisy or Latouw (which in their
speech means king or chieftain). They then pointed to the far side of
this water and, as the sun was close to the horizon already, we returned
to our boats along a different path. Both in going and returning we saw
many enclosures or gardens with plots elegantly squared and planted with
all sorts of earth-fruit. In several places we saw bananas and other
fruit-trees, most of them growing so straight that they were good to look
at, on all sides emitting a most agreeable and gratifying smell and
fragrance. From which we concluded that these people (who had the shape
of men but inhuman manners and customs) were by no means destitute of
human intelligence. About two hours before sunset we returned on board.
These islands are in their average longitude 185 miles more to eastward
than the Salomonis islands and, according to my estimation, are situated
230 miles east of the easternmost Salomonis islands. These natives know
nothing of religion or the service of God, nor have they either idols,
other relics, or priests. Still they are very superstitious for I have
seen one of these persons take up a watersnake which came floating by his
prow, lay it upon his head with great reverence, and then put it into the
water again. They will never kill any of the flies which are very
plentiful here and cause trouble enough, however many cover their bodies.
While we were at anchor here our chief mate happened to kill a fly in the
presence of one of the chieftains, who showed himself greatly incensed at
this. The people of this island have no king or chief and are without any
government. Still they have some knowledge of evil and punish evil-doers,
but not through the arm of justice, all the non-culprits as a rule taking
part in the execution of the punishment. We have seen the proof of this
at a time when we were fetching water, and one of the natives had carried
off one of our pikes, with which he ran off into the wood. We had seen
him do it and signified to the others our anger. They seeing this, ran
after him and, having taken the pike from him brought it back to us a
great distance, and punished the thief or evil-doer like this: they took
an old coconut and battered his back with it until the nut got cracked;
we could not find out if this is their usual practice or was on this
occasion done for our sake only.

Item the 1st of February.

Seeing that at present we find ourselves provided with plenty of
refreshments and that we have got nearly all our casks filled with water,
for which the Ruler of all things be fervently thanked and praised, and
that for some days past the wind has been continually blowing from the
north, which makes the coast near the watering-place a lee-shore, so that
we are unable to fill our remaining casks, therefore we have deemed it
advisable to continue our voyage, for which reason early this morning we
weighed anchor and set sail to northward with a favourable breeze from
the east.

Item the 2nd.

At noon we had the southernmost of the high islands south-south-east and
the northernmost south-east by south of us at about 6 or 7 miles
distance. At noon Latitude observed 19 degrees 20 minutes, Longitude 205
degrees 55 minutes, course held from the island north-north-west, sailed
15 miles. These high islands are situated north-north-west slightly more
to westward of the island where we got water at 7 or 8 miles distance.
Halfway the afternoon we saw another island north-east by east of us at
about 7 miles distance, also pretty high; the wind blowing from the east
with a light breeze.

Item the 3rd.

In the morning we still saw the island which in the previous evening we
had north-east by east of us; we now had it east-south-east of us at
about 8 miles distance. At noon Latitude observed 18 degrees 18 minutes,
Longitude 205 degrees 55 minutes; course held north, sailed 15 miles; the
wind blowing from the east-south-east and south-east with trade-wind
weather, a clear sky and smooth water.

Item the 4th.

Good weather and a clear sky with smooth water; in the morning we
estimated ourselves to have passed the 17th degree, on which account we
turned our course to westward in accordance with the resolution. At noon
Latitude estimated 16 degrees 40 minutes, Longitude 205 degrees 25
minutes; course kept north by west, sailed 25 miles; the wind being
east-south-east and south-east with a topsail breeze and trade-wind
weather; towards the evening we had a few squalls with thunder and
lightning.

Item the 5th.

We continued to have trade-wind weather with the wind as before, a
topsail and smooth water. At noon Latitude observed 16 degrees 30
minutes, Longitude 203 degrees 12 minutes; course held west, sailed 32
miles; at noon we set our course west by south in order to reach the 17th
degree, and had a good lookout kept so as not to sail past the Cocos or
Verraders islands; during the night when three glasses of the dog-watch
had run out we saw land, upon which we immediately hauled aboard our
larboard tacks and ran southward till seven glasses in the same watch
were out, when we tacked to the north again.

Item the 6th.

In the morning we again saw land, to wit three small islets, on all sides
surrounded by shoals and reefs; we tacked about to the south and saw a
large reef to westward stretching as far as the south, which we sincerely
regretted; this land is fully 8 or 9 miles in length; straight ahead
there were also breakers which we were unable to pass. Seeing that we
could clear neither the reef straight ahead nor another which lay north
of us we observed to leeward a small space about two ship's lengths wide
where there were no breakers; for this we made since there was no other
way of escape; we passed between the rocks in 4 fathom, though not
without great anxiety; all about here there are reefs and 18 or 19
islands, but the shoals which abound here and are very dangerous render
it impossible for ships to pass between them. These islands are in 17 1/2
degrees or thereabouts for we got no latitude. At noon we estimated
ourselves to be in 17 degrees 9 minutes South Latitude, Longitude 201
degrees 35 minutes, course held west-south-west, sailed 25 miles with a
steady trade-wind from the east-south-east. We should have greatly liked
to have come to anchor near one of these islands but could find no
roadstead on account of the numberless shoals and reefs that run out to
sea from all these islands. At noon we turned our course to northward in
order if possible to get clear of all these shoals in the daytime.
Towards the north too we saw numerous shoals everywhere, which it would
be difficult to pass through. At length however we found an opening and
sailed through between the reefs, but to our great regret had to leave
these isles because we found no ground for anchoring. In the evening we
saw three hills which we thought to be islands. During 5 glasses of the
first watch we again made for the land in order to avoid the shoal ahead
of us. The wind was blowing from the east and we sailed with our mainsail
set. When 5 glasses of the first watch were out we tacked to northward
and ran northward till daybreak, when we saw the island which on the
previous evening we had seen north by west of us.

Item the 7th.

We kept sailing to the north close to the wind with our mainsail set, the
wind being north-east with a strong gale and showers of rain and a high
sea running from the north. The Pilot-major thought that the islands
which we had been near to on the 6th instant are the islands which in the
large chart are found south-west of the Hoornsche islands; for which
reason he was of the opinion that we ought to shape our course to
northward close by the wind in order to keep clear of the coast of New
Guinea, since this is a lee-shore and the season unfavourable so that it
might prove impossible to put off from shore again. In the morning we
came close upon an island, therefore tacked to the south until daybreak
when we turned to the north again, the wind blowing a storm from the
north-east; we therefore tacked to the north-west with small sail. At
noon Latitude estimated 16 degrees, Longitude 200 degrees 48 minutes;
course kept north-west by north, sailed 21 miles.

Item the 8th.

The wind kept blowing very strong from the north-east and
north-north-east with a great deal of rain. We still sailed close to the
wind with small sail. Having called the Pilot-major aft we asked him
whether he persisted in his opinion that these were the islands he had
mentioned the day before. He answered in the affirmative and added that
in his opinion we ought to steer northward directly if the wind should
allow of it. Owing to the rough and stormy weather we could not get our
friends of the Zeehaan on board of us nor even speak them; upon which we
convened the council of the Heemskerk, together with the two second
mates, and submitted to their consideration the opinion given by the
Pilot-major; asking all of them to give us their own opinions in writing
that from these collective advices we might draw up a resolution which we
accordingly did in the afternoon. Wind and weather as before; at noon we
estimated ourselves to be in 15 degrees 29 minutes South Latitude,
Longitude 199 degrees 31 minutes; course kept west-north-west, sailed 20
miles, in accordance with the advices resolved upon this day.

We should have liked to have convened the councils of both ships, but
were prevented from so doing by the turbulence of the weather with rain
and wind; for which reason we summoned the council of the ship Heemskerk,
together with the two second mates, and represented to them that for many
days past we have had such weather that at times we could hardly see to a
distance of two or three ship's lengths, and that on the 6th instant we
had been entangled between islands and shoals to such a degree that we
could only with difficulty get clear of the same. These islands are 18 or
20 in number so far as we could count them, though it is quite possible
that there are more since, owing to the darkness of the weather, it was
very difficult to count them. These islands are situated full in the
course of Jacob la Maire, but since in this latitude he ran on for 430
miles due west and did not find any such islands there we might conclude
that these islands do not lie in the line of the said course. But in the
great chart of the South Sea certain islands are marked which agree with
these as regards their latitude; but this would make a difference with
our reckoning of more than 200 miles, the said islands being marked in
the chart so many miles more to westward. Now during this long voyage we
have almost continually been sailing eastward and westward, often with
storms and tempests, for which reason the proverb which says that
guesswork often shoots wide of the mark may well be applicable to us, and
we be so far out in our reckoning.

For all these reasons it is our opinion that, wind and weather
permitting, we should from here run due north as far as the 4th degree of
Southern Latitude and then due west as far as the coast of New Guinea,
seeing that the weather we now have is such that one might easily miss a
known coast, let alone an unknown one; that there is no good anchorage
there, and a lee-shore besides, so that we should run great risk of
losing our ships and men alike, and that we are in the bad season here,
when the south-east trade-wind and the northern monsoon meet each other,
which cannot fail to cause much rain and rough weather.

Given on board the ship Heemskerk this day the 8th of February, A.D. 1643
in 15 degrees 29 minutes Southern Latitude and 199 degrees 31 minutes
Longitude.

Signed,

ABEL JANSZ TASMAN.

This day the 8th of February A.D. 1643, our ships being in the estimated
latitude of 15 degrees 23 minutes, Longitude 198 degrees 4 minutes, the
Honourable Commander Abel Jansz Tasman has enjoined the council of the
ship Heemskerk, each member to give his opinion in writing respecting the
course to be held from here, whether to the west-north-west or more
northerly, in order in the most convenient way to make the coast of New
Guinea or the islands situated at the north-east point.

Therefore we, so far as regards ourselves, will give our opinion as
follows: in the first place it is now the bad season and the period of
rain in the Moluccas, and here we have every day rain and strong
north-east winds which cause the east side of New Guinea to be a lee
shore; also it is a rule all over the East Indies the nearer a lee shore
the worse weather. If one wants to make the coast of New Guinea in the
latitude of the Salomonis islands, partly in accordance with the
directions and instructions given, though not constituting a positive
command, this could not be done without incurring the risk of being cast
into a bay from which it might be difficult or impossible to beat out
again; and since the east side of New Guinea is still unknown it is quite
possible that there may be plenty of small islands and shoals to eastward
of the said Land of New Guinea, such as we have already met with before
and, having no secure anchorage in such rough weather, in which it is
impossible to keep a proper lookout, we might happen to be cast on the
shore before we had become aware of the same.

For which reason we think that from here we should sail northward as
close to the wind as shall be found practicable as far as 4 or 5 degrees
South Latitude; the object of our advice being to avoid all risks and
prevent our being thrown on a lee-shore, seeing that the coast falls away
there, whence we could run to the west in the first instance and next
regulate ourselves by wind and weather.

Signed,

FRANCOYS JACOBSZ.

Whereas on the 8th instant we are now having a good deal of rough
weather, both with rain and strong north winds, so that we can hardly
carry mainsails and cannot see to a quarter of a mile distance, the
Commander had convened the council of the Heemskerk, together with the
second mates, and desired each of them to give in his opinion in writing;
I therefore state as my opinion that we ought to direct our course as far
to northward as wind and weather shall permit, nay even due north or
north by east, as far as 2 or 3 degrees South Latitude, to avoid being
cast on the lee-shore of New Guinea; seeing that we are in the bad season
here and it is quite possible that we may have got farther to westward
than our account makes it, since on the 6th instant we came across 20 or
21 islands lying in 17 degrees 10 minutes South Latitude, which were not
seen by Jacob la Maire.

This day the 8th of February 1643 on board the Yacht Heemskerk, Latitude
estimated 15 degrees 43 minutes, Longitude 199 degrees 7 minutes.

Signed,

IDE TJERRXZ HOLMAN.

This day the 8th of February A.D. 1643. Whereas in my estimation we are
now in Latitude 15 degrees 47 minutes, Longitude 198 degrees 10 minutes,
the weather having been stormy for several days past and the Honourable
Commander having desired each of us to give his advice in writing
regarding the course to be held and up to what latitude; it would be my
advice that we ought to steer on a north-west course as far as 3 degrees
of Latitude south of the Equator and afterwards to westward.

Signed,

CARSTEN JURRIAENSZ.

To the Honourable Mr. Abel Jansz. Tasman.

It is my advice that from here, being the estimated southern latitude of
15 degrees 44 minutes, and the longitude of 198 degrees 19 minutes, we
should steer our course as far to northward as shall be found practicable
so as to avoid being cast on the land of New Guinea, as far as the
southern latitude of 6 or 7 degrees, since we are now getting on for the
bad season here when the winds are blowing from the north-east and
north-north-east, and there is much rain and a difficult lookout to be
expected and, if we should happen to be thrown on a lee-shore with our
ships, there would be small chance of getting them off again, owing to
want of sailing wind, and we might easily fall into peril with our ships
and cargoes; therefore in my opinion it is better to stick to the course
aforesaid and, when we have got so far with the aid of God, to direct our
course to westward and try to make the land of New Guinea, and afterwards
to steer our course for the land of Gilolo. Given thus on board the Yacht
Heemskerk, A.D. 1643, the 8th of February.

Signed by me,

CHRYN HENDRECXZ DE RATTE.

Item the 9th.

The wind blowing from the north with rain and a strong gale. We kept
sailing with our mainsail set, the sea being very rough and running very
high from the north and north-west. At noon Latitude estimated 15 degrees
29 minutes, Longitude 198 degrees 8 minutes; course held west, sailed 20
miles. In the evening we tacked about to the east, hauled up our
foresail, and in this way ran on close to the wind with our mainsail and
mizzen-sail set until the end of the first watch; we then loosened our
foresail again and tacked about to westward. In the day-watch we set our
great topsail but before long had to take it in again.

Item the 10th.

We still had variable weather with rain and wind, the sea running from
all directions, so that the water is very rough and we are experiencing
very unfavourable weather for discovering anything, which is now quite
impossible to all this dark, hazy, drizzling weather. At noon Latitude
estimated 15 degrees 19 minutes South, Longitude 197 degrees 20 minutes;
course held north-west by north, sailed 12 miles. For the last five days
past we have been without seeing either sun, moon or stars. In the
evening we lowered the foresail down to the stem and lay to with mainsail
and mizzen-sail.

Item the 11th.

The storm still raging from the north, and the sea still running very
high from all sides, with dark, foggy, drizzling, rainy weather and a
good deal of lightning. At noon Latitude estimated 15 degrees 5 minutes
South Latitude, Longitude 196 degrees 6 minutes; course held west by
north, sailed and drifted 18 miles.

Item the 12th.

After breakfast it began to clear up to some extent, so that we set our
great topsail; the sun broke through the clouds, and it seemed as if the
weather was going to change; the sea is however still running very high,
mainly from the west-south-west. At noon Latitude observed 15 degrees 3
minutes, Longitude 195 degrees 50 minutes; course held west, sailed 18
miles; halfway the afternoon we again got the same rainy and stormy
weather we had had before, so that we had to take in our great topsail
and to sail with two mainsails without bonnets; the wind is mainly
blowing from the north and north-north-west and is exceedingly variable.
In the evening we steered to the east until midnight then tacked about to
the west; during the night we had a pouring rain, so that the water
seemed to come down in torrents, accompanied by thunder and lightning.

