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Title:      The Red and The Black
Author:     Stendhal [Henri Beyle, 1783-1842]
            translation by C. K. Scott Moncrieff [1889-1930]
* A Project Gutenberg of Australia eBook *
eBook No.:  0300261.txt
Edition:    1
Language:   English
Character set encoding:     ASCII--7 bit
Date first posted:          March 2003
Date most recently updated: March 2003

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A Project Gutenberg of Australia eBook

Title:      The Red and The Black
Author:     Stendhal [Henri Beyle, 1783-1842]
            translation by C. K. Scott Moncrieff [1889-1930]




By Stendhal
[Henri Beyle, 1783-1842]

translation by C. K. Scott Moncrieff


To O. H. H.

who had every word of both volumes read to her when she was powerless to

C. K. S. M.

Leghorn and Pisa July-December 1925


This work was on the point of publication when the great events of July
took place and turned every mind in a direction which does not encourage
the play of the imagination. We have reason to believe that the following
pages were written in 1827.

[Stendhal's note in first French edition]


  The truth, the harsh truth



Chapter 1 A Small Town

Chapter 2 A Mayor

Chapter 3 The Bread of the Poor

Chapter 4 Father and Son

Chapter 5 Driving a Bargain

Chapter 6 Dullness

Chapter 7 Elective Affinities

Chapter 8 Minor Events

Chapter 9 An Evening in the Country

Chapter 10 A Large Heart and a Small Fortune

Chapter 11 Night Thoughts

Chapter 12 A Journey

Chapter 13 Open-work Stockings

Chapter 14 The English Scissors

Chapter 15 Cock-crow

Chapter 16 The Day After

Chapter 17 The Principal Deputy

Chapter 18 A King at Verrieres

Chapter 19 To Think Is To Be Full of Sorrow

Chapter 20 The Anonymous Letters

Chapter 21 Conversation with a Lord and Master

Chapter 22 Manners and Customs in 1830

Chapter 23 The Sorrows of a High Office

Chapter 24 A Capital

Chapter 25 The Seminary

Chapter 26 The World, or What the Rich Lack

Chapter 27 First Experience of Life

Chapter 28 A Procession

Chapter 29 The First Step

Chapter 30 Ambition

A Small Town

  Put thousands together
  Less bad,
  But the cage less gay.

The small town of Verrieres may be regarded as one of the most
attractive in the Franche-Comte. Its white houses with their high
pitched roofs of red tiles are spread over the slope of a hill, the
slightest contours of which are indicated by clumps of sturdy
chestnuts. The Doubs runs some hundreds of feet below its
fortifications, built in times past by the Spaniards, and now in

Verrieres is sheltered on the north by a high mountain, a spur of the
Jura.  The jagged peaks of the Verra put on a mantle of snow in the
first cold days of October. A torrent which comes tearing down from
the mountain passes through Verrieres before emptying its waters into
the Doubs, and supplies power to a great number of sawmills; this is
an extremely simple industry, and procures a certain degree of comfort
for the majority of the inhabitants, who are of the peasant rather
than of the burgess class. It is not, however, the sawmills that have
made this little town rich. It is to the manufacture of printed
calicoes, known as Mulhouse stuffs, that it owes the general
prosperity which, since the fall of Napoleon, has led to the refacing
of almost all the houses in Verrieres.

No sooner has one entered the town than one is startled by the din of
a noisy machine of terrifying aspect. A score of weighty hammers,
falling with a clang which makes the pavement tremble, are raised
aloft by a wheel which the water of the torrent sets in motion. Each
of these hammers turns out, daily, I cannot say how many thousands of
nails. A bevy of fresh, pretty girls subject to the blows of these
enormous hammers, the little scraps of iron which are rapidly
transformed into nails. This work, so rough to the outward eye, is one
of the industries that most astonish the traveller who ventures for
the first time among the mountains that divide France from
Switzerland. If, on entering Verrieres, the traveller inquires to whom
belongs that fine nail factory which deafens everybody who passes up
the main street, he will be told in a drawling accent: 'Eh! It belongs
to the Mayor.'

Provided the traveller halts for a few moments in this main street of
Verrieres, which runs from the bank of the Doubs nearly to the summit
of the hill, it is a hundred to one that he will see a tall man
appear, with a busy, important air.

At the sight of him every hat is quickly raised. His hair is turning
grey, and he is dressed in grey. He is a Companion of several Orders,
has a high forehead, an aquiline nose, and on the whole his face is
not wanting in a certain regularity: indeed, the first impression
formed of it may be that it combines with the dignity of a village
mayor that sort of charm which may still be found in a man of
forty-eight or fifty. But soon the visitor from Paris is annoyed by a
certain air of self-satisfaction and self-sufficiency mingled with a
suggestion of limitations and want of originality. One feels, finally,
that this man's talent is confined to securing the exact payment of
whatever is owed to him and to postponing payment till the last
possible moment when he is the debtor.

Such is the Mayor of Verrieres, M. de Renal. Crossing the street with
a solemn step, he enters the town hall and passes from the visitor's
sight.  But, a hundred yards higher up, if the visitor continues his
stroll, he will notice a house of quite imposing appearance, and,
through the gaps in an iron railing belonging to the house, some
splendid gardens. Beyond, there is a line of horizon formed by the
hills of Burgundy, which seem to have been created on purpose to
delight the eye. This view makes the visitor forget the pestilential
atmosphere of small financial interests which was beginning to stifle

He is told that this house belongs to M. de Renal. It is to the
profits that he has made from his great nail factory that the Mayor of
Verrieres is indebted for this fine freestone house which he has just
finished building.  His family, they say, is Spanish, old, and was or
claims to have been established in the country long before Louis XIV
conquered it.

Since 1815 he has blushed at his connection with industry: 1815 made
him Mayor of Verrieres. The retaining walls that support the various
sections of this splendid garden, which, in a succession of terraces,
runs down to the Doubs, are also a reward of M. de Renal's ability as
a dealer in iron.

You must not for a moment expect to find in France those picturesque
gardens which enclose the manufacturing towns of Germany; Leipsic,
Frankfurt, Nuremberg, and the rest. In the Franche-Comte, the more
walls a man builds, the more he makes his property bristle with stones
piled one above another, the greater title he acquires to the respect
of his neighbours. M. de Renal's gardens, honeycombed with walls, are
still further admired because he bought, for their weight in gold,
certain minute scraps of ground which they cover. For instance that
sawmill whose curious position on the bank of the Doubs struck you as
you entered Verrieres, and on which you noticed the name _Sorel_,
inscribed in huge letters on a board which overtops the roof,
occupied, six years ago, the ground on which at this moment they are
building the wall of the fourth terrace of M. de Renal's gardens.

For all his pride, the Mayor was obliged to make many overtures to old
Sorel, a dour and obstinate peasant; he was obliged to pay him in fine
golden louis before he would consent to remove his mill elsewhere. As
for the _public_ lade which supplied power to the saw, M. de Renal,
thanks to the influence he wielded in Paris, obtained leave to divert
it. This favour was conferred upon him after the 182- elections.

He gave Sorel four acres in exchange for one, five hundred yards lower
down by the bank of the Doubs. And, albeit this site was a great deal
more advantageous for his trade in planks of firwood, Pere Sorel, as
they have begun to call him now that he is rich, contrived to screw
out of the impatience and _landowning mania_ which animated his
neighbour a sum of 6,000 francs.

It is true that this arrangement was adversely criticised by the local
wiseacres. On one occasion, it was a Sunday, four years later, M. de
Renal, as he walked home from church in his mayoral attire, saw at a
distance old Sorel, supported by his three sons, watching him with a
smile. That smile cast a destroying ray of light into the Mayor's
soul; ever since then he has been thinking that he might have brought
about the exchange at less cost to himself.

To win popular esteem at Verrieres, the essential thing is not to
adopt (while still building plenty of walls) any plan of construction
brought from Italy by those masons who in spring pass through the
gorges of the Jura on their way to Paris. Such an innovation would
earn the rash builder an undying reputation fot wrong-headedness, and
he would be lost forever among the sober and moderate folk who create
reputations in the Franche-Comte.

As a matter of fact, these sober folk wield there the most irritating
form of _despotism_; it is owing to that vile word that residence in
small towns is intolerable to anyone who has lived in that great
republic which we call Paris. The tyranny of public opinion (and what
an opinion!) is as fatuous in the small towns of France as it is in
the United States of America.

A Mayor

  Prestige! Sir, is it nothing? To be revered by fools, gaped at by
  children, envied by the rich and scorned by the wise.

Fortunately for M. de Renal's reputation as an administrator, a huge
retaining wall was required for the public avenue which skirts the
hillside a hundred feet above the bed of the Doubs. To this admirable
position it is indebted for one of the most picturesque views in
France. But, every spring, torrents of rainwater made channels across
the avenue, carved deep gullies in it and left it impassable. This
nuisance, which affected everybody alike, placed M. de Renal under the
fortunate obligation to immortalise his administration by a wall
twenty feet in height and seventy or eighty yards long.

The parapet of this wall, to secure which M. de Renal was obliged to
make three journeys to Paris, for the Minister of the Interior before
last had sworn a deadly enmity to the Verrieres avenue; the parapet of
this wall now rises four feet above the ground. And, as though to defy
all Ministers past and present, it is being finished off at this
moment with slabs of dressed stone.

How often, my thoughts straying back to the ball-rooms of Paris, which
I had forsaken overnight, my elbows leaning upon those great blocks of
stone of a fine grey with a shade of blue in it, have I swept with my
gaze the vale of the Doubs! Over there, on the left bank, are five or
six winding valleys, along the folds of which the eye can make out
quite plainly a number of little streams. After leaping from rock to
rock, they may be seen falling into the Doubs.  The sun is extremely
hot in these mountains; when it is directly overhead, the traveller's
rest is sheltered on this terrace by a row of magnificent planes.
Their rapid growth, and handsome foliage of a bluish tint are due to
the artificial soil with which the Mayor has filled in the space
behind his immense retaining wall, for, despite the opposition of the
town council, he has widened the avenue by more than six feet
(although he is an Ultra and I myself a Liberal, I give him credit for
it), that is why, in his opinion and in that of M. Valenod, the
fortunate governor of the Verrieres poorhouse, this terrace is worthy
to be compared with that of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.

For my part, I have only one fault to find with the _Cours de la
Fidelite_; one reads this, its official title, in fifteen or twenty
places, on marble slabs which have won M. de Renal yet another Cross;
what I should be inclined to condemn in the Cours de la Fidelite is
the barbarous manner in which the authorities keep these sturdy plane
trees trimmed and pollarded.  Instead of suggesting, with their low,
rounded, flattened heads, the commonest of kitchen garden vegetables,
they would like nothing better than to assume those magnificent forms
which one sees them wear in England. But the Mayor's will is despotic,
and twice a year every tree belonging to the commune is pitilessly
lopped. The Liberals of the place maintain, but they exaggerate, that
the hand of the official gardener has grown much more severe since the
Reverend Vicar Maslon formed the habit of appropriating the clippings.

This young cleric was sent from Besancon, some years ago, to keep an
eye upon the abbe Chelan and certain parish priests of the district.
An old Surgeon-Major of the Army of Italy, in retirement at Verrieres,
who in his time had been simultaneously, according to the Mayor, a
Jacobin and a Bonapartist, actually ventured one day to complain to
him of the periodical mutilation of these fine trees.

'I like shade,' replied M. de Renal with the touch of arrogance
appropriate when one is addressing a surgeon, a Member of the Legion
of Honour; 'I like shade, I have my trees cut so as to give shade, and
I do not consider that a tree is made for any other purpose, unless,
like the useful walnut, it _yields a return_.'

There you have the great phrase that decides everything at Verrieres:
YIELD A RETURN; it by itself represents the habitual thought of more
than three fourths of the inhabitants.

_Yielding a return_ is the consideration that settles everything in this
little town which seemed to you, just now, so attractive. The stranger
arriving there, beguiled by the beauty of the cool, deep valleys on
every side, imagines at first that the inhabitants are influenced by
the idea of beauty; they are always talking about the beauty of their
scenery: no one can deny that they make a great to-do about it; but
this is because it attracts a certain number of visitors whose money
goes to enrich the innkeepers, and thus, through the channel of the
rate-collector, _yields a return_ to the town.

It was a fine day in autumn and M. de Renal was strolling along the
Cours de la Fidelite, his lady on his arm. While she listened to her
husband, who was speaking with an air of gravity, Madame de Renal's
eye was anxiously following the movements of three little boys. The
eldest, who might be about eleven, was continually running to the
parapet as though about to climb on top. A gentle voice then uttered
the name Adolphe, and the child abandoned his ambitious project.
Madame de Renal looked like a woman of thirty, but was still extremely

'He may live to rue the day, that fine gentleman from Paris,' M. de
Renal was saying in a tone of annoyance, his cheek paler even than was
its wont.  'I myself am not entirely without friends at Court....'

But albeit I mean to speak to you of provincial life for two hundred
pages, I shall not be so barbarous as to inflict upon you the tedium
and all the clever turns of a provincial dialogue.

This fine gentleman from Paris, so odious to the Mayor of Verrieres,
was none other than M. Appert, [Footnote: A contemporary
philanthropist and prison visitor.] who, a couple of days earlier, had
contrived to make his way not only into the prison and the poorhouse
of Verrieres, but also into the hospital, administered gratuitously by
the Mayor and the principal landowners of the neighbourhood.

'But,' Madame de Renal put in timidly, 'what harm can this gentleman
from Paris do you, since you provide for the welfare of the poor with
the most scrupulous honesty?'

'He has only come to cast blame, and then he'll go back and have
articles put in the Liberal papers.'

'You never read them, my dear.'

'But people tell us about those Jacobin articles; all that distracts
us, and hinders us from doing good. [Author's footnote: authentic] As
for me, I shall never forgive the cure.'

The Bread of the Poor

  A virtuous priest who does not involve himself in intrigue is a
  blessing for the village.

It should be explained that the cure of Verrieres, an old man of
eighty, but blessed by the keen air of his mountains with an iron
character and strength, had the right to visit at any hour of the day
the prison, the hospital, and even the poorhouse. It was at six
o'clock in the morning precisely that M. Appert, who was armed with an
introduction to the cure from Paris, had had the good sense to arrive
in an inquisitive little town.  He had gone at once to the presbytery.

As he read the letter addressed to him by M. le Marquis de La Mole, a
Peer of France, and the wealthiest landowner in the province, the cure
Chelan sat lost in thought.

'I am old and liked here,' he murmured to himself at length, 'they
would never dare!' Turning at once to the gentleman from Paris, with
eyes in which, despite his great age, there burned that sacred fire
which betokens the pleasure of performing a fine action which is
slightly dangerous:

'Come with me, Sir, and, in the presence of the gaoler and especially
of the superintendents of the poorhouse, be so good as not to express
any opinion of the things we shall see.' M. Appert realised that he
had to deal with a man of feeling; he accompanied the venerable cure,
visited the prison, the hospital, the poorhouse, asked many questions
and, notwithstanding strange answers, did not allow himself to utter
the least word of reproach.

This visit lasted for some hours. The cure invited M. Appert to dine
with him, but was told that his guest had some letters to write: he
did not wish to compromise his kind friend any further. About three
o'clock, the gentlemen went back to complete their inspection of the
poorhouse, after which they returned to the prison. There they found
the gaoler standing in the doorway; a giant six feet tall, with bandy
legs; terror had made his mean face hideous.

'Ah, Sir,' he said to the cure, on catching sight of him, 'is not this
gentleman, that I see with you, M. Appert?'

'What if he is?' said the cure.

'Because yesterday I received the most definite instructions, which
the Prefect sent down by a gendarme who had to gallop all night long,
not to allow M. Appert into the prison.'

'I declare to you, M. Noiroud,' said the cure, 'that this visitor, who
is in my company, is M. Appert. Do you admit that I have the right to
enter the prison at any hour of the day or night, bringing with me
whom I please?'

'Yes, M. le cure,' the gaoler murmured in a subdued tone, lowering his
head like a bulldog brought reluctantly to obedience by fear of the
stick.  'Only, M. le cure, I have a wife and children, if I am
reported I shall be dismissed; I have only my place here to live on.'

'I too should be very sorry to lose mine,' replied the worthy cure, in
a voice swayed by ever increasing emotion.

'What a difference!' the gaoler answered promptly; 'why you, M. le
cure, we know that you have an income of 800 livres, a fine place in
the sun ...'

Such are the events which, commented upon, exaggerated in twenty
different ways, had been arousing for the last two days all the evil
passions of the little town of Verrieres. At that moment they were
serving as text for the little discussion which M. de Renal was having
with his wife. That morning, accompanied by M. Valenod, the governor
of the poorhouse, he had gone to the cure's house, to inform him of
their extreme displeasure. M. Chelan was under no one's protection; he
felt the full force of their words.

'Well, gentlemen, I shall be the third parish priest, eighty years of
age, to be deprived of his living in this district. I have been
here for six and fifty years; I have christened almost all the
inhabitants of the town, which was no more than a village when I came.
Every day I marry young couples whose grandparents I married long ago.
Verrieres is my family; but I said to myself, when I saw the stranger:
"This man, who has come from Paris, may indeed be a Liberal, there are
far too many of them; but what harm can he do to our poor people and
our prisoners?"'

The reproaches of M. de Renal, and above all those of M. Valenod, the
governor of the poorhouse, becoming more and more bitter:

'Very well, gentlemen, have me deprived,' the old cure had cried, in a
quavering voice. 'I shall live in the town all the same. You all know
that forty-eight years ago I inherited a piece of land which brings me
800 livres; I shall live on that income. I save nothing out of my
stipend, gentlemen, and that may be why I am less alarmed when people
speak of taking it from me.'

M. de Renal lived on excellent terms with his wife; but not knowing
what answer to make to the question, which she timidly repeated: 'What
harm can this gentleman from Paris do to the prisoners?' he was just
about to lose his temper altogether when she uttered a cry. Her second
son had climbed upon the parapet of the wall of the terrace, and was
running along it, though this wall rose more than twenty feet from the
vineyard beneath. The fear of alarming her son and so making him fall
restrained Madame de Renal from calling him. Finally the child, who
was laughing at his own prowess, turned to look at his mother, noticed
how pale she was, sprang down upon the avenue and ran to join her. He
was well scolded.

This little incident changed the course of the conversation.

'I am quite determined to engage young Sorel, the sawyer's son,' said
M. de Renal; 'he will look after the children, who are beginning to be
too much of a handful for us. He is a young priest or thereabouts, a
good Latin scholar, and will bring the children on; for he has a
strong character, the cure says. I shall give him 300 francs and his
board. I had some doubts as to his morals; for he was the Benjamin of
that old surgeon, the Member of the Legion of Honour who on pretence
of being their cousin came to live with the Sorels. He might quite
well have been nothing better than a secret agent of the Liberals; he
said that our mountain air was good for his asthma; but that has never
been proved. He had served in all _Buonaparte's_ campaigns in Italy,
and they even say that he voted against the Empire in his day. This
Liberal taught young Sorel Latin, and left him all the pile of books
he brought here with him. Not that I should ever have dreamed of
having the carpenter's son with my children; but the cure, only the
day before the scene which has made a permanent breach between us,
told me that this Sorel has been studying theology for the last three
years, with the idea of entering the Seminary; so he is not a Liberal,
and he is a Latin scholar.

'This arrangement suits me in more ways than one,' M. de Renal went
on, looking at his wife with an air of diplomacy; 'Valenod is
tremendously proud of the two fine Norman horses he has just bought
for his calash. But he has not got a tutor for his children.'

'He is quite capable of taking this one from us.'

'Then you approve of my plan?' said M. de Renal, thanking his wife,
with a smile, for the excellent idea that had just occurred to her.
'There, that's settled.'

'Oh, good gracious, my dear, how quickly you make up your mind!'

'That is because I have a strong character, as the cure has had
occasion to see. Let us make no pretence about it, we are surrounded
by Liberals here.  All these cloth merchants are jealous of me, I am
certain of it; two or three of them are growing rich; very well, I
wish them to see M. de Renal's children go by, out walking in the care
of their tutor. It will make an impression. My grandfather used often
to tell us that in his young days he had had a tutor. It's a hundred
crowns he's going to cost me, but that will have to be reckoned as a
necessary expense to keep up our position.'

This sudden decision plunged Madame de Renal deep in thought. She was
a tall, well-made woman, who had been the beauty of the place, as the
saying is in this mountain district. She had a certain air of
simplicity and bore herself like a girl; in the eyes of a Parisian,
that artless grace, full of innocence and vivacity, might even have
suggested ideas of a mildly passionate nature. Had she had wind of
this kind of success, Madame de Renal would have been thoroughly
ashamed of it. No trace either of coquetry or of affectation had ever
appeared in her nature. M. Valenod, the wealthy governor of the
poorhouse, was supposed to have paid his court to her, but without
success, a failure which had given a marked distinction to her virtue;
for this M. Valenod, a tall young man, strongly built, with a vivid
complexion and bushy black whiskers, was one of those coarse, brazen,
noisy creatures who in the provinces are called fine men.

Madame de Renal, being extremely shy and liable to be swayed by her
moods, was offended chiefly by the restless movements and loud voice
of M. Valenod. The distaste that she felt for what at Verrieres goes
by the name of gaiety had won her the reputation of being extremely
proud of her birth.  She never gave it a thought, but had been greatly
pleased to see the inhabitants of Verrieres come less frequently to
her house. We shall not attempt to conceal the fact that she was
reckoned a fool in the eyes of their ladies, because, without any
regard for her husband's interests, she let slip the most promising
opportunities of procuring fine hats from Paris or Besancon. Provided
that she was left alone to stroll in her fine garden, she never made
any complaint.

She was a simple soul, who had never risen even to the point of
criticising her husband, and admitting that he bored her. She
supposed, without telling herself so, that between husband and wife
there could be no more tender relations. She was especially fond of M.
de Renal when he spoke to her of his plans for their children, one of
whom he intended to place in the army, the second on the bench, and
the third in the church. In short, she found M. de Renal a great deal
less boring than any of the other men of her acquaintance.

This wifely opinion was justified. The Mayor of Verrieres owed his
reputation for wit, and better still for good tone, to half a dozen
pleasantries which he had inherited from an uncle. This old Captain de
Renal had served before the Revolution in the Duke of Orleans's
regiment of infantry, and, when he went to Paris, had had the right of
entry into that Prince's drawing-rooms. He had there seen Madame de
Montesson, the famous Madame de Genlis, M. Ducrest, the 'inventor'
of the Palais-Royal.  These personages figured all too frequently in
M. de Renal's stories. But by degrees these memories of things that it
required so much delicacy to relate had become a burden to him, and
for some time now it was only on solemn occasions that he would repeat
his anecdotes of the House of Orleans. As he was in other respects
most refined, except when the talk ran on money, he was regarded, and
rightly, as the most aristocratic personage in Verrieres.

Father and Son

  E sara mia colpa,
  Se cosi e?

'My wife certainly has a head on her shoulders!' the Mayor of
Verrieres remarked to himself the following morning at six o'clock, as
he made his way down to Pere Sorel's sawmill. 'Although I said so to
her, to maintain my own superiority, it had never occurred to me that
if I do not take this little priest Sorel, who, they tell me, knows
his Latin like an angel, the governor of the poorhouse, that restless
spirit, might very well have the same idea, and snatch him from me, I
can hear the tone of conceit with which he would speak of his
children's tutor! ... This tutor, once I've secured him, will he wear
a cassock?'

M. de Renal was absorbed in this question when he saw in the distance
a peasant, a man of nearly six feet in height, who, by the first
dawning light, seemed to be busily occupied in measuring pieces of
timber lying by the side of the Doubs, upon the towpath. The peasant
did not appear any too well pleased to see the Mayor coming towards
him; for his pieces of wood were blocking the path, and had been laid
there in contravention of the law.

Pere Sorel, for it was he, was greatly surprised and even more pleased
by the singular offer which M. de Renal made him with regard to his
son Julien. He listened to it nevertheless with that air of
grudging-melancholy and lack of interest which the shrewd inhabitants
of those mountains know so well how to assume. Slaves in the days of
Spanish rule, they still retain this facial characteristic of the
Egyptian fellahin.

Sorel's reply was at first nothing more than a long-winded recital of
all the formal terms of respect which he knew by heart. While he was
repeating these vain words, with an awkward smile which enhanced the
air of falsehood and almost of rascality natural to his countenance,
the old peasant's active mind was seeking to discover what reason
could be inducing so important a personage to take his scapegrace of a
son into his establishment. He was thoroughly dissatisfied with
Julien, and it was for Julien that M. de Renal was offering him the
astounding wage of 300 francs annually, in addition to his food and
even his clothing. This last condition, which Pere Sorel had had the
intelligence to advance on the spur of the moment, had been granted
with equal readiness by M. de Renal.

This demand impressed the Mayor. 'Since Sorel is not delighted and
overwhelmed by my proposal, as he ought naturally to be, it is clear,'
he said to himself, 'that overtures have been made to him from another
quarter; and from whom can they have come, except from Valenod?' It
was in vain that M. de Renal urged Sorel to conclude the bargain there
and then: the astute old peasant met him with an obstinate refusal; he
wished, he said, to consult his son, as though, in the country, a rich
father ever consulted a penniless son, except for form's sake.

A sawmill consists of a shed by the side of a stream. The roof is held
up by rafters supported on four stout wooden pillars. Nine or ten feet
from the ground, in the middle of the shed, one sees a saw which moves
up and down, while an extremely simple mechanism thrusts forward
against this saw a piece of wood. This is a wheel set in motion by the
mill lade which drives both parts of the machine; that of the saw
which moves up and down, and the other which pushes the piece of wood
gently towards the saw, which slices it into planks.

As he approached his mill, Pere Sorel called Julien in his stentorian
voice; there was no answer. He saw only his two elder sons, young
giants who, armed with heavy axes, were squaring the trunks of fir
which they would afterwards carry to the saw. They were completely
engrossed in keeping exactly to the black line traced on the piece of
wood, from which each blow of the axe sent huge chips flying. They did
not hear their father's voice. He made his way to the shed; as he
entered it, he looked in vain for Julien in the place where he ought
to have been standing, beside the saw. He caught sight of him five or
six feet higher up, sitting astride upon one of the beams of the roof.
Instead of paying careful attention to the action of the machinery,
Julien was reading a book. Nothing could have been less to old Sorel's
liking; he might perhaps have forgiven Julien his slender build,
little adapted to hard work, and so different from that of his elder
brothers; but this passion for reading he detested: he himself was
unable to read.

It was in vain that he called Julien two or three times. The attention
the young man was paying to his book, far more than the noise of the
saw, prevented him from hearing his father's terrifying voice.
Finally, despite his years, the father sprang nimbly upon the trunk
that was being cut by the saw, and from there on to the cross beam
that held up the roof. A violent blow sent flying into the mill lade
the book that Julien was holding; a second blow no less violent, aimed
at his head, in the form of a box on the ear, made him lose his
balance. He was about to fall from a height of twelve or fifteen feet,
among the moving machinery, which would have crushed him, but his
father caught him with his left hand as he fell.

'Well, idler! So you keep on reading your cursed books, when you ought
to be watching the saw? Read them in the evening, when you go and
waste your time with the cure.'

Julien, although stunned by the force of the blow, and bleeding
profusely, went to take up his proper station beside the saw. There
were tears in his eyes, due not so much to his bodily pain as to the
loss of his book, which he adored.

'Come down, animal, till I speak to you.' The noise of the machine
again prevented Julien from hearing this order. His father who had
stepped down not wishing to take the trouble to climb up again on to
the machine, went to find a long pole used for knocking down walnuts,
and struck him on the shoulder with it. No sooner had Julien reached
the ground than old Sorel, thrusting him on brutally from behind,
drove him towards the house. 'Heaven knows what he's going to do to
me!' thought the young man. As he passed it, he looked sadly at the
mill lade into which his book had fallen; it was the one that he
valued most of all, the _Memorial de Sainte-Helene_.

His cheeks were flushed, his eyes downcast. He was a slim youth of
eighteen or nineteen, weak in appearance, with irregular but delicate
features and an aquiline nose. His large dark eyes, which, in moments
of calm, suggested a reflective, fiery spirit, were animated at this
instant with an expression of the most ferocious hatred. Hair of a
dark chestnut, growing very low, gave him a narrow brow, and in
moments of anger a wicked air. Among the innumerable varieties of the
human countenance, there is perhaps none that is more strikingly
characteristic. A slim and shapely figure betokened suppleness rather
than strength. In his childhood, his extremely pensive air and marked
pallor had given his father the idea that he would not live, or would
live only to be a burden upon his family. An object of contempt to the
rest of the household, he hated his brothers and father; in the games
on Sundays, on the public square, he was invariably beaten.

It was only during the last year that his good looks had begun to win
him a few supporters among the girls. Universally despised, as a
feeble creature, Julien had adored that old Surgeon-Major who one day
ventured to speak to the Mayor on the subject of the plane trees.

This surgeon used now and then to pay old Sorel a day's wage for his
son, and taught him Latin and history, that is to say all the history
that he knew, that of the 1796 campaign in Italy. On his death, he had
bequeathed to him his Cross of the Legion of Honour, the arrears of
his pension, and thirty or forty volumes, the most precious of which
had just taken a plunge into the public lade, diverted by the Mayor's

As soon as he was inside the house, Julien felt his shoulder gripped
by his father's strong hand; he trembled, expecting to receive a
shower of blows.

'Answer me without lying,' the old peasant's harsh voice shouted in
his ear, while the hand spun him round as a child's hand spins a lead
soldier.  Julien's great dark eyes, filled with tears, found
themselves starting into the little grey eyes of the old peasant, who
looked as though he sought to penetrate to the depths of his son's

Driving a Bargain

  Cunctando restituit rem.

'Answer me, without lying, if you can, you miserable bookworm; how do
you come to know Madame de Renal? When have you spoken to her?'

'I have never spoken to her,' replied Julien, 'I have never seen the
lady except in church.'

'But you must have looked at her, you shameless scoundrel?'

'Never! You know that in church I see none but God,' Julien added with
a hypocritical air, calculated, to his mind, to ward off further

'There is something behind this, all the same,' replied the suspicious
peasant, and was silent for a moment; 'but I shall get nothing out of
you, you damned hypocrite. The fact is, I'm going to be rid of you,
and my saw will run all the better without you. You have made a friend
of the parson or someone, and he's got you a fine post. Go and pack
your traps, and I'll take you to M. de Renal's where you're to be
tutor to the children.'

'What am I to get for that?'

'Board, clothing and three hundred francs in wages.'

'I do not wish to be a servant,'

'Animal, who ever spoke of your being a servant? Would I allow my son
to be a servant?'

'But, with whom shall I have my meals?'

This question left old Sorel at a loss; he felt that if he spoke he
might be guilty of some imprudence; he flew into a rage with Julien,
upon whom he showered abuse, accusing him of greed, and left him to go
and consult his other sons.

Presently Julien saw them, each leaning upon his axe and deliberating
together. After watching them for some time, Julien, seeing that he
could make out nothing of their discussion, went and took his place on
the far side of the saw, so as not to be taken by surprise. He wanted
time to consider this sudden announcement which was altering his
destiny, but felt himself to be incapable of prudence; his imagination
was wholly taken up with forming pictures of what he would see in M.
de Renal's fine house.

'I must give up all that,' he said to himself, 'rather than let myself
be brought down to feeding with the servants. My father will try to
force me; I would sooner die. I have saved fifteen francs and eight
sous, I shall run away tonight; in two days, by keeping to side-roads
where I need not fear the police, I can be at Besancon; there I enlist
as a soldier, and, if necessary, cross the border into Switzerland.
But then, good-bye to everything, good-bye to that fine clerical
profession which is a stepping-stone to everything.'

This horror of feeding with the servants was not natural to Julien; he
would, in seeking his fortune, have done other things far more
disagreeable. He derived this repugnance from Rousseau's _Confessions_.
It was the one book that helped his imagination to form any idea of
the world.  The collection of reports of the Grand Army and the
_Memorial de Sainte-Helene_ completed his Koran. He would have gone to
the stake for those three books. Never did he believe in any other.
Remembering a saying of the old Surgeon-Major, he regarded all the
other books in the world as liars, written by rogues in order to
obtain advancement.

With his fiery nature Julien had one of those astonishing memories so
often found in foolish people. To win over the old priest Chelan, upon
whom he saw quite clearly that his own future depended, he had learned
by heart the entire New Testament in Latin; he knew also M. de
Maistre's book _Du Pape_, and had as little belief in one as in the

As though by a mutual agreement, Sorel and his son avoided speaking to
one another for the rest of the day. At dusk, Julien went to the cure
for his divinity lesson, but did not think it prudent to say anything
to him of the strange proposal that had been made to his father. 'It
may be a trap,' he told himself; 'I must pretend to have forgotten
about it.'

Early on the following day, M. de Renal sent for old Sorel, who, after
keeping him waiting for an hour or two, finally appeared, beginning as
he entered the door a hundred excuses interspersed with as many
reverences. By dint of giving voice to every sort of objection, Sorel
succeeded in gathering that his son was to take his meals with the
master and mistress of the house, and on days when they had company in
a room by himself with the children. Finding an increasing desire to
raise difficulties the more he discerned a genuine anxiety on the
Mayor's part, and being moreover filled with distrust and
bewilderment, Sorel asked to see the room in which his son was to
sleep. It was a large chamber very decently furnished, but the
servants were already engaged in carrying into it the beds of the
three children.

At this the old peasant began to see daylight; he at once asked with
assurance to see the coat which would be given to his son. M. de Renal
opened his desk and took out a hundred francs.

'With this money, your son can go to M. Durand, the clothier, and get
himself a suit of black.'

'And supposing I take him away from you,' said the peasant, who had
completely forgotten the reverential forms of address. 'Will he take
this black coat with him?'


'Oh, very well!' said Sorel in a drawling tone, 'then there's only one
thing for us still to settle: the money you're to give him.'

'What!' M. de Renal indignantly exclaimed, 'we agreed upon that
yesterday: I give three hundred francs; I consider that plenty, if not
too much.'

'That was your offer, I do not deny it,' said old Sorel, speaking even
more slowly; then, by a stroke of genius which will astonish only
those who do not know the Franc-Comtois peasant, he added, looking M.
de Renal steadily in the face: '_We can do better elsewhere_.'

At these words the Mayor was thrown into confusion. He recovered
himself, however, and, after an adroit conversation lasting fully two
hours, in which not a word was said without a purpose, the peasant's
shrewdness prevailed over that of the rich man, who was not dependent
on his for his living. All the innumerable conditions which were to
determine Julien's new existence were finally settled; not only was
his salary fixed at four hundred francs, but it was to be paid in
advance, on the first day of each month.

'Very well! I shall let him have thirty-five francs,' said M. de

'To make a round sum, a rich and generous gentleman like our Mayor,'
the peasant insinuated in a coaxing voice, 'will surely go as far as

'All right,' said M. de Renal, 'but let us have no more of this.'

For once, anger gave him a tone of resolution. The peasant saw that he
could advance no farther. Thereupon M. de Renal began in turn to make
headway. He utterly refused to hand over the thirty-six francs for the
first month to old Sorel, who was most eager to receive the money on
his son's behalf. It occurred to M. de Renal that he would be obliged
to describe to his wife the part he had played throughout this

'Let me have back the hundred francs I gave you,' he said angrily. 'M.
Durand owes me money. I shall go with your son to choose the black

After this bold stroke, Sorel prudently retired upon his expressions
of respect; they occupied a good quarter of an hour. In the end,
seeing that there was certainly nothing more to be gained, he
withdrew. His final reverence ended with the words:

'I shall send my son up to the chateau.'

It was thus that the Mayor's subordinates spoke of his house when they
wished to please him.

Returning to his mill, Sorel looked in vain for his son. Doubtful as
to what might be in store for him, Julien had left home in the dead of
night.  He had been anxious to find a safe hiding-place for his books
and his Cross of the Legion of Honour. He had removed the whole of his
treasures to the house of a young timber-merchant, a friend of his, by
the name of Fouque, who lived on the side of the high mountain
overlooking Verrieres.

When he reappeared: 'Heaven knows, you damned idler,' his father said
to him, 'whether you will ever have enough honour to pay me for the
cost of your keep, which I have been advancing to you all these years!
Pack up your rubbish, and off with you to the Mayor's.'

Julien, astonished not to receive a thrashing, made haste to set off.
But no sooner was he out of sight of his terrible father than he
slackened his pace. He decided that it would serve the ends of his
hypocrisy to pay a visit to the church.

The idea surprises you? Before arriving at this horrible idea, the
soul of the young peasant had had a long way to go.

When he was still a child, the sight of certain dragoons of the 6th,
in their long, white cloaks, and helmets adorned with long crests of
black horsehair, who were returning from Italy, and whom Julien saw
tying their horses to the barred window of his father's house, drove
him mad with longing for a military career.

Later on he listened with ecstasy to the accounts of the battles of
the Bridge of Lodi, Arcole and Rivoli given him by the old
Surgeon-Major. He noticed the burning gaze which the old man directed
at his Cross.

But when Julien was fourteen, they began to build a church at
Verrieres, one that might be called magnificent for so small a town.
There were, in particular, four marble pillars the sight of which
impressed Julien; they became famous throughout the countryside, owing
to the deadly enmity which they aroused between the Justice of the
Peace and the young vicar, sent down from Besancon, who was understood
to be the spy of the Congregation. The Justice of the Peace came
within an ace of losing his post, such at least was the common report.
Had he not dared to have a difference of opinion with a priest who,
almost every fortnight, went to Besancon, where he saw, people said,
the Right Reverend Lord Bishop?

In the midst of all this, the Justice of the Peace, the father of a
large family, passed a number of sentences which appeared unjust; all
of these were directed against such of the inhabitants as read the
_Constitutionnel_. The right party was triumphant. The sums involved
amounted, it was true, to no more than four or five francs; but one of
these small fines was levied upon a nailsmith, Julien's godfather. In
his anger, this man exclaimed: 'What a change! And to think that, for
twenty years and more, the Justice was reckoned such an honest man!'
The Surgeon-Major, Julien's friend, was dead.

All at once Julien ceased to speak of Napoleon; he announced his
intention of becoming a priest, and was constantly to be seen, in his
father's sawmill, engaged in learning by heart a Latin Bible which the
cure had lent him. The good old man, amazed at his progress, devoted
whole evenings to instructing him in divinity. Julien gave utterance
in his company to none but pious sentiments. Who could have supposed
that that girlish face, so pale and gentle, hid the unshakeable
determination to expose himself to the risk of a thousand deaths
rather than fail to make his fortune?

To Julien, making a fortune meant in the first place leaving
Verrieres; he loathed his native place. Everything that he saw there
froze his imagination.

>From his earliest boyhood, he had had moments of exaltation. At such
times he dreamed with rapture that one day he would be introduced to
the beautiful ladies of Paris; he would manage to attract their
attention by some brilliant action. Why should he not be loved by one
of them, as Bonaparte, when still penniless, had been loved by the
brilliant Madame de Beauharnais? For many years now, perhaps not an
hour of Julien's life had passed without his reminding himself that
Bonaparte, an obscure subaltern with no fortune, had made himself
master of the world with his sword. This thought consoled him for his
misfortunes which he deemed to be great, and enhanced his joy when joy
came his way.

The building of the church and the sentences passed by the Justice
brought him sudden enlightenment; an idea which occurred to him drove
him almost out of his senses for some weeks, and finally took
possession of him with the absolute power of the first idea which a
passionate nature believes itself to have discovered.

'When Bonaparte made a name for himself, France was in fear of being
invaded; military distinction was necessary and fashionable. Today we
see priests at forty drawing stipends of a hundred thousand francs,
that is to say three times as much as the famous divisional commanders
under Napoleon.  They must have people to support them. Look at the
Justice here, so wise a man, always so honest until now, sacrificing
his honour, at his age, from fear of offending a young vicar of
thirty. I must become a priest.'

On one occasion, in the midst of his new-found piety, after Julien had
been studying divinity for two years, he was betrayed by a sudden
blaze of the fire that devoured his spirit. This was at M. Chelan's;
at a dinner party of priests, to whom the good cure had introduced him
as an educational prodigy, he found himself uttering frenzied praise
of Napoleon. He bound his right arm across his chest, pretending that
he had put the arm out of joint when shifting a fir trunk, and kept it
for two months in this awkward position. After this drastic penance,
he forgave himself. Such is the young man of eighteen, but weak in
appearance, whom you would have said to be, at the most, seventeen,
who, carrying a small parcel under his arm, was entering the
magnificent church of Verrieres.

He found it dark and deserted. In view of some festival, all the
windows in the building had been covered with crimson cloth; the
effect of this, when the sun shone, was a dazzling blaze of light, of
the most imposing and most religious character.  Julien shuddered.
Being alone in the church, he took his seat on the bench that had the
most handsome appearance. It bore the arms of M. de Renal.

On the desk in front, Julien observed a scrap of printed paper, spread
out there as though to be read. He looked at it closely and saw:

'Details of the execution and of the last moments of Louis Jenrel,
executed at Besancon, on the ...'

The paper was torn. On the other side he read the opening words of a
line, which were: 'The first step.'

'Who can have put this paper here?' said Julien. 'Poor wretch!' he
added with a sigh, 'his name has the same ending as mine.' And he
crumpled up the paper.

On his way out, Julien thought he saw blood by the holy water stoup;
it was some of the water that had been spilt: the light from the red
curtains which draped the windows made it appear like blood.

Finally, Julien felt ashamed of his secret terror.

'Should I prove coward?' he said to himself. '_To arms_!'

This phrase, so often repeated in the old Surgeon's accounts of
battles, had a heroic sound in Julien's ears. He rose and walked
rapidly to M. de Renal's house.

Despite these brave resolutions, as soon as he caught sight of the
house twenty yards away he was overcome by an unconquerable shyness.
The iron gate stood open; it seemed to him magnificent. He would have
now to go in through it.

Julien was not the only person whose heart was troubled by his arrival
in this household. Madame de Renal's extreme timidity was disconcerted
by the idea of this stranger who, in the performance of his duty,
would be constantly coming between her and her children. She was
accustomed to having her sons sleep in her own room. That morning,
many tears had flowed when she saw their little beds being carried
into the apartment intended for the tutor. In vain did she beg her
husband to let the bed of Stanislas Xavier, the youngest boy, be taken
back to her room.

Womanly delicacy was carried to excess in Madame de Renal. She formed
a mental picture of a coarse, unkempt creature, employed to scold her
children, simply because he knew Latin, a barbarous tongue for the
sake of which her sons would be whipped.


  Non so piu cosa son,
  Cosa facio.
    MOZART (Figaro)

With the vivacity and grace which came naturally to her when she was
beyond the reach of male vision, Madame de Renal was coming out
through the glass door which opened from the drawing-room into the
garden, when she saw, standing by the front door, a young peasant,
almost a boy still, extremely pale and showing traces of recent tears.
He was wearing a clean white shirt and carried under his arm a neat
jacket of violet ratteen.

This young peasant's skin was so white, his eyes were so appealing,
that the somewhat romantic mind of Madame de Renal conceived the idea
at first that he might be a girl in disguise, come to ask some favour
of the Mayor.  She felt sorry for the poor creature, who had come to a
standstill by the front door, and evidently could not summon up
courage to ring the bell.  Madame de Renal advanced, oblivious for the
moment of the bitter grief that she felt at the tutor's coming.
Julien, who was facing the door, did not see her approach. He trembled
when a pleasant voice sounded close to his ear:

'What have you come for, my boy?'

Julien turned sharply round, and, struck by the charm of Madame de
Renal's expression, forgot part of his shyness. A moment later,
astounded by her beauty, he forgot everything, even his purpose in
coming. Madame de Renal had repeated her question.

'I have come to be tutor, Madame,' he at length informed her, put to
shame by his tears which he dried as best he might.

Madame de Renal remained speechless; they were standing close
together, looking at one another. Julien had never seen a person so
well dressed as this, let alone a woman with so exquisite a
complexion, to speak to him in a gentle tone. Madame de Renal looked
at the large tears which lingered on the cheeks (so pallid at first
and now so rosy) of this young peasant. Presently she burst out
laughing, with all the wild hilarity of a girl; she was laughing at
herself, and trying in vain to realise the full extent of her
happiness. So this was the tutor whom she had imagined an unwashed and
ill-dressed priest, who was coming to scold and whip her children.

'Why, Sir!' she said to him at length, 'do you know Latin?'

The word 'Sir' came as such a surprise to Julien that he thought for a
moment before answering.

'Yes, Ma'am,' he said shyly.

Madame de Renal felt so happy that she ventured to say to Julien:

'You won't scold those poor children too severely?'

'Scold them? I?' asked Julien in amazement. 'Why should I?'

'You will, Sir,' she went on after a brief silence and in a voice that
grew more emotional every moment, 'you will be kind to them, you
promise me?'

To hear himself addressed again as 'Sir', in all seriousness, and by a
lady so fashionably attired, was more than Julien had ever dreamed of;
in all the cloud castles of his boyhood, he had told himself that no
fashionable lady would deign to speak to him until he had a smart
uniform. Madame de Renal, for her part, was completely taken in by the
beauty of Julien's complexion, his great dark eyes and his becoming
hair which was curling more than usual because, to cool himself, he
had just dipped his head in the basin of the public fountain. To her
great delight, she discovered an air of girlish shyness in this fatal
tutor, whose severity and savage appearance she had so greatly
dreaded for her children's sake. To Madame de Renal's peace-loving
nature the contrast between her fears and what she now saw before her
was a great event. Finally she recovered from her surprise. She was
astonished to find herself standing like this at the door of her house
with this young man almost in his shirtsleeves and so close to her.

'Let us go indoors, Sir,' she said to him with an air of distinct

Never in her life had a purely agreeable sensation so profoundly
stirred Madame de Renal; never had so charming an apparition come in
the wake of more disturbing fears. And so those sweet children, whom
she had tended with such care, were not to fall into the hands of a
dirty, growling priest. As soon as they were in the hall, she turned
to Julien who was following her shyly. His air of surprise at the
sight of so fine a house was an additional charm in the eyes of Madame
de Renal. She could not believe her eyes; what she felt most of all
was that the tutor ought to be wearing a black coat.

'But is it true, Sir,' she said to him, again coming to a halt, and
mortally afraid lest she might be mistaken, so happy was the belief
making her, 'do you really know Latin?'

These words hurt Julien's pride and destroyed the enchantment in which
he had been living for the last quarter of an hour.

'Yes, Ma'am,' he informed her, trying to adopt a chilly air; 'I know
Latin as well as M. le cure; indeed, he is sometimes so kind as to say
that I know it better.'

Madame de Renal felt that Julien had a very wicked air; he had stopped
within arm's length of her. She went nearer to him, and murmured:

'For the first few days, you won't take the whip to my children, even
if they don't know their lessons?'

This gentle, almost beseeching tone coming from so fine a lady at once
made Julien forget what he owed to his reputation as a Latin scholar.
Madame de Renal's face was close to his own, he could smell the
perfume of a woman's summer attire, so astounding a thing to a poor
peasant. Julien blushed deeply, and said with a sigh and in a faint

'Fear nothing, Ma'am, I shall obey you in every respect.'

It was at this moment only, when her anxiety for her children was
completely banished, that Madame de Renal was struck by Julien's
extreme good looks. The almost feminine cast of his features and his
air of embarrassment did not seem in the least absurd to a woman who
was extremely timid herself. The manly air which is generally
considered essential to masculine beauty would have frightened her.

'How old are you, Sir?' she asked Julien.

'I shall soon be nineteen.'

'My eldest son is eleven,' went on Madame de Renal, completely
reassured; 'he will be almost a companion for you, you can talk to him
seriously. His father tried to beat him once, the child was ill for a
whole week, and yet it was quite a gentle blow.'

'How different from me,' thought Julien. 'Only yesterday my father was
thrashing me. How fortunate these rich people are!'

Madame de Renal had by this time arrived at the stage of remarking the
most trivial changes in the state of the tutor's mind; she mistook
this envious impulse for shyness, and tried to give him fresh courage.

'What is your name, Sir?' she asked him with an accent and a grace the
charm of which Julien could feel without knowing whence it sprang.

'They call me Julien Sorel, Ma'am; I am trembling as I enter a strange
house for the first time in my life; I have need of your protection,
and shall require you to forgive me many things at first. I have never
been to College, I was too poor; I have never talked to any other men,
except my cousin the Surgeon-Major, a Member of the Legion of Honour,
and the Reverend Father Chelan. He will give you a good account of me.
My brothers have always beaten me, do not listen to them if they speak
evil of me to you; pardon my faults, Ma'am, I shall never have any
evil intention.'

Julien plucked up his courage again during this long speech; he was
studying Madame de Renal. Such is the effect of perfect grace when it
is natural to the character, particularly when she whom it adorns has
no thought of being graceful. Julien, who knew all that was to be
known about feminine beauty, would have sworn at that moment that she
was no more than twenty. The bold idea at once occurred to him of
kissing her hand. Next, this idea frightened him; a moment later, he
said to himself: 'It would be cowardly on my part not to carry out an
action which may be of use to me, and diminish the scorn which this
fine lady probably feels for a poor workman, only just taken from the
sawbench.' Perhaps Julien was somewhat encouraged by the words
'good-looking boy' which for the last six months he had been used to
hearing on Sundays on the lips of various girls. While he debated thus
with himself, Madame de Renal offered him a few suggestions as to how
he should begin to handle her children. The violence of Julien's
effort to control himself made him turn quite pale again; he said,
with an air of constraint:

'Never, Ma'am, will I beat your children; I swear it before God.'

And so saying he ventured to take Madame de Renal's hand
and carry it to his lips. She was astonished at this action, and, on
thinking it over, shocked. As the weather was very warm, her arm was
completely bare under her shawl, and Julien's action in raising her
hand to his lips had uncovered it to the shoulder. A minute later she
scolded herself; she felt that she had not been quickly enough

M. de Renal, who had heard the sound of voices, came out of his study;
with the same majestic and fatherly air that he assumed when he was
conducting marriages in the Town Hall, he said to Julien:

'It is essential that I speak to you before the children see you.'

He ushered Julien into one of the rooms and detained his wife, who was
going to leave them together. Having shut the door, M. de Renal seated
himself with gravity.

'The cure has told me that you were an honest fellow, everyone in this
house will treat you with respect, and if I am satisfied I shall help
you to set up for yourself later on. I wish you to cease to see
anything of either your family or your friends, their tone would not
be suited to my children. Here are thirty-six francs for the first
month; but I must have your word that you will not give a penny of
this money to your father.'

M. de Renal was annoyed with the old man, who, in this business, had
proved more subtle than he himself.

'And now, _Sir_, for by my orders everyone in this house is to address
you as Sir, and you will be conscious of the advantage of entering a
well-ordered household; now, Sir, it is not proper that the children
should see you in a jacket. Have the servants seen him?' M. de Renal
asked his wife.

'No, dear,' she replied with an air of deep thought.

'Good. Put on this,' he said to the astonished young man, handing him
one of his own frock coats. 'And now let us go to M. Durand, the

More than an hour later, when M. de Renal returned with the new tutor
dressed all in black, he found his wife still seated in the same
place. She felt soothed by Julien's presence; as she studied his
appearance she forgot to feel afraid. Julien was not giving her a
thought; for all his mistrust of destiny and of mankind, his heart at
that moment was just like a child's; he seemed to have lived whole
years since the moment when, three hours earlier, he stood trembling
in the church. He noticed Madame de Renal's frigid manner, and
gathered that she was angry because he had ventured to kiss her hand.
But the sense of pride that he derived from the contact of garments so
different from those which he was accustomed to wear caused him so
much excitement, and he was so anxious to conceal his joy that all his
gestures were more or less abrupt and foolish. Madame de Renal gazed
at him with eyes of astonishment.

'A little gravity, Sir,' M. de Renal told him, 'if you wish to be
respected by my children and my servants.'

'Sir,' replied Julien, 'I am uncomfortable in these new clothes; I, a
humble peasant, have never worn any but short jackets; with your
permission, I shall retire to my bedroom.'

'What think you of this new acquisition?' M. de Renal asked his wife.

With an almost instinctive impulse, of which she herself certainly was
not aware, Madame de Renal concealed the truth from her husband.

'I am by no means as enchanted as you are with this little peasant;
your kindness will turn him into an impertinent rascal whom you will
be obliged to send packing within a month.'

'Very well! We shall send him packing; he will have cost me a hundred
francs or so, and Verrieres will have grown used to seeing a tutor
with M. de Renal's children. That point I should not have gained if I
had let Julien remain in the clothes of a working man. When I dismiss
him, I shall of course keep the black suit which I have just ordered
from the clothier.  He shall have nothing but the coat I found ready
made at the tailor's, which he is now wearing.'

The hour which Julien spent in his room seemed like a second to Madame
de Renal. The children, who had been told of their new tutor's
arrival, overwhelmed their mother with questions. Finally Julien
appeared. He was another man. It would have been straining the word to
say that he was grave; he was gravity incarnate. He was introduced to
the children, and spoke to them with an air that surprised M. de Renal

'I am here, young gentlemen,' he told them at the end of his address,
'to teach you Latin. You know what is meant by repeating a lesson.
Here is the Holy Bible,' he said, and showed them a tiny volume in
32mo, bound in black. 'It is in particular the story of Our Lord Jesus
Christ, that is the part which is called the New Testament. I shall
often make you repeat lessons; now you must make me repeat mine.'

Adolphe, the eldest boy, had taken the book.

'Open it where you please,' Julien went on, 'and tell me the first
word of a paragraph. I shall repeat by heart the sacred text, the rule
of conduct for us all, until you stop me.'

Adolphe opened the book, read a word, and Julien repeated the whole
page as easily as though he were speaking French. M. de Renal looked
at his wife with an air of triumph. The children, seeing their
parents' amazement, opened their eyes wide. A servant came to the door
of the drawing-room, Julien went on speaking in Latin. The servant at
first stood motionless and then vanished. Presently the lady's maid
and the cook appeared in the doorway; by this time Adolphe had opened
the book at eight different places, and Julien continued to repeat the
words with the same ease.

'Eh, what a bonny little priest,' the cook, a good and truly devout
girl, said aloud.

M. de Renal's self-esteem was troubled; so far from having any thought
of examining the tutor, he was engaged in ransacking his memory for a
few words of Latin; at last, he managed to quote a line of Horace.
Julien knew no Latin apart from the Bible. He replied with a frown:

'The sacred ministry to which I intend to devote myself has forbidden
me to read so profane a poet.'

M. de Renal repeated a fair number of alleged lines of Horace. He
explained to his children what Horace was; but the children, overcome
with admiration, paid little attention to what he was saying. They
were watching Julien.

The servants being still at the door, Julien felt it incumbent upon
him to prolong the test.

'And now,' he said to the youngest boy, 'Master Stanislas Xavier too
must set me a passage from the Holy Book.'

Little Stanislas, swelling with pride, read out to the best of his
ability the opening words of a paragraph, and Julien repeated the
whole page. That nothing might be wanting to complete M. de Renal's
triumph, while Julien was reciting, there entered M. Valenod, the
possessor of fine Norman horses, and M. Charcot de Maugiron,
Sub-Prefect of the district. This scene earned for Julien the title
'Sir'; the servants themselves dared not withhold it from him.

That evening, the whole of Verrieres flocked to M. de Renal's to
behold the marvel. Julien answered them all with an air of gloom which
kept them at a distance. His fame spread so rapidly through the town
that, shortly afterwards, M. de Renal, afraid of losing him, suggested
his signing a contract for two years.

'No, Sir,' Julien replied coldly, 'if you chose to dismiss me I should
be obliged to go. A contract which binds me without putting you under
any obligation is unfair, I must decline.'

Julien managed so skilfully that, less than a month after his coming
to the house, M. de Renal himself respected him. The cure having
quarrelled with MM. de Renal and Valenod, there was no one who could
betray Julien's former passion for Napoleon, of whom he was careful to
speak with horror.

Elective Affinities

  They can only touch the heart by bruising it.

The children adored him, he did not care for them; his thoughts were
elsewhere. Nothing that these urchins could do ever tried his
patience.  Cold, just, impassive, and at the same time loved, because
his coming had in a measure banished dullness from the house, he was a
good tutor. For his part, he felt only hatred and horror for the high
society in which he was allowed to occupy the very foot of the
table, a position which may perhaps explain his hatred and horror.
There were certain formal dinners at which he could barely contain his
loathing of everything round about him.  On Saint Louis's day in
particular, M. Valenod was laying down the law at M. de Renal's;
Julien almost gave himself away; he escaped into the garden, saying
that he must look after the children. 'What panegyrics of honesty!' he
exclaimed; 'anyone would say that was the one and only virtue; and yet
what consideration, what a cringing respect for a man who obviously
has doubled and tripled his fortune since he has been in charge of the
relief of the poor! I would wager that he makes something even out of
the fund set apart for the foundlings, those wretches whose need is
even more sacred than that of the other paupers. Ah, monsters!
Monsters! And I too, I am a sort of foundling, hated by my father, my
brothers, my whole family.'

Some days earlier, Julien walking by himself and saying his office in
a little wood, known as the Belvedere, which overlooks the Cours de la
Fidelite, had tried in vain to avoid his two brothers, whom he saw
approaching him by a solitary path. The jealousy of these rough
labourers had been so quickened by the sight of their brother's
handsome black coat, and air of extreme gentility, as well as by the
sincere contempt which he felt for them, that they had proceeded to
thrash him, leaving him there unconscious and bleeding freely. Madame
de Renal, who was out walking with M. Valenod and the Sub-Prefect,
happened to turn into the little wood; she saw Julien lying on the
ground and thought him dead. She was so overcome as to make M. Valenod

His alarm was premature. Julien admired Madame de Renal's looks, but
hated her for her beauty; it was the first reef on which his fortune
had nearly foundered. He spoke to her as seldom as possible, in the
hope of making her forget the impulse which, at their first encounter,
had led him to kiss her hand.

Elisa, Madame de Renal's maid, had not failed to fall in love with the
young tutor; she often spoke of him to her mistress. Miss Elisa's love
had brought upon Julien the hatred of one of the footmen. One day he
heard this man say to Elisa: 'You won't speak to me any more, since
that greasy tutor has been in the house.' Julien did not deserve the
epithet; but, with the instinct of a good-looking youth, became doubly
attentive to his person. M. Valenod's hatred was multiplied
accordingly. He said in public that so much concern with one's
appearance was not becoming in a young cleric. Barring the cassock,
Julien now wore clerical attire.

Madame de Renal observed that he was speaking more often than before
to Miss Elisa; she learned that these conversations were due to the
limitations of Julien's extremely small wardrobe. He had so scanty a
supply of linen that he was obliged to send it out constantly to be
washed, and it was in performing these little services that Elisa made
herself useful to him.

This extreme poverty, of which she had had no suspicion, touched
Madame de Renal; she longed to make him presents, but did not dare;
this inward resistance was the first feeling of regret that Julien
caused her. Until then the name of Julien and the sense of a pure and
wholly intellectual joy had been synonymous to her.  Tormented by the
idea of Julien's poverty, Madame de Renal spoke to her husband about
making him a present of linen:

'What idiocy!' he replied. 'What! Make presents to a man with whom we
are perfectly satisfied, and who is serving us well? It is when he
neglects his duty that we should stimulate his zeal.'

Madame de Renal felt ashamed of this way of looking at things; before
Julien came she would not have noticed it. She never saw the young
cleric's spotless, though very simple, toilet without asking herself:
'Poor boy, how ever does he manage?'

As time went on she began to feel sorry for Julien's deficiencies,
instead of being shocked by them.

Madame de Renal was one of those women to be found in the provinces
whom one may easily take to be fools until one has known them for a
fortnight.  She had no experience of life, and made no effort at
conversation. Endowed with a delicate and haughty nature, that
instinct for happiness natural to all human beings made her, generally
speaking, pay no attention to the actions of the coarse creatures into
whose midst chance had flung her.

She would have been remarkable for her naturalness and quickness of
mind, had she received the most scanty education; but in her capacity
as an heiress she had been brought up by nuns who practised a
passionate devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, and were animated by
a violent hatred of the French as being enemies of the Jesuits. Madame
de Renal had sufficient sense to forget at once, as absurdities,
everything she had learned in the convent; but she put nothing else in
its place, and ended by knowing nothing. The flatteries of which she
had been the precocious object, as the heiress to a large fortune, and
a marked tendency towards passionate devotion, had bred in her an
attitude towards life that was wholly inward.  With an outward show of
the most perfect submission, and a self-suppression which the husbands
of Verrieres used to quote as an example to their wives, and which was
a source of pride to M. de Renal, her inner life was, as a matter of
fact, dictated by the most lofty disdain. Any princess who is quoted
as an illustration of pride pays infinitely more attention to what her
gentlemen are doing round about her than this meekest of women, so
modest in appearance, gave to anything that her husband said or did.
Until Julien arrived, she had really paid no attention to anyone but
her children. Their little illnesses, their sorrows, their little
pleasures absorbed the whole sensibility of this human soul, which had
never, in the whole of her life, adored anyone save God, while she was
at the Sacred Heart in Besancon.

Although she did not condescend to say so to anyone, a feverish attack
coming to one of her sons threw her almost into the same state as if
the child had died. A burst of coarse laughter, a shrug of the
shoulders, accompanied by some trivial maxim as to the foolishness of
women, had regularly greeted the confessions of grief of this sort
which the need of an outlet had led her to make to her husband during
the first years of their married life. Witticisms of this sort,
especially when they bore upon the illnesses of the children, turned
the dagger in Madame de Renal's heart. This was all the substitute she
found for the obsequious, honeyed flatteries of the Jesuitical convent
in which she had passed her girlhood.  She was educated in the school
of suffering. Too proud to speak of griefs of this sort, even to her
friend Madame Derville, she imagined that all men resembled her
husband, M. Valenod, and the Sub-Prefect Charcot de Maugiron.  Coarse
wit and the most brutal insensibility to everything that did not
promise money, promotion or a Cross; a blind hatred of every argument
that went against them seemed to her to be things natural to the male
sex, like the wearing of boots and felt hats.

After many long years, Madame de Renal had not yet grown accustomed to
these money-grubbing creatures among whom she had to live.

Hence the success of the little peasant Julien. She found much
pleasant enjoyment, radiant with the charm of novelty, in the sympathy
of this proud and noble spirit. Madame de Renal had soon forgiven him
his extreme ignorance, which was an additional charm, and the
roughness of his manners, which she succeeded in improving. She found
that it was worth her while to listen to him, even when they spoke of
the most ordinary things, even when it was a question of a poor dog
that had been run over, as it was crossing the street, by a peasant's
cart going by at a trot. The sight of such a tragedy made her husband
utter his coarse laugh, whereas she saw Julien's fine, beautifully
arched black eyebrows wince. Generosity, nobility of soul, humanity,
seemed to her, after a time, to exist only in this young cleric.  She
felt for him alone all the sympathy and even admiration which those
virtues arouse in well-bred natures.

In Paris, Julien's position with regard to Madame de Renal would very
soon have been simplified; but in Paris love is the child of the
novels. The young tutor and his timid mistress would have found in
three or four novels, and even in the lyrics of the Gymnase, a clear
statement of their situation. The novels would have outlined for them
the part to be played, shown them the model to copy; and this model,
sooner or later, albeit without the slightest pleasure, and perhaps
with reluctance, vanity would have compelled Julien to follow.

In a small town of the Aveyron or the Pyrenees, the slightest incident
would have been made decisive by the ardour of the climate. Beneath
our more sombre skies, a penniless young man, who is ambitious only
because the refinement of his nature puts him in need of some of those
pleasures which money provides, is in daily contact with a woman of
thirty who is sincerely virtuous, occupied with her children, and
never looks to novels for examples of conduct. Everything goes slowly,
everything happens by degrees in the provinces: life is more natural.

Often, when she thought of the young tutor's poverty, Madame de Renal
was moved to tears. Julien came upon her, one day, actually crying.

'Ah, Ma'am, you have had some bad news!'

'No, my friend,' was her answer: 'Call the children, let us go for a

She took his arm and leaned on it in a manner which Julien thought
strange.  It was the first time that she had called him 'my friend'.

Towards the end of their walk, Julien observed that she was blushing
deeply. She slackened her pace.

'You will have heard,' she said without looking at him, 'that I am the
sole heiress of a very rich aunt who lives at Besancon. She loads me
with presents. My sons are making ... such astonishing progress ...
that I should like to ask you to accept a little present, as a token
of my gratitude. It is only a matter of a few louis to supply you with
linen. But--' she added, blushing even more deeply, and was silent.

'What, Ma'am?' said Julien.

'It would be unnecessary,' she went on, lowering her head, 'to speak
of this to my husband.'

'I may be humble, Ma'am, but I am not base,' replied Julien coming to
a standstill, his eyes ablaze with anger, and drawing himself up to
his full height. 'That is a point which you have not sufficiently
considered. I should be less than a footman if I put myself in the
position of hiding from M. de Renal anything that had to do with my

Madame de Renal was overwhelmed.

'The Mayor,' Julien went on, 'has given me thirty-six francs five
times since I came to live in his house; I am prepared to show my
account-book to M. de Renal or to anyone else, including M. Valenod
who hates me.'

This outburst left Madame de Renal pale and trembling, and the walk
came to an end before either of them could find an excuse for renewing
the conversation. Love for Madame de Renal became more and more
impossible in the proud heart of Julien: as for her, she respected,
she admired him; she had been scolded by him. On the pretext of making
amends for the humiliation which she had unintentionally caused him,
she allowed herself to pay him the most delicate attentions. The
novelty of this procedure kept her happy for a week. Its effect was to
some extent to appease Julien's anger; he was far from seeing anything
in it that could be mistaken for personal affection.

'That,' he said to himself, 'is what rich people are like: they
humiliate one, and then think they can put things right by a few

Madame de Renal's heart was too full, and as yet too innocent for her,
notwithstanding the resolutions she had made, not to tell her husband
of the offer she had made to Julien and the manner in which she had
been repulsed.

'What,' M. de Renal retorted, with keen annoyance, 'could you tolerate
a refusal from a servant?'

And as Madame de Renal protested at this word:

'I speak, Ma'am, as the late Prince de Conde spoke, when presenting
his Chamberlains to his bride: "All these people," he told her, "are
our servants." I read you the passage from Besenval's _Memoirs_, it is
essential in questions of precedence. Everyone who is not a gentleman,
who lives in your house and receives a salary, is your servant. I
shall say a few words to this Master Julien, and give him a hundred

'Ah, my dear,' said Madame de Renal trembling, 'please do not say
anything in front of the servants.'

'Yes, they might be jealous, and rightly,' said her husband as he left
the room, thinking of the magnitude of the sum.

Madame de Renal sank down on a chair, almost fainting with grief. 'He
is going to humiliate Julien, and it is my fault!' She felt a horror
of her husband, and hid her face in her hands. She promised herself
that she would never confide anything in him again.

When she next saw Julien, she was trembling all over, her bosom was so
contracted that she could not manage to utter a single word. In her
embarrassment she took his hands and wrung them.

'Well, my friend,' she said to him after a little, 'are you pleased
with my husband?'

'How should I not be?' Julien answered with a bitter smile; 'he has
given me a hundred francs.'

Madame de Renal looked at him as though uncertain what to do.

'Give me your arm,' she said at length with an accent of courage which
Julien had never yet observed in her.

She ventured to enter the shop of the Verrieres bookseller, in spite
of his terrible reputation as a Liberal. There she chose books to the
value of ten louis which she gave to her sons. But these books were
the ones which she knew that Julien wanted. She insisted that there,
in the bookseller's shop, each of the children should write his own
name in the books that fell to his share. While Madame de Renal was
rejoicing at the partial reparation which she had had the courage to
make to Julien, he was lost in amazement at the quantity of books
which he saw on the bookseller's shelves. Never had he dared to set
foot in so profane a place; his heart beat violently.  So far from his
having any thought of trying to guess what was occurring in the heart
of Madame de Renal, he was plunged in meditation as to how it would be
possible for a young student of divinity to procure some of these
books. At length the idea came to him that it might be possible, by a
skilful approach, to persuade M. de Renal that he ought to set his
sons, as the subject for an essay, the lives of the celebrated
gentlemen who were natives of the province. After a month of careful
preliminaries, he saw his idea prove successful, so much so that,
shortly afterwards, he ventured, in speaking to M. de Renal, to
mention an action considerably more offensive to the noble Mayor; it
was a matter of contributing to the prosperity of a Liberal, by taking
out a subscription at the library.  M. de Renal entirely agreed that
it was wise to let his eldest son have a _visual impression_ of various
works which he would hear mentioned in conversation when he went to
the Military School; but Julien found the Mayor obdurate in refusing
to go any farther. He suspected a secret reason, which he was unable
to guess.

'I was thinking, Sir,' he said to him one day, 'that it would be
highly improper for the name of a respectable gentleman like a Renal
to appear on the dirty ledger of the librarian.'

M. de Renal's face brightened.

'It would also be a very bad mark,' Julien went on, in a humbler tone,
'against a poor divinity student, if it should one day be discovered
that his name had been on the ledger of a bookseller who keeps a
library. The Liberals might accuse me of having asked for the most
scandalous books; for all one knows they might even go so far as to
write in after my name the titles of those perverse works.'

But Julien was going off the track. He saw the Mayor's features resume
their expression of embarrassment and ill humour. Julien was silent.
'I have my man hooked,' he said to himself.

A few days later, on the eldest boy's questioning Julien as to a book
advertised in the _Quotidienne_, in M. de Renal's presence:

'To remove all occasion for triumph from the Jacobin Party,' said the
young tutor, 'and at the same time to enable me to answer Master
Adolphe, one might open a subscription at the bookshop in the name of
the lowest of your servants.'

'That is not at all a bad idea,' said M. de Renal, obviously

'Only it would have to be specified,' said Julien with that grave and
almost sorrowful air which becomes certain people so well, when they
see the success of the projects which have been longest in their
minds, 'it would have to be specified that the servant shall not take
out any novels.  Once they were in the house, those dangerous works
might corrupt Madame's maids, not to speak of the servant himself.'

'You forget the political pamphlets,' added M. de Renal, in a haughty
tone.  He wished to conceal the admiration that he felt for the clever
middle course discovered by his children's tutor.

Julien's life was thus composed of a series of petty negotiations; and
their success was of far more importance to him than the evidence of a
marked preference for himself which was only waiting for him to read
it in the heart of Madame de Renal.

The moral environment in which he had been placed all his life was
repeated in the household of the worshipful Mayor of Verrieres. There,
as in his father's sawmill, he profoundly despised the people with
whom he lived, and was hated by them. He saw every day, from the
remarks made by the Sub-Prefect, by M. Valenod and by the other
friends of the family, with reference to the things that had just
happened under their eyes, how remote their ideas were from any
semblance of reality. Did an action strike him as admirable, it was
precisely what called forth blame from the people round about him. His
unspoken retort was always: 'What monsters!' or 'What fools!' The
amusing thing was that, with all his pride, frequently he understood
nothing at all of what was being discussed.

In his whole life, he had never spoken with sincerity except to the
old Surgeon-Major; the few ideas that he had bore reference to
Napoleon's campaigns in Italy, or to surgery. His youthful courage
took delight in detailed accounts of the most painful operations; he
said to himself: 'I should not have flinched.'

The first time that Madame de Renal attempted a conversation with him
on a subject other than that of the children's education, he began to
talk of surgical operations; she turned pale, and begged him to stop.

Julien knew nothing apart from these matters. And so, as he spent his
time with Madame de Renal, the strangest silence grew up between them
as soon as they were alone together. In her own drawing-room, humble
as his bearing was, she found in his eyes an air of intellectual
superiority over everyone that came to the house. Were she left alone
for a moment with him, she saw him grow visibly embarrassed. This
troubled her, for her womanly instinct made her realise that his
embarrassment was not in the least degree amorous.

In consequence of some idea derived from a description of good
society, as the old Surgeon-Major had beheld it, as soon as
conversation ceased in a place where he found himself in the company
of a woman, Julien felt abashed, as though he himself were specially
to blame for this silence. This sensation was a hundred times more
painful when they were alone. His imagination, full of the most
extravagant, the most Spanish notions as to what a man ought to say,
when he is alone with a woman, offered him in his agitation none but
inadmissible ideas. His soul was in the clouds, and yet he was
incapable of breaking the most humiliating silence. Thus his air of
severity, during his long walks with Madame de Renal and the children,
was intensified by the most cruel sufferings. He despised himself
hideously. If by mischance he forced himself to speak, he found
himself saying the most ridiculous things. To increase his misery, he
saw and exaggerated his own absurdity; but what he did not see was the
expression in his eyes, they were so fine and revealed so burning a
soul that, like good actors, they imparted at times a charming meaning
to what was meaningless. Madame de Renal remarked that, when alone
with her, he never expressed himself well except when he was
distracted by some unforeseen occurrence, he never thought of turning
a compliment. As the friends of the family did not spoil her by
offering her new and brilliant ideas, she took a delight in the
flashes of Julien's intellect.

Since the fall of Napoleon, all semblance of gallantry in speech has
been sternly banished from the code of provincial behaviour. People
are afraid of losing their posts. The unscrupulous seek support from
the _Congregation_ and hypocrisy has made the most brilliant advances
even among the Liberal classes. Dulness increases. No pleasure is
left, save in reading and agriculture.

Madame de Renal, the wealthy heiress of a religious aunt, married at
sixteen to a worthy gentleman, had never in her life felt or seen
anything that bore the faintest resemblance to love. Her confessor,
the good cure Chelan, was the only person almost who had ever spoken
to her of love, with reference to the advances of M. Valenod, and he
had drawn so revolting a picture of it that the word conveyed nothing
to her but the idea of the most abject immorality. She regarded as an
exception, or rather as something quite apart from nature, love such
as she had found it in the very small number of novels that chance had
brought to her notice. Thanks to this ignorance, Madame de
Renal, entirely happy, occupied incessantly with the thought of
Julien, was far from reproaching herself in the slightest degree.

Minor Events

  Then there were sighs, the deeper for suppression,
    And stolen glances, sweeter for the theft,
  And burning blushes, though for no transgression.
      _Don Juan_, I. 74

The angelic sweetness which Madame de Renal derived from her own
character as well as from her present happiness was interrupted only
when she happened to think of her maid Elisa. This young woman
received a legacy, went to make her confession to the cure Chelan, and
revealed to him her intention to marry Julien. The cure was genuinely
delighted at his friend's good fortune; but his surprise was great
when Julien informed him with a resolute air that Miss Elisa's offer
could not be accepted.

'Pay good heed, my son, to what is taking place in your heart,' said
the cure, frowning; 'I congratulate you on your vocation, if it is to
it alone that must be ascribed your scorn of a more than adequate
provision. For fifty-six years and more have I been cure at Verrieres,
and yet, so far as one can see, I am going to be deprived. This
distresses me, albeit I have an income of eight hundred livres. I tell
you of this detail in order that you may not be under any illusion as
to what is in store for you in the priestly calling. If you think of
paying court to the men in power, your eternal ruin is assured. You
may make your fortune, but you will have to injure the poor and needy,
flatter the Sub-Prefect, the Mayor, the important person, and
minister to his passions: such conduct, which in the world is called
the art of life, may, in a layman, be not wholly incompatible with
salvation; but in our calling, we have to choose; we must make our
fortune either in this world or in the next, there is no middle way.
Go, my dear friend, reflect, and come back in three days' time with a
definite answer. I am sorry to see underlying your character, a
smouldering ardour which does not suggest to my mind the moderation
and complete renunciation of earthly advantages necessary in a priest;
I augur well from your intelligence; but, allow me to tell you,' the
good cure went on, with tears in his eyes, 'in the calling of a
priest, I shall tremble for your salvation.'

Julien was ashamed of his emotion; for the first time in his life, he
saw himself loved; he wept for joy, and went to hide his tears in the
great woods above Verrieres.

'Why am I in this state?' he asked himself at length; 'I feel that I
would give my life a hundred times over for that good Father Chelan,
and yet he has just proved to me that I am no better than a fool. It
is he above all that I have to deceive, and he sees through me. That
secret ardour of which he speaks is my plan for making my fortune. He
thinks me unfit to be a priest, at the very moment when I imagined
that the sacrifice of an income of fifty louis was going to give him
the most exalted idea of my piety and my vocation.

'For the future,' Julien continued, 'I shall rely only upon those
elements of my character which I have tested. Who would ever have said
that I should find pleasure in shedding tears? That I should love the
man who proves to me that I am nothing more than a fool?'

Three days later, Julien had found the pretext with which he should
have armed himself from the first; this pretext was a calumny, but
what of that?  He admitted to the cure, after much hesitation, that a
reason which he could not explain to him, because to reveal it would
injure a third party, had dissuaded him from the first from the
projected marriage. This was tantamount to an indictment of Elisa's
conduct. M. Chelan detected in his manner a fire that was wholly
mundane, and very different from that which should have inspired a
young Levite.

'My friend,' he appealed to him again, 'be an honest yeoman, educated
and respected, rather than a priest without a vocation.'

Julien replied to these fresh remonstrances extremely well, so far as
words went; he hit upon the expressions which a fervent young
seminarist would have employed; but the tone in which he uttered them,
the ill-concealed fire that smouldered in his eyes alarmed M. Chelan.

We need not augur ill for Julien's future; he hit upon the correct
form of words of a cunning and prudent hypocrisy. That is not bad at
his age. As for his tone and gestures, he lived among country folk; he
had been debarred from seeing the great models. In the sequel, no
sooner had he been permitted to mix with these gentlemen than he
became admirable as well in gesture as in speech.

Madame de Renal was surprised that her maid's newly acquired fortune
had not made the girl more happy; she saw her going incessantly to the
cure's, and returning with tears in her eyes; finally Elisa spoke to
her mistress of her marriage.

Madame de Renal believed herself to have fallen ill; a sort of fever
prevented her enjoying any sleep; she was alive only when she had her
maid or Julien before her eyes. She could think of nothing but them
and the happiness they would find in their married life. The poverty
of the small house in which people would be obliged to live, with an
income of fifty louis, portrayed itself to her in enchanting colours.
Julien might very well become a lawyer at Bray, the Sub-Prefecture two
leagues from Verrieres; in that event she would see something of

Madame de Renal sincerely believed that she was going mad; she said so
to her husband, and finally did fall ill. That evening, as her maid
was waiting upon her, she noticed that the girl was crying. She
loathed Elisa at that moment, and had spoken sharply to her; she
begged the girl's pardon. Elisa's tears increased; she said that if
her mistress would allow it, she would tell her the whole tale of her

'Speak,' replied Madame de Renal.

'Well, the fact is, Ma'am, he won't have me; wicked people must have
spoken evil of me to him, and he believes them.'

'Who won't have you?' said Madame de Renal, scarcely able to breathe.

'And who could it be, Ma'am, but M. Julien?' the maid replied through
her sobs. 'His Reverence has failed to overcome his resistance; for
His Reverence considers that he ought not to refuse a decent girl,
just because she has been a lady's maid. After all, M. Julien's own
father is no better than a carpenter; and he himself, how was he
earning his living before he came to Madame's?'