Item the 13th.

In the morning, the weather being somewhat better and the sea having
calmed down to some extent, we set our topsails but without sliding out
the bonnets. We continued to have occasional showers and the wind still
blew from the north; during the last twenty-four hours we sailed and
drifted 12 miles to west-south-west. At noon Latitude estimated 15
degrees 21 minutes south, the Latitude observed being 15 degrees 38
minutes, Longitude 194 degrees 4 minutes; the sea is becoming a good deal
smoother; during the night we lay to with small sail.

Item the 14th.

The wind north-west and north-north-west with good weather, though it was
still thick, hazy and dark, so that it was difficult to keep a lookout.
We sent the pilot-major with the secretary to the Zeehaan to require the
opinions in writing of her officers. At noon Latitude observed 16 degrees
20 minutes, Longitude 193 degrees 35 minutes; course held south-west,
sailed 10 miles.

The following are the advices of our friends on board the Zeehaan:

This day the 14th of February of the year 1643. Whereas the Commander had
this day sent the pilot-major and his secretary on board of us to hear
our advices as regards the shaping of our courses, and secondly in what
latitude it would be best to touch at the land of New Guinea; my advice
touching the point referred to is that we had best touch at the land
aforesaid in 4 or 5 degrees South Latitude. The reason why I would advise
to touch at this land so far to northward is as follows: we have had very
rough weather for 6 or 7 days past and been in fear of getting into a bay
or being cast on a lee-shore; in the latitude aforesaid we should come
upon the land in a known latitude; and if we have touched at the land in
the said latitude it is likely we shall be able to get to the south if
the time at our disposal shall permit us to do so. It is consequently my
opinion that we should shape our course as far to northward as possible
until we got to the latitude aforesaid and then steer due west until in
the latitude aforesaid we come in sight of New Guinea. At this time of
writing we were by account in Latitude 15 degrees 49 minutes south,
Longitude 194 degrees 37 minutes.

Signed,

GERRIT JANSZ.

Advice or reasons why and for what cause we hold it most expedient to
navigate to the north.

Whereas Your Worship has been pleased to ask us to give in our opinion or
advice touching the question submitted to us in writing yesterday, my
judgment in this matter is as follows: since we are at present in
Latitude 15 degrees 55 minutes south, Longitude 194 degrees 24 minutes,
and the weather here about this time of the year would seem to be very
variable, while in this region of the world we are as it were at the
mercy of winds blowing from all the four quarters, and we do not know how
near we have sailed to the land of New Guinea, except what in this
respect we can gather from the terrestrial globe and the great chart of
the South Sea, we trust that the islands made by the Honourable Commander
are the Salomonis islands, seeing that in longitude and latitude we have
found them to agree with the indications in the chart of the Portuguese;
the said islands cannot have been seen by Schoutens and therefore they
may be the land of New Guinea which, according to the Portuguese chart,
we might also happen to fall in with.

For the reason above given it is therefore my opinion, regard being had
to the roughness of the weather and to the possibility that we may be
nearer to the said land than we suspect, to the fact that we do not know
its trend in this latitude and what bays, inlets, bights, shoals and the
like there may be in and about it, to the risk that with these northerly
winds we may by storm or rough weather be cast and driven on a lee-shore,
which would grievously endanger both ship and cargo; it is therefore, I
repeat, my opinion that we ought to steer our course north-north-west to
the known part of New Guinea about as far as 4 or 5 degrees Southern
Latitude, and by so doing avoid all perils as much as possible. Given on
board the flute-ship the Zeehaan this 15th of February, 1643.

Signed,

Your devoted servant,

J. GILSEMANS.

My advice is that we ought to make the land of New Guinea in 5 or 6
degrees South Latitude, seeing that for six days past we have had
exceedingly rough weather; that if we should be driven into a bay we
might get such weather that it would prove impossible for us to beat out
of it; I think that we ought to shape our course as far to northward as
the wind will allow us till we got to the latitude aforesaid, and then
steer westward in order to make the land of New Guinea. We are at present
in Latitude 16 degrees 3 minutes, and Longitude 195 degrees 27 minutes on
the 14th of February 1643.

Signed,

HENDRICK PIETERSZ.

This day the 14th of February, 1643. Whereas for 6 or 7 days past we have
now had north wind with dark, rough and dirty weather, so that we may
very well be nearer land than we suspect, and run the risk of being
driven into a bay from which with a northerly wind and this unsettled
weather it would be very difficult for us to get out again, therefore my
advice is that we should run on as far as 5 or 6 degrees South Latitude,
so as to make the coast of New Guinea on the north side; and I further
think that we should shape our course as far northward as the wind will
allow us until we arrive at the said latitude, and then steer to westward
in order to touch at New Guinea. This day at noon we are in Latitude 15
degrees 57 minutes South, and Longitude 195 degrees 49 minutes.

Signed by me,

PIETER NANNINGHZ. DUYTS.

This day the 14th of the month of February, our ship being in 15 degrees
57 minutes South Latitude, and the middle longitude of 195 degrees 10
minutes, and the Honourable Commander desiring to be informed of the
reasons why we should set our course so far to northward as we had fixed
upon, I give it as my opinion that, since we have now had a violent storm
with rain and dark weather these 6 or 7 days past, and do not know
whether we are still far from shore or near it, and whether we may not
again be driven into some bay or be cast on shoals or reefs, as happened
to us on the 6th instant, we ought to attempt to make New Guinea in 5 or
6 degrees southern latitude to the end that we may be able to get off
shore on a northerly course; it being further my advice that we should
set our course as high to northward as shall be found possible, in order
to reach that latitude aforesaid and then steer to westward until we get
to the land of New Guinea.

Signed by me,

CORNELIS YSBRANTSZ ROOLOL.

Item the 15th.

Still dark, foggy weather with rain and the wind from the north-west and
west-north-west with a light breeze; we tacked this way and that so that
we made no progress, having the wind almost flat against us. At noon
Latitude estimated 16 degrees 30 minutes South, Longitude 193 degrees 35
minutes; course held south, drifted 2 miles. Towards the evening we got a
violent squall of rain from south-west and set our course to northward.
In the first watch it fell a calm so that we drifted in a calm the whole
of the night.

Item the 16th.

In the morning we kept drifting in a calm. During the last 24 hours we
made no progress owing to the dead calm.

Item the 17th.

We had a variable breeze alternating with dead calm so that again we
failed to make any progress. Towards the evening the wind became
south-west with rain, upon which we shaped our course to the north; after
a short time however it fell a calm again so that we did not sail more
than two miles to northward. Latitude estimated 16 degrees 22 minutes,
Longitude 193 degrees 35 minutes.

Item the 18th.

It continued calm until noon; we remained in the same latitude and
longitude as before; at noon we got a light breeze from the south-east
with occasional showers.

Item the 19th.

The wind still south-east with rain. At noon Latitude observed 15 degrees
12 minutes, longitude 193 degrees 35 minutes; course kept north, sailed
18 miles. We still had dark, rainy weather every day, very unhealthy, and
no chance of a lookout to discover land.

Item the 20th.

Still thick, dark, foggy, rainy weather with the sea running from all
directions, and variable winds, now a calm, now a breeze. At noon
Latitude observed 13 degrees 45 minutes, Longitude 193 degrees 35
minutes; course held north, sailed 21 miles.

Item the 21st.

The wind still variable from the west and north-west going up to north;
we set our course close by the wind to northward; the sea is still very
rough with copious rains. At noon Latitude estimated 13 degrees 21
minutes, Longitude 193 degrees 35 minutes; course held north, sailed 6
miles; in the afternoon we ran to northward. During the night we drifted
in a calm for the space of 12 glasses, after which we got a breeze from
the north, when we tacked to westward.

Item the 22nd.

In the morning the wind was still northerly with a good deal of rain, we
still held our course to westward close by the wind, and had very heavy
swells from the north-west. The weather was dark, drizzly, and foggy; now
strong gales, now a sudden calm. At noon we made out by account to be in
Latitude 13 degrees 5 minutes South, Longitude 192 degrees 57 minutes;
course held west-north-west, sailed 10 miles. In the afternoon the wind
went round to the north-east and east. Towards the evening the wind
became south-east, and then south, with much rain and a strong gale.
During the night we lay to with small sail; we also saw a number of logs
floating about.

Item the 23rd.

A westerly wind with a storm, thick, dark weather and much rain; at times
we could hardly see to a distance of two ship's lengths; the sea was very
rough, running from all sides. At noon Latitude estimated 12 degrees 10
minutes, Longitude 192 degrees 57 minutes; course held north, sailed 14
miles; during the night we sailed northward close to the wind.

Item the 24th.

In the morning we set our topsails. We had the wind from the
west-north-west and north-west with a stiff gale and frequent showers,
the sea being still very rough. At noon Latitude estimated 11 degrees 2
minutes, Longitude 192 degrees 28 minutes; course held north-north-east,
sailed 18 miles. In the afternoon we had to take in our topsails and ran
over to northward close to the wind; during the night we lay to with one
sail since we dared not sail on, there being no lookout, from fear we
might come upon land or shoals.

Item the 25th.

In the morning we made sail again; when day broke we saw that the Zeehaan
had her mizzen-mast broken; we then hoisted our foresail, hailed the
Zeehaan, and asked her how she was getting on; they replied that they
could help themselves until the weather should improve; her mizzen-mast
is broken in such a way that she can still carry a small mizzen-sail. The
wind was still blowing from the north-west and north-west by west with a
storm, much rain, and dark weather; we went over to northward close to
the wind; at noon Latitude estimated 10 degrees 31 minutes south,
Longitude 193 degrees; course held north-east, sailed 11 miles; during
the night we again lay to with small sail.

Item the 26th.

The wind blowing pretty stiffly from the north-west, still with a good
deal of rain and dark weather. I cannot understand how it is that such a
steady westerly wind is blowing here so far into the South Sea unless it
should be that the western monsoon is continually blowing over New Guinea
and coming on stiffly, pressed on a good way into the South Sea with the
trade-wind blowing lightly. For 21 days past now we have not had a single
dry day. At noon Latitude estimated 9 degrees 48 minutes south, Longitude
193 degrees 43 minutes; course held north-east, sailed 15 miles; during
the night we lay to with small sail.

Item the 27th.

In the morning we made sail again, set our course over to northward close
to the wind with the wind blowing from the north-west and
north-north-west, and thick, dark, drizzly, rainy weather, but the sea
beginning to become smoother; at noon Latitude estimated 9 degrees south,
Longitude 194 degrees 32 minutes; course held north-east, sailed 17
miles; at night when 6 glasses in the first watch were out the wind went
round to the north and we turned our course to westward.

Item the last.

The wind still blowing from the north and north-north-west with thick,
foggy, drizzly, rainy weather, our course held westerly still. At noon
Latitude estimated 8 degrees 48 minutes south, Longitude 194 degrees 2
minutes; course kept west-north-west, sailed 8 miles.

Item the 1st of March.

Good weather with smooth water and a northerly but variable wind; we
turned our course to westward. At noon Latitude observed 9 degrees 5
minutes, Longitude 193 degrees 21 minutes; course held west-south-west,
sailed 11 miles. In the evening we got a squall of rain from the west and
for the rest of the night drifted in a calm.

Item the 2nd.

Towards daybreak we got a light breeze from the north and set our course
to westward. At noon Latitude observed 9 degrees 11 minutes, Longitude
192 degrees 46 minutes; held our course west slightly southerly, east,
west and west by south betweenwhiles, sailed 12 miles, with variable
winds and weather. Variation of the compass 10 degrees North-East.

Item the 3rd.

Wind and weather very unsettled, with much rain and very variable winds,
alternating between a dead calm and gales so strong that we could hardly
carry sail; we estimated that in the last 24 hours we had sailed 8 miles;
course held west, Latitude estimated 9 degrees 11 minutes south,
Longitude 192 degrees 14 minutes; in the evening we had very much rain
again and drifted in a calm.

Item the 4th.

Wind and weather continued variable with much rain, the wind keeping
however between the south-west and north. We are in hopes however that
the weather will soon get better. At noon Latitude estimated 8 degrees 55
minutes, Longitude 191 degrees 57 minutes; course held north-north-west,
sailed 5 miles.

Item the 5th.

Wind and weather still variable with heavy rains. This variable weather
has now lasted for a month past during which we have made little progress
and have continually been holding our courses between the south-west and
north but we hope things will soon mend. At noon Latitude estimated 8
degrees 32 minutes south, Longitude 191 degrees 42 minutes; course held
north-north-west, sailed 8 miles. Variation 10 degrees 30 minutes
North-East.

Item the 6th.

Still variable winds with a good deal of rain, violent squalls
alternating with sudden calms; a man who should wish to describe all
these chops and changes of wind and weather might be kept doing nothing
else but write. At noon Latitude estimated 8 degrees 8 minutes south,
Longitude 191 degrees 42 minutes; course held north, sailed 6 miles.

Item the 7th.

Still thick, dark, drizzly, rainy weather with variable wind and weather
and a very rough sea; the wind continues keeping between the
west-south-west and north-west; we have the wind straight ahead. At noon
Latitude estimated 8 degrees 17 minutes south, Longitude 191 degrees 1
minute; course kept west by south, sailed 12 miles. This day we saw a
great many birds.

Item the 8th.

Still thick, dark, drizzly, rainy weather with the wind as before; we
therefore kept tacking about with the starboard forward in order to get
as far to westward as possible; but we fear we shall get no good wind
before the close of the western monsoon; we have heavy rains every day.
At noon Latitude estimated 7 degrees 46 minutes south, Longitude 190
degrees 47 minutes; course held north-north-west and west, sailed 9
miles. Towards the evening the wind began to stiffen so that we had to
take in our topsails and to sail with mainsails.

Item the 9th.

We kept sailing with our mainsails set with a storm from the north-west
and north-north-west and in thick, dark, foggy, drizzling weather; we had
a great deal of rain which is doing us a great deal of harm bodily, and
the sea is very rough. At noon Latitude estimated 8 degrees 33 minutes
south, Longitude 190 degrees 1 minute; course held south-west, sailed 16
miles; during the night we lay to with small sail for the space of 16
glasses because we dared not sail full speed.

Item the 10th.

In the morning we again set our foresail and went over to westward; we
had the wind from the north-north-west with very unsettled weather and
heavy rains; we set our large topsail but had to take it in again
directly on account of bad weather. At noon Latitude estimated 9 degrees
south, Longitude 189 degrees 33 minutes; course held south-west, sailed
and drifted 10 miles; during the night we set our course to westward with
small sail.

Item the 11th.

Still dark, foggy, drizzly, rainy weather, with a northerly wind but very
unsteady; in the morning we had a north-north-east wind and set our
course close to the wind. At noon Latitude estimated 9 degrees 12 minutes
south, Longitude 188 degrees 29 minutes; course held west by south,
sailed 17 miles. In the afternoon we saw that those on board the Zeehaan
brailed up their mainsail and took in their foretopsail, upon which we
forthwith let fall our foresail to stay for her and inquire whether she
had broken anything. When she came near us we understood that her
mainsail was torn to pieces and that they were engaged in repairing it.

Item the 12th.

Still unsettled weather; we had variable winds from the northern quarter.
At noon Latitude estimated 8 degrees 48 minutes south, Longitude 187
degrees 29 minutes; course held west-north-west, sailed 16 miles; after
midnight we drifted in a calm.

Item the 13th.