Madame de Renal had ceased to listen; surfeit of happiness had almost
deprived her of the use of her reason. She made the girl repeat to her
several times the assurance that Julien had refused in a positive
manner, which would not permit of his coming to a more reasonable
decision later on.

'I wish to make a final effort,' she said to her maid. 'I shall speak
to M. Julien.'

Next day after luncheon, Madame de Renal gave herself the exquisite
sensation of pleading her rival's cause, and of seeing Elisa's hand
and fortune persistently refused for an hour on end.

Little by little Julien abandoned his attitude of studied reserve, and
ended by making spirited answers to the sound arguments advanced by
Madame de Renal. She could not hold out against the torrent of
happiness which now poured into her heart after all those days of
despair. She found herself really ill. When she had come to herself,
and was comfortably settled in her own room, she asked to be left
alone. She was in a state of profound astonishment.

'Can I be in love with Julien?' she asked herself at length.

This discovery, which at any other time would have filled her with
remorse and with a profound agitation, was no more to her than a
singular spectacle, but one that left her indifferent. Her heart,
exhausted by all that she had just undergone, had no sensibility left
to place at the service of her passions.

Madame de Renal tried to work, and fell into a deep sleep; when she
awoke, she was less alarmed than she should have been. She was too
happy to be able to take anything amiss. Artless and innocent as she
was, this honest provincial had never tormented her soul in an attempt
to wring from it some little sensibility to some novel shade of
sentiment or distress. Entirely absorbed, before Julien came, in that
mass of work which, outside Paris, is the lot of a good wife and
mother, Madame de Renal thought about the passions, as we think about
the lottery: a certain disappointment and a happiness sought by fools

The dinner bell rang; Madame de Renal blushed deeply when she heard
Julien's voice as he brought in the children. Having acquired some
adroitness since she had fallen in love, she accounted for her colour
by complaining of a splitting headache.

'There you have women,' put in M. de Renal, with a coarse laugh.
'There's always something out of order in their machinery.'

Accustomed as she was to this form of wit, the tone of his voice hurt
Madame de Renal. She sought relief in studying Julien's features; had
he been the ugliest man in the world, he would have charmed her at
that moment.

Always zealous in imitating the habits of the Court, with the first
fine days of spring M. de Renal removed his household to Vergy; it is
the village rendered famous by the tragic adventure of Gabrielle. A
few hundred yards from the picturesque ruins of the old gothic church,
M. de Renal owned an old castle with its four towers, and a garden
laid out like that of the Tuileries, with a number of box borders, and
chestnut alleys trimmed twice in the year. An adjoining field, planted
with apple trees, allowed the family to take the air. Nine or ten
splendid walnuts grew at the end of the orchard; their massive foliage
rose to a height of some eighty feet.

'Each of those damned walnuts,' M. de Renal would say when his wife
admired them, 'costs me half an acre of crop; the corn will not grow
in their shade.'

The rustic scene appeared to come as a novelty to Madame de Renal; her
admiration knew no bounds. The feeling that animated her gave her a
new spirit and determination. On the second day after their removal to
Vergy, M. de Renal having returned to town upon some official
business, his wife engaged labourers at her own expense. Julien had
given her the idea of a little gravelled path, which should run round
the orchard and beneath the big walnuts, and would allow the children
to walk there in the early morning without wetting their shoes in the
dew. This plan was put into execution within twenty-four hours of its
conception. Madame de Renal spent a long and happy day with Julieu
supervising the labourers.

When the Mayor of Verrieres returned from the town, he was greatly
surprised to find the path finished. His coming surprised Madame de
Renal also; she had forgotten that he existed. For the next two
months, he continued to speak with annoyance of their presumption in
having carried out, without consulting him, so important a repair, but
Madame de Renal had done it at her own expense, and this to some
extent consoled him.

She spent her days running about the orchard with her children, and
chasing butterflies. They had made a number of large nets of
light-coloured gauze, with which they caught the unfortunate
lepidoptera. This was the outlandish name which Julien taught Madame
de Renal. For she had sent to Besancon for the handsome work on the
subject by M. Godart; and Julien read to her the strange habits of
these insects.

They fastened them, without compunction, with pins upon a large sheet
of pasteboard, also prepared by Julien.

At last Madame de Renal and Julien had a subject for conversation; he
was no longer exposed to the frightful torture inflicted on him by
intervals of silence.

They conversed incessantly, and with extreme interest, although always
of the most innocent things. This life, active, occupied and cheerful,
suited everyone, except Miss Elisa, who found herself worked to death.
'Even at carnival-time,' she said, 'when there is a ball at Verrieres,
Madame has never taken so much trouble over her dress; she changes her
clothes two or three times a day.'

As it is our intention to flatter no one, we shall not conceal the
fact that Madame de Renal, who had a superb skin, had dresses made for
her which exposed her arms and bosom freely. She was very well made,
and this way of dressing suited her to perfection.

'You have never _been so young_, Ma'am,' her friends from Verrieres used
to tell her when they came to dine at Vergy. (It is a local form of

A curious point, which our readers will scarcely believe, was that
Madame de Renal had no deliberate intention in taking such pains with
her appearance. She enjoyed doing so; and, without giving the matter
any particular thought, whenever she was not chasing butterflies with
the children and Julien, she was engaged with Elisa making dresses.
Her one expedition to Verrieres was due to a desire to purchase new
summer clothes which had just arrived there from Mulhouse.

She brought back with her to Vergy a young woman, one of her cousins.
Since her marriage, Madame de Renal had gradually formed an intimate
friendship with Madame Derville, who in their younger days had been
her school-fellow at the Sacre-Coeur.

Madame Derville laughed heartily at what she called her cousin's
absurd ideas. 'If I were alone, they would never occur to me,' she
used to say.  These sudden ideas, which in Paris would have been
called sallies, made Madame de Renal feel ashamed, as of something
foolish, when she was with her husband; but Madame Derville's presence
gave her courage. She began by telling her what she was thinking in a
timid voice; when the ladies were by themselves for any length of
time, Madame de Renal would become animated, and a long, undisturbed
morning passed in a flash and left the friends quite merry. On this
visit, the sensible Madame Derville found her cousin much less merry
and much happier.

Julien, meanwhile, had been living the life of a child since he had
come to the country, as happy to be running after butterflies as were
his pupils.  After so much constraint and skilful diplomacy, alone,
unobserved by his fellow-men, and, instinctively, feeling not in the
least afraid of Madame de Renal, he gave himself up to the pleasure of
being alive, so keen at his age, and in the midst of the fairest
mountains in the world.

As soon as Madame Derville arrived, Julien felt that she was his
friend; he hastened to show her the view that was to be seen from the
end of the new path; as a matter of fact it was equal, if not superior
to the most admirable scenery which Switzerland and the Italian lakes
have to offer. By climbing the steep slope which began a few yards
farther on, one came presently to high precipices fringed with
oakwoods, which projected almost over the bed of the river. It was to
the summits of these sheer rocks that Julien, happy, free, and indeed
something more, lord of the house, led the two friends, and relished
their admiration of those sublime prospects.

'To me it is like Mozart's music,' said Madame Derville.

His brothers' jealousy, the presence of a despotic and ill-tempered
father had spoiled the country round Verrieres in Julien's eyes. At
Vergy, he found no trace of these unpleasant memories; for the first
time in his life, he could see no one that was his enemy. When M. de
Renal was in town, as frequently happened, he ventured to read; soon,
instead of reading at night, and then taking care, moreover, to shade
his lamp with an inverted flower-pot, he could take his full measure
of sleep; during the day, in the interval between the children's
lessons, he climbed up among these rocks with the book that was his
sole rule of conduct, and the sole object of his transports. He found
in it at once happiness, ecstasy and consolation in moments of

Certain things which Napoleon says of women, various discussions of
the merits of the novels in vogue during his reign, furnished him
now, for the first time, with several ideas which would long since
have been familiar to any other young man of his age.

The hot weather came. They formed the habit of spending the evening
under a huge lime a few yards from the house. There the darkness was
intense. One evening, Julien was talking with emphasis, he was
revelling in the pleasure of talking well and to young married women;
as he gesticulated, he touched the hand of Madame de Renal, who was
leaning on the back of one of those chairs of painted wood that are
placed in gardens.

The hand was hurriedly withdrawn; but Julien decided that it was his
_duty_ to secure that the hand should not be withdrawn when he touched
it. The idea of a duty to be performed, and of making himself
ridiculous, or rather being left with a sense of inferiority if he did
not succeed in performing it, at once took all the pleasure from his

An Evening in the Country

  M. Guerin's Dido, a charming sketch!

When he saw Madame de Renal again, the next morning, there was a
strange look in his eyes; he watched her like an enemy with whom he
would presently be engaged. This expression, so different from his
expression overnight, made Madame de Renal lose her head; she had been
kind to him, and he appeared vexed. She could not take her eyes from

Madame Derville's presence excused Julien from his share of the
conversation, and enabled him to concentrate his attention upon what
he had in mind. His sole occupation, throughout the day, was that of
fortifying himself by reading the inspired text which refreshed his

He greatly curtailed the children's lessons, and when, later on, the
presence of Madame de Renal recalled him to the service of his own
vanity, decided that it was absolutely essential that this evening she
should allow her hand to remain in his.

The sun as it set and so brought nearer the decisive moment made
Julien's heart beat with a strange excitement. Night fell. He
observed, with a joy that lifted a huge weight from his breast, that
it was very dark. A sky packed with big clouds, kept in motion by a
hot breeze, seemed to forebode a tempest. The two women continued
strolling until a late hour. Everything that they did this evening
seemed strange to Julien.  They were enjoying this weather, which, in
certain delicate natures, seems to enhance the pleasure of love.

At last they sat down, Madame de Renal next to Julien, and Madame
Derville on the other side of her friend. Preoccupied with the attempt
he must shortly make, Julien could think of nothing to say. The
conversation languished.

'Shall I tremble like this and feel as uncomfortable the first time I
have to fight a duel?' Julien wondered; for he had too little
confidence either in himself or in others not to observe the state he
was in.

In this agonising uncertainty, any danger would have seemed to him
preferable. How often did he long to see Madame de Renal called by
some duty which would oblige her to return to the house and so leave
the garden!  The violence of the effort which Julien had to make to
control himself was such that his voice was entirely altered;
presently Madame de Renal's voice became tremulous also, but Julien
never noticed this. The ruthless warfare which his sense of duty was
waging with his natural timidity was too exhausting for him to be in a
condition to observe anything outside himself. The quarter before ten
had sounded from the tower clock, without his having yet ventured on
anything. Julien, ashamed of his cowardice, told himself: 'At the
precise moment when ten o'clock strikes, I shall carry out the
intention which, all day long, I have been promising myself that I
would fulfil this evening, or I shall go up to my room and blow my
brains out.'

After a final interval of tension and anxiety, during which the excess
of his emotion carried Julien almost out of his senses, the strokes of
ten sounded from the clock overhead. Each stroke of that fatal bell
stirred an echo in his bosom, causing him almost a physical revulsion.

Finally, while the air was still throbbing with the last stroke of
ten, he put out his hand and took that of Madame de Renal, who at once
withdrew it.  Julien, without exactly knowing what he was doing,
grasped her hand again.  Although greatly moved himself, he was struck
by the icy coldness of the hand he was clasping; he pressed it with
convulsive force; a last attempt was made to remove it from him, but
finally the hand was left in his grasp.

His heart was flooded with joy, not because he loved Madame de Renal,
but because a fearful torment was now at an end. So that Madame
Derville should not notice anything, he felt himself obliged to speak;
his voice, now, was loud and ringing. Madame de Renal's, on the other
hand, betrayed such emotion that her friend thought she must be ill
and suggested to her that they should go indoors. Julien saw the
danger: 'If Madame de Renal returns to the drawing-room, I am going to
fall back into the horrible position I have been in all day. I have
not held this hand long enough to be able to reckon it as a definite

When Madame Derville repeated her suggestion that they should go into
the drawing-room, Julien pressed the hand that lay in his.

Madame de Renal, who was preparing to rise, resumed her seat, saying
in a faint tone:

'I do, as a matter of fact, feel a little unwell, but the fresh air is
doing me good.'

These words confirmed Julien's happiness, which, at this moment, was
extreme: he talked, forgot to dissimulate, appeared the most charming
of men to his two hearers. And yet there was still a slight want of
courage in this eloquence which had suddenly come to him. He was in a
deadly fear lest Madame Derville, exhausted by the wind which was
beginning to rise, and heralded the storm, might decide to go in by
herself to the drawing-room.  Then he would be left alone with Madame
de Renal. He had found almost by accident the blind courage which was
sufficient for action; but he felt that it lay beyond his power to
utter the simplest of words to Madame de Renal. However mild her
reproaches might be, he was going to be defeated, and the advantage
which he had just gained wiped out.

Fortunately for him, this evening, his touching and emphatic speeches
found favour with Madame Derville, who as a rule found him as awkward
as a schoolboy, and by no means amusing. As for Madame de Renal, her
hand lying clasped in Julien's, she had no thought of anything; she
was allowing herself to live. The hours they spent beneath this huge
lime, which, local tradition maintained, had been planted by Charles
the Bold, were for her a time of happiness. She listened with rapture
to the moaning of the wind in the thick foliage of the lime, and the
sound of the first few drops that were beginning to fall upon its
lowest leaves. Julien did not notice a detail which would have greatly
reassured him; Madame de Renal, who had been obliged to remove her
hand from his, on rising to help her cousin to pick up a pot of
flowers which the wind had overturned at their feet, had no sooner sat
down again than she gave him back her hand almost without difficulty,
and as though it had been an understood thing between them.

Midnight had long since struck; at length it was time to leave the
garden: the party broke up. Madame de Renal, transported by the joy of
being in love, was so ignorant that she hardly reproached herself at
all. Happiness robbed her of sleep. A sleep like lead carried off
Julien, utterly worn out by the battle that had been raging all day in
his heart between timidity and pride.

Next morning he was called at five o'clock; and (what would have been
a cruel blow to Madame de Renal had she known of it) he barely gave
her a thought. He had done _his duty, and a heroic duty_. Filled with
joy by this sentiment, he turned the key in the door of his bedroom
and gave himself up with an entirely new pleasure to reading about the
exploits of his hero.

When the luncheon bell sounded, he had forgotten, in reading the
reports of the Grand Army, all the advantages he had won overnight. He
said to himself, in a careless tone, as he went down to the
drawing-room: 'I must tell this woman that I love her.'

Instead of that gaze charged with passion which he expected to meet,
he found the stern face of M. de Renal, who, having arrived a couple
of hours earlier from Verrieres, did not conceal his displeasure on
finding that Julien was wasting the whole morning without attending to
the children. No sight could have been so unprepossessing as that of
this self-important man, conscious of a grievance and confident of his
right to let it be seen.

Each of her husband's harsh words pierced Madame de Renal to the
heart. As for Julien, he was so plunged in ecstasy, still so absorbed
in the great events which for the last few hours had been happening
before his eyes, that at first he could barely lower the pitch of his
attention to listen to the stern voice of M. de Renal. At length he
answered him, sharply enough:

'I was unwell.'

The tone of this reply would have stung a man far less susceptible
than the Mayor of Verrieres; it occurred to him to reply to Julien
with an immediate dismissal. He was restrained only by the maxim which
he had laid down for himself, never to be too hasty in business

'This young fool,' he soon reminded himself, 'has made himself a sort
of reputation in my house; Valenod may take him on, or else he will
marry Elisa, and, in either case, he can afford to laugh at me in his

Despite the wisdom of these reflections, M. de Renal's displeasure
found an outlet nevertheless in a succession of coarse utterances
which succeeded in irritating Julien. Madame de Renal was on the point
of subsiding in tears.  As soon as the meal was ended, she asked
Julien to give her his arm for their walk; she leaned upon it in a
friendly way. To all that Madame de Renal said to him, Julien could
only murmur in reply:

'This is what rich people are like!'

M. de Renal kept close beside them; his presence increased Julien's
anger.  He noticed suddenly that Madame de Renal was leaning upon his
arm in a marked manner; this action horrified him, he repulsed her
violently, freeing his arm from hers.

Fortunately M. de Renal saw nothing of this fresh impertinence; it was
noticed only by Madame Derville; her friend burst into tears. At this
moment M. de Renal began flinging stones at a little peasant girl who
was trespassing by taking a short cut across a corner of the orchard.

'Monsieur Julien, kindly control yourself, remember that we are all of
us liable to moments of ill temper,' Madame Derville said hastily.

Julien looked at her coldly with eyes in which the loftiest contempt
was portrayed.

This look astonished Madame Derville, and would have surprised her far
more could she have guessed its full meaning; she would have read in
it a vague hope of the most terrible revenge. It is doubtless to such
moments of humiliation that we owe men like Robespierre.

'Your Julien is very violent, he frightens me,' Madame Derville
murmured to her friend.

'He has every reason to be angry,' the other replied. 'After the
astonishing progress the children have made with him, what does it
matter if he spends a morning without speaking to them? You must admit
that gentlemen are very hard.'

For the first time in her life, Madame de Renal felt a sort of desire
to be avenged on her husband. The intense hatred that animated Julien
against rich people was about to break forth. Fortunately M. de Renal
called for his gardener, with whom for the rest of the time he busied
himself in stopping up with faggots of thorn the short cut that had
been made across the orchard. Julien did not utter a single word in
reply to the attentions that were shown him throughout the remainder
of the walk. As soon as M. de Renal had left them, the two ladies, on
the plea that they were tired, had asked him each for an arm.

As he walked between these women whose cheeks were flushed with the
embarrassment of an intense discomfort, Julien's sombre and decided
air formed a striking contrast. He despised these women, and all
tender feelings.

'What!' he said to himself, 'not even an allowance of five hundred
francs to complete my studies! Ah! How I should send her packing!'

Absorbed in these drastic thoughts, the little that he deigned to take
in of the polite speeches of the two ladies displeased him as being
devoid of meaning, silly, feeble, in a word _feminine_.

By dint of talking for talking's sake, and of trying to keep the
conversation alive, Madame de Renal found herself saying that her
husband had come from Verrieres because he had made a bargain, for the
purchase of maize straw, with one of his farmers. (In this district
maize straw is used to stuff the palliasses of the beds.)

'My husband will not be joining us again,' Madame de Renal went on:
'he will be busy with the gardener and his valet changing the straw in
all the palliasses in the house. This morning he put fresh straw on
all the beds on the first floor, now he is at work on the second.'

Julien changed colour; he looked at Madame de Renal in an odd manner,
and presently drew her apart, so to speak, by increasing his pace.
Madame Derville allowed them to move away from her.

'Save my life,' said Julien to Madame de Renal, 'you alone can do it;
for you know that the valet hates me like poison. I must confess to
you, Ma'am, that I have a portrait; I have hidden it in the palliasse
on my bed.'

At these words, Madame de Renal in turn grew pale.

'You alone, Ma'am, can go into my room at this moment; feel, without
letting yourself be observed, in the corner of the palliasse nearest
to the window; you will find there a small box of shiny black

'It contains a portrait?' said Madame de Renal, barely able to stand.

Her air of disappointment was noticed by Julien, who at once took
advantage of it.

'I have a second favour to ask of you, Ma'am; I beg you not to look at
the portrait, it is my secret.'

'It is a secret!' repeated Madame de Renal, in faint accents.

But, albeit she had been reared among people proud of their wealth,
and sensible of pecuniary interests alone, love had already instilled
some generosity into her heart. Though cruelly wounded, it was with an
air of the simplest devotion that Madame de Renal put to Julien the
questions necessary to enable her to execute his commission properly.

'And so,' she said, as she left him, 'it is a little round box, of
black pasteboard, and very shiny.'

'Yes, Ma'am,' replied Julien in that hard tone which danger gives a

She mounted to the second floor of the house, as pale as though she
were going to her death. To complete her misery she felt that she was
on the point of fainting, but the necessity of doing Julien a service
restored her strength.

'I must have that box,' she said to herself as she quickened her pace.

She could hear her husband talking to the valet, actually in Julien's
room.  Fortunately they moved into the room in which the children
slept. She lifted the mattress and plunged her hand into the straw
with such force as to scratch her fingers. But, although extremely
sensitive to slight injuries of this sort, she was now quite
unconscious of the pain, for almost immediately she felt the polished
surface of the pasteboard box. She seized it and fled.

No sooner was she rid of the fear of being surprised by her husband,
than the horror inspired in her by this box made her feel that in
another minute she must unquestionably faint.

'So Julien is in love, and I have here the portrait of the woman he

Seated on a chair in the sitting-room of this apartment, Madame de
Renal fell a prey to all the horrors of jealousy. Her extreme
ignorance was of service to her again at this moment; astonishment
tempered her grief.  Julien appeared, snatched the box, without
thanking her, without saying a word, and ran into his bedroom, where
he struck a light and immediately destroyed it. He was pale,
speechless; he exaggerated to himself the risk he had been running.

'The portrait of Napoleon,' he said to himself with a toss of the
head, 'found hidden in the room of a man who professes such hatred for
the usurper! Found by M. de Renal, so _ultra_ and so angry! and, to
complete the imprudence, on the white card at the back of the
portrait, lines in my writing! And lines that can leave no doubt as to
the warmth of my admiration! And each of those transports of love is
dated! There was one only two days ago!

'All my reputation brought down, destroyed in a moment!' Julien said
to himself as he watched the box burn, 'and my reputation is all I
have, I live by it alone ... and what a life at that, great God!'

An hour later, his exhaustion and the pity he felt for himself
disposed him to feel affection. He met Madame de Renal and took her
hand which he kissed with more sincerity than he had ever yet shown.
She coloured with delight, and almost simultaneously repulsed Julien
with the anger of a jealous woman. Julien's pride, so recently
wounded, made a fool of him at that moment. He saw in Madame de Renal
only a rich woman, he let fall her hand with contempt, and strode
away. He went out and walked pensively in the garden; presently a
bitter smile appeared on his lips.

'Here I am walking about as calm as a man who is his own master! I am
not looking after the children! I am exposing myself to the
humiliating remarks of M. de Renal, and he will be justified.' He
hastened to the children's room.

The caresses of the youngest boy, to whom he was greatly attached, did
something to soothe his agonising pain.

'This one does not despise me yet,' thought Julien. But presently he
blamed himself for this relief from pain, as for a fresh weakness.
These children fondle me as they might fondle the puppy that was
bought yesterday.'

A Large Heart and a Small Fortune

  But passion most dissembles, yet betrays,
  Even by its darkness; as the blackest sky
  Foretells the heaviest tempest.
    _Don Juan_, I. 73

M. de Renal, who was visiting every room in the house, reappeared in
the children's room with the servants who brought back the palliasses
refilled.  The sudden entry of this man was the last straw to Julien.

Paler, more sombre than usual, he advanced towards him. M. de Renal
stood still and looked at his servants.

'Sir,' Julien began, 'do you suppose that with any other tutor your
children would have made the same progress that they have made with
me? If your answer is no,' he went on without giving M. de Renal time
to speak, 'how dare you presume to reproach me with neglecting them?'

M. de Renal, who had barely recovered from his alarm, concluded from
the strange tone which he saw this young peasant adopt that he had in
his pocket some more attractive offer and was going to leave him.
Julien's anger increasing as he spoke:

'I can live without you, Sir,' he concluded.

'I am extremely sorry to see you so agitated,' replied M. de Renal,
stammering a little. The servants were a few feet away, and were
occupied in making the beds.

'That is not enough for me, Sir,' Julien went on, beside himself with
rage; 'think of the abominable things you said to me, and in the
presence of ladies, too!'

M. de Renal was only too well aware of what Julien was asking, and
conflicting passions did battle in his heart. It so happened that
Julien, now really mad with rage, exclaimed: 'I know where to go, Sir,
when I leave your house.'

On hearing these words, M. de Renal had a vision of Julien established
in M. Valenod's household.

'Very well, Sir,' he said at length with a sigh, and the air of a man
calling in a surgeon to perform the most painful operation, 'I agree
to your request. From the day after tomorrow, which is the first of
the month, I shall give you fifty francs monthly.'

Julien wanted to laugh and remained speechless: his anger had
completely vanished.

'I did not despise the animal enough,' he said to himself. 'This, no
doubt, is the most ample apology so base a nature is capable of

The children, who had listened to this scene open-mouthed, ran to the
garden to tell their mother that M. Julien was in a great rage, but
that he was to have fifty francs a month.

Julien went after them from force of habit, without so much as a
glance at M. de Renal, whom he left in a state of intense annoyance.

'That's a hundred and sixty-eight francs,' the Mayor said to himself,
'that M. Valenod has cost me. I must really say a few firm words to
him about his contract to supply the foundlings.'

A moment later, Julien again stood before him.

'I have a matter of conscience to discuss with M. Chelan. I have the
honour to inform you that I shall be absent for some hours.'

'Ah, my dear Julien,' said M. de Renal, laughing in the most insincere
manner, 'the whole day, if you wish, the whole of tomorrow, my worthy
friend. Take the gardener's horse to go to Verrieres.'

'There,' M. de Renal said to himself, 'he's going with an answer to
Valenod; he's given me no promise, but we must let the young hothead
cool down.'

Julien made a speedy escape and climbed up among the big woods through
which one can go from Vergy to Verrieres. He was in no hurry to reach
M. Chelan's. So far from desiring to involve himself in a fresh
display of hypocrisy, he needed time to see clearly into his own
heart, and to give audience to the swarm of conflicting feelings that
disturbed it.

'I have won a battle,' he said to himself as soon as he found himself
in the shelter of the woods and out of sight of anyone, 'I have really
won a battle!'

The last word painted his whole position for him in glowing colours,
and restored some degree of tranquillity to his heart.

'Here I am with a salary of fifty francs a month; M. de Renal must be
in a fine fright. But of what?'

His meditation as to what could have frightened the prosperous and
powerful man against whom, an hour earlier, he had been seething with
rage completely restored Julien's serenity. He was almost conscious,
for a moment, of the exquisite beauty of the woods through which he
was walking.  Enormous fragments of bare rock had in times past fallen
into the heart of the forest from the side of the mountain. Tall
beeches rose almost as high as these rocks whose shadow provided a
delicious coolness within a few yards of places where the heat of the
sun's rays would have made it impossible to stop.

Julien paused for a breathing-space in the shadow of these great
rocks, then went on climbing. Presently, by following a narrow path,
barely visible and used only by goatherds, he found himself standing
upon an immense rock, where he could be certain of his complete
isolation from his fellow-men. This natural position made him smile,
it suggested to him the position to which he was burning to attain in
the moral sphere. The pure air of these lofty mountains breathed
serenity and even joy into his soul.  The Mayor of Verrieres might
still, in his eyes, be typical of all the rich and insolent denizens
of the earth, but Julien felt that the hatred which had convulsed him
that afternoon contained, notwithstanding its violence, no element of
personal ill-feeling. Should he cease to see M. de Renal, within a
week he would have forgotten him, the man himself, his house, his
dogs, his children and all that was his. 'I have forced him, I do not
know how, to make the greatest of sacrifices. What, more than fifty
crowns a year? A moment earlier I had just escaped from the greatest
danger. That makes two victories in one day; the second contains no
merit, I must try to discover the reason. But we can leave such
arduous research for tomorrow.'

Julien, erect upon his mighty rock, gazed at the sky, kindled to flame
by an August sun. The grasshoppers were chirping in the patch of
meadow beneath the rock; when they ceased everything around him was
silence.  Twenty leagues of country lay at his feet. From time to time
a hawk, risen from the bare cliffs above his head, caught his eye as
it wheeled silently in its vast circles. Julien's eye followed
mechanically the bird of prey. Its calm, powerful motion impressed
him, he envied such strength, he envied such isolation.

It was the destiny of Napoleon, was it one day to be his own?

Night Thoughts

  Yet Julia's very coldness still was kind,
    And tremulously gentle her small hand
  Withdrew itself from his, but left behind
    A little pressure, thrilling, and so bland
  And slight, so very slight, that to the mind
    Twas but a doubt.
      _Don Juan_, I. 71

He must, however, let himself be seen at Verrieres. As he left the
Presbytery the first person he met was, by a happy chance, M. Valenod,
whom he hastened to inform of the increase in his salary.

On his return to Vergy, Julien did not go down to the garden until
night had set in. His heart was worn out by the multitude of powerful
emotions that had assailed it in the course of the day. 'What shall I
say to them?' he asked himself anxiously, thinking of the ladies. It
never occurred to him that his spirits were precisely at the level of
the trivial happenings that as a rule occupy the whole interest of
women. Often Julien was unintelligible to Madame Derville, and even to
her friend, while he in turn only half understood all that they were
saying to him. Such was the effect of the force, and, if I may use the
word, of the magnitude of the waves of passion on which the heart of
this ambitious youth was being tossed. In this strange creature almost
every day was one of storm.

When he went into the garden that evening, Julien was ready to listen
with interest to the thoughts of the fair cousins. They awaited his
coming with impatience. He took his accustomed seat, by Madame de
Renal's side. The darkness soon became intense. He attempted to clasp
a white hand which for some time he had seen close beside him, resting
on the back of a chair.  There was some hesitation shown, but finally
the hand was withdrawn from him in a manner which betokened
displeasure. Julien was prepared to regard this as final, and to
continue the conversation in a light tone, when he heard M. de Renal

The rude words of the morning still rang in Julien's ears. 'Would it
not,' he said to himself, 'be a good way of scoring off this creature,
so lavishly endowed with every material advantage, to take possession
of his wife's hand under his very eyes? Yes, I will do it, I, for whom
he has shown such contempt.'

>From that moment peace of mind, so ill assorted to Julien's character,
speedily vanished; he desired most anxiously, and without being able
to fix his mind on anything else, that Madame de Renal might consent
to let him hold her hand.

M. de Renal talked politics in an angry tone: two or three
manufacturers at Verrieres were becoming decidedly richer than
himself, and wished to oppose him at the elections. Madame Derville
listened to him. Julien, irritated by this talk, moved his chair
nearer to Madame de Renal's. The darkness hid every movement. He
ventured to place his hand close to the pretty arm which her gown left
bare. Troubled, no longer conscious of what he was doing, he moved his
cheek in the direction of this pretty arm, and made bold to press his
lips to it.

Madame de Renal shuddered. Her husband was a few feet away, she
hastened to give Julien her hand, at the same time thrusting him
slightly from her.  While M. de Renal continued his abuse of the
good-for-nothings and Jacobins who were making fortunes, Julien
covered the hand which had been left in his with passionate kisses, or
so at least they seemed to Madame de Renal.  And yet the poor woman
had been furnished with proof, on this fatal day, that the heart of
the man whom she adored without confessing it was pledged elsewhere!
Throughout the hours of Julien's absence, she had been a prey to the
most abject misery, which had made her think.

'What,' she said to herself, 'am I to love, to have love offered to
me? Am I, a married woman, to fall in love? But,' she reminded
herself, 'I have never felt that dark passion for my husband, and so I
cannot tear my mind from Julien. At heart he is only a boy filled with
respect for me! This folly will pass. How can it concern my husband
what feelings I may entertain for this young man? M. de Renal would be
bored by the talks I have with Julien, about things of the
imagination. He himself thinks only about his business.  I am taking
nothing from him to give to Julien.'

No trace of hypocrisy came to sully the purity of this simple soul,
carried away by a passion such as she had never felt. She was
deceived, but quite unawares, and at the same time a virtuous instinct
had taken alarm. Such were the conflicts that were agitating her when
Julien appeared in the garden. She heard his voice, almost at the same
moment she saw him sit down by her side. Her heart was so to speak
carried away by this charming happiness which for the last fortnight
had astonished even more than it had bewitched her. Everything was
unexpected to her. And yet after a few moments: 'So Julien's presence
is enough,' she said to herself, 'to wipe out all memory of his
misconduct?' She took fright; then it was that she withdrew her hand
from his.

His kisses, filled with passion and such as she had never yet
received, made her at once forget the possibility of his loving
another woman. Soon he was no longer guilty in her eyes. The cessation
of her poignant grief, born of suspicion, the presence of a happiness
of which she had never even dreamed, plunged her in transports of
affection and wild gaiety. That evening was delightful for them all,
except for the Mayor of Verrieres, who could not forget the growing
wealth of his competitors. Julien no longer thought of his dark
ambition, nor of his plans that would be so difficult of execution.
For the first time in his life, he was carried away by the power of
beauty. Lost in a vague and pleasant dream, so foreign to his nature,
gently pressing that hand which pleased him as an example of perfect
beauty, he gave a divided attention to the rustle of the leaves of the
lime, stirred by the gentle night breeze, and to the dogs at the mill
by the Doubs, barking in the distance.

But this emotion was a pleasure and not a passion. On returning to his
room he thought of one happiness only, that of going on with his
favourite book; at twenty, the thought of the world and of the
impression one is going to make on it, prevails over everything else.

Presently, however, he put down the book. By dint of dreaming of
Napoleon's victories, he had discerned a new element in his own. 'Yes,
I have won a battle,' he told himself, 'but I must follow it up, I
must crush the arrogance of this proud gentleman while he is still
retreating. That is Napoleon out and out. I must ask him for three
days' holiday, to go and see my friend Fouque. If he refuses, I again
offer to break the agreement; but he will give way.'

Madame de Renal could not close an eye. She felt that she had never
lived until that moment. She could not tear her mind from the
happiness of feeling Julien cover her hand with burning kisses.

Suddenly the horrid word _adultery_ occurred to her. All the most
disgusting implications that the vilest debauchery can impart to the
idea of sensual love came crowding into her imagination. These ideas
sought to tarnish the tender and godlike image that she had made for
herself of Julien and of the pleasure of loving him. The future
portrayed itself in terrible colours.  She saw herself an object of

It was a frightful moment; her soul journeyed into strange lands. That
evening she had tasted an unknown happiness; now she suddenly found
herself plunged in appalling misery. She had no conception of such
sufferings; they began to affect her reason. The thought occurred to
her for a moment of confessing to her husband that she was afraid of
falling in love with Julien. It would have allowed her to speak of
him. Fortunately she recalled a piece of advice given her long ago by
her aunt, on the eve of her marriage. It warned her of the danger of
confiding in a husband, who is after all a master. In the intensity of
her grief she wrung her hands.

She was carried away indiscriminately by conflicting and painful
imaginings. At one moment she was afraid of not being loved in return,
at another the fearful thought of the crime tortured her as though on
the morrow she would have to be exposed in the pillory, on the public
square of Verrieres, with a placard proclaiming her adultery to the

Madame de Renal was without any experience of life; even when wide
awake and in the full exercise of her reason, she would have seen no
distinction between being guilty in the sight of God and finding
herself publicly greeted with all the most flagrant marks of general

When the frightful idea of adultery and of all the ignominy which (she
supposed) that crime brings in its train gave her at length a respite,
and she began to dream of the delight of living with Julien
innocently, as in the past, she found herself swept away by the
horrible thought that Julien was in love with another woman.  She saw
once again his pallor when he was afraid of losing her portrait, or of
compromising her by letting it be seen. For the first time, she had
surprised signs of fear on that calm and noble countenance. Never had
he shown himself in such a state for her or for her children. This
additional grief carried her to the utmost intensity of anguish which
the human soul is able to endure.  Unconsciously, Madame de Renal
uttered cries which roused her maid.  Suddenly she saw appear by her
bedside the light of a lamp, and recognised Elisa.

'Is it you that he loves?' she cried in her frenzy.

The maid, amazed at the fearful distress in which she found her
mistress, paid no attention fortunately to this singular utterance.
Madame de Renal realised her own imprudence: 'I am feverish,' she told
her, 'and I think, a little light-headed; stay beside me.'

Thoroughly awakened by the necessity of controlling herself, she felt
less wretched; reason resumed the sway of which her state of
drowsiness had deprived it. To escape from the fixed stare of her
maid, she ordered her to read the newspaper aloud, and it was to the
monotonous sound of the girl's voice, reading a long article from the
_Quotidienne_, that Madame de Renal formed the virtuous resolution to
treat Julien with absolute coldness when next she saw him.

A Journey

  In Paris you find elegant people, there may be people with character
  in the provinces.

Next morning, at five o'clock, before Madame de Renal was visible,
Julien had obtained from her husband three days' leave of absence.
Contrary to his expectation, Julien found himself longing to see her
again, and could think of nothing but that shapely hand. He went down
to the garden, Madame de Renal was long in coming. But if Julien had
been in love with her he would have seen her, behind her half-closed
shutters on the first floor, her face pressed to the glass. She was
watching him. At length, in spite of her resolutions, she decided to
show herself in the garden. Her customary pallor had given place to
the most glowing colour. This simple-minded woman was evidently
agitated: a feeling of constraint and even of resentment marred that
expression of profound serenity, as though raised above all the common
interests of life, which gave such charm to that heavenly face.

Julien lost no time in joining her; he admired those fine arms which a
shawl flung in haste across her shoulders left visible. The coolness
of the morning air seemed to increase the brilliance of a complexion
which the agitation of the past night made all the more sensible to
every impression.  This beauty, modest and touching, and yet full of
thoughts which are nowhere to be found among the lower orders, seemed
to reveal to Julien an aspect of her nature of which he had never yet
been aware. Wholly absorbed in admiration of the charms which his
greedy eye surprised, Julien was not thinking of the friendly greeting
which he might expect to receive. He was all the more astonished by
the icy coldness that was shown him, beneath which he even thought he
could make out a deliberate intention to put him in his place.

The smile of pleasure faded from his lips; he remembered the rank that
he occupied in society, especially in the eyes of a noble and wealthy
heiress.  In a moment, his features showed nothing but pride and anger
with himself.  He felt a violent disgust at having been so foolish as
to postpone his departure by more than an hour, only to receive so
humiliating a greeting.

'Only a fool,' he told himself, 'loses his temper with other people: a
stone falls because it is heavy. Am I always to remain a boy? When am
I going to form the good habit of giving these people their exact
money's worth and no more of my heart and soul? If I wish to be
esteemed by them and by myself, I must show them that it is my poverty
that deals with their wealth, but that my heart is a thousand leagues
away from their insolence, and is placed in too exalted a sphere to be
reached by their petty marks of contempt or favour.'

While these sentiments came crowding into the young tutor's mind, his
features assumed an expression of injured pride and ferocity. Madame
de Renal was greatly distressed by this. The virtuous coldness which
she had meant to impart to her greeting gave way to an expression of
interest, and of an interest animated by the surprise of the sudden
change which she had just beheld in him. The flow of idle words that
people exchange in the morning with regard to one another's health, to
the beauty of the day, and so forth, dried up at once in them both.
Julien, whose judgment was not disturbed by any passion, soon found a
way of letting Madame de Renal see how little he regarded himself as
being on terms of friendship with her; he said nothing to her of the
little expedition on which he was starting, bowed to her, and set off.

As she watched him go, overwhelmed by the sombre pride which she read
in that glance, so friendly the evening before, her eldest son, who
came running up from the other end of the garden, said to her as he
embraced her:

'We have a holiday, M. Julien is going on a journey.'

At these words Madame de Renal felt herself frozen by a deadly chill;
she was unhappy in her virtue, and more unhappy still in her weakness.

This latest development now occupied the whole of her imagination; she
was carried far beyond the wise resolutions which were the fruit of
the terrible night she had passed. It was a question no longer of
resisting this charming lover, but of losing him for ever.

She was obliged to take her place at table. To add to her misery, M.
de Renal and Madame Derville spoke of nothing but Julien's departure.
The Mayor of Verrieres had remarked something, unusual in the firm
tone with which he had demanded a holiday.

'The young peasant has doubtless an offer from someone in his pocket.
But that someone, even if it should be M. Valenod, must be a little
discouraged by the sum of 600 francs, which he must now be prepared to
spend annually.  Yesterday, at Verrieres, he will have asked for three
days in which to think things over; and this morning, so as not to be
obliged to give me an answer, the young gentleman goes off to the
mountains. To have to reckon with a wretched workman who puts on airs,
that's what we've come to!'

'Since my husband, who does not know how deeply he has wounded Julien,
thinks he is going to leave us, what am I to suppose?' Madame de Renal
asked herself. 'Ah! It is all settled!'

So as to be able at least to weep in freedom, and without having to
answer Madame Derville's questions, she pleaded a splitting headache,
and retired to bed.

'There you have a woman all over,' M. de Renal repeated; 'there's
always something wrong with those complicated machines.' And he went
on his way jeering.

While Madame de Renal was at the mercy of the most cruel inflictions
of the terrible passion into which accident had led her, Julien was
making his way light-heartedly amid the loveliest views that mountain
scenery has to offer. He was obliged to pass over the high range to
the north of Vergy.  The path which he followed, rising gradually amid
great beechwoods, forms an endless series of zigzags on the side of
the high mountain which bounds the valley of the Doubs on the north.
Presently the traveller's gaze, passing over the lower ridges which
confine the course of the Doubs on the south, was able to sweep the
fertile plains of Burgundy and Beaujolais.  Irresponsive as the heart
of this ambitious youth might be to this kind of beauty, he could not
refrain from stopping now and again to gaze at so vast and so imposing
a prospect.

At length he came to the summit of the high mountain, beneath which he
must pass in order to arrive, by this diagonal route, at the lonely
valley in which his friend Fouque, the young timber merchant, lived.
Julien was in no hurry to see him, or any other human being for that
matter. Concealed like a bird of prey, amid the bare rocks which
crowned the high mountain, he could see a long way off anyone that
might be coming his way. He discovered a small cave in the almost
perpendicular face of one of the rocks. He set his course for it, and
presently was ensconced in this retreat. 'Here,' he said, his eyes
sparkling with joy, 'men can do me no harm.' It occurred to him to
indulge in the pleasure of writing down his thoughts, so dangerous to
him in any other place. A smooth block of stone served as his table.
His pen flew: he saw nothing of the scene round about him. At length
he noticed that the sun was setting behind the distant mountains of

'Why should I not spend the night here?' he asked himself; 'I have
bread, and _I am free_!' At the sound of that great word his heart
leaped, his hypocrisy meant that he was not free even with Fouque. His
head supported on both his hands, Julien stayed in this cave happier
than he had ever been in his life, engrossed in his dreams and in the
joy of freedom. Without heeding it he saw fade and die, one after
another, the last rays of evening light. In the midst of that vast
darkness, his soul wandered in contemplation of what he imagined that
he would one day find in Paris. This was first and foremost a woman
far more beautiful and of a far higher intelligence than any it had
been his lot to see in the country. He loved with passion, he was
loved in return. If he tore himself from her for a few moments, it was
to cover himself with glory and earn the right to be loved more warmly

Even if we allow him Julien's imagination, a young man brought up
among the melancholy truths of Paris would have been aroused at this
stage in his romance by the cold touch of irony; the mighty deeds
would have vanished with the hope of performing them, to give place to
the well-known maxim: 'When a man leaves his mistress, he runs the
risk of being betrayed two or three times daily.' The young peasant
saw no obstacle between himself and the most heroic actions, save want
of opportunity.

But black night had succeeded the day, and he had still two leagues to
cover before coming down to the hamlet in which Fouque lived. Before
leaving the little cave, Julien struck a light and carefully destroyed
all that he had written.

He greatly astonished his friend by knocking at his door at one
o'clock in the morning. He found Fouque engaged in making up his
accounts. He was a young man of tall stature, none too well made, with
large, hard features, a huge nose, and plenty of good nature concealed
beneath this repellent aspect.

'You've quarrelled with your M. de Renal, then, that you come here of
a sudden like this?'

Julien related to him, with suitable omissions, the events of the
previous evening.

'Stay with me,' Fouque said to him; 'I see that you know M. de Renal,
M. Valenod, the Sub-Prefect Maugiron, the cure Chelan; you have
grasped all the subtle points of their natures; you're ripe now to put
yourself up for auction. You know arithmetic better than I do, you
shall keep my books; I am making a big profit from my business. The
impossibility of doing everything by myself and the fear of hitting
upon a rogue in the man I might take as my partner prevent me every
day from doing the most profitable deals. Not a month ago I put six
thousand francs in the pocket of Michaud of Saint-Amand, whom I had
not seen for six years, and met quite by chance at the Pontarlier
sale. Why should not you have made those six thousand francs yourself,
or three thousand at least?  For if I had had you with me that day, I
should have gone on bidding for that lot of timber, and the other
would soon have left me with it. Be my partner.'

This offer annoyed Julien; it unsettled his erratic mind; throughout
supper, which the friends cooked for themselves, like Homeric heroes,
for Fouque lived by himself, he showed Julien his books, and proved to
him what advantages his trade in timber offered. Fouque had the
highest opinion of Julien's intelligence and character.

When at length the latter found himself alone in his little room
walled with planks of firwood, 'It is true,' he said to himself, 'I
can make a few thousand francs here, then return with advantage to the
calling of soldier or priest, according to the fashion prevailing in
France at the time. The little hoard that I shall have amassed will
remove all difficulties of detail. Alone on this mountainside, I can
do something to dispel my present appalling ignorance of so many of
the things that occupy the minds of all these fashionable gentlemen.
But Fouque is giving up the thought of marriage, he has told me again
and again that solitude is making him melancholy. It is obvious that
if he is taking a partner who has no money to put into his business,
it is in the hope of providing himself with a companion who will never
leave him.

'Shall I prove false to my friend?' exclaimed Julien angrily. This
creature, for whom hypocrisy and the absence of all fellow feeling
were the ordinary line of conduct, could not on this occasion bear the
thought of the slightest want of delicacy towards a man who loved him.

But all at once Julien became happy, he had a reason for refusing.
'What, I should be idly wasting seven or eight years! I should thus
arrive at eight and twenty; but, at that age, Napoleon had already
done his greatest deeds!  After I have obscurely scraped together a
little money by going round all these timber sales, and winning the
favour of various minor rascals, who can say whether I shall still
preserve the sacred fire with which one makes oneself a name?'

The following morning, Julien replied with great coolness to the
worthy Fouque, who looked upon the matter of their partnership as
settled, that his vocation to the sacred ministry of the altar did not
allow him to accept. Fouque could not believe his ears.

'But do you realise,' he kept on saying, 'that I make you my partner,
or, if you prefer, give you four thousand francs a year? And you want
to go back to your M. de Renal, who despises you like the mud on his
shoes! When you have two hundred louis in hand, what is to prevent you
from entering the Seminary? I will say more, I undertake to procure
for you the best parish in the district. For,' Fouque went on,
lowering his voice, 'I supply firewood to the ----, and the ----, and
M. ----. I give them the best quality of oak, for which they pay me
the price of white wood, but never was money better invested.'

Nothing could prevail against Julien's vocation. In the end Fouque
decided that he must be slightly mad. On the third day, at dawn,
Julien left his friend to pass the day among the rocks of the big
mountain. He found his little cave again, but he no longer enjoyed
peace of mind, his friend's offers had destroyed it. Like Hercules he
found himself called upon to choose not between vice and virtue, but
between mediocrity ending in an assured comfort and all the heroic
dreams of his youth. 'So I have no real firmness of character,' he
told himself; and this was the doubt that pained him most. 'I am not
of the stuff of which great men are made, since I am afraid that eight
years spent in providing myself with bread may rob me of that sublime
energy which makes men do extraordinary things.'

Open-work Stockings

  A novel is a mirror taken along a road.

When Julien caught sight of the picturesque ruins of the old church of
Vergy, it occurred to him that for two whole days he had not once
thought of Madame de Renal. The other day, as I was leaving, that
woman reminded me of the vast gulf that separates us, she treated me
like a workman's son. No doubt she wished to show me that she repented
of having let me hold her hand the night before ... It is a lovely
hand, all the same! What charm, what nobility dwells in that woman's

The possibility of making a fortune with Fouque gave a certain
facility to the course of Julien's reasoning; it was less often
interrupted by irritation, and the keen sense of his own poverty and
humble position in the eyes of the world. As though perched on a lofty
promontory, he was able to judge, and, so to speak, overlooked extreme
poverty on the one hand and that life of comfort which he still called
riches on the other. He was far from considering his position like a
philosopher, but he had sufficient perception to feel that he was
_different_ after this little expedition among the mountains.

He was struck by the extreme uneasiness with which Madame de Renal
listened to the short account of his journey, for which she had asked

Fouque had had thoughts of marriage, unhappy love affairs; the
conversation between the friends had been filled with long confidences
of this nature.  After finding happiness too soon, Fouque had
discovered that he was not the sole possessor of his mistress's heart.
These disclosures had astonished Julien; he had learned much that was
new to him. His solitary life, compounded of imagination and
suspicion, had kept him aloof from everything that could have
enlightened him.

During his absence, life had been for Madame de Renal nothing more
than a succession of torments, each different but all alike
intolerable; she was really ill.

'You must not, on any account,' Madame Derville told her when she saw
Julien return, 'feeling as you do, sit in the garden this evening, the
damp air would make you worse.'

Madame Derville was surprised to see that her friend, who was always
being scolded by M. de Renal for the undue simplicity of her attire,
had put on open-work stockings and a pair of charming little shoes
that had arrived from Paris. For the last three days Madame de Renal's
sole distraction had been to cut out and make Elisa put together in
all haste a summer gown, of a charming little fabric greatly in
fashion. It was just possible to finish this gown a few minutes after
Julien's arrival; Madame de Renal at once put it on. Her friend had no
longer any doubt.

'She is in love, poor woman!' Madame Derville said to herself. She
understood all the strange symptoms of her illness.

She saw her speak to Julien. Pallor took the place of the most vivid
blushes. Anxiety stood revealed in her eyes, fastened on those of the
young tutor. Madame de Renal expected every moment that he was going
to offer an explanation, and announce that he was leaving the house,
or would remain.  It never occurred to Julien to say anything about
this subject, which had not entered his thoughts. After a terrible
struggle, Madame de Renal at last ventured to say to him, in a
tremulous voice, in which the whole extent of her passion lay

'Are you going to leave your pupils to take a post elsewhere?'

Julien was struck by her quavering voice and by the look in her eyes.
'This woman loves me,' he said to himself; 'but after this passing
weakness for which her pride is reproaching her, and as soon as she is
no longer afraid of my going, she will return to her arrogance.' This
glimpse of their respective positions came to Julien like a flash of
lightning; he replied, hesitatingly:

'I should greatly regret leaving such attractive and _well-born_
children, but perhaps it will be inevitable. A man has duties towards
himself also.'

As he uttered the words well born (this was one of the aristocratic
expressions which Julien had recently acquired), he burned with a
strong feeling of antipathy.

'To this woman,' he said to himself, 'I am not well born.'

Madame de Renal, as she listened to him, was admiring his
intelligence, his beauty, her heart was pierced by the possibility of
departure which he dangled before her. All her friends from Verrieres
who, during Julien's absence, had come out to dine at Vergy, had
almost vied in complimenting her upon the astonishing young man that
her husband had had the good fortune to unearth. This was not to say
that they understood anything of the progress that the children had
made. The fact of his knowing the Bible by heart, and in Latin, too,
had provoked in the inhabitants of Verrieres an admiration that will
endure for, it may be, a century.

Julien, who spoke to no one, knew nothing of all this. If Madame de
Renal had had the slightest self-control, she would have congratulated
him on the reputation he had won, and Julien, his pride set at rest,
would have been pleasant and affable to her, all the more as her new
gown seemed to him charming. Madame de Renal, also pleased with her
pretty gown, and with what Julien said to her about it, had proposed a
turn in the garden; soon she had confessed that she was not well
enough to walk. She had taken the returned traveller's arm, and, far
from restoring her strength, the contact of that arm deprived her of
what little strength remained to her.

It was dark; no sooner were they seated than Julien, relying on the
privilege he had already won, ventured to press his lips to the arm of
his pretty neighbour, and to take her hand. He was thinking of the
boldness which Fouque had used with his mistresses, and not of Madame
de Renal; the phrase _well born_ still weighed upon his heart. His own
hand was pressed, but this afforded him no pleasure. Far from his
being proud, or even grateful for the affection which Madame de Renal
betrayed this evening by unmistakable signs, beauty, elegance,
freshness found him almost unconscious of their appeal. Purity of
heart, freedom from any feeling of hatred, serve doubtless to prolong
the duration of youth. It is the face that ages first in the majority
of beautiful women.

Julien was sullen all the evening; hitherto he had been angry only
with fortune and with society; now that Fouque had offered him an
ignoble way of arriving at comfort, he was angry with himself.
Absorbed in his own thoughts, although now and then he addressed a few
words to the ladies, Julien ended by unconsciously letting go Madame
de Renal's hand. This action completely nonplussed the poor woman; she
saw in it an indication of her fate.

Had she been certain of Julien's affection, her virtue might perhaps
have found strength to resist him. Trembling at the thought of losing
him for ever, her passion carried her to the point of seizing Julien's
hand, which, in his distraction, he had allowed to rest upon the back
of a chair. This action stirred the ambitious youth; he would have
liked it to be witnessed by all those proud nobles who, at table, when
he was at the lower end with the children, used to look at him with so
patronising a smile. 'This woman cannot despise me any longer: in that
case,' he said to himself, 'I ought to be stirred by her beauty; I owe
it to myself to be her lover.' Such an idea would never have occurred
to him before he received the artless confidences of his friend.

The sudden resolution he had just made formed a pleasing distraction.
He said to himself: 'I must have one of these two women'; he realised
that he would greatly have preferred to pay his court to Madame
Derville; it was not that she was more attractive, but she had seen
him always as a tutor honoured for his learning, and not as a working
carpenter, with a ratteen jacket folded under his arm, as he had first
appeared to Madame de Renal.

It was precisely as a young workman, blushing to the whites of his
eyes, hesitating outside the door of the house and not venturing to
ring the bell, that Madame de Renal delighted most to picture him.

As he followed up this survey of his position, Julien saw that he must
not think of attempting the conquest of Madame Derville, who had
probably noticed the weakness that Madame de Renal showed for him.
Forced to return to the latter: 'What do I know of this woman's
character?' Julien asked himself. 'Only this: before I went away, I
took her hand, she withdrew it; today I withdraw my hand, she seizes
it and presses it. A good opportunity to repay her all the contempt
she has shown for me. God knows how many lovers she has had! Perhaps
she is deciding in my favour only because of the facilities for our

Such is, alas, the drawback of an excessive civilisation. At the age
of twenty, the heart of a young man, if he has any education, is a
thousand leagues from that devil-may-care attitude without which love
is often only the most tedious duty.

'I owe it to myself all the more,' went on Julien's petty vanity, 'to
succeed with this woman, so that if I ever make my fortune, and
someone reproaches me with having filled the humble post of tutor, I
may let it be understood that it was love that brought me into that

Julien once more withdrew his hand from that of Madame de Renal, then
took her hand again and pressed it. As they returned to the
drawing-room, towards midnight, Madame de Renal murmured in his ear:

'Are you leaving us, are you going away?'

Julien answered with a sigh:

'I must indeed go away, for I love you passionately; it is a sin ...
and what a sin for a young priest!'

Madame de Renal leaned upon his arm, bending towards him until her
cheek felt the warmth of his.

The night passed for these two people very differently. Madame de
Renal was exalted by transports of the most lofty moral pleasure. A
coquettish girl who falls in love early grows accustomed to the
distress of love; when she comes to the age of true passion, the charm
of novelty is lacking. As Madame de Renal had never read any novels,
all the refinements of her happiness were new to her. No melancholy
truth came to freeze her heart, not even the spectre of the future.
She saw herself as happy in ten years' time as she was at that moment.
Even the thought of virtue and of the fidelity she had vowed to M. de
Renal, which had distressed her some days before, presented itself in
vain, she dismissed it like an importunate stranger. 'Never will I
allow Julien to take any liberty,' Madame de Renal told herself, 'we
shall live in future as we have been living for the last month. He
shall be a friend.'

The English Scissors

  A girl of sixteen had a rosy complexion, and put on rouge.

As for Julien, Fouque's offer had indeed destroyed all his happiness;
he could not decide upon any course.

'Alas! Perhaps I am wanting in character, I should have made Napoleon
a bad soldier. Anyhow,' he went on, 'my little intrigue with the lady
of the house is going to distract me for the moment.'

Fortunately for him, even in this minor incident, his inward feelings
bore no relation to his cavalier language. He was afraid of Madame de
Renal because of her pretty gown. This gown was in his eyes the
advance guard of Paris. His pride was determined to leave nothing to
chance and to the inspiration of the moment. Drawing upon Fouque's
confessions and the little he had read about love in the Bible, he
prepared a plan of campaign in great detail. Since, though he did not
admit it to himself, he was extremely anxious, he committed this plan
to writing.

The following morning, in the drawing-room, Madame de Renal was alone
with him for a moment.

'Have you no other name besides Julien?' she asked him.

Our hero did not know what answer to give to so flattering a question.
No provision had been made in his plan for such an event. But for the
stupid mistake of making a plan, Julien's quick mind would soon have
come to his rescue, his surprise would only have added to the keenness
of his perceptions.

He was awkward and exaggerated his own awkwardness. Madame de Renal
soon forgave him that. She saw in it the effect of a charming candour.
And the one thing lacking, to her mind, in this man, who was
considered so brilliant, was an air of candour.

'I don't at all trust your little tutor,' Madame Derville said to her
on several occasions. 'He seems to me to be always thinking and to act
only from motives of policy. He's crafty.'

Julien remained deeply humiliated by the disaster of not having known
what answer to make to Madame de Renal.

'A man of my sort owes it to himself to make up for this check'; and,
seizing the moment at which she passed from one room to another, he
did what he considered his duty by giving Madame de Renal a kiss.

Nothing could have been less appropriate, less agreeable either to
himself or to her, nor could anything have been more imprudent. They
barely escaped being caught. Madame de Renal thought him mad. She was
frightened and even more shocked. This stupidity reminded her of M.

'What would happen to me,' she asked herself, 'if I were left alone
with him?' All her virtue returned, for her love was in eclipse.

She arranged matters so that there should always be one of her
children with her.

The day passed slowly for Julien, he spent the whole of it in clumsily
carrying out his plan of seduction. He never once looked at Madame de
Renal without embodying a question in his look; he was not, however,
such a fool as not to see that he was failing completely to be
agreeable, let alone seductive.

Madame de Renal could not get over her astonishment at finding him so
awkward and at the same time so bold. 'It is the timidity of love in a
man of parts!' she said to herself at length, with an inexpressible
joy. 'Can it be possible that he has never been loved by my rival!'

After luncheon, Madame de Renal returned to the drawing-room to
entertain M. Charcot de Maugiron, the Sub-Prefect of Bray. She was
working at a little tapestry frame on a tall stand. Madame Derville
was by her side. It was in this position, and in the full light of
day, that our hero thought fit to thrust forward his boot and press
the pretty foot of Madame de Renal, whose open-work stocking and smart
Parisian shoe were evidently attracting the gaze of the gallant

Madame de Renal was extremely alarmed; she let fall her scissors, her
ball of wool, her needles, and Julien's movement could thus pass for a
clumsy attempt to prevent the fall of the scissors, which he had seen
slipping down. Fortunately these little scissors of English steel
broke, and Madame de Renal could not sufficiently express her regret
that Julien had not been nearer at hand.

'You saw them falling before I did, you might have caught them; your
zeal has only succeeded in giving me a violent kick.'

All this play-acting took in the Sub-Prefect, but not Madame Derville.
'This pretty youth has very bad manners!' she thought; the
worldly-wisdom of a provincial capital can never pardon mistakes of
this sort. Madame de Renal found an opportunity of saying to Julien:

'Be careful, I order you.'

Julien realised his own clumsiness, and was annoyed. For a long time
he debated within himself whether he ought to take offence at the
words: 'I order you.' He was foolish enough to think: 'She might say
to me "I order you" if it was something to do with the children's
education; but in responding to my love, she assumes equality. One
cannot love without equality'; and he lost himself in composing
commonplaces on the subject of equality. He repeated angrily to
himself the verse of Corneille which Madame Derville had taught him a
few days earlier:

  Love creates equalities, it does not seek them.

Julien, insisting upon playing the part of a Don Juan, he who had
never had a mistress in his life, was deadly dull for the rest of the
day. He had only one sensible idea; bored with himself and with Madame
de Renal, he saw with alarm the evening approach when he would be
seated in the garden, by her side and in the dark. He told M. de Renal
that he was going to Verrieres to see the cure; he set off after
dinner, and did not return until late at night.

At Verrieres, Julien found M. Chelan engaged in packing up; he had at
last been deprived of his benefice; the vicar Maslon was to succeed
him. Julien helped the good cure, and it occurred to him to write to
Fouque that the irresistible vocation which he felt for the sacred
ministry had prevented him at first from accepting his friend's
obliging offer, but that he had just witnessed such an example of
injustice, that perhaps it would be more advantageous to his welfare
were he not to take holy orders.

Julien applauded his own deftness in making use of the deprivation of
the cure of Verrieres to leave a door open for himself and so return
to commerce, should the sad voice of prudence prevail, in his mind,
over heroism.


  Amour en latin faict amor;
  Or done provient d'amour la mort,
  Et, par avant, soulcy qui mord,
  Deuil, plours, pieges, forfaitz, remord . ..
    _Blason d'amour_

If Julien had had a little of that discernment which he so
gratuitously supposed himself to possess, he might have congratulated
himself next day on the effect produced by his visit to Verrieres. His
absence had caused his clumsiness to be forgotten. All that day too,
he was inclined to sulk; towards nightfall a preposterous idea
occurred to him, and he imparted it to Madame de Renal with a rare

No sooner had they sat down in the garden than, without waiting for a
sufficient cloak of darkness, Julien put his lips to Madame de Renal's
ear, and, at the risk of compromising her horribly, said to her:

'Tonight, Ma'am, at two o'clock, I am coming to your room, I have
something to say to you.'

Julien was trembling lest his request should be granted; the part of a
seducer was so horrible a burden that if he had been free to follow
his own inclination, he would have retired to his room for some days,
and not set eyes on the ladies again. He realised that, by his clever
tactics of yesterday, he had squandered all the promise of the day
before, and really he did not know where to turn.

Madame de Renal replied with a genuine and by no means exaggerated
indignation to the impertinent announcement which Julien had had the
audacity to make. He thought he could read scorn in her brief answer.
It was certain that in this answer, uttered in the lowest of tones,
the word 'Fie!' had figured. Making the excuse that he had something
to say to the children, Julien went up to their room, and on his
return placed himself by the side of Madame Derville and at a distance
from Madame de Renal. He thus removed from himself all possibility of
taking her hand. The conversation took a serious turn, and Julien held
his own admirably, apart from a few intervals of silence during which
he cudgelled his brains. 'Why cannot I think of some fine plan,' he
asked himself, 'to force Madame de Renal to show me those unmistakable
marks of affection which made me imagine, three days ago, that she was

Julien was extremely disconcerted by the almost desperate situation
into which he had been led. And yet nothing could have embarrassed him
so much as success.

When the party broke up at midnight, his pessimism led him to believe
that Madame Derville looked upon him with contempt, and that probably
he stood no higher in the favour of Madame de Renal.

Being in an extremely bad temper and deeply humiliated, Julien could
not sleep. He was a thousand leagues from any thought of abandoning
all pretence, all his plans, and of living from day to day with Madame
de Renal, contenting himself like a child with the happiness that each
day would bring.

He wearied his brain in devising clever stratagems; a moment later, he
felt them to be absurd; he was in short extremely wretched, when two
struck from the clock tower.

This sound aroused him as the crow of the cock aroused Saint Peter. He
saw himself arrived at the moment of the most distressing event. He
had not thought once again of his impertinent suggestion, from the
moment in which he had made it. It had met with so hostile a

'I told her that I should come to her at two o'clock,' he said to
himself as he rose; 'I may be inexperienced and coarse, as is natural
in the son of a peasant, Madame Derville has let me see that plainly
enough; but at any rate I will not be weak.'

Julien had every right to praise his own courage, never had he set
himself a more painful task. As he opened the door of his room, he
trembled so much that his knees gave way beneath him, and he was
obliged to lean against the wall.

He was in his stockinged feet. He went to listen at M. de Renal's
door, through which he could hear him snoring. This dismayed him. He
had no longer any excuse for not going to her. But, great God! What
should he do when he got there? He had no plan, and even if he had had
one, he was in such distress of mind that he would not have been in a
fit state to put it into practice.

Finally, with an anguish a thousand times keener than if he had been
going to the scaffold, he entered the little corridor that led to
Madame de Renal's room. He opened the door with a trembling hand,
making a fearful noise as he did so.

There was a light in the room, a night light was burning in the
fireplace; he had not expected this fresh calamity. Seeing him enter,
Madame de Renal sprang quickly out of bed. 'Wretch!' she cried. There
was some confusion.  Julien forgot his futile plans and returned to
his own natural character.  Not to please so charming a woman seemed
to him the greatest disaster possible. His only answer to her
reproaches was to fling himself at her feet, clasping her round the
knees. As she spoke to him with extreme harshness, he burst into

Some hours later, when Julien emerged from Madame de Renal's room, one
might have said, in the language of romance, that there was nothing
more left for him to wish. And indeed, he was indebted to the love he
had inspired and to the unforeseen impression made on him by her
seductive charms for a victory to which not all his misplaced
ingenuity would ever have led him.

But, in the most delicious moments, the victim of a freakish pride, he
still attempted to play the part of a man in the habit of captivating
women: he made incredible efforts to destroy his natural amiability.
Instead of his paying attention to the transports which he excited,
and to the remorse that increased their vivacity, the idea of duty was
continually before his eyes. He feared a terrible remorse, and undying
ridicule, should he depart from the ideal plan that he had set himself
to follow. In a word, what made Julien a superior being was precisely
what prevented him from enjoying the happiness that sprang up at his
feet. He was like a girl of sixteen who has a charming complexion and,
before going to a ball, is foolish enough to put on rouge.

In mortal terror at the apparition of Julien, Madame de Renal was soon
a prey to the cruellest alarms. Julien's tears and despair distressed
her greatly.

Indeed, when she had no longer anything to refuse him, she thrust him
from her, with genuine indignation, and then flung herself into his
arms. No purpose was apparent in all this behaviour. She thought
herself damned without remission, and sought to shut out the vision of
hell by showering the most passionate caresses on Julien. In a word,
nothing would have been wanting to complete our hero's happiness, not
even a burning sensibility in the woman he had just vanquished, had he
been capable of enjoying it.  Julien's departure brought no cessation
of the transports which were shaking her in spite of herself, nor of
her struggle with the remorse that was tearing her.

'Heavens! Is to be happy, to be loved, no more than that?' Such was
Julien's first thought on his return to his own room. He was in that
state of astonishment and uneasy misgivings into which a heart falls
when it has just obtained what it has long desired. It has grown used
to desiring, finds nothing left to desire, and has not yet acquired
any memories. Like a soldier returning from a parade, Julien was
busily engaged in reviewing all the details of his conduct. 'Have I
failed in one of the duties I owe to myself? Have I really played my

And what a part! The part of a man accustomed to shine before women.

The Day After

  He turn'd his lips to hers, and with his hand
  Call'd back the tangles of her wandering hair.
    _Don Juan_, I. 170

Fortunately for Julien's pride, Madame de Renal had been too greatly
agitated and surprised to notice the fatuity of the man who in a
moment had become everything in the world to her.

As she was imploring him to withdraw, seeing the day begin to break:

'Oh, Heavens!' she said, 'if my husband has heard any sound, I am

Julien, who had leisure for composing phrases, remembered one to the

'Should you regret your life?'

'Ah! Very much at this moment, but I should not regret having known

Julien found that his dignity required him to return to his room in
broad daylight and with deliberate want of precaution.

The continuous attention with which he watched his own slightest
actions, in the insane idea of being taken for a man of experience,
had this one advantage; when he saw Madame de Renal again, at
luncheon, his behaviour was a miracle of prudence.

As for her, she could not look at him without blushing to the whites
of her eyes, and could not live for an instant without looking at him;
she noticed her own confusion, and her efforts to conceal it
increased. Julien raised his eyes to hers once only. At first, Madame
de Renal admired his prudence.  Presently, seeing that this solitary
glance was not repeated, she took alarm: 'Can it be that he does not
love me any more,' she asked herself; 'alas, I am far too old for him;
I am ten years his senior.'

On the way from the dining-room to the garden, she pressed Julien's
hand.  In the surprise that he felt at so extraordinary a token of
affection, he gazed at her with passion; for she had struck him as
looking very pretty at luncheon, and, without raising his eyes, he had
spent his time making a detailed catalogue of her charms. This look
consoled Madame de Renal; it did not remove all her uneasiness; but
her uneasiness removed, almost entirely, the remorse she felt when she
thought of her husband.

At luncheon, the said husband had noticed nothing; not so with Madame
Derville; she feared Madame de Renal to be on the point of succumbing.
All through the day, her bold, incisive friendship did not spare the
other those hinted suggestions intended to portray in hideous colours
the danger that she was running.

Madame de Renal was burning to be left alone with Julien; she wanted
to ask him whether he still loved her. Despite the unalterable
gentleness of her nature, she was more than once on the point of
letting her friend know what a nuisance she was making of herself.

That evening, in the garden, Madame Derville arranged things so
skilfully that she found herself placed between Madame de Renal and
Julien. Madame de Renal, who had formed a delicious image of the
pleasure of pressing Julien's hand and carrying it to her lips, could
not so much as address a word to him.

This catastrophe increased her agitation. Remorse for one thing was
gnawing her. She had so scolded Julien for the imprudence he had shown
in coming to her room the night before, that she trembled lest he
might not come that night. She left the garden early, and went up to
wait in her room. But, beside herself with impatience, she rose and
went to glue her ear to Julien's door. Despite the uncertainty and
passion that were devouring her, she did not dare enter. This action
seemed to her the last word in lowness, for it serves as text to a
country maxim.

The servants were not all in bed. Prudence obliged her finally to
return to her own room. Two hours of waiting were two centuries of

But Julien was too loyal to what he called his duty, to fail in the
execution, detail by detail, of what he had laid down for himself.

As one o'clock struck, he slipped quietly from his room, made sure
that the master of the house was sound asleep, and appeared before
Madame de Renal.  On this occasion he found greater happiness with his
mistress, for he was less continually thinking of the part he had to
play. He had eyes to see and ears to hear. What Madame de Renal said
to him about his age contributed to give him some degree of

'Alas! I am ten years older than you! How can you love me?' she
repeated without any object, simply because the idea oppressed her.

Julien could not conceive such a thing, but he saw that her distress
was genuine, and almost entirely forgot his fear of being ridiculous.

The foolish idea of his being regarded as a servile lover, at his
mistress's beck and call, on account of his humble birth, vanished
likewise. In proportion as Julien's transports reassured his coy
mistress, she recovered some degree of happiness and the faculty of
criticising her lover. Fortunately, he showed almost nothing, on this
occasion, of that borrowed air which had made their meeting the night
before a victory, but not a pleasure. Had she noticed his intentness
upon playing a part, the painful discovery would have robbed her of
all happiness for ever. She could have seen in it nothing else than a
painful consequence of their disparity of age.

Albeit Madame de Renal had never thought about theories of love,
difference of age is, next to difference of fortune, one of the great
commonplaces of provincial humour, whenever there is any talk of love.

In a few days, Julien, all the ardour of his youth restored, was madly
in love.

'One must admit,' he said to himself, 'that her kindness of heart is
angelic, and that no one could be prettier.'

He had almost entirely lost the idea of a part to be played. In a
moment of unrestrained impulse, he even confessed to her all his
anxieties. This confidence raised to its climax the passion that he
inspired. 'So I have not had any fortunate rival,' Madame de Renal
said to herself with ecstasy.  She ventured to question him as to the
portrait in which he took such an interest; Julien swore to her that
it was that of a man.

When Madame de Renal was calm enough to reflect, she could not get
over her astonishment that such happiness could exist and that she had
never had the slightest idea of it.

'Ah!' she said to herself, 'if I had known Julien ten years ago, when
I might still be considered pretty!'

Julien's thoughts were worlds apart from these. His love was still
founded in ambition: it was the joy of possessing--he, a poor creature
so unfortunate and so despised--so noble and beautiful a woman. His
acts of adoration, his transports at the sight of his mistress's
charms, ended by reassuring her somewhat as to the difference in age.
Had she possessed a little of that worldly wisdom a woman of thirty
has long enjoyed in more civilised lands, she would have shuddered for
the continuance of a love which seemed to exist only upon surprise and
the titillation of self-esteem.

In the moments when he forgot his ambition, Julien went into
transports over everything that Madame de Renal possessed, including
her hats and gowns. He could not tire of the pleasure of inhaling
their perfume. He opened her wardrobe and stood for hours on end
marvelling at the beauty and neat arrangement of everything inside.
His mistress, leaning upon his shoulder, gazed at him; he himself
gazed at those ornaments and fripperies which on a wedding day are
displayed among the presents.

'I might have married a man like this!' Madame de Renal sometimes
thought; 'What a fiery spirit! What a rapturous life with him!'

As for Julien, never had he found himself so close to those terrible
weapons of feminine artillery. 'It is impossible,' he told himself,
'that in Paris there can be anything finer!' After which he could find
no objection to his happiness. Often his mistress's sincere
admiration, and her transports of passion made him forget the fatuous
theory that had kept him so restrained and almost ridiculous in the
first moments of their intimacy. There were moments when, despite his
hypocritical habits, he found an intense pleasure in confessing to
this great lady who admired him his ignorance of any number of little
usages. His mistress's rank seemed to raise him above himself. Madame
de Renal, for her part, found the most exquisite moral satisfaction in
thus instructing in a heap of little things this young man endowed
with genius whom everyone regarded as bound one day to go so far. Even
the Sub-Prefect and M. Valenod could not help admiring him: she
thought the better of them accordingly. As for Madame Derville, these
were by no means her sentiments. In despair at what she thought she
could discern, and seeing that her wise counsel was becoming hateful
to a woman who had positively lost her head, she left Vergy without
offering an explanation for which she was not asked. Madame de Renal
shed a few tears at her departure, and soon it seemed to her that
her happiness was doubled. By the withdrawal of her guest she found
herself left alone with her lover almost all day long.

Julien gave himself all the more readily to the pleasant society of
his mistress inasmuch as, whenever he was left too long by himself,
Fouque's fatal offer recurred to his mind to worry him. In the first
days of this new life, there were moments when he, who had never
loved, who had never been loved by anyone, found so exquisite a
pleasure in being sincere, that he was on the point of confessing to
Madame de Renal the ambition which until then had been the very
essence of his existence. He would have liked to be able to consult
her as to the strange temptation which he felt in Fouque's offer, but
a trifling occurrence put a stop to all frankness.

The Principal Deputy

  O! how this spring of love resembleth
  The uncertain glory of an April day,
  Which now shows all the beauty of the sun,
  And by and by a cloud takes all away!
    _The Two Gentlemen of Verona_

One evening as the sun set, sitting by his mistress, at the end of the
orchard, safe from disturbance, he was deep in thought. 'Will such
delicious moments,' he was wondering, 'last for ever?' His thoughts
were absorbed in the difficulty of adopting a profession, he was
deploring this great and distressing problem which puts an end to
boyhood and spoils the opening years of manhood when one has no money.

'Ah!' he cried, 'Napoleon was indeed the man sent by God to help the
youth of France! Who is to take his place? What will the poor wretches
do without him, even those who are richer than I, who have just the
few crowns needed to procure them a good education, and not enough
money to purchase a man at twenty and launch themselves in a career!
Whatever happens,' he added with deep sigh, 'that fatal memory will
for ever prevent us from being happy!'

He saw Madame de Renal frown suddenly; she assumed a cold, disdainful
air; this line of thought seemed to her worthy of a servant. Brought
up in the idea that she was extremely rich, it seemed to her a thing
to be taken for granted that Julien was also. She loved him a thousand
times more than life itself, and money to her meant nothing.

Julien was far from guessing what was in her mind. This frown brought
him back to earth. He had presence of mind enough to arrange his
sentence and to make it plain to the noble lady, seated so close
beside him on the bank of verdure, that the words he had just uttered
were some that he had heard during his expedition to his friend the
timber merchant. This was the reasoning of the impious.

'Very well! Don't mix any more with such people,' said Madame de
Renal, still preserving a trace of that glacial air which had suddenly
taken the place of an expression of the tenderest affection.

This frown, or rather his remorse for his imprudence, was the first
check administered to the illusion that was bearing Julien away. He
said to himself: 'She is good and kind, her feeling for me is strong,
but she has been brought up in the enemy's camp. They are bound to be
specially afraid of that class of men of spirit who, after a good
education, have not enough money to enter upon a career. What would
become of these nobles, if it were granted us to fight them with equal
weapons? Myself, for instance, as Mayor of Verrieres, well
intentioned, honest as M. de Renal is at heart, how I should deal with
the vicar, M. Valenod and all their rascalities! How justice should
triumph in Verrieres. It is not their talents that would prove an
obstacle. They are endlessly feeling their way.'

Julien's happiness was, that day, on the point of becoming permanent.
What our hero lacked was the courage to be sincere. He needed the
courage to give battle, but on the spot; Madame de Renal had been
surprised by his speech, because the men whom she was in the habit of
meeting were always saying that the return of Robespierre was made
possible especially by these young men of the lower orders, who had
been too well educated. Madame de Renal's cold manner persisted for
some time, and seemed to Julien to be marked. This was because the
fear of having said to him indirectly something unpleasant followed
her repugnance at his unfortunate speech.  This distress was clearly
shown on her pure countenance; so simple when she was happy and away
from bores.

Julien no longer dared give himself up freely to his dreams. More calm
and less amorous, he decided that it was imprudent in him to go to
Madame de Renal in her room. It would be better if she came to him; if
a servant saw her moving about the house, there would be a score of
possible reasons to account for her action.

But this arrangement also had its drawbacks. Julien had received from
Fouque certain books for which he, as a student of divinity, could
never have asked a bookseller. He ventured to open them only at night.
Often he would have been just as well pleased not to be interrupted by
an assignation, the tension of waiting for which, even before the
little scene in the orchard, would have left him incapable of reading.

He was indebted to Madame de Renal for an entirely new understanding
of the books he read. He had ventured to ply her with questions as to
all sorts of little things ignorance of which seriously handicaps the
intelligence of a young man born outside the ranks of society,
whatever natural genius one may choose to attribute to him.

This education in love, given by an extremely ignorant woman, was a
blessing. Julien was at once enabled to see society as it is today.
His mind was not perplexed by accounts of what it was in the past, two
thousand years ago, or sixty years ago merely, in the days of
Voltaire and Louis XV. To his unspeakable joy a cloud passed from
before his eyes; he understood at last the things that were happening
at Verrieres.

In the foreground appeared the highly complicated intrigues woven, for
the last two years, round the Prefect at Besancon. They were supported
by letters that came from Paris, and bore all the most illustrious
signatures.  It was a question of making M. de Moirod, the most
bigoted man in the place, the Principal instead of the Second Deputy
to the Mayor of Verrieres.

His rival was an extremely rich manufacturer, whom it was absolutely
essential to confine to the post of Second Deputy.