Still dark, thick weather; in the afternoon we drifted in a calm, the sea
still running very high from the north-west; at noon Latitude estimated 8
degrees 48 minutes south, Longitude 186 degrees 48 minutes; course held
west, sailed 10 miles. During the night we got a light breeze from the
south and turned our course to the north-west.

Item the 14th.

The wind from the south but almost a calm; good dry weather and the sea
still running from the north-west. We saw some boughs of trees floating
but did not sight any land. During the night the wind went round to the
south-east with a light breeze. At noon Latitude observed 10 degrees 12
minutes, our estimation being 1 2/3 degree to northward than the latitude
now got by observation. We had not been able to observe the latitude for
12 days past owing to the thick, dark, drizzly weather we had every day
with heavy rains. According to our estimation our longitude was 186
degrees 14 minutes; course held north-west, sailed 13 miles. Variation 8
degrees 45 minutes North-East.

Item the 15th.

Good weather, the sea beginning to go down but the surges are still
running against each other. The wind blew from the south-east with the
weather improving; course held north-west, sailed 12 miles. At noon
Latitude observed 9 degrees 33 minutes, Longitude 185 degrees 40 minutes.
Variation 8 degrees North-East.

Item the 16th.

Good, quiet weather with a bright sun which we have not had for 6 weeks
past. At noon Latitude observed 8 degrees 46 minutes, Longitude 184
degrees 51 minutes; course held north-west, sailed 17 miles. Variation 9
degrees.

Item the 17th.

Good weather and smooth water, the wind easterly with a light breeze. At
noon Latitude observed 8 degrees 7 minutes, Longitude 184 degrees 11
minutes; course held north-west, sailed 14 miles.

Item the 18th.

Good weather with an easterly wind and a light breeze with smooth water;
at noon Latitude observed 7 degrees 40 minutes, Longitude 183 degrees 33
minutes; course held north-west, sailed 12 miles. Variation 9 degrees; in
the afternoon the breeze began somewhat to stiffen.

Item the 19th.

Still good weather with a clear sky and a topsail breeze with the wind
from the east. The sea begins to run from the east and north-east. At
noon Latitude observed 6 degrees 25 minutes, Longitude 182 degrees 27
minutes; course held north-west, sailed 23 miles.

Item the 20th.

Good weather and smooth water with occasional squalls of rain from the
east and east-south-east, with a light topsail breeze; at noon Latitude
found 5 degrees 15 minutes, Longitude 181 degrees 16 minutes; course held
north-west, sailed 25 miles. At noon we shaped our course to westward.
Variation 9 degrees North-East.

Item the 21st.

Still always good weather with a light breeze from the east and
north-east with occasional showers and smooth water; the swells however
are not running from the north-east. At noon Latitude observed 5 degrees
25 minutes, Longitude 180 degrees 20 minutes; course kept west by south,
sailed 14 miles.

Item the 22nd.

The weather continuing good with smooth water and a weak top-gallant
breeze from the east and east-north-east trade-wind; at noon Latitude
estimated 5 degrees 2 minutes, Longitude 178 degrees 32 minutes; course
held west, sailed 27 miles. At noon we saw land straight ahead of us at
about 4 miles distance; in order to run north of it we set our course
first west by north and then west-north-west; towards evening we sailed
close along the land north-west. These islands are close upon thirty in
number but very small, the largest of them being not more than 2 miles in
length; the rest are all small fry, all of them being surrounded by a
reef; to north-west there runs off from this another reef on which there
are three coconut trees by which it is easily recognisable. These are the
islands which Le Maire has laid down in the chart; they are at about 90
miles distance from the coast of New Guinea. In the evening we still saw
land north-north-west of us; we therefore turned our course over to
north-north-east close to the wind in order to steer north of all shoals,
brailed up our foresail, and in this way drifted until daybreak.

To these isles we have given the name of Islands of Onthong Faua, because
of the great resemblance they bear to the latter; they are also
surrounded by reefs and appear as shown here when they are south-west of
you at 2 miles distance.

Item the 23rd.

At daybreak we made sail again, set our course to westward, and then had
the small islands we had passed the previous day south of us at about 3
miles distance. The wind blew from the east and north-east, with a dark
grey sky and trade-wind weather. At noon Latitude estimated 4 degrees 31
minutes South, Longitude 177 degrees 18 minutes; course held
west-north-west, sailed 20 miles. During the night at the end of the
first watch we lay to and dared not run on from fear we might come upon
the island to which Le Maire has given the name of Marcken.

Item the 24th.

In the morning we made sail again, shaping our course to westward.
Towards noon we saw land right ahead of us; this land was very low-lying
and showed as two islands bearing south-west and north-west from each
other; the northernmost bears some resemblance to the island of Marcken
in the Zuyder Zee, as Jacob Le Maire says, for which reason he gave to it
the name of Marcken. At noon Latitude observed 4 degrees 55 minutes,
Longitude 175 degrees 30 minutes; course held west as far as we could
estimate but we find that there is a strong current setting to the south;
we sailed 20 miles with a wind east and east-south-east, and trade-wind
weather with a light topsail breeze. In the evening we brought our course
round to north so as to run north of the island. During the night we
drifted in a calm and stood for the island aforesaid.

This island appears as here shown when it is west of you at 2 miles
distance; this island has by Le Maire been named Marcken because of the
strong resemblance it shows with the said island.

Item the 25th.

In the day-watch we heard the surf break on the shore; it being still
quite calm we forthwith got out our pinnace and boat in order to tow us
clear of the reef or shoal; the current and the sea however carried us
some distance towards the reef. We found no anchorage here which we
greatly regretted. About 9 o'clock a prow of the said island came
alongside, containing 7 persons and about 20 coconuts; we exchanged a
dozen of these for 3 strings of beads and 4 double middle-sized nails;
the said coconuts seemed to have grown wild and were of poor quality. The
people looked rough and savage with blacker skins than those in the
islands where we took in refreshments; they were also less polite and
went stark naked except that they wore before their privities a small
covering, seemingly made of cotton, which was hardly large enough to
conceal from view their yard and testicles. Some of them had their hair
cut short, others wore it tied up like the villains of the Murderers Bay.
One of them wore two feathers right on the top of his head just like
horns; another wore a ring through his nose but we could not find out
what the ring was made of; their prow was sharply pointed in front and
behind like the wings of a seagull, but not elegantly shaped and rather
the worse for wear and tear; they carried arrows and two bows and did not
seem to set any store by the beads and nails, nay utterly to despise the
same. We then got the wind from the south and fortunately got off the
reef with the aid of it. The prow then paddled off to shore again. We saw
another small prow approach us but it could not come near us in
consequence of a sudden gust of wind. We now set our course to northward
in order to get clear of the shoals and reefs. These islands are 15 or 16
in number, the largest of them being about a mile in length, and the
other looking like houses; they all lie together surrounded by a reef.
The said reef runs off from the islands to the north-west side; at about
a swivel-gun shot distance from the islands there stands a group of
trees, level with the water; two miles farther to the north-west there is
another small islet like Toppershoetje (a small sailor's hat) the reef
extends another half mile farther into the sea so that the reef runs out
to sea in a north-westerly direction fully 3 miles from the islands. At
noon Latitude estimated 4 degrees 34 minutes South, Longitude 175 degrees
10 minutes; course held north-west, sailed 7 miles; about noon the wind
went round to north-west and then to northward; we turned our course
west, after which began to blow from the north-north-east with a light
breeze, upon which we set our course to the north-west; during the night,
the weather being quiet with a northerly wind, we turned more to
westward.

Item the 26th.

Good weather and smooth water with a north-easterly wind and a light
breeze. At noon Latitude observed 4 degrees 33 minutes, Longitude 174
degrees 30 minutes; course held west, sailed 10 miles. We found that
there was a strong current here setting southward, on which account we
turned our course north-westward again. Variation 9 degrees 30 minutes
North-East.

Item the 27th.

Wind and weather as before. At noon Latitude observed 4 degrees 1
minute, Longitude 173 degrees 36 minutes; course held north-west by west,
sailed 16 miles; at noon we shaped our course to westward in order to run
in sight of the islands lying eastward to the coast of New Guinea, and
thence to cross to the mainland coast, which will thus become better
known. Variation 9 degrees 30 minutes North-East.

Item the 28th.

Still good weather, the wind blowing from the east with a light breeze
and smooth water. At noon Latitude observed 4 degrees 11 minutes,
Longitude 172 degrees 32 minutes; course held west, sailed 16 miles;
towards noon we saw land straight ahead and at noon we were still at
about 4 miles distance from it. This island is in 4 degrees 31 minutes
South Latitude and 172 degrees 16 minutes Longitude; it lies 46 miles to
the west and west by north of the islands which Jacob Le Maire had named
Marcken. During the night we drifted in a calm.

To these islands Le Maire has given the name of Green Islands because
they looked green and beautiful; they appear as shown here when the
easternmost is south and the westernmost south-west of you at 2 miles
distance.

Item the 29th.

In the morning we found that the current was setting us towards the
islands. At noon Latitude observed 4 degrees 20 minutes, Longitude 172
degrees 17 minutes. The whole of this day we drifted in a calm so that in
the last twenty-four hours we have drifted 5 miles to the south-west.
Halfway the afternoon two small prows came from shore alongside; they had
two wings or outriggers, their paddles being small and thick in the
blade, poorly made as it seemed to us; one of the prows had 6, the other
3 men in it. When they were about 2 ship's lengths from us one of the six
men who were in the one prow broke one of his arrows in two, put one half
into his hair and held the other half in his hand, apparently wishing
thereby to show friendly feelings towards us; these men were stark naked,
their bodies quite black, with curly hair like Caffres, but not so woolly
as the hair of the latter, nor were their noses quite as flat. Some wore
white bracelets, seemingly of bone, round their arms; others had their
faces daubed with lime, and wore on the forehead a piece of tree-bark
about the breadth of three fingers. They carried nothing but arrows, bows
and calleweys (javelins) we called out to them a few words from our
vocabulary of the language of New Guinea but the only word they seemed to
understand was Lamas, which means coconuts. They always kept pointing to
the land. We presented them with two strings of beads and two large
nails, together with an old napkin, in return for which they gave us an
old coconut which was all they had with them, after which they paddled to
shore again. Towards the evening it was still calm with a very light
breeze from the north-east; we drifted quite close to the islands and had
to get out the boats to keep us off the shore by towing. At the close of
the dog-watch we at length got clear of these islands. There are two
large islands and three small ones, the latter lying on the west side. To
these islands Le Maire has given the name of the Green islands.
West-north-west of us we still saw a high island with 2 or 3 very small
ones, and to westward of us we besides saw some very high land which
looked like a mainland coast. But the truth of this only time can show.
Variation 9 degrees North-East.

Item the 30th.

Weather improving with a light breeze from the north-east; still engaged
in towing; we found that the current was setting us to the southward. At
noon Latitude observed 4 degrees 25 minutes, Longitude 172 degrees;
course held west, sailed or drifted 4 miles; in the evening we had St.
Jans island north-west of us at about 6 miles distance.

Item the last.

Still good and quiet weather, with an easterly wind and smooth water. At
noon Latitude observed 4 degrees 28 minutes, Longitude 171 degrees 42
minutes; course held west, sailed 6 miles; at noon we hoisted the white
flag and pendant, upon which our friends of the Zeehaan came on board of
us, with whom we resolved upon what is in extenso set forth in this day's
resolution.

Item the 1st of April, A.D. 1643.

We got the coast of New Guinea alongside in 4 degrees 30 minutes South
Latitude, at a point which the Spaniards call Cabo Santa Maria. At noon
Latitude observed 4 degrees 30 minutes, Longitude 171 degrees 2 minutes;
course held west, sailed 10 miles. Variation 8 degrees 45 minutes.

Item the 2nd.

Still good, quiet weather, with a variable breeze. We did our best to
sail along the coast which here bears from Sint Jans island north-west
and south-east; north-west of this there is still another high island,
somewhat larger than St. Jans island from which it is 10 miles distant;
to this second island we have given the name of Anthony Caens island.
This is situated due north of Cabo Santa Maria. At noon Latitude observed
4 degrees 9 minutes, Longitude 170 degrees 41 minutes; course held
north-west, sailed 10 miles; we then had Cabo Santa Maria south of us so
that the cabo aforesaid lies in longitude 170 degrees 41 minutes,
according to our estimation. In the evening we ran inshore in order to
make better progress with the land-wind. When four glasses in the first
watch were out we got the wind from shore with a light breeze and shaped
our course along the shore.

Item the 3rd.

In the morning there was still a light land-breeze, our course still
north-west along the coast. About 9 o'clock we saw a vessel full of men
coming from shore; the said vessel was curved at both ends like the
corre-corre of Tarnaten; she lay still a while beyond the reach of our
great guns and then returned to shore again. At noon Latitude estimated 3
degrees 42 minutes South, Longitude 170 degrees 20 minutes; course held
north-west, sailed 10 miles. Towards evening the wind began to blow from
the east-south-east with a light breeze; we kept steering north-west
along the coast. This land seems to be very pleasant but the worst of it
was that we could get no anchorage here. During the night we had thunder
and lightning, with rain and variable breezes.

Item the 4th.

We still kept sailing along the coast which here stretched north-west by
west and south-east by east. It is a beautiful coast with many bays. We
passed an island situated at 12 miles distance from Anthony Caens island,
the two bearing from each other north-west and south-east. To this island
we have given the name of Gardenys island. At noon Latitude estimated 3
degrees 22 minutes, Longitude 169 degrees 50 minutes; course held
north-west by west, sailed 9 miles; the wind still variable with light
breezes and calms; in the evening we got the land-wind, with rain,
thunder and lightning; we therefore did our best to sail along the shore.

Item the 5th.

In the morning we still had the land-wind with a light breeze. Towards
noon we came upon another island at 10 miles distance from Gardenys
island, the two bearing from each other west-north-west and
east-south-east. Inshore of this island we saw some prows lying, which we
supposed to be engaged in fishing, for which reason we have to this
island given the name of Fishers island. Towards noon we saw 6 prows
ahead of us, three of which came paddling so near our ship that we let 2
or three pieces of old canvas, 2 strings of beads and two old nails drift
towards them; they did not seem to care for the canvas, and the other
things too hardly excited their attention; but they kept pointing to
their heads, from which we concluded that they wanted turbans. These
people seemed to be very shy, and by their gestures afraid of shot; they
did not come near enough for us to discern whether they were armed. They
were very black and stark naked, having only their privities covered with
a few green leaves. Some of them had black hair, others hair of another
colour. Their prows had outriggers and each of them carried 3 or 4
persons, but owing to the distance we could not discern any other
details. When they had thus been pottering a long while near about the
ships, and at times called out to us, to which we replied in the same
way, though we did not understand each other, they paddled back to shore.
At noon Latitude estimated 3 degrees, Longitude 169 degrees 17 minutes;
course held west-north-west, sailed 10 miles; in the afternoon we had the
wind north-west with a light breeze.

Item the 6th.