Julien at last understood the hints that he had overheard, when the
cream of local society came to dine with M. de Renal. This privileged
class was greatly taken up with this selection of a Principal Deputy,
of which the rest of the town and especially the Liberals did not even
suspect the possibility. What gave it its importance was that, as
everybody knew, the eastern side of the main street of Verrieres must
be moved back more than nine feet, for this street was now a royal

Well, if M. de Moirod, who owned three houses that would have to be
moved back, succeeded in becoming Principal Deputy, and so Mayor in
the event of M. de Renal's being returned to Parliament, he would shut
his eyes, and it would be possible to make little, imperceptible
repairs to the houses that encroached on the public thoroughfare, as a
result of which they would be good for a hundred years. Despite the
great piety and admitted probity of M. de Moirod, it was certain that
he _could be managed_, for he had a large family. Among the houses
that would have to be moved back, nine belonged to the very best
people in Verrieres.

In Julien's eyes, this intrigue was far more important than the
history of the battle of Fontenoy, a name which he saw for the first
time in one of the books that Fouque had sent him. Many things had
astonished Julien during the five years since he had begun to spend
his evenings with the cure. But discretion and a humble spirit being
the chief qualities required in a divinity student, it had always been
impossible for him to ask any questions.

One day, Madame de Renal had given an order to her husband's valet,
Julien's enemy.

'But, Ma'am, today is the last Friday of the month,' the man answered
her with a curious expression.

'Go,' said Madame de Renal.

'Well,' said Julien, 'he is going to that hay store, which used to be
a church, and was recently restored to the faith; but why? That is one
of the mysteries which I have never been able to penetrate.'

'It is a most beneficial, but a very strange institution,' replied
Madame de Renal. 'Women are not admitted; all that I know of it is
that they all address one another as _tu_. For instance, this servant
will find M. Valenod there, and that conceited fool will not be in the
least annoyed at hearing himself called _tu_ by Saint-Jean, and will
answer him in the same tone. If you really want to know what they do
there, I can ask M. de Maugiron and M. Valenod for details. We pay
twenty francs for each servant so that they do not cut our throats.'

The time flew. The memory of his mistress's charms distracted Julien
from his black ambition. The necessity to refrain from speaking to her
of serious, reasonable matters, since they were on opposite sides,
added, without his suspecting it, to the happiness that he owed to her
and to the power which she was acquiring over him.

At those moments when the presence of quick-eared children confined
them to the language of cold reason, it was with a perfect docility
that Julien, gazing at her with eyes that burned with love, listened
to her explanations of the world as it really was. Often, in the
middle of an account of some clever piece of roguery, in connection
with the laying out of a road, or of some astounding contract, Madame
de Renal's mind would suddenly wander to the point of delirium; Julien
was obliged to scold her, she allowed herself to caress him in the
same way as she caressed her children. This was because there were
days on which she imagined that she loved him like a child of her own.
Had she not to reply incessantly to his artless questions about a
thousand simple matters of which a child of good family is not
ignorant at fifteen? A moment later, she was admiring him as her
master.  His intelligence positively frightened her; she thought she
could perceive more clearly every day the future great man in this
young cleric. She saw him as Pope, she saw him as First Minister, like

'Shall I live long enough to see you in your glory?' she said to
Julien; 'there is a place waiting for a great man; the Monarchy, the
Church need one; these gentlemen say so every day.  If some Richelieu
does not stem the torrent of private judgment, all is lost.'

A King at Verrieres

  Are you fit only to be flung down like the corpse of a nation, its
  soul gone and its veins emptied of blood?
    (From the Bishop's address,
    delivered in the Chapel of Saint Clement)

On the third of September, at ten o'clock in the evening, a mounted
constable aroused the whole of Verrieres by galloping up the main
street; he brought the news that His Majesty the King of -- was coming
the following Sunday, and it was now Tuesday.  The Prefect authorised,
that is to say ordered, the formation of a Guard of Honour; he must be
received with all the pomp possible. A courier was sent to Vergy. M.
de Renal arrived during the night and found the whole town in a
ferment. Everybody was claiming a right to something; those who had no
other duty were engaging balconies to see the King enter the town.

Who was to command the Guard of Honour? M. de Renal saw at once how
important it was, in the interest of the houses that would have to be
moved back, that M. de Moirod should fill this post. It might be held
to constitute a claim to the place of Principal Deputy. There was
nothing to be said against M. de Moirod's devotion; it went beyond all
comparison, but he had never ridden a horse in his life. He was a man
of six and thirty, timid in every way, and equally afraid of falls and
of being laughed at.

The Mayor sent for him at five o'clock in the morning.

'You see, Sir, that I am asking your advice, as though you already
occupied the post in which all right-minded people would gladly see
you. In this unfortunate town the manufacturers prosper, the Liberal
Party are becoming millionaires, they aspire to power, they will forge
themselves weapons out of everything. We must consider the King's
interests, those of the Monarchy, and above all those of our holy
religion. To whom do you think, Sir, that we ought to entrust the
command of the Guard of Honour?'

In spite of the horrible fear that a horse inspired in him, M. de
Moirod ended by accepting this honour like a martyr. 'I shall manage
to adopt the right manner,' he told the Mayor. There was barely time
to overhaul the uniforms which had been used seven years before on the
passage of a Prince of the Blood.

At seven, Madame de Renal arrived from Vergy with Julien and the
children.  She found her drawing-room full of Liberal ladies who were
preaching the union of parties, and had come to implore her to make
her husband find room in the Guard of Honour for theirs. One of them
asserted that if her husband were not chosen he would go bankrupt from
grief. Madame de Renal sent them all packing at once. She seemed
greatly occupied.

Julien was surprised and even more annoyed by her making a mystery to
him of what was disturbing her. 'I thought as much,' he told himself
bitterly, 'her love is eclipsed by the joy of receiving a King in her
house. All this excitement dazzles her. She will begin to love me
again when her brain is no longer troubled by ideas of caste.'

The surprising thing was that he loved her all the more for this.

The upholsterers began to invade the whole house, he long watched in
vain for an opportunity of saying a word to her. At length he found
her coming out of his own room, carrying one of his coats. They were
alone. He tried to speak to her. She made off, declining to listen to
him. 'What a fool I am to be in love with a woman like that, ambition
makes her just as stupid as her husband.'

She was even more so: one of her great wishes, which she had never
confessed to Julien, for fear of shocking him, was to see him discard,
if only for a day, his gloomy black coat. With an ingenuity truly
admirable in so natural a woman, she secured, first from M. de Moirod,
and then from the Sub-Prefect M. de Maugiron, that Julien should be
appointed to the Guard of Honour in preference to five or six young
men, sons of manufacturers in easy circumstances, at least two of whom
were of an exemplary piety. M. Valenod, who was reckoning on lending
his carriage to the prettiest women of the town, in order to have his
fine Norman horses admired, agreed to let Julien, the person he hated
most, have one of them. But each of the members of the Guard of Honour
possessed or had borrowed one of those sky-blue coats with a pair of
colonel's epaulettes in silver, which had shone in public seven years
before. Madame de Renal wanted a new coat, and she had but four days
in which to send to Besancon, and to procure from there the uniform,
the weapons, the hat, and all the other requisites for a Guard of
Honour. What is rather amusing is that she thought it imprudent to
have Julien's coat made at Verrieres. She wished to take him by
surprise, him and the town.

The work of organising the Guard of Honour and popular feeling
finished, the Mayor had next to deal with a great religious ceremony;
the King of ---- refused to pass through Verrieres without paying a
visit to the famous relic of Saint Clement which is preserved at
Bray-le-Haut, a short league from the town. The clergy must be present
in full force, and this was the most difficult thing to arrange; M.
Maslon, the new cure, was determined, at any price, to keep M. Chelan
out. In vain did M. de Renal point out to him the imprudence of this
action. The Marquis de La Mole, whose ancestors for so long were
Governors of the Province, had been chosen to accompany the King of
----. He had known the abbe Chelan for thirty years.  He would be
certain to inquire for him on arriving at Verrieres, and, if he found
that he was in disgrace, was quite capable of going in search of him,
to the little house to which he had retired, accompanied by such of
the procession as were under his orders. What a rebuff that would be!

'I am dishonoured here and at Besancon,' replied the abbe Maslon, 'if
he appears among my clergy. A Jansenist, great heavens!'

'Whatever you may say, my dear abbe,' M. de Renal assured him, 'I
shall not expose the municipal government of Verrieres to the risk of
an insult from M. de La Mole. You don't know the man, he is sound
enough at court; but here, in the country, he has a satirical, mocking
spirit, and likes nothing so much as to embarrass people. He is
capable, simply for his own amusement, of covering us with ridicule in
the eyes of the Liberals.'

It was not until the night between Saturday and Sunday, after three
days of discussion, that the abbe Maslon's pride gave way before the
Mayor's fear, which had turned to courage. The next thing was to write
a honeyed note to the abbe Chelan, inviting him to be present at the
veneration of the relic at Bray-le-Haut, his great age and infirmities
permitting. M. Chelan asked for and obtained a letter of invitation
for Julien, who was to accompany him in the capacity of sub-deacon.

Early on Sunday morning, thousands of peasants, arriving from the
neighbouring mountains, flooded the streets of Verrieres. It was a day
of brilliant sunshine. At length, about three o'clock, a tremor ran
through the crowd; they had caught sight of a beacon blazing on a rock
two leagues from Verrieres. This signal announced that the King had
just entered the territory of the Department. Immediately the sound of
all the bells and the repeated discharge of an old Spanish cannon
belonging to the town proclaimed its joy at this great event. Half the
population climbed up on the roofs. All the women were on the
balconies. The Guard of Honour began to move. The brilliant uniforms
were greatly admired, each of the onlookers recognised a relative
or friend. There was general laughter at the alarm of M. de Moirod,
whose cautious hand lay ready at any moment to clutch hold of his
saddle. But one thing made them forget all the others: the left-hand
man in the ninth section was a handsome lad, very slender, who at
first was not identified.  Presently a cry of indignation from some,
the astonished silence of others announced a general sensation. The
onlookers recognised in this young man, riding one of M. Valenod's
Norman horses, young Sorel, the carpenter's son.  There was one
unanimous outcry against the Mayor, especially among the Liberals.
What, because this young labourer dressed up as a priest was tutor to
his brats, he had the audacity to appoint him to the Guard of Honour,
to the exclusion of M. This and M. That, wealthy manufacturers!  'Those
gentlemen,' said a banker's wife, 'ought really to offer an affront to
the little upstart, born in the gutter.'

'He has a wicked temper and he is wearing a sabre,' replied her
companion; 'he would be quite treacherous enough to slash them across
the face.'

The comments made by the aristocratic element were more dangerous. The
ladies asked themselves whether the Mayor alone was responsible for
this grave breach of etiquette. On the whole justice was done to his
contempt for humble birth.

While he was giving rise to so much comment, Julien was the happiest
man alive. Bold by nature, he had a better seat on a horse than most
of the young men of this mountain town. He saw in the eyes of the
women that they were talking about him.

His epaulettes were more brilliant because they were new. At every
moment his horse threatened to rear; he was in the seventh heaven of

His happiness knew no bounds when, as they passed near the old
rampart, the sound of the small cannon made his horse swerve out of
the ranks. By the greatest accident, he did not fall off; from that
moment he felt himself a hero. He was Napoleon's orderly officer and
was charging a battery.

There was one person happier than he. First of all she had watched him
pass from one of the windows of the town hall; then, getting into her
carriage, and rapidly making a wide detour, she was in time to tremble
when his horse carried him out of the ranks. Finally, her carriage
passing out at a gallop through another of the gates of the town, she
made her way back to the road along which the King was to pass, and
was able to follow the Guard of Honour at a distance of twenty paces,
in a noble cloud of dust. Ten thousand peasants shouted: 'Long live
the King' when the Mayor had the honour of addressing His Majesty. An
hour later, when, having listened to all the speeches, the King was
about to enter the town, the small cannon began to fire again with
frenzied haste. But an accident occurred, not to the gunners who had
learned their trade at Leipsic and Montmirail, but to the future
Principal Deputy, M. de Moirod.  His horse dropped him gently into the
one puddle to be found along the whole road, which created a scandal,
because he had to be pulled out of the way to enable the King's
carriage to pass.

His Majesty alighted at the fine new church, which was decked out for
the occasion with all its crimson hangings. The King was to halt for
dinner, immediately after which he would take the road again to go and
venerate the famous relic of Saint Clement. No sooner was the King
inside the church than Julien went off at a gallop to M. de Renal's.
There he discarded with a sigh his fine sky-blue coat, his sabre, his
epaulettes, to resume the little threadbare black coat. He mounted his
horse again, and in a few minutes was at Bray-le-Haut, which stands on
the summit of an imposing hill. 'Enthusiasm is multiplying these
peasants,' thought Julien. 'One cannot move at Verrieres, and here
there are more than ten thousand of them round this old abbey.' Half
ruined by the vandalism of the Revolution, it had been magnificently
restored since the Restoration, and there was already some talk of
miracles. Julien joined the abbe Chelan, who scolded him severely, and
gave him a cassock and surplice. He vested himself hurriedly in these
and followed M. Chelan, who was going in search of the youthful Bishop
of Agde. This was a nephew of M. de La Mole, recently appointed to the
See, who had been selected to exhibit the relic to the King. But the
Bishop was not to be found.

The clergy were growing impatient. They awaited their leader in the
sombre, gothic cloister of the ancient abbey. Four and twenty parish
priests had been collected to represent the original chapter of
Bray-le-Haut which prior to 1789 had consisted of four and twenty
canons. Having spent three quarters of an hour in deploring the
youthfulness of the Bishop, the priests decided that it would be a
good thing if their Dean were to go and inform His Lordship that the
King was on his way, and that it was time they were in the choir. M.
Chelan's great age had made him Dean; despite the anger he showed with
Julien, he made a sign to him to follow him. Julien carried his
surplice admirably. By some secret process of the ecclesiastical
toilet-table, he had made his fine curly hair lie quite flat; but, by
an oversight which intensified the anger of M. Chelan, beneath the
long folds of his cassock one could see the spurs of the Guard of

When they reached the Bishop's apartment, the tall lackeys smothered
in gold lace barely condescended to inform the old cure that His
Lordship could not be seen. They laughed at him when he tried to
explain that in his capacity as Dean of the Noble Chapter of
Bray-le-Haut, it was his privilege to be admitted at all times to the
presence of the officiating Bishop.

Julien's proud spirit was offended by the insolence of the lackeys. He
set off on a tour of the dormitories of the old abbey, trying every
door that he came to. One quite small door yielded to his efforts and
he found himself in a cell in the midst of His Lordship's
body-servants, dressed in black with chains round their necks. Seeing
his air of haste, these gentlemen supposed that the Bishop had sent
for him and allowed him to pass. He went a little way and found
himself in an immense gothic chamber, very dark and panelled
throughout in black oak; with a single exception, its pointed windows
had been walled up with bricks. There was nothing to conceal the
coarse surface of this masonry, which formed a sorry contrast to the
venerable splendour of the woodwork. Both sides of this room, famous
among the antiquarians of Burgundy, which the Duke Charles the Bold
built about the year 1470 in expiation of some offence, were lined
with wooden stalls, richly carved. These displayed, inlaid in wood of
different colours, all the mysteries of the Apocalypse.

This melancholy splendour, degraded by the intrusion of the bare
bricks and white plaster, impressed Julien. He stood there in silence.
At the other end of the room, near the only window through which any
light came, he saw a portable mirror framed in mahogany. A young man,
robed in violet with a lace surplice, but bare-headed, was standing
three paces away from the mirror. This article appeared out of place
in such a room, and had doubtless been brought there from the town.
Julien thought that the young man seemed irritated; with his right
hand he was gravely giving benedictions in the direction of the

'What can this mean?' he wondered. 'Is it a preliminary ceremony that
this young priest is performing? He is perhaps the Bishop's secretary
... he will be rude like the lackeys ... but what of that, let us try

He went forward and passed slowly down the length of the room, keeping
his eyes fixed on that solitary window and watching the young man who
continued to give benedictions, with a slow motion but in endless
profusion, and without pausing for a moment.

As he drew nearer he was better able to see the other's look of
annoyance.  The costliness of his lace-bordered surplice brought
Julien to a standstill some distance away from the magnificent mirror.

'It is my duty to speak,' he reminded himself at length; but the
beauty of the room had touched his feelings and he was chilled in
anticipation by the harsh words that would be addressed to him.

The young man caught sight of him in the glass, turned round, and
suddenly discarding his look of irritation said to him in the
pleasantest tone:

'Well, Sir, is it ready yet?'

Julien remained speechless. As this young man turned towards him,
Julien saw the pectoral cross on his breast: it was the Bishop of
Agde. 'So young,' thought Julien; 'at the most, only six or eight
years older than myself!'

And he felt ashamed of his spurs.

'Monseigneur,' he replied timidly. 'I am sent by the Dean of the
Chapter, M. Chelan.'

'Ah! I have an excellent account of him,' said the bishop in a
courteous tone which left Julien more fascinated than ever. 'But I beg
your pardon, Sir, I took you for the person who is to bring me back my
mitre. It was carelessly packed in Paris; the silver tissue has been
dreadfully frayed at the top. It will create a shocking effect,' the
young Bishop went on with a sorrowful air, 'and they are keeping me
waiting too.'

'Monseigneur, I shall go and find the mitre, with Your Lordship's

Julien's fine eyes had their effect.

'Go, Sir,' the Bishop answered with exquisite courtesy; 'I must
have it at once. I am sorry to keep the gentlemen of the Chapter

When Julien was halfway down the room, he turned to look at the Bishop
and saw that he was once more engaged in giving benedictions. 'What
can that be?' Julien asked himself; 'no doubt, it is a religious
preparation necessary to the ceremony that is to follow.' When he came
to the cell in which the servants were waiting, he saw the mitre in
their hands. These gentlemen, yielding in spite of themselves to
Julien's imperious glance, surrendered it to him.

He felt proud to be carrying it: as he crossed the room, he walked
slowly; he held it with respect. He found the Bishop seated before the
glass; but, from time to time, his right hand, tired as it was, still
gave the benediction. Julien helped him to put on the mitre. The
Bishop shook his head.

'Ah! It will keep on,' he said to Julien with a satisfied air. 'Will
you go a little way off?'

Whereupon the Bishop walked at a smart pace to the middle of the room,
then returning towards the mirror with a slow step, he resumed his air
of irritation and went on solemnly giving benedictions.

Julien was spellbound with astonishment; he was tempted to guess what
this meant, but did not dare. The Bishop stopped, and looking at him
with an air from which the solemnity rapidly vanished:

'What do you say to my mitre, Sir, does it look right?'

'Quite right, Monseigneur.'

'It is not too far back? That would look rather silly; but it does not
do, either, to wear them pulled down over one's eyes like an officer's

'It seems to me to be quite right.'

'The King of ---- is accustomed to venerable clergy who are doubtless
very solemn. I should not like, especially in view of my age, to
appear too frivolous.'

And the Bishop once more began to walk about the room scattering

'It is quite clear,' said Julien, at last venturing to understand, 'he
is practising the benediction.'

A few moments later:

'I am ready,' said the Bishop. 'Go, Sir, and inform the Dean and the
gentlemen of the Chapter.'

Presently M. Chelan, followed by the two oldest of the cures, entered
by an immense door, magnificently carved, which Julien had not
noticed. But this time he remained in his place in the extreme rear,
and could see the Bishop only over the shoulders of the ecclesiastics
who crowded towards this door.

The Bishop crossed the room slowly; when he came to the threshold the
cures formed in processional order. After a momentary confusion the
procession began to move, intoning a psalm. The Bishop came last,
between M. Chelan and another cure of great age. Julien found a place
for himself quite close to His Lordship, as being attached to the abbe
Chelan. They moved down the long corridors of the abbey of
Bray-le-Haut; in spite of the brilliant sunshine, these were dark and
damp. At length they arrived at the door of the cloister. Julien was
speechless with admiration of so fine a ceremony.  His heart was
divided between the ambition aroused by the Bishop's youthfulness, and
the sensibility and exquisite manners of this prelate.  His courtesy
was of a very different kind from M. de Renal's, even on his good
days. 'The more one rises towards the highest rank of society,'
thought Julien, 'the more one finds these charming manners.'

They entered the church by a side door; suddenly an appalling crash
made its ancient vaults resound; Julien thought that the walls were
collapsing.  It was again the small cannon; drawn by eight horses at a
gallop, it had just arrived; and immediately on its arrival, brought
into action by the gunners of Leipsic, it was firing five rounds a
minute, as though the Prussians had been in front of it.

But this stirring sound no longer had any effect upon Julien, he
dreamed no more of Napoleon and martial glory. 'So young,' he was
thinking, 'to be Bishop of Agde! But where is Agde? And how much is
it worth? Two or three hundred thousand francs, perhaps.'

His Lordship's servants appeared, carrying a magnificent dais; M.
Chelan took one of the poles, but actually it was Julien that bore it.
The Bishop took his place beneath it. He had really succeeded in
giving himself the air of an old man; our hero's admiration knew no
bounds. 'What cannot one do if one is clever!' he thought.

The King made his entry. Julien was so fortunate as to see him at
close range. The Bishop addressed him with unction, and did not forget
to include a slight touch of confusion, extremely flattering to His
Majesty. We shall not repeat the account of the ceremonies at
Bray-le-Haut; for a fortnight they filled the columns of all the
newspapers of the Department. Julien learned, from the Bishop's
speech, that the King was descended from Charles the Bold.

Later on it was one of Julien's duties to check the accounts of what
this ceremony had cost. M. de La Mole, who had secured a bishopric for
his nephew, had chosen to pay him the compliment of bearing the whole
of the expense himself. The ceremony at Bray-le-Haut alone cost three
thousand eight hundred francs.

After the Bishop's address and the King's reply, His Majesty took his
place beneath the dais; he then knelt down most devoutly upon a
cushion close to the altar. The choir was enclosed with stalls, and
these stalls were raised two steps above the pavement. It was on the
second of these steps that Julien sat at the feet of M. Chelan, not
unlike a train-bearer at the feet of his Cardinal, in the Sistine
Chapel, in Rome. There were a Te Deum, clouds of incense, endless
volleys of musketry and artillery; the peasants were frantic with joy
and piety. Such a day undoes the work of a hundred numbers of the
Jacobin papers.

Julien was within six paces of the King, who was praying with genuine
fervour. He noticed for the first time a small man of intelligent
appearance, whose coat was almost bare of embroidery. But he wore a
sky-blue riband over this extremely simple coat. He was nearer to the
King than many other gentlemen, whose coats were so covered with gold
lace that, to use Julien's expression, one could not see the cloth. He
learned a minute later that this was M. de La Mole. He decided that he
wore a haughty, indeed an insolent air.

'This Marquis would not be polite like my dear Bishop,' he thought.
'Ah!  The career of a churchman makes one gentle and wise. But the
King has come to venerate the relic, and I see no relic. Where can
Saint Clement be?'

A little clerk, who was next to him, informed him that the venerable
relic was in the upper part of the building, in a _chapelle ardente_.

'What is a _chapelle ardente_?' Julien asked himself.

But he would not ask for an explanation of the words. He followed the
proceedings with even closer attention.

On the occasion of a visit from a sovereign prince, etiquette requires
that the canons shall not accompany the Bishop. But as he started for
the chapelle ardente His Lordship of Agde summoned the abbe Chelan;
Julien ventured to follow him.

After climbing a long stair, they came to a very small door, the frame
of which was sumptuously gilded. This work had a look of having just
been completed.

Outside the door were gathered on their knees four and twenty girls,
belonging to the most distinguished families of Verrieres. Before
opening the door, the Bishop sank on his knees in the midst of these
girls, who were all pretty. While he was praying aloud, it seemed as
though they could not sufficiently admire his fine lace, his charm,
his young and pleasant face. This spectacle made our hero lose all
that remained of his reason. At that moment, he would have fought for
the Inquisition, and in earnest.  Suddenly the door flew open. The
little chapel seemed to be ablaze with light. One saw upon the altar
more than a thousand candles arranged in eight rows, separated from
one another by clusters of flowers. The sweet odour of the purest
incense rose in clouds from the gate of the sanctuary.  The newly
gilded chapel was quite small, but very lofty. Julien noticed that
there were on the altar candles more than fifteen feet long. The girls
could not restrain a cry of admiration. No one had been admitted to
the tiny ante-chapel save the twenty-four girls, the two priests and

Presently the King arrived, followed only by M. de La Mole and his
Great Chamberlain. The guards themselves remained outside, on their
knees, presenting their arms.

His Majesty flung himself rather than knelt down on the faldstool. It
was then only that Julien, pressed against the gilded door, caught
sight, beneath a girl's bare arm, of the charming statue of Saint
Clement. It was hidden beneath the altar, in the garb of a young Roman
soldier. He had in his throat a large wound from which the blood
seemed to be flowing. The artist had surpassed himself; the eyes,
dying but full of grace, were half closed. A budding moustache adorned
the charming mouth, which being slightly open had the effect of being
still engaged in prayer. At the sight of this statue, the girl nearest
to Julien wept hot tears; one of her tears fell upon Julien's hand.

After an interval of prayer in the most profound silence, disturbed
only by the distant sound of the bells of all the villages within a
radius of ten leagues, the Bishop of Agde asked the King's permission
to speak. He concluded a brief but highly edifying discourse with
these words, simple in themselves, but thereby all the better assured
of their effect.

'Never forget, young Christian women, that you have seen one of the
great Kings of the earth upon his knees before the servants of this
all-powerful and terrible God. These servants, frail, persecuted,
martyred upon earth, as you can see from the still bleeding wound of
Saint Clement, are triumphant in heaven. All your lives, I think,
young Christians, you will remember this day. You will detest impiety.
Always you will remain faithful to this God who is so great, so
terrible, but so good.'

At these words, the Bishop rose with authority.

'You promise me?' he said, extending his arm with an air of

'We promise,' said the girls, bursting into tears.

'I receive your promise, in the name of our terrible God!' the Bishop
concluded in a voice of thunder. And the ceremony was at an end.

The King himself was in tears. It was not until long afterwards that
Julien was calm enough to inquire where were the bones of the Saint,
sent from Rome to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. He was told that
they were embodied in the charming wax figure.

His Majesty deigned to permit the girls who had accompanied him into
the chapel to wear a red riband upon which were embroidered the words:

M. de La Mole ordered ten thousand bottles of wine to be distributed
among the peasants. That evening, at Verrieres, the Liberals found an
excuse for illuminating their houses a hundred times more brilliantly
than the Royalists. Before leaving the town, the King paid a visit to
M. de Moirod.

To Think Is To Be Full of Sorrow

  The grotesque character of everyday occurrences conceals from
  one the real misery of passions.

While he was replacing its ordinary furniture in the room that M. de
La Mole had occupied, Julien found a piece of stout paper, folded
twice across. He read at the foot of the first page:

To H. E., M. le Marquis de La Mole, Peer of France, Knight of the
Royal Orders, etc., etc.

It was a petition in the rude handwriting of a cook.

Monsieur le Marquis,

All my life I have held religious principles. I was in Lyons, exposed
to the bombs, at the time of the siege, in '93, of execrable memory.
I am a communicant, I go every Sunday to mass in my parish church. I
have never failed in my Easter duty, not even in '93, of execrable
memory. My cook, for before the revolution I kept servants, my cook
observes Friday. I enjoy in Verrieres a general and I venture to say
merited respect. I walk beneath the dais in processions, beside the
cure and the mayor. I carry, on solemn occasions, a big candle bought
at my own cost. The certificates of all of which are in Paris at the
Ministry of Finance. I ask Monsieur le Marquis for the Verrieres
lottery office, which cannot fail to be vacant soon in one way or
another, the present holder being seriously ill, and besides voting
the wrong way at the elections; etc.


On the margin of this petition was an endorsement signed de Moirod,
which began with the words:

'I had the honour yesterday to mention the respectable person who
makes this request,' and so forth.

'And so even that imbecile Cholin shows me the way that I must
follow,' Julien said to himself.

A week after the visit of the King of ---- to Verrieres, the chief
thing to emerge from the innumerable falsehoods, foolish
interpretations, absurd discussions, etc., etc., to which the King,
the Bishop of Agde, the Marquis de La Mole, the ten thousand bottles
of wine, the unseated Moirod (who, in the hope of a Cross, did not set
foot outside his own door for a whole month after his fall) were in
turn subjected, was the utter indelicacy of having jockeyed into the
Guard of Honour, Julien Sorel, the son of a carpenter. You ought to
have heard, on this topic, the wealthy calico printers, who, morning,
noon and night, used to talk themselves hoarse in preaching equality.
That proud woman, Madame de Renal, was the author of this abomination.
Her reason? The flashing eyes and pink cheeks of that young abbe Sorel
were reason enough and to spare.

Shortly after their return to Vergy, Stanislas Xavier, the youngest of
the children, took fever; at once Madame de Renal was seized by the
most fearful remorse. For the first time she blamed herself for
falling in love in a coherent fashion. She seemed to understand, as
though by a miracle, the appalling sin into which she had let herself
be drawn. Although deeply religious by nature, until this moment she
had never thought of the magnitude of her crime in the eyes of God.

Long ago, at the convent of the Sacred Heart, she had loved God with a
passionate love; she feared Him in the same way in this predicament.
The struggles that rent her heart asunder were all the more terrible
in that there was nothing reasonable in her fear. Julien discovered
that any recourse to argument irritated instead of calming her; she
saw in it the language of hell. However, as Julien himself was greatly
attached to little Stanislas, he was more welcome to speak to her of
the child's illness: presently it assumed a grave character. Then her
incessant remorse deprived Madame de Renal even of the power to sleep;
she never emerged from a grim silence: had she opened her mouth, it
would have been to confess her crime to God and before men.

'I beg of you,' Julien said to her, as soon as they were alone, 'say
nothing to anyone; let me be the sole confidant of your griefs. If you
still love me, do not speak! your words cannot cure our Stanislas of
his fever.'

But his attempts at consolation produced no effect; he did not know
that Madame de Renal had taken it into her head that, to appease the
anger of a jealous God, she must either hate Julien or see her son
die. It was because she felt that she could not hate her lover that
she was so unhappy.

'Avoid my presence,' she said to Julien one day; 'in the name of God,
leave this house: it is your presence here that is killing my son.

'God is punishing me,' she added in a whisper; 'He is just; I adore
His equity; my crime is shocking, and I was living without remorse! It
was the first sign of departure from God: I ought to be doubly

Julien was deeply touched. He was unable to see in this attitude
either hypocrisy or exaggeration. 'She believes that she is killing
her son by loving me, and yet the unhappy woman loves me more than her
son. That, how can I doubt it, is the remorse that is killing her;
there is true nobility of feeling. But how can I have inspired such
love, I, so poor, so ill-bred, so ignorant, often so rude in my

One night the child's condition was critical. About two o'clock in the
morning, M. de Renal came to see him. The boy, burning with fever, was
extremely flushed and did not recognise his father. Suddenly Madame de
Renal threw herself at her husband's feet: Julien saw that she was
going to reveal everything and to ruin herself for ever.

Fortunately, this strange exhibition annoyed M. de Renal.

'Good night! Good night!' he said and prepared to leave the room.

'No, listen to me,' cried his wife on her knees before him, seeking to
hold him back. 'Learn the whole truth. It is I that am killing my son.
I gave him his life, and I am taking it from him. Heaven is punishing
me; in the eyes of God, I am guilty of murder. I must destroy and
humble myself; it may be that such a sacrifice will appease the Lord.'

If M. de Renal had been a man of imagination, he would have guessed

'Romantic stuff,' he exclaimed, thrusting away his wife who sought to
embrace his knees. 'Romantic stuff, all that! Julien, tell them to
fetch the doctor at daybreak.'

And he went back to bed. Madame de Renal sank on her knees, half
unconscious, with a convulsive movement thrusting away Julien, who was
coming to her assistance.

Julien stood watching her with amazement.

'So this is adultery!' he said to himself ... 'Can it be possible
that those rascally priests are right after all? That they, who commit
so many sins, have the privilege of knowing the true theory of sin?
How very odd!'

For twenty minutes since M. de Renal had left the room, Julien had
seen the woman he loved, her head sunk on the child's little bed,
motionless and almost unconscious. 'Here we have a woman of superior
intelligence reduced to the last extremes of misery, because she has
known me,' he said to himself.

The hours passed rapidly. 'What can I do for her? I must make up my
mind. I have ceased to count here. What do I care for men, and their
silly affectations? What can I do for her? ... Go from her? But I
shall be leaving her alone, torn by the most frightful grief. That
automaton of a husband does her more harm than good. He will say
something offensive to her, in his natural coarseness; she may go mad,
throw herself from the window.

'If I leave her, if I cease to watch over her, she will tell him
everything. And then, for all one knows, in spite of the fortune he is
to inherit through her, he will make a scandal. She may tell
everything, great God, to that--abbe Maslon, who makes the illness of
a child of six an excuse for never stirring out of this house, and not
without purpose. In her grief and her fear of God, she forgets all
that she knows of the man; she sees only the priest.'

'Leave me,' came suddenly from Madame de Renal as she opened her eyes.

'I would give my life a thousand times to know how I can be of most
use to you,' replied Julien; 'never have I so loved you, my dear
angel, or rather, from this instant only, I begin to adore you as you
deserve to be adored.  What is to become of me apart from you, and
with the knowledge that you are wretched by my fault! But I must not
speak of my own sufferings. I shall go, yes, my love. But, if I leave
you, if I cease to watch over you, to be constantly interposing myself
between you and your husband, you will tell him everything, you will
be ruined. Think of the ignominy with which he will drive you from the
house; all Verrieres, all Besancon will ring with the scandal. All the
blame will be cast on you; you will never be able to lift up your head

'That is all that I ask,' she cried, rising to her feet. 'I shall
suffer, all the better.'

'But, by this appalling scandal, you will be harming him as well!'

'But I humble myself, I throw myself down in the mud; and in that way
perhaps I save my son. This humiliation, in the sight of all, is
perhaps a public penance. So far as my frailty can judge, is it not
the greatest sacrifice that I can make to God? Perhaps he will deign
to accept my humiliation and to spare me my son! Show me a harder
sacrifice and I will hasten to perform it.'

'Let me punish myself. I too am guilty. Would you have me retire to La
Trappe? The austerity of the life there may appease your God ... Oh,
heaven! Why can I not take upon myself Stanislas's illness?'

'Ah! You love him,' said Madame de Renal, rising and flinging herself
into his arms.

Immediately she thrust him from her with horror.

'I believe you! I believe you!' she went on, having fallen once more
on her knees; 'O my only friend, why are not you Stanislas's father?
Then it would not be a horrible sin to love you more than your son.'

'Will you permit me to stay, and henceforward only to love you as a
brother? It is the only reasonable expiation; it may appease the wrath
of the Most High.'

'And I,' she exclaimed, rising, and taking Julien's head in her hands,
and holding it at arm's length before her eyes, 'and I, shall I love
you like a brother? Is it in my power to love you like a brother?'

Julien burst into tears.

'I will obey you,' he said as he fell at her feet. 'I will obey you,
whatever you may bid me do; it is the one thing left for me. My brain
is smitten with blindness; I can see no course to take. If I leave
you, you tell your husband all; you ruin yourself, and him at the same
time. After such a disgrace he will never be elected Deputy. If I
stay, you regard me as the cause of your son's death, and you yourself
die of grief. Would you like to test the effect of my going? If you
like, I will punish myself for our sin by leaving you for a week. I
shall pass the time in retreat wherever you choose. At the abbey of
Bray-le-Haut, for instance; but swear to me that during my absence you
will reveal nothing to your husband.  Remember that I can never return
if you speak.'

She promised; he departed, but was recalled after two days.

'It is impossible for me to keep my oath without you. I shall speak to
my husband, if you are not constantly there to order me with your eyes
to be silent. Each hour of this abominable life seems to me to last a

In the end, heaven took pity on this unhappy mother. Gradually
Stanislas passed out of danger. But the ice was broken, her reason had
learned the magnitude of her sin, she could no more recover her
equilibrium. Remorse still remained, and took the form that it was
bound to take in so sincere a heart. Her life was heaven and hell;
hell when she did not see Julien, heaven when she was at his feet.

'I am no longer under any illusion,' she told him, even at the moments
when she ventured to give absolute rein to her love: 'I am damned,
irremediably damned. You are young, you have yielded to my seduction,
heaven may pardon you; but as for me, I am damned. I know it by an
infallible sign. I am afraid: who would not be afraid at the sight of
hell? But at heart, I am not in the least repentant. I would commit my
sin again, were it to be committed. Let heaven only refrain from
punishing me in this world and in my children, and I shall have more
than I deserve. But you, at least, my Julien,' she cried at other
moments, 'are you happy? Do you feel that I love you enough?'

Julien's distrust and suffering pride, which needed above all a love
that made sacrifices, could not stand out against the sight of so
great, so indubitable a sacrifice, and one that was made afresh every
moment. He adored Madame de Renal. 'She may well be noble, and I the
son of a working man; she loves me ... I am not to her a footman
employed in the part of lover.' Once rid of this fear, Julien fell
into all the follies of love, into its mortal uncertainties.

'At least.' she cried when she saw that he doubted her love, 'let me
make you happy during the few days we still have to spend together!
Let us make haste; tomorrow perhaps I shall be no longer yours. If
heaven strikes me through my children, in vain shall I seek to live
only for love of you, not to see that it is my crime that is killing
them. I shall not be able to survive that blow. Even if I would, I
could not; I should go mad.'

'Ah! If I could take your sin upon my conscience, as you so generously
wished that you might take Stanislas's fever!'

This great moral crisis changed the nature of the sentiment that
united Julien to his mistress. His love was no longer merely
admiration of her beauty, pride in the possession of her.

Their joy was thenceforward of a far higher nature, the flame that
devoured them was more intense. They underwent transports of utter
madness. Their happiness would have seemed great in the eyes of other
people. But they never recaptured the delicious serenity, the
unclouded happiness, the spontaneous joy of the first days of their
love, when Madame de Renal's one fear was that of not being loved
enough by Julien. Their happiness assumed at times the aspect of

In what were their happiest, and apparently their calmest moments:
'Oh!  Great God! I see hell before me,' Madame de Renal would suddenly
exclaim, gripping Julien's hand with a convulsive movement. 'What
fearful torments!  I have well deserved them.' She clutched him,
clinging to him like the ivy to the wall.

Julien tried in vain to calm this agitated soul. She took his hand,
which she covered with kisses. Then, relapsing into a sombre
meditation; 'Hell,' she said, 'hell would be a blessing to me; I
should still have some days in this world to spend with him, but hell
here on earth, the death of my children ... Yet, at that price,
perhaps my crime would be forgiven me ...  Oh! Great God! Grant me not
my pardon at that price. These poor children have done nothing to
offend thee; 'tis I, I, the guilt is mine alone! I love a man who is
not my husband.'

Julien next saw Madame de Renal reach a state that was outwardly
tranquil.  She sought to take the burden upon herself, she wished not
to poison the existence of him whom she loved.

In the midst of these alternations of love, remorse and pleasure, the
days passed for them with lightning rapidity. Julien lost the habit of

Miss Elisa went to conduct a little lawsuit which she had at
Verrieres. She found M. Valenod greatly annoyed with Julien. She hated
the tutor and often spoke about him to M. Valenod.

'You would ruin me, Sir, if I told you the truth!' she said to him one
day.  'Employers all hang together in important things. They never
forgive us poor servants for certain revelations ...'

After these conventional phrases, which the impatient curiosity of M.
Valenod found a way of cutting short, he learned the most mortifying
things in the world for his own self-esteem.

This woman, the most distinguished in the place, whom for six years he
had surrounded with every attention, and, unluckily, before the eyes
of all the world; this proudest of women, whose disdain had so often
made him blush, had taken as her lover a little journeyman dressed up
as a tutor. And that nothing might be wanting to the discomfiture of
the governor of the poorhouse, Madame de Renal adored this lover.

'And,' the maid added with a sigh, 'M. Julien went to no pains to make
this conquest, he has never departed from his habitual coldness with

It was only in the country that Elisa had become certain of her facts,
but she thought that this intrigue dated from far earlier.

'That, no doubt, is why,' she continued bitterly, 'he refused at the
time to marry me. And I, like a fool, going to consult Madame de
Renal, begging her to speak to the tutor!'

That same evening M. de Renal received from the town, with his
newspaper, a long anonymous letter which informed him in the fullest
detail of all that was going on under his roof. Julien saw him turn
pale as he read this letter, which was written on blue paper, and cast
angry glances at himself.  For the rest of the evening the Mayor never
recovered his peace of mind; it was in vain that Julien tried to
flatter him by asking him to explain obscure points in the pedigrees
of the best families of Burgundy.

The Anonymous Letters

    Do not give dalliance
  Too much the rein; the strongest oaths are straw
  To the fire i'the blood.
    _The Tempest_

As they left the drawing-room about midnight, Julien found time to say
to his mistress: 'Do not let us meet tonight, your husband has
suspicions; I would swear that that long letter he was reading with
such displeasure is an anonymous one.'

Fortunately, Julien locked himself into his room. Madame de Renal
conceived the mad idea that this warning was simply a pretext for not
coming to see her. She lost her head absolutely, and at the usual hour
came to his door.  Julien, hearing a sound in the corridor, instantly
blew out his lamp.  Someone was attempting to open his door; was it
Madame de Renal, was it a jealous husband?

Early the next morning, the cook, who took an interest in Julien,
brought him a book on the cover of which he read these words written
in Italian: _Guardate alia pagina 130_.

Julien shuddered at the imprudence, turned to page one hundred and
thirty and found fastened to it with a pin the following letter
written in haste, bedewed with tears, and without the least attempt at
spelling. Ordinarily Madame de Renal spelt quite well; he was moved by
this detail and began to forget the frightful imprudence.

'So you would not let me in tonight? There are moments when I feel
that I have never seen into the depths of your heart. Your look
frightens me. I am afraid of you. Great God! Can it be, you have never
loved me? In that case, my husband can discover our love, and shut me
up in lifelong imprisonment, in the country, apart from my children.
Perhaps God wills it so. I shall soon die; but you will be a monster.

'Do you not love me? Are you tired of my follies, of my remorse,
impious one? Do you wish to ruin me? I give you an easy method. Go,
show this letter to all Verrieres, or rather show it to M. Valenod
alone. Tell him that I love you; but no, utter no such blasphemy; tell
him that I adore you, that life only began for me on the day when I
first saw you; that in the wildest moments of my girlhood, I had never
even dreamed of the happiness that I owe to you; that I have
sacrificed my life to you, that I am sacrificing my soul to you. You
know that I am sacrificing far more.

'But what does he know of sacrifices, that man? Tell him, tell him, to
make him angry, that I defy all evil-speakers, and that there is but
one misfortune in the world for me, that of beholding a change in the
one man who holds me to life. What a blessing for me to lose it, to
offer it in sacrifice, and to fear no longer for my children!

'Doubt not, dear friend, if there be an anonymous letter, it comes
from that odious being who, for the last six years, has pursued me
with his loud voice, with a list of the jumps his horse has taken,
with his fatuity and with the endless enumeration of all his

'Is there an anonymous letter? Wicked one, that is what I wished to
discuss with you; but no, you were right. Clasping you in my arms, for
the last time perhaps, I could never have discussed the matter calmly,
as I do when I am alone. From this moment our happiness will not be so
easily secured. Will that be an annoyance to you? Yes, on the days
when you have not received some amusing book from M. Fouque. The
sacrifice is made; tomorrow, whether there be an anonymous letter or
not, I shall tell my husband that I have received an anonymous letter,
that he must instantly offer you a large sum to accept another post,
find some decent pretext, and send you back without delay to your

'Alas, dear friend, we are going to be parted for a fortnight, perhaps
a month! But there, I do you justice, you will suffer as much as I.
Still, this is the only way to counteract the effect of this anonymous
letter; it is not the first that my husband has received, and on my
account too. Alas!  How I have laughed at them!

'The whole purpose of my scheme is to make my husband think that the
letter comes from M. Valenod; I have no doubt that he is its author.
If you leave the house, do not fail to go and establish yourself at
Verrieres. I shall contrive that my husband conceives the idea of
spending a fortnight there, to prove to the fools that there is no
coolness between him and myself.  Once you are at Verrieres, make
friends with everyone, even the Liberals. I know that all the ladies
will run after you.

'Do not go and quarrel with M. Valenod, nor crop his ears, as you once
threatened; on the contrary, show him every politeness. The essential
thing is that it should be known throughout Verrieres that you are
going to Valenod's, or to some other house, for the children's

'That is what my husband will never stand. Should he resign himself to
it, well, at least you will be living in Verrieres, and I shall see
you sometimes. My children, who are so fond of you, will go to see
you. Great God! I feel that I love my children more, because they love
you. What remorse! How is all this going to end? I am wandering ...
Well, you understand what you must do; be gentle, polite, never
contemptuous with these vulgar personages, I implore you on my knees:
they are to be the arbiters of our destiny. Doubt not for a moment
that my husband in dealing with you will conform to whatever _public
opinion_ may prescribe.

'It is you that are going to provide me with this anonymous
letter; arm yourself with patience and a pair of scissors. Cut out of
a book the words you will see below; paste them together, with
water-glue, on the sheet of blue paper that I send you; it came to me
from M. Valenod. Be prepared for a search of your room; burn the pages
of the book you mutilate. If you do not find the words ready made,
have the patience to compose them letter by letter. To spare you
trouble, I have cut the anonymous letter short. Alas! If you no longer
love me, as I fear, how long mine must seem to you!



All your little goings on are known; but the persons to whose interest
it is to check them have been warned. From a lingering affection for
yourself, I beg you to detach yourself entirely from the little
peasant. If you have the wisdom to do this, your husband will believe
that the warning he has received was misleading, and he will be left
in his error. Bear in mind that I know your secret; tremble, unhappy
woman; henceforward you must tread a straight path, driven by me."

'As soon as you have finished pasting together the words that make up
this letter (do you recognise the Governor's style in it?) come out of
your room, I shall meet you about the house.

'I shall go to the village, and return with a troubled countenance; I
shall indeed be greatly troubled. Great God! What a risk I am running,
and all because you _thought you detected_ an anonymous letter. Finally,
with a woebegone face, I shall give my husband this letter, which will
have been handed to me by a stranger. As for you, go for a walk in the
direction of the woods with the children, and do not return until
dinner time.

'From the rocks above, you can see the tower of the dovecote. If all
goes well, I shall place a white handkerchief there; if not, you will
see nothing.

'Ungrateful wretch, will not your heart find out some way of telling
me that you love me, before starting on this walk? Whatever may befall
me, be certain of one thing: I should not survive for a day a final
parting. Ah!  bad mother! These are two idle words that I have
written, dear Julien. I do not feel them; I can think only of you at
this moment, I have written them only so as not to be blamed by you.
Now that I find myself brought to the point of losing you, what use is
there in pretence? Yes, let my heart seem black as night to you, but
let me not lie to the man whom I adore! I have been all too deceitful
already in my life. Go to, I forgive you if you love me no longer. I
have not time to read my letter through. It is a small thing in my
eyes to pay with my life for the happy days which I have spent in your
arms. You know that they will cost me more than life.'

Conversation with a Lord and Master

  Alas! our frailty is the cause, not we! For such as we are made of,
  such we be.
    _Twelfth Night_

It was with a childish pleasure that Julien spent an hour in pasting
words together. As he left his room he came upon his pupils and their
mother; she took the letter with a simplicity and courage, the
calmness of which terrified him.

'Is the gum quite dry?' she asked him.

'Can this be the woman who was being driven mad by remorse?' he
thought.  'What are her plans at this moment?' He was too proud to ask
her; but never, perhaps, had she appealed to him more strongly.

'If things go amiss,' she went on with the same coolness, 'I shall be
stripped of everything. Bury this store somewhere in the mountains; it
may some day be my last resource.'

She handed him a glass-topped case, in red morocco, filled with gold
and a few diamonds.

'Go now,' she said to him.

She embraced her children, the youngest of them twice over. Julien
stood spellbound. She left him at a rapid pace and without looking at
him again.

>From the moment of his opening the anonymous letter, M. de Renal's life
had been a burden to him. He had not been so agitated since a duel
that he had nearly had to fight in 1816, and, to do him justice, the
prospect of receiving a bullet in his person would now have distressed
him less. He examined the letter from every angle. 'Is not this a
woman's hand?' he asked himself.  'In that case, what woman can have
written it?' He considered in turn all the women he knew at Verrieres,
without finding a definite object for his suspicions. Could a man have
dictated the letter? If so, what man? Here again, a similar
uncertainty; he had earned the jealousy and no doubt the hatred of the
majority of the men he knew. 'I must consult my wife,' he said to
himself, from force of habit, as he rose from the armchair in which he
had collapsed.

No sooner had he risen than 'Good God!' he exclaimed, clapping his
hand to his head, 'she is the one person whom I cannot trust; from
this moment she is my enemy.' And tears of anger welled into his eyes.

It was a fitting reward for that barrenness of heart in which
practical wisdom in the provinces is rooted, that the two men whom, at
that moment, M. de Renal most dreaded were his two most intimate

'Apart from them, I have ten friends perhaps,' and he turned them over
in his mind, calculating the exact amount of comfort that he would be
able to derive from each. 'To all of them, to all of them,' he cried in
his rage, 'my appalling misfortune will give the most intense
pleasure.' Happily for him, he supposed himself to be greatly envied,
and not without reason.  Apart from his superb house in town on which
the King of ---- had just conferred everlasting honour by sleeping
beneath its roof, he had made an admirable piece of work of his
country house at Vergy. The front was painted white, and the windows
adorned with handsome green shutters. He was comforted for a moment by
the thought of this magnificence. The fact of the matter was that this
mansion was visible from a distance of three or four leagues, to the
great detriment of all the country houses or so-called _chateaux_ of
the neighbourhood, which had been allowed to retain the humble grey
tones imparted to them by time.

M. de Renal could reckon upon the tears and pity of one of his
friends, the churchwarden of the parish; but he was an imbecile who
shed tears at everything. This man was nevertheless his sole resource.

'What misfortune is comparable to mine?' he exclaimed angrily. 'What

'Is it possible,' this truly pitiable man asked himself, 'is it
possible that, in my distress, I have not a single friend of whom
to ask advice? For my mind is becoming unhinged, I can feel it! Ah,
Falcoz!  Ah, Ducros!' he cried bitterly. These were the names of two
of his boyhood's friends whom he had alienated by his arrogance in
1814. They were not noble, and he had tried to alter the terms of
equality on which they had been living all their lives.

One of them, Falcoz, a man of spirit and heart, a paper merchant at
Verrieres, had purchased a printing press in the chief town of the
Department and had started a newspaper. The _Congregation_ had
determined to ruin him: his paper had been condemned, his printer's
licence had been taken from him. In these unfortunate circumstances he
ventured to write to M. de Renal for the first time in ten years. The
Mayor of Verrieres felt it incumbent on him to reply in the Ancient
Roman style: 'If the King's Minister did me the honour to consult me,
I should say to him: "Ruin without compunction all provincial
printers, and make printing a monopoly like the sale of tobacco."'
This letter to an intimate friend which had set the whole of Verrieres
marvelling at the time, M. de Renal now recalled, word for word, with
horror. 'Who would have said that with my rank, my fortune, my
Crosses, I should one day regret it?' It was in such transports of
anger, now against himself, now against all around him, that he passed
a night of anguish; but, fortunately, it did not occur to him to spy
upon his wife.

'I am used to Louise,' he said to himself, 'she knows all my affairs;
were I free to marry again tomorrow I could find no one fit to take
her place.' Next, he sought relief in the idea that his wife was
innocent; this point of view made it unnecessary for him to show his
strength of character, and was far more convenient; how many slandered
wives have we not all seen!

'But what!' he suddenly exclaimed, pacing the floor with a convulsive
step, 'am I to allow her, as though I were a man of straw, a mere
ragamuffin, to make a mock of me with her lover? Is the whole of
Verrieres to be allowed to sneer at my complacency? What have they not
said about Charmier?' (a notorious local cuckold). 'When he is
mentioned, is there not a smile on every face? He is a good pleader,
who is there that ever mentions his talent for public speaking? "Ah!
Charmier!" is what they say; "Bernard's Charmier." They actually give
him the name of the man that has disgraced him.

'Thank heaven,' said M. de Renal at other moments, 'I have no
daughter, and the manner in which I am going to punish their mother
will not damage the careers of my children; I can surprise that young
peasant with my wife, and kill the pair of them; in that event, the
tragic outcome of my misfortune may perhaps make it less absurd.' This
idea appealed to him: he worked it out in the fullest detail. 'The
Penal Code is on my side, and, whatever happens, our _Congregation_
and my friends on the jury will save me.' He examined his hunting
knife, which had a keen blade; but the thought of bloodshed frightened

'I might thrash this insolent tutor black and blue and turn him from
the house; but what a stir in Verrieres and, indeed, throughout the
Department!  After the suppression of Falcoz's paper, when his editor
came out of prison, I was instrumental in making him lose a place
worth six hundred francs. They say that the scribbler has dared to
show his face again in Besancon, he may easily attack me, and so
cunningly that it will be impossible to bring him to justice! That
insolent fellow will insinuate in a thousand ways that he has been
speaking the truth. A man of family, who respects his rank as I do, is
always hated by plebeians. I shall see myself in those frightful Paris
papers; my God! what degradation! To see the ancient name of Renal
plunged in the mire of ridicule ... If I ever travel, I shall have to
change my name; what! give up this name which is my pride and my
strength. What a crowning infamy!

'If I do not kill my wife, if I drive her from the house with
ignominy, she has her aunt at Besancon, who will hand over the whole
of her fortune to her on the quiet. My wife will go and live in Paris
with Julien; Verrieres will hear of it, and I shall again be regarded
as a dupe.' This unhappy man then perceived, from the failing light of
his lamp, that day was beginning to break. He went to seek a breath of
air in the garden. At that moment, he had almost made up his mind to
create no scene, chiefly because a scene of that sort would fill his
good friends at Verrieres with joy.

His stroll in the garden calmed him somewhat. 'No,' he cried, 'I shall
certainly not part with my wife, she is too useful to me.' He pictured
to himself with horror what his house would be like without his wife;
his sole female relative was the Marquise de R---- who was old,
idiotic and evil-minded.

An idea of the greatest good sense occurred to him, but to put it into
practice required a strength of character far exceeding the little
that the poor man possessed. 'If I keep my wife,' he said to himself;
'I know my own nature; one day, when she taxes my patience, I shall
reproach her with her offence. She is proud, we are bound to quarrel,
and all this will happen before she has inherited her aunt's estate.
And then, how they will all laugh at me! My wife loves her children,
it will all come to them in the end. But I, I shall be the talk of
Verrieres. What, they will say, he couldn't even punish his wife!
Would it not be better to stick to my suspicions and to verify
nothing? Then I tie my own hands, I cannot afterwards reproach her
with anything.'

A moment later M. de Renal, his wounded vanity once more gaining the
mastery, was laboriously recalling all the stories told in the
billiard-room of the Casino or Noble Club of Verrieres, when some
fluent talker interrupted the pool to make merry at the expense of
some cuckolded husband. How cruel, at that moment, those pleasantries

'God! Why is not my wife dead! Then I should be immune from ridicule.
Why am I not a widower! I should go and spend six months in Paris in
the best society.' After this momentary happiness caused by the idea
of widowhood, his imagination returned to the methods of ascertaining
the truth. Should he at midnight, after the whole household had gone
to bed, sprinkle a few handfuls of bran outside the door of Julien's
room? Next morning, at daybreak, he would see the footprints on it.

'But that would be no good,' he broke out angrily, 'that wretched
Elisa would notice it, and it would be all over the house at once that
I am jealous.'

In another story that circulated at the Casino, a husband had made
certain of his plight by fastening a hair with a little wax so as to
seal up the doors of his wife's room and her lover's.

After so many hours of vacillation, this method of obtaining
enlightenment seemed to him decidedly the best, and he was thinking of
adopting it, when at a bend in the path he came upon that wife whom he
would have liked to see dead.

She was returning from the village. She had gone to hear mass in the
church of Vergy. A tradition of extremely doubtful value in the eyes
of the cold philosopher, but one in which she believed, made out that
the little church now in use had been the chapel of the castle of the
Lord of Vergy. This thought obsessed Madame de Renal throughout the
time which she had meant to pass in prayer in this church. She kept on
picturing to herself her husband killing Julien during the chase, as
though by accident, and afterwards, that evening, making her eat his

'My fate,' she said to herself, 'depends on what he will think when he
hears me. After these terrible moments, perhaps I shall not find
another opportunity to speak to him. He is not a wise creature, swayed
by reason. I might, if he were, with the aid of my own feeble wits,
forecast what he would do or say.  But my fate lies in my cunning, in
the art of directing the thoughts of this whimsical creature, who
becomes blind with anger and incapable of seeing things.  Great God! I
require talent, coolness, where am I to find them?'

She recovered her calm as though by magic on entering the garden and
seeing her husband in the distance. The disorder of his hair and
clothes showed that he had not slept. She handed him a letter which,
though the seal was broken, was still folded. He, without opening it,
gazed at his wife with madness in his eyes.

'Here is an abomination,' she said to him, 'which an evil-looking man
who claims to know you and that you owe him a debt of gratitude,
handed to me as I came past the back of the lawyer's garden. One thing
I must ask of you, and that is that you send back to his own people,
and without delay, that Monsieur Julien.' Madame de Renal made haste
to utter this name, even beginning a little too soon perhaps, in order
to rid herself of the fearful prospect of having to utter it.

She was filled with joy on beholding the joy that it gave her husband.
>From the fixed stare which he directed at her she realised that Julien
had guessed aright. Instead of worrying about a very present trouble,
'what intelligence,' she thought to herself. 'What perfect tact! And
in a young man still quite devoid of experience! To what heights will
he not rise in time? Alas! Then his success will make him forget me.'

This little act of admiration of the man she adored completely
restored her composure.

She congratulated herself on the step she had taken. 'I have proved
myself not unworthy of Julien,' she said to herself, with a sweet and
secret relish.

Without saying a word, for fear of committing himself, M. de Renal
examined this second anonymous letter composed, as the reader may
remember, of printed words gummed upon a sheet of paper of a bluish
tinge. 'They are making a fool of me in every way,' M. de Renal said
to himself, utterly worn out.

'Fresh insults to be looked into, and all owing to my wife!' He was on
the point of deluging her with a stream of the coarsest invective; the
thought of the fortune awaiting her at Besancon just stopped him.
Overpowered by the necessity of venting his anger on something, he
tore up the sheet on which this second anonymous letter was gummed,
and strode rapidly away, feeling that he could not endure his wife's
company. A minute later, he returned to her, already more calm.

'We must take action at once and dismiss Julien,' she immediately
began; 'after all he is only the son of a working man. You can
compensate him with a few crowns, besides, he is clever and can easily
find another place, with M. Valenod, for instance, or the Sub-Prefect
Maugiron; they both have families. And so you will not be doing him
any harm ...'

'You speak like the fool that you are,' cried M. de Renal in a voice
of thunder. 'How can one expect common sense of a woman? You never pay
attention to what is reasonable; how should you have any knowledge?
Your carelessness, your laziness leave you just enough activity to
chase butterflies, feeble creatures which we are so unfortunate as to
have in our households ...'

Madame de Renal let him speak, and he spoke at length; he passed his
anger, as they say in those parts.

'Sir,' she answered him finally, 'I speak as a woman whose honour,
that is to say her most priceless possession, has been outraged.'

Madame de Renal preserved an unalterable calm throughout the whole of
this trying conversation, upon which depended the possibility of her
continuing to live beneath the same roof as Julien. She sought out the
ideas that seemed to her best fitted to guide her husband's blind
anger. She had remained unmoved by all the insulting remarks that he
had addressed to her, she did not hear them, she was thinking all the
time of Julien. 'Will he be pleased with me?'

'This little peasant upon whom we have lavished every attention,
including presents, may be innocent,' she said at length, 'but he is
none the less the occasion of the first insult I have ever received ...
Sir, when I read that abominable document, I vowed that either he
or I should leave your roof.'

'Do you wish to create a scandal that will dishonour me and yourself
as well? You'll be giving a fine treat to many people in Verrieres.'

'That is true; they are all jealous of the state of prosperity to
which your wise management has brought you, your family and the town ...
Very well, I shall go and bid Julien ask you for leave to spend a
month with that timber merchant in the mountain, a fit companion for
that little workman.'

'Take care what you do,' put in M. de Renal, calmly enough. 'The one
thing I must insist on is that you do not speak to him. You would show
temper and make him cross with me; you know how touchy the little
gentleman is.'

'That young man has no tact,' went on Madame de Renal; 'he may be
learned, you know about that, but at bottom he is nothing but a
peasant. For my own part, I have never had any opinion of him since he
refused to marry Elisa, it was a fortune ready made; and all because
now and again she pays a secret visit to M. Valenod.'

'Ah!' said M. de Renal, raising his eyebrows as far as they would go,
'what, did Julien tell you that?'

'No, not exactly; he has always spoken to me of the vocation that is
calling him to the sacred ministry; but believe me, the first vocation
for the lower orders is to find their daily bread. He made it fairly
clear to me that he was not unaware of these secret visits.'

'And I, I, knew nothing about them!' cried M. de Renal, all his fury
returning, emphasising every word. 'There are things going on in my
house of which I know nothing ... What! There has been something
between Elisa and Valenod?'

'Oh, that's an old story, my dear friend,' Madame de Renal said
laughing, 'and I daresay no harm was done. It was in the days when
your good friend Valenod would not have been sorry to have it thought
in Verrieres that there was a little love--of a purely platonic
sort--exchanged between him and me.'

'I had that idea at one time,' cried M. de Renal striking his head in
his fury as he advanced from one discovery to another, 'and you never
said a word to me about it?'

'Was I to make trouble between two friends all for a little outburst
of vanity on the part of our dear Governor? What woman is there in
society to whom he has not addressed one or more letters, extremely
witty and even a trifle gallant?'

'Has he written to you?'

'He writes frequently.'

'Show me his letters this instant, I order you'; and M. de Renal added
six feet to his stature.

'I shall do nothing of the sort,' the answer came in a tone so gentle
as to be almost indifferent, 'I shall let you see them some other day,
when you are more yourself.'

'This very instant, damn it!' cried M. de Renal, blind with rage, and
yet happier than he had been at any time in the last twelve hours.

'Will you swear to me,' said Madame de Renal solemnly, 'never to
quarrel with the Governor of the Poorhouse over these letters?'

'Quarrel or no quarrel, I can take the foundlings away from him; but,'
he continued, furiously, 'I want those letters this instant; where are

'In a drawer in my desk; but you may be certain, I shall not give you
the key of it.'

'I shall be able to force it,' he cried as he made off in the
direction of his wife's room.

He did indeed break open with an iron bar a valuable mahogany writing
desk, imported from Paris, which he used often to polish with the tail
of his coat when he thought he detected a spot on its surface.

Madame de Renal meanwhile had run up the hundred and twenty steps of
the dovecote; she knotted the corner of a white handkerchief to one of
the iron bars of the little window. She was the happiest of women.
With tears in her eyes she gazed out at the wooded slopes of the
mountain. 'Doubtless,' she said to herself, 'beneath one of those
spreading beeches, Julien is watching for this glad signal.' For long
she strained her ears, then cursed the monotonous drone of the
grasshoppers and the twitter of the birds. But for those tiresome
sounds, a cry of joy, issuing from among the rocks, might have reached
her in her tower. Her ravening gaze devoured that immense slope of
dusky verdure, unbroken as the surface of a meadow, that was formed by
the treetops. 'How is it he has not the sense,' she asked herself with
deep emotion, 'to think of some signal to tell me that his happiness
is no less than mine?' She came down from the dovecote only when she
began to be afraid that her husband might come up in search of her.

She found him foaming with rage. He was running through M. Valenod's
anodyne sentences, that were little used to being read with such

Seizing a moment in which a lull in her husband's exclamations gave
her a chance to make herself heard:

'I cannot get away from my original idea,' said Madame de Renal,
'Julien ought to go for a holiday. Whatever talent he may have for
Latin, he is nothing more, after all, than a peasant who is often
coarse and wanting in tact; every day, thinking he is being polite, he
plies me with extravagant compliments in the worst of taste, which he
learns by heart from some novel ...'

'He never reads any,' cried M. de Renal; 'I am positive as to that. Do
you suppose that I am a blind master who knows nothing of what goes on
under his roof?'

'Very well, if he doesn't read those absurd compliments anywhere, he
invents them, which is even worse. He will have spoken of me in that
tone in Verrieres; and, without going so far,' said Madame de Renal,
with the air of one making a discovery, 'he will have spoken like that
before Elisa, which is just as though he had spoken to M. Valenod.'

'Ah!' cried M. de Renal, making the table and the whole room shake
with one of the stoutest blows that human fist ever gave, 'the
anonymous letter in print and Valenod's letters were all on the same

'At last!' thought Madame de Renal; she appeared thunderstruck by this
discovery, and without having the courage to add a single word went
and sat down on the divan, at the farther end of the room.

The battle was now won; she had her work cut out to prevent M. de
Renal from going and talking to the supposed author of the anonymous

'How is it you do not feel that to make a scene, without sufficient
proof, with M. Valenod would be the most deplorable error? If you are
envied, Sir, who is to blame? Your own talents: your wise
administration, the buildings you have erected with such good taste,
the dowry I brought you, and above all the considerable fortune we may
expect to inherit from my worthy aunt, a fortune the extent of which
is vastly exaggerated, have made you the principal person in

'You forget my birth,' said M. de Renal, with a faint smile.

'You are one of the most distinguished gentlemen in the province,'
Madame de Renal hastily added; 'if the King were free and could do
justice to birth, you would doubtless be figuring in the House of
Peers,' and so forth. 'And in this magnificent position do you seek to
provide jealousy with food for comment?

'To speak to M. Valenod of his anonymous letter is to proclaim
throughout Verrieres, or rather in Besancon, throughout the Province,
that this petty cit, admitted perhaps imprudently to the friendship of
a Renal, has found out a way to insult him. Did these letters which
you have just discovered prove that I had responded to M. Valenod's
overtures, then it would be for you to kill me, I should have deserved
it a hundred times, but not to show anger with him. Think that all
your neighbours only await a pretext to be avenged for your
superiority; think that in 1816 you were instrumental in securing
certain arrests. That man who took refuge on your roof ...'

'What I think is that you have neither respect nor affection for me,'
shouted M. de Renal with all the bitterness that such a memory
aroused, 'and I have not been made a Peer!'

'I think, my friend,' put in Madame de Renal with a smile, 'that I
shall one day be richer than you, that I have been your companion for
twelve years, and that on all these counts I ought to have a voice in
your councils, especially in this business today. If you prefer
Monsieur Julien to me,' she added with ill-concealed scorn, 'I am
prepared to go and spend the winter with my aunt.'

This threat was uttered _with gladness_. It contained the firmness
which seeks to cloak itself in courtesy; it determined M. de Renal.
But, obeying the provincial custom, he continued to speak for a long
time, harked back to every argument in turn; his wife allowed him to
speak, there was still anger in his tone. At length, two hours of
futile discourse wore out the strength of a man who had been helpless
with rage all night. He determined upon the line of conduct which he
was going to adopt towards M. Valenod, Julien, and even Elisa.

Once or twice, during this great scene, Madame de Renal came within an
ace of feeling a certain sympathy for the very real distress of this
man who for ten years had been her friend. But our true passions are
selfish.  Moreover she was expecting every moment an avowal of the
anonymous letter which he had received overnight, and this avowal
never came. To gain complete confidence, Madame de Renal required to
know what ideas might have been suggested to the man upon whom her
fate depended. For, in the country, husbands control public opinion. A
husband who denounces his wife covers himself with ridicule, a thing
that every day is becoming less dangerous in France; but his wife, if
he does not supply her with money, declines to the position of a
working woman at fifteen sous daily, and even then the virtuous souls
have scruples about employing her.

An odalisque in the seraglio may love the Sultan with all her heart;
he is all powerful, she has no hope of evading his authority by a
succession of clever little tricks. The master's vengeance is
terrible, bloody, but martial and noble: a dagger blow ends
everything. It is with blows dealt by public contempt that a husband
kills his wife in the nineteenth century; it is by shutting the doors
of all the drawing-rooms in her face.

The sense of danger was keenly aroused in Madame de Renal on her
return to her own room; she was horrified by the disorder in which she
found it. The locks of all her pretty little boxes had been broken;
several planks in the floor had been torn up. 'He would have been
without pity for me!' she told herself. 'To spoil so this floor of
coloured parquet, of which he is so proud; when one of his children
comes in with muddy shoes, he flushes with rage. And now it is ruined
for ever!' The sight of this violence rapidly silenced the last
reproaches with which she had been blaming herself for her too rapid

Shortly before the dinner bell sounded, Julien returned with the
children.  At dessert, when the servants had left the room, Madame de
Renal said to him very drily:

'You expressed the desire to me to go and spend a fortnight at
Verrieres; M. de Renal is kind enough to grant you leave. You can go
as soon as you please. But, so that the children shall not waste any
time, their lessons will be sent to you every day, for you to

'Certainly,' M. de Renal added in a most bitter tone, 'I shall not
allow you more than a week.'

Julien read in his features the uneasiness of a man in cruel torment.

'He has not yet come to a decision,' he said to his mistress, during a
moment of solitude in the drawing-room.

Madame de Renal informed him rapidly of all that she had done since
the morning.

'The details tonight,' she added laughing.

'The perversity of woman!' thought Julien. 'What pleasure, what
instinct leads them to betray us?

'I find you at once enlightened and blinded by your love,' he said to
her with a certain coldness; 'your behaviour today has been admirable;
but is there any prudence in our attempting to see each other tonight?
This house is paved with enemies; think of the passionate hatred that
Elisa has for me.'

'That hatred greatly resembles the passionate indifference that you
must have for me.'

'Indifferent or not, I am bound to save you from a peril into which I
have plunged you. If chance decrees that M. de Renal speaks to Elisa,
by a single word she may disclose everything to him. What is to
prevent him from hiding outside my room, well armed ...'

'What! Lacking in courage even!' said Madame de Renal, with all the
pride of a woman of noble birth.

'I shall never sink so low as to speak of my courage,' said Julien
coldly, 'that is mean. Let the world judge by my actions. But,' he
went on, taking her hand, 'you cannot conceive how attached I am to
you, and what a joy it is to me to be able to take leave of you before
this cruel parting.'

Manners and Customs in 1830

  Speech was given to man to enable him to conceal his thoughts.

The first thing that Julien did on arriving in Verrieres was to
reproach himself for his unfairness to Madame de Renal. 'I should have
despised her as a foolish woman if from weakness she had failed to
bring off the scene with M. de Renal! She carried it through like a
diplomat, and my sympathies are with the loser, who is my enemy. There
is a streak of middle-class pettiness in my nature; my vanity is hurt,
because M. de Renal is a man!  That vast and illustrous corporation to
which I have the honour to belong; I am a perfect fool.'

M. Chelan had refused the offers of hospitality which the most
respected Liberals of the place had vied with one another in making
him, when his deprivation drove him from the presbytery. The pair of
rooms which he had taken were littered with his books. Julien, wishing
to show Verrieres what it meant to be a priest, went and fetched from
his father's store a dozen planks of firwood, which he carried on his
back the whole length of the main street. He borrowed some tools from
an old friend and had soon constructed a sort of bookcase in which he
arranged M. Chelan's library.

'I supposed you to have been corrupted by the vanity of the world,'
said the old man, shedding tears of joy; 'this quite redeems the
childishness of that dazzling guard of honour uniform which made you
so many enemies.'

M. de Renal had told Julien to put up in his house. No one had any
suspicion of what had happened. On the third day after his arrival,
there came up to his room no less a personage than the Sub-Prefect, M.
de Maugiron. It was only after two solid hours of insipid
tittle-tattle, and long jeremiads on the wickedness of men, on the
lack of honesty in the people entrusted with the administration of
public funds, on the dangers besetting poor France, etc., etc., that
Julien saw him come at length to the purpose of his visit. They were
already on the landing, and the poor tutor, on the verge of disgrace,
was ushering out with all due respect the future Prefect of some
fortunate Department, when it pleased the latter gentleman to occupy
himself with Julien's career, to praise his moderation where his own
interests were concerned, etc., etc. Finally M. de Maugiron, taking
him in his arms in the most fatherly manner, suggested to him that he
should leave M. de Renal and enter the household of an official who
had children to educate, and who, like King Philip, would thank
heaven, not so much for having given him them as for having caused
them to be born in the neighbourhood of M. Julien. Their tutor would
receive a salary of eight hundred francs, payable not month by month,
'which is not noble,' said M. de Maugiron, but quarterly, and in
advance to boot.

It was now the turn of Julien who, for an hour and a half, had been
waiting impatiently for an opportunity to speak. His reply was
perfect, and as long as a pastoral charge; it let everything be
understood, and at the same time said nothing definite. A listener
would have found in it at once respect for M. de Renal, veneration for
the people of Verrieres and gratitude towards the illustrious
Sub-Prefect. The said Sub-Prefect, astonished at finding a bigger
Jesuit than himself, tried in vain to obtain something positive.
Julien, overjoyed, seized the opportunity to try his skill and began
his answer over again in different terms. Never did the most eloquent
Minister, seeking to monopolise the last hours of a sitting when the
Chamber seems inclined to wake up, say less in more words. As soon as
M. de Maugiron had left him, Julien broke out in helpless laughter. To
make the most of his Jesuitical bent, he wrote a letter of nine pages
to M. de Renal, in which he informed him of everything that had been
said to him, and humbly asked his advice. 'Why, that rascal never even
told me the name of the person who is making the offer! It will be M.
Valenod, who sees in my banishment to Verrieres the effect of his
anonymous letter.'

His missive dispatched, Julien, as happy as a hunter who at six in the
morning on a fine autumn day emerges upon a plain teeming with game,
went out to seek the advice of M. Chelan. But before he arrived at the
good cure's house, heaven, which was anxious to shower its blessings
on him, threw him into the arms of M. Valenod, from whom he did not
conceal the fact that his heart was torn; a penniless youth like
himself was bound to devote himself entirely to the vocation which
heaven had placed in his heart, but a vocation was not everything in
this vile world. To be a worthy labourer in the Lord's vineyard, and
not to be altogether unworthy of all one's learned fellow-labourers,
one required education; one required to spend in the seminary at
Besancon two very expensive years; it became indispensable, therefore,
to save money, which was considerably easier with a salary of eight
hundred francs paid quarterly, than with six hundred francs which
melted away month by month. On the other hand, did not heaven, by
placing him with the Renal boys, and above all by inspiring in him a
particular attachment to them, seem to indicate to him that it would
be a mistake to abandon this form of education for another? ...

Julien arrived at such a pitch of perfection in this kind of
eloquence, which has taken the place of the swiftness of action of the
Empire, that he ended by growing tired of the sound of his own voice.

Returning to the house he found one of M. Valenod's servants in full
livery, who had been looking for him all over the town, with a note
inviting him to dinner that very day.

Never had Julien set foot in the man's house; only a few days earlier,
his chief thought was how he might give him a thorough good thrashing
without subsequent action by the police. Although dinner was not to be
until one o'clock, Julien thought it more respectful to present
himself at half past twelve in the study of the Governor of the
Poorhouse. He found him displaying his importance amid a mass of
papers. His huge black whiskers, his enormous quantity of hair, his
night-cap poised askew on the top of his head, his immense pipe, his
embroidered slippers, the heavy gold chains slung across his chest in
every direction, and all the equipment of a provincial financier, who
imagines himself to be a ladies' man, made not the slightest
impression upon Julien; he only thought all the more of the thrashing
that he owed him.

He craved the honour of being presented to Madame Valenod; she was
making her toilet and could not see him. To make up for this, he had
the privilege of witnessing that of the Governor of the Poorhouse.
They then proceeded to join Madame Valenod, who presented her children
to him with tears in her eyes. This woman, one of the most important
people in Verrieres, had a huge masculine face, which she had
plastered with rouge for this great ceremony.  She displayed all the
pathos of maternal feelings.

Julien thought of Madame de Renal. His distrustful nature made him
scarcely susceptible to any memories save those that are evoked by
contrast, but such memories moved him to tears. This tendency was
increased by the sight of the Governor's house. He was taken through
it. Everything in it was sumptuous and new, and he was told the price
of each article. But Julien felt that there was something mean about
it, a taint of stolen money.  Everyone, even the servants, wore a bold
air that seemed to be fortifying them against contempt.

The collector of taxes, the receiver of customs, the chief constable
and two or three other public officials arrived with their wives. They
were followed by several wealthy Liberals. Dinner was announced.
Julien, already in the worst of humours, suddenly reflected that on
the other side of the dining-room wall there were wretched prisoners,
whose rations of meat had perhaps been squeezed to purchase all this
tasteless splendour with which his hosts sought to dazzle him.

'They are hungry perhaps at this moment,' he said to himself; his
throat contracted, he found it impossible to eat and almost to speak.
It was much worse a quarter of an hour later; they could hear in the
distance a few snatches of a popular and, it must be admitted, not too
refined song which one of the inmates was singing. M. Valenod glanced
at one of his men in full livery, who left the room, and presently the
sound of singing ceased.  At that moment, a footman offered Julien
some Rhine wine in a green glass, and Madame Valenod took care to
inform him that this wine cost nine francs the bottle, direct from the
grower. Julien, the green glass in his hand, said to M. Valenod:

'I don't hear that horrid song any more.'

'Gad! I should think not, indeed,' replied the Governor triumphantly.
'I've made the rascal shut up.'

This was too much for Julien; he had acquired the manners but had not
yet the heart appropriate to his station. Despite all his hypocrisy,
which he kept in such constant practice, he felt a large tear trickle
down his cheek.

He tried to hide it with the green glass, but it was simply impossible
for him to do honour to the Rhine wine. 'Stop the man singing!' he
murmured to himself, 'O my God, and Thou permittest it!'

Fortunately for him, no one noticed his ill-bred emotion. The
collector of taxes had struck up a royalist ditty. During the clamour
of the refrain, sung in chorus: 'There,' Julien's conscience warned
him, 'you have the sordid fortune which you will achieve, and you will
enjoy it only in these conditions and in such company as this! You
will have a place worth perhaps twenty thousand francs, but it must be
that while you gorge to repletion you stop the poor prisoner from
singing; you will give dinner parties with the money you have filched
from his miserable pittance, and during your dinner he will be more
wretched still! O Napoleon! How pleasant it was in your time to climb
to fortune through the dangers of a battle; but meanly to intensify
the sufferings of the wretched!'

I admit that the weakness which Julien displays in this monologue
gives me a poor opinion of him. He would be a worthy colleague for
those conspirators in yellow gloves, who profess to reform all the
conditions of life in a great country, and would be horrified at
having to undergo the slightest inconvenience themselves.

Julien was sharply recalled to his proper part. It was not that he
might dream and say nothing that he had been invited to dine in such
good company.

A retired calico printer, a corresponding member of the Academy of
Besancon and of that of Uzes, was speaking to him, down the whole
length of the table, inquiring whether all that was commonly reported
as to his astonishing prowess in the study of the New Testament was

A profound silence fell instantly; a New Testament appeared as though
by magic in the hands of the learned member of the two academies.
Julien having answered in the affirmative, a few words in Latin were
read out to him at random. He began to recite: his memory did not
betray him, and this prodigy was admired with all the noisy energy of
the end of a dinner.  Julien studied the glowing faces of the women.
Several of them were not ill-looking. He had made out the wife of the
collector who sang so well.