In the morning it was calm. Halfway the forenoon we again saw 8 or 9
prows come from the said island, three of which paddled to the Zeehaan
and 5 to our ship. Some of them contained 3, others 4, and some few 5
persons. When they were about two stones cast from us they left off
paddling and called out to us; we could not understand them but made
signs for them to come nearer, upon which they paddled round in front of
our ship, and kept loitering ahead of us a long time without coming
alongside. At length one of our quartermasters took off his belt and held
it up to them from afar. Upon this one of these prows came alongside our
ship; we gave them a string of beads and our quartermaster also handed
his belt out to them, for which all we got in return was a piece of the
pith of a sago-tree, which was the only commodity they had with them.
Meanwhile the other prows, seeing that their comrades received no hurt,
also came paddling alongside. None of these prows contained any arms or
anything with which they could have done us harm. We at first suspected
they might be villains who were intent on mischief and in search of booty
since they affected such timidity. Had our suspicions proved true they
would have been warmly received, for which we had made all due
preparations, although the cook was not ready yet with the morning meal.
We called out to them the words Anieuw, Oufi, Pouacka, etc. (meaning
coconuts, yams, hogs, etc.) which they seemed to understand, for they
pointed to the shore as if they wanted to say: they are there. Then they
paddled to shore with great quickness and regularity but, since the
breeze began to freshen, we did not see them again. These natives are
dark brown, nay almost as black as the blackest Caffre; they have hair of
various colours, owing to the lime with which they powder it; their faces
are smeared with red paint except their foreheads. Some of them wore a
thick bone through the lower part of the nose, about half the thickness
of a little finger. For the rest they wore nothing on their bodies except
some green leaves covering their privities. Their prows were new, trimly
made up, and adorned with wood-carving in front and behind, with one
outrigger each; their paddles were not long or broad, and pointed at the
end, etc. At noon the wind went round to south-east with a fair breeze;
we shaped our course west by north along the coast; Latitude observed 2
degrees 53 minutes, Longitude 168 degrees 59 minutes; course held
west-north-west, sailed 5 miles; in the afternoon we made good progress.
During the night there was land-wind with a light breeze.

Item the 7th.

In the morning we continued drifting in a calm. In the forenoon there
came again 20 prows hovering near and about the ships but, like those of
the previous day, they kept out of reach of gun-shot. We repeatedly made
signs to them upon which they at length made bold to paddle alongside of
us. They had nothing in their prows except in one of them three coconuts,
of which we got one in exchange for a string of beads. We thought we
should have got all three of them for it, but they absolutely refused to
part with the other two. Another man had a shark (which in their tongue
they called Ilacxz) which we also bartered against three strings of
beads; a third again had a dorado or dolphin, which one of our sailors
exchanged for an old cap. Some of them had a number of small fishes which
they threw to our men, but they proved not worth eating. Finally three or
four of these people came on board of our ship, looked about them in
great amazement, and walked about the ship as if they were intoxicated; a
curious circumstance truly, for in their small prows they paddled about
for miles out to sea without any signs of sea-sickness, but in a large
ship like ours they seem to get intoxicated by the motion caused of the
swell of the sea. They had no arms with them, or anything which they
could have hurt us. They seemed to subsist by fishing for some of them
carried wooden eel-spears. After they had been on board for a while they
left together and paddled back to shore with a good deal of bustle and
with loud shouts. We remained lying there during the afternoon or drifted
in a calm. Farther to westward the land begins to be very low, but the
coast stretched west by north and west-north-west as far as we could see.
At noon Latitude estimated 2 degrees 35 minutes, Longitude 168 degrees 25
minutes; course held west by north, sailed 9 miles. In the afternoon we
still saw high land west by north and west of the cape aforesaid; this
land we estimated to be fully 10 miles from us. We drifted in a calm but,
soon getting a light breeze from the eastward, we endeavoured to get near
the highland to westward. The current setting along this coast is
steadily in our favour so that every day we made more progress to
westward than we apparently proceeded over the water. In the course of
the night we passed a large bay or inlet.

Item the 8th.

In the morning, reaching the west side of the bay, we came upon four
small low-lying islets along which we held our course; when we were past
these islets we again came upon 3 small islets lying together west of the
others which we had passed at noon. At noon Latitude estimated 2 degrees
26 minutes, Longitude 167 degrees 39 minutes, the wind blowing from the
east-south-east but variable; course held west by north, sailed 12 miles.
Variation 10 degrees North-East. South-west by west of us we had a
low-lying cape, north of which there were two low islets. From this point
the land begins gradually to fall away to southward. About 6 o'clock in
the evening we had these two islets south by west of us and the nearest
land we saw, being level and low-lying, lay south-west by south of us at
about 4 miles distance. We all the time held our course along the coast.

Item the 9th.

In the morning at sunrise we drifted in a calm; the point of the
southernmost land we saw lay south-east by east of us at about 2 1/2
miles distance where the coast falls off very abruptly. We then had
another low-lying small islet south-south-west of us at about 2 miles
distance. We did our best to sail close along the said point but were
prevented from so doing owing to the calm. At noon Latitude observed 2
degrees 33 minutes, Longitude 167 degrees 4 minutes; course held
west-south-west, sailed 7 miles. Variation 10 degrees. In the afternoon
we steered for the point as before.

Item the 10th.

During the last twenty-four hours we made pretty good progress to
southward. Owing to the calm and for other reasons we endeavoured to get
to southward as quickly as possible, partly to explore the coasts and
partly to find a passage southward. At noon we found the southernmost
point to bear from us east-north-east and the northernmost ditto
north-north-east. At noon Latitude observed 3 degrees 2 minutes,
Longitude 167 degrees 4 minutes; course held south, sailed 12 miles. In
the afternoon we kept steering south; towards evening the wind went round
to north-north-west. In order to get near to the land again we shaped our
course east-south-east and south-east, at times rough, light variable
winds with rain greatly troubling us. After midnight we again drifted in
a calm in smooth water.

Item the 11th.

At noon we drifted in a calm without being able to take the latitude. We
still saw the land stretching north-east of us, to wit the most easterly
point, the most westerly point bearing from us north-north-east and north
by east. At noon Latitude estimated 3 degrees 28 minutes, Longitude 166
degrees 51 minutes; course kept south-west by west, half a point
westerly, sailed 7 miles. In the second watch we had a light breeze from
the east-north-east; we turned our course over to south-east close by the
wind but afterwards it fell a calm again.

Item the 12th.

Three glasses in the day-watch having run out we felt so violent a shock
of earthquake that none of our men, however sound asleep, remained in his
hammock, but all came running on deck in amazement, thinking the ship had
struck on a rock. The feeling was as if the keel were dragging over coral
rock but when we cast the lead we got no bottom. After this there were
repeated slight shocks of earthquake, but none so strong as the first; at
first with calm weather but shortly afterwards with heavy rains; the wind
variable and sometimes a calm. We endeavoured to get as far to southward
as possible. About 3 o'clock in the afternoon the wind was west with a
light breeze. At noon Latitude observed 3 degrees 45 minutes, Longitude
167 degrees 1 minute; course held south-south-east, sailed 6 miles.
Afterwards we turned our course due south-east and then saw a small,
round, low-lying islet south by west of us at 4 1/2 or 5 miles distance.
During the night heavy rains with variable weather.

Item the 13th.

In the morning the wind came from the north-east with a light breeze; we
saw high land with several mountains and low-lying land between them from
the south-west by west to the east-south-east. As far as we could make
out we were in a large bay. We kept doing our best to get southward. At
noon Latitude estimated 4 degrees 22 minutes, Longitude 167 degrees 18
minutes; course held south-south-east, sailed 10 miles. In the afternoon
we drifted in a calm without being able to take soundings; the water here
is as smooth as in a river without any motion, which made us the more
believe we were in a large bay; but what the truth is we shall learn in
time. During the night we had variable winds with now and then a calm. In
the evening we had some mountains and hills south-south-west of us,
towards which we shaped our course as much as possible.

Item the 14th.

In the morning we saw land from the east-north-east to the
south-south-west and afterwards in the west-south-west. We hoped
(although in vain) to find a passage between the two, but when we came
nearer we found that it was a bay, and that the land all joined to
westward. Therefore with a north-north-west wind we shaped our course
west by south as high as we could sail, and about 3 or 4 o'clock in the
afternoon came upon a reef which we judged to be usually level with the
water, and which with the present sea-wind we could hardly sail clear of,
the said reef lying 2 miles from shore as near as we could estimate. At
noon Latitude observed 5 degrees 27 minutes, Longitude 166 degrees 57
minutes; course held south-south-west, sailed 15 miles. Variation 9
degrees 15 minutes North-East. Towards evening we got a light breeze from
the north-north-east. During the night we again drifted in a calm.

Item the 15th.

We continued to have variable winds and calms so that we made little
progress. At noon Latitude estimated 5 degrees 18 minutes, Longitude 166
degrees 36 minutes; course held west-north-west, sailed 6 miles.
Variation 9 degrees North-East. In the evening the high island was due
north-west of us at 6 miles distance.

Item the 16th.

We kept drifting in a calm and had the most westerly land we saw west by
south and west-south-west of us. The land here from the one point to the
other begins to extend mainly west by north, and shows from time to time
high mountains with some pleasant, large, deep valleys. In the evening
the high island was north-west by north of us at 2 1/2 or 3 miles
distance. At noon Latitude estimated 5 degrees 5 minutes, Longitude 166
degrees 27 minutes; course held north-west, sailed 4 miles. Through the
whole night we had calm weather.

Item the 17th.

In the morning we still drifted in a calm; about three hours before noon
we had the high island north-east of us at 3 miles distance. We then got
a light breeze from the south-east, upon which we set our course due
west. We now had the two islands opposite each other. At noon Latitude
observed 5 degrees 8 minutes, Longitude 166 degrees; course held west,
half a point northerly, sailed 8 miles. Variation 8 degrees 45 minutes
North-East. In the afternoon we again drifted in a calm; in the evening
at sunset the high island was east by north of us at 6 or 7 miles
distance, and the western extremity of a high range of mountains in New
Guinea south-west by south of us at 6 or 7 miles distance. During the
night it was calm again.

Item the 18th.

In the morning at sunrise the high mountain aforesaid was south by west
of us at 6 or 7 miles distance. In the forenoon we got a light breeze
from the south-west, upon which we turned our course over to westward, as
close to the wind as possible, in smooth water. At noon Latitude observed
5 degrees, Longitude 165 degrees 37 minutes; course held west by north
and west-north-west, sailed 5 miles with variable winds and a calm now
and then. At noon the high mountain was south of us; at about four
o'clock in the afternoon it was south by east of us so that since noon we
had drifted about 2 miles to westward. We next saw where the land
extended to westward, another high mountain south-west by south of us.
The wind being south-south-west, then but very light, we turned our
course over to westward close by the wind; at night we had a fair breeze
from the south-east but already at the end of the second watch it fell
calm again.

Item the 19th.

In the forenoon we had a light breeze from the south, our course being
west-south-west. At noon Latitude observed 5 degrees 9 minutes, Longitude
164 degrees 50 minutes; course held west by south, sailed 12 miles.
Variation 9 degrees North-East. At noon we had a round high islet,
situated three miles off the mainland coast of New Guinea, due south of
us at 2 1/2 miles distance. We set our course west-south-west, after
which west by north of us we also saw land, which was supposed to be
islands since we found the mainland coast of New Guinea to extend due
west only. In the afternoon, the wind being south-east, we still stuck to
our west-south-west course. At two o'clock in the afternoon we came upon
a rocky reef which was only a fathom under water; from the masthead we
saw, northward of the reef aforesaid, several more small reefs, between
which the sea seemed to be deep; we ran round south of them and saw more
reefs still, south of us. We accordingly passed between the two groups of
reefs, and in quiet weather set our course west-south-west. We had the
round high island which at noon was south of us, south-east of us now at
a distance of about four miles, so that this reef aforesaid is north-west
by west of the high round island at 4 miles distance. This reef is in 5
degrees 10 or 12 minutes South Latitude. The most northerly point of the
mountains, which we had up to now taken to be islands, was
west-north-west of us at about 7 miles distance, which indications will
be sufficient to recognise these shoals by in future. In the evening the
southern point of a high island was west by north of us at about 5 1/2 or
6 miles distance; we set our course as much due west as we could, with
light variable winds.

Item the 20th.

At noon we had the most southerly point of the island north-west by west
of us at 2 or 2 1/2 miles distance; in the evening the centre of the
island was north-east of us at 1 1/2 miles distance, and the south point
of another and higher island west-north-west of us at 6 or 7 miles
distance. We set our course west by north. At noon Latitude observed 5
degrees 4 minutes, Longitude 164 degrees 27 minutes; course held west by
north, sailed 6 miles with variable winds and an occasional calm.
Variation 8 degrees 30 minutes. In the evening we again drifted in a
calm, but shortly after the wind became east with a fair breeze. At night
at the setting of the second watch we came close to the island and saw a
large flame issue steadily from the top of the mountain. This is the
volcano which Willem Schouten refers to in his journal. In order to pass
between the mainland of New Guinea and this island we drifted the night
without sails set, and thus waited for the day. While drifting we
constantly heard the heavy ripple of the current which carried us to
westward, which was greatly in our favour. On the same island we saw many
fires close to the water, and also halfway up the high mountains, so we
concluded it to be a thickly peopled country; it lies in the latitude of
---- degrees ----  minutes. As we were here sailing along the coast of
New Guinea we had frequent calms and constantly saw pieces of wood
floating about, the size of small trees, also bamboos and other lumber
from shore, coming down the rivers, which made us conclude that there
must be many rivers, and that it must be a fine country. We held our
course north-west along the coast.

Item the 21st.

In the morning the centre of the island was east of us at 3 miles
distance, the south-east point being east-south-east and south-east by
east, the northern point north-east by east of us; the nearest land on
the mainland coast was south-west of us at 1 1/2 or 1 3/4 miles distance.
We then saw one more island north-west of us at about 8 miles distance,
which Willem Schouten had named the high islands, and that justly since
it is very high. At noon Latitude observed 4 degrees 30 minutes,
Longitude 163 degrees 13 minutes; course held west by north, sailed 20
miles with a variable wind. In the evening at sunset the wind became east
with a light breeze. We had sailed to the north-west since noon, and now
shaped our course north-west by west with a fair breeze, and afterwards
west-north-west, so that in the evening the centre of the island was due
north-west of us at 4 miles distance. At the close the 6th glass in the
first watch, as we were in the narrowest part of the passage between the
mainland and the island, we found that at this point of the mainland of
New Guinea there begins a low-lying coast which then trends
west-north-west and north-west by west. Accordingly at the end of the
first watch we took in all sails and let the ship drift with only the
mizzen-sail set in order to await the day and avoid all perils; but since
the current was setting here to the west we made more progress as
measured by the land we passed than was apparent from our advance over
the water. The mountain burnt with a steady flame issuing straight from
the top.

Item the 22nd.

In the morning in the day-watch we again made sail and set our course to
west-north-west. At sunrise we got into very pale-coloured water and at
first thought we had come upon a shoal, for which reason we forthwith
turned our course to the north. At this time we had the high burning
mountain east-south-east and south-east by east of us at 7 miles
distance. At night the flames were very violent. We had another high but
small island north-north-east of us at 4 or 5 miles distance; the most
westerly point of the mainland we saw being west-north-west of us at 4
miles distance, and a large river south-south-west of us at 2 miles
distance. The north-north-west course lies between two high islets
situated close together. Westward of these we saw still more land, to
wit, three more islands. The mainland coast here extends chiefly to
west-north-west. We took soundings here but found no bottom although we
had sailed one mile from the low-lying land. We again set our course
west-north-west along the coast, and this day passed six small islets,
all of which we left on our starboard. At noon Latitude observed 3
degrees 39 minutes, Longitude 161 degrees 38 minutes, the wind being east
and east-south-east, also at times east-north-east but variable; course
held west-north-west, half a point northerly; sailed 27 miles. In the
afternoon we got a fair breeze from the east-north-east; course held as
before. We found here a low-lying land full of rivers, and saw many
trunks of trees and other wood, together with a great quantity of green
brushwod, come floating from the rivers with a flow of whitish sandy
water. This low land forms a cape here, and when you have passed this
point the land trends away to westward, so that a large bay is formed
here, the two points however bearing from each other west-north-west. In
the evening the eastern extremity of the most westerly island of the six
was north-east by north of us at 1 1/2 miles distance. We had at that
time another high island alongside west by north of us at 5 miles
distance; we set our course west-north-west and north-west by west. At
the end of the first watch we had the centre of the island south-west of
us at one mile distance; we then set our course west-north-west with an
easterly wind; at midnight a heavy shower of rain.