'Really, I am ashamed to go on speaking Latin so long before these
ladies,' he said, looking at her. 'If M. Rubigneau' (this was the
member of the two academies) 'will be so good as to read out any
sentence in Latin, instead of going on with the Latin text, I shall
endeavour to improvise a translation.'

This second test set the crown of glory on his achievement.

There were in the room a number of Liberals, men of means, but the
happy fathers of children who were capable of winning bursaries, and
in this capacity suddenly converted after the last Mission. Despite
this brilliant stroke of policy, M. de Renal had never consented to
have them in his house. These worthy folk, who knew Julien only by
reputation and from having seen him on horseback on the day of the
King of ----'s visit, were his most vociferous admirers. 'When will
these fools tire of listening to this Biblical language, of which they
understand nothing?' he thought. On the contrary, this language amused
them by its unfamiliarity; they laughed at it. But Julien had grown

He rose gravely as six o'clock struck and mentioned a chapter of the
new theology of Liguori, which he had to learn by heart in order to
repeat it next day to M. Chelan. 'For my business,' he added
pleasantly, 'is to make other people repeat lessons, and to repeat
them myself.'

His audience laughed heartily and applauded; this is the kind of wit
that goes down at Verrieres. Julien was by this time on his feet,
everyone else rose, regardless of decorum; such is the power of
genius. Madame Valenod kept him for a quarter of an hour longer; he
really must hear the children repeat their catechism; they made the
most absurd mistakes which he alone noticed. He made no attempt to
correct them. 'What ignorance of the first principles of religion,' he
thought. At length he said good-bye and thought that he might escape;
but the children must next attempt one of La Fontaine's Fables.

'That author is most immoral,' Julien said to Madame Valenod; 'in one
of his Fables on Messire Jean Chouart, he has ventured to heap
ridicule on all that is most venerable. He is strongly reproved by the
best commentators.'

Before leaving the house Julien received four or five invitations to
dinner. 'This young man does honour to the Department,' his
fellow-guests, in great hilarity, were all exclaiming at once. They
went so far as to speak of a pension voted out of the municipal funds,
to enable him to continue his studies in Paris.

While this rash idea was making the dining-room ring, Julien had
stolen away to the porch. 'Oh, what scum! What scum!' he murmured
three or four times, as he treated himself to the pleasure of drinking
in the fresh air.

He felt himself a thorough aristocrat for the moment, he who for long
had been so shocked by the disdainful smile and the haughty
superiority which he found lurking behind all the compliments that
were paid him at M. de Renal's. He could not help feeling the extreme
difference. 'Even if we forget,' he said to himself as he walked away,
'that the money has been stolen from the poor prisoners, and that they
are forbidden to sing as well, would it ever occur to M. de Renal to
tell his guests the price of each bottle of wine that he offers them?
And this M. Valenod, in going over the list of his property, which he
does incessantly, cannot refer to his house, his land and all the rest
of it, if his wife is present, without saying your house, your land.'

This lady, apparently so conscious of the joy of ownership, had just
made an abominable scene, during dinner, with a servant who had broken
a wineglass and spoiled one of her sets; and the servant had answered
her with the most gross insolence.

'What a household!' thought Julien; 'if they were to give me half of
all  the money they steal, I wouldn't live among them. One fine day I
should give myself away; I should be unable to keep back the contempt
they inspire in me.'

He was obliged, nevertheless, obeying Madame de Renal's orders, to
attend several dinners of this sort; Julien was the fashion; people
forgave him his uniform and the guard of honour, or rather that
imprudent display was the true cause of his success. Soon, the only
question discussed in Verrieres was who would be successful in the
struggle to secure the learned young man's services, M. de Renal or
the Governor of the Poorhouse. These two gentlemen formed with M.
Maslon a triumvirate which for some years past had tyrannised the
town. People were jealous of the Mayor, the Liberals had grounds for
complaint against him; but after all he was noble and created to fill
a superior station, whereas M. Valenod's father had not left him an
income of six hundred livres. He had been obliged to pass from the
stage of being pitied for the shabby apple-green coat in which
everybody remembered him in his younger days to that of being envied
for his Norman horses, his gold chains, the clothes he ordered from
Paris, in short, all his present prosperity.

In the welter of this world so new to Julien he thought he had
discovered an honest man; this was a geometrician, was named Gros and
was reckoned a Jacobin. Julien, having made a vow never to say
anything except what he himself believed to be false, was obliged to
make a show of being suspicious of M. Gros. He received from Vergy
large packets of exercises.  He was advised to see much of his father,
and complied with this painful necessity. In a word, he was quite
redeeming his reputation, when one morning he was greatly surprised to
find himself awakened by a pair of hands which were clapped over his

It was Madame de Renal who had come in to town and, running upstairs
four steps at a time and leaving her children occupied with a
favourite rabbit that they had brought with them, had reached Julien's
room a minute in advance of them. The moment was delicious but all too
brief: Madame de Renal had vanished when the children arrived with
the rabbit, which they wanted to show to their friend. Julien welcomed
them all, including the rabbit. He seemed to be once more one of a
family party; he felt that he loved these children, that it amused him
to join in their chatter. He was amazed by the sweetness of their
voices, the simplicity and nobility of their manners; he required to
wash his imagination clean of all the vulgar behaviour, all the
unpleasant thoughts the atmosphere of which he had to breathe at
Verrieres. There was always the dread of bankruptcy, wealth and
poverty were always fighting for the upper hand. The people with whom
he dined, in speaking of the joint on their table, made confidences
humiliating to themselves, and nauseating to their hearers.

'You aristocrats, you have every reason to be proud,' he said to
Madame de Renal. And he told her of all the dinners he had endured.

'Why, so you are in the fashion!' And she laughed heartily at the
thought of the rouge which Madame Valenod felt herself obliged to put
on whenever she expected Julien. 'I believe she has designs on your
heart,' she added.

Luncheon was a joy. The presence of the children, albeit apparently a
nuisance, increased as a matter of fact the general enjoyment. These
poor children did not know how to express their delight at seeing
Julien again.  The servants had not failed to inform them that he was
being offered two hundred francs more to educate the little Valenods.

In the middle of luncheon, Stanislas Xavier, still pale after his
serious illness, suddenly asked his mother what was the value of his
silver spoon and fork and of the mug out of which he was drinking.

'Why do you want to know?'

'I want to sell them to give the money to M. Julien, so that he shan't
be a _dupe_ to stay with us.'

Julien embraced him, the tears standing in his eyes. The mother wept
outright, while Julien, who had taken Stanislas on his knees,
explained to him that he must not use the word _dupe_, which, employed
in that sense, was a servant's expression. Seeing the pleasure he was
giving Madame de Renal, he tried to explain, by picturesque examples,
which amused the children, what was meant by a dupe.

'I understand,' said Stanislas, 'it's the crow who is silly and drops
his cheese, which is picked up by the fox, who is a flatterer.'

Madame de Renal, wild with joy, smothered her children in kisses,
which she could hardly do without leaning slightly upon Julien.

Suddenly the door opened; it was M. de Renal. His stern, angry face
formed a strange contrast with the innocent gaiety which his presence
banished.  Madame de Renal turned pale; she felt herself incapable of
denying anything. Julien seized the opportunity and, speaking very
loud, began to tell the Mayor the incident of the silver mug which
Stanislas wanted to sell. He was sure that this story would be ill
received. At the first word M. de Renal frowned, from force of habit
at the mere name of silver. 'The mention of that metal,' he would say,
'is always a preliminary to some call upon my purse.'

But here there was more than money at stake; there was an increase of
his suspicions. The air of happiness which animated his family in his
absence was not calculated to improve matters with a man dominated by
so sensitive a vanity. When his wife praised the graceful and witty
manner in which Julien imparted fresh ideas to his pupils:

'Yes, yes, I know, he is making me odious to my children; it is very
easy for him to be a hundred times pleasanter to them than I, who am,
after all, the master. Everything tends in these days to bring
_lawful_ authority into contempt. Unhappy France!'

Madame de Renal did not stop to examine the implications of her
husband's manner. She had just seen the possibility of spending twelve
hours in Julien's company. She had any number of purchases to make in
the town, and declared that she absolutely must dine in a tavern; in
spite of anything her husband might say or do, she clung to her idea.
The children were in ecstasies at the mere word tavern, which modern
prudery finds such pleasure in pronouncing.

M. de Renal left his wife in the first linen-draper's shop that she
entered, to go and pay some calls. He returned more gloomy than in the
morning; he was convinced that the whole town was thinking about
nothing but himself and Julien. As a matter of fact, no one had as yet
allowed him to form any suspicion of the offensive element in the
popular comments.  Those that had been repeated to the Mayor had dealt
exclusively with the question whether Julien would remain with him at
six hundred francs or would accept the eight hundred francs offered by
the Governor of the Poorhouse.

The said Governor, when he met M. de Renal in society, gave him the
cold shoulder. His behaviour was not without a certain subtlety; there
is not much thoughtless action in the provinces: sensations are so
infrequent there that people suppress them.

M. Valenod was what is called, a hundred leagues from Paris, a
_faraud_; this is a species marked by coarseness and natural
effrontery. His triumphant existence, since 1815, had confirmed him in
his habits. He reigned, so to speak, at Verrieres, under the orders of
M. de Renal; but being far more active, blushing at nothing,
interfering in everything, everlastingly going about, writing,
speaking, forgetting humiliations, having no personal pretensions, he
had succeeded in equalling the credit of his Mayor in the eyes of
ecclesiastical authority. M. Valenod had as good as told the grocers
of the place: 'Give me the two biggest fools among you'; the lawyers:
'Point me out the two most ignorant'; the officers of health: 'Let me
have your two biggest rascals.' When he had collected the most
shameless representatives of each profession, he had said to them:
'Let us reign together.'

The manners of these men annoyed M. de Renal. Valenod's coarse nature
was offended by nothing, not even when the young abbe Maslon gave him
the lie direct in public.

But, in the midst of this prosperity, M. Valenod was obliged to
fortify himself by little insolences in points of detail against the
harsh truths which he was well aware that everyone was entitled to
address to him. His activity had multiplied since the alarms which M.
Appert's visit had left in its wake. He had made three journeys to
Besancon; he wrote several letters for each mail; he sent others by
unknown messengers who came to his house at nightfall. He had been
wrong perhaps in securing the deprivation of the old cure Chelan; for
this vindictive action had made him be regarded, by several pious
ladies of good birth, as a profoundly wicked man. Moreover this
service rendered had placed him in the absolute power of the
Vicar-General de Frilair, from whom he received strange orders. He had
reached this stage in his career when he yielded to the pleasure of
writing an anonymous letter. To add to his embarrassment, his wife
informed him that she wished to have Julien in the house; the idea
appealed to her vanity.

In this situation, M. Valenod foresaw a final rupture with his former
confederate M. de Renal. The Mayor would address him in harsh
language, which mattered little enough to him; but he might write to
Besancon, or even to Paris. A cousin of some Minister or other might
suddenly descend upon Verrieres and take over the Governorship of the
Poorhouse. M. Valenod thought of making friends with the Liberals; it
was for this reason that several of them were invited to the dinner at
which Julien recited. He would find powerful support there against the
Mayor. But an election might come, and it went without saying that the
Poorhouse and a vote for the wrong party were incompatible. The
history of these tactics, admirably divined by Madame de Renal, had
been imparted to Julien while he gave her his arm to escort her from
one shop to another, and little by little had carried them to the
Cours de la Fidelite, where they spent some hours, almost as peaceful
as the hours at Vergy.

At this period, M. Valenod was seeking to avoid a final rupture with
his former chief, by himself adopting a bold air towards him. On the
day of which we treat, this system proved successful, but increased
the Mayor's ill humour.

Never can vanity, at grips with all the nastiest and shabbiest
elements of a petty love of money, have plunged a man in a more
wretched state than that in which M. de Renal found himself, at the
moment of his entering the tavern. Never, on the contrary, had his
children been gayer or more joyful.  The contrast goaded him to fury.

'I am not wanted in my own family, so far as I can see!' he said as he
entered, in a tone which he sought to make imposing.

By way of reply, his wife drew him aside and explained to him the
necessity of getting rid of Julien. The hours of happiness she had
just enjoyed had given her back the ease and resolution necessary for
carrying out the plan of conduct which she had been meditating for the
last fortnight. What really and completely dismayed the poor Mayor of
Verrieres was that he knew that people joked publicly in the town at
the expense of his attachment to _hard cash_: M. Valenod was as
generous as a robber, whereas he had shown himself in a prudent rather
than a brilliant light in the last five or six subscription lists for
the Confraternity of Saint Joseph, the Congregation of Our Lady, the
Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament, and so forth.

Among the country gentlemen of Verrieres and the neighbourhood,
skilfully classified in the lists compiled by the collecting Brethren,
according to the amount of their offerings, the name of M. de Renal
had more than once been seen figuring upon the lowest line. In vain
might he protest that he _earned nothing_. The clergy allow no joking
on that subject.

The Sorrows of an Official

  Il piacere di alzar la testa tutto l'anno e ben pagato da certi quarti
  d'ora che bisogna passar.

But let us leave this little man to his little fears; why has he taken
into his house a man of feeling, when what he required was the soul of
a flunkey? Why does he not know how to select his servants? The
ordinary procedure of the nineteenth century is that when a powerful
and noble personage encounters a man of feeling, he kills, exiles,
imprisons or so humiliates him that the other, like a fool, dies of
grief. In this instance it so happens that it is not yet the man of
feeling who suffers. The great misfortune of the small towns of France
and of elected governments, like that of New York, is an inability to
forget that there exist in the world persons like M. de Renal. In a
town of twenty thousand inhabitants, these men form public opinion,
and public opinion is a terrible force in a country that has the
Charter. A man endowed with a noble soul, of generous instincts, who
would have been your friend did he not live a hundred leagues away,
judges you by the public opinion of your town, which is formed by the
fools whom chance has made noble, rich and moderate. Woe to him who
distinguishes himself!

Immediately after dinner, they set off again for Vergy; but, two days
later, Julien saw the whole family return to Verrieres.

An hour had not gone by before, greatly to his surprise, he discovered
that Madame de Renal was making a mystery of something. She broke off
her conversations with her husband as soon as he appeared, and seemed
almost to wish him to go away. Julien did not wait to be told twice.
He became cold and reserved; Madame de Renal noticed this, and did not
seek an explanation. 'Is she going to provide me with a successor?'
thought Julien.  'Only the day before yesterday, she was so intimate
with me! But they say that this is how great ladies behave.  They are
like kings, no one receives so much attention as the minister who, on
going home, finds the letter announcing his dismissal.'

Julien remarked that in these conversations, which ceased abruptly on
his approach, there was frequent mention of a big house belonging to
the municipality of Verrieres, old, but large and commodious, and
situated opposite the church, in the most valuable quarter of the
town. 'What connection can there be between that house and a new
lover?' Julien asked himself. In his distress of mind, he repeated to
himself those charming lines of Francois I, which seemed to him new,
because it was not a month since Madame de Renal had taught them to
him. At that time, by how many vows, by how many caresses had not each
line been proved false!

  Souvent femme varie
  Bien fol est qui s'y fie.

M. de Renal set off by post for Besancon. This journey was decided
upon at two hours' notice, he seemed greatly troubled. On his return,
he flung a large bundle wrapped in grey paper on the table.

'So much for that stupid business,' he said to his wife.

An hour later, Julien saw the bill-sticker carrying off this large
bundle; he followed him hastily. 'I shall learn the secret at the
first street corner.'

He waited impatiently behind the bill-sticker, who with his fat brush
was slapping paste on the back of the bill. No sooner was it in its
place than Julien's curiosity read on it the announcement in full
detail of the sale by public auction of the lease of that large and
old house which recurred so frequently in M. de Renal's conversations
with his wife. The assignation was announced for the following day at
two o'clock, in the town hall, on the extinction of the third light.
Julien was greatly disappointed; he considered the interval to be
rather short: how could all the possible bidders come to know of the
sale in time? But apart from this, the bill, which was dated a
fortnight earlier and which he read from beginning to end in three
different places, told him nothing.

He went to inspect the vacant house. The porter, who did not see him
approach, was saying mysteriously to a friend:

'Bah! It's a waste of time. M. Maslon promised him he should have it
for three hundred francs; and as the Mayor kicked, he was sent to the
Bishop's Palace, by the Vicar-General de Frilair.'

Julien's appearance on the scene seemed greatly to embarrass the two
cronies, who did not say another word.

Julien did not fail to attend the auction. There was a crowd of people
in an ill-lighted room; but everyone eyed his neighbours in a singular
fashion. Every eye was fixed on a table, where Julien saw, on a pewter
plate, three lighted candle-ends. The crier was shouting: 'Three
hundred francs, gentlemen!'

'Three hundred francs! It is too bad!' one man murmured to another.
Julien was standing between them. 'It is worth more than eight
hundred; I am going to cover the bid.'

'It's cutting off your nose to spite your face. What are you going to
gain by bringing M. Maslon, M. Valenod, the Bishop, his terrible
Vicar-General de Frilair and the whole of their gang down upon you?'

'Three hundred and twenty,' the other shouted.

'Stupid idiot!' retorted his neighbour. 'And here's one of the Mayor's
spies,' he added pointing at Julien.

Julien turned sharply to rebuke him for this speech; but the two
Franc-Comtois paid no attention to him. Their coolness restored his
own. At this moment the last candle-end went out, and the drawling
voice of the crier assigned the house for a lease of nine years to M.
de Saint-Giraud, chief secretary at the Prefecture of ----, and for
three hundred and thirty francs.

As soon as the Mayor had left the room, the discussion began.

'That's thirty francs Grogeot's imprudence has earned for the town,'
said one.

'But M. de Saint-Giraud,' came the answer, 'will have his revenge on
Grogeot, he will pass it on.'

'What a scandal,' said a stout man on Julien's left: 'a house for
which I'ld have given, myself, eight hundred francs as a factory, and
then it would have been a bargain.'

'Bah!' replied a young Liberal manufacturer, 'isn't M. de Saint-Giraud
one of the _Congregation_? Haven't his four children all got bursaries?
Poor man!  The town of Verrieres is simply bound to increase his
income with an allowance of five hundred francs; that is all.'

'And to think that the Mayor hasn't been able to stop it!' remarked a
third. 'For he may be an Ultra, if you like, but he's not a thief.'

'He's not a thief?' put in another; 'it's a regular thieves' kitchen.
Everything goes into a common fund, and is divided up at the end of
the year. But there's young Sorel; let us get away.'

Julien went home in the worst of tempers; he found Madame de Renal
greatly depressed.

'Have you come from the sale?' she said to him.

'Yes, Ma'am, where I had the honour to be taken for the Mayor's spy.'

'If he had taken my advice, he would have gone away somewhere.'

At that moment, M. de Renal appeared; he was very sombre. Dinner was
eaten in silence. M. de Renal told Julien to accompany the children to
Vergy; they travelled in unbroken gloom. Madame de Renal tried to
comfort her husband.

'Surely you are accustomed to it, my dear.'

That evening, they were seated in silence round the domestic hearth;
the crackle of the blazing beech logs was their sole distraction. It
was one of those moments of depression which are to be found in the
most united families. One of the children uttered a joyful cry.

'There's the bell! The bell!'

'Egad, if it's M. de Saint-Giraud come to get hold of me, on the
excuse of thanking me, I shall give him a piece of my mind; it's too
bad. It's Valenod that he has to thank, and it is I who am
compromised. What am I going to say if those pestilent Jacobin
papers get hold of the story, and make me out a M. Nonante-Cinq?'
[Footnote by C. K. S. M.:  M. Marsan explains this allusion to a
satire by Barthelemy at the expense of the Marseilles magistrate
Merindol, who in sentencing him to a fine had made use of the
Common Southern expression 'Nonante-cinq' for 'Quatre-vingt-quinze.]

A good-looking man, with bushy black whiskers, entered the room at
this moment in the wake of the servant.

'M. le Maire, I am Signor Geronimo. Here is a letter which M. le
Chevalier de Beauvaisis, attache at the Embassy at Naples, gave me for
you when I came away; it is only nine days ago,' Signor Geronimo
added, with a sprightly air, looking at Madame de Renal. 'Signor de
Beauvaisis, your cousin, and my good friend, Madame, tells me that
you know Italian.'

The good humour of the Neapolitan changed this dull evening into one
that was extremely gay. Madame de Renal insisted upon his taking
supper. She turned the whole house upside down; she wished at all
costs to distract Julien's thoughts from the description of him as a
spy which twice in that day he had heard ringing in his ear. Signer
Geronimo was a famous singer, a man used to good company, and at the
same time the best of company himself, qualities which, in France,
have almost ceased to be compatible. He sang after supper a little
duet with Madame de Renal. He told charming stories. At one o'clock in
the morning the children protested when Julien proposed that they
should go to bed.

'Just this story,' said the eldest.

'It is my own, Signorino,' replied Signer Geronimo. 'Eight years ago I
was, like you, a young scholar in the Conservatorio of Naples, by
which I mean that I was your age; for I had not the honour to be the
son of the eminent Mayor of the beautiful town of Verrieres.'

This allusion drew a sigh from M. de Renal, who looked at his wife.

'Signer Zingarelli,' went on the young singer, speaking with a
slightly exaggerated accent which made the children burst out
laughing, 'Signor Zingarelli is an exceedingly severe master. He is
not loved at the Conservatorio; but he makes them act always as though
they loved him. I escaped whenever I could; I used to go to the little
theatre of San Carlino, where I used to hear music fit for the gods:
but, O heavens, how was I to scrape together the eight soldi which
were the price of admission to the pit? An enormous sum,' he said,
looking at the children, and the children laughed again. 'Signer
Giovannone, the Director of San Carlino, heard me sing. I was sixteen
years old. "This boy is a treasure," he said.

'"Would you like me to engage you, my friend?" he said to me one day.

'"How much will you give me?"

'"Forty ducats a month." That, gentlemen, is one hundred and sixty
francs.  I seemed to see the heavens open.

'"But how," I said to Giovannone, "am I to persuade the strict
Zingarelli to let me go?"

'"_Lascia fare a me_."'

'Leave it to me!' cried the eldest of the children.

'Precisely, young Sir. Signor Giovannone said to me: "First of all,
_caro_, a little agreement." I signed the paper: he gave me three
ducats. I had never seen so much money. Then he told me what I must

'Next day, I demanded an interview with the terrible Signer
Zingarelli. His old servant showed me into the room.

'"What do you want with me, you scapegrace?" said Zingarelli.

'"_Maestro_" I told him, "I repent of my misdeeds; never again will I
break out of the Conservatorio by climbing over the iron railings. I
am going to study twice as hard."

'"If I were not afraid of spoiling the finest bass voice I have ever
heard, I should lock you up on bread and water for a fortnight, you

'"_Maestro_" I went on, "I am going to be a model to the whole school,
_credete a me_. But I ask one favour of you, if anyone comes to ask for
me to sing outside, refuse him. Please say that you cannot allow it."

'"And who do you suppose is going to ask for a good for nothing like
you?  Do you think I shall ever allow you to leave the Conservatorio?
Do you wish to make a fool of me? Off with you, off with you!" he
said, aiming a kick at my hindquarters, "or it will be bread and water
in a cell."

'An hour later, Signer Giovannone came to call on the Director.

'"I have come to ask you to make my fortune," he began, "let me have
Geronimo. If he sings in my theatre this winter I give my daughter in

'"What do you propose to do with the rascal?" Zingarelli asked him. "I
won't allow it. You shan't have him; besides, even if I consented, he
would never be willing to leave the Conservatorio; he's just told me
so himself."

'"If his willingness is all that matters," said Giovannone gravely,
producing my agreement from his pocket, "_carta canta_! Here is his

'Immediately Zingarelli, furious, flew to the bell-rope: "Turn
Geronimo out of the Conservatorio," he shouted, seething with rage. So
out they turned me, I splitting my sides with laughter. That same
evening, I sang the _aria del Moltiplico_. Polichinelle intends to
marry, and counts up on his fingers the different things he will need
for the house, and loses count afresh at every moment.'

'Oh, won't you, Sir, please sing us that air?' said Madame de Renal.

Geronimo sang, and his audience all cried with laughter.

Signor Geronimo did not go to bed until two in the morning, leaving
the family enchanted with his good manners, his obliging nature and
his gay spirits.

Next day M. and Madame de Renal gave him the letters which he required
for the French Court.

'And so, falsehood everywhere,' said Julien. 'There is Signor Geronimo
on his way to London with a salary of sixty thousand francs. But for
the cleverness of the Director of San Carlino, his divine voice might
not have been known and admired for another ten years, perhaps ...
Upon my soul, I would rather be a Geronimo than a Renal. He is not so
highly honoured in society, but he has not the humiliation of having
to grant leases like that one today, and his is a merry life.'

One thing astonished Julien: the weeks of solitude spent at Verrieres,
in M. de Renal's house, had been for him a time of happiness. He had
encountered disgust and gloomy thoughts only at the dinners to which
he had been invited; in that empty house, was he not free to read,
write, meditate, undisturbed? He had not been aroused at every moment
from his radiant dreams by the cruel necessity of studying the motions
of a base soul, and that in order to deceive it by hypocritical words
or actions.

'Could happiness be thus within my reach? ... The cost of such a life
is nothing; I can, as I choose, marry Miss Elisa, or become Fouque's
partner ... But the traveller who has just climbed a steep mountain,
sits down on the summit, and finds a perfect pleasure in resting.
Would he be happy if he were forced to rest always?'

Madame de Renal's mind was a prey to carking thoughts. In spite of her
resolve to the contrary, she had revealed to Julien the whole business
of the lease. 'So he will make me forget all my vows!' she thought.

She would have given her life without hesitation to save that of her
husband, had she seen him in peril. Hers was one of those noble and
romantic natures, for which to see the possibility of a generous
action, and not to perform it gives rise to a remorse almost equal to
that which one feels for a past crime. Nevertheless, there were
dreadful days on which she could not banish the thought of the
absolute happiness which she would enjoy, if, suddenly left a widow,
she were free to marry Julien.

He loved her children far more than their father; in spite of his
strict discipline, he was adored by them. She was well aware that, if
she married Julien, she would have to leave this Vergy whose leafy
shade was so dear to her. She pictured herself living in Paris,
continuing to provide her sons with that education at which everyone
marvelled. Her children, she herself, Julien, all perfectly happy.

A strange effect of marriage, such as the nineteenth century has made
it!  The boredom of married life inevitably destroys love, when love
has preceded marriage. And yet, as a philosopher has observed, it
speedily brings about, among people who are rich enough not to have to
work, an intense boredom with all quiet forms of enjoyment. And it is
only dried up hearts, among women, that it does not predispose to

The philosopher's observation makes me excuse Madame de Renal, but
there was no excuse for her at Verrieres, and the whole town, without
her suspecting it, was exclusively occupied with the scandal of her
love.  Thanks to this great scandal, people that autumn were less
bored than usual.

The autumn, the first weeks of winter had soon come and gone. It was
time to leave the woods of Vergy. The high society of Verrieres began
to grow indignant that its anathemas were making so little impression
upon M. de Renal. In less than a week, certain grave personages who
made up for their habitual solemnity by giving themselves the pleasure
of fulfilling missions of this sort, implanted in him the most cruel
suspicions, but without going beyond the most measured terms.

M. Valenod, who was playing a close game, had placed Elisa with a
noble and highly respected family, which included five women. Elisa
fearing, she said, that she might not find a place during the winter,
had asked this family for only about two thirds of what she was
receiving at the Mayor's.  Of her own accord, the girl had the
excellent idea of going to confess to the retired cure Chelan as well
as to the new cure, so as to be able to give them both a detailed
account of Julien's amours.

On the morning after his return, at six o'clock, the abbe Chelan sent
for Julien:

'I ask you nothing,' he said to him; 'I beg you, and if need be order
you to tell me nothing, I insist that within three days you leave
either for the Seminary at Besancon or for the house of your friend
Fouque, who is still willing to provide a splendid career for you. I
have foreseen and settled everything, but you must go, and not return
to Verrieres for a year.'

Julien made no answer; he was considering whether his honour ought to
take offence at the arrangements which M. Chelan, who after all was
not his father, had made for him.

'Tomorrow at this hour I shall have the honour of seeing you again,'
he said at length to the cure.

M. Chelan, who reckoned upon overcoming the young man by main force,
spoke volubly. His attitude, his features composed in the utmost
humility, Julien did not open his mouth.

At length he made his escape, and hastened to inform Madame de Renal,
whom he found in despair. Her husband had just been speaking to her
with a certain frankness. The natural weakness of his character,
seeking encouragement in the prospect of the inheritance from
Besancon, had made him decide to regard her as entirely innocent. He
had just confessed to her the strange condition in which he found
public opinion at Verrieres. The public were wrong, had been led
astray by envious ill-wishers, but what was to be done?

Madame de Renal had the momentary illusion that Julien might be able
to accept M. Valenod's offer, and remain at Verrieres. But she was no
longer the simple, timid woman of the previous year; her fatal
passion, her spells of remorse had enlightened her. Soon she had to
bear the misery of proving to herself, while she listened to her
husband, that a separation, at any rate for the time being, was now
indispensable. 'Away from me, Julien will drift back into those
ambitious projects that are so natural when one has nothing. And I,
great God! I am so rich, and so powerless to secure my own happiness!
He will forget me. Charming as he is, he will be loved, he will love.
Ah, unhappy woman! Of what can I complain? Heaven is just, I have not
acquired merit by putting a stop to my crime; it blinds my judgment.
It rested with me alone to win over Elisa with a bribe, nothing would
have been easier. I did not take the trouble to reflect for a moment,
the wild imaginings of love absorbed all my time. And now I perish.'

One thing struck Julien; as he conveyed to Madame de Renal the
terrible news of his departure, he was met with no selfish objection.
Evidently she was making an effort not to cry.

'We require firmness, my friend.'

She cut off a lock of her hair.

'I do not know what is to become of me,' she said to him, 'but if I
die, promise me that you will never forget my children.  Far or near,
try to make them grow up honourable men. If there is another
revolution, all the nobles will be murdered, their father may
emigrate, perhaps, because of that peasant who was killed upon a roof.
Watch over the family ... Give me your hand. Farewell, my friend!
These are our last moments together. This great sacrifice made, I hope
that in public I shall have the courage to think of my reputation.'

Julien had been expecting despair. The simplicity of this farewell
touched him.

'No, I do not accept your farewell thus. I shall go; they wish it; you
wish it yourself. But, three days after my departure, I shall return
to visit you by night.'

Madame de Renal's existence was changed. So Julien really did love her
since he had had the idea, of his own accord, of seeing her again. Her
bitter grief changed into one of the keenest bursts of joy that she
had ever felt in her life. Everything became easy to her. The
certainty of seeing her lover again took from these last moments all
their lacerating force. From that instant the conduct, like the
features of Madame de Renal was noble, firm, and perfectly

M. de Renal presently returned; he was beside himself. For the first
time he mentioned to his wife the anonymous letter which he had
received two months earlier.

'I intend to take it to the Casino, to show them all that it comes
from that wretch Valenod, whom I picked up out of the gutter and made
into one of the richest citizens of Verrieres. I shall disgrace him
publicly, and then fight him. It is going too far.'

'I might be left a widow, great God!' thought Madame de Renal. But
almost at the same instant she said to herself: 'If I do not prevent
this duel, as I certainly can, I shall be my husband's murderess.'

Never before had she handled his vanity with so much skill. In less
than two hours she made him see, always by the use of arguments that
had occurred first to him, that he must show himself friendlier than
ever towards M. Valenod, and even take Elisa into the house again.
Madame de Renal required courage to make up her mind to set eyes on
this girl, the cause of all her troubles. But the idea had come to her
from Julien.

Finally, after having been set three or four times in the right
direction, M. de Renal arrived of his own accord at the idea (highly
distressing, from the financial point of view) that the most
unpleasant thing that could happen for himself was that Julien, amid
the seething excitement and gossip of the whole of Verrieres, should
remain there as tutor to M. Valenod's children. It was obviously in
Julien's interest to accept the offer made him by the Governor of the
Poorhouse. It was essential however to M. de Renal's fair fame that
Julien should leave Verrieres to enter the seminary at Besancon or at
Dijon. But how was he to be made to agree, and after that how was he
to maintain himself there?

M. de Renal, seeing the imminence of a pecuniary sacrifice, was in
greater despair than his wife. For her part, after this conversation,
she was in the position of a man of feeling who, weary of life, has
taken a dose of _stramonium_; he ceases to act, save, so to speak,
automatically, and no longer takes an interest in anything. Thus Louis
XIV on his deathbed was led to say: 'When I was king.' An admirable

On the morrow, at break of day, M. de Renal received an anonymous
letter.  It was couched in the most insulting style. The coarsest
words applicable to his position stared from every line. It was the
work of some envious subordinate. This letter brought him back to the
thought of fighting a duel with M. Valenod. Soon his courage had risen
to the idea of an immediate execution of his design. He left the house
unaccompanied, and went to the gunsmith's to procure a brace of
pistols, which he told the man to load.

'After all,' he said to himself, 'should the drastic rule of the
Emperor Napoleon be restored, I myself could not be charged with the
misappropriation of a halfpenny. At the most I have shut my eyes; but
I have plenty of letters in my desk authorising me to do so.'

Madame de Renal was frightened by her husband's cold anger, it brought
back to her mind the fatal thought of widowhood, which she found it so
hard to banish. She shut herself up with him. For hours on end she
pleaded with him in vain, the latest anonymous letter had determined
him. At length she succeeded in transforming the courage required to
strike M. Valenod into that required to offer Julien six hundred
francs for his maintenance for one year in a Seminary. M. de Renal,
heaping a thousand curses on the day on which he had conceived the
fatal idea of taking a tutor into his household, forgot the anonymous

He found a grain of comfort in an idea which he did not communicate to
his wife: by skilful handling, and by taking advantage of the young
man's romantic ideas, he hoped to bind him, for a smaller sum, to
refuse M. Valenod's offers.

Madame de Renal found it far harder to prove to Julien that, if he
sacrificed to her husband's convenience a post worth eight hundred
francs, publicly offered him by the Governor of the Poorhouse, he
might without blushing accept some compensation.

'But,' Julien continued to object, 'I have never had, even for a
moment, the slightest thought of accepting that offer. You have made
me too familiar with a life of refinement, the vulgarity of those
people would kill me.'

Cruel necessity, with its hand of iron, bent Julien's will. His pride
offered him the self-deception of accepting only as a loan the sum
offered by the Mayor of Verrieres, and giving him a note of hand
promising repayment with interest after five years.

Madame de Renal had still some thousands of francs hidden in the
little cave in the mountains.

She offered him these, trembling, and feeling only too sure that they
would be rejected with fury.

'Do you wish,' Julien asked her, 'to make the memory of our love

At length Julien left Verrieres. M. de Renal was overjoyed; at the
decisive moment of accepting money from him, this sacrifice proved to
be too great for Julien. He refused point-blank. M. de Renal fell upon
his neck, with tears in his eyes. Julien having asked him for a
testimonial to his character, he could not in his enthusiasm find
terms laudatory enough to extol the young man's conduct. Our hero had
saved up five louis and intended to ask Fouque for a similar amount.

He was greatly moved. But when he had gone a league from Verrieres,
where he was leaving such a treasure of love behind him, he thought
only of the pleasure of seeing a capital, a great military centre like

During this short parting of three days, Madame de Renal was duped by
one of love's most cruel illusions. Her life was tolerable enough,
there was between her and the last extremes of misery this final
meeting that she was still to have with Julien.

She counted the hours, the minutes that divided her from it. Finally,
during the night that followed the third day, she heard in the
distance the signal arranged between them. Having surmounted a
thousand perils, Julien appeared before her.

>From that moment, she had but a single thought: 'I am looking at you
now for the last time.' Far from responding to her lover's eagerness,
she was like a barely animated corpse. If she forced herself to tell
him that she loved him, it was with an awkward air that was almost a
proof to the contrary. Nothing could take her mind from the cruel
thought of eternal separation. The suspicious Julien fancied for a
moment that she had already forgotten him. His hints at such a
possibility were received only with huge tears that flowed in silence,
and with a convulsive pressure of his hand.

'But, Great God! How do you expect me to believe you?' was Julien's
reply to his mistress's chill protestations. 'You would show a hundred
times more of sincere affection to Madame Derville, to a mere

Madame de Renal, petrified, did not know how to answer.

'It would be impossible for a woman to be more wretched ... I hope I
am going to die ... I feel my heart freezing ...'

Such were the longest answers he was able to extract from her.

When the approach of day made his departure necessary, Madame de
Renal's tears ceased all at once. She saw him fasten a knotted cord to
the window without saying a word, without returning his kisses. In
vain might Julien say to her:

'At last we have reached the state for which you so longed.
Henceforward you will live without remorse. At the slightest
indisposition of one of your children, you will no longer see them
already in the grave.'

'I am sorry you could not say good-bye to Stanislas,' she said to him

In the end, Julien was deeply impressed by the embraces, in which
there was no warmth, of this living corpse; he could think of nothing
else for some leagues. His spirit was crushed, and before crossing the
pass, so long as he was able to see the steeple of Verrieres church,
he turned round often.

A Capital

  So much noise, so many busy people! So many ideas in the
  head of a man of twenty! So many distractions for love!

At length he made out, on a distant mountain, a line of dark walls; it
was the citadel of Besancon. 'How different for me,' he said with a
sigh, 'if I were arriving in this noble fortress to be a sublieutenant
in one of the regiments entrusted with its defence!'

Besancon is not merely one of the most charming towns in France, it
abounds in men and women of feeling and spirit. But Julien was only a
young peasant and had no way of approaching the distinguished people.

He had borrowed from Fouque a layman's coat, and it was in this attire
that he crossed the drawbridges. His mind full of the history of the
siege of 1674, he was determined to visit, before shutting himself up
in the Seminary, the ramparts and the citadel. More than once, he was
on the point of being arrested by the sentries for making his way into
places from which the engineers of the garrison excluded the public,
in order to make a profit of twelve or fifteen francs every year by
the sale of the hay grown there.

The height of the walls, the depth of the moats, the awe-inspiring
appearance of the guns had occupied him for some hours, when he
happened to pass by the principal cafe, on the boulevard. He stood
speechless with admiration; albeit he could read the word Cafe
inscribed in huge letters over the two vast doors, he could not
believe his eyes. He made an effort to master his timidity; he
ventured to enter, and found himself in a hall thirty or forty feet
long, the ceiling of which rose to a height of at least twenty feet.
On this day of days everything wore an air of enchantment for him.

Two games of billiards were in progress. The waiters were calling out
the scores; the players hurried round the tables through a crowd of
onlookers.  Streams of tobacco smoke, pouring from every mouth,
enveloped them in a blue haze. The tall stature of these men, their
rounded shoulders, their heavy gait, their bushy whiskers, the long
frock coats that coveted their bodies, all attracted Julien's
attention. These noble sons of ancient Bisontium conversed only in
shouts; they gave themselves the air of tremendous warriors. Julien
stood spellbound in admiration; he was thinking of the vastness and
splendour of a great capital like Besancon. He felt that he could not
possibly summon up courage to ask for a cup of coffee from one of
those gentlemen with the proud gaze who were marking the score at

But the young lady behind the counter had remarked the charming
appearance of this young country cousin, who, brought to a standstill
three paces from the stove, hugging his little bundle under his arm,
was studying the bust of the King, in gleaming white plaster. This
young lady, a strapping Franc-Comtoise, extremely well made, and
dressed in the style calculated to give tone to a cafe, had already
said twice, in a low voice so modulated that only Julien should hear
her: 'Sir! Sir!' Julien's gaze met that of a pair of the most tender
blue eyes, and saw that it was himself who was being addressed.

He stepped briskly up to the counter and the pretty girl, as he might
have advanced in the face of the enemy. As he executed this great
movement, his bundle fell to the ground.

What pity will not our provincial inspire in the young scholars of
Paris, who at fifteen, have already learned how to enter a cafe with
so distinguished an air! But these children, so stylish at fifteen, at
eighteen begin to turn common. The passionate shyness which one meets
in the provinces now and then overcomes itself, and then teaches its
victim to desire. As he approached this beautiful girl who had deigned
to speak to him, 'I must tell her the truth,' thought Julien, who was
growing courageous by dint of his conquered shyness.

'Madame, I have come for the first time in my life to Besancon; I
should like to have, and to pay for, a roll of bread and a cup of

The girl smiled a little and then blushed; she feared, for this
good-looking young man, the satirical attention and witticisms of the
billiard players. He would be frightened and would never show his face
there again.

'Sit down here, near me,' she said, and pointed to a marble table,
almost entirely hidden by the enormous mahogany counter which
protruded into the room.

The young woman leaned over this counter, which gave her an
opportunity to display a superb figure. Julien observed this; all his
ideas altered. The pretty girl had just set before him a cup, some
sugar and a roll of bread.  She hesitated before calling to a waiter
for coffee, realising that on the arrival of the said waiter her
private conversation with Julien would be at an end.

Julien, lost in thought, was comparing this fair and sprightly beauty
with certain memories which often stirred him. The thought of the
passion of which he had been the object took from him almost all his
timidity. The pretty girl had only a moment; she read the expression
in Julien's eyes.

'This pipe smoke makes you cough, come to breakfast tomorrow before
eight o'clock; at that time, I am almost alone.'

'What is your name?' said Julien, with the caressing smile of happy

'Amanda Binet.'

'Will you permit me to send you, in an hour's time, a little parcel no
bigger than this?'

The fair Amanda reflected for a while.

'I am watched: what you ask may compromise me; however, I am now going
to write down my address upon a card, which you can attach to your
parcel.  Send it to me without fear.'

'My name is Julien Sorel,' said the young man. 'I have neither family
nor friends in Besancon.'

'Ah! Now I understand,' she exclaimed joyfully, 'you have come for the
law school?'

'Alas, no!' replied Julien; 'they are sending me to the Seminary.'

The most complete discouragement extinguished the light in Amanda's
features; she called a waiter: she had the necessary courage now. The
waiter poured out Julien's coffee, without looking at him.

Amanda was taking money at the counter; Julien prided himself on
having ventured to speak to her: there was a dispute in progress at
one of the billiard tables. The shouts and contradictions of the
players, echoing through that vast hall, made a din which astonished
Julien. Amanda was pensive and did not raise her eyes.

'If you like, Mademoiselle,' he said to her suddenly with assurance,
'I can say that I am your cousin.'

This little air of authority delighted Amanda. This is no
good-for-nothing young fellow,' she thought. She said to him very
quickly, without looking at him, for her eye was occupied in watching
whether anyone were approaching the counter:

'I come from Genlis, near Dijon; say that you are from Genlis too, and
my mother's cousin.'

'I shall not forget.'

'On Thursdays, at five o'clock, in summer, the young gentlemen from
the Seminary come past the cafe here.'

'If you are thinking of me, when I pass, have a bunch of violets in
your hand.'

Amanda gazed at him with an air of astonishment; this gaze changed
Julien's courage into temerity; he blushed deeply, however, as he said
to her:

'I feel that I love you with the most violent love.'

'Don't speak so loud, then,' she warned him with an air of alarm.

Julien thought of trying to recollect the language of an odd volume of
the _Nouvelle Heloise_, which he had found at Vergy. His memory served
him well; he had been for ten minutes reciting the _Nouvelle Heloise_
to Miss Amanda, who was in ecstasies; he was delighted with his own
courage, when suddenly the fair Franc-Comtoise assumed a glacial air.
One of her admirers stood in the doorway of the cafe.

He came up to the counter, whistling and swaying his shoulders; he
stared at Julien. For the moment, the latter's imagination, always
flying to extremes, was filled entirely with thoughts of a duel. He
turned deadly pale, thrust away his cup, assumed an air of assurance
and studied his rival most attentively. While this rival's head was
lowered as he familiarly poured himself out a glass of brandy upon the
counter, with a glance Amanda ordered Julien to lower his gaze. He
obeyed, and for a minute or two sat motionless in his place, pale,
determined, and thinking only of what was going to happen; he was
really fine at that moment. The rival had been astonished by Julien's
eyes; his glass of brandy drained at a gulp, he said a few words to
Amanda, thrust his hands into the side pockets of his ample coat, and
made his way to one of the billiard tables, breathing loudly and
staring at Julien. The latter sprang to his feet in a transport of
rage; but did not know what action to take to be insulting. He laid
down his little bundle and, with the most swaggering gait that he
could assume, strode towards the billiard table.

In vain did prudence warn him: 'With a duel on the day of your arrival
at Besancon, your career in the church is gone for ever.'

'What does that matter, it shall never be said that I quailed before
an insult.'

Amanda observed his courage; it formed a charming contrast with the
simplicity of his manners; in an instant, she preferred him to the big
young man in the long coat. She rose, and, while appearing to be
following with her eyes the movements of someone going by in the
street, took her place swiftly between him and the billiard table.

'You are not to look askance at that gentleman; he is my

'What do I care? He looked at me.'

'Do you wish to get me into trouble? No doubt, he looked at you,
perhaps he will even come up and speak to you. I have told him that
you are one of my mother's family and that you have just come from
Genlis. He is a Franc-Comtois and has never been farther than Dole, on
the road into Burgundy; so tell him whatever you like, don't be

Julien continued to hesitate; she added rapidly, her barmaid's
imagination supplying her with falsehoods in abundance:

'I dare say he did look at you, but it was when he was asking me who
you were; he is a man who is rude with everyone, he didn't mean to
insult you.'

Julien's eye followed the alleged brother-in-law; he saw him buy a
number for the game of pool which was beginning at the farther of the
two billiard tables. Julien heard his loud voice exclaim: 'I
volunteer!' He passed nimbly behind Miss Amanda's back and took a step
towards the billiard table. Amanda seized him by the arm.

'Come and pay me first,' she said to him.

'Quite right,' thought Julien; 'she is afraid I may leave without
paying.' Amanda was as greatly agitated as himself, and had turned
very red; she counted out his change as slowly as she could, repeating
to him in a whisper as she did so:

'Leave the cafe this instant, or I shan't like you any more; I do like
you, though, very much.'

Julien did indeed leave, but slowly. 'Is it not incumbent upon
me,' he repeated to himself, 'to go and stare at that rude person in
my turn, and breathe in his face?' This uncertainty detained him for
an hour on the boulevard, outside the cafe; he watched to see if his
man came out.  He did not however appear, and Julien withdrew.

He had been but a few hours in Besancon, and already he had something
to regret. The old Surgeon-Major had long ago, notwithstanding his
gout, taught him a few lessons in fencing; this was all the science
that Julien could place at the service of his anger. But this
embarrassment would have been nothing if he had known how to pick a
quarrel otherwise than by striking a blow; and, if they had come to
fisticuffs, his rival, a giant of a man, would have beaten him and
left him discomfited.

'For a poor devil like me,' thought Julien, 'without protectors and
without money, there will be no great difference between a Seminary
and a prison; I must leave my lay clothes in some inn, where I can put
on my black coat. If I ever succeed in escaping from the Seminary for
an hour or two, I can easily, in my lay clothes, see Miss Amanda
again.' This was sound reasoning; but Julien, as he passed by all the
inns in turn, had not the courage to enter any of them.

Finally, as he came again to the Hotel des Ambassadeurs, his roving
gaze met that of a stout woman, still reasonably young, with a high
complexion, a happy and gay expression. He went up to her and told her
his story.

'Certainly, my fine young priest,' the landlady of the Ambassadeurs
said to him, 'I shall keep your lay clothes for you, indeed I will
have them brushed regularly. In this weather, it is a mistake to leave
a broadcloth coat lying.' She took a key and led him herself to a
bedroom, advising him to write down a list of what he was leaving

'Lord, how nice you look like that, M. l'abbe Sorel,' said the stout
woman, when he came down to the kitchen. 'I am going to order you a
good dinner; and,' she added in an undertone, 'it will only cost you
twenty sous, instead of the fifty people generally pay; for you must
be careful with your little purse.'

'I have ten louis,' retorted Julien with a certain note of pride.

'Oh, good Lord!' replied the good landlady in alarm, 'do not speak so
loud; there are plenty of bad folk in Besancon. They will have that
out of you in less than no time. Whatever you do, never go into the
cafes, they are full of rogues.'

'Indeed!' said Julien, to whom this last statement gave food for

'Never go anywhere except to me, I will give you your coffee. Bear in
mind that you will always find a friend here and a good dinner for
twenty sous; that's good enough for you, I hope. Go and sit down at
the table, I am going to serve you myself.'

'I should not be able to eat,' Julien told her. 'I am too much
excited, I am going to enter the Seminary as soon as I leave here.'

The good woman would not allow him to leave until she had stuffed his
pockets with provisions. Finally Julien set out for the dread spot,
the landlady from her doorstep pointing out the way.

The Seminary

  Three hundred and thirty-six dinners at 83 centimes, three
  hundred and thirty-six suppers at 38 centimes, chocolate to
  such as are entitled to it; how much is there to be made on
  the contract?

He saw from a distance the cross of gilded iron over the door; he went
towards it slowly; his legs seemed to be giving way under him. 'So
there is that hell upon earth, from which I can never escape!' Finally
he decided to ring. The sound of the bell echoed as though in a
deserted place. After ten minutes, a pale man dressed in black came
and opened the door to him.  Julien looked at him and at once lowered
his gaze. This porter had a singular physiognomy. The prominent green
pupils of his eyes were convex as those of a cat's; the unwinking
contours of his eyelids proclaimed the impossibility of any human
feeling; his thin lips were stretched and curved over his protruding
teeth. And yet this physiognomy did not suggest a criminal nature, so
much as that entire insensibility which inspires far greater terror in
the young. The sole feeling that Julien's rapid glance could discern
in that long, smug face was a profound contempt for every subject that
might be mentioned to him, which did not refer to another and a better

Julien raised his eyes with an effort, and in a voice which the
palpitation of his heart made tremulous explained that he wished to
speak to M. Pirard, the Director of the Seminary. Without a word, the
man in black made a sign to him to follow. They climbed two flights of
a wide staircase with a wooden baluster, the warped steps of which
sloped at a downward angle from the wall, and seemed on the point of
collapse. A small door, surmounted by a large graveyard cross of white
wood painted black, yielded to pressure and the porter showed him into
a low and gloomy room, the whitewashed walls of which were adorned
with two large pictures dark with age. There, Julien was left to
himself; he was terrified, his heart throbbed violently; he would have
liked to find the courage to weep. A deathly silence reigned
throughout the building.

After a quarter of an hour, which seemed to him a day, the sinister
porter reappeared on the threshold of a door at the other end of the
room, and, without condescending to utter a word, beckoned to him to
advance. He entered a room even larger than the first and very badly
lighted. The walls of this room were whitewashed also; but they were
bare of ornament. Only in a corner by the door, Julien noticed in
passing a bed of white wood, two straw chairs and a little armchair
made of planks of firwood without a cushion. At the other end of the
room, near a small window with dingy panes, decked with neglected
flowerpots, he saw a man seated at a table and dressed in a shabby
cassock; he appeared to be in a rage, and was taking one after another
from a pile of little sheets of paper which he spread out on his table
after writing a few words on each. He did not observe Julien's
presence. The latter remained motionless, standing in the middle of
the room, where he had been left by the porter, who had gone out again
shutting the door behind him.

Ten minutes passed in this fashion; the shabbily dressed man writing
all the time. Julien's emotion and terror were such that he felt
himself to be on the point of collapsing. A philosopher would have
said, perhaps wrongly: 'It is the violent impression made by ugliness
on a soul created to love what is beautiful.'

The man who was writing raised his head; Julien did not observe this
for a moment, and indeed, after he had noticed it, still remained
motionless, as though turned to stone by the terrible gaze that was
fixed on him. Julien's swimming eyes could barely make out a long face
covered all over with red spots, except on the forehead, which
displayed a deathly pallor. Between the red cheeks and white forehead
shone a pair of little black eyes calculated to inspire terror in the
bravest heart. The vast expanse of his forehead was outlined by a mass
of straight hair, as black as jet.

'Are you coming nearer, or not?' the man said at length impatiently.

Julien advanced with an uncertain step, and at length, ready to fall
to the ground and paler than he had ever been in his life, came to a
halt a few feet away from the little table of white wood covered with
scraps of paper.

'Nearer,' said the man.

Julien advanced farther, stretching out his hand as though in search
of something to lean upon.

'Your name?'

'Julien Sorel.'

'You are very late,' said the other, once more fastening upon him a
terrible eye.

Julien could not endure this gaze; putting out his hand as though to
support himself, he fell full length upon the floor.

The man rang a bell. Julien had lost only his sense of vision and the
strength to move; he could hear footsteps approaching.

He was picked up and placed in the little armchair of white wood. He
heard the terrible man say to the porter:

'An epileptic, evidently; I might have known it.'

When Julien was able to open his eyes, the man with the red face was
again writing; the porter had vanished. 'I must have courage,' our
hero told himself, 'and above all hide my feelings.' He felt a sharp
pain at his heart. 'If I am taken ill, heaven knows what they will
think of me.' At length the man stopped writing, and with a sidelong
glance at Julien asked:

'Are you in a fit state to answer my questions?'

'Yes, Sir,' said Julien in a feeble voice.

'Ah! That is fortunate.'

The man in black had half risen and was impatiently seeking for a
letter in the drawer of his table of firwood which opened with a
creak. He found it, slowly resumed his seat, and once more gazing at
Julien, with an air which seemed to wrest from him the little life
that remained to him:

'You are recommended to me by M. Chelan, who was the best cure in the
diocese, a good man if ever there was one, and my friend for the last
thirty years.'

'Ah! It is M. Pirard that I have the honour to address,' said Julien
in a feeble voice.

'So it seems,' said the Director of the Seminary, looking sourly at

The gleam in his little eyes brightened, followed by an involuntary
jerk of the muscles round his mouth. It was the physiognomy of a tiger
relishing in anticipation the pleasure of devouring its prey.

'Chelan's letter is short,' he said, as though speaking to himself.
'_Intelligenti pauca_; in these days, one cannot write too little.' He
read aloud:

'"I send you Julien Sorel, of this parish, whom I baptised nearly
twenty years ago; his father is a wealthy carpenter but allows him
nothing. Julien will be a noteworthy labourer in the Lord's vineyard.
Memory, intelligence are not wanting, he has the power of reflection.
Will his vocation last? Is it sincere?"'

'Sincere!' repeated the abbe Pirard with an air of surprise, gazing at
Julien; but this time the abbe's gaze was less devoid of all trace of
humanity. 'Sincere!' he repeated, lowering his voice and returning to
the letter:

'"I ask you for a bursary for Julien; he will qualify for it by
undergoing the necessary examinations. I have taught him a little
divinity, that old and sound divinity of Bossuet, Arnault, Fleury. If
the young man is not to your liking, send him back to me; the Governor
of our Poorhouse, whom you know well, offers him eight hundred francs
to come as tutor to his children. Inwardly I am calm, thank God. I am
growing accustomed to the terrible blow. _Vale et me ama_."'

The abbe Pirard, relaxing the speed of his utterance as he came to the
signature, breathed with a sigh the word 'Chelan.'

'He is calm,' he said; 'indeed, his virtue deserved that reward; God
grant it to me, when my time comes!'

He looked upwards and made the sign of the Cross. At the sight of this
holy symbol Julien felt a slackening of the profound horror which,
from his entering the building, had frozen him.

'I have here three hundred and twenty-one aspirants for the holiest of
callings,' the abbe Pirard said at length, in a severe but not hostile
tone; 'only seven or eight have been recommended to me by men like the
abbe Chelan; thus among the three hundred and twenty-one you will be
the ninth. But my protection is neither favour nor weakness, it is an
increase of precaution and severity against vice. Go and lock that

Julien made an effort to walk and managed not to fall. He noticed that
a little window, near the door by which he had entered, commanded a
view of the country. He looked at the trees; the sight of them did him
good, as though he had caught sight of old friends.

'_Loquerisne linguam latinam_? (Do you speak Latin?)' the abbe Pirard
asked him as he returned.

'_Ita, pater optime_ (Yes, excellent Father),' replied Julien, who was
beginning to come to himself. Certainly nobody in the world had
appeared to him less excellent than M. Pirard, during the last

The conversation continued in Latin. The expression in the abbe's eyes
grew gentler; Julien recovered a certain coolness. 'How weak I am,' he
thought, 'to let myself be imposed upon by this show of virtue! This
man will be simply a rascal like M. Maslon'; and Julien congratulated
himself on having hidden almost all his money in his boots.

The abbe Pirard examined Julien in theology, and was surprised by the
extent of his knowledge. His astonishment increased when he questioned
him more particularly on the Holy Scriptures. But when he came to
questions touching the doctrine of the Fathers, he discovered that
Julien barely knew the names of Saint Jerome, Saint Augustine, Saint
Bonaventure, Saint Basil, etc., etc.

'In fact,' thought the abbe Pirard, 'here is another instance of that
fatal tendency towards Protestantism which I have always had to rebuke
in Chelan.  A thorough, a too thorough acquaintance with the Holy

(Julien had just spoken to him, without having been questioned on the
subject, of the true date of authorship of Genesis, the Pentateuch,

'To what does all this endless discussion of the Holy Scriptures lead,'
thought the abbe Pirard, 'if not to private judgment, that is to say
to the most fearful Protestantism? And, in conjunction with this rash
learning, nothing about the Fathers that can compensate for this

But the astonishment of the Director of the Seminary knew no bounds
when, questioning Julien as to the authority of the Pope, and
expecting the maxims of the ancient Gallican church, he heard the
young man repeat the whole of M. de Maistre's book.

'A strange man, Chelan,' thought the abbe Pirard; 'has he given him
this book to teach him to laugh at it?'

In vain did he question Julien, trying to discover whether he
seriously believed the doctrine of M. de Maistre. The young man could
answer him only by rote. From this moment, Julien was really
admirable, he felt that he was master of himself. After a prolonged
examination it seemed to him that M. Pirard's severity towards him
was no more than an affectation. Indeed, but for the rule of austere
gravity which, for the last fifteen years, he had imposed on himself
in dealing with his pupils in theology, the Director of the Seminary
would have embraced Julien in the name of logic, such clarity,
precision, and point did he find in the young man's answers.

'This is a bold and healthy mind,' he said to himself, 'but _corpus
debile_ (a frail body).

'Do you often fall like that?' he asked Julien in French, pointing
with his finger to the floor.

'It was the first time in my life; the sight of the porter's face
paralysed me,' Julien explained, colouring like a child.

The abbe Pirard almost smiled.

'Such is the effect of the vain pomps of this world; you are evidently
accustomed to smiling faces, positive theatres of falsehood. The truth
is austere, Sir. But is not our task here below austere also? You will
have to see that your conscience is on its guard against this
weakness: _Undue sensibility to vain outward charms_.

'Had you not been recommended to me,' said the abbe Pirard, returning
with marked pleasure to the Latin tongue, 'had you not been
recommended to me by a man such as the abbe Chelan, I should address
you in the vain language of this world to which it appears that you
are too well accustomed. The entire bursary for which you apply is, I
may tell you, the hardest thing in the world to obtain. But the abbe
Chelan has earned little, by fifty-six years of apostolic labours, if
he cannot dispose of a bursary at the Seminary.'

After saying these words, the abbe Pirard advised Julien not to join
any secret society or congregation without his consent.

'I give you my word of honour,' said Julien with the heartfelt warmth
of an honest man.

The Director of the Seminary smiled for the first time.

'That expression is not in keeping here,' he told him; 'it is too
suggestive of the vain honour of men of the world, which leads them
into so many errors and often into crime. You owe me obedience in
virtue of the seventeenth paragraph of the Bull _Unam Ecclesiam_ of
Saint Pius V. I am your ecclesiastical superior. In this house to
hear, my dearly beloved son, is to obey. How much money have you?'

('Now we come to the point,' thought Julien, 'this is the reason of
the "dearly beloved son".')

'Thirty-five francs, Father.'

'Keep a careful note of how you spend your money; you will have to
account for it to me.'

This exhausting interview had lasted three hours. Julien was told to
summon the porter.

'Put Julien Sorel in cell number 103,' the abbe Pirard told the man.

As a special favour, he was giving Julien a room to himself.

'Take up his trunk,' he added.

Julien lowered his eyes and saw his trunk staring him in the face; he
had been looking at it for three hours and had never seen it.

On arriving at No. 103, which was a tiny room eight feet square on the
highest floor of the building, Julien observed that it looked out
towards the ramparts, beyond which one saw the smiling plain which the
Doubs divides from the city.

'What a charming view!' exclaimed Julien; in speaking thus to himself
he was not conscious of the feeling implied by his words. The violent
sensations he had experienced in the short time that he had spent in
Besancon had completely drained his strength. He sat down by the
window on the solitary wooden chair that was in his cell, and at once
fell into a profound slumber. He did not hear the supper bell, nor
that for Benediction; he had been forgotten.

When the first rays of the sun awakened him next morning, he found
himself lying upon the floor.

The World, or What the Rich Lack

  I am alone on earth, no one deigns to think of me. All the
  people I see making their fortunes have a brazenness and a
  hard-heartedness which I do not sense in myself. Ah! I shall
  soon be dead, either of hunger, or from the sorrow of finding
  men so hard.

He made haste to brush his coat and to go downstairs; he was late. An
under-master rebuked him severely; instead of seeking to excuse
himself, Julien crossed his arms on his breast:

'_Peccavi, pater optime_ (I have sinned, I confess my fault, O Father),'
he said with a contrite air.

This was a most successful beginning. The sharp wits among the
seminarists saw that they had to deal with a man who was not new to
the game. The recreation hour came, Julien saw himself the object of
general curiosity.  But they found in him merely reserve and silence.
Following the maxims that he had laid down for himself, he regarded
his three hundred and twenty-one comrades as so many enemies; the most
dangerous of all in his eyes was the abbe Pirard.

A few days later, Julien had to choose a confessor, he was furnished
with a list.

'Eh; Great God, for what do they take me?' he said to himself. 'Do
they suppose I can't take a hint?' And he chose the abbe Pirard.

Though he did not suspect it, this step was decisive. A little
seminarist, still quite a boy, and a native of Verrieres, who, from
the first day, had declared himself his friend, informed him that if
he had chosen M. Castanede, the vice-principal of the Seminary, he
would perhaps have shown greater prudence.

'The abbe Castanede is the enemy of M. Pirard, who is suspected of
Jansenism'; the little seminarist added, whispering this information
in his ear.

All the first steps taken by our hero who fancied himself so prudent
were, like his choice of a confessor, foolish in the extreme. Led
astray by all the presumption of an imaginative man, he mistook his
intentions for facts, and thought himself a consummate hypocrite. His
folly went the length of his reproaching himself for his successes in
this art of the weak.

'Alas! It is my sole weapon! In another epoch, it would have been by
speaking actions in the face of the enemy that I should have _earned
my bread_.'

Julien, satisfied with his own conduct, looked around him; he found
everywhere an appearance of the purest virtue.

Nine or ten of the seminarists lived in the odour of sanctity, and had
visions like Saint Teresa and Saint Francis, when he received the
Stigmata upon Monte Verna, in the Apennines. But this was a great
secret which their friends kept to themselves. These poor young
visionaries were almost always in the infirmary. Some hundred others
combined with a robust faith an unwearying application. They worked
until they made themselves ill, but without learning much. Two or
three distinguished themselves by real talent, and, among these, one
named Chazel; but Julien felt himself repelled by them, and they by

The rest of the three hundred and twenty-one seminarists were composed
entirely of coarse creatures who were by no means certain that they
understood the Latin words which they repeated all day long. Almost
all of them were the sons of peasants, and preferred to earn their
bread by reciting a few Latin words rather than by tilling the soil.
It was after making this discovery, in the first few days, that Julien
promised himself a rapid success. 'In every service, there is need of
intelligent people, for after all there is work to be done,' he told
himself. 'Under Napoleon, I should have been a serjeant; among these
future cures, I shall be a Vicar-General.

'All these poor devils,' he added, 'labourers from the cradle, have
lived, until they came here, upon skim milk and black bread. In their
cottages, they tasted meat only five or six times in a year. Like the
Roman soldiers who found active service a holiday, these boorish
peasants are enchanted by the luxuries of the Seminary.'

Julien never read anything in their lack-lustre eyes beyond the
satisfaction of a bodily need after dinner, and the expectation of a
bodily pleasure before the meal. Such were the people among whom he
must distinguish himself; but what Julien did not know, what they
refrained from telling him, was that to be at the top of the various
classes of dogma, church history, etc., etc., which were studied in
the Seminary, was nothing more in their eyes than a sin of
_vainglory_.  Since Voltaire, since Two Chamber government, which is
at bottom only _distrust and private judgment_, and instils in the
hearts of the people that fatal habit of _want of confidence_, the
Church of France seems to have realised that books are its true
enemies. It is heartfelt submission that is everything in its eyes.
Success in studies, even in sacred studies, is suspect, and with good
reason. What is to prevent the superior man from going over to the
other side, like Sieyes or Gregoire? The trembling Church clings to
the Pope as to her sole chance of salvation. The Pope alone can
attempt to paralyse private judgment, and, by the pious pomps of the
ceremonies of his court, make an impression upon the sick and listless
minds of men and women of the world.

Having half mastered these several truths, which however all the words
uttered in a Seminary tend to deny, Julien fell into a deep
melancholy. He worked hard, and rapidly succeeded in learning things
of great value to a priest, entirely false in his eyes, and in which
he took no interest. He imagined that there was nothing else for him
to do.

'Am I then forgotten by all the world?' he wondered. He little knew
that M. Pirard had received and had flung in the fire several letters
bearing the Dijon postmark, letters in which, despite the most
conventional style and language, the most intense passion was
apparent. Keen remorse seemed to be doing battle with this love. 'So
much the better,' thought the abbe Pirard, 'at least it is not an
irreligious woman that this young man has loved.'

One day, the abbe Pirard opened a letter which seemed to be half
obliterated by tears, it was an eternal farewell. 'At last,' the
writer informed Julien, 'heaven has granted me the grace of hating not
the author of my fault, he will always be dearer to me than anything
in the world, but my fault itself. The sacrifice is made, my friend.
It is not without tears, as you see. The salvation of the beings to
whom I am bound, and whom you have loved so dearly, has prevailed. A
just but terrible God can no longer wreak vengeance upon them for
their mother's crimes. Farewell, Julien, be just towards men.'

This ending to the letter was almost entirely illegible. The writer
gave an address at Dijon, and at the same time hoped that Julien would
never reply, or that at least he would confine himself to language
which a woman restored to the ways of virtue could read without

Julien's melancholy, assisted by the indifferent food supplied to the
Seminary by the contractor for dinners at 83 centimes a head, was
beginning to have an effect on his health, when one morning Fouque
suddenly appeared in his room.

'At last I have found my way in. I have come five times to Besancon,
honour bound, to see you. Always a barred door. I posted someone at
the gate of the Seminary; why the devil do you never come out?'

'It is a test which I have set myself.'

'I find you greatly altered. At last I see you again. Two good five
franc pieces have just taught me that I was no better than a fool not
to have offered them on my first visit.'

The conversation between the friends was endless. Julien changed
colour when Fouque said to him:

'Have you heard, by the way? The mother of your pupils has become most
devoutly religious.'

And he spoke with that detached air which makes so singular an
impression on the passionate soul whose dearest interests the speaker
unconsciously destroys.

'Yes, my friend, the most exalted strain of piety. They say that she
makes pilgrimages. But, to the eternal shame of the abbe Maslon, who
has been spying so long upon that poor M. Chelan, Madame de Renal will
have nothing to do with him. She goes to confession at Dijon or

'She comes to Besancon!' said Julien, his brow flushing.

'Quite often,' replied Fouque with a questioning air.

'Have you any _Constitutionnels_ on you?'

'What's that you say?' replied Fouque.

'I ask you if you have any _Constitutionnels_?' Julien repeated, in a
calmer tone. 'They are sold here for thirty sous a copy.'

'What! Liberals even in the Seminary!' cried Fouque. 'Unhappy France!'
he went on, copying the hypocritical tone and meek accents of the abbe

This visit would have made a profound impression upon our hero, had
not, the very next day, a remark addressed to him by that little
seminarist from Verrieres who seemed such a boy, led him to make an
important discovery.  Ever since he had been in the Seminary, Julien's
conduct had been nothing but a succession of false steps. He laughed
bitterly at himself.

As a matter of fact, the important actions of his life were wisely
ordered; but he paid no attention to details, and the clever people in
a Seminary look only at details. And so he passed already among his
fellow students as a free thinker. He had been betrayed by any number
of trifling actions.

In their eyes he was convicted of this appalling vice, _he thought, he
judged for himself_, instead of blindly following _authority_ and
example. The abbe Pirard had been of no assistance to him; he had not
once uttered a word to him apart from the tribunal of penitence, and
even there he listened rather than spoke. It would have been very
different had Julien chosen the abbe Castanede.

The moment that Julien became aware of his own folly, his interest
revived.  He wished to know the whole extent of the harm, and, with
this object, emerged a little from that haughty and obstinate silence
with which he repulsed his fellows. It was then that they took their
revenge on him. His advances were received with a contempt which went
the length of derision.  He realised that since his entering the
Seminary, not an hour had passed, especially during recreation, that
had not borne some consequence for or against him, had not increased
the number of his enemies, or won him the good will of some seminarist
who was genuinely virtuous or a trifle less boorish than the rest. The
damage to be repaired was immense, the task one of great difficulty.
Thenceforward Julien's attention was constantly on the alert; it was a
case of portraying himself in an entirely new character.

The control of his eyes, for instance, gave him a great deal of
trouble. It is not without reason that in such places they are kept
lowered. 'What was not my presumption at Verrieres!' Julien said to
himself, 'I imagined I was alive; I was only preparing myself for
life; here I am at last in the world, as I shall find it until I have
played out my part, surrounded by real enemies. What an immense
difficulty,' he went on, 'is this incessant hypocrisy! It would put
the labours of Hercules to shame. The Hercules of modern times is
Sixtus V, who for fifteen years on end, by his modesty, deceived
forty Cardinals, who had seen him proud and vigorous in his youth.

'So learning is really nothing here!' he told himself with scorn;
'progress in dogma, in sacred history, and the rest of it, count only
in appearance.  All that is said on that topic is intended to make
fools like myself fall into the trap. Alas, my sole merit consisted in
my rapid progress, in my faculty for grasping all that nonsense. Can
it be that in their hearts they esteem it at its true value; judge of
it as I do?  And I was fool enough to be proud of myself! Those first
places in class which I always obtain have served only to give me
bitter enemies. Chazel, who knows far more than I, always puts into
his compositions some piece of stupidity which sends him down to the
fiftieth place; if he obtains the first, it is when he is not
thinking. Ah! one word, a single word from M. Pirard, how useful it
would have been to me!'

>From the moment in which Julien's eyes were opened, the long exercises
of ascetic piety, such as the Rosary five times weekly, the hymns to
the Sacred Heart, etc., etc., which had seemed to him of such deadly
dullness, became the most interesting actions of his life. Sternly
criticising his own conduct, and seeking above all not to exaggerate
his methods, Julien did not aspire from the first, like the
seminarists who served as models to the rest, to perform at every
moment some _significant_ action, that is to say one which gave proof
of some form of Christian perfection. In Seminaries, there is a way of
eating a boiled egg which reveals the progress one has made in the
godly life.

The reader, who is perhaps smiling, will please to remember all the
mistakes made, in eating an egg, by the abbe Delille when invited to
luncheon by a great lady of the Court of Louis XVI.

Julien sought at first to arrive at the _non culpa_, to wit, the state
of the young seminarist whose gait, his way of moving his arms, eyes,
etc., do not, it is true, indicate anything worldly, but do not yet
show the creature absorbed by the idea of the next life and the
_absolute nullity_ of this.

Everywhere Julien found inscribed in charcoal, on the walls of the
passages, sentences like the following: 'What are sixty years of
trial, set in the balance with an eternity of bliss or an eternity of
boiling oil in hell!' He no longer despised them; he realised that he
must have them always before his eyes. 'What shall I be doing all my
life?' he said to himself; 'I shall be selling the faithful a place in
heaven. How is that place to be made visible to them? By the
difference between my exterior and that of a layman.'

After several months of application kept up at every moment, Julien
still had the air of a _thinker_. His way of moving his eyes and
opening his lips did not reveal an implicit faith ready to believe
everything and to uphold everything, even by martyrdom. It was with
anger that Julien saw himself surpassed in this respect by the most
boorish peasants. They had good reasons for not having the air of

What pains did he not take to arrive at that expression of blind and
fervent faith, which is so frequently to be found in the convents of
Italy, and such perfect examples of which Guercino has bequeathed to
us laymen in his paintings in churches.  [Author's footnote: For
instance, in the Louvre, no. 1130: 'Francis Duke of Aquitaine laying
aside the crown and putting on a monastic habit.']

On the greatest festivals the seminarists were given sausages with
pickled cabbage. Julien's neighbours at table observed that he
remained unmoved by this good fortune; it was one of his first crimes.
His comrades saw in it an odious mark of the most stupid hypocrisy;
nothing made him so many enemies. 'Look at that gentleman, look at
that proud fellow,' they would say, 'pretending to despise our best
ration, sausages with cabbage! The wretched conceit of the damned
fellow!'  He should have refrained as an act of penance from eating
the whole of his portion, and should have made the sacrifice of
saying to some friend, with reference to the pickled cabbage: 'What
is there that man can offer to an All Powerful Being, if it be not
_voluntary suffering_?'

Julien lacked the experience which makes it so easy for us to see
things of this sort.

'Alas! The ignorance of these young peasants, my comrades, is a great
advantage to them,' Julien would exclaim in moments of discouragement.
'When they arrive in the Seminary, the teacher has not to rid them of
the appalling number of worldly thoughts which I brought with me, and
which they read on my face, do what I will.'

Julien studied with an attention that bordered upon envy the more
boorish of the young peasants who arrived at the Seminary. At the
moment when they were stripped of their ratteen jackets to be garbed
in the black cassock, their education was limited to an immense and
unbounded respect for dry and liquid money, as the saying goes in the

It is the sacramental and heroic fashion of expressing the sublime
idea of ready cash.

Happiness, for these seminarists, as for the heroes of Voltaire's
tales, consists first and foremost in dining well. Julien discovered
in almost all of them an innate respect for the man who wears a coat
of _fine cloth_. This sentiment estimates _distributive justice_, as
it is dealt out to us by our courts, at its true worth, indeed below
its true worth. 'What is to be gained,' they would often say among
themselves, 'by going to law with the big?'

'Big' is the word used in the valleys of the Jura to denote a rich
man. One may imagine their respect for the richest party of all: the

Not to smile respectfully at the mere name of the Prefect is reckoned,
among the peasants of the Franche-Comte, an imprudence; and
imprudence, among the poor, is promptly punished with want of bread.

After having been almost suffocated at first by his sense of scorn,
Julien ended by feeling pity: it had often been the lot of the fathers
of the majority of his comrades to come home on a winter evening to
their cottages, and to find there no bread, no chestnuts, and no
potatoes. 'Is it surprising then,' Julien asked himself, 'if the happy
man, in their eyes, is first of all the man who has just eaten a good
dinner, and after that he who possesses a good coat! My comrades have
a definite vocation; that is to say, they see in the ecclesiastical
calling a long continuation of this happiness: dining well and having
a warm coat in winter.'

Julien happened to hear a young seminarist, endowed with imagination,
say to his companion:

'Why should not I become Pope like Sixtus v, who was a swineherd?'

'They make none but Italians Popes,' replied the friend; 'but they'll
draw lots among us, for sure, to fill places as Vicars-General and
Canons, and perhaps Bishops. M. P---- the Bishop of Chalons, is the
son of a cooper; that is my father's trade.'

One day, in the middle of a lesson in dogma, the abbe Pirard sent for
Julien. The poor young fellow was delighted to escape from the
physical and moral atmosphere in which he was plunged.

Julien found himself greeted by the Director in the manner which had
so frightened him on the day of his joining the Seminary.

'Explain to me what I see written upon this playing card,' he said to
him, looking at him in such a way as to make him wish that the earth
would open and swallow him.

Julien read:

'Amanda Binet, at the Giraffe cafe, before eight o'clock. Say you are
from Genlis, and a cousin of my mother.'

Julien perceived the immensity of the danger; the abbe Castanede's
police had stolen the address from him.

'The day on which I came here,' he replied, gazing at the abbe
Pirard's forehead, for he could not face his terrible eye, 'I was
trembling with fear: M. Chelan had told me that this was a place full
of tale-bearing and spite of all sorts; spying and the accusation of
one's comrades are encouraged here. Such is the will of heaven, to
show life as it is to young priests, and to inspire in them a disgust
with the world and its pomps.'

'And it is to me that you make these fine speeches'--the abbe Pirard
was furious. 'You young rascal!'

'At Verrieres,' Julien went on calmly, 'my brothers used to beat me
when they had any reason to be jealous of me ...'

'To the point! Get to the point!' cried M. Pirard, almost beside

Without being the least bit in the world intimidated, Julien resumed
his narrative.

'On the day of my coming to Besancon, about noon, I felt hungry, I
went into a cafe. My heart was filled with repugnance for so profane a
spot; but I thought that my luncheon would cost me less there than at
an inn. A lady, who seemed to be the mistress of the place, took pity
on my raw looks.  "Besancon is full of wicked people," she told me, "I
am afraid for you, Sir. If you find yourself in any trouble, come to
me, send a message to me before eight o'clock. If the porters at the
Seminary refuse to take your message, say that you are my cousin, and
come from Genlis ..."'

'All this farrago will have to be investigated,' exclaimed the abbe
Pirard who, unable to remain in one place, was striding up and down
the room.

'You will go back to your cell!'

The abbe accompanied Julien and locked him in. He himself at once
proceeded to examine his trunk, in the bottom of which the fatal card
had been carefully concealed. Nothing was missing from the trunk, but
several things had been disarranged; and yet the key never left his
possession. 'How fortunate,' Julien said to himself, 'that during the
time of my blindness I never made use of the permission to leave the
building, which M. Castanede so frequently offered me with a
generosity which I now understand.  Perhaps I might have been so
foolish as to change my clothes and pay the fair Amanda a visit, I
should have been ruined. When they despaired of making any use of
their information in that way, so as not to waste it they have used it
to denounce me.

A couple of hours later, the Director sent for him.

'You have not lied,' he said to him, looking at him less severely;
'but to keep such an address is an imprudence the serious nature of
which you cannot conceive. Unhappy boy! In ten years, perhaps, it will
redound to your hurt.'

First Experience of Life

  The present moment, by God! is the ark of the Lord.
  Woe betide the man who lays his hand upon it.

The reader will kindly excuse our giving but few clear and precise
details of this epoch in Julien's life. Not that we lack them, far
from it; but perhaps the life he led in the Seminary is too black for
the modest colouring which we have sought to preserve in these pages.
People who have been made to suffer by certain things cannot be
reminded of them without a horror which paralyses every other
pleasure, even that to be found in reading a story.

Julien met with little success in his attempts at hypocrisy in action;
he passed through moments of disgust and even of complete
discouragement. He was utterly unsuccessful, and that moreover in a
vile career. The slightest help from without would have sufficed to
restore his morale, the difficulty to be overcome was not great; but
he was alone, as lonely as a vessel abandoned in mid-ocean. 'And if I
should succeed,' he said to himself; 'to have to spend my whole life
in such evil company! Gluttons who think of nothing but the ham
omelette they are going to devour at dinner, or men like the abbe
Castanede, to whom no crime is too black! They will rise to power; but
at what a price, great God!

'Man's will is powerful, I see it written everywhere; but is it
sufficiently so to overcome such repulsion? The task of great men has
always been easy; however terrible was their danger, it was beautiful
in their eyes; and who but myself can realise the ugliness of all that
surrounds me?'

This was the most trying moment in his life. It was so easy for him to
enlist in one of the fine regiments that were stationed at Besancon!
He might become a teacher of Latin; he wanted so little to keep
himself alive!  But then, no career, no future for his imagination: it
was a living death.  Here is a detailed account of one of his wretched

'My presumption has so often flattered itself upon my being different
from the other young peasants! Well, I have lived long enough to see
that difference breeds hatred,' he said to himself one morning. This
great truth had just been revealed to him by one of his most annoying
failures. He had laboured for a week to make himself agreeable to a
student who lived in the odour of sanctity. He was walking with him in
the courtyard, listening submissively to idiocies that sent him to
sleep as he walked. Suddenly a storm broke, the thunder growled, and
the saintly student exclaimed, thrusting him rudely away:

'Listen, each for himself in this world, I have no wish to be struck
by lightning: God may blast you as an infidel, another Voltaire.'

His teeth clenched with rage and his eyes opened towards the sky
furrowed by streaks of lightning: 'I should deserve to be submerged,
were I to let myself sleep during the storm!' cried Julien. 'Let us
attempt the conquest of some other drudge.'

The bell rang for the abbe Castanede's class of sacred history.

These young peasants who lived in such fear of the hard toil and
poverty of their fathers, were taught that day by the abbe Castanede
that that being so terrible in their eyes, the Government, had no real
or legitimate power save what was delegated to it by God's Vicar on

'Render yourselves worthy of the Pope's bounties by the sanctity of
your lives, by your obedience, be like a rod in his hands,' he went
on, 'and you will attain to a superb position where you will be in
supreme command, under no man's control; a permanent position, of
which the Government pays one third of the emoluments, and the
faithful, roused by your preaching, the other two thirds.'

On leaving his classroom, M. Castanede stopped in the courtyard.

'You may well say of a cure, each man gets what he deserves,' he said
to the students who gathered round him. 'I myself have known mountain
parishes where the fees came to more than those of many town cures.
There was as much in money, not to speak of the fat capons, eggs,
fresh butter, and endless little delicacies; and there the cure takes
the first place without challenge: no good meal to which he is not
invited, made much of,' etc.

No sooner had M. Castanede gone up to his own room, than the students
divided into groups. Julien belonged to none of these; they drew away
from him as from a tainted wether. In each of the groups, he saw a
student toss a copper in the air, and if he guessed head or tail
aright, his companions concluded that he would soon have one of these
livings with fat fees.

Stories followed. One young priest, barely a year in orders, having
presented a domestic rabbit to an old cure's servant, had got the cure
to ask for him as his assistant, and a few months afterwards, for the
cure had died almost immediately, had succeeded him in a good living.
Another had managed to have his name put forward for the eventual
succession to the curacy of a prosperous country town, by attending
all the meals of the paralytic old cure and carving his chickens for
him gracefully.

The seminarists, like young men in every profession, exaggerated the
effect of these little stratagems when they were out of the ordinary
and struck the imagination.

'I must,' thought Julien, 'take part in these conversations.' When
they were not discussing sausages and rich livings, their talk ran on
the worldly side of ecclesiastical teaching; the differences between
Bishops and Prefects, mayors and cures. Julien saw lurking in their
minds the idea of a second God, but of a God far more to be feared and
far more powerful than the first; this second God was the Pope. It was
said, but with lowered voice, and when the speaker was quite certain
of not being overheard by M. Pirard, that if the Pope did not take
the trouble to appoint all the Prefects and all the mayors in France,
it was because he had delegated the King of France for that duty, by
naming him the Eldest Son of the Church.

It was about this time that Julien thought he might derive some
benefit from his admiration for M. de Maistre's book on the Pope. He
did, as a matter of fact, astonish his fellow-students; but this was a
fresh misfortune. He annoyed them by expressing their opinions better
than they could themselves. M. Chelan had been a rash counsellor for
Julien as he had been for himself. After training him to the habit of
reasoning accurately and not letting himself be taken in by vain
words, he had omitted to tell him that in a person of little repute
this habit is a crime; for sound reasoning always gives offence.

Julien's fine speech was therefore only another crime against him. His
companions, being compelled to think about him, succeeded in finding
two words to express all the horror with which he filled them: they
nicknamed him Martin Luther; 'chiefly,' they said, 'because of that
infernal logic of which he is so proud.'

Several young seminarists had fresher complexions and might be
reckoned better looking than Julien; but he had white hands, and could
not hide certain habits of personal cleanliness. This distinction was
none at all in the grim dwelling into which destiny had cast him. The
unclean peasants among whom he lived declared that he had extremely
lax morals. We are afraid to tire the reader by an account of our
hero's endless mishaps. To take one instance, the more vigorous among
his companions tried to make a practice of thrashing him; he was
obliged to arm himself with a metal compass and to inform them, but
only by signs, that he would use it. Signs cannot be represented, in a
spy's report, so damningly as words.

A Procession

  All hearts were moved. God's presence seemed to have come down
  into these narrow, gothic streets, decked on every side, and
  strewn with sand through the good offices of the faithful.
    YOUNG [Tr. footnote:  As in Chapter 26 I have left this motto
    in French.  It seems, however, to be taken from Arthur Young
    rather and Edward. C. K. S. M.]

In vain might Julien make himself small and foolish, he could not give
satisfaction, he was too different. 'And yet,' he said to himself,
'all these Professors are men of great discernment, and picked men,
each of them one in a thousand; how is it they do not like my
humility?' One alone seemed to him to be taking advantage of his
readiness to believe anything and to appear taken in by everything.
This was the abbe Chas-Bernard, Master of Ceremonies at the Cathedral,
where, for the last fifteen years, he had been kept in hopes of a
Canonry; in the meantime, he taught sacred eloquence at the Seminary.
In the period of his blindness, this class was one of those in which
Julien most regularly came out at the top. The abbe Chas had been led
by this to show a partiality for him, and, at the end of his class,
would gladly take his arm for a turn in the garden.

'What can his object be?' Julien asked himself. He found with
amazement that, for hours on end, the abbe talked to him of the
ornaments which the Cathedral possessed. It had seventeen apparelled
chasubles, apart from the vestments worn at requiems. They had great
hopes of President de Rubempre's widow; this lady, who was ninety
years old, had preserved for at least seventy of those years her
wedding garments of superb Lyons stuffs, figured in gold. 'Just
imagine, my friend,' said the abbe Chas coming to a standstill and
opening his eyes wide, 'these stuffs stand by themselves, there is so
much gold in them. It is common opinion in Besancon that, under the
Presidente's will, the treasury of the Cathedral will be enriched with
more than ten chasubles, not to mention four or five copes for the
greater feasts. I will go farther,' the abbe Chas added, lowering his
voice. 'I have good reason to think that the Presidente will bequeath
to us eight magnificent silver-gilt candlesticks, which are supposed
to have been bought in Italy, by the Duke of Burgundy, Charles the
Bold, whose favourite minister was an ancestor of hers.'

'But what is this man really aiming at behind all this frippery?'
Julien wondered. 'This careful preparation has been going on for an
age, and nothing comes of it. He must have singularly little faith in
me! He is cleverer than any of the others, whose secret purposes one
can see so plainly after a fortnight. I understand, this man's
ambition has been in torment for fifteen years.'

One evening, in the middle of the armed drill, Julien was sent for by
the abbe Pirard, who said to him:

'Tomorrow is the feast of Corpus Christi. M. l'abbe Chas-Bernard
requires you to help him to decorate the Cathedral; go and obey.'

The abbe Pirard called him back, and added, in a tone of compassion:

'It is for you to decide whether you wish to seize the opportunity of
taking a stroll through the town.'

'_Incedo per ignes_,' replied Julien: which is to say, I am treading on
dangerous ground.

Next morning at daybreak, Julien made his way to the Cathedral,
walking with lowered eyes. The sight of the streets and the activity
which was beginning to pervade the town did him good. On every side
people were draping the fronts of their houses for the procession. All
the time that he had spent in the Seminary seemed to him no more than
an instant. His thoughts were at Vergy, and with that charming Amanda
Binet, whom he might meet, for her cafe was but little out of his way.
He saw in the distance the abbe Chas-Bernard, standing by the door of
his beloved Cathedral; he was a large man with a joyful countenance
and an open air. This morning he was triumphant: 'I have been waiting
for you, my dear son,' he called out, as soon as he caught sight of
Julien, 'you are welcome. Our labours this day will be long and hard,
let us fortify ourselves with an early breakfast; the other we shall
take at ten o'clock during high mass.'

'I desire, Sir,' Julien said to him with an air of gravity, 'not to be
left alone for a moment; kindly observe,' he added, pointing to the
clock above their heads, 'that I have arrived at one minute before

'Ah! So you are afraid of those young rascals at the Seminary! It is
too kind of you to give them a thought,' said the abbe Chas; 'is a
road any the worse, because there are thorns in the hedges on either
side of it? The traveller goes his way and leaves the wicked thorns to
wither where they are. However, we must to work, my dear friend, to

The abbe Chas had been right in saying that their labours would be
hard.  There had been a great funeral service in the Cathedral the day
before; it had been impossible to make any preparations; they were
obliged, therefore, in the course of the morning, to drape each of the
gothic pillars which separate the nave from the aisles in a sort of
jacket of red damask which rose to a height of thirty feet. The Bishop
had ordered four decorators from Paris by mail coach, but these
gentlemen could not do everything themselves, and so far from
encouraging the awkward efforts of their Bisontine colleagues they
increased their awkwardness by laughing at it.

Julien saw that he would have to go up the ladders himself, his
agility stood him in good stead. He undertook to direct the local
decorators in person. The abbe Chas was in ecstasies as he watched him
spring from one ladder to another. When all the pillars were hung with
damask, the next thing was to go and place five enormous bunches of
plumes on top of the great baldachino, over the high altar. A richly
gilded wooden crown was supported on eight great twisted columns of
Italian marble. But, in order to reach the centre of the baldachino,
over the tabernacle, one had to step across an old wooden cornice,
possibly worm-eaten, and forty feet from the ground.

The sight of this perilous ascent had extinguished the gaiety, so
brilliant until then, of the Parisian decorators; they looked at it
from beneath, discussed it volubly, and did not go up. Julien took
possession of the bunches of plumes, and ran up the ladder. He
arranged them admirably upon the ornament in the form of a crown in
the centre of the baldachino. As he stepped down from the ladder, the
abbe Chas-Bernard took him in his arms.

'_Optime_!' exclaimed the worthy priest, 'I shall tell Monseigneur of

Their ten o'clock breakfast was a merry feast. Never had the abbe Chas
seen his church looking so well.

'My dear disciple,' he said to Julien, 'my mother used to hire out
chairs in this venerable fane, so that I was brought up in this great
edifice.  Robespierre's Terror ruined us; but, at eight years old, as
I then was, I was already serving masses in private houses, and
their owners gave me my dinner on mass days. No one could fold a
chasuble better than I, the gold braid was never broken. Since the
restoration of the Faith by Napoleon, it has been my happy lot to
take charge of everything in this venerable mother church. On five
days in the year, my eyes behold it decked out with these beautiful
ornaments. But never has it been so resplendent, never have the damask
strips been so well hung as they are today, have they clung so to the

'At last, he is going to tell me his secret,' thought Julien, 'here he
is talking to me of himself; he is beginning to expand.' But nothing
imprudent was said by this man, evidently in an excited state. 'And
yet he has worked hard, he is happy,' Julien said to himself, 'the
good wine has not been spared. What a man! What an example for me! He
takes the prize.' (This was a low expression which he had picked up
from the old surgeon.)

When the Sanctus bell rang during high mass, Julien wished to put on a
surplice so as to follow the Bishop in the superb procession.

'And the robbers, my friend, the robbers!' cried the abbe Chas, 'you
forget them. The procession is going out; the church will be left
empty; we must keep watch, you and I. We shall be fortunate if we lose
only a couple of ells of that fine braid which goes round the base of
the pillars. That is another gift from Madame de Rubempre; it comes
from the famous Count, her great-grandfather; it is pure gold, my
friend,' the abbe went on, whispering in his ear, and with an air of
evident exaltation, 'nothing false about it! I entrust to you the
inspection of the north aisle, do not stir from it. I keep for myself
the south aisle and nave. Keep an eye on the confessionals; it is
there that the robbers' women spies watch for the moment when our
backs are turned.'

As he finished speaking, the quarter before twelve struck, at once the
big bell began to toll. It was being pulled with all the ringers'
might; the rich and solemn sound stirred Julien deeply. His
imagination rose from the ground.

The odour of the incense and of the rose leaves strewn before the
Blessed Sacrament by children dressed as little Saint Johns,
intensified his excitement.

The sober note of the bell ought to have suggested to Julien only the
thought of the work of a score of men earning fifty centimes, and
assisted perhaps by fifteen or twenty of the faithful. He ought to
have thought of the wear and tear of the ropes, of the timber, of the
danger from the bell itself which fell every two hundred years, and to
have planned some way of diminishing the wage of the ringers, or of
paying them with some indulgence or other favour drawn from the
spiritual treasury of the Church, with no strain upon her purse.

In place of these sage reflections, Julien's soul, excited by these
rich and virile sounds, was straying through imaginary space. Never
will he make either a good priest or a great administrator. Souls that
are moved thus are capable at most of producing an artist. Here
Julien's presumption breaks out in the full light of day. Fifty,
perhaps, of his fellow seminarists, made attentive to the realities of
life by the public hatred and Jacobinism which, they are told, is
lurking behind every hedge, on hearing the big bell of the Cathedral,
would have thought only of the wages paid to the ringers.  They would
have applied the genius of a Bareme to determine the question whether
the degree of emotion aroused in the public was worth the money given
to the ringers. Had Julien chosen to give his mind to the material
interests of the Cathedral, his imagination flying beyond its goal
would have thought of saving forty francs for the Chapter, and would
have let slip the opportunity of avoiding an outlay of twenty-five

While, in the most perfect weather ever seen, the procession wound its
way slowly through Besancon, and halted at the glittering stations
which all the local authorities had vied with one another in erecting,
the church remained wrapped in a profound silence. A suffused light,
an agreeable coolness reigned in it; it was still balmy with the
fragrance of flowers and incense.

The silence, the profound solitude, the coolness of the long aisles,
made Julien's musings all the sweeter. He had no fear of being
disturbed by the abbe Chas, who was occupied in another part of the
building. His soul had almost quitted its mortal envelope, which was
strolling at a slow pace along the north aisle committed to his
charge. He was all the more at rest, since he was certain that there
was nobody in the confessionals save a few devout women; he saw
without observing.

His distraction was nevertheless half conquered by the sight of two
women extremely well dressed who were kneeling, one of them in a
confessional, the other, close beside her, upon a chair. He saw
without observing them; at the same time, whether from a vague sense
of his duty, or from admiration of the plain but noble attire of these
ladies, he remarked that there was no priest in that confessional. 'It
is strange,' he thought, 'that these beautiful ladies are not kneeling
before some station, if they are religious; or placed in good seats in
the front of some balcony, if they are fashionable. How well cut that
gown is! What grace!' He slackened his pace in order to see their

The one who was kneeling in the confessional turned her head slightly
on hearing the sound of Julien's step amid the prevailing silence. All
at once she gave a little cry, and fainted.

As her strength left her, this kneeling lady fell back; her friend,
who was close at hand, hastened to the rescue. At the same time Julien
caught sight of the shoulders of the lady who had fallen back. A rope
of large seed pearls, well known to him, caught his eye. What was his
state when he recognised the hair of Madame de Renal! It was she. The
lady who was trying to hold up her head, and to arrest her fall, was
Madame Derville. Julien, beside himself with emotion, sprang forward;
Madame de Renal's fall would perhaps have brought down her friend if
he had not supported them. He saw Madame de Renal's head, pale,
absolutely devoid of consciousness, drooping upon her shoulder. He
helped Madame Derville to prop that charming head against the back of
a straw chair; he was on his knees.

Madame Derville turned and recognised him.

'Fly, Sir, fly!' she said to him in accents of the most burning anger.
'On no account must she see you again. The sight of you must indeed
fill her with horror, she was so happy before you came! Your behaviour
is atrocious.  Fly; be off with you, if you have any shame left.'

This speech was uttered with such authority, and Julien felt so weak
at the moment, that he withdrew. 'She always hated me,' he said to
himself, thinking of Madame Derville.

At that moment, the nasal chant of the leading priests in the
procession rang through the church; the procession was returning. The
abbe Chas-Bernard called repeatedly to Julien, who at first did not
hear him: finally he came and led him by the arm from behind a pillar
where Julien had taken refuge more dead than alive. He wished to
present him to the Bishop.

'You are feeling unwell, my child,' said the abbe, seeing him so pale
and almost unable to walk; 'you have been working too hard.' The abbe
gave him his arm. 'Come, sit down here, on the sacristan's little
stool, behind me; I shall screen you.' They were now by the side of
the main door. 'Calm yourself, we have still a good twenty minutes
before Monseigneur appears.  Try to recover yourself; when he passes,
I shall hold you up, for I am strong and vigorous, in spite of my

But when the Bishop passed, Julien was so tremulous that the abbe Chas
abandoned the idea of presenting him.

'Do not worry yourself about it,' he told him, 'I shall find another

That evening, he sent down to the chapel of the Seminary ten pounds of
candles, saved, he said, by Julien's efforts and the rapidity with
which he extinguished them. Nothing could have been farther from the
truth. The poor boy was himself extinguished; he had not had a thought
in his head after seeing Madame de Renal.

The First Step

  He knew his times, he knew his departement, and he is rich.
    _Le Precurseur_

Julien had not yet recovered from the profound abstraction in which
the incident in the Cathedral had plunged him, when one morning the
grim abbe Pirard sent for him.

'Here is M. l'abbe Chas-Bernard writing to me to commend you. I am
quite satisfied with your conduct as a whole. You are extremely
imprudent and indeed stupid, without showing it; however, up to the
present your heart is sound and even generous; your intellect is above
the average. Taking you all in all, I see a spark in you which must
not be neglected.

'After fifteen years of labour, I am on the eve of leaving this
establishment: my crime is that of having allowed the seminarists to
use their own judgment, and of having neither protected nor unmasked
that secret society of which you have spoken to me at the stool of
penitence.  Before I go, I wish to do something for you; I should have
acted two months ago, for you deserve it, but for the accusation based
upon the address of Amanda Binet, which was found in your possession.
I appoint you tutor in the New and Old Testaments.'

Julien, in a transport of gratitude, quite thought of falling on his
knees and thanking God; but he yielded to a more genuine impulse. He
went up to the abbe Pirard and took his hand, which he raised to his

'What is this?' cried the Director in a tone of annoyance; but
Julien's eyes were even more eloquent than his action.

The abbe Pirard gazed at him in astonishment, like a man who, in the
course of long years, has fallen out of the way of meeting with
delicate emotions. This attention pierced the Director's armour; his
voice changed.

'Ah, well! Yes, my child, I am attached to you. Heaven knows that it
is entirely against my will. I ought to be just, and to feel neither
hatred nor love for anyone. Your career will be difficult. I see in
you something that offends the common herd. Jealousy and calumny will
pursue you. In whatever place Providence may set you, your companions
will never set eyes on you without hating you; and if they pretend to
love you, it will be in order to betray you the more surely. For this
there is but one remedy: have recourse only to God, who has given you,
to punish you for your presumption, this necessity of being hated; let
your conduct be pure; that is the sole resource that I can see for
you. If you hold fast to the truth with an invincible embrace, sooner
or later your enemies will be put to confusion."

It was so long since Julien had heard a friendly voice, that we must
forgive him a weakness: he burst into tears. The abbe Pirard opened
his arms to embrace him; the moment was very precious to them both.

Julien was wild with joy; this promotion was the first that he had
obtained; the advantages were immense. In order to realise them, one
must have been condemned to pass whole months without a moment's
solitude, and in immediate contact with companions at best tiresome,
and mostly intolerable. Their shouts alone would have been enough to
create disorder in a sensitive organism. The boisterous joy of these
peasants well fed and well dressed, could find expression, thought
itself complete only when they were shouting with the full force of
their lungs.

Now Julien dined by himself, or almost so, an hour later than the rest
of the seminarists. He had a key to the garden, and might walk there
at the hours when it was empty.

Greatly to his surprise, Julien noticed that they hated him less; he
had been expecting, on the contrary, an intensification of their
hatred. That secret desire that no one should speak to him, which was
all too apparent and had made him so many enemies, was no longer a
sign of absurd pride. In the eyes of the coarse beings among whom he
lived, it was a proper sense of his own dignity. Their hatred
diminished perceptibly, especially among the youngest of his
companions, now become his pupils, whom he treated with great
courtesy. In course of time he had even supporters; it became bad form
to call him Martin Luther.

But why speak of his friends, his enemies? It is all so ugly, and all
the more ugly, the more accurately it is drawn from life. These are
however the only teachers of ethics that the people have, and without
them where should we be? Will the newspaper ever manage to take the
place of the parish priest?

Since Julien's promotion, the Director of the Seminary made a point of
never speaking to him except in the presence of witnesses. This was
only prudent, in the master's interest as well as the pupil's; but
more than anything else it was a test. The stern Jansenist Pirard's
invariable principle was: 'Has a man any merit in your eyes? Place an
obstacle in the way of everything that he desires, everything that he
undertakes. If his merit be genuine, he will certainly be able to
surmount or thrust aside your obstacles.'

It was the hunting season. Fouque took it into his head to send to the
Seminary a stag and a boar in the name of Julien's family. The dead
animals were left lying in the passage, between kitchen and refectory.
There all the seminarists saw them on their way to dinner. They
aroused much interest. The boar, although stone dead, frightened the
younger boys; they fingered his tusks. Nothing else was spoken of for
a week.

This present, which classified Julien's family in the section of
society that one must respect, dealt a mortal blow to jealousy. It was
a form of superiority consecrated by fortune. Chazel and the most
distinguished of the seminarists made overtures to him, and almost
complained to him that he had not warned them of his parents' wealth,
and had thus betrayed them into showing a want of respect for money.

There was a conscription from which Julien was exempt in his capacity
as a seminarist. This incident moved him deeply. 'And so there has
passed now for ever the moment at which, twenty years ago, a heroic
life would have begun for me!'

Walking by himself in the Seminary garden, he overheard a conversation
between two masons who were at work upon the enclosing wall.

'Ah, well! One will have to go, here's another conscription.'

In the _other man's_ days, well and good! A stone mason became an
officer, and became a general, that has been known.'

'Look what it's like now! Only the beggars go. A man with the
_wherewithal_ stays at home.'

'The man who is born poor stays poor, and that's all there is to it.'

'Tell me, now, is it true what people say, that the other is dead?'
put in a third mason.

'It's the big ones who say that, don't you see? They were afraid of
the other.'

'What a difference, how well everything went in his time! And to think
that he was betrayed by his Marshals! There must always be a traitor

This conversation comforted Julien a little. As he walked away he
repeated to himself with a sigh:

'The only King whose memory the people cherish still!'

The examinations came round. Julien answered the questions in a
brilliant manner; he saw that Chazel himself was seeking to display
the whole extent of his knowledge.

On the first day, the examiners appointed by the famous Vicar-General
de Frilair greatly resented having always to place first, or at the
very most second on their list this Julien Sorel who had been pointed
out to them as the favourite of the abbe Pirard. Wagers were made in
the Seminary that in the aggregate list of the examinations, Julien
would occupy the first place, a distinction that carried with it the
honour of dining with the Bishop. But at the end of one session, in
which the subject had been the Fathers of the Church, a skilful
examiner, after questioning Julien upon Saint Jerome, and his passion
for Cicero, began to speak of Horace, Virgil and other profane
authors. Unknown to his companions, Julien had learned by heart a
great number of passages from these authors. Carried away by his
earlier successes, he forgot where he was and, at the repeated request
of the examiner, recited and paraphrased with enthusiasm several odes
of Horace. Having let him sink deeper and deeper for twenty minutes,
suddenly the examiner's face changed, and he delivered a stinging
rebuke to Julien for having wasted his time in these profane studies,
and stuffed his head with useless if not criminal thoughts.

'I am a fool, Sir, and you are right,' said Julien with a modest air,
as he saw the clever stratagem by which he had been taken in.

This ruse on the examiner's part was considered a dirty trick, even in
the Seminary, though this did not prevent M. l'abbe de Frilair, that
clever man, who had so ably organised the framework of the Bisontine
_Congregation_, and whose reports to Paris made judges, prefect, and
even the general officers of the garrison tremble, from setting, with
his powerful hand, the number 198 against Julien's name. He was
delighted thus to mortify his enemy, the Jansenist Pirard.

For the last ten years his great ambition had been to remove Pirard
from control of the Seminary. That cleric, following in his own
conduct the principles which he had outlined to Julien, was sincere,
devout, innocent of intrigue, devoted to his duty. But heaven, in its
wrath, had given him that splenetic temperament, bound to feel deeply
insults and hatred. Not one of the affronts that were put upon him was
lost upon his ardent spirit.  He would have offered his resignation a
hundred times, but he believed that he was of use in the post in which
Providence had placed him. 'I prevent the spread of Jesuitry and
idolatry,' he used to say to himself.

At the time of the examinations, it was perhaps two months since he
had spoken to Julien, and yet he was ill for a week, when, on
receiving the official letter announcing the result of the
competition, he saw the number 198 set against the name of that pupil
whom he regarded as the glory of his establishment. The only
consolation for this stern character was to concentrate upon Julien
all the vigilance at his command. He was delighted to find in him
neither anger nor thoughts of revenge, nor discouragement.

Some weeks later, Julien shuddered on receiving a letter; it bore the
Paris postmark. 'At last,' he thought, 'Madame de Renal has remembered
her promises.' A gentleman who signed himself Paul Sorel, and
professed to be related to him, sent him a bill of exchange for five
hundred francs. The writer added that if Julien continued to study
with success the best Latin authors, a similar sum would be sent to
him every year.

'It is she, it is her bounty!' Julien said to himself with emotion,
'she wishes to comfort me; but why is there not one word of

He was mistaken with regard to the letter; Madame de Renal, under the
influence of her friend Madame Derville, was entirely absorbed in her
own profound remorse. In spite of herself, she often thought of the
strange creature whose coming into her life had so upset it, but she
would never have dreamed of writing to him.

If we spoke the language of the Seminary, we might see a miracle in
this windfall of five hundred francs, and say that it was M. de
Frilair himself that heaven had employed to make this gift to Julien.

Twelve years earlier, M. l'abbe de Frilair had arrived at Besancon with
the lightest of portmanteaux, which, the story went, contained his
entire fortune. He now found himself one of the wealthiest landowners
in the Department. In the course of his growing prosperity he had
purchased one half of an estate of which the other half passed by
inheritance to M. de La Mole. Hence a great lawsuit between these

Despite his brilliant existence in Paris, and the posts which he held
at court, the Marquis de La Mole felt that it was dangerous to fight
down at Besancon against a Vicar-General who was reputed to make and
unmake Prefects. Instead of asking for a gratuity of fifty thousand
francs, disguised under some head or other that would pass in the
budget, and allowing M. de Frilair to win this pettifogging action for
fifty thousand francs, the Marquis took offence. He believed that he
had a case: a fine reason!

For, if we may be so bold as to say it: what judge is there who has
not a son, or at least a cousin to help on in the world?

To enlighten the less clear-sighted, a week after the first judgment
that he obtained, M. l'abbe de Frilair took the Bishop's carriage, and
went in person to convey the Cross of the Legion of Honour to his
counsel. M. de La Mole, somewhat dismayed by the bold front assumed by
the other side, and feeling that his own counsel were weakening, asked
the advice of the abbe Chelan, who put him in touch with M. Pirard.

At the date of our story they had been corresponding thus for some
years.  The abbe Pirard dashed into the business with all the force of
his passionate nature. In constant communication with the Marquis's
counsel, he studied his case, and finding him to be in the right,
openly declared himself a partisan of the Marquis de La Mole against
the all powerful Vicar-General. The latter was furious at such
insolence, and coming from a little Jansenist to boot!

'You see what these court nobles are worth who claim to have such
power!' the abbe de Frilair would say to his intimates; 'M. de La Mole
has not sent so much as a wretched Cross to his agent at Besancon, and
is going to allow him to be deprived of his post without a murmur. And
yet, my friends write to me, this noble peer never allows a week to
pass without going to show off his blue riband in the drawing-room of
the Keeper of the Seals, for what that is worth.'

In spite of all M. Pirard's activity, and albeit M. de La Mole was
always on the best of terms with the Minister of Justice and still
more with his officials, all that he had been able to achieve, after
six years of constant effort, was to avoid actually losing his case.

In ceaseless correspondence with the abbe Pirard, over an affair which
they both pursued with passion, the Marquis came in time to appreciate
the abbe's type of mind. Gradually, despite the immense gulf between
their social positions, their correspondence took on a tone of
friendship. The abbe Pirard told the Marquis that his enemies were
seeking to oblige him, by their insults, to offer his resignation. In
the anger which he felt at the infamous stratagem (according to him)
employed against Julien, he related the latter's story to the Marquis.

Although extremely rich, this great nobleman was not in the least a
miser.  He had never once been able to make the abbe Pirard accept so
much as the cost of postage occasioned by the lawsuit. He took the
opportunity to send five hundred francs to the abbe's favourite pupil.

M. de La Mole took the trouble to write the covering letter with his
own hand. This set him thinking of the abbe.

One day the latter received a short note in which he was requested to
call at once, upon urgent business, at an inn on the outskirts of
Besancon.  There he found M. de La Mole's steward.

'M. le Marquis has instructed me to bring you his carriage,' he was
informed. 'He hopes that after you have read this letter, you will
find it convenient to start for Paris, in four or five days from now.
I am going to employ the time which you will be so kind as to indicate
to me in visiting the estates of M. le Marquis in the Franche-Comte.
After which, on whatever day suits you, we shall start for Paris.'

The letter was brief:

'Rid yourself, my dear Sir, of all these provincial bickerings, come
and breathe a calmer air in Paris. I am sending you my carriage, which
has orders to await your decision for four days.  I shall wait for you
myself, in Paris, until Tuesday. It requires only the word yes, from
you, Sir, to make me accept in your name one of the best livings in
the neighbourhood of Paris. The wealthiest of your future parishioners
has never set eyes on you, but is devoted to you more warmly than you
can suppose; he is the Marquis de La Mole.'

Without knowing it, the stern abbe Pirard loved this Seminary, peopled
with his enemies, to which, for fifteen years, he had devoted all his
thoughts.  M. de La Mole's letter was to him like the sudden
appearance of a surgeon with the duty of performing a painful but
necessary operation. His dismissal was certain. He gave the steward an
appointment, in three days' time.

For the next forty-eight hours, he was in a fever of uncertainty.
Finally, he wrote to M. de La Mole and composed, for the Bishop's
benefit, a letter, a masterpiece of ecclesiastical diction, though a
trifle long. It would have been difficult to find language more
irreproachable, or breathing a more sincere respect. And yet this
letter, intended to give M. de Frilair a trying hour with his patron,
enumerated all the serious grounds for complaint and descended to the
sordid little pinpricks which, after he had borne them, with
resignation, for six years, were forcing the abbe Pirard to leave the

They stole the wood from his shed, they poisoned his dog, etc., etc.

This letter written, he sent to awaken Julien who, at eight o'clock in
the evening, was already asleep, as were all the seminarists.

'You know where the Bishop's Palace is?' he said to him in the best
Latin; 'take this letter to Monseigneur. I shall not attempt to
conceal from you that I am sending you amongst wolves. Be all eyes and
ears. No prevarication in your answers; but remember that the man who
is questioning you would perhaps take a real delight in trying to harm
you. I am glad, my child, to give you this experience before I leave
you, for I do not conceal from you that the letter which you are
taking contains my resignation.'

Julien did not move; he was fond of the abbe Pirard. In vain might
prudence warn him:

'After this worthy man's departure, the Sacred Heart party will
degrade and perhaps even expel me.'

He could not think about himself. What embarrassed him was a sentence
which he wished to cast in a polite form, but really he was incapable
of using his mind.

'Well, my friend, aren't you going?'

'You see, Sir, they say,' Julien began timidly, 'that during your long
administration here, you have never put anything aside. I have six
hundred francs.'

Tears prevented him from continuing.

'That too will be noticed,' said the ex-Director of the Seminary
coldly.  'Go to the Palace, it is getting late.'

As luck would have it, that evening M. l'abbe de Frilair was in
attendance in the Bishop's parlour; Monseigneur was dining at the
Prefecture. So that it was to M. de Frilair himself that Julien gave
the letter, but he did not know who he was.

Julien saw with astonishment that this priest boldly opened the letter
addressed to the Bishop. The fine features of the Vicar-General soon
revealed a surprise mingled with keen pleasure, and his gravity
increased.  While he was reading, Julien, struck by his good looks,
had time to examine him. It was a face that would have had more
gravity but for the extreme subtlety that appeared in certain of its
features, and would actually have suggested dishonesty, if the owner
of that handsome face had ceased for a moment to control it. The nose,
which was extremely prominent, formed an unbroken and perfectly
straight line, and gave unfortunately to a profile that otherwise was
most distinguished, an irremediable resemblance to the mask of a fox.
In addition, this abbe who seemed so greatly interested in M. Pirard's
resignation, was dressed with an elegance that greatly pleased Julien,
who had never seen its like on any other priest.

It was only afterwards that Julien learned what was the abbe de
Frilair's special talent. He knew how to amuse his Bishop, a pleasant
old man, made to live in Paris, who regarded Besancon as a place of
exile. This Bishop was extremely short-sighted, and passionately fond
of fish. The abbe de Frilair used to remove the bones from the fish
that was set before Monseigneur.

Julien was silently watching the abbe as he read over again the letter
of resignation, when suddenly the door burst open. A lackey, richly
attired, passed rapidly through the room. Julien had barely time to
turn towards the door; he saw a little old man, wearing a pectoral
cross. He fell on his knees: the Bishop bestowed a kind smile upon him
as he passed through the room. The handsome abbe followed him, and
Julien was left alone in this parlour, the pious magnificence of which
he could now admire at his leisure.

The Bishop of Besancon, a man of character, tried, but not crushed by
the long hardships of the Emigration, was more than seventy-five, and
cared infinitely little about what might happen in the next ten years.

'Who is that clever-looking seminarist, whom I seemed to see as I
passed?' said the Bishop. 'Ought they not, by my orders, to be in
their beds at this hour?'

'This one is quite wide awake, I assure you, Monseigneur, and he brings
great news: the resignation of the only Jansenist left in your
diocese.  That terrible abbe Pirard understands at last the meaning of
a hint.'

'Well,' said the Bishop with a laugh, 'I defy you to fill his place
with a man of his quality. And to show you the value of the man, I
invite him to dine with me tomorrow.'

The Vicar-General wished to insinuate a few words as to the choice of
a successor. The prelate, little disposed to discuss business, said to

'Before we put in the next man, let us try to discover why this one is
going. Fetch me in that seminarist, the truth is to be found in the
mouths of babes.'

Julien was summoned: 'I shall find myself trapped between two
inquisitors,' he thought. Never had he felt more courageous.

At the moment of his entering the room, two tall valets, better
dressed than M. Valenod himself, were disrobing Monseigneur. The
prelate, before coming to the subject of M. Pirard, thought fit to
question Julien about his studies. He touched upon dogma, and was
amazed. Presently he turned to the Humanities, Virgil, Horace, Cicero.
'Those names,' thought Julien, 'earned me my number 198. I have
nothing more to lose, let us try to shine.' He was successful; the
prelate, an excellent humanist himself, was enchanted.

At dinner at the Prefecture, a girl, deservedly famous, had recited
the poem of _La Madeleine_. [Footnote: A poem by  Delphine Gay]  He
was in the mood for literary conversation, and at once forgot the abbe
Pirard and everything else, in discussing with the seminarist the
important question, whether Horace had been rich or poor.  The prelate
quoted a number of odes, but at times his memory began to fail him,
and immediately Julien would recite the entire ode, with a modest air;
what struck the Bishop was that Julien never departed from
the tone of the conversation; he said his twenty or thirty Latin
verses as he would have spoken of what was going on in his Seminary. A
long discussion followed of Virgil and Cicero. At length the prelate
could not refrain from paying the young seminarist a compliment.

'It would be impossible to have studied to better advantage.'

'Monseigneur,' said Julien, 'your Seminary can furnish you with one
hundred and ninety-seven subjects far less unworthy of your esteemed

'How so?' said the prelate, astonished at this figure.

'I can support with official proof what I have the honour to say
before Monseigneur.

'At the annual examination of the Seminary, answering questions upon
these very subjects which have earned me, at this moment,
Monseigneur's approval, I received the number 198.'

'Ah! This is the abbe Pirard's favourite,' exclaimed the Bishop, with
a laugh, and with a glance at M. de Frilair; 'we ought to have
expected this; but it is all in fair play. Is it not the case, my
friend,' he went on, turning to Julien, 'that they waked you from your
sleep to send you here?'

'Yes, Monseigneur. I have never left the Seminary alone in my life but
once, to go and help M. l'abbe Chas-Bernard to decorate the Cathedral,
on the feast of Corpus Christi.'

'_Optime_,' said the Bishop; 'what, it was you that showed such great
courage, by placing the bunches of plumes on the baldachino? They
make me shudder every year; I am always afraid of their costing me a
man's life. My friend, you will go far; but I do not wish to cut short
your career, which will be brilliant, by letting you die of hunger.'

And, on an order from the Bishop, the servants brought in biscuits and
Malaga wine, to which Julien did honour, and even more so than abbe
Frilair, who knew that his Bishop liked to see him eat cheerfully and
with a good appetite.

The prelate, growing more and more pleased with the close of his
evening, spoke for a moment of ecclesiastical history. He saw that
Julien did not understand. He then passed to the moral conditions of
the Roman Empire, under the Emperors of the Age of Constantine. The
last days of paganism were accompanied by that state of uneasiness and
doubt which, in the nineteenth century, is disturbing sad and weary
minds. Monseigneur remarked that Julien seemed hardly to know even the
name of Tacitus.

Julien replied with candour, to the astonishment of the prelate, that
this author was not to be found in the library of the Seminary.

'I am really delighted to hear it,' said the Bishop merrily. 'You
relieve me of a difficulty; for the last ten minutes, I have been
trying to think of a way of thanking you for the pleasant evening
which you have given me, and certainly in a most unexpected manner.
Although the gift is scarcely canonical, I should like to give you a
set of Tacitus.'

The prelate sent for eight volumes handsomely bound, and insisted upon
writing with his own hand, on the title-page of the first, a Latin
inscription to Julien Sorel. The Bishop prided himself on his fine
Latinity; he ended by saying to him, in a serious tone, completely at
variance with his tone throughout the rest of the conversation:

'Young man, if you are wise, you shall one day have the best living in
my diocese, and not a hundred leagues from my episcopal Palace; but
you must be wise.'

Julien, burdened with his volumes, left the Palace, in great
bewilderment, as midnight was striking.

Monseigneur had not said a word to him about the abbe Pirard. Julien
was astonished most of all by the extreme politeness shown him by the
Bishop.  He had never imagined such an urbanity of form, combined with
so natural an air of dignity. He was greatly struck by the contrast
when he set eyes once more on the sombre abbe Pirard, who awaited him
with growing impatience.

'_Quid tibi dixerunt_? (What did they say to you?)' he shouted at the
top of his voice, the moment Julien came within sight.

Then, as Julien found some difficulty in translating the Bishop's
conversation into Latin:

'Speak French, and repeat to me Monseigneur's own words, without
adding or omitting anything,' said the ex-Director of the Seminary, in
his harsh tone and profoundly inelegant manner.

'What a strange present for a Bishop to make to a young seminarist,'
he said as he turned the pages of the sumptuous Tacitus, the gilded
edges of which seemed to fill him with horror.

Two o'clock was striking when, after a detailed report of everything,
he allowed his favourite pupil to retire to his own room.

'Leave me the first volume of your Tacitus, which contains the
Bishop's inscription,' he said to him. 'That line of Latin will be
your lightning conductor in this place, when I have gone.

'_Erit tibi, fili mi, successor meus tanquam leo quaerens quern
devoret_. (My successor will be to you, my son, as a lion seeking whom
he may devour.)'

On the following morning, Julien detected something strange in the
manner in which his companions addressed him. This made him all the
more reserved.  'Here,' he thought, 'we have the effect of M. Pirard's
resignation. It is known throughout the place, and I am supposed to be
his favourite. There must be an insult behind this attitude'; but he
could not discover it.  There was, on the contrary, an absence of
hatred in the eyes of all whom he encountered in the dormitories.
'What can this mean? It is doubtless a trap, we are playing a close
game.' At length the young seminarist from Verrieres said to him with
a laugh: '_Cornelii Taciti opera omnia_ (Complete Works of Tacitus).'

At this speech, which was overheard, all the rest seemed to vie with
one another in congratulating Julien, not only upon the magnificent
present which he had received from Monseigneur, but also upon the two
hours of conversation with which he had been honoured. It was common
knowledge, down to the most trifling details. From this moment, there
was no more jealousy; everyone paid court to him most humbly; the abbe
Castanede who, only yesterday, had treated him with the utmost
insolence, came to take him by the arm and invited him to luncheon.

Owing to a weakness in Julien's character, the insolence of these
coarse creatures had greatly distressed him; their servility caused
him disgust and no pleasure.

Towards midday, the abbe Pirard took leave of his pupils, not without
first delivering a severe allocution. 'Do you seek the honours of this
world,' he said to them, 'all social advantages, the pleasure of
commanding men, that of defying the laws and of being insolent to all
men with impunity? Or indeed do you seek your eternal salvation? The
most ignorant among you have only to open their eyes to distinguish
between the two paths.'

No sooner had he left than the devotees of the Sacred Heart of Jesus
went to chant a _Te Deum_ in the chapel. Nobody in the Seminary took
the late Director's allocution seriously. 'He is very cross at being
dismissed,' was what might be heard on all sides. Not one seminarist
was simple enough to believe in the voluntary resignation of a post
which provided so many opportunities for dealing with the big

The abbe Pirard took up his abode in the best inn in Besancon; and on
the pretext of some imaginary private affairs, proposed to spend a
couple of days there.

The Bishop invited him to dinner, and, to tease his Vicar-General, de
Frilair, endeavoured to make him shine. They had reached the dessert
when there arrived from Paris the strange tidings that the abbe Pirard
was appointed to the splendid living of N ----, within four leagues of
the capital. The worthy prelate congratulated him sincerely. He saw in
the whole affair a well played game which put him in a good humour and
gave him the highest opinion of the abbe's talents. He bestowed upon
him a magnificent certificate in Latin, and silenced the abbe de
Frilair, who ventured to make remonstrances.

That evening, Monseigneur carried his admiration to the drawing-room
of the Marquise de Rubempre. It was a great piece of news for the
select society of Besancon; people were lost in conjectures as to the
meaning of this extraordinary favour. They saw the abbe Pirard a
Bishop already. The sharper wits supposed M. de La Mole to have become
a Minister, and allowed themselves that evening to smile at the
imperious airs which M. l'abbe de Frilair assumed in society.

Next morning, the abbe Pirard was almost followed through the streets,
and the tradesmen came out to their shop-doors when he went to beg an
audience of the Marquis's judges. For the first time, he was received
by them with civility. The stern Jansenist, indignant at everything
that he saw around him, spent a long time at work with the counsel
whom he had chosen for the Marquis de La Mole, and then left for
Paris. He was so foolish as to say to two or three lifelong friends
who escorted him to the carriage and stood admiring its heraldic
blason, that after governing the Seminary for fifteen years he was
leaving Besancon with five hundred and twenty francs in savings.
These friends embraced him with tears in their eyes, and then said to
one another: The good abbe might have spared himself that lie, it is
really too absurd.'

The common herd, blinded by love of money, were not fitted to
understand that it was in his sincerity that the abbe Pirard had found
the strength to fight single-handed for six years against Marie
Alacoque, the Sacred Heart of Jesus, the Jesuits and his Bishop.


  There is only one true nobility left; namely, the title of Duke;
  Marquis is absurd, at the word Duke one turns one's head.
    The Edinburgh Review  [Trans. footnote: I have translated this
    motto, which is quoted in French by Stendhal, but have not been
    able to find the original passage in the _Edinburgh Review.
    C. K. S. M.]

The Marquis de La Mole received the abbe Pirard without any of those
little mannerisms of a great gentleman, outwardly so polite, but so
impertinent to him who understands them. It would have been a waste of
time, and the Marquis was so far immersed in public business as to
have no time to waste.

For six months he had been intriguing to make both King and nation
accept a certain Ministry, which, as a mark of gratitude, would make
him a Duke.

The Marquis had appealed in vain, year after year, to his lawyer at
Besancon for a clear and definite report on his lawsuits in the
Franche-Comte. How was the eminent lawyer to explain them to him, if
he did not understand them himself?

The little slip of paper which the abbe gave him explained everything.

'My dear abbe,' said the Marquis, after polishing off in less than
five minutes all the polite formulas and personal inquiries, 'my dear
abbe, in the midst of my supposed prosperity, I lack the time to
occupy myself seriously with two little matters which nevertheless are
of considerable importance: my family and my affairs. I take the
greatest interest in the fortunes of my house, I may carry it far; I
look after my pleasures, and that is what must come before everything
else, at least in my eyes,' he went on, noticing the astonishment in
the eyes of the abbe Pirard. Although a man of sense, the abbe was
amazed to see an old man talking so openly of his pleasures.

'Work does no doubt exist in Paris,' the great nobleman continued,
'but perched in the attics; and as soon as I come in contact with a
man, he takes an apartment on the second floor, and his wife starts a
day; consequently, no more work, no effort except to be or to appear
to be a man of fashion. That is their sole interest once they are
provided with bread.

'For my lawsuits, to be strictly accurate, and also for each lawsuit
separately, I have lawyers who work themselves to death; one of them
died of consumption, the day before yesterday. But, for my affairs in
general, would you believe, Sir, that for the last three years I have
given up hope of finding a man who, while he is writing for me, will
deign to think a little seriously of what he is doing. However, all
this is only a preamble.

'I respect you, and, I would venture to add, although we meet for the
first time, I like you. Will you be my secretary, with a salary of
eight thousand francs, or indeed twice that sum? I shall gain even
more, I assure you; and I shall make it my business to keep your fine
living for you, for the day on which we cease to agree.'

The abbe declined, but towards the end of the conversation, the sight
of the Marquis's genuine embarrassment suggested an idea to him.

'I have left down in my Seminary a poor young man who, if I be not
mistaken, is going to be brutally persecuted. If he were only a simple
monk he would be already _in pace_.

'At present this young man knows only Latin and the Holy Scriptures;
but it is by no means impossible that one day he may display great
talent, either for preaching or for the guidance of souls. I do not
know what he will do; but he has the sacred fire, he may go far. I
intended to give him to our Bishop, should one ever be sent to us who
had something of your way of looking at men and affairs.'

'What is your young man's origin?' said the Marquis.

'He is said to be the son of a carpenter in our mountains, but I am
inclined to believe that he is the natural son of some rich man. I
have seen him receive an anonymous or pseudonymous letter containing a
bill of exchange for five hundred francs.'

'Ah! It is Julien Sorel,' said the Marquis.

'How do you know his name?' asked the astonished abbe; and, as he was
blushing at his own question:

'That is what I am not going to tell you,' replied the Marquis.

'Very well!' the abbe went on, 'you might try making him your
secretary, he has energy, and judgment; in short, it is an experiment
worth trying.'

'Why not?' said the Marquis; 'but would he be the sort of man to let
his palm be greased by the Prefect of Police or by anyone else, to
play the spy on me? That is my only objection.'

Receiving favourable assurances from the abbe Pirard, the Marquis
produced a note for one thousand francs:

'Send this to Julien Sorel for his journey; tell him to come to me.'

'One can see,' said the abbe Pirard, 'that you live in Paris! You are
unaware of the tyranny that weighs upon us poor provincials, and
especially upon priests who are not on good terms with the Jesuits.
They will never allow Julien Sorel to leave, they will manage to cover
themselves with the cleverest excuses, they will reply that he is ill,
letters will have gone astray in the post,' etc., etc.

'One of these days I shall procure a letter from the Minister to the
Bishop,' said the Marquis.

'I was forgetting one thing,' said the abbe: 'this young man, although
of quite humble birth, has a proud heart, he will be of no use to you
if his pride is offended; you will only make him stupid.'

'I like that,' said the Marquis, 'I shall make him my son's companion,
will that do?'

Some time after this, Julien received a letter in an unknown hand and
bearing the postmark of Chalons, and found a draft upon a merchant in
Besancon and instructions to proceed to Paris without delay. The
letter was signed with an assumed name, but as he opened it Julien
trembled: a leaf from a tree had fallen out at his feet; it was the
signal arranged between him and the abbe Pirard.

Within an hour, Julien was summoned to the Bishop's Palace, where he
found himself greeted with a wholly fatherly welcome. Interspersed
with quotations from Horace, Monseigneur paid him, with regard to the
exalted destiny that awaited him in Paris, a number of very neat
compliments, which required an explanation if he were to express his
thanks. Julien could say nothing, chiefly because he knew nothing, and
Monseigneur showed a high regard for him. One of the minor clergy of
the Palace wrote to the Mayor who made haste to appear in person
bringing a passport already signed, but with a blank space for the
name of the traveller.

Before midnight, Julien was with Fouque, whose sober mind was more
astonished than delighted by the future which seemed to be in store
for his friend.

'The end of it will be,' said this Liberal elector, 'a post under
Government, which will oblige you to take some action that will be
pilloried in the newspapers. It will be through your disgrace that I
shall have news of you. Remember that, even financially speaking, it
is better to earn one hundred louis in an honest trade in timber,
where you are your own master, than to receive four thousand francs
from a Government, were it that of King Solomon himself.'

Julien saw no more in this than the pettiness of a rustic mind. He was
at last going to appear on the stage of great events. The good fortune
of going to Paris, which he peopled in his imagination with men of
intelligence, great intriguers, great hypocrites, but as courteous as
the Bishop of Besancon and the Bishop of Agde, eclipsed everything
else in his eyes. He represented himself to his friend as deprived of
his free will by the abbe Pirard's letter.

Towards noon on the following day he arrived in Verrieres the happiest
of men, he reckoned upon seeing Madame de Renal again. He went first
of all to his original protector, the good abbe Chelan. He met with a
stern reception.

'Do you consider that you are under any obligation to me?' said M.
Chelan, without acknowledging his greeting. 'You will take luncheon
with me, meanwhile another horse will be hired for you, and you will
leave Verrieres, without seeing anyone.'

'To hear is to obey,' replied Julien, with the prim face of a
seminarist; and there was no further discussion save of theology and
Latin scholarship.

He mounted his horse, rode a league, after which, coming upon a wood,
with no one to see him enter it, he hid himself there. At sunset he
sent the horse back. Later on, he entered the house of a peasant, who
agreed to sell him a ladder, and to go with him, carrying the ladder,
to the little wood that overhung the Cours de la Fidelite, in

'We are a poor conscript deserting--or a smuggler,' said the peasant,
as he took leave of him, 'but what do I care? My ladder is well paid
for, and I myself have had to pass some awkward moments in my life.'

The night was very dark. About one o'clock in the morning, Julien,
carrying his ladder, made his way into Verrieres. He climbed down as
soon as he could into the bed of the torrent, which ran through M. de
Renal's magnificent gardens at a depth of ten feet, and confined
between walls.  Julien climbed up easily by his ladder. 'What sort of
greeting will the watch-dogs give me?' he wondered. 'That is the whole
question.' The dogs barked, and rushed towards him; but he whistled
softly, and they came and fawned upon him.

Then climbing from terrace to terrace, although all the gates were
shut, he had no difficulty in arriving immediately beneath the window
of Madame de Renal's bedroom, which, on the garden side, was no more
than nine or ten feet above the ground.

There was in the shutters a small opening in the shape of a heart,
which Julien knew well. To his great dismay, this little opening was
not lighted by the glimmer of a nightlight within.

'Great God!' he said to himself; 'tonight, of all nights, this room is
not occupied by Madame de Renal! Where can she be sleeping? The family
are at Verrieres, since I found the dogs here; but I may in this room,
without a light, come upon M. de Renal himself or a stranger, and then
what a scandal!'

The most prudent course was to retire; but the idea filled Julien with
horror. 'If it is a stranger, I shall make off as fast as my legs will
carry me, leaving my ladder behind; but if it is she, what sort of
welcome awaits me? She is steeped in repentance and the most extreme
piety, I may be sure of that; but after all, she has still some memory
of me, since she has just written to me.' With this argument he made
up his mind.

His heart trembling, but determined nevertheless to see her or to
perish, he flung a handful of gravel against the shutter; no reply. He
placed his ladder against the wall by the side of the window and
tapped himself on the shutter, softly at first then more loudly. 'Dark
as it is, they may fire a gun at me,' thought Julien. This thought
reduced his mad undertaking to a question of physical courage.

'This room is unoccupied tonight,' he thought, 'or else whoever it is
that is sleeping here is awake by this time. So there is no need for
any further precaution here; all I need think of is not making myself
heard by the people who are sleeping in the other rooms.'

He stepped down, placed his ladder against one of the shutters,
climbed up again and passing his hand through the heart-shaped
opening, was fortunate in finding almost at once the wire fastened to
the latch that closed the shutter. He pulled this wire; it was with an
unspeakable joy that he felt that the shutter was no longer closed and
was yielding to his efforts. 'I must open it little by little and let
her recognise my voice.' He opened the shutter sufficiently to pass
his head through the gap, repeating in a whisper: 'It is a friend.'

He made certain, by applying his ear, that nothing broke the profound
silence in the room. But decidedly, there was no nightlight, even half
extinguished, on the hearth; this was indeed a bad sign.

'Beware of a gunshot!' He thought for a moment; then, with one finger,
ventured to tap the pane: no response; he tapped more loudly. 'Even if
I break the glass, I must settle this business.' As he was knocking
hard, he thought he could just make out, in the pitch darkness,
something like a white phantom coming across the room. In a moment,
there was no doubt about it, he did see a phantom which seemed to be
advancing with extreme slowness. Suddenly he saw a cheek pressed to
the pane to which his eye was applied.

He shuddered, and recoiled slightly. But the night was so dark that,
even at this close range, he could not make out whether it was Madame
de Renal.  He feared an instinctive cry of alarm; he could hear the
dogs prowling with muttered growls round the foot of his ladder. 'It
is I,' he repeated, quite loudly, 'a friend.' No answer; the white
phantom had vanished. 'For pity's sake, open the window. I must speak
to you, I am too wretched!' and he knocked until the window nearly

A little sharp sound was heard; the catch of the window gave way; he
pushed it open and sprang lightly into the room.

The white phantom moved away; he seized it by the arms; it was a
woman. All his ideas of courage melted. 'If it is she, what will she
say to me?' What was his state when he realised from a faint cry that
it was Madame de Renal.

He gathered her in his arms; she trembled, and had barely the strength
to repulse him.

'Wretch! What are you doing?'

Scarcely could her tremulous voice articulate the words. Julien saw
that she was genuinely angry.

'I have come to see you after fourteen months of a cruel parting.'

'Go, leave me this instant. Ah! M. Chelan, why did you forbid me to
write to him? I should have prevented this horror.' She thrust him
from her with a force that was indeed extraordinary. 'I repent of my
crime; heaven has deigned to enlighten me,' she repeated in a stifled
voice. 'Go! Fly!'

'After fourteen months of misery, I shall certainly not leave you
until I have spoken to you. I wish to know all that you have been
doing. Ah! I have loved you well enough to deserve this confidence ...
I wish to know all.'

In spite of herself Madame de Renal felt this tone of authority exert
its influence over her heart.

Julien, who was holding her in a passionate embrace, and resisting her
efforts to liberate herself, ceased to press her in his arms. This
relaxation helped to reassure Madame de Renal.

'I am going to draw up the ladder,' he said, 'so that it may not
compromise us if one of the servants, awakened by the noise, goes the

'Ah! Leave me, leave me rather,' the answer came with unfeigned anger.
'What do men matter to me? It is God that sees the terrible wrong you
are doing me, and will punish me for it. You are taking a cowardly
advantage of the regard that I once felt for you, but no longer feel.
Do you hear, Master Julien?'

He drew up the ladder very slowly, so as not to make any noise.

'Is your husband in town?' he asked, not to defy her, but from force
of habit.

'Do not speak to me so, for pity's sake, or I shall call my husband. I
am all too guilty already of not having sent you away, at any cost. I
pity you,' she told him, seeking to wound his pride which she knew to
be so irritable.

Her refusal to use the _tu_ form, that abrupt method of breaking so
tender a bond, and one upon which he still reckoned, roused Julien's
amorous transport to a frenzy.

'What! Is it possible that you no longer love me!' he said to her, in
those accents of the heart to which it is so difficult to listen

She made no reply; as for him, he was weeping bitter tears.

Really, he had no longer the strength to speak.

'And so I am completely forgotten by the one person who has ever loved
me!  What use to live any longer?' All his courage had left him as
soon as he no longer had to fear the danger of encountering a man;
everything had vanished from his heart, save love.

He wept for a long time in silence. He took her hand, she tried to
withdraw it; and yet, after a few almost convulsive movements, she let
him keep it.  The darkness was intense; they found themselves both
seated upon Madame de Renal's bed.

'What a difference from the state of things fourteen months ago!'
thought Julien, and his flow of tears increased. 'So absence
unfailingly destroys all human feelings!

'Be so kind as to tell me what has happened to you,' Julien said at
length, embarrassed by his silence and in a voice almost stifled by

'There can be no doubt,' replied Madame de Renal in a harsh voice, the
tone of which offered a cutting reproach to Julien, 'my misdeeds were
known in the town, at the time of your departure. You were so
imprudent in your behaviour. Some time later, when I was in despair,
the respectable M. Chelan came to see me. It was in vain that, for a
long time, he sought to obtain a confession. One day, the idea
occurred to him to take me into that church at Dijon in which I made
my first Communion. There, he ventured to broach the subject...'
Madame de Renal's speech was interrupted by her tears. 'What a
shameful moment! I confessed all. That worthy man was kind enough not
to heap on me the weight of his indignation: he shared my distress. At
that time I was writing you day after day letters which I dared not
send you; I concealed them carefully, and when I was too wretched used
to shut myself up in my room and read over my own letters.

'At length, M. Chelan persuaded me to hand them over to him ... Some
of them, written with a little more prudence than the rest, had been
sent to you; never once did you answer me.'

'Never, I swear to you, did I receive any letter from you at the

'Great God! who can have intercepted them?'

'Imagine my grief; until the day when I saw you in the Cathedral, I
did not know whether you were still alive.'

'God in His mercy made me understand how greatly I was sinning against
Him, against my children, against my husband,' replied Madame de
Renal. 'He has never loved me as I believed then that you loved me

Julien flung himself into her arms, without any definite intention but
with entire lack of self-control. But Madame de Renal thrust him from
her, and continued quite firmly:

'My respectable friend M. Chelan made me realise that, in marrying M.
de Renal, I had pledged all my affections to him, even those of which
I was still ignorant, which I had never felt before a certain fatal
intimacy ...  Since the great sacrifice of those letters, which were
so precious to me, my life has flowed on, if not happily, at any rate
quietly enough. Do not disturb it any more; be a friend to me ... the
best of friends.' Julien covered her hands with kisses; she could feel
that he was still crying. 'Do not cry, you distress me so ... Tell me,
it is your turn now, all that you have been doing.' Julien was unable
to speak. 'I wish to know what sort of life you led at the Seminary,'
she repeated, 'then you shall go.'

Without a thought of what he was telling her, Julien spoke of the
endless intrigues and jealousies which he had encountered at first,
then of his more peaceful life after he was appointed tutor.

'It was then,' he added, 'that after a long silence, which was
doubtless intended to make me understand what I see only too clearly
now, that you no longer love me, and that I had become as nothing to
you ...'

Madame de Renal gripped his hands. 'It was then that you sent me a sum
of five hundred francs.'

'Never,' said Madame de Renal.

'It was a letter postmarked _Paris_ and signed Paul Sorel, to avoid all

A short discussion followed as to the possible source of this letter.
The atmosphere began to change. Unconsciously, Madame de Renal and
Julien had departed from their solemn tone; they had returned to that
of a tender intimacy. They could not see each other, so intense was
the darkness, but the sound of their voices told all. Julien slipped
his arm round the waist of his mistress; this movement was highly
dangerous. She tried to remove Julien's arm, whereupon he, with a
certain adroitness, distracted her attention by an interesting point
in his narrative.

The arm was then forgotten, and remained in the position that it had

After abundant conjectures as to the source of the letter with the
five hundred francs, Julien had resumed his narrative; he became
rather more his own master in speaking of his past life which, in
comparison with what was happening to him at that moment, interested
him so little. His attention was wholly concentrated on the manner in
which his visit was to end. 'You must leave me,' she kept on telling
him, in a curt tone.

'What a disgrace for me if I am shown the door! The remorse will be
enough to poison my whole life,' he said to himself, 'she will never
write to me.  God knows when I shall return to this place!' From that
moment, all the element of heavenly bliss in Julien's situation
vanished rapidly from his heart. Seated by the side of a woman whom he
adored, clasping her almost in his arms, in this room in which he had
been so happy, plunged in a black darkness, perfectly well aware that
for the last minute she had been crying, feeling, from the movement of
her bosom, that she was convulsed with sobs, he unfortunately became a
frigid politician, almost as calculating and as frigid as when, in the
courtyard of the Seminary, he saw himself made the butt of some
malicious joke by one of his companions stronger than himself. Julien
spun out his story, and spoke of the wretched life he had led since
leaving Verrieres. 'And so,' Madame de Renal said to herself, 'after a
year's absence, almost without a single token of remembrance, while I
was forgetting him, his mind was entirely taken up with the happy days
he had enjoyed at Vergy.' Her sobs increased in violence. Julien saw
that his story had been successful. He realised that he must now try
his last weapon: he came abruptly to the letter that he had just
received from Paris.

'I have taken leave of Monseigneur, the Bishop.'

'What! You are not returning to Besancon! You are leaving us for

'Yes,' replied Julien, in a resolute tone; 'yes, I am abandoning the
place where I am forgotten even by her whom I have most dearly loved
in all my life, and I am leaving it never to set eyes on it again. I
am going to Paris ...'

'You are going to Paris!' Madame de Renal exclaimed quite aloud.

Her voice was almost stifled by her tears, and showed the intensity of
her grief. Julien had need of this encouragement; he was going to
attempt a course which might decide everything against him; and before
this exclamation, seeing no light, he was absolutely ignorant of the
effect that he was producing. He hesitated no longer; the fear of
remorse gave him complete command of himself; he added coldly as he
rose to his feet:

'Yes, Madame, I leave you for ever, may you be happy; farewell.'

He took a few steps towards the window; he was already opening it.
Madame de Renal sprang after him and flung herself into his arms.

Thus, after three hours of conversation, Julien obtained what he had
so passionately desired during the first two. Had they come a little
earlier, this return to tender sentiments, the eclipse of remorse in
Madame de Renal would have been a divine happiness; obtained thus by
artifice, they were no more than mere pleasure. Julien positively
insisted, against the entreaties of his mistress, upon lighting the

'Do you then wish me,' he asked her, 'to retain no memory of having
seen you? The love that is doubtless glowing in those charming eyes,
shall it then be lost to me? Shall the whiteness of that lovely hand
be invisible to me? Think that I am leaving you for a very long time

Madame de Renal could refuse nothing in the face of this idea which
made her dissolve in tears. Dawn was beginning to paint in clear hues
the outline of the fir trees on the mountain to the least of
Verrieres. Instead of going away, Julien, intoxicated with pleasure,
asked Madame de Renal to let him spend the whole day hidden in her
room, and not to leave until the following night.

'And why not?' was her answer. 'This fatal relapse destroys all my
self-esteem, and dooms me to lifelong misery,' and she pressed him to
her heart. 'My husband is no longer the same, he has suspicions; he
believes that I have been fooling him throughout this affair, and is
in the worst of tempers with me. If he hears the least sound I am
lost, he will drive me from the house like the wretch that I am.'

'Ah! There I can hear the voice of M. Chelan,' said Julien; you would
not have spoken to me like that before my cruel departure for the
Seminary; you loved me then!'

Julien was rewarded for the coolness with which he had uttered this
speech; he saw his mistress at once forget the danger in which the
proximity of her husband involved her, to think of the far greater
danger of seeing Julien doubtful of her love for him. The daylight was
rapidly increasing and now flooded the room; Julien recovered all the
exquisite sensations of pride when he was once more able to see in his
arms and almost at his feet this charming woman, the only woman that
he had ever loved, who, a few hours earlier, had been entirely wrapped
up in the fear of a terrible God and in devotion to duty. Resolutions
fortified by a year of constancy had not been able to hold out against
his boldness.

Presently they heard a sound in the house; a consideration to which
she had not given a thought now disturbed Madame de Renal.

'That wicked Elisa will be coming into the room, what are we to do
with that enormous ladder?' she said to her lover; 'where are we to
hide it? I am going to take it up to the loft,' she suddenly
exclaimed, with a sort of playfulness.

'But you will have to go through the servant's room,' said Julien with

'I shall leave the ladder in the corridor, call the man and send him
on an errand.'

'Remember to have some excuse ready in case the man notices the ladder
when he passes it in the passage.'

'Yes, my angel,' said Madame de Renal as she gave him a kiss. 'And
you, remember to hide yourself quickly under the bed if Elisa comes
into the room while I am away.'

Julien was amazed at this sudden gaiety. 'And so,' he thought, 'the
approach of physical danger, so far from disturbing her, restores her
gaiety because she forgets her remorse! Indeed a superior woman! Ah!
There is a heart in which it is glorious to reign!' Julien was in

Madame de Renal took the ladder; plainly it was too heavy for her.
Julien went to her assistance; he was admiring that elegant figure,
which suggested anything rather than strength, when suddenly, without
help, she grasped the ladder and picked it up as she might have picked
up a chair.  She carried it swiftly to the corridor on the third
storey, where she laid it down by the wall. She called the manservant,
and, to give him time to put on his clothes, went up to the dovecote.
Five minutes later, when she returned to the corridor, the ladder was
no more to be seen. What had become of it? Had Julien been out of the
house, the danger would have been nothing. But, at that moment, if her
husband saw the ladder! The consequences might be appalling. Madame de
Renal ran up and down the house. At last she discovered the ladder
under the roof, where the man had taken it and in fact hidden it
himself. This in itself was strange, and at another time would have
alarmed her.

'What does it matter to me,' she thought, 'what may happen in
twenty-four hours from now, when Julien will have gone? Will not
everything then be to me horror and remorse?'

She had a sort of vague idea that she ought to take her life, but what
did that matter? After a parting which she had supposed to be for
ever, he was restored to her, she saw him again, and what he had done
in making his way to her gave proof of such a wealth of love!

In telling Julien of the incident of the ladder:

'What shall I say to my husband,' she asked him, 'if the man tells him
how he found the ladder?' She meditated for a moment. 'It will take
them twenty-four hours to discover the peasant who sold it to you';
and flinging herself into Julien's arms and clasping him in a
convulsive embrace: 'Ah!  to die, to die like this!' she cried as she
covered him with kisses; 'but I must not let you die of hunger,' she
added with a laugh.

'Come; first of all, I am going to hide you in Madame Derville's room,
which is always kept locked.' She kept watch at the end of the
corridor and Julien slipped from door to door. 'Remember not to
answer, if anyone knocks,' she reminded him as she turned the key
outside; 'anyhow, it would only be the children playing.'

'Make them go into the garden, below the window,' said Julien, 'so
that I may have the pleasure of seeing them, make them speak.'

'Yes, yes,' cried Madame de Renal as she left him.

She returned presently with oranges, biscuits, a bottle of Malaga; she
had found it impossible to purloin any bread.

'What is your husband doing?' said Julien.

'He is writing down notes of the deals he proposes to do with some

But eight o'clock had struck, the house was full of noise. If Madame
de Renal were not to be seen, people would begin searching everywhere
for her; she was obliged to leave him. Presently she returned, in
defiance of all the rules of prudence, to bring him a cup of coffee;
she was afraid of his dying of hunger.  After luncheon she managed to
shepherd the children underneath the window of Madame Derville's room.
He found that they had grown considerably, but they had acquired a
common air, or else his ideas had changed. Madame de Renal spoke to
them of Julien. The eldest replied with affection and regret for his
former tutor, but it appeared that the two younger had almost
forgotten him.

M. de Renal did not leave the house that morning; he was incessantly
going up and downstairs, engaged in striking bargains with certain
peasants, to whom he was selling his potato crop. Until dinner time,
Madame de Renal had not a moment to spare for her prisoner. When
dinner was on the table, it occurred to her to steal a plateful of hot
soup for him. As she silently approached the door of the room in which
he was, carrying the plate carefully, she found herself face to face
with the servant who had hidden the ladder that morning. At that
moment, he too was coming silently along the corridor, as though
listening. Probably Julien had forgotten to tread softly. The servant
made off in some confusion. Madame de Renal went boldly into Julien's
room; her account of the incident made him shudder.

'You are afraid'; she said to him; 'and I, I would brave all the
dangers in the world without a tremor. I fear one thing only, that is
the moment when I shall be left alone after you have gone,' and she
ran from the room.

'Ah!' thought Julien, greatly excited, 'remorse is the only danger
that sublime soul dreads!'

Night came at last. M. de Renal went to the Casino.

His wife had announced a severe headache, she retired to her room,
made haste to dismiss Elisa, and speedily rose from her bed to open
the door to Julien.

It so happened that he really was faint with hunger. Madame de Renal
went to the pantry to look for bread. Julien heard a loud cry. She
returned and told him that on entering the dark pantry, making her way
to a cupboard in which the bread was kept, and stretching out her
hand, she had touched a woman's arm. It was Elisa who had uttered the
cry which Julien had heard.

'What was she doing there?'

'She was stealing a few sweetmeats, or possibly spying on us,' said
Madame de Renal with complete indifference. 'But fortunately I have
found a pate and a big loaf.'

'And what have you got there?' said Julien, pointing to the pockets of
her apron.

Madame de Renal had forgotten that, ever since dinner, they had been
filled with bread.

Julien clasped her in his arms with the keenest passion; never had she
seemed to him so beautiful. 'Even in Paris,' he told himself vaguely,
'I shall not be able to find a nobler character.' She had all the
awkwardness of a woman little accustomed to attentions of this sort,
and at the same time the true courage of a person who fears only
dangers of another kind and far more terrible.

While Julien was devouring his supper with a keen appetite, and his
mistress was playfully apologising for the simplicity of the repast,
for she had a horror of serious speech, the door of the room was all
at once shaken violently. It was M. de Renal.

'Why have you locked yourself in?' he shouted to her.

Julien had just time to slip beneath the sofa.

'What! You are fully dressed,' said M. de Renal, as he entered; 'you
are having supper, and you have locked your door?'

On any ordinary day, this question, put with all the brutality of a
husband, would have troubled Madame de Renal, but she felt that her
husband had only to lower his eyes a little to catch sight of Julien;
for M. de Renal had flung himself upon the chair on which Julien had
been sitting a moment earlier, facing the sofa.

Her headache served as an excuse for everything. While in his turn her
husband was giving her a long and detailed account of the pool he had
won in the billiard room of the Casino, 'a pool of nineteen francs,
begad!' he added, she saw lying on a chair before their eyes, and
within a few feet of them, Julien's hat. Cooler than ever, she began
to undress, and, choosing her moment, passed swiftly behind her
husband and flung a garment over the chair with the hat on it.

At length M. de Renal left her. She begged Julien to begin over again
the story of his life in the Seminary: 'Yesterday I was not listening
to you, I was thinking, while you were speaking, only of how I was to
bring myself to send you away.'

She was the embodiment of imprudence. They spoke very loud; and it
might have been two o'clock in the morning when they were interrupted
by a violent blow on the door. It was M. de Renal again:

'Let me in at once, there are burglars in the house!' he said,
'Saint-Jean found their ladder this morning.'

'This is the end of everything,' cried Madame de Renal, throwing
herself into Julien's arms. 'He is going to kill us both, he does not
believe in the burglars; I am going to die in your arms, more
fortunate in my death than I have been in my life.' She made no answer
to her husband, who was waiting angrily outside, she was holding
Julien in a passionate embrace.

'Save Stanislas's mother,' he said to her with an air of command. 'I
am going to jump down into the courtyard from the window of the
closet, and escape through the garden, the dogs know me. Make a bundle
of my clothes and throw it down into the garden as soon as you can.
Meanwhile, let him break the door in. And whatever you do, no
confession, I forbid it, suspicion is better than certainty.'

'You will kill yourself, jumping down,' was her sole reply and her
sole anxiety.

She went with him to the window of the closet; she then took such time
as she required to conceal his garments. Finally she opened the door
to her husband, who was boiling with rage. He searched the bedroom,
the closet, without uttering a word, and then vanished. Julien's
clothes were thrown down to him, he caught them and ran quickly down
the garden towards the Doubs.

As he ran, he heard a bullet whistle past him, and simultaneously the
sound of a gun being fired.

'That is not M. de Renal,' he decided, 'he is not a good enough shot.'
The dogs were running by his side in silence, a second shot apparently
shattered the paw of one dog, for it began to emit lamentable howls.
Julien jumped the wall of a terrace, proceeded fifty yards under
cover, then continued his flight in a different direction. He heard
voices calling, and could distinctly see the servant, his enemy, fire
a gun; a farmer also came and shot at him from the other side of the
garden, but by this time Julien had reached the bank of the Doubs,
where he put on his clothes.

An hour later, he was a league from Verrieres, on the road to Geneva.
'If there is any suspicion,' thought Julien, 'it is on the Paris road
that they will look for me.'


  She is not pretty, she is not wearing rouge.



Chapter 1 Country Pleasures

Chapter 2 First Appearance in Society

Chapter 3 First Steps

Chapter 4 The Hotel de La Mole

Chapter 5 Sensibility and a Pious Lady

Chapter 6 Pronunciation

Chapter 7 An Attack of Gout

Chapter 8 What Is the Decoration that Confers Distinction?

Chapter 9 The Ball

Chapter 10 Queen Marguerite

Chapter 11 The Tyranny of a Girl

Chapter 12 Another Danton?

Chapter 13 A Plot

Chapter 14 A Girl's Thoughts

Chapter 15 Is It a Plot?

Chapter 16 One o'Clock in the Morning

Chapter 17 An Old Sword

Chapter 18 Painful Moments

Chapter 19 The Opera-Bouffe

Chapter 20 The Japanese Vase

Chapter 21 The Secret Note

Chapter 22 The Discussion

Chapter 23 The Clergy, their Forests, Liberty

Chapter 24 Strasbourg

Chapter 25 The Office of Virtue

Chapter 26 Moral Love

Chapter 27 The Best Positions in the Church

Chapter 28 Manon Lescaut

Chapter 29 Boredom

Chapter 30 A Box at the Bouffes

Chapter 31 Making Her Afraid

Chapter 32 The Tiger

Chapter 33 The Torment of the Weak

Chapter 34 A Man of Spirit

Chapter 35 A Storm

Chapter 36 Painful Details

Chapter 37 A Dungeon

Chapter 38 A Man of Power

Chapter 39 Intrigue

Chapter 40 Tranquillity

Chapter 41 The Trial

Chapter 42 In the Prison

Chapter 43 Last Adieux

Chapter 44 The Shadow of the Guillotine

Chapter 45 Exit Julien

           Translator's Note

Country Pleasures

  O rus, quando ego te aspiciam!
    VIRGIL  [HORACE in earlier edition]

'The gentleman is waiting, surely, for the mail-coach for Paris?' he
was asked by the landlord of an inn at which he stopped to break his

'Today or tomorrow, it is all the same to me,' said Julien.

The coach arrived while he was feigning indifference. There were two
places vacant.

'What! It is you, my poor Falcoz,' said the traveller, who had come
from the direction of Geneva to him who now entered the coach with

'I thought you had settled in the neighbourhood of Lyons,' said
Falcoz, 'in a charming valley by the Rhone.'

'Settled, indeed! I am running away.'

'What! Running away? You, Saint-Giraud! With that honest face of
yours, have you committed a crime?' said Falcoz, with a laugh.

'Upon my soul, not far off it. I am running away from the abominable
life one leads in the country. I love the shade of the woods and the
quiet of the fields, as you know; you have often accused me of being
romantic. The one thing I never wished to hear mentioned was politics,
and politics pursue me everywhere.'

'But to what party do you belong?'

'To none, and that is what has been fatal to me. These are all my
politics: I enjoy music, and painting; a good book is an event in my
life; I shall soon be four and forty. How many years have I to live?
Fifteen, twenty, thirty, perhaps, at the most. Very well; I hold that
in thirty years from now, our Ministers will be a little more able,
but otherwise just as good fellows as we have today. The history of
England serves as a mirror to show me our future. There will always be
a King who seeks to extend his prerogative; the ambition to enter
Parliament, the glory and the hundreds of thousands of francs amassed
by Mirabeau will always keep our wealthy provincials awake at night:
they will call that being Liberal and loving the people. The desire to
become a Peer or a Gentleman in Waiting will always possess the
Ultras. On board the Ship of State, everyone will wish to be at the
helm, for the post is well paid.  Will there never be a little corner
anywhere for the mere passenger?'

'Why, of course, and a very pleasant one, too, for a man of your
peaceful nature. Is it the last election that is driving you from
your district?'

'My trouble dates from farther back. I was, four years ago, forty
years old, and had five hundred thousand francs, I am four years older
now, and have probably fifty thousand less, which I shall lose by the
sale of my place, Monfleury, by the Rhone, a superb position.

'In Paris, I was tired of that perpetual play-acting, to which one is
driven by what you call nineteenth-century civilisation. I felt a
longing for human fellowship and simplicity. I bought a piece of land
in the mountains by the Rhone, the most beautiful spot in the world.

'The vicar of the village and the neighbouring squires made much of me
for the first six months; I had them to dine; I had left Paris, I told
them, so as never to mention or to hear of politics again. You see, I
subscribe to no newspaper. The fewer letters the postman brings me,
the happier I am.