Item the 23rd.

In the morning the wind continued easterly; we kept our course
west-north-west as before. In the forenoon we passed so much wood, pieces
of tree-trunks, bamboo and other brushwood that it seemed as if we were
sailing in a river, from all which we concluded that there must be a
great river hereabouts and, since the current set us from the land, we
shaped our course to westward and afterward west by south in order to get
the coast alongside again. At noon Latitude estimated 3 degrees 1 minute,
Longitude 160 degrees 3 minutes, the wind blowing from the east, course
held west-north-west, sailed 26 miles. At two o'clock in the afternoon we
again came near the mainland coast; in the evening we again set our
course west-north-west, straight along the coast. In the afternoon a prow
came to the Zeehaan from the mainland.

Item the 24th.

In the morning course and wind as before, with a fair breeze; at noon we
took no latitude, though the weather was good; we estimated ourselves to
be in Latitude 2 degrees 22 minutes South, Longitude 158 degrees 36
minutes, the wind east; course held west-north-west, sailed 26 miles.
Variation 8 degrees North-East. In the afternoon we had rain, but at
night at the end of the second watch we saw straight ahead low land with
fires; we lay to with one sail close to the wind in order to await the
day and drifted. During the night Latitude observed 2 degrees 20 minutes.

Item the 25th.

In the morning at daybreak we again made sail, and with an easterly wind
shaped our course to westward towards the land we had seen during the
night with the fires on the said land. We found it to consist of three
low-lying islets, lying near to the mainland coast, about 5 miles to the
eastward of the island of Moa, which we got sight of shortly afterwards.
We then steered for the said island of Moa and made for the roadstead on
the west side of the island, casting anchor in 12 fathom, good, grey,
sandy bottom. This day we had much rain, the sea running fast from the
north-west. When we had cast anchor a large number of small prows came
swarming near and about our ships, loitering a long while before
venturing to come alongside. We therefore tied a number of beads to
pieces of firewood, which we threw out to them, on which almost all of
them came on board of us, bringing with them no more than three coconuts.
Making use of Jacob Le Maire's Vocabulary we gave them to understand that
we wanted hogs, fowls, coconuts, bananas, and other refreshments, upon
which they paddled to shore to fetch them, and returned towards noon,
bringing with them, some four, others 5 or 6 coconuts, with a lot of
unripe bananas, all of which we obtained of them by barter, 5 or 6 for an
old nail or a string of beads, and 12 or 14 coconuts for a knife; they
also brought us some fish both smoked and fresh. At noon Latitude
observed 2 degrees 11 minutes, Longitude 156 degrees 47 minutes; the wind
east, course held west by north, sailed 28 miles. In the evening when all
the prows had left us we sent our pinnace to fetch our friends of the
Zeehaan on board of us, with whom we resolved upon what is in extenso set
forth in this day's resolution to which we beg leave to refer.

Item the 26th.

Early in the morning again a large number of prows with coconuts and
unripe bananas came alongside. It seemed that the natives here had
nothing else to dispose of. This day we obtained by barter so many
coconuts that each of the men of our crew got five of them, but the
natives brought little else than coconuts and unripe bananas, together
with some fish, both fresh and smoked, all of which commodities we
obtained of them by barter. This day we had 2 low-lying islets west of
us. About 4 o'clock in the afternoon we sighted the island of Arymoa,
north-west by west of us at 8 or 9 miles distance according to our
estimation. As we were lying off the island here we found the wind to
blow north-east from the sea by day, and south-east from the land by
night; we also found the current to set here steadily to westward at such
a rate that in a calm we should be sure to drift 4, 5 or 6 miles in
twenty-four hours. The prows of the natives here are very narrow, about a
foot in breadth.

Item the 27th.

In the morning the wind was south-west. Latitude observed here 2 degrees
10 minutes, Longitude 156 degrees 47 minutes. This day there came again a
large number of prows alongside our ships, some of them from other
islands in the neighbourhood and others from the mainland, bringing
nothing but coconuts, unripe bananas and some fresh and smoked fish,
almost all of which we obtained by barter. Among the said prows there
were two large ones with 18 or 20 men in each of them, all of them armed
with bows and arrows, and also with javelins and harpoons. These natives
were almost quite black and went naked, having only a small covering to
hide their privities from view. They could all of them exactly imitate
whatever words they heard our men pronounce, a sure sign that their
language is copious and difficult to pronounce, which we also infer from
their using the letter R in so many of their words, some of them even
containing as many as three R's. This day we got so many coconuts that we
served out 6 coconuts and some bananas to each of our men. In the evening
we again summoned our friends of the Zeehaan on board of us, and
represented to them that we had come to the conclusion that we were lying
not before Moa, but before Jamna, and asked them whether they did not
think it best for us to weigh anchor tomorrow before daybreak and run for
Moa, where we are likely to get more refreshments than here, which was
assented to by the council, as may be seen from today's resolution.

Item the 28th.

In the morning at 4 glasses in the day-watch we weighed anchor and sailed
with small sail to the island of Moa, where we dropped anchor at about
noon in 10 fathom, stiff ground. As soon as we had dropped anchor
numerous prows with coconuts and bananas came alongside. At noon Latitude
estimated 2 degrees 5 minutes, Longitude 156 degrees 28 minutes; course
held west by north, sailed 5 miles. In the afternoon at the end of 6
glasses there came a large prow from the mainland with 19 men in her,
bringing a number of coconuts, which those on board the Zeehaan obtained
by barter. This day we got so many coconuts by exchange that we served
out 6 of them to each of our men.

Item the 29th.

In the morning again a large number of small prows came alongside with
coconuts, unripe bananas, etc., which we all obtained by giving in
exchange old nails, beads and knives, so that this day we served out 4
coconuts to each of our men. Towards the evening a large number of prows
came alongside among them one with 11 persons in her, bringing with them
a large quantity of coconuts which we all obtained of them by barter.
Towards the evening we summoned on board of us our friends of the Zeehaan
with whom we resolved to weigh anchor and proceed on our voyage as soon
as wind and tide should serve.

Item the last.

In the morning a strong wind was blowing from the west-north-west, and
the sea running very high, so that during all this day we could do
nothing to give effect to our resolution of the previous day, to set sail
from Moa and continue our voyage, but were compelled to remain at anchor.
This day we again obtained by barter a number of coconuts, as many as the
natives brought to our ships.

Item the 1st of May.

As the wind still continued west-north-west we had to remain at anchor,
since we had the current against us, so that we should have done no good
by trying to tack; this day we got some more coconuts.

Item the 2nd.

We still remained at anchor because the west-north-west wind kept blowing
with a stiff, steady breeze, and the current was setting steadily to
eastward. We had rain now and then but most of the time dry weather. In
the forenoon we got still a large number of coconuts, but in the
afternoon no more prows came alongside owing to the stiff breeze. During
the night we had pretty good weather and always west wind.

Item the 3rd.

In the morning several prows again came alongside. Our men being engaged
in washing the deck, one of our sailors standing on the wales to hand up
the bucket, was shot at with an arrow and hit in the thick part of the
leg above the thigh; we immediately made some of our men fire among the
prows with muskets, so that one of the natives was hit in the arm.
Shortly after we weighed anchor, ran inwards to the spot where Jacob Le
Maire had formerly been at anchor with the ship Eendracht, and dropped
our anchor from the bows between the two islands in smooth water. The
natives on shore, seeing that we came sailing inwards with both ships,
waved with branches and seemed full of fear that we might come with
hostile intentions. They immediately sent on board of us the man who had
been discharging arrows against our ship to make his peace with us which
was done. Then the other natives again came on board as before, but they
did not venture to demand as much for their commodities as before, and
were content to take what we offered them. This day we again got a few
prows alongside with coconuts, which we all obtained of them by barter,
so that we could serve out 9 coconuts to each of our men.

Item the 4th.

In the morning the wind kept always blowing from the west-north-west, so
that we were forced to remain here; this day again numerous prows came
alongside with coconuts, which we all obtained of them by exchange, so
that we could serve out 7 coconuts to each of our men.

Item the 5th.

The west-north-west wind still continuing in the morning we remained
lying at anchor. This day we got only a few coconuts on board, all of
them very young ones, so that it would seem that most of the coconuts of
this island had already been gathered.

Item the 6th.

About 8 o'clock in the morning there sprung up a light land-breeze, so
that we weighed our anchors and set sail in order to continue our voyage.
We were already under sail when some more prows with coconuts came
alongside. From these islands, both Hamna and Moa, we have got 6000
coconuts for the two ships, and about 100 bunches of bananas, all which
we obtained by barter for beads, old rusty nails, and pieces of iron
hoops, which we ground on one side, and to which we fitted wooden handles
so as to resemble knives, for which they were very eager. When we had got
to a quarter of a mile distance outside the bay it fell calm so that we
had to drop anchor in 9 fathom, stiff ground.

Item the 7th.

In the morning the wind went about slightly to landward but inclining to
a calm; we continued trying to get a little more off the land. In the
forenoon the wind was west by south with a fair breeze, course held
north-north-west. In the afternoon the wind became north-north-west, on
which we tacked about, steering west by south. In the evening at the
setting of the first watch of the island Arymoa was north-west of us at
about 3 miles distance; we then turned our course over to northward again
and kept our course north by west without making much progress, since the
sea ran very strong from the north-west. During the night the wind was
west-south-west.

Item the 8th.

In the morning at sunrise we had the largest island of Arymoa due
south-west of us at about 3 miles distance; the wind continued west by
south and west-south-west; course still held north-north-west. In the
afternoon we had good weather. Latitude observed 1 degree 30 minutes,
Longitude 156 degrees 22 minutes; course held north by west, sailed 8 3/4
miles. Variation 8 degrees North-East. We had the most north-westerly
point of the island of Arymoa south-west and south-west by south of us at
5 or 6 miles distance. We then turned our course over to south-west with
a west-north-west wind and a light breeze. In the evening at sunset we
had the western point of the island of Arymoa south-west by south of us
at about 3 1/2 miles distance in calm weather with the wind
west-north-west; we still tacked to south-west. During the first and
second watch of the night we drifted in a calm, the sea still running
from the west-north-west. At the end of the second watch we got a light
breeze from the south-east upon which we set our course due west.

Item the 9th.

In the morning the wind was south by east inclining to a calm. At sunrise
we had the island of Arymoa south by east of us at about 3 or 4 miles
distance; we still continued to steer west. At noon we got a light breeze
from the north. The island of Arymoa then lay south-east by east of us at
3 or 4 miles distance, our course being always west. At noon Latitude
observed 1 degree 35 minutes, Longitude 155 degrees 25 minutes; course
held west by south, sailed 7 miles. Variation 7 degrees 30 minutes. In
the afternoon the wind became north-north-west with good weather. In the
evening at sunset the north side of Arymoa lay east by south of us at 7
miles distance. We took soundings here in 67 fathom, at about 3 miles
distance from the mainland, which was very low-lying here. The wind being
north-west we made for the coast and got into gradually shallowing water,
50, 40, 30 and 35, all good bottom; when 6 glasses in the first watch
were out we sounded in 24 fathom, upon which we tacked about, since the
wind at times was blowing more from shore, so that when about midnight
the wind had gone round to south-west we set our course north-west along
the coast.

Item the 10th.

In the morning the wind was south, our course remaining as before. We
continually sailed here in thick muddy water of green colour, along a low
coast which, by reason of this discharge of water, we supposed to be full
of rivers, but we remained so far from shore that we could not well
discern any rivers. Before noon having set our course north-west we found
that the current caused by the discharge of the rivers was steadily
setting us off the land. At noon Latitude observed 1 degree 17 minutes,
Longitude 155 degrees 12 minutes; course held west-north-west, sailed 12
miles with variable winds. In the afternoon the wind abated and in the
evening in the first watch we drifted in a calm; in the second watch the
wind was variable.

Item the 11th.

At noon the wind came from the south-east with a light breeze. We turned
our course west by south in order to get the land alongside again since
we did not see any. At noon Latitude observed 1 degree 3 minutes,
Longitude 154 degrees 28 minutes; course held west, sailed 12 miles.
Variation 6 degrees 50 minutes North-East. In the evening with a
south-south-east wind we set our course due west. All through the night
we had a fair breeze with occasional calms. It seems however that the
wind is getting to some extent influenced by the eastern monsoon. This
day we had smooth water; the clouds which for some time past had been
driving from the north-west were now at a standstill. We passed some
low-lying land here.

Item the 12th.

In the morning the wind was east by north, our course being west. We
again saw land, lying west by south of us, and set our course straight
for it, when we found it to be Willem Schoutens island. At noon we had
the northern point of it due west of us at about 6 miles distance in good
weather. At noon Latitude observed 54 degrees, Longitude 153 degrees 17
minutes, with an east-south-east wind; course held west, sailed 18 miles.
We continued sailing along it. About an hour before sunset 6 prows put
off from Schoutens island to have a look at us, each prow containing 20,
24, or 25 men, but they were too shy to come alongside; these prows were
about the length of the vessels of the Moluccas, but not so broad; the
men were very expert paddlers, and seemed to be quick and intelligent;
this land, about 18 or 19 miles in length, seems to be fairly well
populated. In the evening at sunset we had the northern point of Willem
Schoutens island west-south-west of us at about 1 1/2 miles distance, so
that we constantly saw the surf break on the shore. This day in the
evening a heavy slow swell rose, coming from the north; what it means we
shall learn in time. The wind still blowing from the east with a light
breeze. In the evening we set our course west towards the most westerly
point so that we sailed along the coast all night.

Item the 13th.

In the morning we were at about 2 miles distance from the western point
of Willem Schoutens island, which was almost due south-west by south of
us; another islet, lying north-west by north of the point just mentioned
at about 3 or 4 miles distance, bore from us north-west. We kept sailing
westward along the coast until the said point was east of us, and then,
in order to get the mainland coast alongside again, we set our course
west-south-west. In the afternoon we got the wind from the south with a
fair breeze. At noon Latitude estimated 54 minutes, Longitude 152 degrees
6 minutes; course held west, sailed 18 miles with an east wind. Variation
6 degrees 30 minutes North-East. In the afternoon the wind turned to the
south-east with rainy weather. We then sighted land again,
south-south-west of us; it was a low-lying coast, forming part of the
mainland of New Guinea. From here we set our course due west; during the
night we had a fair breeze.

Item the 14th.