'This was not what the vicar wanted; presently I was besieged with
endless indiscreet requests, intrigues, and so forth. I wished to give
two or three hundred francs every year to the poor, they pestered me
for them on behalf of pious associations; Saint Joseph, Our Lady, and
so forth. I refused: then I came in for endless insults. I was foolish
enough to show annoyance.  I could no longer leave the house in the
morning to go and enjoy the beauty of our mountain scenery, without
meeting some bore who would interrupt my thoughts with an unpleasant
reminder of my fellow men and their evil ways.  In the Rogationtide
processions, for instance, the chanting in which I like (it is
probably a Greek melody), they no longer bless my fields, because, the
vicar says, they belong to an unbeliever. A pious old peasant woman's
cow dies, she says that it is because there is a pond close by which
belongs to me, the unbeliever, a philosopher from Paris, and a week
later I find all my fish floating on the water, poisoned with lime. I
am surrounded by trickery in every form. The justice of the peace, an
honest man, but afraid of losing his place, always decides against me.
The peace of the fields is hell to me. As soon as they saw me
abandoned by the vicar, head of the village _Congregation_, and not
supported by the retired captain, head of the Liberals, they all fell
upon me, even the mason who had been living upon me for a year, even
the wheelwright, who tried to get away with cheating me when he mended
my ploughs.

'In order to have some footing and to win a few at least of my
lawsuits, I turned Liberal; but, as you were saying, those damned
elections came, they asked me for my vote ...'

'For a stranger?'

'Not a bit of it, for a man I know only too well. I refused, a fearful
imprudence! From that moment, I had the Liberals on top of me as well,
my position became intolerable. I believe that if it had ever entered
the vicar's head to accuse me of having murdered my servant, there
would have been a score of witnesses from both parties, ready to swear
that they had seen me commit the crime.'

'You wish to live in the country without ministering to your
neighbours' passions, without even listening to their gossip. What a

'I have made amends for it now. Monfleury is for sale. I shall lose
fifty thousand francs, if I must, but I am overjoyed, I am leaving
that hell of hypocrisy and malice. I am going to seek solitude and
rustic peace in the one place in France where they exist, in a
fourth-floor apartment, overlooking the Champs-Elysees. And yet I am
just thinking whether I shall not begin my political career, in the
Roule quarter, by presenting the blessed bread in the parish church.'

'None of that would have happened to you under Bonaparte,' said
Falcoz, his eyes shining with anger and regret.

'That's all very well, but why couldn't he keep going, your Bonaparte?
Everything that I suffer from today is his doing.'

Here Julien began to listen with increased attention. He had realised
from the first that the Bonapartist Falcoz was the early playmate of
M. de Renal, repudiated by him in 1816, while the philosopher
Saint-Giraud must be a brother of that chief clerk in the Prefecture
of ----, who knew how to have municipal property knocked down to him
on easy terms.

'And all that has been your Bonaparte's doing,' Saint-Giraud
continued: 'An honest man, harmless if ever there was one, forty years
old and with five hundred thousand francs, can't settle down in the
country and find peace there. Bonaparte's priests and nobles drive him
out again.'

'Ah! You must not speak evil of him,' cried Falcoz, 'never has France
stood so high in the esteem of foreign nations as during the thirteen
years of his reign. In those days, everything that was done had
greatness in it.'

'Your Emperor, may the devil fly away with him,' went on the man of
four and forty, 'was great only upon his battlefields, and when he
restored our financial balance in 1801. What was the meaning of all
his conduct after that? With his chamberlains and his pomp and his
receptions at the Tuileries, he simply furnished a new edition of all
the stuff and nonsense of the monarchy. It was a corrected edition, it
might have served for a century or two. The nobles and priests
preferred to return to the old edition, but they have not the iron
hand that they need to bring it before the public.'

'Listen to the old printer talking!'

'Who is it that is turning me off my land?' went on the printer with
heat.  'The priests, whom Napoleon brought back with his Concordat,
instead of treating them as the State treats doctors, lawyers,
astronomers, of regarding them merely as citizens, without inquiring
into the trade by which they earn their living. Would there be these
insolent gentlemen today if your Bonaparte had not created barons and
counts? No, the fashion had passed. Next to the priests, it is the
minor country nobles that have annoyed me most, and forced me to turn

The discussion was endless, this theme will occupy the minds and
tongues of France for the next half-century. As Saint-Giraud kept on
repeating that it was impossible to live in the provinces, Julien
timidly cited the example of M. de Renal.

'Egad, young man, you're a good one!' cried Falcoz, 'he has turned
himself into a hammer so as not to be made the anvil, and a terrible
hammer at that. But I can see him cut out by Valenod. Do you know that
rascal? He's the real article. What will your M. de Renal say when he
finds himself turned out of office one of these fine days, and Valenod
filling his place?'

'He will be left to meditate on his crimes,' said Saint-Giraud. 'So
you know Verrieres, young man, do you? Very good! Bonaparte, whom
heaven confound, made possible the reign of the Renals and Chelans,
which has paved the way for the reign of the Valenods and Maslons.'

This talk of shady politics astonished Julien, and took his thoughts
from his dreams of sensual bliss.

He was little impressed by the first view of Paris seen in the
distance.  His fantastic imaginings of the future in store for him had
to do battle with the still vivid memory of the twenty-four hours
which he had just spent at Verrieres. He made a vow that he would
never abandon his mistress's children, but would give up everything to
protect them, should the impertinences of the priests give us a
Republic and lead to persecutions of the nobility.

What would have happened to him on the night of his arrival at
Verrieres if, at the moment when he placed his ladder against Madame
de Renal's bedroom window, he had found that room occupied by a
stranger, or by M. de Renal?

But also what bliss in those first few hours, when his mistress really
wished to send him away, and he pleaded his cause, seated by her side
in the darkness! A mind like Julien's is pursued by such memories for
a lifetime. The rest of their meeting had already merged into the
first phases of their love, fourteen months earlier.

Julien was awakened from his profound abstraction by the stopping of
the carriage. They had driven into the courtyard of the posthouse in
the rue Jean-Jacques Rousseau. 'I wish to go to La Malmaison,' he
told the driver of a passing cabriolet. 'At this time of night, Sir?
What to do?' 'What business is it of yours? Drive on.'

True passion thinks only of itself. That, it seems to me, is why the
passions are so absurd in Paris, where one's neighbour always insists
upon one's thinking largely of him. I shall not describe Julien's
transports at La Malmaison. He wept. What! In spite of the ugly white
walls set up this year, which divide the park in pieces? Yes, sir;
for Julien, as for posterity, there was no distinction between
Arcole, Saint Helena and La Malmaison.

That evening, Julien hesitated for long before entering the playhouse;
he had strange ideas as to that sink of iniquity.

An intense distrust prevented him from admiring the Paris of today, he
was moved only by the monuments bequeathed by his hero.

'So here I am in the centre of intrigue and hypocrisy! This is where
the abbe de Frilair's protectors reign.'

On the evening of the third day, curiosity prevailed over his plan of
seeing everything before calling upon the abbe Pirard.

The said abbe explained to him, in a frigid tone, the sort of life
that awaited him at M. de La Mole's.

'If after a few months you are of no use to him, you will return to
the Seminary, but by the front door. You are going to lodge with the
Marquis, one of the greatest noblemen in France. You will dress in
black, but like a layman in mourning, not like a churchman. I require
that, thrice weekly, you pursue your theological studies in a
Seminary, where I shall introduce you. Each day, at noon, you will
take your place in the library of the Marquis, who intends to employ
you in writing letters with reference to lawsuits and other business.
The Marquis notes down, in a word or two, upon the margin of each
letter that he receives, the type of answer that it requires. I have
undertaken that, by the end of three months, you will have learned to
compose these answers to such effect that, of every twelve which you
present to the Marquis for his signature, he will be able to sign
eight or nine. In the evening, at eight o'clock, you will put his
papers in order, and at ten you will be free.

'It may happen,' the abbe Pirard continued, 'that some old lady or
some man of persuasive speech will hint to you the prospect of immense
advantages, or quite plainly offer you money to let him see the
letters received by the Marquis ...'

'Oh, Sir!' cried Julien, blushing.

'It is strange,' said the abbe with a bitter smile, 'that, poor as you
are, and after a year of Seminary, you still retain these virtuous
indignations.  You must indeed have been blind!

'Can it be his blood coming out?' murmured the abbe, as though putting
the question to himself. 'The strange thing is,' he added, looking at
Julien, 'that the Marquis knows you ... How, I cannot say. He is
giving you, to begin with, a salary of one hundred louis. He is a man
who acts only from caprice, that is his weakness; he will outdo you in
puerilities. If he is pleased with you, your salary may rise in time
to eight thousand francs.

'But you must be well aware,' the abbe went on in a harsh tone, 'that
he is not giving you all this money for your handsome face. You will
have to be of use to him. If I were in your position, I should speak
as little as possible, and above all, never speak of matters of which
I know nothing.

'Ah!' said the abbe, 'I have been making inquiries on your behalf; I
was forgetting M. de La Mole's family. He has two children, a
daughter, and a son of nineteen, the last word in elegance, a mad
fellow, who never knows at one minute what he will be doing the next.
He has spirit, and courage; he has fought in Spain.  The Marquis
hopes, I cannot say why, that you will become friends with the young
Comte Norbert. I have said that you are a great Latin scholar, perhaps
he reckons upon your teaching his son a few ready-made phrases about
Cicero and Virgil.

'In your place, I should never allow this fine young man to make free
with me; and, before yielding to his overtures, which will be
perfectly civil, but slightly marred by irony, I should make him
repeat them at least twice.

'I shall not conceal from you that the young Comte de La Mole is bound
to look down upon you at first, because of your humble birth. He is
the direct descendant of a courtier, who had the honour to have his
head cut off on the Place de Greve, on the 26th of April, 1574, for a
political intrigue.  As for you, you are the son of a carpenter at
Verrieres, and moreover, you are in his father's pay. Weigh these
differences carefully, and study the history of this family in
Moreri, all the flatterers who dine at their table make from time to
time what they call delicate allusions to it.

'Take care how you respond to the pleasantries of M. le Comte Norbert
de La Mole, Squadron Commander of Hussars and a future Peer of France,
and do not come and complain to me afterwards.'

'It seems to me,' said Julien, blushing deeply, 'that I ought not even
to answer a man who looks down upon me.'

'You have no idea of this form of contempt; it will reveal itself only
in exaggerated compliments. If you were a fool, you might let yourself
be taken in by them; if you wished to succeed, you ought to let
yourself be taken in.'

'On the day when all this ceases to agree with me,' said Julien,
'shall I be considered ungrateful if I return to my little cell,
number 103?'

'No doubt,' replied the abbe, 'all the sycophants of the house will
slander you, but then I shall appear. _Adsum qui fed_. I shall say that
it was from me that the decision came.'

Julien was dismayed by the bitter and almost malicious tone which he
remarked in M. Pirard; this tone completely spoiled his last

The fact was that the abbe felt a scruple of conscience about loving
Julien, and it was with a sort of religious terror that he was thus
directly interfering with the destiny of another man.

'You will also see,' he continued, with the same ill grace, and as
though in the performance of a painful duty, 'you will see Madame la
Marquise de La Mole. She is a tall, fair woman, pious, proud,
perfectly civil and even more insignificant. She is a daughter of the
old Due de Chaulnes, so famous for his aristocratic prejudices. This
great lady is a sort of compendium, in high relief, of all that makes
up the character of the women of her rank. She makes it no secret that
to have had ancestors who went to the Crusades is the sole advantage
to which she attaches any importance. Money comes only a long way
after: does that surprise you? We are no longer in the country, my

'You will find in her drawing-room many great noblemen speaking of our
Princes in a tone of singular disrespect. As for Madame de La Mole,
she lowers her voice in respect whenever she names a Prince, let alone
a Princess. I should not advise you to say in her hearing that Philip
II or Henry VIII was a monster. They were KINGS, and that gives them
an inalienable right to the respect of everyone, and above all to the
respect of creatures without birth, like you and me. However,' M.
Pirard added, 'we are priests, for she will take you for one; on that
footing, she regards us as lackeys necessary to her salvation.'

'Sir,' said Julien, 'it seems to me that I shall not remain long in

'As you please; but observe that there is no hope of success, for a
man of our cloth, except through the great nobles. With that
indefinable element (at least, I cannot define it), which there is in
your character, if you do not succeed you will be persecuted; there is
no middle way for you. Do not abuse your position. People see that you
are not pleased when they speak to you; in a social environment like
this, you are doomed to misfortune, if you do not succeed in winning

'What would have become of you at Besancon, but for this caprice on
the part of the Marquis de La Mole? One day, you will appreciate all
the singularity of what he is doing for you, and, if you are not a
monster, you will feel eternal gratitude to him and his family. How
many poor abbes, cleverer men than you, have lived for years in Paris,
upon the fifteen sous for their mass and the ten sous for their
lectures in the Sorbonne! ...  Remember what I told you, last winter,
of the early years of that wretch, Cardinal Dubois. Are you, by any
chance, so proud as to imagine that you have more talent than he?

'I, for example, a peaceable and insignificant man, expected to end my
days in my Seminary; I was childish enough to have grown attached to
it. Very well! I was going to be turned out when I offered my
resignation. Do you know what was the extent of my fortune? I had five
hundred and twenty francs of capital, neither more nor less; not a
friend, at most two or three acquaintances. M. de La Mole, whom I had
never seen, saved me from disaster; he had only to say the word, and I
was given a living in which all my parishioners are people in easy
circumstances, above the common vices, and the stipend fills me with
shame, so far out of proportion is it to my work. I have spoken to you
at this length only to put a little ballast into that head of yours.

'One word more; it is my misfortune to have a hasty temper; it is
possible that you and I may cease to speak to one another.

'If the arrogance of the Marquise, or the mischievous pranks of her
son, make the house definitely insupportable to you, I advise you to
finish your studies in some Seminary thirty leagues from Paris, and in
the North, rather than in the South. You will find in the North more
civilisation and fewer injustices; and,' he added, lowering his voice,
'I must admit it, the proximity of the Parisian newspapers makes the
petty tyrants afraid.

'If we continue to find pleasure in each other's company, and the
Marquis's household does not agree with you, I offer you a place as my
vicar, and shall divide the revenues of this living with you equally.
I owe you this and more,' he added, cutting short Julien's expressions
of gratitude, 'for the singular offer which you made me at Besancon.
If, instead of five hundred and twenty francs, I had had nothing, you
would have saved me.'

The cruel tone had gone from the abbe's voice. To his great confusion,
Julien felt the tears start to his eyes; he was longing to fling
himself into the arms of his friend: he could not resist saying to
him, with the most manly air that he was capable of affecting:

'I have been hated by my father from the cradle; it was one of my
great misfortunes; but I shall no longer complain of fortune. I have
found another father in you, Sir.'

'Good, good,' said the abbe, with embarrassment; then remembering most
opportunely a phrase from the vocabulary of a Director of a Seminary:
'You must never say fortune, my child, always say Providence.'

The cab stopped; the drier lifted the bronze knocker on an immense
door:  it was the HOTEL DE LA MOLE; and, so that the passer-by might
be left in no doubt of this, the words were to be read on a slab of
black marble over the door.

This affectation was not to Julien's liking.  'They are so afraid of
the Jacobins!  They see a Robespierre and his tumbril behind every
hedge; often they make one die with laughing, and they advertise their
house like this so that the mob shall know it in the event of a
rising, and sack it.'  He communicated what was in his mind to the
Abbe Pirard.

'Ah!  Poor boy, you will soon be my vicar.  What an appalling idea to
come into your head!'

'I can think of nothing more simple,' said Julien.

The gravity of the porter and above all the cleanness of the courtyard
had filled him with admiration.  The sun was shining brightly.

'What magnificent architecture!' he said to his friend.

It was one of the typical town houses, with their lifeless fronts, of
the Faubourg Saint-Germain, built about the date of Voltaire's death.
Never have the fashionable and the beautiful been such worlds apart.

First Appearance in Society

  Absurd and touching memory:  one's first appearance, at
  eighteen, alone and unsupported, in a drawing-room!  A
  glance from a woman was enough to terrify me.  The more
  I tried to shine, the more awkward I became.  I formed
  the most false ideas of everything; either I surrendered
  myself for no reason, or I saw an enemy in a man because
  he had looked at me with a serious expression.  But then,
  amid all the fearful sufferings of my shyness, how fine
  was a fine day!

Julien stopped in confusion in the middle of the courtyard.

'Do assume a reasonable air,' said the Abbe Picard; 'you take hold of
horrible ideas, and you are only a boy! Where is the _nil mirari_ of
Horace?' (That is: no enthusiasm.) 'Reflect that this tribe of
flunkeys, seeing you established here, will try to make a fool of you;
they will regard you as an equal, unjustly set over them. Beneath a
show of good nature, of good advice, of a wish to guide you, they will
try to catch you out in some stupid blunder.'

'I defy them to do so,' said Julien, biting his lip; and he recovered
all his former distrust.

The drawing-rooms through which our friends passed on the first floor,
before coming to the Marquis's study, would have seemed to you, gentle
reader, as depressing as they were magnificent. Had you been made a
present of them as they stood, you would have refused to live in them;
they are the native heath of boredom and dreary argument. They
redoubled Julien's enchantment. 'How can anyone be unhappy,' he
thought, 'who lives in so splendid a residence?'

Finally, our friends came to the ugliest of the rooms in this superb
suite: the daylight barely entered it; here, they found a wizened
little man with a keen eye and a fair periwig. The abbe turned to
Julien, whom he presented. It was the Marquis. Julien had great
difficulty in recognising him, so civil did he find him. This was no
longer the great nobleman, so haughty in his mien, of the Abbey of
Bray-le-Haut. It seemed to Julien that there was far too much hair in
his wig. Thanks to this impression, he was not in the least
intimidated. The descendant of Henri III's friend struck him at first
as cutting but a poor figure. He was very thin and greatly agitated.
But he soon remarked that the Marquis showed a courtesy even more
agreeable to the person he was addressing than that of the Bishop of
Besancon himself. The audience did not occupy three minutes. As they
left the room, the abbe said to Julien:

'You looked at the Marquis as you would have looked at a picture. I am
no expert in what these people call politeness, soon you will know
more about it than I; still, the boldness of your stare seemed to me
to be scarcely polite.'

They had returned to their vehicle; the driver stopped by the
boulevard; the abbe led Julien through a series of spacious rooms.
Julien remarked that they were unfurnished. He was looking at a
magnificent gilt clock, representing a subject that in his opinion was
highly indecent, when a most elegant gentleman approached them with an
affable expression. Julien made him a slight bow.

The gentleman smiled and laid a hand on his shoulder. Julien quivered
and sprang back. He was flushed with anger. The abbe Pirard, for all
his gravity, laughed till the tears ran down his cheeks. The gentleman
was a tailor.

'I leave you at liberty for two days,' the abbe told him as they
emerged; 'it is not until then that you can be presented to Madame de
La Mole. Most people would protect you like a young girl, in these
first moments of your sojourn in this modern Babylon. Ruin yourself at
once, if you are to be ruined, and I shall be rid of the weakness I
show in caring for you. The day after tomorrow, in the morning, this
tailor will bring you two coats; you will give five francs to the boy
who tries them on you. Otherwise, do not let these Parisians hear the
sound of your voice. If you utter a word, they will find a way of
making you look foolish. That is their talent. The day after tomorrow,
be at my house at midday ... Run along, ruin yourself ... I was
forgetting, go and order boots, shirts, a hat at these addresses.'

Julien studied the handwriting of the addresses.

'That is the Marquis's hand,' said the abbe, 'he is an active man who
provides for everything, and would rather do a thing himself than
order it to be done. He is taking you into his household so that you
may save him trouble of this sort. Will you have sufficient
intelligence to carry out all the orders that this quick-witted man
will suggest to you in a few words? The future will show: have a

Julien, without uttering a word, made his way into the shops indicated
on the list of addresses; he observed that he was greeted there with
respect, and the bootmaker, in entering his name in his books, wrote
'M. Julien de Sorel'.

In the Cemetery of Pere-Lachaise a gentleman who seemed highly
obliging, and even more Liberal in his speech, offered to guide Julien
to the tomb of Marshal Ney, from which a wise administration has
withheld the honour of an epitaph. But, after parting from this
Liberal, who, with tears in his eyes, almost clasped him to his bosom,
Julien no longer had a watch. It was enriched by this experience that,
two days later, at noon, he presented himself before the abbe Pirard,
who studied him attentively.

'You are perhaps going to become a fop,' the abbe said to him, with a
severe expression. Julien had the appearance of an extremely young
man, in deep mourning; he did, as a matter of fact, look quite well,
but the good abbe was himself too provincial to notice that Julien
still had that swing of the shoulders which in the provinces betokens
at once elegance and importance. On seeing Julien, the Marquis
considered his graces in a light so different from that of the good
abbe that he said to him:

'Should you have any objection to M. Sorel's taking dancing-lessons?'

The abbe was rooted to the spot.

'No,' he replied, at length, 'Julien is not a priest.'

The Marquis, mounting two steps at a time by a little secret stair,
conducted our hero personally to a neat attic which overlooked the
huge garden of the house. He asked him how many shirts he had ordered
from the hosier.

'Two,' replied Julien, dismayed at seeing so great a gentleman descend
to these details.

'Very good,' said the Marquis, with a serious air, and an imperative,
curt note in his voice, which set Julien thinking: 'very good! Order
yourself two and twenty more. Here is your first quarter's salary.'

As they came down from the attic, the Marquis summoned an elderly man:
'Arsene,' he said to him, 'you will look after M. Sorel.' A few
minutes later, Julien found himself alone in a magnificent library: it
was an exquisite moment. So as not to be taken by surprise in his
emotion, he went and hid himself in a little dark corner; from which
he gazed with rapture at the glittering backs of the books. 'I can
read all of those,' he told himself. 'And how should I fail to be
happy here? M. de Renal would have thought himself disgraced for ever
by doing the hundredth part of what the Marquis de La Mole has just
done for me.

'But first of all, we must copy the letters.' This task ended, Julien
ventured towards the shelves; he almost went mad with joy on finding
an edition of Voltaire. He ran and opened the door of the library so
as not to be caught. He then gave himself the pleasure of opening each
of the eighty volumes in turn. They were magnificently bound, a
triumph of the best craftsman in London. This was more than was needed
to carry Julien's admiration beyond all bounds.

An hour later, the Marquis entered the room, examined the copies, and
was surprised to see that Julien wrote cela with a double _l_, _cella_
'So all that the abbe has been telling me of his learning is simply a
tale!' The Marquis, greatly discouraged, said to him gently:

'You are not certain of your spelling?'

'That is true,' said Julien, without the least thought of the harm he
was doing himself; he was moved by the Marquis's kindness, which made
him think of M. de Renal's savage tone.

'It is all a waste of time, this experiment with a little
Franc-comtois priest,' thought the Marquis; 'but I did so want a
trustworthy man.

'_Cela_ has only one _l_,' the Marquis told him; 'when you have
finished your copies, take the dictionary and look out all the words
of which you are not certain.'

At six o'clock the Marquis sent for him; he looked with evident dismay
at Julien's boots: 'I am to blame. I forgot to tell you that every
evening at half-past five you must dress.'

Julien looked at him without understanding him.

'I mean put on stockings. Arsene will remind you; today I shall make
your apologies.'

So saying, M. de La Mole ushered Julien into a drawing-room
resplendent with gilding. On similar occasions, M. de Renal never
failed to increase his pace so that he might have the satisfaction of
going first through the door.

The effect of his old employer's petty vanity was that Julien now trod
upon the Marquis's heels, and caused him considerable pain, owing to
his gout.  'Ah! He is even more of a fool than I thought,' the Marquis
said to himself. He presented him to a woman of tall stature and
imposing aspect.  It was the Marquise. Julien decided that she had an
impertinent air, which reminded him a little of Madame de Maugiron,
the Sub-Prefect's wife of the Verrieres district, when she attended
the Saint Charles's day dinner.  Being somewhat embarrassed by the
extreme splendour of the room, Julien did not hear what M. de La Mole
was saying. The Marquise barely deigned to glance at him. There were
several men in the room, among whom Julien recognised with unspeakable
delight the young Bishop of Agde, who had condescended to say a few
words to him once at the ceremony at Bray-le-Haut. The young prelate
was doubtless alarmed by the tender gaze which Julien, in his
timidity, fastened upon him, and made no effort to recognise this

The men assembled in this drawing-room seemed to Julien to be somehow
melancholy and constrained; people speak low in Paris, and do not
exaggerate trifling matters.

A handsome young man, wearing moustaches, very pale and slender,
entered the room at about half-past six; he had an extremely small

'You always keep us waiting,' said the Marquise, as he kissed her

Julien gathered that this was the Comte de La Mole. He found him
charming from the first.

'Is it possible,' he said to himself, 'that this is the man whose
offensive pleasantries are going to drive me from this house?'

By dint of a survey of Comte Norbert's person, Julien discovered that
he was wearing boots and spurs; 'and I ought to be wearing shoes,
evidently as his inferior.' They sat down to table. Julien heard the
Marquise utter a word of rebuke, slightly raising her voice. Almost at
the same moment he noticed a young person extremely fair and very
comely, who was taking her place opposite to him. She did not attract
him at all; on studying her attentively, however, he thought that he
had never seen such fine eyes; but they hinted at great coldness of
heart. Later, Julien decided that they expressed a boredom which
studies other people but keeps on reminding itself that it is one's
duty to be imposing. 'Madame de Renal, too, had the most beautiful
eyes,' he said to himself; 'people used to compliment her on them; but
they had nothing in common with these.' Julien had not enough
experience to discern that it was the fire of wit that shone from time
to time in the eyes of Mademoiselle Mathilde, for so he heard her
named. When Madame de Renal's eyes became animated, it was with the
fire of her passions, or was due to a righteous indignation upon
hearing of some wicked action. Towards the end of dinner, Julien found
the right word to describe the type of beauty exemplified by the eyes
of Mademoiselle de La Mole: 'They are scintillating,' he said to
himself. Otherwise, she bore a painful resemblance to her mother, whom
he disliked more and more, and he ceased to look at her. Comte
Norbert, on the other hand, struck him as admirable in every respect.
Julien was so captivated, that it never entered his head to be jealous
of him and to hate him, because he was richer and nobler than himself.

Julien thought that the Marquis appeared bored.

During the second course, he said to his son:

'Norbert, I must ask you to look after M. Julien Sorel, whom I have
just taken upon my staff, and intend to make a man of, if that (_cela_)
can be done.

'He is my secretary,' the Marquis added to his neighbour, 'and he
spells _cela_ with a double _l_.'

Everyone looked at Julien, who gave Norbert a slightly exaggerated
bow; but on the whole, they were satisfied with his appearance.

The Marquis must have spoken of the kind of education that Julien had
received, for one of the guests tackled him upon Horace: 'It was
precisely in discussing Horace that I was successful with the Bishop
of Besancon,' Julien said to himself, 'evidently he is the only author
they know.' From that moment he was master of himself. This change was
made easy by his having just decided that Mademoiselle de La Mole
would never be a woman in his eyes. Since his Seminary days he defied
men to do their worst, and refused to be intimidated by them. He would
have enjoyed perfect self-possession, had the dining-room been
furnished with less magnificence.  It was, as a matter of fact, a pair
of mirrors, each of them eight feet high, in which he caught sight now
and then of his challenger as he spoke of Horace, that still continued
to overawe him. His sentences were not unduly long for a provincial.
He had fine eyes, the sparkle in which was enhanced by his tremulous,
or, when he had made a good answer, his happy shyness. This sort of
examination made a serious dinner-party quite interesting. The Marquis
made a sign to the other speaker to press Julien hard. 'Can it be
possible that he does know something?' he thought.

Julien found fresh ideas as he answered, and lost enough of his
shyness not, indeed, to display wit, a thing impossible to a person
ignorant of the language that is spoken in Paris, but he had original
ideas, albeit expressed without gracefulness or appropriateness, and
it could be seen that he had a thorough knowledge of Latin.

His adversary was a member of the Academy of Inscriptions, who
happened to know Latin; he found in Julien an excellent humanist, lost
all fear of making him blush, and really did seek to embarrass him. In
the heat of the duel, Julien at length forgot the magnificent
decoration of the dining-room, and began to express ideas with regard
to the Latin poets, which the other had never read in any book.  Being
an honest man, he gave the credit for them to the young secretary.
Fortunately, the discussion turned to the question whether Horace had
been poor or rich: an amiable person, sensual and easy-going, making
poetry for his own amusement, like Chapelle, the friend of Moliere and
La Fontaine; or a poor devil of a Poet Laureate attached to the court
and composing odes for the King's Birthday, like Southey, the traducer
of Lord Byron. They spoke of the state of society under Augustus and
under George IV; in both epochs the aristocracy was all-powerful! but
in Rome it saw its power wrested from it by Maecenas, who was a mere
knight; and in England it had reduced George IV more or less to the
position of a Doge of Venice.  This discussion seemed to draw the
Marquis out of the state of torpor in which his boredom had kept him
plunged at the beginning of dinner.

Julien could make nothing of all these modern names, such as Southey,
Lord Byron, George IV, which he now heard for the first time. But no
one could fail to observe that whenever there was any question of
historical events at Rome, a knowledge of which might be derived from
the works of Horace, Martial, Tacitus, etc., he had an unchallengeable
superiority. Julien appropriated without a scruple a number of ideas
which he had acquired from the Bishop of Besancon, during the famous
discussion he had had with that prelate; these proved to be not the
least acceptable.

When the party tired of discussing poets, the Marquise, who made it a
rule to admire anything that amused her husband, condescended to
glance at Julien. 'The awkward manners of this young cleric may
perhaps be concealing a learned man,' the Academician, who was sitting
near her, said to the Marquise; and Julien overheard something of what
he was saying. Ready-made phrases were quite to the taste of his
hostess; she adopted this description of Julien, and was glad that she
had invited the Academician to dine. 'He amuses M. de La Mole,' she

First Steps

  That immense valley filled with brilliant lights and with all
  those thousands of people dazzles my sight. Not one of them
  knows me, all are superior to me. My head reels.
    _Poemi dell' avvocato_, REINA

Early in the morning of the following day, Julien was copying letters
in the library, when Mademoiselle Mathilde entered by a little private
door, cleverly concealed with shelves of dummy books. While Julien was
admiring this device, Mademoiselle Mathilde appeared greatly surprised
and distinctly annoyed to see him there. Julien decided that her
curlpapers gave her a hard, haughty, almost masculine air.
Mademoiselle de La Mole had a secret habit of stealing books from her
father's library, undetected.  Julien's presence frustrated her
expedition that morning, which annoyed her all the more as she had
come to secure the second volume of Voltaire's _Princesse de
Babylone_, a fitting complement to an eminently monarchical and
religious education, a triumph on the part of the Sacre-Coeur! This
poor girl, at nineteen, already required the spice of wit to make her
interested in a novel.

Comte Norbert appeared in the library about three o'clock; he had come
to study a newspaper, in order to be able to talk politics that
evening, and was quite pleased to find Julien, whose existence he had
forgotten. He was charming to him, and offered to lend him a horse.

'My father is letting us off until dinner.'

Julien appreciated this _us_, and thought it charming.

'Heavens, Monsieur le Comte,' said Julien, 'if it were a question of
felling an eighty-foot tree, trimming it and sawing it into planks, I
venture to say that I should manage it well enough; but riding a horse
is a thing I haven't done six times in my life.'

'Well, this will be the seventh,' said Norbert.

Privately, Julien remembered the entry of the King of ---- into
Verrieres and imagined himself a superior horseman. But, on their way
back from the Bois de Boulogne, in the very middle of the Rue du Bac,
he fell off, while trying to avoid a passing cab, and covered himself
in mud. It was fortunate for him that he had a change of clothes. At
the dinner the Marquis, wishing to include him in the conversation,
asked him about his ride; Norbert made haste to reply in generous

'Monsieur le Comte is too kind to me,' put in Julien. 'I thank him for
it, and fully appreciate his kindness. He has been so good as to give
me the quietest and handsomest of horses; but after all he could not
glue me on to it, and, that being so, I fell off right in the middle
of that very long street near the bridge.'

Mademoiselle Mathilde tried in vain to stifle a peal of laughter;
finally indiscretion prevailed and she begged for details. Julien
emerged from the difficulty with great simplicity; he had an
unconscious grace.

'I augur well of this little priest,' the Marquis said to the
Academician; 'a simple countryman in such a scrape! Such a thing was
never yet seen and never will be seen; in addition to which he relates
his misadventure before the _ladies_!'

Julien set his listeners so thoroughly at ease over his mishap that at
the end of dinner, when the general conversation had taken another
turn, Mademoiselle Mathilde began to ply her brother with questions as
to the details of the distressing event. As her inquiry continued, and
as Julien more than once caught her eye, he ventured to reply
directly, although he had not been questioned, and all three ended in
laughter, just like three young peasants from a village in the heart
of a forest.

On the following day Julien attended two lectures on theology, and
then returned to transcribe a score of letters. He found ensconced by
his own place in the library a young man dressed with great neatness,
but his general appearance was ignominious and his expression one of

The Marquis entered.

'What are you doing here, Monsieur Tanbeau?' he asked the newcomer in
a severe tone.

'I thought,' the young man began with a servile smile.

'No, Sir, you did not think. This is an attempt, but it is an
unfortunate one.'

Young Tanbeau rose in a fury and left the room. He was a nephew of the
Academician, Madame de La Mole's friend, and was intended for a
literary career. The Academician had persuaded the Marquis to take him
as a secretary. Tanbeau, who worked in a room apart, having heard of
the favour that was being bestowed upon Julien, was anxious to share
it, and that morning had come and set up his desk in the library.

At four o'clock, Julien ventured, after some hesitation, to seek out
Comte Norbert. This young gentleman was going out riding, and was
somewhat embarrassed, for his manners were perfect.

'I think,' he said to Julien, 'that presently you might go to the
riding school; and after a few weeks I shall be delighted to ride with

'I wished to have the honour of thanking you for all your kindness to
me; pray believe, Sir,' Julien added with a most serious air, 'that I
am fully conscious of all that I owe you. If your horse is not injured
as a result of my clumsiness yesterday, and if it is free, I should
like to ride it today.'

'Faith, my dear Sorel, on your own head be it! Assume that I have
raised all the objections that prudence demands; the fact is that it
is four o'clock, we have no time to lose.'

After he was in the saddle:

'What must one do, not to fall off?' Julien asked the young Comte.

'All sorts of things,' replied Norbert with a shout of laughter: 'for
instance, sit well back.'

Julien began to trot. They were crossing the Place Louis XVI.

'Ah! Young hothead, there are too many carriages here, and with
careless drivers too. Once you are on the ground, their tilburys will
go bowling over you; they are not going to risk hurting their horses'
mouths by pulling up short.'

A score of times Norbert saw Julien on the point of falling; but at
last their ride ended without mishap. On their return, the young Comte
said to his sister:

'Let me introduce a regular dare-devil.'

At dinner, speaking to his father, down the length of the table, he
did justice to Julien's courage; it was all that one could praise in
his method of riding. During the day the young Comte had heard the men
who were grooming the horses in the yard make Julien's fall an excuse
for the most outrageous mockery of him.

In spite of all this kindness, Julien soon felt himself completely
isolated among this family. All their customs seemed strange to him,
and he was always making mistakes. His blunders were the delight of
the footmen.

The abbe Pirard had gone off to his living. 'If Julien is a frail
reed, let him perish; if he is a man of courage, let him make his way
by himself,' he thought.

The Hotel de La Mole

  What is he doing here? might it please him?
  might he think to please?

If everything seemed strange to Julien, in the noble drawing-room of
the Hotel de La Mole, the young man himself, pale and dressed in
black, seemed in turn highly singular to those who deigned to notice
him. Madame de La Mole suggested that her husband should send him away
on business upon days when certain personages were coming to dine.

'I should like to carry through the experiment,' replied the Marquis.
'The abbe Pirard maintains that we do wrong to crush the self-respect
of the people we admit into our households. One can lean only upon
what resists, etc. There is nothing wrong with this fellow except his
uncouth appearance; he might be deaf and dumb.'

'If I am to keep my bearings, I must,' Julien said to himself, 'write
down the names and a few words as to the character of the people I see
appear in this drawing-room.'

At the head of his list he placed five or six friends of the family
who paid a desperate court to him, supposing him to be protected by
some caprice of the Marquis. These were poor devils, more or less
spiritless; but, it must be said in praise of men of this class as
they are to be found today in the drawing-rooms of the nobility, they
were not equally spiritless to all comers. Some of them would have let
themselves be abused by the Marquis, and yet would have revolted
against a harsh word addressed to them by Madame de La Mole.

There was too much pride, there was too much boredom in the character
of both host and hostess; they were too much in the habit of insulting
people for their own distraction, to be able to expect any true
friends. But, except on wet days, and in their moments of furious
boredom, which were rare, they were never to be found wanting in

If the five or six flatterers who treated Julien with such fatherly
affection had deserted the Hotel de La Mole, the Marquise would have
been left to long hours of solitude; and, in the eyes of women of her
rank, solitude is a dreadful thing: it is the badge of disgrace.

The Marquis behaved admirably to his wife; he saw to it that her
drawing-room was adequately filled; not with peers, he found his new
colleagues scarcely noble enough to come to his house as friends, nor
entertaining enough to be admitted as subordinates.

It was not until much later that Julien discovered these secrets. The
political questions which form the chief topic in middle-class houses
are never mentioned in houses like that of the Marquis, save in times
of trouble.

So powerful still, even in this age of boredom, are the dictates of
the need of amusement, that even on the evenings of dinnerparties, as
soon as the Marquis had left the drawing-room, everyone else fled. So
long as you did not speak lightly of God, or of the clergy, or of the
King, or of the men in power, or of the artists patronised by the
court, or of anything established; so long as you did not say anything
good of Beranger, or of the opposition press, or of Voltaire, or of
Rousseau, or of anything that allowed itself the liberty of a little
freedom of speech; so long, above all, as you did not talk politics,
you could discuss anything you pleased with freedom.

There is no income of a hundred thousand crowns, no blue riband that
can prevail against a drawing-room so constituted. The smallest living
idea seemed an outrage. Despite good tone, perfect manners, the desire
to be agreeable, boredom was written upon every brow. The young men
who came to pay their respects, afraid to speak of anything that might
lead to their being suspected of thinking, afraid to reveal some
forbidden reading, became silent after a few elegantly phrased
sentences on Rossini and the weather.

Julien observed that the conversation was usually kept going by two
Viscounts and five Barons whom M. de La Mole had known during the
Emigration. These gentlemen enjoyed incomes of from six to eight
thousand livres; four of them swore by the _Quotidienne_, and three by
the _Gazette de France_. One of them had some new story to tell every
day of the Chateau, in which the word 'admirable' was lavishly used.
Julien remarked that this man wore five Crosses, whereas the others,
as a rule, had no more than three.

On the other hand, you saw in the ante-room ten footmen in livery, and
all through the evening you had ices or tea every quarter of an hour;
and, at midnight, a sort of supper with champagne.

It was for this reason that Julien sometimes remained to the end;
otherwise, he failed to understand how anyone could listen seriously
to the ordinary conversation of this drawing-room, so magnificently
gilded. Now and again he would watch the speakers, to see whether they
themselves were not laughing at what they were saying. 'My M. de
Maistre, whom I know by heart, has said things a hundred times
better,' he thought; 'and even he is extremely boring.'

Julien was not the only one to be aware of the mental stagnation. Some
consoled themselves by taking quantities of ices; the others with the
pleasure of being able to say for the rest of the evening: 'I have
just come from the Hotel de La Mole, where I heard that Russia', etc.,

Julien learned, from one of the flatterers, that less than six months
ago Madame de La Mole had rewarded an assiduity that had lasted for
more than twenty years by securing a Prefecture for poor Baron Le
Bourguignon, who had been a Sub-Prefect ever since the Restoration.

This great event had rekindled the zeal of these gentlemen; the least
thing might have offended them before, now they were no longer
offended by anything. It was rare that the incivility was direct, but
Julien had already overheard at table two or three brief little
passages between the Marquis and his wife, wounding to those who were
placed near them. These noble personages did not conceal their sincere
contempt for everyone that was not the offspring of people who rode in
the King's carriages. Julien observed that the word Crusade was the
only one that brought to their faces an expression of intense
seriousness, blended with respect. Their ordinary respect had always a
shade of condescension.

In the midst of this magnificence and this boredom, Julien was
interested in nothing but M. de La Mole; he listened with pleasure one
day to his protestations that he was in no way responsible for the
promotion of that poor Le Bourguignon. This was a delicate attention
to the Marquise: Julien had learned the truth from the abbe Pirard.

One morning when the abbe was working with Julien, in the Marquis's
library, on the endless litigation with Frilair:

'Sir,' said Julien suddenly, 'is dining every evening with Madame la
Marquise one of my duties, or is it a favour that they show me?'

'It is a signal honour!' replied the abbe, greatly shocked. 'M. N----,
the Academician, who has been paying assiduous court for the last
fifteen years, has never been able to obtain it for his nephew M.

'It is to me, Sir, the most tedious part of my employment. I was less
bored at the Seminary. I see even Mademoiselle de La Mole yawn at
times, although she must be accustomed to the pretty speeches of the
friends of the family.  I am afraid of falling asleep. Please be so
good as to obtain leave for me to go and dine for forty sous in some
obscure inn.'

The abbe, a regular _parvenu_, was highly sensible of the honour of
dining with a great nobleman. While he was endeavouring to make Julien
understand what he felt, a slight sound made them turn their heads.
Julien saw Mademoiselle de La Mole who was listening. He blushed. She
had come in search of a book and had heard everything; she felt a
certain respect for Julien. 'This fellow was not born on his knees,'
she thought, 'like that old abbe. Heavens! How ugly he is.'

At dinner, Julien dared not look at Mademoiselle de La Mole, but she
was so kind as to speak to him. That evening, they expected a large
party; she made him promise to remain. Girls in Paris do not care for
men of a certain age, especially when they are not well dressed.
Julien did not require much sagacity to perceive that M. Le
Bourguignon's colleagues, who remained in the drawing-room, had the
honour to be the customary butt of Mademoiselle de La Mole's wit. That
evening, whether with deliberate affectation or not, she was cruel in
her treatment of the bores.

Mademoiselle de La Mole was the centre of a little group that
assembled almost every evening behind the Marquise's immense armchair.
There, you would find the Marquis de Croisenois, the Comte de Caylus,
the Vicomte de Luz and two or three other young officers, friends of
Norbert or his sister. These gentlemen sat upon a large blue sofa. At
the end of the sofa, opposite to that occupied by the brilliant
Mathilde, Julien was silently installed upon a little cane-bottomed
chair with a low seat. This modest post was the envy of all the
flatterers; Norbert kept his father's young secretary in countenance
by addressing him or uttering his name once or twice in the course of
the evening. On this occasion, Mademoiselle de La Mole asked him what
might be the height of the mountain on which the citadel of Besancon
stood. Julien could not for the life of him have said whether this
mountain was higher or lower than Montmartre. Often he laughed
heartily at what was being said in the little group; but he felt
himself incapable of thinking of anything similar to say. It was like
a foreign language which he could understand, but was unable to speak.

Mathilde's friends were that evening in a state of constant hostility
towards the people who kept arriving in this vast drawing-room. The
friends of the family had the preference at first, being better known.
One can imagine whether Julien was attentive; everything interested
him, both the things themselves, and the way they were made to seem

'Ah! Here comes M. Descoulis,' said Mathilde; 'he has left off his
wig; can he be hoping to secure a Prefecture by his genius? He is
exposing that bald brow which he says is filled with lofty thoughts.'

'He is a man who knows the whole world,' said the Marquis de
Croisenois; 'he comes to my uncle, the Cardinal's, too. He is capable
of cultivating a lie with each of his friends, for years on end, and
he has two or three hundred friends. He knows how to foster
friendship, that is his talent. You ought to see him, covered in mud,
at the door of a friend's house, at seven o'clock on a winter morning.

'He hatches a quarrel, now and again, and writes seven or eight
letters to keep up the quarrel. Then he is reconciled, and produces
seven or eight letters for the transports of affection. But it is in
the frank and sincere expansion of an honest man who can keep nothing
on his conscience that he shines most. This is his favourite device
when he has some favour to ask.  One of my uncle's Vicars-General is
perfect when he relates the life of M. Descoulis since the
Restoration. I shall bring him to see you.'

'Bah! I shouldn't listen to that talk; it is the professional jealousy
of small-minded people,' said the Comte de Caylus.

'M. Descoulis will have a name in history,' the Marquis went on; 'he
made the Restoration with the Abbe de Pradt and M. Talleyrand and
Pozzo di Borgo.'

'That man has handled millions,' said Norbert, 'and I cannot conceive
why he comes here to swallow my father's epigrams, which are often
appalling.  "How many times have you betrayed your friends, my dear
Descoulis?" he shouted at him the other day, down the whole length of
the table.'

'But is it true that he has betrayed people?' said Mademoiselle de La
Mole.  'Who is there that has not?'

'What!' said the Comte de Caylus to Norbert, 'you have M. Sainclair
here, the notorious Liberal; what the devil can he have come for? I
must go over to him, and talk to him, and make him talk; they say he
is so clever.'

'But how can your mother have him in the house?' said M de Croisenois.
'His ideas are so extravagant, so enthusiastic, so independent...'

'Look,' said Mademoiselle de La Mole, 'there is your independent man,
bowing to the ground before M. Descoulis, and seizing his hand. I
almost thought he was going to raise it to his lips.'

'Descoulis must stand better with the authorities than we thought,'
put in M. de Croisenois.

'Sainclair comes here to get into the Academy,' said Norbert; 'look
how he is bowing to Baron L ----, Croisenois.'

'He would be less servile if he went on his knees,' put in M. de Luz.

'My dear Sorel,' said Norbert, 'you who are a man of brains, but have
just come down from your mountains, see that you never bow to people
as that great poet does, not even to God Almighty.'

'Ah! Here comes a man of brains if you like, M. le Baron Baton,' said
Mademoiselle de La Mole, imitating the voice of the footman who had
just announced him.

'I think even your servants laugh at him. What a name, Baron Baton!'
said M. de Caylus.

'"What's in a name?" as he said to us the other day,' retorted
Mathilde.  '"Imagine the Duc de Bouillon announced for the
first time. All the public needs, in my case, is to have grown
accustomed to it."'

Julien quitted the circle round the sofa. Still but little sensible of
the charming subtleties of a light-handed mockery, if he were to laugh
at a witticism, he required that it should be founded on reason. He
could see nothing in the talk of these young men, but the tone of
general depreciation, and this shocked him. His provincial or English
prudery went so far as to detect envy in it, wherein he was certainly

'Comte Norbert,' he said to himself, 'whom I have seen make three
rough copies of a letter of twenty lines to his Colonel, would be very
glad to have written a single page in his life like those of M.

Passing unperceived owing to his lack of importance, Julien approached
several groups in turn; he was following Baron Baton at a distance,
and wished to hear him talk. This man of such intelligence wore a
troubled air, and Julien saw him recover himself a little only when he
had hit upon three or four sparkling sentences. It seemed to Julien
that this kind of wit required ample room to develop itself.

The Baron could not produce epigrams; he required at least four
sentences of six lines each to be brilliant.

'This man is holding forth, he is not talking,' said someone behind
Julien's back. He turned round and flushed with pleasure when he heard
the name of Comte Chalvet. This was the cleverest man of the day.
Julien had often come upon his name in the _Memorial de Sainte-Helene_
and in the fragments of history dictated by Napoleon. Comte Chalvet
was curt in his speech; his remarks were flashes of lightning,
accurate, keen, profound. If he spoke of any public matter,
immediately one saw the discussion reach a fresh stage. He brought
facts to bear on it, it was a pleasure to listen to him. In politics,
however, he was a brazen cynic.

'I am independent, myself,' he was saying to a gentleman wearing three
decorations, whom he was apparently quizzing. 'Why should I be
expected to hold the same opinion today that I held six weeks ago? If
I did, I should be a slave to my opinion.'

Four grave young men who stood round him made grimaces at this; these
gentlemen do not care for the flippant style. The Comte saw that he
had gone too far. Fortunately he caught sight of the honest M.
Balland, a tartuffe of honesty. The Comte began talking to him: people
gathered round them, guessing that poor Balland was going to be
scarified. By dint of morals and morality, although horribly ugly, and
after early struggles with the world which it would be hard to
describe, M. Balland had married an extremely rich wife, who died;
then a second extremely rich wife, who was never seen in society. He
enjoyed in all humility an income of sixty thousand livres, and had
flatterers of his own. Comte Chalvet spoke to him of all this, without
pity. Presently they were surrounded by a circle of thirty people.
Everyone smiled, even the grave young men, the hope of the age.

'Why does he come to M. de La Mole's, where he is obviously made a
butt?' thought Julien. He went across to the abbe Pirard, to ask him.

M. Balland left the room.

'Good!' said Norbert, 'there's one of my father's spies gone; that
leaves only the little cripple Napier.'

'Can that be the clue to the riddle?' thought Julien. 'But, in that
case, why does the Marquis invite M. Balland?'

The stern abbe Pirard was making faces in a corner of the room, as he
heard fresh names announced.

'Why, it is a den,' he said, like Basilic, 'I see none but villains

The fact was that the stern abbe did not recognise the distinguishing
marks of good society. But, from his Jansenist friends, he had a very
accurate notion of the men who make their way into drawing-rooms only
by their extreme cleverness in the service of all parties, or by a
fortune of notorious origin. For some minutes, that evening, he
replied from the abundance of his heart to Julien's eager questions,
then cut himself short, distressed to find himself speaking ill of
everyone, and imputing it to himself as a sin. Being choleric and a
Jansenist, and regarding Christian charity as a duty, his life in
society was a perpetual conflict.

'How frightful that abbe Pirard looks!' Mademoiselle de La Mole was
saying, as Julien returned to the sofa.

Julien felt a sting of irritation, and yet she was right. M. Pirard
was beyond question the most honest man in the room, but his blotched
face, distorted by the pangs of conscience, made him hideous at the
moment.  'Never judge by appearances after this,' thought Julien; 'it
is at the moment when the abbe's scruples are reproaching him with
some peccadillo that he looks terrible; whereas on the face of that
Napier, whom everyone knows to be a spy, one sees a pure and tranquil
happiness.' The abbe Pirard had nevertheless made a great concession
to his party; he had engaged a valet, and was quite well dressed.

Julien remarked a singular occurrence in the drawing-room: this was a
general movement of all eyes towards the door, with a lull in the
conversation. A footman announced the famous Baron de Tolly, to whom
the recent elections had attracted universal attention. Julien moved
forward and had an excellent view of him. The Baron was returning
officer in a certain constituency: he had had the bright idea of
making away with the little slips of paper bearing the votes of one of
the parties. But, to compensate for this, he duly replaced them with
other little slips of paper bearing a name of which he himself
approved. This decisive manoeuvre was observed by some of the
electors, who lost no time in presenting their compliments to Baron de
Tolly. The worthy man was still pale after his great excitement. Evil
tongues had uttered the word galleys. M. de La Mole received him
coldly. The poor Baron hurriedly made his escape.

'If he leaves us so soon, it must be to go to M. Comte's,' [Footnote:
A celebrated conjurer of the day.] said Comte Chalvet; and the
others laughed.

Amid a crowd of great noblemen who remained silent, and of intriguers,
mostly disreputable, but all of them clever fellows, who arrived one
after another that evening, in M. de La Mole's drawing-room (people
were speaking of him for a vacant Ministry), young Tanbeau was winning
his spurs. If he had not yet acquired any fineness of perception, he
made up for the deficiency, as we shall see, by the vigour of his

'Why not sentence the man to ten years' imprisonment?' he was saying
at the moment when Julien joined his group; 'it is in a dungeon
underground that we ought to keep reptiles shut up; they must be made
to die in the dark, otherwise their venom spreads and becomes more
dangerous. What is the good of fining him a thousand crowns? He is
poor, very well, all the better; but his party will pay the fine for
him. It should have been a fine of five hundred francs and ten years
in a dungeon.'

'Good God! Who can the monster be that they are discussing?' thought
Julien, marvelling at his colleague's vehement tone and stilted
gestures.  The thin, drawn little face of the Academician's favourite
nephew was hideous as he spoke. Julien soon learned that the person in
question was the greatest poet of the day. [Trans. Footnote: Beranger,
sentenced in December, 1828, to imprisonment and a fine of 10,000
francs. C. K. S. M.]

'Ah, monster!' exclaimed Julien, half aloud, and generous tears sprang
to his eyes. 'Ah, little wretch, I shall make you eat those words.

'And yet these,' he thought, 'are the waifs and strays of the party of
which the Marquis is one of the leaders! And that illustrious man whom
he is slandering, how many Crosses, how many sinecures might he not
have collected, if he had sold himself, I do not say to the lifeless
Ministry of M. de Nerval, but to one of those passably honest
Ministers whom we have seen succeed one another in office?'

The abbe Pirard beckoned to Julien; M. de La Mole had just been saying
something to him. But when Julien, who at the moment was listening,
with lowered gaze, to the lamentations of a Bishop, was free to move,
and able to join his friend, he found him monopolised by that
abominable young Tanbeau. The little monster loathed him as the source
of the favour that Julien enjoyed, and had come to pay court to him.

'When will death rid us of that old mass of corruption?' It was in
these terms, with Biblical emphasis, that the little man of letters
was speaking at that moment of the eminent Lord Holland. His chief
merit was a thorough knowledge of the biography of living men, and he
had just been making a rapid survey of all those who might aspire to
positions of influence under the new King of England.

The abbe Pirard moved into an adjoining room; Julien followed him.

'The Marquis does not like scribblers, I warn you; it is his one
antipathy.  Know Latin, Greek if you can, the History of the
Egyptians, of the Persians, and so forth; he will honour you and
protect you as a scholar.  But do not go and write a single page in
French, especially upon grave subjects, that are above your position
in society; he would call you a scribbler, and would take a dislike to
you. What, living in a great nobleman's mansion, don't you know the
Duc de Castries's saying about d'Alembert and Rousseau: "That sort
of fellow wishes to argue about everything, and has not a thousand
crowns a year?"'

'Everything becomes known,' thought Julien, 'here as in the Seminary.'
He had written nine or ten pages with distinct emphasis: they were a
sort of historical eulogy of the old Surgeon-Major, who, he said, had
made a man of him. 'And that little copy-book,' Julien said to
himself, 'has always been kept under lock and key.' He went upstairs,
burned his manuscript and returned to the drawing-room. The brilliant
rogues had departed, there remained only the stars and ribands.

Round the table, which the servants had just brought in already laid,
were seated seven or eight ladies, extremely noble, extremely
religious, extremely affected, between thirty and thirty-five years of
age. The brilliant wife of Marshal de Fervaques entered the room,
apologising for the lateness of the hour. It was after midnight; she
took her place next to the Marquise. Julien was deeply stirred; her
eyes and her expression reminded him of Madame de Renal.

The group round Mademoiselle de La Mole was still numerous. She and
her friends were engaged in making fun of the unfortunate Comte de
Thaler. This was the only son of the famous Jew, celebrated for the
riches that he had acquired by lending money to Kings to make war on
the common people. The Jew had recently died leaving his son a monthly
income of one hundred thousand crowns, and a name that, alas, was only
too well known! This singular position required either simplicity of
character or great determination.

Unfortunately, the Comte was nothing but a good fellow, adorned with
all sorts of pretensions inspired in him by his flatterers.

M. de Caylus asserted that he had been credited with the determination
to propose for the hand of Mademoiselle de La Mole (to whom the
Marquis de Croisenois, who was heir to a Dukedom with an income of one
hundred thousand livres, was paying court).

'Ah! Don't accuse him of having any determination,' Norbert pleaded

What this poor Comte de Thaler most lacked was, perhaps, the power to
determine anything. In this respect, he would have made an excellent
King.  Taking advice incessantly from everybody, he had not the
courage to follow out any suggestion to the end.

His features would have been enough by themselves, said Mademoiselle
de La Mole, to fill her with everlasting joy. His face was a curious
blend of uneasiness and disappointment; but from time to time one
could make out quite plainly bursts of self-importance, combined with
that cutting tone which the wealthiest man in France ought to adopt,
especially when he is by no means bad-looking, and is not yet
thirty-six. 'He is timidly insolent,' said M. de Croisenois.  The
Comte de Caylus, Norbert and two or three young men with moustaches
made fun of him to their hearts' content, without his guessing it, and
finally sent him away as one o'clock struck.

'Is it your famous pair of arabs that you are keeping waiting in this
weather?' Norbert asked him.

'No, I have a new pair that cost much less,' replied M. de Thaler.
'The near horse cost me five thousand francs, and the off horse is
only worth a hundred louis; but I must have you understand that he is
only brought out at night. The fact is that he trots perfectly with
the other.'

Norbert's remark made the Comte think that it befitted a man in his
position to have a passion for horses, and that he ought not to allow
his to stand in the rain. He left, and the other gentlemen took their
leave immediately, laughing at him as they went.

'And so,' thought Julien, as he heard the sound of their laughter on
the staircase, 'I have been allowed to see the opposite extreme to my
own position! I have not an income of twenty louis, and I have found
myself rubbing shoulders with a man who has an income of twenty louis
an hour, and they laughed at him ... A sight like that cures one of

Sensibility and a Pious Lady

  The smallest living idea seems an outrage, so accustomed are
  people there to words without colour. Woe to the man who
  innovates while he speaks!

After many months of trial, this is the stage that Julien had reached
on the day when the steward of the household paid him his third
quarter's salary. M. de La Mole had set him to study the management of
his estates in Brittany and Normandy. Julien made frequent journeys to
those parts. His principal duty was to take charge of the
correspondence relative to the famous lawsuit with the abbe de
Frilair. M. Pirard had given him the necessary instructions.

>From the brief notes which the Marquis used to scribble on the margins
of the papers of all kinds that came to him, Julien composed letters
almost all of which were signed.

At the school of theology, his teachers complained of his lack of
industry, but regarded him none the less as one of their most
distinguished pupils.  These several labours, taken up with all the
ardour of a chafed ambition, had soon robbed Julien of the fresh
complexion he had brought with him from the country. His pallor was a
merit in the eyes of the young seminarists his companions; he found
them much less irritating, much less inclined to fall upon their knees
before a coin of the realm than those at Besancon; they, for their
part, supposed him to be consumptive. The Marquis had given him a

Afraid of their seeing him when he was out riding, Julien had told
them that this exercise had been ordered him by the doctors. The abbe
Pirard had taken him to a number of Jansenist societies. Julien was
astonished; the idea of religion was inseparably linked in his mind
with that of hypocrisy, and the hope of making money. He admired these
devout and stern men who took no interest in the budget. Several of
the Jansenists had formed an affection for him and gave him advice. A
new world opened before him. He met among the Jansenists a certain
Conte Altamira, a man six feet in height, a Liberal under sentence of
death in his own country, and a devout Catholic. This strange
incongruity, religion wedded to a love of freedom, impressed him.

Julien was out of favour with the young Count. Norbert had found that
he replied with too much warmth to the pleasantries of certain of his
friends.  Julien after being guilty once or twice of a breach of good
manners, had pledged himself never to address another word to
Mademoiselle Mathilde.  They were always perfectly civil to him at the
Hotel de La Mole; but he felt that he had fallen in their esteem. His
provincial common sense explained this change in the words of the
popular proverb: 'new is beautiful.'

Perhaps his perception was now a little clearer than at first, or else
the first fascination produced by the urbanity of Paris had ceased.

As soon as he stopped working, he fell into the clutches of a deadly
boredom; this was the withering effect of the politeness, admirable in
itself, but so measured, so perfectly graduated according to one's
position, which is a mark of high society. A heart that is at all
sensitive discerns the artificiality.

No doubt, provincials may be accused of a trace of vulgarity, or of a
want of politeness; but they do show a little warmth in answering one.
Never, in the Hotel de La Mole, was Julien's self-esteem wounded; but
often, at the end of the day he felt inclined to weep. In the
provinces, a waiter in a cafe takes an interest in you if you meet
with some accident on entering his cafe; but if that accident involves
anything capable of wounding your vanity, then, in condoling with you,
he will repeat again and again the word that makes you wince. In Paris
they are so considerate as to turn their backs to laugh at you, but
you will always remain a stranger.

We pass without comment over a multitude of minor adventures which
would have brought Julien into ridicule had he not been in a sense
beneath ridicule. An insane self-consciousness made him commit
thousands of blunders. All his pleasures were forms of precaution; he
practised with his pistol every day, and was numbered among the more
promising pupils of the most famous fencing masters. Whenever he had a
moment to spare, instead of spending it with a book as at one time, he
would dash to the riding school and as ask for the most vicious
horses. In his outings with the riding master, he was almost
invariably thrown.

The Marquis found him useful owing to his persistent hard work, his
reticence and his intelligence, and, by degrees, entrusted him with
the handling of all his business that was at all complicated. In those
moments in which his lofty ambition allowed him some relaxation, the
Marquis did his business with sagacity; being in a position to hear
all the latest news, he speculated with success. He bought houses,
timber; but he took offence easily. He gave away hundreds of louis and
went to law over hundreds of francs. Rich men with big ideas seek
amusement and not results from their private undertakings. The Marquis
needed a chief of staff who would put all his financial affairs into
an easily intelligible order.

Madame de La Mole, albeit of so restrained a character, would
sometimes make fun of Julien. The unexpected, an outcome of
sensibility, horrifies great ladies; it is a direct challenge to all
the conventions. On two or three occasions the Marquis took his part:
'If he is absurd in your drawing-room, in his own office he reigns
supreme.' Julien, for his part, thought he could divine the Marquise's
secret. She deigned to take an interest in everything as soon as her
servants announced the Baron de La Joumate. This was a chilly
creature, with expressionless features. He was small, thin, ugly, very
well dressed, he spent all his time at the Chateau and, as a rule,
had nothing to say about anything. His speech revealed his mind.
Madame de La Mole would have been passionately happy, for the first
time in her life, if she could have secured him as a husband for her


  Their lofty mission is to pass calm judgment on the trivial
  events in the daily life of nations. Their wisdom should
  pre-empt any fury caused by little things, or by events
  which the voice of repute transfigures in bruiting them abroad.

For a newcomer, who, out of pride, never asked any questions, Julien
managed to avoid any serious pitfall. One day, when he had been driven
into a cafe in the Rue Saint-Honore by a sudden shower, a tall man in
a beaver coat, surprised at his gloomy stare, began to stare back at
him exactly as Mademoiselle Amanda's lover had stared at him, long
before, at Besancon.

Julien had too often reproached himself for having allowed the former
insult to pass unpunished to tolerate this stare. He demanded an
explanation, the man in the greatcoat at once began to abuse him in
the foulest terms: everyone in the cafe gathered round them; the
passers-by stopped outside the door. With provincial caution, Julien
always carried a brace of pocket pistols; his hand gripped one of
these in his pocket with a convulsive movement. Better counsels
prevailed, however, and he confined himself to repeating with
clockwork regularity: 'Sir, your address? I scorn you.'

The persistence with which he clung to these six words began to
impress the crowd.

'Gad, that other fellow who goes on talking by himself ought to give
him his address.' The man in the greatcoat, hearing this opinion
freely vented, flung a handful of visiting cards in Julien's face.
Fortunately, none of them hit him, he had vowed that he would use his
pistol only in the event of his being touched. The man went away, not
without turning round from time to time to shake his fist at Julien
and to shout abuse.

Julien found himself bathed in sweat. 'So it lies within the power of
the lowest of mankind to work me up like this!' he said angrily to
himself.  'How am I to destroy this humiliating sensibility?'

Where was he to find a second? He had made the acquaintance of a
number of men; but all of them, after six weeks or so, had drifted
away from him. 'I am unsociable, and here I am cruelly punished for
it,' he thought. Finally, it occurred to him to apply to a retired
Lieutenant of the 96th named Lieven, a poor devil with whom he used
often to fence. Julien was frank with him.

'I shall be glad to be your second,' said Lieven, 'but upon one
condition: if you do not hit your man, you shall fight with me, there
and then.'

'Agreed,' said Julien, with delight; and they went to find M. C. de
Beauvoisis at the address indicated upon his cards, in the heart of
the Faubourg Saint-Germain.

It was seven o'clock in the morning. It was only when he sent in his
name that it occurred to Julien that this might be Madame de Renal's
young relative, formerly attached to the Embassy at Rome or Naples,
who had given the singer Geronimo a letter of introduction.

Julien had handed to a tall footman one of the cards flung at him the
day before, together with one of his own.

He was kept waiting, with his second, for fully three quarters of an
hour; finally they were shown into an admirably furnished apartment.
They found a tall young man, got up like a doll; his features
exemplified the perfection and the insignificance of Grecian beauty.
His head, remarkably narrow, was crowned with a pyramid of the most
beautiful golden locks. These were curled with scrupulous care, not a
hair stood out from the rest. 'It is to have his hair curled like
that,' thought the Lieutenant of the 96th, 'that this damned idiot has
been keeping us waiting.' His striped dressing-gown, his morning
trousers, everything, down to his embroidered slippers, was correct
and marvellously well cared for. His features, noble and vacuous,
betokened a propriety and paucity of ideas, the ideal of the
well-meaning man, a horror of the unexpected and of ridicule, an
abundance of gravity.

Julien, to whom his Lieutenant of the 96th had explained that to keep
him waiting so long, after rudely flinging his card in his face, was
an additional insult, strode boldly into M. de Beauvoisis's presence.
It was his intention to be insolent, but he wished at the same time to
show his good breeding.

He was so much impressed by M. de Beauvoisis's gentle manners, by his
air at once formal, important and self-satisfied, by the admirable
elegance of his surroundings, that in a twinkling all thought of being
insolent forsook him. This was not his man of the day before. So great
was his astonishment at finding so distinguished a person in place of
the vulgar fellow he had met in the cafe, that he could not think of a
single word to say. He presented one of the cards that had been flung
at him:

'This is my name,' said the man of fashion, in whom Julien's black
coat, at seven o'clock in the morning, inspired but scant respect;
'but I do not understand, the honour ...'

His way of pronouncing these last words restored some of Julien's ill

'I have come to fight with you, Sir,' and he rapidly explained the

M. Charles de Beauvoisis, after giving it careful thought, was quite
satisfied with the cut of Julien's black coat. 'From Staub's,
clearly,' he said to himself, listening to him in silence, 'that
waistcoat is in good taste, the boots are right; but, on the other
hand, that black coat in the early morning! ... It will be to stop the
bullet,' thought the Chevalier de Beauvoisis.

As soon as he had furnished himself with this explanation, he reverted
to a perfect politeness, and addressed Julien almost as an equal. The
discussion lasted for some time, it was a delicate matter; but in the
end Julien could not reject the evidence of his own eyes. The
well-bred young man whom he saw before him bore no resemblance
whatsoever to the rude person who, the day before, had insulted him.

Julien felt an invincible reluctance to go away, he prolonged the
explanation. He observed the self-sufficiency of the Chevalier de
Beauvoisis, for such was the style that he had adopted in referring to
himself, shocked at Julien's addressing him as Monsieur, pure and

He admired the other's gravity, blended with a certain modest fatuity
but never discarded for a single instant. He was astonished by the
curious way in which his tongue moved as he enunciated his words . . .
But after all, in all this, there was not the slightest reason to pick
a quarrel with him.

The young diplomat offered to fight with great courtesy, but the
ex-Lieutenant of the 96th, who had been sitting for an hour with his
legs apart, his hands on his hips and his arms akimbo, decided that
his friend, M. Sorel, was not the sort of person to pick a quarrel, in
the German fashion, with another man, because that man's visiting
cards had been stolen.

Julien left the house in the worst of tempers. The Chevalier de
Beauvoisis's carriage was waiting for him in the courtyard, in front
of the steps; as it happened, Julien raised his eyes and recognised
his man of the previous day in the coachman.

Seeing him, grasping him by the skirts of his coat, pulling him down
from his box and belabouring him with his whip, were the work of a
moment. Two lackeys tried to defend their fellow; Julien received a
pummelling: immediately he drew one of his pocket pistols and fired at
them; they took to their heels. It was all over in a minute.

The Chevalier de Beauvoisis came slowly downstairs with the most
charming gravity, repeating in the accents of a great nobleman:
'What's this? What's this?' His curiosity was evidently aroused, but
his diplomatic importance did not allow him to show any sign of
interest. When he learned what the matter was, a lofty pride still
struggled in his features against the slightly playful coolness which
ought never to be absent from the face of a diplomat.

The Lieutenant of the 96th realised that M. de Beauvoisis was anxious
to fight; he wished also, diplomatically enough, to preserve for his
friend the advantages of the initiative. 'This time,' he cried, 'there
are grounds for a duel!' 'I should think so,' replied the diplomat.

'I dismiss that rascal,' he said to his servants; 'someone else must
drive.' They opened the carriage door: the Chevalier insisted that
Julien and his second should get in before him. They went to find a
friend of M. de Beauvoisis, who suggested a quiet spot. The
conversation as they drove to it was perfect. The only odd thing was
the diplomat in undress.

'These gentlemen, although of the highest nobility,' thought Julien,
'are not in the least boring like the people who come to dine with M.
de La Mole; and I can see why,' he added a moment later, 'they are not
ashamed to be indecent.' They were speaking of the dancers whom the
public had applauded in a ballet of the previous evening. The
gentlemen made allusions to spicy anecdotes of which Julien and his
second, the Lieutenant of the 96th, were entirely ignorant. Julien did
not make the mistake of pretending to know them; he admitted his
ignorance with good grace. This frankness found favour with the
Chevalier's friend; he repeated the anecdotes to him in full detail,
and extremely well.

One thing astonished Julien vastly. A station which was being erected
in the middle of the street for the Corpus Christi day procession,
held up the carriage for a moment. The gentlemen indulged in a number
of pleasantries; the cure, according to them, was the son of an
Archbishop. Never, in the house of the Marquis de La Mole, who hoped
to become a Duke, would anyone have dared to say such a thing.

The duel was over in an instant: Julien received a bullet in his
arm; they bound it up for him with handkerchiefs; these were
soaked in brandy, and the Chevalier de Beauvoisis asked Julien most
politely to allow him to take him home, in the carriage that had
brought them. When Julien gave his address as the Hotel de La Mole,
the young diplomat and his friend exchanged glances. Julien's cab was
waiting, but he found these gentlemen's conversation infinitely more
amusing than that of the worthy Lieutenant of the 96th.

'Good God! A duel, is that all?' thought Julien. 'How fortunate I was
to come across that coachman again! What a misfortune, if I had had to
endure that insult a second time in a cafe!' The amusing conversation
had scarcely been interrupted. Julien now understood that the
affectation of a diplomat does serve some purpose.

'So dullness is by no means inherent,' he said to himself, 'in a
conversation between people of high birth! These men make fun of the
Corpus Christi day procession, they venture to repeat highly scabrous
anecdotes, and with picturesque details. Positively the only thing
lacking to them is judgment in politics, and this deficiency is more
than made up for by the charm of their tone and the perfect aptness of
their expressions.' Julien felt himself keenly attracted to them. 'How
glad I should be to see them often!'

No sooner had they parted than the Chevalier de Beauvoisis hastened in
search of information: what he heard was by no means promising.

He was extremely curious to know his man better; could he with decency
call upon him? The scanty information he managed to obtain was not of
an encouraging nature.

'This is frightful!' he said to his second. 'It is impossible for me to
admit that I have fought a duel with a mere secretary of M. de La
Mole, and that because I have been robbed of my visiting cards by a

'Certainly the whole story leaves one exposed to ridicule.'

That evening, the Chevalier de Beauvoisis spread the report everywhere
that this M. Sorel, who incidentally was a perfectly charming young
man, was the natural son of an intimate friend of the Marquis de La
Mole. The rumour passed without difficulty. As soon as it was
established, the young diplomat and his friend deigned to pay Julien
several visits, during the fortnight for which he was confined to his
room. Julien confessed to them that he had never in his life been to
the Opera.

'This is terrible,' they told him, 'where else does one go? Your first
outing must be to the _Comte Ory_.'

At the Opera, the Chevalier de Beauvoisis presented him to the famous
singer Geronimo, who was enjoying an immense success that season.

Julien almost paid court to the Chevalier; his blend of self-respect,
mysterious importance and boyish fatuity enchanted him. For instance,
the Chevalier stammered slightly because he had the honour to be
frequently in the company of a great nobleman who suffered from that
infirmity. Never had Julien seen combined in a single person the
absurdity which keeps one amused and the perfection of manners which a
poor provincial must seek to copy.

He was seen at the Opera with the Chevalier de Beauvoisis; their
association caused his name to be mentioned.

'Well, Sir!' M. de La Mole said to him one day, 'and so you are the
natural son of a rich gentleman of the Franche-Comte, my intimate

The Marquis cut Julien short when he tried to protest that he had in
no way helped to give currency to this rumour.

'M. de Beauvoisis did not wish to have fought a duel with a
carpenter's son.'

'I know, I know,' said M. de La Mole; 'it rests with me now to give
consistency to the story, which suits me. But I have one favour to ask
you, which will cost you no more than half an hour of your time: every
Opera evening, at half-past eleven, go and stand in the vestibule
when the people of fashion are coming out. I still notice provincial
mannerisms in you at times, you must get rid of them; besides, it can
do you no harm to know, at least by sight, important personages to
whom I may one day have occasion to send you. Call at the box office
to have yourself identified; they have placed your name on the list.'

An Attack of Gout

  And I received promotion, not on my own merits, but because
  my master had the gout.

The reader is perhaps surprised at this free and almost friendly tone;
we have forgotten to say that for six weeks the Marquis had been
confined to the house by an attack of gout.

Mademoiselle de La Mole and her mother were at Hyeres, with the
Marquise's mother. Comte Norbert saw his father only for brief
moments; they were on the best of terms, but had nothing to say to one
another. M. de La Mole, reduced to Julien's company, was astonished to
find him endowed with ideas.  He made him read the newspapers aloud.
Soon the young secretary was able to select the interesting passages.
There was a new paper which the Marquis abhorred; he had vowed that he
would never read it, and spoke of it every day. Julien laughed. The
Marquis, out of patience with the times, made Julien read him Livy;
the translation improvised from the Latin text amused him.

One day the Marquis said, with that tone of over-elaborate politeness,
which often tried Julien's patience:

'Allow me, my dear Sorel, to make you the present of a blue coat: when
it suits you to put it on and to pay me a visit, you will be, in my
eyes, the younger brother of the Comte de Chaulnes, that is to say,
the son of my old friend the Duke.'

Julien was somewhat in the dark as to what was happening; that evening
he ventured to pay a visit in his blue coat. The Marquis treated him
as an equal. Julien had a heart capable of appreciating true
politeness, but he had no idea of the finer shades. He would have
sworn, before this caprice of the Marquis, that it would be impossible
to be received by him with greater deference. 'What a marvellous
talent!' Julien said to himself; when he rose to go, the Marquis
apologised for not being able to see him to the door on account of his

Julien was obsessed by this strange idea: 'Can he be laughing at me?'
he wondered. He went to seek the advice of the abbe Pirard, who, less
courteous than the Marquis, answered him only with a whistle and
changed the subject. The following morning Julien appeared before the
Marquis, in a black coat, with his portfolio and the letters to be
signed. He was received in the old manner. That evening, in his blue
coat, it was with an entirely different tone and one in every way as
polite as the evening before.

'Since you appear to find some interest in the visits which you are so
kind as to pay to a poor, suffering old man,' the Marquis said to him,
'you must speak to him of all the little incidents in your life, but
openly, and without thinking of anything but how to relate them
clearly and in an amusing fashion. For one must have amusement,' the
Marquis went on; 'that is the only real thing in life. A man cannot
save my life on a battle-field every day, nor can he make me every day
the present of a million; but if I had Rivarol here, by my couch,
every day, he would relieve me of an hour of pain and boredom. I saw a
great deal of him at Hamburg, during the Emigration.'

And the Marquis told Julien stories of Rivarol among the Hamburgers,
who would club together in fours to elucidate the point of a witty

M. de La Mole, reduced to the society of this young cleric, sought to
enliven him. He stung Julien's pride. Since he was asked for the
truth, Julien determined to tell his whole story; but with the
suppression of two things: his fanatical admiration for a name which
made the Marquis furious, and his entire unbelief, which hardly became
a future cure. His little affair with the Chevalier de Beauvoisis
arrived most opportunely. The Marquis laughed till he cried at the
scene in the cafe in the Rue Saint-Honore, with the coachman who
covered him with foul abuse. It was a period of perfect frankness in
the relations between employer and protege.

M. de La Mole became interested in this singular character. At first,
he played with Julien's absurdities, for his own entertainment; soon
he found it more interesting to correct, in the gentlest manner, the
young man's mistaken view of life. 'Most provincials who come to Paris
admire everything,' thought the Marquis; 'this fellow hates
everything. They have too much sentiment, he has not enough, and fools
take him for a fool.'

The attack of gout was prolonged by the wintry weather and lasted for
some months.

'One becomes attached to a fine spaniel,' the Marquis told himself;
'why am I so ashamed of becoming attached to this young cleric? He is
original. I treat him like a son; well, what harm is there in that!
This fancy, if it lasts, will cost me a diamond worth five hundred
louis in my will.'

Once the Marquis had realised the firm character of his protege, he
entrusted him with some fresh piece of business every day.

Julien noticed with alarm that this great nobleman would occasionally
give him contradictory instructions with regard to the same matter.

This was liable to land him in serious trouble. Julien, when he came
to work with the Marquis, invariably brought a diary in which he wrote
down his instructions, and the Marquis initialled them. Julien had
engaged a clerk who copied out the instructions relative to each piece
of business in a special book. In this book were kept also copies of
all letters.

This idea seemed at first the most ridiculous and tiresome thing
imaginable. But, in less than two months, the Marquis realised its
advantages. Julien suggested engaging a clerk from a bank, who should
keep an account by double entry of all the revenue from and
expenditure on the estates of which he himself had charge.

These measures so enlightened the Marquis as to his own financial
position that he was able to give himself the pleasure of embarking on
two or three fresh speculations without the assistance of his broker,
who had been robbing him.

'Take three thousand francs for yourself,' he said, one day to his
young minister.

'But, Sir, my conduct may be criticised.'

'What do you want, then?' replied the Marquis, with irritation.

'I want you to be so kind as to make a formal agreement, and to write
it down yourself in the book; the agreement will award me a sum of
three thousand francs. Besides, it was M. l'abbe Pirard who first
thought of all this book-keeping.' The Marquis, with the bored
expression of the Marquis de Moncade, listening to M. Poisson, his
steward, reading his accounts, wrote out his instructions.

In the evening, when Julien appeared in his blue coat, there was never
any talk of business. The Marquis's kindness was so flattering to our
hero's easily wounded vanity that presently, in spite of himself, he
felt a sort of attachment to this genial old man. Not that Julien was
sensitive, as the word is understood in Paris; but he was not a
monster, and no one, since the death of the old Surgeon-Major, had
spoken to him so kindly. He remarked with astonishment that the
Marquis showed a polite consideration for his self-esteem which he had
never received from the old surgeon.  Finally he realised that the
surgeon had been prouder of his Cross than the Marquis was of his Blue
Riband. The Marquis was the son of a great nobleman.