In the morning we were again close to the mainland coast of New Guinea.
Here the interior was very high like Il do Fermoza; but the foreland was
almost everywhere low or level. We kept sailing to westward along the
coast towards the cape of Good Hope. At noon Latitude observed 48
minutes, Longitude 150 degrees 31 minutes; course held west, sailed 24
miles with an east wind. In the afternoon there was a light breeze; in
the evening it fell a calm; we saw the Cape of Good Hope west and west by
south of us at about 6 miles distance. Eastward of the cape of Good Hope
the land begins to be very high until quite close to the shore, without
having any low foreland; the land is somewhat higher than the island of
Fermoza. We continued on our west by north course to the cape of Hope,
the sea now running from the north-east. During the night we had dark
weather with a drizzling rain, the wind being very variable; afterwards
we drifted in a calm.

Item the 15th.

At noon we had the cape of Good Hope south of us at 3 miles distance;
Latitude estimated 41 minutes, Longitude 149 degrees 53 minutes; course
held west by north, sailed 12 miles. Variation 6 degrees North-East; the
wind variable. In the afternoon the wind was east-north-east with calm
weather. We set our course to westward to the west side of the bay which
Willem Schoutens had sailed into, but had to return from. During the
night we drifted in a calm and made little progress.

Item the 16th.

In the morning we were still drifting in a calm, and saw the western
point of the land at the west side of the bay aforesaid; this western
point lay west of us at about 7 miles distance. At noon it was calm and
we had the western point of the bay south-south-west of us; we set our
course west by north. At noon Latitude observed 16 minutes, Longitude 149
degrees 9 minutes; course held west-north-west, sailed 12 miles.
Variation 5 degrees 50 minutes; the weather calm; in the afternoon it was
calm too, but since the current was carrying us to westward our progress
was greater as measured by the land we passed than by our advance over
the water. This day we saw several small islands near the western point;
we steered our course towards them west by south. In the evening at
sunset the westernmost point of the mainland we saw bore from us west
slightly southerly, at 3 or 4 miles distance, and a small islet lying off
the said point, west slightly northerly, at 3 or 4 miles distance.
Between the mainland and New Guinea and the island last mentioned we saw
the open sea due west of us. We drifted in a calm; at midnight the
land-breeze sprung up and we set our course west by north in order to run
outside the said islet; during the night we had variable winds
alternating with calms.

Item the 17th.

Early in the morning we were close under this island aforesaid at about
one mile distance; we then came upon a shoal and, when sailing over it,
we sounded in the shallowest part 9 fathom, rocky bottom. When we were
past the shoal just mentioned we got deeper water again; but shortly
after, when we had the island south by east of us, we could see the
bottom, the sea being only 7 fathom deep here, bottom as before; this
shoal runs off to north-west from the land aforesaid. We kept holding our
course west by south, and saw still more islands ahead, west of us 5 or 6
of them. At noon the island we had passed bore from us east at about 3
miles distance. During these twenty-four hours we had advanced 9 miles on
a west slightly southerly course. Latitude estimated 20 minutes south of
the equator, Longitude 148 degrees 34 minutes; course held west one third
of a point southerly, sailed 9 miles. In the evening at sunset there lay
west-north-west and north-west by west of us 7 or 8 small islands in a
row, bearing from each other west by north and east by south. We then
passed a number of rocks all overgrown with brushwood; these we left on
our starboard, and four more small islands to larboard, the latter lying
near the mainland coast. The coast of New Guinea here is full of small
bays and projecting points; but there is almost everywhere deep water so
that we run on a mile only from shore; about 4 glasses in the first
watch, off a pretty large bay, we were about 2/3 mile from shore. We took
soundings here in forty fathom, sandy bottom, where we forthwith
anchored. Here we had a large island west by south of us at about 6 miles
distance where in the evening we had seen a passage through between the
mainland coast and the said island.

Item the 18th.

Early in the morning with the landwind we weighed anchor and set sail for
the narrows between the mainland coast and the islands in order to pass
through. Shortly afterward we drifted in a calm; about noon a light
breeze from the west and the current were against us, so that we were
carried back, and at length came to anchor in 16 fathom between an island
and a rock which lay level with the water, the bottom being small coral.
At noon Latitude estimated 26 minutes, Longitude (not recorded) sailed 6
miles. As we lay here the current began to run much stronger in the
afternoon; we are here in 26 minutes South Latitude; variation 5 1/2
degrees North-East. About four o'clock in the afternoon the current began
to change, the ebb-tide running here to west and the flood to east, so
that a west-south-west moon makes high-water here; but since we cannot be
far from the western extremity of New Guinea, as the coast begins to
trend southward here, it is quite possible that the two tides meet here
at the extremity of New Guinea, since before we had the flood from the
east everywhere along the coast of New Guinea. As there was no moon we
remained at anchor during the night for safety. This afternoon several
prows came close to our ship; the men in them said they were Ternatans
and spoke the language of Ternate, spoke with them a long time, and with
kind words tried to get them on board of us, but they pretended to be
timid and afraid; from which we concluded that these men must have been
Tydorese. They returned to the shore with their prows, the wind being
west with good weather. During the night we had a violent current to
westward and frequent whirling currents so that, our anchor quitting its
hold, we had to pay out more cable. For the rest it was calm all through
the night.

Item the 19th.

In the morning the current again began to westward; we weighed anchor and
went under sail, the wind being south by west with good weather; we set
our course south-east by east over to landward, with good dry weather. In
the passage we generally sounded from 25 to 45 and 50 fathom. At this
point there was a good deal of broken land as may be seen in our chart of
the same. At noon Latitude observed 35 minutes, Longitude (not recorded);
course held west-south-west, sailed 7 miles, the wind being south by west
and variable; we tacked about to landward since the wind became south
with occasional calms. In the forenoon, the current setting from the
south-south-west, we anchored in 35 fathom, good sandy bottom. In the
afternoon it fell a dead calm. During the night we had variable currents.

Item the 20th.

In the morning the current ran slightly to south-west and was variable,
the wind blowing from the south-east with a light breeze. We did our best
to tack to the south and pass through between the islands. But a contrary
wind and calms prevented us from making any considerable progress. We
sailed here over a shoal where we sounded 5 fathom, sandy bottom mixed
with shingle, but soon afterwards 25, 30, and 40 fathom, same bottom. In
the forenoon the wind blew from the south so that we went over to
eastward; shortly after noon, the wind being south-south-west, we again
came upon the shoal aforesaid and, as the current was setting strong to
the north-east, we cast anchor in 5 fathom. At this point here the
current runs very strangely, so that in my opinion no certain information
can be given concerning it. Who comes here immediately see it, and must
shape his course accordingly. This point aforesaid of New Guinea mainly
consists of broken land which would take more time in mapping out than we
think necessary to bestow on it. We are satisfied with having discovered
a good passage through, which in future may be of great use to the
Company's ships coming from Peru or Chili at the time of the eastern
monsoon. During the night the wind was southerly with a strong current
setting to the south-west and we remained at anchor.

Item the 21st.

In the morning before daybreak, with the current setting to the
south-west and the wind blowing from the south-east, we weighed anchor
and went under sail with a steady gale and our course set to the
south-west. In the forenoon the wind went about to south by east so that
we made no progress by tacking. About noon we therefore cast anchor under
a small island in 25 fathom, pretty good bottom, in Latitude 38 minutes
South, Longitude (not recorded) course held south, sailed one mile with a
south by east wind; it being our intention, with the first favourable
wind and current that should offer on the coast of New Guinea or near it,
to steer our course for the south until we shall have passed the latitude
of Cape Wedda in the island of Gilolo, from where we can cross as far
north as possible. We sailed close to shore here in order to get some
firewood, of which there was great plenty here. When arrived on the said
island we certainly observed signs of men but did not see any natives. It
would seem that the only persons landing on this island are fishermen who
dry their fish here at certain seasons of the year and then carry the
same to other places to be sold there. Near this islet and round the
whole point along and between the islands there are everywhere currents
as strong (as the old saw has it) as the tide before Flushing pier-head.
In these parts the flood runs northward and the ebb southward, but almost
everywhere here the tides follow the direction of the coast, of the
islands and passages, narrows and straits. In the evening at the end of
the first watch, the wind being south-south-east, we set sail,
endeavouring by tacking to run to the south with a steady breeze.

Item the 22nd.

In the morning, the wind continuing southerly, we kept endeavouring to
run to the south as before, but about noon were again forced to come to
anchor in 35 fathom, sandy bottom, near a small island about 2 miles
south-east by east of the island where we had previously been at anchor,
so that in these twenty-four hours we advanced no more than 2 miles
south-east by east. At noon Latitude observed 40 minutes, Longitude (not
recorded) course held south-east by east, sailed 12 miles.

Item the 23rd.

In the morning, the wind being south-east but inclining to a calm, we set
sail and endeavoured to run to the south. In the forenoon the wind was
variable so that at noon we had progressed about 4 miles to the south by
east. At noon Latitude estimated 55 minutes, Longitude (not recorded)
course held south by east, sailed 4 miles, with variable winds. Variation
4 degrees 30 minutes. Here we again came close under a number of islands
but at first found no anchorage. The coast of New Guinea in these parts
is continually running in and out, with so many windings and so many
large and small islands that there is no counting them. During the
greater part of the night we drifted in a calm; in the evening we had had
soundings in 50 fathom.

Item the 24th.

In the morning we drifted in a calm as before; in the forenoon, the wind
blowing from the south by east, we did our best by tacking to run to the
south, but we made little progress. At noon Latitude observed 1 degree 6
minutes, Longitude (not recorded) course held south-west by west, sailed
3 miles, the wind being south inclining to a calm. We convened the
council with the second mates of the ships Heemskerk and Zeehaan, in
which meeting it was resolved and determined that we should shape our
course above the point of Wedde and towards Ceram, and further navigate
to Batavia, seeing that at this season of the year there is no other
course possible owing to contrary winds and counter-currents; all which
is in extenso set forth in the resolution this day drawn up touching this
matter. In the course of the night we came close to a small islet which
we could not weather, so that we were obliged to anchor there for some
time in 11 fathom, coarse sandy bottom; as we were lying at anchor we
found that the current was setting pretty strong to westward.

Item the 25th.

In the morning, the wind being east-south-east, we weighed anchor and set
sail; we passed through between the two islets. This day we had many
variable winds alternating with calms and rains; we kept doing our best
to run to the south. At noon Latitude observed 1 degree 15 minutes,
Longitude (not recorded) course held south-west by west, sailed 4 miles
with variable winds. During the night we set our course due south by west
and passed a large island to larboard of us.

Item the 26th.

At noon we took no latitude. Latitude estimated 1 degree 38 minutes,
Longitude (not recorded) course held south by west, sailed 11 miles with
variable winds. South-east of us we again saw a large island about 8
miles in length. It extended mainly east-north-east and west-south-west
with many small islands lying off it on the north-west side. We then set
our course south-south-west to run to westward of all these small
islands. In the evening before sunset we still saw 2 high islets
north-west by west of us at about 7 or 8 miles distance, for which we set
our course. We then saw south-south-west of us the whole extent of the
coast of Ceram; we steered straight for it in good calm weather, the wind
then being north-west. During the first and second quarter of the night
we drifted in a calm; in the day-watch we got the wind from the north
with rain.

Item the 27th.

In the morning the wind was chiefly west; the point of the large island
which we had passed the previous evening now bore from us north-east by
north at about 5 miles distance; the wind being westerly with good calm
weather we turned our course over to southward close by the wind towards
the coast of Ceram, from which at noon we were still 5 miles distant, to
wit from the centre of Ceram. At noon Latitude observed 2 degrees 40
minutes, Longitude (not recorded) course held south-south-west, sailed 11
miles with variable winds alternating with calms. At sunset we were still
2 or 2 1/2 miles off the land; the wind continuing westerly, we
endeavoured to run westward, northward of Ceram. During the night we
advanced about 5 or 6 miles with variable winds; in the day-watch it was
mostly calm.

Item the 28th.

In the morning variable winds with rain, thunder and lightning. Since the
landwind was partly blowing from the south we tacked about to westward.
We were now right off the small islands which lie, 6 together, close to
the coast of Ceram, and had the middle of the said coast south-south-west
of us at about 3 miles distance. At noon the westernmost of the said
small islands were south-south-east of us at about 3 or 2 1/2 miles
distance. Today in the forenoon we had had rain. At noon Latitude
estimated 2 degrees 48 minutes South, middle longitude 146 degrees 15
minutes; course held west by south, sailed 10 miles; in the afternoon we
had dry weather, the wind being south-south-east with a light variable
breeze.

Item the 29th.

At noon we had the island of Boona west-south-west of us at about 5 miles
distance; we set our course close along the coast with the intention of
running southward through the straits of Nassouw; at noon Latitude
estimated 2 degrees 52 minutes South, Longitude 145 degrees 15 minutes;
course held west a quarter of a point southerly, sailed 15 miles with the
wind southerly but variable. In the afternoon it was calm, and then the
wind went round to westward of the south with a fair breeze, so that in
the night we were forced to run northward of Boona; during the night the
wind blew from the south; we set our course for the island of Boure as
close to the wind as possible.

Item the 30th.

In the morning we were close under the mainland coast of Boure, along the
north side of which we sailed with good weather and a fair breeze from
the south. At noon we had the north-western point of Boure, known by the
name of Tannewary, south by east of us at 1 1/2 miles distance. At noon
Latitude estimated 3 degrees 8 minutes South, Longitude 143 degrees 52
minutes; course held west by south, sailed 21 miles; in the afternoon we
drifted in a calm under wind going round to westward; we tacked about to
the south in order to be near the land in the evening as we expected the
landwind; during the night we got a light land-breeze; course held west
by south along the land.

Item the 31st.

In the forenoon we had variable winds alternating with calms. At noon we
had the western point of Boure, known by the name of Tamahoo, south of us
about 3 miles distance. About one o'clock in the afternoon, the wind
becoming south with a steady breeze, we set our course over to westward.
At noon Latitude estimated 3 degrees 15 minutes, Longitude 147 degrees 17
minutes; course held west by south. Towards evening the wind went round
to the south-east; we shaped our course to south-west with a steady
breeze and good dry weather. During the night, at the end of the first
watch, the wind became east-south-east and we set our course south-west
by west for the entrance of the strait of Botton, because we intended to
pursue our course through the said strait and then to the Booqueroenis.

Item the 1st of June.

In the morning the wind kept blowing from the east-south-east with good
dry weather and a fair breeze; we set our course west-south-west for the
northern point of the island of Botton. At noon Latitude observed 4
degrees 13 minutes, Longitude 141 degrees 5 minutes; course held
south-west by west, sailed 26 miles with an east-south-east wind. In the
afternoon we sighted the strait of Botton. We sailed in the strait in the
evening and during the night with variable winds alternating with calms,
and endeavoured to continue our voyage through the strait to the south.

Item the 2nd.

In the morning at sunrise we had advanced into the strait a distance of
about 3 miles. In the afternoon we drifted in a calm, the current being
against us. We cast anchor close to the coast of Boutton in 26 fathom,
stiff ground; here we found two junks at anchor, of which the Supercargo
forthwith came on board of us and showed us their passports which they
had obtained from the Honourable Governor Gerrit Demmer, with which
passports they were going to Byma to return afterwards to Amboyna or to
Batavia. The names of the Anachgoddes of the junks were Mouna and
Jurregan Wanga, besides there was still a free black, Hendrick Jansz of
Solor, ensign of the Green Beggars. From them we learned that the
Honourable Anthony Caen had arrived at Amboyna with a number of vessels
with destination for Ternate. They also told us that the ship Hollandia
was reported to have been lost on her way from Batavia to Amboyna, but
whether this is true we shall learn in time. At noon Latitude estimated 4
degrees 32 minutes, Longitude 141 degrees 3 minutes; course held
west-south-west, sailed 13 miles with variable winds. During the night
when 4 glasses in the first watch had run out and the current began to
set southwards we set sail; all through the night the wind was very
variable but chiefly south; we did what we could by tacking.