One day, at the end of a morning interview, in his black coat, and for
the discussion of business, Julien amused the Marquis, who kept him
for a couple of hours, and positively insisted upon giving him a
handful of bank notes which his broker had just brought him from the

'I hope, Monsieur le Marquis, not to be wanting in the profound
respect which I owe you if I ask you to allow me to say something.'

'Speak, my friend.'

'Will Monsieur le Marquis be graciously pleased to let me decline this
gift. It is not to the man in black that it is offered, and it would
at once put an end to the liberties which he is so kind as to tolerate
from the man in blue.' He bowed most respectfully, and left the room
without looking round.

This attitude amused the Marquis, who reported it that evening to the
abbe Pirard.

'There is something that I must at last confess to you, my dear abbe.
I know the truth about Julien's birth, and I authorise you not to keep
this confidence secret.

'His behaviour this morning was noble,' thought the Marquis, 'and I
shall ennoble him.'

Some time after this, the Marquis was at length able to leave his

'Go and spend a couple of months in London,' he told Julien. 'The
special couriers and other messengers will bring you the letters I
receive, with my notes. You will write the replies and send them to
me, enclosing each letter with its reply. I have calculated that the
delay will not amount to more than five days.'

As he travelled post along the road to Calais, Julien thought with
amazement of the futility of the alleged business on which he was
being sent.

We shall not describe the feeling of horror, almost of hatred, with
which he set foot on English soil. The reader is aware of his insane
passion for Bonaparte. He saw in every officer a Sir Hudson Lowe, in
every nobleman a Lord Bathurst, ordering the atrocities of Saint
Helena, and receiving his reward in ten years of office.

In London he at last made acquaintance with the extremes of fatuity.
He made friends with some young Russian gentlemen who initiated him.

'You are predestined, my dear Sorel,' they told him, 'you are endowed
by nature with that cold expression _a thousand leagues from the
sensation of the moment_, which we try so hard to assume.'

'You have not understood our age,' Prince Korasoff said to him;
'_always do the opposite to what people expect of you_. That, upon my
honour, is the only religion of the day. Do not be either foolish or
affected, for then people will expect foolishness and affectations,
and you will not be obeying the rule.'

Julien covered himself with glory one day in the drawing-room of the
Duke of Fitz-Fulke, who had invited him to dine, with Prince Korasoff.
The party were kept waiting for an hour. The way in which Julien
comported himself amid the score of persons who stood waiting is still
quoted by the young Secretaries of Embassy in London. His expression
was inimitable.

He was anxious to meet, notwithstanding his friends the dandies, the
celebrated Philip Vane, the one philosopher that England has produced
since Locke. He found him completing his seventh year in prison. 'The
aristocracy does not take things lightly in this country,' thought
Julien; 'in addition to all this, Vane is disgraced, abused,' etc.

Julien found him good company; the fury of the aristocracy kept him
amused.  'There,' Julien said to himself, as he left the prison, 'is
the one cheerful man that I have met in England.'

'The idea of most use to tyrants is that of God,' Vane had said to

We suppress the rest of the philosopher's system as being cynical.

On his return: 'What amusing idea have you brought me from England?'
M. de La Mole asked him. He remained silent. 'What idea have you
brought, amusing or not?' the Marquis went on, sharply.

'First of all,' said Julien, 'the wisest man in England is mad for an
hour daily; he is visited by the demon of suicide, who is the national

'Secondly, intelligence and genius forfeit twenty-five per cent of
their value on landing in England.

'Thirdly, nothing in the world is so beautiful, admirable, moving as
the English countryside.'

'Now, it is my turn,' said the Marquis.

'First of all, what made you say, at the ball at the Russian Embassy,
that there are in France three hundred thousand young men of five and
twenty who are passionately anxious for war? Do you think that that is
quite polite to the Crowned Heads?'

'One never knows what to say in speaking to our great diplomats,' said
Julien. They have a mania for starting serious discussions. If one
confines oneself to the commonplaces of the newspapers, one is
reckoned a fool. If one allows oneself to say something true and
novel, they are astonished, they do not know how to answer, and next
morning, at seven o'clock they send word to one by the First
Secretary, that one has been impolite.'

'Not bad,' said the Marquis, with a laugh. 'I wager, however, Master
Philosopher, that you have not discovered what you went to England to

'Pardon me,' replied Julien; 'I went there to dine once a week with
His Majesty's Ambassador, who is the most courteous of men.'

'You went to secure the Cross which is lying there' the Marquis told
him. 'I do not wish to make you lay aside your black coat, and I have
grown accustomed to the more amusing tone which I have adopted with
the man in blue. Until further orders, understand this: when I see
this Cross, you are the younger son of my friend the Duc de Chaulnes,
who, without knowing it, has been for the last six months employed in
diplomacy. Observe,' added the Marquis, with a highly serious air,
cutting short Julien's expressions of gratitude, 'that I do not on any
account wish you to rise above your station. That is always a mistake,
and a misfortune both for patron and for protege. When my lawsuits
bore you, or when you no longer suit me I shall ask for a good living
for you, like that of our friend the abbe Pirard, and _nothing more_,'
the Marquis added, in the driest of tones.

This Cross set Julien's pride at rest; he began to talk far more
freely. He felt himself less frequently insulted and made a butt by
those remarks, susceptible of some scarcely polite interpretation,
which, in the course of an animated conversation, may fall from the
lips of anyone.

His Cross was the cause of an unexpected visit; this was from M. le
Baron de Valenod, who came to Paris to thank the Minister for his
Barony and to come to an understanding with him. He was going to be
appointed Mayor of Verrieres in the place of M. de Renal.

Julien was consumed with silent laughter when M. de Valenod gave him
to understand that it had just been discovered that M de Renal was a
Jacobin.  The fact was that, in a new election which was in
preparation, the new Baron was the ministerial candidate, and in the
combined constituency of the Department, which in reality was strongly
Ultra, it was M. de Renal who was being put forward by the Liberals.

It was in vain that Julien tried to learn something of Madame de
Renal; the Baron appeared to remember their former rivalry, and was
impenetrable. He ended by asking Julien for his father's vote at the
coming election. Julien promised to write.

'You ought, Monsieur le Chevalier, to introduce me to M. le Marquis de
La Mole.'

'Indeed, so _I ought_,' thought Julien; 'but a rascal like this!'

'To be frank,' he replied, 'I am too humble a person in the Hotel de
La Mole to take it upon me to introduce anyone.'

Julien told the Marquis everything: that evening he informed him of
Valenod's pretension, and gave an account of his life and actions
since 1814.

'Not only,' M. de La Mole replied, with a serious air, 'will you
introduce the new Baron to me tomorrow, but I shall invite him to dine
the day after.  He will be one of our new Prefects.'

'In that case,' retorted Julien coldly, 'I request the post of
Governor of the Poorhouse for my father.'

'Excellent,' said the Marquis, recovering his gaiety; 'granted; I was
expecting a sermon. You are growing up.'

M. de Valenod informed Julien that the keeper of the lottery office at
Verrieres had just died; Julien thought it amusing to bestow this
place upon M. de Cholin, the old imbecile whose petition he had picked
up in the room occupied there by M. de La Mole. The Marquis laughed
heartily at the petition which Julien recited as he made him sign the
letter applying for this post to the Minister of Finance.

No sooner had M. de Cholin been appointed than Julien learned that
this post had been requested by the Deputies of the Department for M.
Gros, the celebrated geometrician: this noble-hearted man had an
income of only fourteen hundred francs, and every year had been
lending six hundred francs to the late holder of the post, to help him
to bring up his family.

Julien was astonished at the effect of what he had done. 'It is
nothing,' he told himself; 'I must be prepared for many other acts of
injustice, if I am to succeed, and, what is more, must know how to
conceal them, under a cloak of fine sentimental words: poor M, Gros!
It is he that deserved the Cross, it is I that have it, and I must act
according to the wishes of the Government that has given it to me.'

What Is the Decoration that Confers Distinction?

  Your water does not refresh me, said the thirsty genie.
  Yet it is the coolest well in all the Diar Bekir.

One day Julien returned from the charming property of Villequier, on
the bank of the Seine, in which M. de La Mole took a special interest
because, of all his estates, it was the only one that had belonged to
the celebrated Boniface de La Mole. He found at the Hotel the Marquise
and her daughter, who had returned from Hyeres.

Julien was now a dandy and understood the art of life in Paris. He
greeted Mademoiselle de La Mole with perfect coolness. He appeared to
remember nothing of the time when she asked him so gaily to tell her
all about his way of falling from his horse.

Mademoiselle de La Mole found him taller and paler. There was no
longer anything provincial about his figure or his attire; not so with
his conversation: this was still perceptibly too serious, too
positive. In spite of these sober qualities, and thanks to his pride,
it conveyed no sense of inferiority; one felt merely that he still
regarded too many things as important. But one saw that he was a man
who would stand by his word.

'He is wanting in lightness of touch, but not in intelligence,'
Mademoiselle de La Mole said to her father, as she teased him over the
Cross he had given Julien. 'My brother has been asking you for it for
the last eighteen months, and he is a La Mole!'

'Yes; but Julien has novelty. That has never been the case with the La
Mole you mention.'

M. le Duc de Retz was announced.

Mathilde felt herself seized by an irresistible desire to yawn; she
recognised the antique decorations and the old frequenters of the
paternal drawing-room. She formed an entirely boring picture of the
life she was going to resume in Paris. And yet at Hyeres she had
longed for Paris.

'To think that I am nineteen!' she reflected: 'it is the age of
happiness, according to all those gilt-edged idiots.' She looked
at nine or ten volumes of recent poetry that had accumulated, during
her absence in Provence, on the drawing-room table. It was her
misfortune to have more intelligence than MM. de Croisenois, de
Caylus, de Luz, and the rest of her friends. She could imagine
everything that they would say to her about the beautiful sky in
Provence, poetry, the south, etc., etc.

Those lovely eyes, in which was revealed the most profound boredom,
and, what was worse still, a despair of finding any pleasure, came to
rest upon Julien. At any rate, he was not exactly like all the rest.

'Monsieur Sorel,' she said in that short, sharp voice, with nothing
feminine about it, which is used by young women of the highest rank,
'Monsieur Sorel, are you coming to M. de Retz's ball tonight?'

'Mademoiselle, I have not had the honour to be presented to M. le
Duc.' (One would have said that these words and the title burned the
lips of the proud provincial.)

'He has asked my brother to bring you; and, if you came, you could
tell me all about Villequier; there is some talk of our going there in
the spring.  I should like to know whether the house is habitable, and
if the country round it is as pretty as people say. There are so many
undeserved reputations!'

Julien made no reply.

'Come to the ball with my brother,' she added, in the driest of tones.

Julien made a respectful bow. 'So, even in the middle of a ball, I
must render accounts to all the members of the family. Am I not paid
to be their man of business?' In his ill humour, he added: 'Heaven
only knows whether what I tell the daughter may not upset the plans of
her father, and brother, and mother! It is just like the court of a
Sovereign Prince. One is expected to be a complete nonentity, and at
the same time give no one any grounds for complaint.

'How I dislike that great girl!' he thought, as he watched
Mademoiselle de La Mole cross the room, her mother having called her
to introduce her to a number of women visitors. 'She overdoes all the
fashions, her gown is falling off her shoulders ... she is even paler
than when she went away ...  What colourless hair, if that is what
they call golden! You would say the light shone through it. How
arrogant her way of bowing, of looking at people! What regal

Mademoiselle de La Mole had called her brother back, as he was leaving
the room.

Comte Norbert came up to Julien:

'My dear Sorel,' he began, 'where would you like me to call for you at
midnight for M. de Retz's ball? He told me particularly to bring you.'

'I know to whom I am indebted for such kindness,' replied Julien,
bowing to the ground.

His ill humour, having no fault to find with the tone of politeness,
indeed of personal interest, in which Norbert had addressed him,
vented itself upon the reply which he himself had made to this
friendly speech. He detected a trace of servility in it.

That night, on arriving at the ball, he was struck by the magnificence
of the Hotel de Retz. The courtyard was covered with an immense
crimson awning patterned with golden stars: nothing could have been
more elegant. Beneath this awning, the court was transformed into a
grove of orange trees and oleanders in blossom. As their tubs had been
carefully buried at a sufficient depth, these oleanders and orange
trees seemed to be springing from the ground. The carriage drive had
been sprinkled with sand.

The general effect seemed extraordinary to our provincial. He had no
idea that such magnificence could exist; in an instant his imagination
had taken wings and flown a thousand leagues away from ill humour. In
the carriage, on their way to the ball, Norbert had been happy, and he
had seen everything in dark colours; as soon as they entered the
courtyard their moods were reversed.

Norbert was conscious only of certain details, which, in the midst of
all this magnificence, had been overlooked. He reckoned up the cost of
everything, and as he arrived at a high total, Julien remarked that he
appeared almost jealous of the outlay and began to sulk.

As for Julien, he arrived spell-bound with admiration, and almost
timid with excess of emotion in the first of the saloons in which the
company were dancing. Everyone was making for the door of the second
room, and the throng was so great that he found it impossible to move.
This great saloon was decorated to represent the Alhambra of Granada.

'She is the belle of the ball, no doubt about it,' said a young man
with moustaches, whose shoulder dug into Julien's chest.

'Mademoiselle Fourmont, who has been the reigning beauty all winter,'
his companion rejoined, 'sees that she must now take the second place:
look how strangely she is frowning.'

'Indeed she is hoisting all her canvas to attract. Look, look at that
gracious smile as soon as she steps into the middle in that country
dance.  It is inimitable, upon my honour.'

'Mademoiselle de La Mole has the air of being in full control of the
pleasure she derives from her triumph, of which she is very well
aware. One would say that she was afraid of attracting whoever speaks
to her.'

'Precisely! That is the art of seduction.'

Julien was making vain efforts to catch a glimpse of this seductive
woman; seven or eight men taller than himself prevented him from
seeing her.

'There is a good deal of coquetry in that noble reserve,' went on the
young man with the moustaches.

'And those big blue eyes which droop so slowly just at the moment when
one would say they were going to give her away,' his companion added.
'Faith, she's a past master.'

'Look how common the fair Fourmont appears beside her,' said a third.

'That air of reserve is as much as to say: "How charming I should make
myself to you, if you were the man that was worthy of me."'

'And who could be worthy of the sublime Mathilde?' said the first:
'Some reigning Prince, handsome, clever, well made, a hero in battle,
and aged twenty at the most.'

'The natural son of the Emperor of Russia, for whom, on the occasion of
such a marriage, a Kingdom would be created; or simply the Comte de
Thaler, with his air of a peasant in his Sunday clothes . . .'

The passage was now cleared, Julien was free to enter.

'Since she appears so remarkable in the eyes of these puppets, it is
worth my while to study her,' he thought. 'I shall understand what
perfection means to these people.'

As he was trying to catch her eye, Mathilde looked at him. 'Duty calls
me,' Julien said to himself, but his resentment was now confined to
his expression. Curiosity made him step forward with a pleasure which
the low cut of the gown on Mathilda's shoulders rapidly enhanced, in a
manner, it must be admitted, by no means flattering to his
self-esteem. 'Her beauty has the charm of youth,' he thought. Five or
six young men, among whom Julien recognised those whom he had heard
talking in the doorway, stood between her and him.

'You can tell me, Sir, as you have been here all the winter,' she said
to him, 'is it not true that this is the prettiest ball of the
season?' He made no answer.

'This Coulon quadrille seems to me admirable; and the ladies are
dancing it quite perfectly.' The young men turned round to see who the
fortunate person was who was being thus pressed for an answer. It was
not encouraging.

'I should hardly be a good judge, Mademoiselle; I spend my time
writing: this is the first ball on such a scale that I have seen.'

The moustached young men were shocked.

'You are a sage, Monsieur Sorel,' she went on with a more marked
interest; 'you look upon all these balls, all these parties, like a
philosopher, like a Jean-Jacques Rousseau. These follies surprise you
without tempting you.'

A chance word had stifled Julien's imagination and banished every
illusion from his heart. His lips assumed an expression of disdain
that was perhaps slightly exaggerated.

'Jean-Jacques Rousseau,' he replied, 'is nothing but a fool in my eyes
when he takes it upon himself to criticise society; he did not
understand it, and approached it with the heart of an upstart

'He wrote the _Contrat Social_,' said Mathilde in a tone of veneration.

'For all his preaching a Republic and the overthrow of monarchical
titles, the upstart is mad with joy if a Duke alters the course of his
after-dinner stroll to accompany one of his friends.'

'Ah, yes! The Due de Luxembourg at Montmorency accompanies a M.
Coindet on the road to Paris,' replied Mademoiselle de La Mole with
the impetuous delight of a first enjoyment of pedantry. She was
overjoyed at her own learning, almost like the Academician who
discovered the existence of King Feretrius. Julien's eye remained
penetrating and stern. Mathilde had felt a momentary enthusiasm; her
partner's coldness disconcerted her profoundly.  She was all the more
astonished inasmuch as it was she who was in the habit of producing
this effect upon other people.

At that moment, the Marquis de Croisenois advanced eagerly towards
Mademoiselle de La Mole. He stopped for a moment within a few feet of
her, unable to approach her on account of the crowd. He looked at her,
with a smile at the obstacle. The young Marquise de Rouvray was close
beside him; she was a cousin of Mathilde. She gave her arm to her
husband, who had been married for only a fortnight. The Marquis de
Rouvray, who was quite young also, showed all that fatuous love which
seizes a man, who having made a 'suitable' marriage entirely arranged
by the family lawyers, finds that he has a perfectly charming spouse.
M. de Rouvray would be a Duke on the death of an uncle of advanced

While the Marquis de Croisenois, unable to penetrate the throng, stood
gazing at Mathilde with a smiling air, she allowed her large, sky-blue
eyes to rest upon him and his neighbours. 'What could be duller,' she
said to herself, 'than all that group! Look at Croisenois who hopes to
marry me; he is nice and polite, he has perfect manners like M. de
Rouvray. If they did not bore me, these gentlemen would be quite
charming. He, too, will come to balls with me with that smug,
satisfied air. A year after we are married, my carriage, my horses, my
gowns, my country house twenty leagues from Paris, everything will be
as perfect as possible, just what is needed to make an upstart burst
with envy, a Comtesse de Roiville for instance; and after that?

Mathilde let her mind drift into the future. The Marquis de Croisenois
succeeded in reaching her, and spoke to her, but she dreamed on
without listening. The sound of his voice was lost in the hubbub of
the ball. Her eye mechanically followed Julien, who had moved away
with a respectful, but proud and discontented air. She saw in a
corner, aloof from the moving crowd, Conte Altamira, who was under
sentence of death in his own country, as the reader already knows.
Under Louis XIV, a lady of his family had married a Prince de Conti;
this antecedent protected him to some extent from the police of the

'I can see nothing but a sentence of death that distinguishes a man,'
thought Mathilde: 'it is the only thing that is not to be bought.

'Ah! There is a witty saying that I have wasted on myself! What a pity
that it did not occur to me when I could have made the most of it!'
Mathilde had too much taste to lead up in conversation to a witticism
prepared beforehand; but she had also too much vanity not to be
delighted with her own wit. An air of happiness succeeded the
appearance of boredom in her face. The Marquis de Croisenois, who was
still addressing her, thought he saw a chance of success, and doubled
his loquacity.

'What fault would anyone have to find with my remark?' Mathilde asked
herself. 'I should answer my critic: "A title of Baron, or Viscount,
that can be bought; a Cross, that is given; my brother has just had
one, what has he ever done? A step in promotion, that is obtained. Ten
years of garrison duty, or a relative as Minister for War, and one
becomes a squadron-commander, like Norbert. A great fortune! That is
still the most difficult thing to secure, and therefore the most
meritorious. Now is not that odd? It is just the opposite to what all
the books say . .. Well, to secure a fortune, one marries M.
Rothschild's daughter."

'My remark is really subtle. A death sentence is still the only thing
for which no one has ever thought of asking.

'Do you know Conte Altamira?' she asked M. de Croisenois.

She had the air of having come back to earth from so remote an
abstraction, and this question bore so little relation to all that the
poor Marquis had been saying to her for the last five minutes, that
his friendly feelings were somewhat disconcerted. He was, however, a
man of ready wit, and highly esteemed in that capacity.

'Mathilde is certainly odd,' he thought; 'it is a drawback, but she
gives her husband such a splendid social position! I cannot think how
the Marquis de La Mole manages it; he is on intimate terms with the
best people in every party, he is a man who cannot fall. Besides, this
oddity in Mathilde may pass for genius. Given noble birth and an ample
fortune, genius is not to be laughed at, and then, what distinction!
She has such a command, too, when she pleases, of that combination of
wit, character and aptness, which makes conversation perfect. ..' As
it is hard to do two things well at the same time, the Marquis
answered Mathilde with a vacant air, and as though repeating a lesson:

'Who does not know poor Altamira?' and he told her the story of the
absurd, abortive conspiracy.

'Most absurd!' said Mathilde, as though speaking to herself, 'but he
has done something. I wish to see a man; bring him to me,' she said to
the Marquis, who was deeply shocked.

Conte Altamira was one of the most openly professed admirers of the
haughty and almost impertinent air of Mademoiselle de La Mole; she
was, according to him, one of the loveliest creatures in Paris.

'How beautiful she would be on a throne!' he said to M. de Croisenois,
and made no difficulty about allowing himself to be led to her.

There are not wanting in society people who seek to establish the
principle that nothing is in such bad tone as a conspiracy; it reeks
of Jacobinism.  And what can be more vile than an unsuccessful

Mathilde's glance derided Altamira's Liberalism to M. de Croisenois,
but she listened to him with pleasure.

'A conspirator at a ball, it is a charming contrast,' she thought. In
this conspirator, with his black moustaches, she detected a
resemblance to a lion in repose; but she soon found that his mind had
but one attitude: utility, admiration for utility.

Excepting only what might bring to his country Two Chamber government,
the young Count felt that nothing was worthy of his attention. He
parted from Mathilde, the most attractive person at the ball, with
pleasure because he had seen a Peruvian General enter the room.

Despairing of Europe, poor Altamira had been reduced to hoping that,
when the States of South America became strong and powerful, they
might restore to Europe the freedom which Mirabeau had sent to them.
[Footnote: This page, written on July 25, 1830, was printed on
August 4. (Publisher's note.)  --_Le Rouge et le Noir_ was published
in 1831.  It was an order of July 25, 1830, dissolving the Chamber,
which provoked the Revolution of the following days, the abdication of
Charles X, and the accession of Louis-Phillippe--C. K. S. M.]

A swarm of young men with moustaches had gathered round Mathilde. She
had seen quite well that Altamira was not attracted, and felt piqued
by his desertion of her; she saw his dark eye gleam as he spoke to the
Peruvian General. Mademoiselle de La Mole studied the young Frenchmen
with that profound seriousness which none of her rivals was able to
imitate. 'Which of them,' she thought, 'could ever be sentenced to
death, even allowing him the most favourable conditions?'

This singular gaze flattered those who had little intelligence,
but disturbed the rest. They feared the explosion of some pointed
witticism which it would be difficult to answer.

'Good birth gives a man a hundred qualities the absence of which would
offend me: I see that in Julien's case,' thought Mathilde; 'but it
destroys those qualities of the spirit which make people be sentenced
to death.'

At that moment someone remarked in her hearing: 'That Conte Altamira
is the second son of the Principe di San Nazaro-Pimentel; it was a
Pimentel who attempted to save Conradin, beheaded in 1268. They are
one of the noblest families of Naples.'

'There,' Mathilde said to herself, 'is an excellent proof of my maxim:
Good birth destroys the strength of character without which people do
not incur sentences of death. I seem fated to go wrong this evening.
Since I am only a woman like any other, well, I must dance.' She
yielded to the persistence of the Marquis de Croisenois, who for the
last hour had been pleading for a galop. To distract her thoughts
from her philosophical failure, Mathilde chose to be perfectly
bewitching; M. de Croisenois was in ecstasies.

But not the dance, nor the desire to please one of the handsomest men
at court, nothing could distract Mathilde. She could not possibly have
enjoyed a greater triumph. She was the queen of the ball, she knew it,
but she remained cold.

'What a colourless life I shall lead with a creature like Croisenois,'
she said to herself, as he led her back to her place an hour later ...
'What pleasure can there be for me,' she went on sadly, 'if after an
absence of six months, I do not find any in a ball which is the envy
of all the women in Paris? And moreover I am surrounded by the homage
of a society which could not conceivably be more select. There is no
plebeian element here except a few peers and a Julien or two perhaps.
And yet,' she added, with a growing melancholy, 'what advantages has
not fate bestowed on me! Birth, wealth, youth! Everything, alas, but

'The most dubious of my advantages are those of which they have been
telling me all evening. Wit, I know I have, for obviously I frighten
them all. If they venture to broach a serious subject, after five
minutes of conversation they all arrive out of breath, and as though
making a great discovery, at something which I have been repeating to
them for the last hour. I am beautiful, I have that advantage for
which Madame de Stael would have sacrificed everything, and yet the
fact remains that I am dying of boredom.  Is there any reason why I
should be less bored when I have changed my name to that of the
Marquis de Croisenois?

'But, Lord!' she added, almost in tears, 'is he not a perfect man? He
is the masterpiece of the education of the age; one cannot look at him
without his thinking of something pleasant, and even clever, to say to
one; he is brave ... But that Sorel is a strange fellow,' she said to
herself, and the look of gloom in her eye gave place to a look of
anger. 'I told him that I had something to say to him, and he does not
condescend to return!'

The Ball

  The splendour of the dresses, the blaze of the candles,
  the perfumes; all those rounded arms, and fine shoulders;
  bouquets, the sound of Rossini's music, pictures by Ciceri!
  I am beside myself!
    _Travels of Uzeri_

'You are feeling cross,' the Marquise de La Mole said to her; 'I warn
you, that is not good manners at a ball.'

'It is only a headache,' replied Mathilde contemptuously, 'it is too
hot in here.'

At that moment, as though to corroborate Mademoiselle de La Mole, the
old Baron de Tolly fainted and fell to the ground; he had to be
carried out.  There was talk of apoplexy, it was a disagreeable

Mathilde did not give it a thought. It was one of her definite habits
never to look at an old man or at anyone known to be given to talking
about sad things.

She danced to escape the conversation about the apoplexy, which was
nothing of the sort, for a day or two later the Baron reappeared.

'But M. Sorel does not appear,' she said to herself again after she
had finished dancing. She was almost searching for him with
her eyes when she caught sight of him in another room. Strange to say,
he seemed to have shed the tone of impassive coldness which was so
natural to him; he had no longer the air of an Englishman.

'He is talking to Conte Altamira, my condemned man!' Mathilde said to
herself. 'His eye is ablaze with a sombre fire; he has the air of a
Prince in disguise; the arrogance of his gaze has increased.'

Julien was coming towards the spot where she was, still talking to
Altamira; she looked fixedly at him, studying his features in search
of those lofty qualities which may entitle a man to the honour of
being sentenced to death.

As he passed by her:

'Yes,' he was saying to Conte Altamira, 'Danton was a man!'

'Oh, heavens! Is he to be another Danton,' thought Mathilde; 'but he
has such a noble face, and that Danton was so horribly ugly, a
butcher, I fancy.' Julien was still quite near her, she had no
hesitation in calling to him; she was conscious and proud of asking a
question that was extraordinary, coming from a girl.

'Was not Danton a butcher?' she asked him.

'Yes, in the eyes of certain people,' Julien answered her with an
expression of the most ill-concealed scorn, his eye still ablaze from
his conversation with Altamira, 'but unfortunately for people of
birth, he was a lawyer at Mery-sur-Seine; that is to say,
Mademoiselle,' he went on with an air of sarcasm, 'that he began life
like several of the Peers whom I see here this evening. It is true
that Danton had an enormous disadvantage in the eyes of beauty: he was
extremely ugly.'

The last words were uttered rapidly, with an extraordinary and
certainly far from courteous air.

Julien waited for a moment, bowing slightly from the waist and with an
arrogantly humble air. He seemed to be saying: 'I am paid to answer
you, and I live upon my pay.' He did not deign to raise his eyes to
her face.  She, with her fine eyes opened extraordinarily wide and
fastened upon him, seemed like his slave. At length, as the silence
continued, he looked at her as a servant looks at his master, when
receiving orders. Although his eyes looked full into those of
Mathilde, still fastened upon him with a strange gaze, he withdrew
with marked alacrity.

'That he, who really is so handsome,' Mathilde said to herself at
length, awakening from her dreams, 'should pay such a tribute to
ugliness! Never a thought of himself! He is not like Caylus or
Croisenois. This Sorel has something of the air my father adopts when
he is playing the Napoleon, at a ball.' She had entirely forgotten
Danton. 'No doubt about it, I am bored this evening.' She seized her
brother by the arm, and, greatly to his disgust, forced him to take
her for a tour of the rooms. The idea occurred to her of following the
condemned man's conversation with Julien.

The crowd was immense. She succeeded, however, in overtaking them at
the moment when, just in front of her, Altamira had stopped by a tray
of ices to help himself. He was talking to Julien, half turning
towards him. He saw an arm in a braided sleeve stretched out to take
an ice from the same tray.  The gold lace seemed to attract his
attention; he turned round bodily to see whose this arm was.
Immediately his eyes, so noble and unaffected, assumed a slight
expression of scorn.

'You see that man,' he murmured to Julien; 'he is the Principe
d'Araceli, the ---- Ambassador. This morning he applied for my
extradition to your French Foreign Minister, M. de Nerval. Look,
there he is over there, playing whist. M. de Nerval is quite ready to
give me up, for we gave you back two or three conspirators in 1816.
If they surrender me to my King I shall be hanged within twenty-four
hours. And it will be one of those pretty gentlemen with moustaches
who will seize me.'

'The wretches!' exclaimed Julien, half aloud.

Mathilde did not lose a syllable of their conversation. Her boredom
had vanished.

'Not such wretches as all that,' replied Conte Altamira. 'I have
spoken to you of myself to impress you with a real instance. Look at
Principe d'Araceli; every five minutes he casts a glance at his Golden
Fleece; he cannot get over the pleasure of seeing that trinket on his
breast. The poor man is really nothing worse than an anachronism. A
hundred years ago, the Golden Fleece was a signal honour, but then it
would have been far above his head. Today, among people of breeding,
one must be an Araceli to be thrilled by it. He would have hanged a
whole town to obtain it.'

'Was that the price he paid for it?' said Julien, with anxiety.

'Not exactly,' replied Altamira coldly; 'he perhaps had some thirty
wealthy landowners of his country, who were supposed to be Liberals,
flung into the river.'

'What a monster!' said Julien again.

Mademoiselle de La Mole, leaning forward with the keenest interest,
was so close to him that her beautiful hair almost brushed his

'You are very young!' replied Altamira. 'I told you that I have a
married sister in Provence; she is still pretty, good, gentle; she is
an excellent mother, faithful to all her duties, pious without

'What is he leading up to?' thought Mademoiselle de La Mole.

'She is happy,' Conte Altamira continued; 'she was happy in 1815. At
that time I was in hiding there, on her property near Antibes; well,
as soon as she heard of the execution of Marshal Ney, she began to

'Is it possible?' said the horrified Julien.

'It is the partisan spirit,' replied Altamira. There are no longer any
genuine passions in the nineteenth century; that is why people are so
bored in France. We commit the greatest cruelties, but without

'All the worse!' said Julien; 'at least, when we commit crimes, we
should commit them with pleasure: that is the only good thing about
them, and the only excuse that can in any way justify them.'

Mademoiselle de La Mole, entirely forgetting what she owed to herself,
had placed herself almost bodily between Altamira and Julien. Her
brother, upon whose arm she leaned, being accustomed to obey her, was
looking about the room, and, to hide his lack of composure, pretending
to be held up by the crowd.

'You are right,' said Altamira; 'we do everything without pleasure and
without remembering it afterwards, even our crimes. I can point out to
you at this ball ten men, perhaps, who will be damned as murderers.
They have forgotten it, and the world also.  [Footnote: 'A malcontent
is speaking.' (Note by Moliere to _Tartuffe_.)]

'Many of them are moved to tears if their dog breaks its paw. At
Pere-Lachaise, when people strew flowers on their graves, as you so
charmingly say in Paris, we are told that they combined all the
virtues of the knights of old, and we hear of the great deeds of their
ancestor who lived in the days of Henri IV: If, despite the good
offices of Principe d'Araceli, I am not hanged, and if I ever come to
enjoy my fortune in Paris, I hope to invite you to dine with nine or
ten murderers who are honoured and feel no remorse.

'You and I, at that dinner, will be the only two whose hands are free
from blood, but I shall be despised and almost hated, as a bloody and
Jacobinical monster, and you will simply be despised as a plebeian who
has thrust his way into good society.'

'Nothing could be more true,' said Mademoiselle de La Mole.

Altamira looked at her in astonishment; Julien did not deign to look
at her.

'Note that the revolution at the head of which I found myself,' Conte
Altamira went on, 'was unsuccessful, solely because I would not cut
off three heads, and distribute among our supporters seven or eight
millions which happened to be in a safe of which I held the key. My
King, who is now burning to have me hanged, and who, before the
revolt, used to address me as _tu_, would have given me the Grand
Cordon of his Order if I had cut off those three heads and distributed
the money in those safes: for then I should have scored at least a
partial success, and my country would have had a Charter of sorts ...
Such is the way of the world, it is a game of chess.'

'Then,' replied Julien, his eyes ablaze, 'you did not know the game;
now ...'

'I should cut off the heads, you mean, and I should not be a Girondin
as you gave me to understand the other day? I will answer you,' said
Altamira sadly, 'when you have killed a man in a duel, and that is a
great deal less unpleasant than having him put to death by a

'Faith!' said Julien, 'the end justifies the means; if, instead of
being a mere atom, I had any power, I would hang three men to save the
lives of four.'

His eyes expressed the fire of conscience and a contempt for the vain
judgments of men; they met those of Mademoiselle de La Mole who stood
close beside him, and this contempt, instead of changing into an air
of gracious civility, seemed to intensify.

It shocked her profoundly; but it no longer lay in her power to forget
Julien; she moved indifferently away, taking her brother with her.

'I must take some punch, and dance a great deal,' she said to herself,
'I intend to take the best that is going, and to create an effect at
all costs. Good, here comes that master of impertinence, the Comte de
Fervaques.' She accepted his invitation; they danced. 'It remains to
be seen,' she thought, 'which of us will be the more impertinent, but,
to get the full enjoyment out of him, I must make him talk.' Presently
all the rest of the country dance became a pure formality.  No one was
willing to miss any of Mathilde's piquant repartees. M. de Fervaques
grew troubled, and, being able to think of nothing but elegant
phrases, in place of ideas, began to smirk; Mathilde, who was out of
temper, treated him cruelly, and made an enemy of him. She danced
until daybreak, and finally went home horribly tired. But, in the
carriage, the little strength that remained to her was still employed
in making her melancholy and wretched. She had been scorned by Julien,
and was unable to scorn him.

Julien was on a pinnacle of happiness. Carried away unconsciously by
the music, the flowers, the beautiful women, the general elegance,
and, most of all, by his own imagination, which dreamed of
distinctions for himself and of liberty for mankind:

'What a fine ball!' he said to the Conte, 'nothing is lacking.'

'Thought is lacking,' replied Altamira.

And his features betrayed that contempt which is all the more striking
because one sees that politeness makes it a duty to conceal it.

'You are here, Monsieur le Comte. Is not that thought, and actively
conspiring, too?'

'I am here because of my name. But they hate thought in your
drawing-rooms.  It must never rise above the level of a comic song:
then it is rewarded.  But the man who thinks, if he shows energy and
novelty in his sallies, you call a _cynic_. Is not that the name that
one of your judges bestowed upon Courier? You put him in prison, and
Beranger also. Everything that is of any value among you,
intellectually, the _Congregation_ flings to the criminal police; and
society applauds.

'The truth is that your antiquated society values conventionality
above everything .. . You will never rise higher than martial
gallantry; you will have Murats, but never a Washington. I can see
nothing in France but vanity. A man who thinks of things as he speaks
may easily say something rash, and his host then imagines himself

At this point, the Conte's carriage, which was taking Julien home,
stopped at the Hotel de La Mole. Julien was in love with his
conspirator. Altamira had paid him a handsome compliment, evidently
springing from a profound conviction: 'You have not the French
frivolity, and you understand the principle of _utility_.' It so
happened that, only two evenings before, Julien had seen _Marino
Faliero_, a tragedy by M. Casimir Delavigne.

'Has not Israel Bertuccio more character than all those Venetian
nobles?' our rebellious plebeian asked himself; 'and yet they are men
whose noble descent can be proved as far back as the year 700, a
century before Charlemagne; whereas the bluest blood at M. de Retz's
ball tonight does not go farther back, and that only by a hop, skip
and jump, than the thirteenth century. Very well! Among those Venetian
nobles, so great by birth, it is Israel Bertuccio that one remembers.

'A conspiracy wipes out all the titles conferred by social caprice. In
those conditions, a man springs at once to the rank which his manner
of facing death assigns to him. The mind itself loses some of its
authority ...

'What would Danton be today, in this age of Valenods and Renais? Not
even a Deputy Crown Prosecutor .. .

'What am I saying? He would have sold himself to the _Congregation_;
he would be a Minister, for after all the great Danton did steal.
Mirabeau, too, sold himself. Napoleon stole millions in Italy,
otherwise he would have been brought to a standstill by poverty, like
Pichegru. Only La Fayette never stole. Must one steal, must one sell
oneself?' Julien wondered. The question arrested the flow of his
imagination. He spent the rest of the night reading the history of the

Next day, as he copied his letters in the library, he could still
think of nothing but Conte Altamira's conversation.

'It is quite true,' he said to himself, after a long spell of
absorption; 'if those Spanish Liberals had compromised the people by
a few crimes, they would not have been swept away so easily. They were
conceited, chattering boys ... like myself!' Julien suddenly cried, as
though awaking with a bound.

'What difficult thing have I ever done that gives me the right to
judge poor devils who, after all, once in their lives, have dared,
have begun to act? I am like a man who, on rising from table,
exclaims: "Tomorrow I shall not dine; that will not prevent me from
feeling strong and brisk as I do today." How can I tell what people
feel in the middle of a great action? ..  .' These lofty thoughts were
interrupted by the sudden arrival of Mademoiselle de La Mole, who at
this moment entered the library. He was so excited by his admiration
for the great qualities of Danton, Mirabeau, Carnot, who had contrived
not to be crushed, that his eyes rested upon Mademoiselle de La Mole,
but without his thinking of her, without his greeting her, almost
without his seeing her. When at length his great staring eyes became
aware of her presence, the light died out in them.  Mademoiselle de La
Mole remarked this with a feeling of bitterness.

In vain did she ask him for a volume of Vely's _Histoire de France_
which stood on the highest shelf, so that Julien was obliged to fetch
the longer of the two ladders. He brought the ladder; he found the
volume, he handed it to her, still without being able to think of her.
As he carried back the ladder, in his preoccupation, his elbow struck
one of the glass panes protecting the shelves; the sound of the
splinters falling on the floor at length aroused him. He hastened to
make his apology to Mademoiselle de La Mole; he tried to be polite,
but he was nothing more. Mathilde saw quite plainly that she had
disturbed him, that he would have preferred to dream of what had been
occupying his mind before her entry, rather than to talk to her. After
a long glance at him, she slowly left the room. Julien watched her as
she went. He enjoyed the contrast between the simplicity of the attire
she was now wearing and her sumptuous magnificence overnight.  The
difference in her physiognomy was hardly less striking. This girl, so
haughty at the Duc de Retz's ball, had at this moment almost a
suppliant look. 'Really,' Julien told himself, 'that black gown shows
off the beauty of her figure better than anything; but why is she in

'If I ask anyone the reason of this mourning, I shall only make myself
appear a fool as usual.' Julien had quite come to earth from the
soaring flight of his enthusiasm. 'I must read over all the letters I
have written today; Heaven knows how many missing words and blunders I
shall find.' As he was reading with forced attention the first of
these letters, he heard close beside him the rustle of a silken gown;
he turned sharply round; Mademoiselle de La Mole was standing by his
table, and smiling. This second interruption made Julien lose his

As for Mathilde, she had just become vividly aware that she meant
nothing to this young man; her smile was intended to cover her
embarrassment, and proved successful.

'Evidently, you are thinking about something that is extremely
interesting, Monsieur Sorel. Is it by any chance some curious anecdote
of the conspiracy that has sent the Conte Altamira here to Paris? Tell
me what it is? I am burning to know; I shall be discreet, I swear to
you!' This last sentence astonished her as she uttered it. What, she
was pleading with a subordinate! Her embarrassment grew, she adopted a
light manner:

'What can suddenly have turned you, who are ordinarily so cold, into
an inspired creature, a sort of Michelangelo prophet?'

This bold and indiscreet question, cutting Julien to the quick,
revived all his passion.

'Was Danton justified in stealing?' he said to her sharply, and with
an air that grew more and more savage. 'The Revolutionaries of
Piedmont, of Spain, ought they to have compromised the people by
crimes? To have given away, even to men without merit, all the
commands in the army, all the Crosses?  Would not the men who wore
those Crosses have had reason to fear a Restoration of their King?
Ought they to have let the Treasury in Turin be pillaged? In a word,
Mademoiselle,' he said, as he came towards her with a terrible air,
'ought the man who seeks to banish ignorance and crime from the earth
to pass like a whirlwind and do evil as though blindly?'

Mathilde was afraid, she could not meet his gaze, and recoiled a
little.  She looked at him for a moment; then, ashamed of her fear,
with a light step left the library.

Queen Marguerite

  Love! In what folly do you not contrive to make us
  find pleasure?
    _Letters of a Portuguese Nun_

Julien read over his letters. When the dinner bell sounded: 'How
ridiculous I must have appeared in the eyes of that Parisian doll!' he
said to himself; 'what madness to tell her what was really in my
thoughts! And yet perhaps not so very mad. The truth on this occasion
was worthy of me.

'Why, too, come and cross-examine me on private matters? Her question
was indiscreet. She forgot herself. My thoughts on Danton form no part
of the sacrifice for which her father pays me.'

On reaching the dining-room, Julien was distracted from his ill humour
by Mademoiselle de La Mole's deep mourning, which was all the more
striking since none of the rest of the family was in black.

After dinner, he found himself entirely recovered from the fit of
enthusiasm which had possessed him all day. Fortunately, the
Academician who knew Latin was present at dinner. There is the man who
will be least contemptuous of me, if, as I suppose, my question about
Mademoiselle de La Mole's mourning should prove a blunder.'

Mathilde was looking at him with a singular expression. 'There we have
an instance of the coquetry of the women of these parts, just as
Madame de Renal described it to me,' Julien told himself. 'I was not
agreeable to her this morning, I did not yield to her impulse for
conversation. My value has increased in her eyes. No doubt the devil
loses no opportunity there. Later on, her proud scorn will find out a
way of avenging itself. Let her do her worst. How different from the
woman I have lost! What natural charm! What simplicity! I knew what
was in her mind before she did; I could see her thoughts take shape; I
had no competitor, in her heart, but the fear of losing her children;
it was a reasonable and natural affection, indeed it was pleasant for
me who felt the same fear. I was a fool. The ideas that I had I formed
of Paris prevented me from appreciating that sublime woman.

'What a difference, great God! And what do I find here? A sere and
haughty vanity, all the refinements of self-esteem and nothing more.'

The party left the table. 'I must not let my Academician be
intercepted,' said Julien. He went up to him as they were moving into
the garden, assumed a meek, submissive air, and sympathised with his
rage at the success of _Hernani_.

'If only we lived in the days of _lettres de cachet_!' he said.

'Ah, then he would never have dared,' cried the Academician, with a
gesture worthy of Talma.

In speaking of a flower, Julien quoted a line or two from Virgil's
_Georgics_, and decided that nothing came up to the poetry of the abbe
Delille. In short, he flattered the Academician in every possible way.
After which, with an air of the utmost indifference: 'I suppose,' he
said to him, 'that Mademoiselle de La Mole has received a legacy from
some uncle for whom she is in mourning.'

'What! You live in the house,' said the Academician, coming to a
standstill, 'and you don't know her mania? Indeed, it is strange that
her mother allows such things; but, between you and me, it is not
exactly by strength of character that they shine in this family.
Mademoiselle Mathilde has enough for them all, and leads them by the
nose. Today is the 30th of April!' and the Academician broke off,
looking at Julien, with an air of connivance. Julien smiled as
intelligently as he was able.

'What connection can there be between leading a whole household by the
nose, wearing black and the 30th of April?' he asked himself. 'I must
be even stupider than I thought.

'I must confess to you,' he said to the Academician, and his eye
continued the question.

'Let us take a turn in the garden,' said the Academician, delighted to
see this chance of delivering a long and formal speech. 'What! Is it
really possible that you do not know what happened on the 30th of
April, 1574?'

'Where?' asked Julien, in surprise.

'On the Place de Greve.'

Julien was so surprised that this name did not enlighten him. His
curiosity, the prospect of a tragic interest, so attuned to his
nature, gave him those sparkling eyes which a story-teller so loves to
see in his audience. The Academician, delighted to find a virgin ear,
related at full length to Julien how, on the 30th of April, 1574, the
handsomest young man of his age, Boniface de La Mole, and Annibal de
Coconasso, a Piedmontese gentleman, his friend, had been beheaded on
the Place de Greve. 'La Mole was the adored lover of Queen Marguerite
of Navarre; and observe,' the Academician added, 'that Mademoiselle
de La Mole is named Mathilde-Marguerite. La Mole was at the same time
the favourite of the Duc d'Alencon and an intimate friend of the King
of Navarre, afterwards Henri IV, the husband of his mistress. On
Shrove Tuesday in this year, 1574, the Court happened to be at
Saint-Germain, with the unfortunate King Charles IX, who was on his
deathbed. La Mole wished to carry off the Princes, his friends, whom
Queen Catherine de' Medici was keeping as prisoners with the Court. He
brought up two hundred horsemen under the walls of Saint-Germain, the
Due d'Alencon took fright, and La Mole was sent to the scaffold.

'But what appeals to Mademoiselle Mathilde, as she told me herself,
seven or eight years ago, when she was only twelve, for she has a
head, such a head! .. .' and the Academician raised his eyes to
heaven. 'What impresses her in this political catastrophe is that
Queen Marguerite of Navarre, who had waited concealed in a house on
the Place de Greve, made bold to ask the executioner for her lover's
head. And the following night, at midnight, she took the head in her
carriage, and went to bury it with her own hands in a chapel which
stood at the foot of the hill of Montmartre.'

'Is it possible?' exclaimed Julien, deeply touched.

'Mademoiselle Mathilde despises her brother because, as you see, he
thinks nothing of all this ancient history, and never goes into
mourning on the 30th of April. It is since this famous execution, and
to recall the intimate friendship between La Mole and Coconasso, which
Coconasso, being as he was an Italian, was named Annibal, that all the
men of this family have borne that name. And,' the Academician went
on, lowering his voice, 'this Coconasso was, on the authority of
Charles IX, himself, one of the bloodiest assassins on the 24th of
August, 1572.. But how is it possible, my dear Sorel, that you are
ignorant of these matters, you, who are an inmate of the house?'

'Then that is why twice, during the dinner, Mademoiselle de La Mole
addressed her brother as Annibal. I thought I had not heard aright.'

'It was a reproach. It is strange that the Marquise permits such folly
...  That great girl's husband will see some fine doings!'

This expression was followed by five or six satirical phrases. The joy
at thus revealing an intimate secret that shone in the Academician's
eyes shocked Julien. 'What are we but a pair of servants engaged in
slandering our employers?' he thought. 'But nothing ought to surprise
me that is done by this academic gentleman.'

One day Julien had caught him on his knees before the Marquise de La
Mole; he was begging her for a tobacco licence for a nephew in the
country. That night, he gathered from a little maid of Mademoiselle de
La Mole, who was making love to him, as Elisa had done in the past,
that her mistress's mourning was by no means put on to attract
attention. This eccentricity was an intimate part of her nature. She
really loved this La Mole, the favoured lover of the most brilliant
Queen of her age, who had died for having sought to set his friends at
liberty. And what friends! The First Prince of the Blood and Henri IV.

Accustomed to the perfect naturalness that shone through the whole of
Madame de Renal's conduct, Julien saw nothing but affectation in all
the women of Paris, and even without feeling disposed to melancholy,
could think of nothing to say to them. Mademoiselle de La Mole was the

He began no longer to mistake for hardness of heart the kind of beauty
that goes with nobility of bearing. He had long conversations with
Mademoiselle de La Mole, who would stroll with him in the garden
sometimes after dinner, past the open windows of the drawing-room. She
told him one day that she was reading d'Aubigne's _History_, and
Brantome. 'A strange choice,' thought Julien, 'and the Marquise does
not allow her to read the novels of Walter Scott!'

One day she related to him, with that glow of pleasure in her eyes
which proves the sincerity of the speaker's admiration, the feat of a
young woman in the reign of Henri in, which she had just discovered
in the _Memoires_ by l'Etoile: finding that her husband was unfaithful,
she had stabbed him.

Julien's self-esteem was flattered. A person surrounded by such
deference, one who, according to the Academician, was the leader of
the household, deigned to address him in a tone which might almost be
regarded as friendly. 'I was mistaken,' was his next thought; 'this is
not familiarity, I am only the listener to a tragic story, it is the
need to speak. I am regarded as learned by this family. I shall go and
read Brantome, d'Aubigne, l'Etoile. I shall be able to challenge some
of the anecdotes which Mademoiselle de La Mole cites to me. I must
emerge from this part of a passive listener.'

In course of time his conversations with this girl, whose manner was
at once so imposing and so easy, became more interesting. He forgot
his melancholy role as a plebeian in revolt. He found her learned and
indeed rational. Her opinions in the garden differed widely from those
which she maintained in the drawing-room. At times she displayed with
him an enthusiasm and a frankness which formed a perfect contrast with
her normal manner, so haughty and cold.

'The Wars of the League are the heroic age of France,' she said to
him one day, her eyes aflame with intellect and enthusiasm. 'Then
everyone fought to secure a definite object which he desired in order
to make his party triumph, and not merely to win a stupid Cross as in
the days of your Emperor. You must agree that there was less egoism
and pettiness. I love that period.'

'And Boniface de La Mole was its hero,' he said to her.

'At any rate he was loved as it is perhaps pleasant to be loved. What
woman alive today would not be horrified to touch the head of her
decapitated lover?'

Madame de La Mole called her daughter indoors. Hypocrisy, to be
effective, must be concealed; and Julien, as we see, had taken
Mademoiselle de La Mole partly into his confidence as to his
admiration for Napoleon.

'That is the immense advantage which they have over us,' he said to
himself, when left alone in the garden. 'The history of their
ancestors raises them above vulgar sentiments, and they have not
always to be thinking of their daily bread! What a wretched state of
things!' he added bitterly. 'I am not worthy to discuss these serious
matters. My life is nothing more than a sequence of hypocrisies,
because I have not an income of a thousand francs with which to buy my

'What are you dreaming of, Sir?' Mathilde asked him, running back

Julien was tired of despising himself. In a moment of pride, he told
her frankly what he was thinking. He blushed deeply when speaking of
his poverty to a person who was so rich. He sought to make it quite
clear by his proud tone that he asked for nothing. Never had he seemed
so handsome to Mathilde; she found in him an expression of sensibility
and frankness which he often lacked.

Less than a month later, Julien was strolling pensively in the garden
of the Hotel de La Mole; but his features no longer showed the
harshness, as of a surly philosopher, which the constant sense of his
own inferiority impressed on them. He had just come from the door of
the drawing-room to which he had escorted Mademoiselle de La Mole, who
pretended that she had hurt her foot when running with her brother.

'She leaned upon my arm in the strangest fashion!' Julien said to
himself.  'Am I a fool, or can it be true that she has a liking for
me? She listens to me so meekly even when I confess to her all the
sufferings of my pride!  She, who is so haughty with everyone else!
They would be greatly surprised in the drawing-room if they saw her
looking like that. There is no doubt about it, she never assumes that
meek, friendly air with anyone but myself.'

Julien tried not to exaggerate this singular friendship. He compared
it himself to an armed neutrality. Day by day, when they met, before
resuming the almost intimate tone of the day before, they almost asked
themselves: 'Are we friends today, or enemies?' Julien had realised
that, were he once to allow himself to be insulted with impunity by
this haughty girl, all was lost. 'If I must quarrel, is it not to my
advantage to do so from the first, in defending the lawful rights of
my pride, rather than in repelling the marks of contempt that must
quickly follow the slightest surrender of what I owe to my personal

Several times, on days of mutual discord, Mathilde tried to adopt with
him the tone of a great lady; she employed a rare skill in these
attempts, but Julien repulsed them rudely.

One day he interrupted her suddenly: 'Has Mademoiselle de La Mole some
order to give to her father's secretary?' he asked her; 'he is obliged
to listen to her orders and to carry them out with respect; but apart
from that, he has not one word to say to her. He certainly is not paid
to communicate his thoughts to her.'

This state of affairs, and the singular doubts which Julien felt
banished the boredom which he found regularly in that drawing-room, in
which, for all its magnificence, people were afraid of everything, and
it was not thought proper to treat any subject lightly.

'It would be amusing if she loved me! Whether she loves me or not,'
Julien went on, 'I have as my intimate confidant an intelligent girl,
before whom I see the whole household tremble, and most of all the
Marquis de Croisenois. That young man who is so polished, so gentle,
so brave, who combines in his own person all the advantages of birth
and fortune, any one of which would set my heart so at ease! He is
madly in love with her, he is going to marry her. Think of all the
letters M. de La Mole has made me write to the two lawyers arranging
the contract! And I who see myself so subordinate, pen in hand, two
hours later, here in the garden, I triumph over so attractive a young
man: for after all, her preference is striking, direct. Perhaps, too,
she hates the idea of him as a future husband. She is proud enough for
that. And the favour she shows me, I obtain on the footing of a
confidential servant!

'But no, either I am mad, or she is making love to me; the more I show
myself cold and respectful towards her, the more she seeks me out.
That might be deliberate, an affectation; but I see her eyes become
animated when I appear unexpectedly. Are the women of Paris capable of
pretending to such an extent? What does it matter! I have appearances
on my side, let us make the most of them. My God, how handsome she is!
How I admire her great blue eyes, seen at close range, and looking at
me as they often do! What a difference between this spring and the
last, when I was living in misery, keeping myself alive by my strength
of character, surrounded by those three hundred dirty and evil-minded
hypocrites! I was almost as evil as they.'

In moments of depression: That girl is making a fool of me,' Julien
would think. 'She is plotting with her brother to mystify me. But she
seems so to despise her brother's want of energy! He is brave, and
there is no more to be said, she tells me. He has not an idea which
ventures to depart from the fashion. It is always I who am obliged to
take up her defence. A girl of nineteen! At that age can a girl be
faithful at every moment of the day to the code of hypocrisy that she
has laid down for herself?

'On the other hand, when Mademoiselle de La Mole fastens her great
blue eyes on me with a certain strange expression, Comte Norbert
always moves away. That seems to me suspicious; ought he not to be
annoyed at his sister's singling out a _domestic_ of their household?
For I have heard the Duc de Chaulnes use that term of me.' At this
memory anger obliterated every other feeling. 'Is it only the love of
old-fashioned speech in that ducal maniac?

'Anyhow, she is pretty!' Julien went on, with the glare of a tiger. 'I
will have her, I shall then depart and woe to him that impedes me in
my flight!'

This plan became Julien's sole occupation; he could no longer give a
thought to anything else. His days passed like hours. At all hours of
the day, when he sought to occupy his mind with some serious business,
his thoughts would abandon everything, and he would come to himself a
quarter of an hour later, his heart throbbing, his head confused, and
dreaming of this one idea: 'Does she love me?'

The Tyranny of a Girl

  I admire her beauty, but I fear her intelligence.

Had Julien devoted to the consideration of what went on in the
drawing-room the time which he spent in exaggerating Mathilde's
beauty, or in lashing himself into a fury at the aloofness natural to
her family, whom she was forgetting in his company, he would have
understood in what her despotic power over everyone round about her
consisted. Whenever anyone earned Mademoiselle de La Mole's
displeasure, she knew how to punish him by a witticism so calculated,
so well chosen, apparently so harmless, so aptly launched, that the
wound it left deepened the more he thought of it. In time she became
deadly to wounded vanity. As she attached no importance to many things
that were the object of serious ambition with the rest of her family,
she always appeared cool in their eyes. The drawing-rooms of the
nobility are pleasant things to mention after one has left them, but
that is all; bare politeness is something in itself only for the first
few days.  Julien experienced this; after the first enchantment, the
first bewilderment. 'Politeness,' he said to himself, 'is nothing more
than the absence of the irritation which would come from bad manners.'
Mathilde was frequently bored, perhaps she would have been bored in
any circumstances.  At such times to sharpen the point of an epigram
was for her a distraction and a real pleasure.

It was perhaps in order to have victims slightly more amusing than her
distinguished relatives, the Academician and the five or six other
inferiors who formed their court, that she had given grounds for hope
to the Marquis de Croisenois, the Comte de Caylus and two or three
other young men of the highest distinction. They were nothing more to
her than fresh subjects for epigram.

We confess with sorrow, for we are fond of Mathilde, that she had
received letters from several of their number, and had occasionally
answered them.  We hasten to add that this character in our story
forms an exception to the habits of the age. It is not, generally
speaking, with want of prudence that one can reproach the pupils of
the noble Convent of the Sacre-Coeur.

One day the Marquis de Croisenois returned to Mathilde a distinctly
compromising letter which she had written him the day before. He
thought that by this sign of extreme prudence he was greatly
strengthening his position. But imprudence was what Mathilde enjoyed
in her correspondence.  It was her chief pleasure to play with fire.
She did not speak to him again for six weeks.

She amused herself with the letters of these young men; but, according
to her, they were all alike. It was always the most profound, the most
melancholy passion.

'They are all the same perfect gentlemen, ready to set off for
Palestine,' she said to her cousin. 'Can you think of anything more
insipid? Think that this is the sort of letter that I am going to
receive for the rest of my life! These letters can only change every
twenty years, according to the kind of occupation that is in fashion.
They must have been less colourless in the days of the Empire. Then
all these young men in society had seen or performed actions in which
there was real greatness. The Due de N----, my uncle, fought at

'What intelligence is required to wield a sabre? And when that has
happened to them, they talk about it so often!' said Mademoiselle de
Sainte-Heredite, Mathilde's cousin.

'Oh, well, those stories amuse me. To have been in a real battle, one
of Napoleon's battles, in which ten thousand soldiers were killed, is
a proof of courage. Exposing oneself to danger elevates the soul, and
saves it from the boredom in which all my poor adorers seem to be
plunged; and it is contagious, that boredom. Which of them ever dreams
of doing anything out of the common? They seek to win my hand, a fine
enterprise! I am rich, and my father will help on his son-in-law. Oh,
if only he could find one who was at all amusing!'

Mathilde's vivid, picturesque point of view affected her speech, as we
can see. Often something she said jarred on the refined nerves of her
highly polished friends. They would almost have admitted, had she been
less in the fashion, that there was something in her language a little
too highly coloured for feminine delicacy.

She, on her part, was most unjust to the handsome men on horseback who
throng the Bois de Boulogne. She looked towards the future, not with
terror, that would have been too strong a feeling, but with a disgust
very rare at her age.

What had she left to desire? Fortune, noble birth, wit, beauty, or so
it was said, and she believed, all had been heaped upon her by the
hand of chance.

Such were the thoughts of the most envied heiress of the Faubourg
Saint-Germain, when she began to find pleasure in strolling with
Julien.  She was amazed at his pride; she admired the cunning of this
little plebeian. 'He will manage to get himself made a Bishop like the
abbe Maury,' she said to herself.

Presently the sincere and unfeigned resistance, with which our hero
received a number of her ideas, began to occupy her mind; she thought
about him; she reported to her cousin the pettiest details of their
conversations, and found that she could never succeed in displaying
them in every aspect.

Suddenly an idea dawned upon her: 'I have the good fortune to be in
love,' she told herself one day, with an indescribable transport of
joy. 'I am in love, I am in love, it is quite clear! At my age, a
young girl, beautiful, clever, where can she find sensations, if not
in love? I may do what I like, I shall never feel any love for
Croisenois, Caylus, _e tutti quanti_.  They are perfect, too perfect
perhaps; in short, they bore me.'

She turned over in her mind all the descriptions of passion which she
had read in _Manon Lescaut_, the _Nouvelle Heloise_, the _Letters of a
Portuguese Nun_, and so forth. There was no question, of course, of
anything but a grand passion; mere fleeting affection was unworthy of
a girl of her age and birth. She bestowed the name of love only upon
that heroic sentiment which was to be found in France in the days of
Henri IV and Bassompierre. That love never basely succumbed to
obstacles; far from it, it caused great deeds to be done. 'What a
misfortune for me that there is not a real Court like that of
Catherine de' Medici or Louis XIII! I feel that I am equal to
everything that is most daring and great. What should I not do with a
King who was a man of feeling, like Louis XII, sighing at my feet! I
should lead him to the Vendee, as Baron de Tolly is always saying, and
from there he would reconquer his Kingdom; then no more talk of a
Charter ...  and Julien would aid me. What is it that he lacks? A
name and a fortune. He would make a name for himself, he would acquire
a fortune.

'The Marquis de Croisenois lacks nothing, and all his life long he
will be merely a Duke, half Ultra, half Liberal, an undecided creature
always holding back from extremes, and consequently finding himself
everywhere in the second rank.

'Where is the great action which is not an extreme at the moment in
which one undertakes it? It is when it is accomplished that it seems
possible to creatures of common clay. Yes, it is love with all its
miracles that is going to reign in my heart; I feel it by the fire
that is animating me.  Heaven owed me this favour. Not in vain will it
have heaped every advantage upon a single head. My happiness will be
worthy of myself. Each of my days will not coldly resemble the day
before. There is already something grand and audacious in daring to
love a man placed so far beneath me in social position. Let me see:
will he continue to deserve me? At the first sign of weakness that I
observe in him, I abandon him. A girl of my birth, and with the
chivalrous character which they are so kind as to attribute to me'
(this was one of her father's sayings) 'ought not to behave like a

'Is not that the part that I should be playing if I loved the Marquis
de Croisenois? It would be simply a repetition of the happiness of my
cousins, whom I despise so utterly. I know beforehand everything that
the poor Marquis would say to me, all that I should have to say to him
in reply.  What is the use of a love that makes one yawn? One might as
well take to religion. I should have a scene at the signing of my
marriage contract like my youngest cousin, with the noble relatives
shedding tears, provided they were not made angry by a final condition
inserted in the contract the day before by the solicitor to the other

Another Danton

  The need for anxiety explains the character of the beautiful
  Marguerite de Valois, my aunt, who soon afterwards married
  the King of Navarre, whom we now see on the throne of France
  under the name of Henri IV. The need to gamble was the key
  to the character of this delightful princess; hence the
  quarrels and the reconciliations with her brothers from
  the age of sixteen onwards. And what does a young girl gamble
  with? The most precious thing she has: her reputation, the
  possibility of esteem for her entire life.
    _Memoirs of the Due d'Angouleme_, natural son of Charles IX

'With Julien and me there is no contract to be signed, no lawyer;
everything is heroic, everything will be left to chance. But for
nobility, which he lacks, it is the love of Marguerite de Valois for
young La Mole, the most distinguished man of his time. Is it my fault
if the young men at Court are such ardent devotees of the Conventions,
and turn pale at the mere thought of any adventure that is slightly
out of the common? A little expedition to Greece or Africa is to
them the height of audacity, and even then they can only go in a
troop. As soon as they find themselves alone, they become afraid, not
of Bedouin spears, but of ridicule, and that drives them mad.

'My little Julien, on the contrary, will only act alone. Never, in
that privileged being, is there the slightest thought of seeking the
approval and support of others! He despises other people, that is why
I do not despise him.

'If, with his poverty, Julien had been noble, my love would be nothing
more than a piece of vulgar folly, an unfortunate marriage; I should
not object to that; it would lack that element which characterises
great passion: the immensity of the difficulty to be overcome and the
black uncertainty of events.'

Mademoiselle de La Mole was so absorbed in these fine speculations
that next day, quite unintentionally, she sang Julien's praises to the
Marquis de Croisenois and her brother. Her eloquence went so far that
they became annoyed.

'Beware of that young man, who has so much energy,' her brother cried;
'if the Revolution begins again, he will have us all guillotined.'

She made no answer, and hastened to tease her brother and the Marquis
de Croisenois over the fear that energy inspired in them. It was
nothing more, really, than the fear of meeting something unexpected,
the fear of being brought up short in the presence of the
unexpected ...

'Still, gentlemen, still the fear of ridicule, a monster which,
unfortunately, died in 1816.'

'There can be no more ridicule,' M. de La Mole used to say, 'in a
country where there are two Parties.'

His daughter had assimilated this idea.

'And so, gentlemen,' she told Julien's enemies, 'you will be haunted
by fear all your lives, and afterwards people will say of you:

'"It was not a wolf, it was only a shadow."'

Mathilde soon left them. Her brother's remark filled her with horror;
it greatly disturbed her; but after sleeping on it, she interpreted it
as the highest possible praise.

'In this age, when all energy is dead, his energy makes them afraid. I
shall tell him what my brother said. I wish to see what answer he will
make. But I shall choose a moment when his eyes are glowing. Then he
cannot lie to me.

'Another Danton?' she went on after a long, vague spell of musing.
'Very well! Let us suppose that the Revolution has begun. What parts
would Croisenois and my brother play? It is all prescribed for them:
sublime resignation. They would be heroic sheep, allowing their
throats to be cut without a word. Their sole fear when dying would
still be of committing a breach of taste. My little Julien would blow
out the brains of the Jacobin who came to arrest him, if he had the
slightest hope of escaping. He, at least, has no fear of bad taste.'

These last words made her pensive again; they revived painful
memories, and destroyed all her courage. They reminded her of the
witticisms of MM. de Caylus, de Croisenois, de Luz, and her brother.
These gentlemen were unanimous in accusing Julien of a _priestly_ air,
humble and hypocritical.

'But,' she went on, suddenly, her eye sparkling with joy, 'by the
bitterness and the frequency of their sarcasms, they prove, in spite
of themselves, that he is the most distinguished man that we have seen
this winter. What do his faults, his absurdities matter? He has
greatness, and they are shocked by it, they who in other respects are
so kind and indulgent. He knows well that he is poor, and that he has
studied to become a priest; they are squadron commanders, and have no
need of study; it is a more comfortable life.

'In spite of all the drawbacks of his eternal black coat, and of that
priestly face, which he is obliged to assume, poor boy, if he is not
to die of hunger, his merit alarms them, nothing could be clearer. And
that priestly expression, he no longer wears it when we have been for
a few moments by ourselves. Besides, when these gentlemen say anything
which they consider clever and startling, is not their first glance
always at Julien?  I have noticed that distinctly. And yet they know
quite well that he never speaks to them, unless he is asked a
question. It is only myself that he addresses. He thinks that I have a
lofty nature. He replies to their objections only so far as politeness
requires. He becomes respectful at once. With me, he will discuss
things for hours on end, he is not sure of his own ideas if I offer
the slightest objection. After all, all this winter we have not heard
a shot fired; the only possible way to attract attention has been by
one's talk. Well, my father, a superior man, and one who will greatly
advance the fortunes of our family, respects Julien. All the rest hate
him, no one despises him, except my mother's religious friends.'

The Comte de Caylus had or pretended to have a great passion for
horses; he spent all his time in his stables, and often took his
luncheon there. This great passion, combined with his habit of never
laughing, had won him a great esteem among his friends: he was the
'strong man' of their little circle.

As soon as it had assembled next day behind Madame de La Mole's
armchair, Julien not being present, M. de Caylus, supported by
Croisenois and Norbert, launched a violent attack upon the good
opinion Mathilde had of Julien, without any reason and almost as soon
as he saw Mademoiselle de La Mole. She detected this stratagem a mile
off, and was charmed by it.

'There they are all in league,' she said to herself, 'against a man
who has not ten louis to his name, and can answer them only when he is
questioned.  They are afraid of him in his black coat. What would he
be with epaulettes?'

Never had she been so brilliant. At the first onslaught, she covered
Caylus and his allies with witty sarcasm. When the fire of these
brilliant officers' pleasantries was extinguished:

'Tomorrow some country squire from the mountains of the
Franche-Comte,' she said to M. de Caylus, 'has only to discover that
Julien is his natural son, and give him a name and a few thousand
francs, and in six weeks he will have grown moustaches like
yourselves, gentlemen; in six months he will be an officer of hussars
like yourselves, gentlemen. And then the greatness of his character
will no longer be a joke. I can see you reduced, My Lord Duke-to-be,
to that old and worthless plea: the superiority of the nobility of the
Court to the provincial nobility. But what defence have you left if I
choose to take an extreme case, if I am so unkind as to make Julien's
father a Spanish Duke, a prisoner of war at Besancon in Napoleon's
time, who, from a scruple of conscience, acknowledges him on his

All these assumptions of a birth out of wedlock were regarded by MM.
de Caylus and de Croisenois as in distinctly bad taste. This was all
that they saw in Mathilde's argument.

Obedient as Norbert was, his sister's meaning was so unmistakable that
he assumed an air of gravity, little in keeping, it must be confessed,
with his genial, smiling features. He ventured to say a few words:

'Are you unwell, dear?' Mathilde answered him with a mock-serious
expression. 'You must be feeling very ill to reply to a joke with a

'A sermon, from you! Are you thinking of asking to be made a Prefect?'

Mathilde very soon forgot the annoyance of the Comte de Caylus,
Norbert's ill humour and the silent despair of M. de Croisenois. She
had to make up her mind over a desperate idea which had taken
possession of her.

'Julien is quite sincere with me,' she told herself; 'at his age, in
an inferior state of fortune, wretched as an astounding ambition makes
him, he needs a woman friend. I can be that friend; but I see no sign
in him of love. With the audacity of his nature, he would have spoken
to me of his love.'

This uncertainty, this inward discussion, which, from now onwards,
occupied every moment of Mathilde's life, and in support of which,
whenever Julien addressed her, she found fresh arguments, completely
banished those periods of depression to which she was so liable.

The daughter of a man of intelligence who might become a Minister, and
restore their forests to the Clergy, Mademoiselle de La Mole had
been, in the Convent of the Sacre-Coeur, the object of the most
extravagant flatteries. The harm done in this way can never be
effaced. They had persuaded her that, in view of all her advantages of
birth, fortune, etc., she ought to be happier than other girls. This
is the source of the boredom from which princes suffer, and of all
their follies.

Mathilde had not been immune to the fatal influence of this idea.
However intelligent a girl may be, she cannot be on her guard for ten
years against the flattery of an entire convent, especially when it
appears to be so well founded.

>From the moment in which she decided that she was in love with Julien,
she was no longer bored. Every day she congratulated herself on the
decision she had made to indulge in a grand passion. 'This amusement
has its dangers,' she thought. 'All the better! A thousand times

'Without a grand passion, I was languishing with boredom at the best
moment in a girl's life, between sixteen and twenty. I have already
wasted my best years; with no pleasure but to listen to the nonsense
talked by my mother's friends, who at Coblenz, in 1792, were not
quite, one gathers, so strict in their conduct, as they are today in

It was while Mathilde was still devoured by this great uncertainty
that Julien was unable to understand the gaze which she kept fastened
upon him.  He did indeed find an increased coldness in Comte Herbert's
manner, and a stiffening of pride in that of MM. de Caylus, de Luz and
de Croisenois. He was used to it. This discomfiture befell him at
times after an evening in which he had shone more brightly than
befitted his position. But for the special welcome which Mathilde
extended to him, and the curiosity which the whole scene inspired in
him, he would have refrained from following into the garden these
brilliant young men with the moustaches, when after dinner they
escorted Mademoiselle de La Mole.

'Yes, I cannot possibly blind myself to the fact,' thought Julien,
'Mademoiselle de La Mole keeps looking at me in a strange fashion.
But, even when her beautiful blue eyes seem to gaze at me with least
restraint, I can always read in them a cold, malevolent scrutiny. Is
it possible that this is love? How different from the look in Madame
de Renal's eyes.'

One evening after dinner, Julien, who had gone with M. de La Mole to
his study, came rapidly out to the garden. As he walked boldly up to
the group round Mathilde, he overheard a few words uttered in a loud
voice. She was teasing her brother. Julien heard his own name uttered
distinctly twice. He appeared; a profound silence at once fell, and
vain efforts were made to break it. Mademoiselle de La Mole and her
brother were too much excited to think of another topic of
conversation. MM. de Caylus, de Croisenois, de Luz and another of
their friends met Julien with an icy coldness. He withdrew.

A Plot

  Disconnected remarks, chance meetings turn into proofs
  of the utmost clarity in the eyes of the imaginative man,
  if he has any fire in his heart.

On the following day he again surprised Norbert and his sister, who
were talking about him. On his arrival, a deathly silence fell, as on
the day before. His suspicions knew no bounds. 'Can these charming
young people be planning to make a fool of me? I must own, that is far
more probable, far more natural than a pretended passion on the part
of Mademoiselle de La Mole, for a poor devil of a secretary. For one
thing, do these people have passions? Mystification is their
specialty. They are jealous of my wretched little superiority in
language. Being jealous, that is another of their weaknesses. That
explains everything. Mademoiselle de La Mole hopes to persuade me that
she is singling me out, simply to offer me as a spectacle to her

This cruel suspicion completely changed Julien's moral attitude. The
idea encountered in his heart a germ of love which it had no
difficulty in destroying. This love was founded only upon Mathilde's
rare beauty, or rather upon her regal manner and her admirable style
in dress. In this respect Julien was still an upstart. A beautiful
woman of fashion is, we are assured, the sight that most astonishes a
clever man of peasant origin when he arrives amid the higher ranks of
society. It was certainly not Mathilde's character that had set Julien
dreaming for days past. He had enough sense to grasp that he knew
nothing about her character.  Everything that he saw of it might be
only a pretence.

For instance, Mathilde would not for anything in the world have failed
to hear mass on a Sunday; almost every day she went to church with her
mother.  If, in the drawing-room of the Hotel de La Mole, some
impudent fellow forgot where he was and allowed himself to make the
remotest allusion to some jest aimed at the real or supposed interests
of Throne or Altar, Mathilde would at once assume an icy severity. Her
glance, which was so sparkling, took on all the expressionless pride
of an old family portrait.

But Julien knew for certain that she always had in her room one or two
of the most philosophical works of Voltaire. He himself frequently
abstracted a volume or two of the handsome edition so magnificently
bound. By slightly separating the other volumes on the shelf, he
concealed the absence of the volume he was taking away; but soon he
discovered that someone else was reading Voltaire. He had recourse to
a trick of the Seminary, he placed some little pieces of horsehair
across the volumes which he supposed might interest Mademoiselle de La
Mole. They vanished for weeks at a time.

M. de La Mole, losing patience with his bookseller, who kept sending
him all the sham _Memoirs_, gave Julien orders to buy every new book
that was at all sensational. But, so that the poison might not spread
through the household, the secretary was instructed to place these
books in a little bookcase that stood in the Marquis's own room. He
soon acquired the certainty that if any of these books were hostile to
the interests of Throne and Altar, they were not long in vanishing. It
was certainly not Norbert that was reading them.

Julien, exaggerating the importance of this discovery, credited
Mademoiselle de La Mole with a Machiavellian duplicity. This feigned
criminality wa a charm in his eyes, almost the only moral charm that
she possessed. The tediousness of hypocrisy and virtuous conversation
drove him to this excess.

He excited his imagination rather than let himself be carried away by

It was after he had lost himself in dreams of the elegance of
Mademoiselle de La Mole's figure, the excellent taste of her
toilet, the whiteness of her hand, the beauty of her arm, the
_disinvoltura_ of all her movements, that he found himself in love.
Then, to complete her charm, he imagined her to be a Catherine de'
Medici. Nothing was too profound or too criminal for the character
that he assigned to her. It was the ideal of the Maslons, the Frilairs
and Castanedes whom he had admired in his younger days. It was, in
short, the ideal, to him, of Paris.

Was ever anything so absurd as to imagine profundity or criminality in
the Parisian character?

'It is possible that this trio may be making a fool of me,' he
thought. The reader has learned very little of Julien's nature if he
has not already seen the sombre, frigid expression that he assumed
when his eyes met those of Mathilde. A bitter irony repulsed the
assurances of friendship with which Mademoiselle de La Mole in
astonishment ventured on two or three occasions, to try him.

Piqued by his sudden eccentricity, the heart of this girl, naturally
cold, bored, responsive to intelligence, became as passionate as it
was in her nature to be. But there was also a great deal of pride in
Mathilde's nature, and the birth of a sentiment which made all her
happiness dependent upon another was attended by a sombre melancholy.

Julien had made sufficient progress since his arrival in Paris to
discern that this was not the barren melancholy of boredom. Instead of
being eager, as in the past, for parties, shows and distractions of
every kind, she avoided them.

Music performed by French singers bored Mathilde to death, and yet
Julien, who made it his duty to be present at the close of the Opera,
observed that she made her friends take her there as often as
possible. He thought he could detect that she had lost a little of the
perfect balance which shone in all her actions. She would sometimes
reply to her friends with witticisms that were offensive in their
pointed emphasis. It seemed to him that she had taken a dislike to the
Marquis de Croisenois. 'That young man must have a furious passion for
money, not to go off and leave a girl like that, however rich she may
be!' thought Julien. As for himself, indignant at the insults offered
to masculine dignity, his coldness towards her increased. Often he
went the length of replying with positive discourtesy.

However determined he might be not to be taken in by the signs of
interest shown by Mathilde, they were so evident on certain days, and
Julien, from whose eyes the scales were beginning to fall, found her
so attractive, that he was at times embarrassed by them.

'The skill and forbearance of these young men of fashion will end by
triumphing over my want of experience,' he told himself; 'I must go
away, and put an end to all this.' The Marquis had recently entrusted
to him the management of a number of small properties and houses which
he owned in lower Languedoc. A visit to the place became necessary: M.
de La Mole gave a reluctant consent. Except in matters of high
ambition, Julien had become his second self.

'When all is said and done, they have not managed to catch me,' Julien
told himself as he prepared for his departure. 'Whether the jokes
which Mademoiselle de La Mole makes at the expense of these gentlemen
be real, or only intended to inspire me with confidence, I have been
amused by them.

'If there is no conspiracy against the carpenter's son, Mademoiselle
de La Mole is inexplicable, but she is just as much so to the Marquis
de Croisenois as to me. Yesterday, for instance, her ill humour was
quite genuine, and I had the pleasure of seeing discomfited in my
favour a young man as noble and rich as I am penniless and plebeian.
That is my finest triumph. It will keep me in good spirits in my
post-chaise, as I scour the plains of Languedoc.'

He had kept his departure secret, but Mathilde knew better than he
that he was leaving Paris next day, and for a long time. She pleaded a
splitting headache, which was made worse by the close atmosphere of
the drawing-room.  She walked for hours in the garden, and so pursued
with her mordant pleasantries Norbert, the Marquis de Croisenois,
Caylus, de Luz and various other young men who had dined at the Hotel
de La Mole, that she forced them to take their leave. She looked at
Julien in a strange fashion.