Item the 3rd.

We kept tacking as before, the wind being southerly. At noon we were full
in the first narrows, with the wind northerly but with frequent calms. At
noon Latitude estimated 4 degrees 54 minutes South, Longitude 140 degrees
59 minutes; course kept south by west, sailed 6 miles. In the afternoon
we had heavy rains; shortly before the evening we anchored in a calm one
mile past the first narrows in 30 fathom, good stiff ground, the current
setting to northward. About midnight with still water we weighed anchor
and set sail but there was hardly any breeze, so that we made little
progress.

Item the 4th.

In the morning we still drifted in a calm. At noon Latitude estimated 5
degrees 10 minutes South, Longitude 140 degrees 56 minutes; course kept
south by west, sailed 4 miles with variable winds. At 4 o'clock in the
afternoon we got the wind from the south-east and set our course
south-south-west straight for the narrows lying close to Boutton; this is
the narrowest part of the strait of Boutton, where we cast anchor after
midnight close to the island in 12 fathom, stiff ground.

Item the 5th.

Early in the morning we weighed anchor in a calm but, as the ebb-tide had
nearly run out, two hours before noon we anchored in the middle of the
narrows with our kedge-anchor in 45 fathom, hard bottom. At noon Latitude
estimated 5 degrees 5 minutes South, Longitude 140 degrees 52 minutes;
course kept south by west, sailed 3 1/2 miles with variable winds and
rain. In the afternoon at early ebbtide and in a calm, being engaged in
weighing our kedge-anchor, we found that it had got under a rock and were
forced to let it go, continuing our voyage to Boutton, so as in the
evening to get clear of the straits south of Boutton, with a south wind
alternating with calms. In the evening after the setting of the first
watch the steward's mate Jan Pietersz of Meldrop, whom we had put on
board the flute-ship until such time as we should arrive at Batavia, on
account of certain charges that had been brought against him, and of
misdemeanours of which he was suspected, let himself overboard into the
sea by means of rope and swam to shore at Botton. During the night the
wind was northerly with a light breeze; course held west-south-west.

Item the 6th.

In the morning the middle of the island of Camboona was north-west of us
at about 2 1/2 miles distance; the wind being easterly and our course
held west by south. At noon we had the western point of Camboona north by
west of us at 3 miles distance. At noon Latitude estimated 5 degrees 43
minutes, Longitude 140 degrees 11 minutes; course held west-south-west,
sailed 11 miles. In the afternoon we had a steady breeze from the east by
south. During the night at the end of the second watch we passed the
islet known as the Booquernoenis in good, clear, dry weather.

Item the 7th.

At noon we had the western point of the high land of Turatte
north-north-east of us at about 3 miles distance; course held
west-north-west along the coast in dry weather and with a steady east
wind. At noon Latitude estimated 6 degrees South, Longitude 138 degrees 1
minute; course held west half a point southerly, the wind being east with
a steady breeze. In the evening at sunset we set our course west by
south, straight for the great shoal which we passed over at midnight in
13 fathom, rocky bottom.

Item the 8th.

In the morning we had a steady south-east wind. About 3 hours before noon
we passed over a large rocky reef, sounding 6 fathom in the shallowest
part. We quite distinctly saw the bottom which was strewn with large
stones. At noon Latitude observed 6 degrees 2 minutes, Longitude 135
degrees 21 minutes; course held west, sailed 40 miles with a south-east
wind; afterwards we set our course west by south in good weather.

Item the 9th.

South-east monsoon with good, dry weather. At noon the island of Maduere
was by estimation at 8 miles distance, south-south-west of us. At noon
Latitude observed 6 degrees 15 minutes; course held west by south, sailed
26 miles; Longitude 133 degrees 49 minutes.

Item the 10th.

Good dry weather; we took soundings in 35 fathom. At noon Latitude
observed 6 degrees 26 minutes, Longitude 132 degrees 29 minutes; course
held west by south, sailed 20 miles; in the evening we had the western
extremity of the island of Lubock north by west of us at 4 miles
distance.

Item the 11th.

In the morning the wind kept blowing from the south-east; we saw the line
of the coast of Java, near Lubuan; at noon it fell a calm; Latitude
estimated 6 degrees 26 minutes, Longitude 131 degrees 23 minutes; course
held west, sailed 16 1/2 miles. We had here both sea and landwind; a
light mild breeze; in the afternoon the wind became south with a fair
breeze. We set our course west; in the evening the mountain of Lubuan was
due south of us; then we also saw the high mountain of Japare, and the
islet of Mandelycke, which bore from us due west by south, at about 6
miles distance.

Item the 12th.

In the morning we drifted in a calm; towards noon the sea-wind sprang up
from the north-east; course held west by south. At noon we had the islet
of Mandelycke east by south of us at 4 miles distance, and the central
land of Crymon Java north-north-west of us at 6 miles distance. At noon
Latitude observed 6 degrees 27 minutes, Longitude 130 degrees 33 minutes;
course held west by south half a point westerly, sailed 12 miles with
land and sea-wind. In the afternoon, the wind becoming north-east with a
fair breeze, we set our course west by north. In the evening at sunset
the island of Crymon Java lay north-east by north north-north-east of us;
we continued sailing on a west by north course as before.

Item the 13th.

In the morning the wind was south-east; at noon we had the mountain of
Cerebon south-east by south of us, and the Boomtjes island west of us at
10 miles distance by estimation; course held as before in calm weather.
At noon Latitude observed 6 degrees, Longitude 129 degrees 3 minutes;
course held west by north, sailed 23 miles with land and sea-wind. We
then shaped our course west by south in order to make Poulo Rakit and the
coast of Java; in the evening at sunset we had Poulo Rakit west by north
of us at about 5 miles distance, the wind being east-south-east with calm
weather, the mountain of Cerabon bearing from us south by west. During
the night we kept sailing along the coast with the landwind in 20 or 21
fathom, stiff ground.

Item the 14th.

In the morning we passed the point with the grove of trees; we had the
landwind with a fair breeze and thus sailed along the land in depths of
from 18 to 15 fathom, until we got near the shallows of the Schadelycken
Hoek. At noon Latitude estimated 6 degrees 3 minutes South, Longitude 127
degrees 59 minutes; course held west, sailed 21 miles. At noon we came
upon the shallows of the Schadelycken Hoek which we rounded sounding in 7
or 8 fathom. At the end of the shoal we saw an English ship lying with
flags from her main and mizzen-tops; on our approach she weighed anchor
and sailed eastward, but for what port we do not know. In the evening at
sunset we had the point of Carauan south-west of us at about 4 miles
distance. We set our course along the coast, having the wind still along
shore; during the night we passed through between the islands of Leyden
and Enckhuyzen; when we had advanced a quarter of a mile between these
islands we dropped anchor in 11 fathom, stiff ground; Latitude estimated
6 degrees 12 minutes, Longitude 127 degrees 18 minutes; course held west
by north and west-north-west, sailed 11 miles.

Item the 15th.

In the morning at daybreak I went to Batavia in the pinnace. God be
praised and thanked for this happy voyage.

Amen.

Done in the ship Heemskerk, date as above.

Your Worships' obedient and ever obliged servant,

ABEL JANS TASMAN.

...


INSTRUCTIONS TO TASMAN FOR HIS VOYAGE OF 1644.

EXTRACT FROM THE BOOK OF DESPATCHES FROM BATAVIA; COMMENCING JANUARY THE
15TH, 1644, AND ENDING NOVEMBER THE 29TH FOLLOWING.

Instructions for the commodore, Captain Abel Jansz Tasman, the skipper
chief-pilot, Franz Jacobsz Visser, and the counsel of the yachts Limmen
and Zeemeuw, and the tender de Brak, destined for a nearer discovery of
New Guinea and the unknown coasts of the discovered east and south lands,
together with the channels and the islands supposed to be situated
between and near them.

The several successive administrations of India, in order to enlarge and
extend the trade of the Dutch East India company, have zealously
endeavoured to make an early discovery of the great land of New Guinea
and other unknown east and southerly countries, as you know by several
discourses, and maps, journals, and papers communicated to you. But
hitherto with little success, although several voyages have been
undertaken.

1st. By order of the president, John Williamson Verschoor, who at that
time directed the company's trade at Bantam, which was in the year 1606,
with the yacht the Duyfken, who in their passage sailed by the islands
Key and Aroum, and discovered the south and west coast of New Guinea for
about 220 miles (880) from 5 to 13 3/4 degrees south latitude: and found
this extensive country, for the greater part desert, but in some places
inhabited by wild, cruel black savages, by whom some of the crew were
murdered; for which reason they could not learn anything of the land or
waters, as had been desired of them, and by want of provisions and other
necessaries they were obliged to leave the discovery unfinished: the
furthest point of the land was called in their map Cape Keer-Weer,
situated in 13 3/4 degrees South.

The second voyage was undertaken with a yacht in the year 1617 by order
of the Fiscal D'Edel, with little success, of which adventures and
discoveries, through the loss of their journals and remarks, nothing
certain is to be found.

From this time the further discoveries of the unknown east and south
countries were postponed until the year 1623 on account of there being no
ships to spare; but in the interim, in the year 1619, a ship named the
Arms of Amsterdam, destined to Banda, drove past that place and touched
at the south coast of New Guinea, where some of the crew were murdered by
the savage inhabitants, wherefore they acquired no certain knowledge of
the country.

But in the meantime, in the years 1616, 1618, 1619 and 1622, the west
coast of this great unknown south land from 35 to 22 degrees South
Latitude was discovered by outward-bound ships, and among them by the
ship Eendraght; for the nearer discovery of which the governor-general,
Jan Pietersz Coen (of worthy memory) in September, 1622, despatched the
yachts De Haring and Harewind; but this voyage was rendered abortive by
meeting the ship Mauritius, and searching after the ship Rotterdam.

In consequence of which, by order of His excellency, the third voyage was
undertaken in the month of January 1623, with the yachts Pera and Arnhem
out of Amboina, under the command of Jan Carstens; with order to make a
nearer friendship with the inhabitants of the islands Key, Aroum, and
Tenimber, and better to discover New Guinea and the south lands, when an
alliance was made with the said islands and south coast of New Guinea
nearer discovered. The skipper, with eight of the crew of the yacht
Arnhem, was treacherously murdered by the inhabitants; and after a
discovery of the great islands Arnhem and the Spult (by an untimely
Separation) this yacht, with very little success, came back to Amboina.

But the yacht Pera, persisting in the voyage, sailed along the south
coast of New Guinea to a flat cove on this coast, situated in 10 degrees
south latitude, and ran along the west coast of this land to Cape
Keer-Weer, from thence discovered the coast farther southward as far as
17 degrees South to Staten River (from this place what more of the land
could be discerned seemed to stretch westward) and from thence returned
to Amboina.

In this discovery were found everywhere shallow water and barren coast;
islands altogether thinly peopled by divers cruel, poor, and brutal
nations, and of very little use to the Company. Countries may be seen on
the maps which were made of them.

Through the little success of this third voyage, but mostly because no
ships could be spared, the discovery was again omitted until 1636, but in
the interim, in the year 1627, the south coast of the great south land
was accidentally discovered by the ship Gulde Zeepard, outward bound from
Fatherland, for the space of 250 miles (1000) and again accidentally in
the year following, 1628, on the north side in the latitude of 21 degrees
South, by the ship Vianen, homeward bound from India when they coasted
about 50 miles (200) without gaining any particular knowledge of this
great country, only observing a foul and barren shore, green fields and
very wild, black, barbarous inhabitants; all which, by the loss of the
ship Batavia and the cruelties and miseries which followed from that, if
fully proved, and was experienced by the crew of the yacht Sardam, in
their course along this coast.

At last the fourth voyage was undertaken (in our government) in the month
of April 1636 from Banda with the yachts Clyn, Amsterdam and Wesel, under
the command of Gerrit Tomasz Pool for the discovery of the east and south
lands; when they first discovered the coast of New Guinea in 3 1/2
degrees south latitude, and coasted about sixty miles (240) to the
eastward to 5 degrees South, when the commodore Pool, with three of the
crew (by the barbarous inhabitants) was murdered at the same place where
the skipper of that yacht Arnhem was killed in the year 1623.

Notwithstanding which the voyage was assiduously continued under the
supercargo Pieter Pietersz and, the islands Key and Arnoum visited by
very strong easterly winds, they could not reach the west coast to New
Guinea but, shaping their course very near south, described the coast of
Arnhem or Van Diemen's Land in 11 degrees south latitude, and sailed
along the coast for 30 miles (120) without seeing any people, but many
signs of smoke; when, turning towards the north, they visited the unknown
islands of Timor Laut and the known islands of Tenimber, Kauwer, etc.,
but without ever being able to converse with the inhabitants who were a
very timid people when, after three months cruising, they returned in
July to Banda, without (in this voyage) having done or discovered
anything of consequence; which may be seen by the journals and maps.

After the little success in these voyages nothing further was attempted
on discovery to the eastward, but last year (under your direction) the
discovery of the remaining unknown south lands was assiduously
reattempted; and in that remarkable voyage was that great unknown Staten
and Van Diemen's Land discovered from 35 to 43 degrees south latitude,
and at the same time the (so long wished for) passage to the South Sea,
but it is unnecessary to relate more here as you are perfectly acquainted
with all particulars.

But to obtain a thorough knowledge of these extensive countries, the
discovery whereof has been begun (in consequence of the intention of the
Company and the recommendation of our masters) now only remains for the
future to discover whether New Guinea is one continent with that great
south land, or separated by channels and islands lying between them; and
also whether that New Van Diemen's Land is the same continent with these
two great countries or with one of them or, if separated from them, what
islands may be dispersed between New Guinea and the unknown south land
when, after more experience and knowledge of all the said known and
unknown countries, we shall be better enabled for further undertakings.

After considering all that is above related and, by our estimate of the
present strength of the Company's naval forces, it is found that, without
prejudice to the ordinary trading and warlike expeditions, two or three
yachts could be spared, it is therefore resolved in the Council of India
to equip the yachts Limmen, the Zeemeuw, and the Brak for the further
discovery of the east and south lands to furnish them well with all
necessaries, and commit them to your conduct, in confidence that you will
with courage, vigilance, prudence, good order, and the requisite
perseverance, skilfully direct this important voyage in such a manner as
to be capable to give an account on your return fully to our contentment.

1st. You shall early tomorrow morning, after mustering your men, proceed
to sea in company and steer a course to Macassar, Amboina, and Banda, as
the service of the Company shall require, and by separate instructions
you are commanded, by which you are entirely to regulate your voyage to
the above places.

On your arrival at Amboina and Banda you shall plentifully stock your
yachts with water, fuel, and all other necessaries; in the time you are
there the crews are to be supplied with all sorts of fresh provisions,
and well provided for the voyage, for which purpose this shall be an
order to the vice-governors Gerrit Demmer and Cornelis Witzen, to whom
you have to communicate your instructions and demand in writing the
further knowledge they may have of the countries situated to the east of
Banda; and particularly the journal of the commodore Carstens, which we
think may still be found there, and be of some service to you on the
voyage.

But by this we by no means intend you shall spend time unprofitably, but
despatch everything so assiduously that you may leave Banda in the latter
end of February, when the west monsoon had set in, fixing, with the
advice of the council, instructions for the signals at the beginning of
your voyage, in which particularly is to be inserted by what method the
yachts may join, in case (which God prevent) they by storm or other
accidents were separated, upon which the good success of the intended
voyage chiefly depends.

After fulfilling your orders at Amboina and Banda you shall (as is
mentioned) in the latter end of February (or sooner if possible)
undertake in the name of God the voyage you are ordered upon, and steer
your course eastward between and in view of the islands Tenimber, Key,
and Aroum, to the point True or False Cape situated in 8 degrees on the
south of New Guinea; from which place you are to continue eastward along
the coast till 9 degrees south latitude, crossing prudently the cove at
that place looking about the high island or Spelut's River with the
yachts for a harbour, and to inspect into the state of the country;
dispatching the tender Brak for two or three days into the cove in order
to discover whether within the great inlet there is not to be found an
entrance into the South Sea which soon may be determined by the current
of the streams. From this place you are to coast along the west coast of
New Guinea to the farthest discoveries in 170 degrees South latitude,
following this coast farther as it may run west of southward.

But it is to be feared you will meet in these parts with South-East
trade-winds, by which it will be difficult to keep the coast on board, if
stretching to the South-East, but notwithstanding this endeavour by all
means to proceed, by reason that we may be sure whether this land is
divided from the great known south continent or not, which by the great
and slow swell from the South-East may well be perceived; in which case
you shall try (if possible) to run so far to the South-East as the New
Van Diemen's Land, and from thence to the islands of St. Peter and St.
Francois, to learn the situation of these to the northward, and at the
same time to be assured (which is much wished for) a passage to the South
Sea between them and the known south land, which found (as we presume and
hope) you ought, returning through the discovered passage, to steer along
the east coast of the known south land according to its trending,
following its direction to the westward to De Wit's Land and William's
River in 22 degrees south latitude, when the known south land would be
entirely circumnavigated and discovered to be the largest island of the
globe.

But if (as we presume) the land of New Guinea is joined to the south land
and in consequence is one continent, you will be enabled by the
South-East trade-wind to run along the north coast from 17 to 22 degrees
South, and this entirely to discover this land from whence (if wind and
weather by any means will permit) you shall steer along the land of De
Eendragt to Houtman's Abrolhos, and come to an anchor at a fit place
thereabout; and endeavour to find a chest containing eight thousand rix
dollars that remained in the wreck of the ship Batavia, a brass half
cartow having fallen on that chest when it foundered at that place in the
year 1629, and which the crew of the yacht Sardam dragged for in vain. At
the same time you shall (if possible) recover that piece, by this you
will render service to the Company, for which reason be not negligent in
the discharge of your duty.

Likewise inquire at the continent thereabout after two Dutchmen who,
having forfeited their lives, were put on shore by the commodore Francois
Pelsart, if still alive, in which case you may make your inquiries of
them about the situation of these countries, and if they entreat you to
that purpose give them passage hither; on this occasion you ought to
search for a good water and refreshing place about the 26 or 28 degrees
South latitude, which would be a desirable thing for the outwardbound
ships.

But if the late time of the year and the appearance of storms will not
permit you to reach Houtman's Shoal which, after experience, we leave to
yours and the council's own judgment, consider how you have to sail again
from William's River to the east, along the coast of the south land and
from De Wit's Land, by the help of the South-East trade-wind, to run
across very near eastward to complete the discovery of Arnhem's and Van
Diemen's Lands; and to ascertain perfectly whether these lands are not
one and the same island, and what these places produce; likewise what
other islands besides Baly, Sumbava, and Timor may be situated about the
south land.

After all this (by the help of God) shall be fortunately transacted,
which we hope can be done before the end of the month of June (having
either reached Houtman's Abrolhos or Van Diemen's Land) you have to steer
your course to the south coast of Java, and along the coast through the
Strait of Sunda to return to Batavia: at which place we shall expect you
in July following attended with good success.

Of all the lands, countries, islands, capes, points or coves, inlets,
bays, rivers, shoals, reefs, sands, cliffs, rocks, etc., which you meet
with and pass in this discovery, as well upon the coast of New Guinea and
the south land, as in the Indian Ocean and inland seas, you are to make
accurate maps and circumstantial descriptions and to draw perfectly the
views and from, for which purpose a draughtsman is to go along with you.

Be particularly careful about longitude and latitude, in what direction
and at what distances all coasts, islands, capes, points, bays and rivers
are situated from one and the other, and what are the marks by which they
may be known, as mountains, hills, trees, or buildings to be seen
thereupon.

Take a thorough survey of the depth of the water near the shore and of
the sunken rocks, the rapid current of the rivers at the points, how and
by what marks they are to be avoided, and if the bottom is hard, soft,
sharp, flat, sloping, or steep, and if they may be approached or not, by
the soundings; upon what marks the best anchoring places in harbours and
bays are to be found, how the inlets and rivers are to be entered, what
winds usually blow in the different parts; the course of the streams,
whether ebb and flood are regulated by the moon or wind; what alterations
of monsoon, rains or dry weather you experience; and observed farther
diligently to remark and note down (which is the duty of all able pilots)
whatever may be of service in future voyages to the discovered countries.

The time of the year will doubtless not permit, by the shortening of the
days, to lose any time, but carefully and diligently to proceed; for the
above reason it is consequence to discover as much and in as short a time
as possible.

Nevertheless to discover in a proper manner the coasts of the east, and
south land, it will be necessary in good time now and then to anchor in
proper places, always looking for and choosing such bays and harbours as
with the least danger may be entered and left, where you may lie in
safety, and which by accidental winds or for other reasons you may soon
quit.

But be particularly careful, circumspect and prudent in landing with
small craft, because (as above-mentioned) at several times New Guinea has
been found to be inhabited by cruel wild savages and, as it is uncertain
what sort of people the inhabitants of the south lands are, it may rather
be presumed that they are also wild and barbarous savages than a
civilised people, for which reason you ought always to be upon your guard
and well armed; because in all countries of the globe experience has
taught us no savages are to be trusted, by reason they always suppose
people who appear so unexpectedly and strangely to them are only come to
invade their country; all which is proved in the discovery of America and
the Indies, by the surprise and murdering many careless and unwary
discoverers, many times to the ruin of their voyages.

When you meet and converse with any of these savages behave well and
friendly to them; do not take notice of little affronts or thefts which
they practice upon you, because resentment might create disgust; but try
by all means to engage their affection to you, the better to learn from
them the state of their country, particularly if any thing for the
service of the company may be done there.

You are also to inquire as much as time will permit into the productions
of their country, the fruits and animals, the buildings, the shape and
faces of the people, their clothing, arms, morals, manners, food, trade,
religion, government, war, and everything worthy of remark; particularly
whether they are peaceable or malicious.

You are to show the samples of the goods which you carry along with you,
to inquire what materials and goods they possess, and what is wanted of
ours; all which you are closely to observe, well to annotate, and
correctly to describe; for which reason you are to keep a very
circumstantial journal wherein all particulars may be perfectly inserted,
by which upon your return you may give a satisfactory report to us.

If any country be discovered peopled by a civilised nation (as apparently
will not be the case) you may depend more upon them than upon the wild
savages; try to converse with their governors and subjects, and to
establish an acquaintance; inform them you come there to trade, show them
the goods in proper order; for this purpose laden on board both the
yachts and the tender, amounting to the sum of 2809 guilders, 17 stivers,
and three penningen, of all which the junior merchants have to keep books
in proper order, by which they (when called upon) may be enabled to give
a satisfactory account.

Showing the samples and goods, you and the junior merchants are carefully
to remark what good the strange nations most esteem and to which they are
most inclined; likewise inquire what merchants and goods they possess,
particularly after gold and silver, and whether these metals are held in
great esteem; to keep them ignorant of the precious value seem not
greedily after it; if they offer to barter for your goods seem not to
convert these minerals, but show them copper, tutenag (zinc) pewter and
lead, as if these were of more value to us. If you find them inclined to
trade keep the goods which they seem most greedy after at so high a value
that none may be sold nor bartered without great profit, likewise take
nothing but what you are convinced will turn out profitable to the
Company, which in trading you will learn. It will be particularly
necessary to bring samples of the most rare things to be found there, and
of all the rest exact account, to see what return from thence can be
made, and for the future may be serviceable.

You are prudently to prevent all insolences and maltreatment of the
ship's crew against the discovered nations, and to take care by no means
to insult them in their houses, gardens, ships, possessions, nor women,
etc. Likewise not to carry away any inhabitant against their will, but if
a few voluntarily should be inclined to go along with you then you are
permitted to bring them to this place.

We have here expressed in general our intentions respecting a voyage you
are to undertake but, as upon all that may occur no precise orders can be
given, we leave the rest to your zeal, vigilance and good conduct,
likewise to the council's prudent dispositions, in a full hope and
confidence you will in this expedition be so vigilant as to succeed to
the service of the Company, when we will not be backward to recompense
your endeavours as you may merit; for if in this voyage are discovered
any countries, islands or passages profitable to the Company we promise
you by this to reward the conductors and well-behaving ships' crew with
such premiums as we shall find their good service to have merited, upon
which you all may depend. Likewise you are to fix a competent premium to
those who first shall perceive an unknown country, island, shoal, rock,
or dangerous foul ground, in order to avoid as much as possible all
misfortunes.

To prevent any other European nation from reaping (perhaps) the fruits of
our labour and expenses in these discoveries you are everywhere to take
possession, in the name and by the orders of the Dutch East India
Company, of the countries and islands you may arrive at not inhabited by
savages; to put up some signs, for instance, plant trees, sow some fruit
trees, erect a stone or post, and to cut or carve in them the arms of the
Netherlands or of the Company, and in what year and at what time such a
land was discovered and taken in possession, declaring further in
intention by the first opportunity to send people thither from hence, and
to establish a colony to secure the property near to us.

But if it happens (which is not unlikely) that you discover some
countries or islands that may have a polished government you are to
endeavour with its chiefs or governors (in the name as above) to make
contract upon the most advantageous terms you possibly can obtain,
including a resignation (if they are inclined to do such) or permission
to frequent the place exclusive of all other nations; or other advantages
for the Company; all which you must note down circumstantially in your
journals, expressing the names and qualities of those whom you shall have
treated, to serve the Company when it may be wanted.

In order this dangerous voyage, according to these instructions and our
good intentions, may be well regulated and finished, good order kept
among the crew, right and justice administered conformable to the general
articles; and everything (which upon so dangerous and long a voyage may
happen to be required) be done and transacted to the greatest service of
the Company; we appoint by this the Honourable Abel Jansz Tasman
commodore of the three yachts and the crew which sail with them; we
authorise him to hoist the pendant on board the yacht Limmen, to assemble
the council, and whereof he is to be constantly president: command in
consequence the officers, soldiers and sailors (nobody excepted)
appointed upon the yachts Limmen, De Zeemeuw, and De Brak, to acknowledge
and obey him as their chief and commander; to support him by good advice
and assiduity, to the forwarding of the voyage and the ordered discovery
of the unknown countries, as is the duty of vigilant and faithful
servants, in such a manner as, upon return, everyone may be able to
answer.

The council of the three yachts shall consist of the following persons:

The commodore: Abel Jansz Tasman Constantly President.
The skipper chief pilot Francois Jacobs, of the Limmen.
The skipper Dirk Cornelisz Haan, of the Zeemeuw.
Supercargo Isaac Gissmans of the Zeemeuw.
The skipper Jasper Jansz Koops of the Brak.
Cryn Henderiskz, First mate of the Limmen.
Carsten Jurjansz, First mate of the Zeemeuw.
Cornelis Robol, First mate of the Brak.
The junior merchant Anthony Blauw, as councillor or secretary.

By this council shall all occurring business towards forwarding the
voyage, fulfilling our orders, and administering of justice, be concluded
upon and transacted: if it so happen there is an equal number of votes
the commodore is to have two votes; but in cases of navigation and
discovery of countries the second mates shall also assist with advising
votes, all which the commodore shall collect, and determine by the
majority of the concluding votes, taking care to have all resolutions
instantly truly registered and strictly complied with the service of the
Company.

In the council of each particular yacht the junior merchant or bookkeeper
and high boatswains shall be called as directed in the orders of our
masters.

If the commodore Tasman (which God forbid) should decease such a person
shall succeed him as in our sealed act is nominated, which in every
respect conformable to this instruction in manner his predecessor
commanded, and (as is right) he shall be obeyed.

The yachts are manned with 111 persons, and amongst them one officer and
16 soldiers. Namely:

In the Limmen: 45 sailors, 11 soldiers; in all 56 persons.
In the Zeemeuw: 35 sailors, 6 soldiers; in all 41 persons.
In the Brak: 14 sailors, 0 soldiers; in all 14 persons.

94 sailors, 17 soldiers: total 111 persons.

All well provided with all necessary ammunition, tools, and utensils, and
for eight months plentifully victualled. Manage everything well and
orderly, take notice you see the ordinary portion of two meat and two
pork days, and a quarter of vinegar, a half quarter of sweet oil per
week, and a half quarter of arrack per day regularly distributed. Each
yacht carries a leaguer and 120 quarts of strong arrack (the Brak is
provided from the Zeemeuw) which must be carefully distributed in the
cold climate for the health of the people. Notwithstanding you are
plentifully stocked with waterbuts manage particularly fresh water and
fuel to prevent wanting it; as you would then be obliged to search after
it, to the retarding of your voyage, or return without success, to your
shame and the great detriment of the Company, which has been at great
expense in equipping these yachts; and for these reasons, by industry and
prudence, ought to be prevented from suffering.

We give then no further instruction and leave to your and the council's
good conduct and advice what you will have more to do upon this voyage;
only recommending seriously in all emergencies to use such prudence as
may keep the Company's valuable ships and people out of all dangers as
much as can be done. For the better to answer this purpose we do not
approve the commodore much to leave shipboard, but to stay in the yacht,
unless (with advice of the council) the Company's service may require the
contrary in order to avoid the object being neglected by any unforeseen
misfortune in this important voyage.

To conclude this instruction we wish you the protection and blessings of
Omnipotence, which we pray to inspire you with manly courage for the
intended discoveries, and after finishing to return in safety, to the
expanding of His glory, reputation to the mother country, the service of
the Company, our contentment, and to your own everlasting honour.

Out of the castle, Batavia, this 29th day of January, 1644, signed,

ANTONIO VAN DIEMEN, CORNELIS VAN DE LYN, JOAN MAATSUIKER, JUSTUS
SCHOUTEN, AND SALOMON SWEERS.

...

South land seal-up Commission for the Successor of the Commodore Abel
Jansz Tasman, in case of his Decease.

In consideration of the uncertainty of life in the human race, and the
disorders which many times arise from the loss of those in command, and
to prevent as much as possible all evil, we have found good to order, as
we do by this: that if the skipper, commodore Abel Jansz Tasman, upon
this voyage of discovery should decease (which God forbid) the skipper of
the yacht the Zeemeuw, Dirk Cornelisz Haan, shall succeed in his place,
shall be acknowledged and obeyed as chief, and receive and follow this
our instruction given to Tasman as given to himself.

In this case, for the service of the Company, is this our meaning and
desire.

Out of the castle, Batavia, day and date as above.



End of this Project Gutenberg of Australia eBook
THE JOURNAL OF ABEL TASMAN.





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