'This look is perhaps a piece of play-acting,' thought he; 'but her
quick breathing, all that emotion! Bah!' he said to himself, 'who am I
to judge of these matters? This is an example of the most consummate,
the most artificial behaviour to be found among the women of Paris.
That quick breathing, which so nearly proved too much for me, she will
have learned from Leontine Fay, whom she admires so.'

They were now left alone; the conversation was plainly languishing.
'No!  Julien has no feeling for me,' Mathilde told herself with
genuine distress.

As he took leave of her, she clutched his arm violently:

'You will receive a letter from me this evening,' she told him in a
voice so strained as to be barely audible.

This had an immediate effect on Julien.

'My father,' she went on, 'has a most natural regard for the services
that you render him. You _must not_ go tomorrow; find some excuse.' And
she ran from the garden.

Her figure was charming. It would have been impossible to have a
prettier foot, she ran with a grace that enchanted Julien; but guess
what was his second thought when she had quite vanished. He was
offended by the tone of command in which she had uttered the words,
_you must_. Similarly Louis XV, as he breathed his last, was keenly
annoyed by the words _you must_ awkwardly employed by his Chief
Physician, and yet Louis XV was no upstart.

An hour later, a footman handed Julien a letter; it was nothing less
than a declaration of love.

'The style is not unduly affected,' he said to himself, seeking by
literary observations to contain the joy that was contorting his
features and forcing him to laugh in spite of himself.

'And so I,' he suddenly exclaimed, his excitement being too strong to
be held in check, 'I, a poor peasant, have received a declaration of
love from a great lady!

'As for myself, I have not done badly,' he went on, controlling his
joy as far as was possible. 'I have succeeded in preserving the
dignity of my character. I have never said that I was in love.' He
began to study the shapes of her letters; Mademoiselle de La Mole
wrote in a charming little English hand. He required some physical
occupation to take his mind from a joy which was bordering on

'Your departure obliges me to speak ... It would be beyond my
endurance not to see you any more.'

A sudden thought occurred to strike Julien as a discovery, interrupt
the examination that he was making of Mathilde's letter, and intensify
his joy.  'I am preferred to the Marquis de Croisenois,' he cried, 'I,
who never say anything that is not serious! And he is so handsome! He
wears moustaches, a charming uniform; he always manages to say, just
at the right moment, something witty and clever.'

It was an exquisite moment for Julien; he roamed about the garden, mad
with happiness.

Later, he went upstairs to his office, and sent in his name to the
Marquis de La Mole, who fortunately had not gone out. He had no
difficulty in proving to him, by showing him various marked papers
that had arrived from Normandy, that the requirements of his
employer's lawsuits there obliged him to postpone his departure for

'I am very glad you are not going,' the Marquis said to him, when they
had finished their business, '_I like to see you_.' Julien left the
room; this speech disturbed him.

'And I am going to seduce his daughter! To render impossible, perhaps,
that marriage with the Marquis de Croisenois, which is the bright spot
in his future: if he is not made Duke, at least his daughter will be
entitled to a _tabouret_.' Julien thought of starting for Languedoc in
spite of Mathilde's letter, in spite of the explanation he had given
the Marquis. This virtuous impulse soon faded.

'How generous I am,' he said to himself; 'I, a plebeian, to feel pity
for a family of such high rank! I, whom the Duc de Chaulnes calls a
domestic! How does the Marquis increase his vast fortune? By selling
national securities, when he hears at the Chateau that there is to be
the threat of a _Coup d' Etat_ next day. And I, cast down to the
humblest rank by a stepmotherly Providence, I, whom Providence has
endowed with a noble heart and not a thousand francs of income, that
is to say not enough for my daily bread, _literally speaking, not
enough for my daily bread_; am I to refuse a pleasure that is offered
me? A limpid spring which wells up to quench my thirst in the burning
desert of mediocrity over which I trace my painful course! Faith, I am
no such fool; everyone for himself in this desert of selfishness which
is called life.'

And he reminded himself of several disdainful glances aimed at him by
Madame de La Mole, and especially by the _ladies_, her friends.

The pleasure of triumphing over the Marquis de Croisenois completed
the rout of this lingering trace of virtue.

'How I should love to make him angry!' said Julien; 'with what
assurance would I now thrust at him with my sword.' And he struck a
sweeping blow at the air. 'Until now, I was a smug, basely profiting
by a trace of courage. After this letter, I am his equal.

'Yes,' he said to himself with an infinite delight, dwelling on the
words, 'our merits, the Marquis's and mine, have been weighed, and the
poor carpenter from the Jura wins the day.

'Good!' he cried, 'here is the signature to my reply ready found. Do
not go and imagine, Mademoiselle de La Mole, that I am forgetting my
station. I shall make you realise and feel that it is for the son of a
carpenter that you are betraying a descendant of the famous Guy de
Croisenois, who followed Saint Louis on his Crusade.'

Julien was unable to contain his joy. He was obliged to go down to the
garden. His room, in which he had locked himself up, seemed too
confined a space for him to breathe in.

'I, a poor peasant from the Jura,' he kept on repeating, 'I, I
condemned always to wear this dismal black coat! Alas, twenty years
ago, I should have worn uniform like them! In those days a man of my
sort was either killed, or _a General at six and thirty_.' The letter,
which he kept tightly clasped in his hand, gave him the bearing and
pose of a hero. 'Nowadays, it is true, with the said black coat, at
the age of forty, a man has emoluments of one hundred thousand francs
and the Blue Riband, like the Bishop of Beauvais.

'Oh, well!' he said to himself, laughing like Mephistopheles, 'I have
more sense than they; I know how to choose the uniform of my
generation.' And he felt an intensification of his ambition and of his
attachment to the clerical habit. 'How many Cardinals have there been
of humbler birth than mine, who have risen to positions of government!
My fellow-countryman Granvelle, for instance.'  [Trans. Footnote:
Antoine de Granvelle, born at Besancon in 1517, was Minister to
Charles V and Philip II and Governor of the Netherlands. C. K. S. M.]

Gradually Julien's agitation subsided; prudence rose to the surface.
He said to himself, like his master Tartuffe, whose part he knew by

  'I might suppose these words an honest artifice ...
  Nay, I shall not believe so flattering a speech
  Unless some favour shown by her for whom I sigh
  Assure me that they mean all that they might imply.'
    (_Tartuffe_, Act IV, Scene V)

'Tartuffe also was ruined by a woman, and he was as good a man as most
...  My answer may be shewn ... a mishap for which we find this
remedy,' he went on, pronouncing each word slowly, and in accents of
restrained ferocity, 'we begin it by quoting the strongest expressions
from the letter of the sublime Mathilde.

'Yes, but then four of M. de Croisenois's flunkeys will spring upon
me, and tear the original from me.

'No, for I am well armed, and am accustomed, as they know, to firing
on flunkeys.

'Very well! Say, one of them has some courage; he springs upon me. He
has been promised a hundred napoleons. I kill or injure him, all the
better, that is what they want. I am flung into prison with all the
forms of law; I appear in the police court, and they send me, with all
justice and equity on the judges' part, to keep MM. Fontan and Magalon
company at Poissy. There, I lie upon straw with four hundred poor
wretches, pell-mell ... And I am to feel some pity for these people,'
he cried, springing impetuously to his feet. 'What pity do they show
for the Third Estate when they have us in their power?' These words
were the dying breath of his gratitude to M. de La Mole which, in
spite of himself, had tormented him until then.

'Not so fast, my fine gentlemen, I understand this little stroke of
Machiavellianism; the abbe Maslon or M. Castanede of the Seminary
could not have been more clever. You rob me of my incitement, the
letter, and I become the second volume of Colonel Caron at Colmar.

'One moment, gentlemen, I am going to send the fatal letter in a
carefully sealed packet to the custody of M. l'abbe Pirard. He is an
honest man, a Jansenist, and as such out of reach of the temptations
of the Budget. Yes, but he opens letters ... it is to Fouque that I
must send this one.'

It must be admitted the glare in Julien's eyes was ghastly, his
expression hideous; it was eloquent of unmitigated crime. He was an
unhappy man at war with the whole of society.

'_To arms_!' cried Julien. And he sprang with one bound down the steps
that led from the house. He entered the letter-writer's booth at the
street corner; the man was alarmed. 'Copy this,' said Julien, giving
him Mademoiselle de La Mole's letter.

While the writer was thus engaged, he himself wrote to Fouque; he
begged him to keep for him a precious article. 'But,' he said to
himself, laying down his pen, 'the secret room in the post office will
open my letter, and give you back the one you seek; no, gentlemen.' He
went and bought an enormous Bible from a Protestant bookseller,
skilfully concealed Mathilde's letter in the boards, had it packed up
with his own letter, and his parcel went off by the mail, addressed to
one of Fouque's workmen, whose name was unknown to anybody in Paris.

This done, he returned joyful and brisk to the Hotel de La Mole. 'It
is our turn, now,' he exclaimed, as he locked himself into his room,
and flung off his coat:

'What, Mademoiselle,' he wrote to Mathilde, 'it is Mademoiselle de La
Mole who, by the hand of Arsene, her father's servant, transmits a
letter couched in too seductive terms to a poor carpenter from the
Jura, doubtless to play a trick upon his simplicity ...' And he
transcribed the most unequivocal sentences from the letter he had

His own would have done credit to the diplomatic prudence of M. le
Chevalier de Beauvoisis. It was still only ten o'clock; Julien,
intoxicated with happiness and with the sense of his own power, so
novel to a poor devil like himself, went off to the Italian opera. He
heard his friend Geronimo sing. Never had music raised him to so high
a pitch. He was a god.  [Author's Footnote: Esprit per, pre. gui II.
A. 30. (Note by Stendhal.)]

A Girl's Thoughts

  So much perplexity? So many sleepless nights!
  Good God! Am I making myself despicable? He will
  despise me himself. But he's leaving, he's going.

It was not without an inward struggle that Mathilde had brought
herself to write. Whatever might have been the beginning of her
interest in Julien, it soon overcame the pride which, ever since she
had been aware of herself, had reigned alone in her heart. That cold
and haughty spirit was carried away for the first time by a passionate
sentiment. But if this overcame her pride, it was still faithful to
the habits bred of pride. Two months of struggle and of novel
sensations had so to speak altered her whole moral nature.

Mathilde thought she had happiness in sight. This prospect,
irresistible to a courageous spirit combined with a superior
intellect, had to make a long fight against dignity and every
sentiment of common duty. One day she entered her mother's room, at
seven o'clock in the morning, begging her for leave to retire to
Villequier. The Marquise did not even deign to answer her, and
recommended her to go back to her bed. This was the last effort made
by plain sense and the deference paid to accepted ideas.

The fear of wrongdoing and of shocking the ideas held as sacred by the
Caylus, the de Luz, the Croisenois, had little or no hold over her;
such creatures as they did not seem to her to be made to understand
her; she would have consulted them had it been a question of buying a
carriage or an estate. Her real terror was that Julien might be
displeased with her.

'Perhaps, too, he has only the outward appearance of a superior

She abhorred want of character, it was her sole objection to the
handsome young men among whom she lived. The more gracefully they
mocked at everything which departed from the fashion, or which
followed it wrongly when intending to follow it, the more they
condemned themselves in her eyes.

They were brave, and that was all. 'And besides, how are they brave?'
she asked herself: 'in a duel. But the duel is nothing more now than a
formality. Everything is known beforehand, even what a man is to say
when he falls. Lying on the grass, his hand on his heart, he must
extend a handsome pardon to his adversary and leave a message for a
fair one who is often imaginary, or who goes to a ball on the day of
his death, for fear of arousing suspicion.

'A man will face danger at the head of a squadron all glittering with
steel, but a danger that is solitary, strange, sudden, truly ugly?

'Alas!' said Mathilde, 'it was at the Court of Henri in that one found
men great by character as well as by birth! Ah, if Julien had served
at Jarnac or at Moncontour, I should no longer be in doubt. In those
days of strength and prowess, Frenchmen were not mere dolls. The day
of battle was almost the day of least perplexity.

'Their life was not imprisoned like an Egyptian mummy, within an
envelope always common to them all, always the same. Yes,' she went
on, 'there was more true courage in crossing the town alone at eleven
o'clock at night, after leaving the Hotel de Soissons, occupied by
Catherine de' Medici, than there is today in dashing to Algiers. A
man's life was a succession of hazards. Nowadays civilisation has
banished hazard, there is no room for the unexpected. If it appears in
our ideas, there are not epigrams enough to cope with it; if it
appears in events, no act of cowardice is too great for our fear.
Whatever folly our fear makes us commit is excused us.  Degenerate and
boring age! What would Boniface de La Mole have said if, raising his
severed head from the tomb, he had seen, in 1793, seventeen of his
descendants allow themselves to be penned like sheep, to be
guillotined a day or two later? Their death was certain, but it would
have been in bad form to defend themselves and at least kill a Jacobin
or two. Ah! In the heroic age of France, in the days of Boniface de La
Mole, Julien would have been the squadron commander, and my brother
the young priest, properly behaved, with wisdom in his eyes and reason
on his lips.'

A few months since, Mathilde had despaired of meeting anyone a little
different from the common pattern. She had found a certain happiness
in allowing herself to write to various young men of fashion. This act
of boldness, so unconventional, so imprudent in a young girl, might
dishonour her in the eyes of M. de Croisenois, of his father, the Duc
de Chaulnes, and of the whole house of Chaulnes, who, seeing the
projected marriage broken off, would wish to know the reason. At that
time, on the night after she had written one of these letters,
Mathilde was unable to sleep. But these letters were mere replies.

Now she had ventured to say that she was in love. She had written
_first_ (what a terrible word!) to a man in the lowest rank of society.

This circumstance assured her, in the event of discovery, eternal
disgrace.  Which of the women who came to see her mother would dare to
take her part?  What polite expression could be put into their mouths
to lessen the shock of the fearful contempt of the drawing-rooms?

And even to speak to a man was fearful, but to write! 'There are
things which one does not write,' Napoleon exclaimed when he heard of
the surrender of Baylen. And it was Julien who had told her of this
saying! As though teaching her a lesson in advance.

But all this was still nothing, Mathilde's anguish had other causes.
Oblivious of the horrible effect upon society, of the ineradicable
blot, the universal contempt, for she was outraging her caste,
Mathilde was writing to a person of a very different nature from the
Croisenois, the de Luz, the Caylus.

The depth, the _strangeness_ of Julien's character had alarmed her,
even when she was forming an ordinary relation with him. And she was
going to make him her lover, possibly her master!

'What claims will he not assert, if ever he is in a position to do as
he likes with me? Very well! I shall say to myself like Medea: "_Midst
all these perils, I have still MYSELF_."'

Julien had no reverence for nobility of blood, she understood. Worse,
still, perhaps, he felt no love for her!

In these final moments of tormenting doubts, she was visited by ideas
of feminine pride. 'Everything ought to be strange in the lot of a
girl like myself,' cried Mathilde, with impatience. And so the pride
that had been inculcated in her from her cradle began to fight against
her virtue. It was at this point that Julien's threatened departure
came to precipitate events.

(Such characters are fortunately quite rare.)

Late that night, Julien was malicious enough to have an extremely
heavy trunk carried down to the porter's lodge; to carry it, he
summoned the footman who was courting Mademoiselle de La Mole's maid.
'This device may lead to no result,' he said to himself, 'but if it
proves successful, she will think that I have gone.' He went to sleep,
highly delighted with his trick. Mathilde never closed an eye.

Next morning, at a very early hour, Julien left the house unobserved,
but returned before eight o'clock.

No sooner was he in the library than Mademoiselle de La Mole appeared
on the threshold. He handed her his answer. He thought that it was
incumbent upon him to speak to her; this, at least, was the most
polite course, but Mademoiselle de La Mole would not listen to him and
vanished. Julien was overjoyed, he had not known what to say to her.

'If all this is not a trick arranged with Comte Norbert, plainly it
must have been my frigid glance that has kindled the freakish love
which this girl of noble birth has taken it into her head to feel for
me. I should be a little too much of a fool if I ever allowed myself
to be drawn into feeling any attraction towards the great flaxen
doll.' This piece of reasoning left him more cold and calculating than
he had ever been.

'In the battle that is preparing,' he went on, 'pride of birth will be
like a high hill, forming a military position between her and myself.
It is there that we must manoeuvre. I have done wrong to remain in
Paris; this postponement of my departure cheapens me, and exposes my
flank if all this is only a game. What danger was there in my going? I
was fooling them, if they are fooling me. If her interest in me has
any reality, I was increasing that interest an hundredfold.'

Mademoiselle de La Mole's letter had so flattered Julien's vanity
that, while he laughed at what was happening to him, he had forgotten
to think seriously of the advantages of departure.

It was a weakness of his character to be extremely sensitive to his
own faults. He was extremely annoyed at this instance of his weakness,
and had almost ceased to think of the incredible victory which had
preceded this slight check when, about nine o'clock, Mademoiselle de
La Mole appeared on the threshold of the library, flung him a letter,
and fled.

'It appears that this is to be a romance told in letters,' he said, as
he picked this one up. 'The enemy makes a false move, now I am going
to bring coldness and virtue into play.'

The letter called for a definite answer with an arrogance which
increased his inward gaiety. He gave himself the pleasure of
mystifying, for the space of two pages, the people who might wish to
make a fool of him, and it was with a fresh pleasantry that he
announced, towards the end of his reply, his decision to depart on the
following morning.

This letter finished: 'The garden can serve me as a post office,' he
thought, and made his way there. He looked up at the window of
Mademoiselle de La Mole's room.

It was on the first floor, next to her mother's apartment, but there
was a spacious mezzanine beneath.

This first floor stood so high, that, as he advanced beneath the
lime-alley, letter in hand, Julien could not be seen from Mademoiselle
de La Mole's window. The vault formed by the limes, which were
admirably pleached, intercepted the view.

'But what is this!' Julien said to himself, angrily, 'another
imprudence!  If they have decided to make a fool of me, to let myself
be seen with a letter in my hand, is to play the enemy's game.'

Norbert's room was immediately above his sister's, and if Julien
emerged from the alley formed by the pleached branches of the limes,
the Count and his friends would be able to follow his every movement.

Mademoiselle de La Mole appeared behind her closed window; he half
showed her his letter; she bowed her head. At once Julien ran up to
his own room, and happened to meet, on the main staircase, the fair
Mathilde, who snatched the letter with perfect composure and laughing

'What passion there was in the eyes of that poor Madame de Renal,'
Julien said to himself, 'when, even after six months of intimate
relations, she ventured to receive a letter from me! Never once, I am
sure, did she look at me with a laugh in her eyes.'

He did not express to himself so clearly the rest of his comment; was
he ashamed of the futility of his motives? 'But also what a
difference,' his thoughts added, 'in the elegance of her morning gown,
in the elegance of her whole appearance! On catching sight of
Mademoiselle de La Mole thirty yards off, a man of taste could tell
the rank that she occupies in society.  That is what one may call an
explicit merit.'

Still playing with his theme, Julien did not yet confess to himself
the whole of his thoughts; Madame de Renal had had no Marquis de
Croisenois to sacrifice to him. He had had as a rival only that
ignoble Sub-Prefect M. Charcot, who had assumed the name of Maugiron,
because the Maugirons were extinct.

At five o'clock, Julien received a third letter; it was flung at him
from the library door. Mademoiselle de La Mole again fled. 'What a
mania for writing,' he said to himself with a laugh, 'when it is so
easy for us to talk! The enemy wishes to have my letters, that is
clear, and plenty of them!' He was in no haste to open this last.
'More elegant phrases,' he thought; but he turned pale as he read it.
It consisted of eight lines only.

'I have to speak to you: I must speak to you, tonight; when one
o'clock strikes, be in the garden. Take the gardener's long ladder
from beside the well; place it against my window and come up to my
room. There is a moon: no matter.'

Is it a Plot?

  Ah! How cruel is the interval between the conception of a
  great project and its execution! What vain terrors! What
  irresolutions! Life is at stake. Far more than life--honour!

'This is becoming serious,' thought Julien ... 'and a little too
obvious,' he added, after a moment's reflection. 'Why! This pretty
young beauty can speak to me in the library with a freedom which,
thank heaven, is unrestricted; the Marquis, for fear of my bothering
him with accounts, never comes there. Why! M. de La Mole and Comte
Norbert, the only people who ever show their faces here, are absent
almost all day; it is easy to watch for the moment of their return to
the house, and the sublime Mathilde, for whose hand a Sovereign Prince
would not be too noble, wishes me to commit an act of abominable

'It is clear, they wish to ruin me, or to make a fool of me, at least.
First of all, they sought to ruin me by my letters; these proved
cautious; very well, now they require an action that shall be as clear
as daylight.  These pretty little gentlemen think me too simple or too
conceited. The devil! With the brightest moon you ever saw, to climb
up by a ladder to a first floor, five and twenty feet from the ground!
They will have plenty of time to see me, even from the neighbouring
houses. I shall be a fine sight on my ladder!' Julien went up to his
room and began to pack his trunk, whistling as he did so. He had made
up his mind to go, and not even to answer the letter.

But this sage resolution gave him no peace of heart. 'If, by any
chance,' he said to himself, suddenly, his trunk packed and shut,
'Mathilde were sincere! Then I shall be cutting in her eyes the most
perfect figure of a coward. I have no birth, so I require great
qualities, ready on demand, with no flattering suppositions, qualities
proved by eloquent deeds ...'

He spent a quarter of an hour pacing the floor of his room. 'What use
in denying it?' he asked himself, at length; 'I shall be a coward in
her eyes. I lose not only the most brilliant young person in high
society, as everyone was saying at M. le Duc de Retz's ball, but,
furthermore, the heavenly pleasure of seeing her throw over for me the
Marquis de Croisenois, the son of a Duke, and a future Duke himself. A
charming young man who has all the qualities that I lack: a ready wit,
birth, fortune ...

'This remorse will pursue me all my life, not for her, there are heaps
of mistresses, "but only one honour", as old Don Diego says, and here
I am clearly and plainly recoiling from the first peril that comes my
way; for that duel with M. de Beauvoisis was a mere joke. This is
quite different. I may be shot point-blank by a servant, but that is
the least danger; I may forfeit my honour.

'This is becoming serious, my boy,' he went on, with a Gascon gaiety
and accent. '_Honur_ is at stake. A poor devil kept down by fate in my
lowly station will never find such an opportunity again; I shall have
adventures, but tawdry ones ...'

He reflected at length, he paced the room with a hurried step,
stopping short now and again. There stood in his room a magnificent
bust in marble of Cardinal Richelieu, which persistently caught his
eye. This bust appeared to be gazing at him sternly, as though
reproaching him for the want of that audacity which ought to be so
natural to the French character.  'In thy time, great man, should I
have hesitated?

'At the worst,' Julien told himself finally, 'let us suppose that all
this is a plot, it is a very dark one, and highly compromising for a
young girl.  They know that I am not the man to keep silent. They will
therefore have to kill me. That was all very well in 1574, in the days
of Boniface de La Mole, but the La Mole of today would never dare.
These people are not the same now. Mademoiselle de La Mole is so
envied! Four hundred drawing-rooms would echo with her disgrace next
day, and with what rejoicing!

'The servants chatter among themselves of the marked preference that
is shown me; I know it, I have heard them . . .

'On the other hand, her letters! .. . They may suppose that I have
them on me. They surprise me in her room, and take them from me. I
shall have two, three, four, any number of men to deal with. But these
men, where will they collect them? Where is one to find discreet
agents in Paris? They are afraid of the law ... Gad! It will be the
Caylus and Croisenois and de Luz themselves. The thought of that
moment, and the foolish figure I shall cut there among them will be
what has tempted them. Beware the fate of Abelard, Master Secretary!

'Begad, then, gentlemen, you shall bear the mark of my fists, I shall
strike at your faces, like Caesar's soldiers at Pharsalia .. . As for
the letters, I can put them in a safe place.'

Julien made copies of the two last, concealed them in a volume of the
fine Voltaire from the library, and went himself with the originals to
the post.

When he returned: 'Into what madness am I rushing!' he said to himself
with surprise and terror. He had been a quarter of an hour without
considering his action of the coming night in all its aspects.

'But, if I refuse, I must despise myself ever afterwards. All my life
long, that action will be a matter for doubt to me, and such a doubt
is the most bitter agony. Have I not felt it over Amanda's lover? I
believe that I should find it easier to forgive myself what was
clearly a crime; once I had confessed it, I should cease to think
about it.

'What! I shall have been the rival of a man bearing one of the best
names in France, and I myself, with a light heart, am to declare
myself his inferior! Indeed, there is a strain of cowardice in not
going. That word settles everything,' cried Julien, springing to his
feet... 'besides, she is a real beauty!

'If this is not treachery, how foolishly she is behaving for me! ...
If it is a mystification, begad, gentlemen, it rests with me to turn
the jest to earnest, and so I shall.

'But if they pinion my arms, the moment I enter the room; they may
have set some diabolical machine there ready for me!

'It is like a duel,' he told himself with a laugh, 'there is a parry
for every thrust, my fencing master says, but the Almighty, who likes
things to end, makes one of the fighters forget to parry. Anyhow, here
is what will answer them'; he drew his pocket pistols; and, albeit
they were fully charged, renewed the primings.

There were still many hours to wait; in order to have something to do,
Julien wrote to Fouque: 'My friend, open the enclosed letter only in
case of accident, if you hear it said that something strange has
befallen me.  Then, erase the proper names from the manuscript that I
am sending you, and make eight copies of it which you will send to the
newspapers of Marseilles, Bordeaux, Lyons, Brussels, etc.; ten days
later, have the manuscript printed, send the first copy to M. le
Marquis de La Mole, and a fortnight after that, scatter the other
copies by night about the streets of Verrieres.'

This brief exonerating memoir, arranged in the form of a tale, which
Fouque was to open only in case of accident, Julien made as little
compromising as possible to Mademoiselle de La Mole, but,
nevertheless, it described his position very accurately.

He had just sealed his packet when the dinner-bell rang; it made his
heart beat violently. His imagination, preoccupied with the narrative
which he had just composed, was a prey to all sorts of tragic
presentiment. He had seen himself seized by servants, garrotted,
carried down to a cellar with a gag in his mouth. There, one of them
kept a close watch over him, and if the honour of the noble family
required that the adventure should have a tragic ending, it was easy
to end everything with one of those poisons which leave no trace;
then, they would say that he had died a natural death, and would take
his dead body back to his room.

Carried away by his own story like a dramatic author, Julien was
really afraid when he entered the dining-room. He looked at all the
servants in full livery. He studied their expressions. 'Which of them
have been chosen for tonight's expedition?' he asked himself. 'In this
family, the memories of the Court of Henri in are so present, so often
recalled, that, when they think themselves outraged, they will show
more decision than other people of their rank.' He looked at
Mademoiselle de La Mole in order to read in her eyes what were the
plans of her family; she was pale, and had quite a mediaeval
appearance. Never had he found such an air of grandeur in her, she was
truly beautiful and imposing. He almost fell in love with her.
'_Pallida morte futura_,' he told himself, 'her pallor betokens that
something serious is afoot.'

In vain, after dinner, did he prolong his stroll in the garden,
Mademoiselle de La Mole did not come out. Conversation with her would,
at that moment, have relieved his heart of a great burden.

Why not confess it? He was afraid. As he was determined to act, he
abandoned himself to this sentiment without shame. 'Provided that at
the moment of action, I find the courage that I require,' he said to
himself, 'what does it matter how I may be feeling now?' He went to
reconnoitre the position and to try the weight of the ladder.

'It is an instrument,' he said to himself, with a laugh, 'which it is
written in my destiny that I am to use! Here as at Verrieres. What a
difference! Then,' he continued with a sigh, 'I was not obliged to be
suspicious of the person for whose sake I was exposing myself. What a
difference, too, in the danger!

'I might have been killed in M. de Renal's gardens without any harm to
my reputation. It would have been easy to make my death unaccountable.
Here, what abominable tales will they not bandy about in the
drawing-rooms of the Hotel de Chaulnes, the Hotel de Caylus, the Hotel
de Retz, and in short everywhere? I shall be handed down to posterity
as a monster.

'For two or three years,' he added, laughing at himself. But the
thought of this overwhelmed him. 'And I, who is going to justify me?
Supposing that Fouque prints my posthumous pamphlet, it will be only
an infamy the more.  What! I am received in a house, and in payment
for the hospitality I receive there, the kindness that is showered
upon me, I print a pamphlet reporting all that goes on in the house! I
attack the honour of its women!  Ah, a thousand times rather, let us
be trapped!'

It was a terrible evening.

One o'Clock in the Morning

  The garden was extremely large, laid out with perfect
  taste just a few years previously. But the trees were over
  a century old. The place had something rustic about it.
    MASSINGER  [Trans. footnote: I have left this motto
    untranslated, as the attribution to Massinger seems to
    be entirely fantastic.  C. K. S. M.]

He was on the point of countermanding his instructions to Fouque when
the clock struck eleven. He came out of his bedroom and shut the door
behind him, turning the key noisily in the lock, as though he were
locking himself in. He prowled round the house to see what was afoot
everywhere, especially on the fourth floor, where the servants slept.
There was nothing unusual.  One of Madame de La Mole's maids was
giving a party, the servants were merrily imbibing punch. 'The men who
are laughing like that,' thought Julien, 'cannot have been detailed
for the midnight encounter, they would be more serious.'

Finally he took his stand in a dark corner of the garden. 'If their
plan is to avoid the notice of the servants of the house, they will
make the men they have hired to seize me come in over the garden wall.

'If M. de Croisenois is taking all this calmly, he must feel that it
will be less compromising for the young person whom he intends to
marry to have me seized before the moment when I shall have entered
her room.'

He made an extremely careful military reconnaissance. 'My honour is at
stake,' he thought; 'if I make some blunder, it will be no excuse in
my own eyes to say to myself: "I never thought of that."'

The sky was maddeningly clear. About eleven o'clock the moon rose, at
half-past twelve it lighted the whole garden front of the house.

'She is mad,' Julien said to himself; when one o'clock struck, there
was still a light in Comte Norbert's windows. Never in his life had
Julien been so much afraid, he saw only the dangers of the enterprise,
and felt not the least enthusiasm.

He went to fetch the huge ladder, waited five minutes, to allow time
for a countermand, and at five minutes past one placed the ladder
against Mathilde's window. He climbed quietly, pistol in hand,
astonished not to find himself attacked. As he reached the window, she
opened it silently:

'Here you are, Sir,' Mathilde said to him with deep emotion; 'I have
been following your movements for the last hour.'

Julien was greatly embarrassed, he did not know how to behave, he did
not feel the least vestige of love. In his embarrassment, he decided
that he must show courage, he attempted to embrace Mathilde.

'Fie, Sir!' she said, and thrust him from her.

Greatly relieved at this repulse, he hastened to cast an eye round the
room: the moonlight was so brilliant that the shadows which it formed
in Mademoiselle de La Mole's room were black. 'There may easily be men
concealed there without my seeing them,' he thought.

'What have you in the side pocket of your coat?' Mathilde asked him,
delighted at finding a topic of conversation. She was strangely ill at
ease; all the feelings of reserve and timidity, so natural to a young
girl of good family, had resumed their sway and were keeping her on

'I have all sorts of weapons and pistols,' replied Julien, no less
pleased at having something to say.

'You must pull up the ladder,' said Mathilde.

'It is huge, and may break the windows of the room below, or of the

'It must not break the windows,' Mathilde went on, trying in vain to
adopt the tone of ordinary conversation; 'you might, it seems to me,
let the ladder down by means of a cord tied to the top rung. I always
keep a supply of cords by me.'

'And this is a woman in love!' thought Julien, 'she dares to say that
she loves! Such coolness, such sagacity in her precautions make it
plain to me that I am not triumphing over M. de Croisenois, as I
foolishly imagined; but am simply becoming his successor. After all,
what does it matter? I am not in love! I triumph over the Marquis in
this sense, that he will be greatly annoyed at having a successor, and
still more annoyed that his successor should be myself. How arrogantly
he stared at me last night in the Cafe Tortoni, pretending not to
know me! How savagely he bowed to me afterwards, when he could no
longer avoid it!'

Julien had fastened the cord to the highest rung of the ladder, he now
let it down gently, leaning far out over the balcony so as to see that
it did not touch the windows. 'A fine moment for killing me,' he
thought, 'if there is anyone hidden in Mathilde's room'; but a
profound silence continued to reign everywhere.

The head of the ladder touched the ground. Julien succeeded in
concealing it in the bed of exotic flowers that ran beneath the wall.

'What will my mother say,' said Mathilde, 'when she sees her beautiful
plants all ruined! You must throw down the cord,' she went on, with
perfect calm. 'If it were seen running up to the balcony, it would be
difficult to explain its presence.'

'And how me gwine get way?' asked Julien, in a playful tone, imitating
Creole speech. (One of the maids in the house was a native of San

'You get way by the door,' said Mathilde, delighted at this solution.

'Ah! How worthy this man is of all my love,' she thought.

Julien had just let the cord drop into the garden; Mathilde gripped
him by the arm. He thought he was being seized by an enemy, and turned
sharply round drawing a dagger. She thought she had heard a window
being opened.  They stood motionless, without breathing. The moon
shone full upon them. As the sound was not repeated, there was no
further cause for alarm.

Then their embarrassment began again, and was great on both sides.
Julien made sure that the door was fastened with all its bolts; he
even thought of looking under the bed, but dared not; they might have
hidden a footman or two there. Finally, the fear of a subsequent
reproach from his prudence made him look.

Mathilde had succumbed to all the agonies of extreme shyness. She felt
a horror of her position.

'What have you done with my letters?' she said, at length.

'What a fine opportunity to discomfit these gentlemen, if they are
listening, and so avoid the conflict!' thought Julien.

'The first is hidden in a stout Protestant Bible which last night's
mail has carried far from here.'

He spoke very distinctly as he entered into these details, and in such
a way as to be overheard by anyone who might be concealed in two great
mahogany wardrobes which he had not dared to examine.

'The other two are in the post, and are going the same way as the

'Good Lord! But why all these precautions?' said Mathilde, with

'Is there any reason why I should lie to her?' thought Julien; and he
confessed to her all his suspicions.

'So that accounts for the coldness of thy letters!' cried Mathilde,
in accents rather of frenzy than of affection.

Julien did not observe her change of tone. This use of the singular
pronoun made him lose his head, or at least his suspicions vanished;
he ventured to clasp in his arms this girl who was so beautiful and
inspired such respect in him. He was only half repulsed.

He had recourse to his memory, as once before, long ago, at Besancon
with Amanda Binet, and repeated several of the finest passages from
the _Nouvelle Heloise_.

'Thou hast a man's heart,' she replied, without paying much attention
to what he was saying; 'I wished to test thy bravery, I admit.  Thy
first suspicions and thyu determination to come shew thee to be even
more intrepid than I supposed.'

Mathilde made an effort to use the more intimate form; she was
evidently more attentive to this unusual way of speaking than to what
she was saying.  This use of the _tu_ form, stripped of the tone of
affection, ceased, after a moment, to afford Julien any pleasure, he
was astonished at the absence of happiness; finally, in order to feel
it, he had recourse to his reason. He saw himself highly esteemed by
this girl who was so proud, and never bestowed unrestricted praise; by
this line of reasoning he arrived at a gratification of his

This was not, it is true, that spiritual ecstasy which he had found at
times in the company of Madame de Renal. There was nothing tender in
his sentiments at this first moment. What he felt was the keenest
gratification of his ambition, and Julien was above all things
ambitious. He spoke again of the people he suspected and of the
precautions he had contrived. As he spoke he was thinking of how best
to profit by his victory.

Mathilde, who was still greatly embarrassed and had the air of one
appalled by what she had done, seemed enchanted at finding a topic of
conversation.  They discussed how they should meet again. Julien
employed to the full the intelligence and daring of which he furnished
fresh proofs in the course of this discussion. They had some extremely
sharp-sighted people against them, young Tanbeau was certainly a spy,
but Mathilde and he were not altogether incompetent either.

What could be easier than to meet in the library, and arrange

'I can appear, without arousing suspicion, in any part of the house, I
could almost appear in Madame de La Mole's bedroom.' It was absolutely
necessary to pass through this room to reach her daughter's. If
Mathilde preferred that he should always come by a ladder, it was with
a heart wild with joy that he would expose himself to this slight

As she listened to him speaking, Mathilde was shocked by his air of
triumph. 'He is my master, then!' she told herself. Already she was
devoured by remorse. Her reason felt a horror of the signal act of
folly which she had just committed. Had it been possible, she would
have destroyed herself and Julien. Whenever, for an instant, the
strength of her will made her remorse silent, feelings of shyness and
outraged modesty made her extremely wretched. She had never for a
moment anticipated the dreadful plight in which she now found herself.

'I must speak to him, though,' she said to herself, finally, 'that is
laid down in the rules, one speaks to one's lover.' And then, as
though performing a duty, and with a tenderness that was evident
rather in the words that she used than in the sound of her voice, she
told him of the various decisions to which she had come with regard to
him during the last few days.

She had made up her mind that if he ventured to come to her with the
aid of the gardener's ladder, as she had bidden him, she would give
herself to him. But never were things so tender said in a colder and
more formal tone.  So far, their intercourse was ice-bound. It was
enough to make one hate the thought of love. What a moral lesson for a
rash young woman! Is it worth her while to wreck her future for such a

After prolonged uncertainties, which might have appeared to a
superficial observer to be due to the most decided hatred, so hard was
it for the feeling of self-respect which a woman owes to herself, to
yield to so masterful a will, Mathilde finally became his mistress.

To tell the truth, their transports were somewhat deliberate.
Passionate love was far more a model which they were imitating than a
reality with them.

Mademoiselle de La Mole believed that she was performing a duty
towards herself and towards her lover. 'The poor boy,' she told
herself, 'has been the last word in daring, he deserves to be made
happy, or else I am wanting in character.' But she would gladly have
redeemed at the cost of an eternity of suffering the cruel necessity
to which she found herself committed.

In spite of the violence she was doing to herself, she retained entire
command of her speech.

No regret, no reproach came to mar this night which seemed odd rather
than happy to Julien. What a difference, great God, from his last
visit, of twenty-four hours, to Verrieres! 'These fine Paris manners
have found out the secret of spoiling everything, even love,' he said
to himself with an extreme disregard of justice.

He abandoned himself to these reflections, standing upright in one of
the great mahogany wardrobes into which he had been thrust at the
first sound heard from the next room, which was Madame de La Mole's
bedroom. Mathilde accompanied her mother to mass, the maids soon left
the apartment, and Julien easily made his escape before they returned
to complete their labours.

He mounted his horse and made at a leisurely pace for the most
solitary recesses of one of the forests near Paris. He was still more
surprised than happy. The happiness which, from time to time, came
flooding into his heart, was akin to that of a young Second Lieutenant
who, after some astounding action, has just been promoted Colonel by
the Commander in Chief; he felt himself carried to an immense height.
Everything that had been above him the day before was now on his level
or far beneath him.  Gradually Julien's happiness increased as he put
the miles behind him.

If there was nothing tender in his heart, it was because, strange as
it may appear, Mathilde, throughout the whole of her conduct with him,
had been performing a duty. There was nothing unforeseen for her in
all the events of this night but the misery and shame which she had
found in the place of that utter bliss of which we read in novels.

'Can I have been mistaken? Am I not in love with him?' she asked

An Old Sword

  I now mean to be serious:--it is time,
    Since laughter nowadays is deem'd too serious.
  A jest at Vice by Virtue's call'd a crime.
    _Don Juan_, XIII.

She did not appear at dinner. In the evening she came to the
drawing-room for a moment, but did not look at Julien. This behaviour
seemed to him strange; 'but,' he thought, 'I do not know the ways of
good society, she will give me some good reason for all this.' At the
same time, urged by the most intense curiosity, he studied the
expression on Mathilde's features; he could not conceal from himself
that she had a sharp and malevolent air. Evidently this was not the
same woman who, the night before, had felt or pretended to feel
transports of joy too excessive to be genuine.

Next day, and the day after, the same coldness on her part; she never
once looked at him, she seemed unaware of his existence. Julien,
devoured by the keenest anxiety, was a thousand leagues from the
feeling of triumph which alone had animated him on the first day. 'Can
it, by any chance,' he asked himself, 'be a return to the path of
virtue?' But that was a very middle-class expression to use of the
proud Mathilde.

'In the ordinary situations of life she has no belief in religion,'
thought Julien; 'she values it as being very useful to the interests
of her caste.

'But out of simple delicacy may she not be bitterly reproaching
herself with the mistake that she has made?' Julien assumed that he
was her first lover.

'But,' he said to himself at other moments, 'one must admit that there
is nothing artless, simple, tender, in her attitude; never have I seen
her looking so haughty. Can she despise me? It would be like her to
reproach herself with what she has done for me, solely on account of
my humble birth.'

While Julien, steeped in the prejudices he had derived from books and
from memories of Verrieres, was pursuing the chimera of a tender
mistress who never gives a thought to her own existence the moment she
has gratified the desires of her lover, Mathilde in her vanity was
furious with him.

As she had ceased to be bored for the last two months, she was no
longer afraid of boredom; so, albeit he could not for a moment suspect
it, Julien was deprived of his strongest advantage.

'I have given myself a master!' Mademoiselle de La Mole was saying to
herself, in the grip of the blackest despond. 'He may be the soul of
honour; but if I goad his vanity to extremes, he will have his revenge
by making public the nature of our relations.' Mathilde had never had
a lover, and at this epoch in life, which gives certain tender
illusions to even the most sterile hearts, she was a prey to the
bitterest reflections.

'He has an immense power over me, since he reigns by terror and can
inflict a fearful punishment on me if I drive him to extremes.' This
idea, by itself, was enough to provoke Mathilde to insult him. Courage
was the fundamental quality in her character. Nothing was capable of
giving her any excitement and of curing her of an ever-present
tendency to boredom, but the idea that she was playing heads or tails
with her whole existence.

On the third day, as Mademoiselle de La Mole persisted in not looking
at him, Julien followed her after dinner, to her evident annoyance,
into the billiard room.

'Well, Sir; you must imagine yourself to have acquired some very
powerful hold over me,' she said to him, with ill-controlled rage,
'since in opposition to my clearly expressed wishes, you insist on
speaking to me?  Are you aware that nobody in the world has ever been
so presumptuous?'

Nothing could be more entertaining than the dialogue between these two
lovers; unconsciously they were animated by a mutual sentiment of the
keenest hatred. As neither of them had a consistent nature, as
moreover they were used to the ways of good society, it was not long
before they both declared in plain terms that they had quarrelled for

'I swear to you eternal secrecy,' said Julien; 'I would even add that
I will never address a word to you again, were it not that your
reputation might be injured by too marked a change.' He bowed
respectfully and left her.

He performed without undue difficulty what he regarded as a duty; he
was far from imagining himself to be deeply in love with Mademoiselle
de La Mole. No doubt he had not been in love with her three days
earlier, when he had been concealed in the great mahogany wardrobe.
But everything changed rapidly in his heart from the moment when he
saw himself parted from her for ever.

His pitiless memory set to work reminding him of the slightest
incidents of that night which in reality had left him so cold.

During the very night after their vow of eternal separation, Julien
nearly went mad when he found himself forced to admit that he was in
love with Mademoiselle de La Mole.

A ghastly conflict followed this discovery: all his feelings were
thrown into confusion.

Two days later, instead of being haughty with M. de Croisenois, he
could almost have burst into tears and embraced him.

The force of continued unhappiness gave him a glimmer of common sense;
he decided to set off for Languedoc, packed his trunk and went to the
posting house.

He almost fainted when, on reaching the coach office, he was informed
that, by mere chance, there was a place vacant next day in the
Toulouse mail. He engaged it and returned to the Hotel de La Mole to
warn the Marquis of his departure.

M. de La Mole had gone out. More dead than alive, Julien went to wait
for him in the library. What were his feelings on finding Mademoiselle
de La Mole there?

On seeing him appear, she assumed an air of malevolence which it was
impossible for him to misinterpret,

Carried away by his misery, dazed by surprise, Julien was weak enough
to say to her, in the tenderest of tones and one that sprang from the
heart: 'Then, you no longer love me?'

'I am horrified at having given myself to the first comer,' said
Mathilde, weeping with rage at herself.

'_To the first comer_!' cried Julien, and he snatched up an old
mediaeval sword which was kept in the library as a curiosity.

His grief, which he had believed to be intense at the moment of his
speaking to Mademoiselle de La Mole, had now been increased an
hundredfold by the tears of shame which he saw her shed. He would have
been the happiest of men had it been possible to kill her.

Just as he had drawn the sword, with some difficulty, from its
antiquated scabbard, Mathilde, delighted by so novel a sensation,
advanced proudly towards him; her tears had ceased to flow.

The thought of the Marquis de La Mole, his benefactor, arose vividly
in Julien's mind. 'I should be killing his daughter!' he said to
himself; 'how horrible!' He made as though to fling away the sword.
'Certainly,' he thought, 'she will now burst out laughing at the sight
of this melodramatic gesture': thanks to this consideration, he
entirely regained his self-possession. He examined the blade of the
old sword with curiosity, and as though he were looking for a spot of
rust, then replaced it in its scabbard, and with the utmost calm hung
it up on the nail of gilded bronze from which he had taken it.

This series of actions, very deliberate towards the end, occupied
fully a minute; Mademoiselle de La Mole gazed at him in astonishment.
'So I have been within an inch of being killed by my lover!' she said
to herself.

This thought carried her back to the bravest days of the age of
Charles IX and Henri III.

She stood motionless before Julien who had now replaced the sword, she
gazed at him with eyes in which there was no more hatred. It must be
admitted that she was very attractive at that moment, certainly no
woman had ever borne less resemblance to a Parisian doll (this label
expressed Julien's chief objection to the women of that city).

'I am going to fall back into a fondness for him,' thought Mathilde;
'and then at once he would suppose himself to be my lord and master,
after a relapse, and at the very moment when I have just spoken to him
so firmly.' She fled.

'My God! How beautiful she is!' said Julien, as he watched her run
from the room: 'that is the creature who flung herself into my arms
with such frenzy not a week ago ... And those moments will never
come again! And it is my fault! And, at the moment of so extraordinary
an action, and one that concerned me so closely, I was not conscious
of it! ... I must admit that I was born with a very dull and unhappy

The Marquis appeared; Julien made haste to inform him of his

'For where?' said M. de La Mole.

'For Languedoc.'

'No, if you please, you are reserved for a higher destiny; if you go
anywhere, it will be to the North ... Indeed, in military parlance, I
confine you to your quarters. You will oblige me by never being absent
for more than two or three hours, I may need you at any moment.'

Julien bowed, and withdrew without uttering a word, leaving the
Marquis greatly astonished; he was incapable of speech, and shut
himself up in his room. There, he was free to exaggerate all the
iniquity of his lot.

'And so,' he thought, 'I cannot even go away! God knows for how many
days the Marquis is going to keep me in Paris; great God! What is to
become of me? And not a friend that I can consult; the abbe Pirard
would not let me finish my first sentence, Conte Altamira would offer
to enlist me in some conspiracy.

'And meanwhile I am mad, I feel it; I am mad!

'Who can guide me, what is to become of me?'

Painful Moments

  And she admits it to me! She goes into the minutest
  details! Her lovely eye fixed on mine reveals the
  love that she felt for another!

Mademoiselle de La Mole, in an ecstasy, could think only of the
felicity of having come within an inch of being killed. She went so
far as to say to herself: 'He is worthy to be my master, since he has
been on the point of killing me. How many of the good-looking young
men in society would one have to fuse together to arrive at such an
impulse of passion?

'One must admit that he did look handsome when he climbed on the
chair, to replace the sword, precisely in the picturesque position
which the decorator had chosen for it! After all, I was not such a
fool to fall in love with him.'

At that moment, had any honourable way of renewing their relations
presented itself, she would have seized it with pleasure. Julien,
locked and double-locked in his room, was a prey to the most violent
despair. In the height of his folly, he thought of flinging himself at
her feet. If, instead of remaining hidden in a remote corner, he had
wandered through the house and into the garden, so as to be within
reach of any opportunity, he might perhaps in a single instant have
converted his fearful misery into the keenest happiness.

But the adroitness with the want of which we are reproaching him would
have debarred the sublime impulse of seizing the sword which, at that
moment, made him appear so handsome in the eyes of Mademoiselle de La
Mole. This caprice, which told in Julien's favour, lasted for the rest
of the day; Mathilde formed a charming impression of the brief moments
during which she had loved him, and looked back on them with regret.

'Actually,' she said to herself, 'my passion for that poor boy lasted,
in his eyes, only from one o'clock in the morning, when I saw him
arrive by his ladder, with all his pistols in the side pocket of his
coat, until eight. It was at a quarter past eight, when hearing mass
at Sainte-Valere, that it first occurred to me that he would imagine
himself to be my master, and might try to make me obey him by force of

After dinner, Mademoiselle de La Mole, far from avoiding Julien, spoke
to him, and almost ordered him to accompany her to the garden; he
obeyed. This proved too much for her self-control. Mathilde yielded,
almost unconsciously, to the love which she began to feel for him. She
found an intense pleasure in strolling by his side, it was with
curiosity that she gazed at his hands which that morning had seized
the sword to kill her.

After such an action, after all that had passed, there could no longer
be any question of their conversing on the same terms as before.

Gradually Mathilde began to talk to him with an intimate confidence of
the state of her heart. She found a strange delight in this kind of
conversation; she proceeded to tell him of the fleeting impulses of
enthusiasm which she had felt for M. de Croisenois, for M. de Caylus

'What! For M. de Caylus as well!' cried Julien; and all the bitter
jealousy of a past jilted lover was made manifest in his words.
Mathilde received them in that light, and was not offended.

She continued to torture Julien, detailing her past feelings in the
most picturesque fashion, and in accents of the most absolute
sincerity. He saw that she was describing what was present before her
eyes. He had the grief of remarking that as she spoke she made fresh
discoveries in her own heart.

The agony of jealousy can go no farther.

The suspicion that a rival is loved is painful enough already, but to
have the love that he inspires in her confessed to one in detail by
the woman whom one adores is without doubt the acme of suffering.

Oh, how she punished, at that moment, the impulse of pride which had
led Julien to set himself above all the Caylus and Croisenois! With
what an intense and heartfelt misery he now exaggerated their most
trivial advantages! With what ardent sincerity he now despised

Mathilde seemed adorable to him, language fails to express the
intensity of his admiration. As he walked by her side, he cast furtive
glances at her hands, her arms, her regal bearing. He was on the point
of falling at her feet, crushed with love and misery, and crying:

'And this creature who is so lovely, so superior to all the rest, who
has once loved me, it is M. de Caylus whom, no doubt, she will
presently be loving!'

Julien could not doubt Mademoiselle de La Mole's sincerity; the accent
of truth was all too evident in everything that she said. That
absolutely nothing might be wanting to complete his misery, there were
moments when, by dint of occupying her mind with the sentiments which
she had at one time felt for M. de Caylus, Mathilde was led to speak
of him as though she loved him still. Certainly there was love in her
accents, Julien could see it plainly.

Had his bosom been flooded with a mass of molten lead, he would have
suffered less. How, arrived at this extreme pitch of misery, was the
poor boy to guess that it was because she was talking to him that
Mademoiselle de La Mole found such pleasure in recalling all the
niceties of love that she had felt in the past for M. de Caylus or M.
de Luz?

No words could express Julien's anguish. He was listening to the
detailed confidences of the love felt for others in that same lime
walk where, so few days since, he had waited for one o'clock to strike
before making his way into her room. Human nature is incapable of
enduring misery at a higher pitch than this.

This kind of cruel intimacy lasted for a whole week. Mathilde now
appeared to seek, now did not shun opportunities of speaking to him;
and the subject of conversation, to which they seemed both to return
with a sort of torturing pleasure, was the recital of the sentiments
that she had felt for others; she recounted to him the letters that
she had written, told him the very words of them, repeated whole
sentences. On the final days she seemed to be studying Julien with a
sort of malignant delight. His sufferings were a source of keen
enjoyment to her.

We can see that Julien had no experience of life, he had not even read
any novels; if he had been a little less awkward, and had said with a
certain coldness to this girl, whom he so adored and who made him such
strange confidences: 'Admit that though I am not the equal of all
these gentlemen, it is still myself that you love ...'

Perhaps she would have been glad to have her secret guessed; at any
rate his success would have depended entirely upon the grace with
which Julien expressed this idea, and the moment that he chose.
However that might be, he came out well, and yith advantage to
himself, from a situation which was tending to become monotonous in
Mathilde's eyes.

'And you no longer love me, me who adore you!' Julien said |o her one
day, desperate with love and misery. It was almost She worst blunder
that he could have made.

This speech destroyed in an instant all the pleasure that lademoiselle
de La Mole found in speaking to him of the state of her heart. She was
beginning to feel astonished that after what had happened he did not
take offence at her confidences, he was on the point of imagining, at
the moment when he made this foolish speech, that perhaps he no longer
loved her.  'Pride has doubtless quenched his love,' she said to
herself. 'He is not the man to see himself set with impunity beneath
creatures like Caylus, de Luz, Croisenois, who he admits are so far
his superiors. No, I shall never see him at my feet again!'

On the preceding days, in the artlessness of his misery, Julien had
paid a heartfelt tribute to the brilliant qualities of these
gentlemen; he went so far as to exaggerate them. This change of
attitude had by no means escaped the notice of Mademoiselle de La
Mole; it had surprised her, but she did not suspect the reason or it.
Julien's frenzied soul, in praising a rival whom he believed to be
loved, sympathised with that rival in his good fortune.

This speech, so frank but so stupid, altered the whole situation an
instant: Mathilde, certain of being loved, despised him completely.

She was strolling with him at the moment of this unfortunate
utterance; she left him, and her final glance was expressive of the
most bitter scorn.  Returning to the drawing-room, for the rest of the
evening she never looked at him again. Next day, this scorn of him had
entire possession of her heart; there was no longer any question of
the impulse which, for a whole week, had made her find such pleasure
in treating Julien as her most intimate friend; the sight of him was
repulsive to her. Mathilde's feeling reached the point of disgust; no
words could express the intensity of the scorn that she felt when her
eyes happened to fall on him.

Julien had understood nothing of all that had been happening in
Mathilde's heart, but for the past week he discerned her scorn. He had
the good sense to appear in her presence as rarely as possible, and
never looked her in the face.

But it was not without a mortal anguish that he deprived himself to
some extent of her company. He thought he could feel that his misery
was thereby actually increased. 'The courage of a man's heart can go
no farther,' he told himself. He spent all his time at a little window
in the attics of the house; the shutters were carefully closed, and
from there, at least, he could catch a glimpse of Mademoiselle de La
Mole when she appeared in the garden.

What were his feelings when, after dinner, he saw her strolling with
M. de Caylus, M. de Luz or any of the others for whom she had avowed
some slight amorous inclination in the past?

Julien had had no idea of such an intensity of misery; he was on the
point of crying aloud; that resolute heart was at last reduced to
utter helplessness.

Any thought that was not of Mademoiselle de La Mole had become odious
to him; he was incapable of writing the most simple letters.

'You are crazy,' the Marquis said to him.

Julien, trembling with fear of a disclosure, pleaded illness and
managed to make himself believed. Fortunately for him, the Marquis
teased him at dinner over his coming journey: Mathilde gathered that
it might be prolonged. For several days now Julien had been avoiding
her, and the brilliant young men who had everything that was lacking
in this creature so pale and sombre, once loved by her, had no longer
the power to distract her from her dreams.

'An ordinary girl,' she said to herself, 'would have sought for the
man of her choice among the young fellows who attract every eye in a
drawing-room; but one of the characteristics of genius is not to let
its thoughts move in the rut traced by the common herd.

'As the partner of such a man as Julien, who lacks nothing but the
fortune which I possess, I shall continue to attract attention, I
shall by no means pass unperceived through life. So far from
incessantly dreading a Revolution like my cousins, who, in their fear
of the people, dare not scold a postilion who drives them badly, I
shall be certain of playing a part and a great part, for the man of my
choice has character and an unbounded ambition. What does he lack?
Friends? Money? I can give him all that.' But in her thoughts she
treated Julien rather as an inferior being who can be made to love one
when one wills.

The Opera-Bouffe

  O how this spring of love resembleth
  The uncertain glory of an April day;
  Which now shows all the beauty of the sun,
  And by and by a cloud takes all away!

Occupied with thoughts of the future and of the singular part which
she hoped to play, Mathilde soon came to look back with regret upon
the dry, metaphysical discussions which she often had with Julien.
Wearied with keeping her thoughts on so high a plane, sometimes also
she would sigh for the moments of happiness which she had found in his
company; these memories were not untouched by remorse, which at
certain moments overwhelmed her.

'But if one has a weakness,' she said to herself, 'it is incumbent
upon a girl like myself to forget her duties only for a man of merit;
people will not be able to say that it was his handsome moustaches or
his elegant seat on a horse that seduced me, but his profound
discussions of the future in store for France, his ideas as to the
resemblance the events that are going to burst upon us may bear to the
Revolution of 1688 in England. I have been seduced,' she answered the
voice of remorse, 'I am a weak woman, but at least I have not been led
astray like a puppet by outward advantages.

'If there be a Revolution, why should not Julien Sorel play the part
of Roland, and I that of Madame Roland? I prefer that to the part of
Madame de Stael: immoral conduct will be an obstacle in our time.
Certainly they shall not reproach me with a second lapse; I should die
of shame.'

Mathilde's meditations were not all as grave, it must be admitted, as
the thoughts we have just transcribed.

She would look at Julien, and found a charming grace in his most
trivial actions.

'No doubt,' she said to herself, 'I have succeeded in destroying every
idea in his mind that he has certain rights.

'The air of misery and profound passion with which the poor boy
addressed those words of love to me a week ago, is proof positive; I
must confess that it was extraordinary in me to be vexed by a speech
so fervent with respect and passion. Am I not his wife?  That speech
was only natural, and, I am bound to say, quite agreeable.  Julien
still loved me after endless conversations, in which I had spoken to
him, and with great cruelty, I admit, only of the feelings of love
which the boredom of the life I lead had inspired in me for the young
men in society of whom he is so jealous. Ah, if he knew how little
danger there is in them for me!  How lifeless they seem to me when
compared with him, all copies of each other.'

As she made these reflections, Mathilde was tracing lines with a
pencil at random on a page of her album. One of the profiles as she
finished it startled and delighted her: it bore a striking resemblance
to Julien. 'It is the voice of heaven! This is one of the miracles of
love,' she cried in a transport, 'quite unconsciously I have drawn his

She fled to her room, locked herself in, set to work, tried seriously
to make a portrait of Julien, but could not succeed; the profile drawn
at random was still the best likeness. Mathilde was enchanted; she saw
in it a clear proof of her grand passion.

She did not lay aside her album until late in the evening, when the
Marquise sent for her to go to the Italian opera. She had only one
idea, to catch Julien's eye, so as to make her mother invite him to
join them.

He did not appear; the ladies had only the most commonplace people in
their box. During the whole of the first act of the opera, Mathilde
sat dreaming of the man whom she loved with transports of the most
intense passion; but in the second act a maxim of love sung, it must
be admitted, to a melody worthy of Cimarosa, penetrated her heart.
The heroine of the opera said: 'I must be punished for all the
adoration that I feel for him, I love him too well!'

The moment she had heard this sublime _cantilena_, everything that
existed in the world vanished from Mathilde's ken. People spoke to
her; she did not answer; her mother scolded her, it was all she could
do to look at her. Her ecstasy reached a state of exaltation and
passion comparable to the most violent emotions that, during the last
few days, Julien had felt for her.  The _cantilena_, divinely
graceful, to which was sung the maxim that seemed to her to bear so
striking an application to her own situation, occupied every moment in
which she was not thinking directly of Julien. Thanks to her love of
music, she became that evening as Madame de Renal invariably was when
thinking of him. Love born in the brain is more spirited, doubtless,
than true love, but it has only flashes of enthusiasm; it knows itself
too well, it criticises itself incessantly; so far from banishing
thought, it is itself reared only upon a structure of thought.

On her return home, in spite of anything that Madame de La Mole might
say, Mathilde alleged an attack of fever, and spent part of the night
playing over the _cantilena_ on her piano. She sang the words of the
famous aria which had charmed her:

  Devo punirmi, devo punirmi,
  Se troppo amai.

The result of this night of madness was that she imagined herself to
have succeeded in conquering her love. (This page will damage the
unfortunate author in more ways than one. The frigid hearts will
accuse it of indecency. It does not offer the insult to the young
persons who shine in the drawing-rooms of Paris, of supposing that a
single one of their number is susceptible to the mad impulses which
degrade the character of Mathilde.  This character is wholly
imaginary, and is indeed imagined quite apart from the social customs
which among all the ages will assure so distinguished a place to the
civilisation of the nineteenth century.

It is certainly not prudence that is lacking in the young ladies who
have been the ornament of the balls this winter.

Nor do I think that one can accuse them of unduly despising a
brilliant fortune, horses, fine properties, and everything that
ensures an agreeable position in society. So far from their seeing
nothing but boredom in all these advantages, they are as a rule the
object of their most constant desires, and if there is any passion in
their hearts it is for them.

Neither is it love that provides for the welfare of young men endowed
with a certain amount of talent like Julien; they attach themselves
inseparably to a certain set, and when the set 'arrives', all the good
things of society rain upon them. Woe to the student who belongs to no
set, even his minute and far from certain successes will be made a
reproach to him, and the higher virtue will triumph over him as it
robs him. Ah, Sir, a novel is a mirror carried along a high road. At
one moment it reflects to your vision the azure skies, at another the
mire of the puddles at your feet. And the man who carries this mirror
in his pack will be accused by you of being immoral! His mirror shows
the mire, and you blame the mirror! Rather blame that high road upon
which the puddle lies, still more the inspector of roads who allows
the water to gather and the puddle to form.

Now that it is quite understood that the character of Mathilde is
impossible in our age, no less prudent than virtuous, I am less afraid
of causing annoyance by continuing the account of the follies of this
charming girl.)

Throughout the whole of the day that followed she looked out for
opportunities to assure herself that she had indeed conquered her
insane passion. Her main object was to displease Julien in every way;
but none of her movements passed unperceived by him.

Julien was too wretched and above all, too greatly agitated, to
interpret so complicated a stratagem of passion, still less could he
discern all the promise that it held out to himself: he fell a victim
to it; never perhaps had his misery been so intense. His actions were
so little under the control of his mind that if some morose
philosopher had said to him: 'Seek to take advantage rapidly of a
disposition which for the moment is favourable to you; in this sort of
brain-fed love, which we see in Paris, the same state of mind cannot
continue for more than a couple of days,' he would not have
understood. But, excited as he might be, Julien had a sense of honour.
His first duty was discretion; so much he did understand. To ask for
advice, to relate his agony to the first comer would have been a
happiness comparable to that of the wretch who, crossing a burning
desert, receives from the sky a drop of ice-cold water. He was aware
of the danger, he was afraid of answering with a torrent of tears the
indiscreet person who should question him; he closeted himself in his

He saw Mathilde strolling late and long in the garden; when at length
she had left it, he went down there; he made his way to a rose tree
from which she had plucked a rose.

The night was dark, he could indulge the full extent of his misery
without fear of being seen. It was evident to him that Mademoiselle de
La Mole was in love with one of those young officers to whom she had
been chattering so gaily. He himself had been loved by her, but she
had seen how slight were his merits.

'And indeed, they are slight!' Julien told himself with entire
conviction; 'I am, when all is said, a very dull creature, very
common, very tedious to others, quite insupportable to myself.' He was
sick to death of all his own good qualities, of all the things that he
had loved with enthusiasm; and in this state of inverted imagination
he set to work to criticise life with his imagination. This is an
error that stamps a superior person.

More than once the idea of suicide occurred to him; this image was
full of charm, it was like a delicious rest; it was the glass of
ice-cold water offered to the wretch who, in the desert, is dying of
thirst and heat.

'My death will increase the scorn that she feels for me!' he
exclaimed.  'What a memory I shall leave behind me!'

Sunk into the nethermost abyss of misery, a human being has no
resource left but courage. Julien had not wisdom enough to say to
himself: 'I must venture all'; but as he looked up at the window of
Mathilde's room, he could see through the shutters that she was
putting out her light: he pictured to himself that charming room which
he had seen, alas, once only in his life. His imagination went no

One o'clock struck; from hearing the note of the bell to saying to
himself: 'I am going up by the ladder,' did not take a moment.

This was a flash of genius, cogent reasons followed in abundance. 'Can
I possibly be more wretched?' he asked himself. He ran to the ladder,
the gardener had made it fast with a chain. With the hammer of one of
his pocket pistols, which he broke, Julien, animated for the moment by
a superhuman force, wrenched open one of the iron links of the chain
which bound the ladder; in a few minutes it was free, and he had
placed it against Mathilde's window.

'She will be angry, will heap contempt upon me, what of that? I give
her a kiss, a final kiss, I go up to my room and kill myself ... ; my
lips will have touched her cheek before I die!'

He flew up the ladder, tapped at the shutter; a moment later Mathilde
heard him, she tried to open the shutter, the ladder kept it closed.
Julien clung to the iron latch intended to hold the shutter open, and,
risking a thousand falls, gave the ladder a violent shake, and
displaced it a little.  Mathilde was able to open the shutter.

He flung himself into the room more dead than alive: 'So it is you!'
she said, and fell into his arms ...

  * * *

What words can describe the intensity of Julien's happiness?
Mathilde's was almost as great.

She spoke to him against herself, she accused herself to him.

'Punish me for my atrocious pride,' she said to him, squeezing him in
her arms as though to strangle him; 'you are my master, I am your
slave, I must beg pardon upon my knees for having sought to rebel.'
She slipped from his embrace to fall at his feet. 'Yes, you are my
master,' she said again, intoxicated with love and joy; 'reign over me
for ever, punish your slave severely when she seeks to rebel.'

In another moment she had torn herself from his arms, lighted the
candle, and Julien had all the difficulty in the world in preventing
her from cutting off all one side of her hair.

'I wish to remind myself,' she told him, 'that I am your servant:
should my accursed pride ever make me forget it, show me these locks
and say: "There is no question now of love, we are not concerned with
the emotion that your heart may be feeling at this moment, you have
sworn to obey, obey upon your honour."'

But it is wiser to suppress the description of so wild a felicity.

Julien's chivalry was as great as his happiness; 'I must go down now
by the ladder,' he said to Mathilde, when he saw the dawn appear over
the distant chimneys to the east, beyond the gardens. The sacrifice
that I am imposing on myself is worthy of you, I am depriving myself
of some hours of the most astounding happiness that a human soul can
enjoy, it is a sacrifice that I am offering to your reputation: if you
know my heart you appreciate the effort that I have to make. Will you
always be to me what you are at this moment? But the voice of honour
speaks, it is enough. Let me tell you that, since our first meeting,
suspicion has not been directed only against robbers. M. de La Mole
has set a watch in the garden. M. de Croisenois is surrounded by
spies, we know what he is, doing night by night ...'

When she heard this idea, Mathilde burst out laughing. Her mother and
one of the maids were aroused: immediately they called to her through
the door.  Julien looked at her, she turned pale as she scolded the
maid, and did not condescend to speak to her mother.

'But if it should occur to them to open the window, they will see the
ladder!' Julien said to her.

He clasped her once more in his arms, sprang on to the ladder and slid
rather than climbed down it; in a moment he was on the ground.

Three seconds later the ladder was under the lime alley, and
Mathilde's honour was saved. Julien, on recovering his senses, found
himself bleeding copiously and half naked: he had cut himself in his
headlong descent.

The intensity of his happiness had restored all the energy of his
nature: had a score of men appeared before him, to attack them
single-handed would, at that moment, have been but a pleasure the
more. Fortunately, his martial valour was not put to the proof: he
laid down the ladder in its accustomed place; he replaced the chain
that fastened it; he did not forget to come back and obliterate the
print which the ladder had left in the border of exotic flowers
beneath Mathilde's window.

As in the darkness he explored the loose earth with his hand, to make
sure that the mark was entirely obliterated, he felt something drop on
his hand; it was a whole side of Mathilde's hair which she had clipped
and threw down to him.

She was at her window.

'See what your servant sends you,' she said in audible tones, 'it is
the sign of eternal obedience. I renounce the exercise of my own
reason; be my master.'

Julien, overcome, was on the point of fetching back the ladder and
mounting again to her room. Finally reason prevailed.

To enter the house from the garden was by no means easy. He succeeded
in forcing the door of a cellar; once in the house he was obliged to
break open, as silently as possible, the door of his own room. In his
confusion he had left everything behind, including the key, which was
in the pocket of his coat. 'Let us hope,' he thought, 'that she will
remember to hide all that _corpus delicti_!'

Finally exhaustion overpowered happiness, and, as the sun rose, he
fell into a profound slumber.

The luncheon bell just succeeded in waking him, he made his appearance
in the dining-room. Shortly afterwards, Mathilde entered the room.
Julien's pride tasted a momentary joy when he saw the love that glowed
in the eyes of this beautiful creature, surrounded by every mark of
deference; but soon his prudence found an occasion for alarm.

On the pretext of not having had time to dress her hair properly,
Mathilde had so arranged it that Julien could see at a glance the
whole extent of the sacrifice that she had made for him in clipping
her locks that night.  If anything could have spoiled so lovely a
head, Mathilde would have succeeded in spoiling hers; all one side of
those beautiful pale golden locks were cropped to within half an inch
of her scalp.

At luncheon, Mathilde's whole behaviour was in keeping with this
original imprudence. You would have said that she was deliberately
trying to let everyone see the insane passion that she had for Julien.
Fortunately, that day, M. de La Mole and the Marquise were greatly
taken up with a list of forthcoming promotions to the Blue Riband, in
which the name of M. de Chaulnes had not been included. Towards the
end of the meal, Mathilde in talking to Julien addressed him as 'my
master'. He coloured to the whites of his eyes.

Whether by accident or by the express design of Madame de La Mole,
Mathilde was not left alone for an instant that day. In the evening,
however, as she passed from the dining-room to the drawing-room, she
found an opportunity of saying to Julien:

'I hope you do not think that it is my idea: Mamma has just decided
that one of her maids is to sleep in my room.'

The day passed like lightning; Julien was on the highest pinnacle of
happiness. By seven o'clock next morning he was installed in the
library; he hoped that Mademoiselle de La Mole would deign to appear
there; he had written her an endless letter.

He did not see her until several hours had passed, at luncheon. Her
head was dressed on this occasion with the greatest pains; a
marvellous art had been employed to conceal the gap left by the
clipped locks. She looked once or twice at Julien, but with polite,
calm eyes; there was no longer any question of her calling him 'my

Julien could not breathe for astonishment ... Mathilde found fault
with herself for almost everything that she had done for him.

On mature reflection, she had decided that he was a creature, if not
altogether common, at any rate not sufficiently conspicuous to deserve
all the strange follies which she had ventured to commit for him. On
the whole, she no longer thought of love; she was tired of love that

As for Julien, the emotions of his heart were those of a boy of
sixteen.  Harrowing doubt, bewilderment, despair, seized upon him by
turns during this luncheon, which seemed to him to be everlasting.

As soon as he could decently rise from table, he flew rather than ran
to the stable, saddled his horse himself and was off at a gallop; he
was afraid of disgracing himself by some sign of weakness. 'I must
kill my heart by physical exhaustion,' he said to himself as he
galloped through the woods of Meudon. 'What have I done, what have I
said to deserve such disgrace?

'I must do nothing, say nothing today,' he decided as he returned to
the house, 'be dead in body as I am in spirit. Julien no longer lives,
it is his corpse that is still stirring.'

The Japanese Vase

  His heart does not at first realise the whole extent of
  his misery: he is more disturbed than moved. But in
  proportion as his reason returns, he feels the depth of
  his misfortune. All the pleasures in life are as nothing
  to him, he can feel only the sharp points of the despair
  that is rending him. But what is the good of speaking of
  physical pain?  What pain felt by the body alone is
  comparable to this?

The dinner bell rang, Julien had barely time to dress; he found
Mathilde in the drawing-room urging her brother and M. de Croisenois
not to go and spend the evening with Madame la Marechale de Fervaques.

She could hardly have been more seductive and charming with them.
After dinner they were joined by M. de Luz, M. de Caylus and several
of their friends. One would have said that Mademoiselle de La Mole had
resumed, together with the observance of sisterly affection, that of
the strictest conventions. Although the weather that evening was
charming, she insisted that they should not go out to the garden; she
was determined not to be lured away from the armchair in which Madame
de La Mole was enthroned. The blue sofa was the centre of the group,
as in winter.

Mathilde was out of humour with the garden, or at least it seemed to
her to be utterly boring: it was associated with the memory of Julien.

Misery destroys judgment. Our hero made the blunder of clinging to
that little cane chair which in the past had witnessed such brilliant
triumphs.  This evening, nobody spoke to him; his presence passed as
though unperceived or worse. Those of Mademoiselle de La Mole's
friends who were seated near him at the end of the sofa made an
affectation of turning their backs on him, or so he thought.

'It is a courtier's disgrace,' he concluded. He decided to study for a
moment the people who were trying to crush him with their disdain.

M. de Luz's uncle held an important post in the King's Household, the
consequence of which was that this gallant officer opened his
conversation with each fresh arrival with the following interesting
detail: His uncle had set off at seven o'clock for Saint-Cloud, and
expected to spend the night there. This piece of news was introduced
in the most casual manner, but it never failed to come out.

Upon observing M. de Croisenois with the severe eye of misery, Julien
remarked the enormous influence which this worthy and amiable young
man attributed to occult causes. So much so that he became moody and
cross if he heard an event of any importance set down to a simple and
quite natural cause. 'There is a trace of madness there,' Julien told
himself. 'This character bears a striking resemblance to that of the
Emperor Alexander, as Prince Korasoff described him to me.' During the
first year of his stay in Paris, poor Julien, coming fresh from the
Seminary, dazzled by the graces, so novel to him, of all these
agreeable young men, could do nothing but admire them. Their true
character was only now beginning to outline itself before his eyes.

'I am playing an undignified part here,' he suddenly decided. The next
thing was how to leave his little cane chair in a fashion that should
not be too awkward. He tried to think of one, he called for something
original upon an imagination that was fully occupied elsewhere. He was
obliged to draw upon his memory, which, it must be confessed, was by
no means rich in resources of this order; the boy was still a thorough
novice, so that his awkwardness was complete and attracted everyone's
attention when he rose to leave the drawing-room. Misery was all too
evident in his whole deportment. He had been playing the part for
three quarters of an hour of a troublesome inferior from whom people
do not take the trouble to conceal what they think of him.

The critical observations which he had been making at the expense of
his rivals prevented him, however, from taking his misfortune too
seriously; he retained, to give support to his pride, the memory of
what had occurred the night before last. 'Whatever the advantages they
may have over me,' he thought as he went into the garden by himself,
'Mathilde has not been to any of them what, on two occasions in my
life, she has deigned to be to me.'

His sagacity went no farther. He failed entirely to understand the
character of the singular person whom chance had now made absolute
mistress of his whole happiness.

He devoted the next day to killing himself and his horse with
exhaustion.  He made no further attempt, that evening, to approach the
blue sofa to which Mathilde was faithful. He remarked that Comte
Norbert did not so much as deign to look at him when they met in the
house. 'He must be making an extraordinary effort,' he thought, 'he
who is naturally so polite.'

For Julien, sleep would have meant happiness. Despite his bodily
exhaustion, memories of a too seductive kind began to invade his whole
imagination. He had not the intelligence to see that by his long rides
through the forests round Paris, acting only upon himself and in no
way upon the heart or mind of Mathilde, he was leaving the arrangement
of his destiny to chance.

It seemed to him that one thing would supply boundless comfort to his
grief: namely to speak to Mathilde. And yet what could he venture to
say to her?

This was the question upon which one morning at seven o'clock he was
pondering deeply, when suddenly he saw her enter the library.

'I know, Sir, that you desire to speak to me.'

'Great God! Who told you that?'

'I know it, what more do you want? If you are lacking in honour, you
may ruin me, or at least attempt to do so; but this danger, which I do
not regard as real, will certainly not prevent me from being sincere.
I no longer love you, Sir; my wild imagination misled me ...'

On receiving this terrible blow, desperate with love and misery,
Julien tried to excuse himself. Nothing could be more absurd. Does one
excuse oneself for failing to please? But reason no longer held any
sway over his actions. A blind instinct urged him to postpone the
decision of his fate.  It seemed to him that so long as he was still
speaking, nothing was definitely settled. Mathilde did not listen to
his words, the sound of them irritated her, she could not conceive how
he had the audacity to interrupt her.

The twofold remorse of her virtue and her pride made her, that
morning, equally unhappy. She was more or less crushed by the
frightful idea of having given certain rights over herself to a little
cleric, the son of a peasant. 'It is almost,' she told herself in
moments when she exaggerated her distress, 'as though I had to
reproach myself with a weakness for one of the footmen.'

In bold and proud natures, it is only a step from anger with oneself
to fury with other people; one's transports of rage are in such
circumstances a source of keen pleasure.

In a moment, Mademoiselle de La Mole reached the stage of heaping on
Julien the marks of the most intense scorn. She had infinite
cleverness, and this cleverness triumphed in the art of torturing the
self-esteem of others and inflicting cruel wounds upon them.

For the first time in his life, Julien found himself subjected to the
action of a superior intelligence animated by the most violent hatred
of himself. So far from entertaining the slightest idea of defending
himself at that moment, he began to despise himself. Hearing her heap
upon him such cruel marks of scorn, so cleverly calculated to destroy
any good opinion that he might have of himself, he felt that Mathilde
was right, and that she was not saying enough.

As for her, her pride found an exquisite pleasure in thus punishing
herself and him for the adoration which she had felt a few days

She had no need to invent or to think for the first time of the cruel
words which she now uttered with such complacence. She was only
repeating what for the last week had been said in her heart by the
counsel of the opposite party to love.

Every word increased Julien's fearful misery an hundredfold. He tried
to escape, Mademoiselle de La Mole held him by the arm with a gesture
of authority.

'Please to observe,' he said to her, 'that you are speaking extremely
loud; they will hear you in the next room.'

'What of that!' Mademoiselle de La Mole retorted proudly, 'who will
dare to say to me that he has heard me? I wish to rid your petty
self-esteem for ever of the ideas which it may have formed of me.'

When Julien was able to leave the library, he was so astounded that he
already felt his misery less keenly. 'Well! She no longer loves me,'
he repeated to himself, speaking aloud as though to inform himself of
his position. 'It appears that she loved me for a week or ten days,
and I shall love her all my life.

'Is it really possible, she meant nothing, nothing at all to my heart,
only a few days ago.'

The delights of satisfied pride flooded Mathilde's bosom; so she had
managed to break with him for ever! The thought of so complete a
triumph over so strong an inclination made her perfectly happy. 'And
so this little gentleman will understand, and once for all, that he
has not and never will have any power over me.' She was so happy that
really she had ceased to feel any love at that moment.

After so atrocious, so humiliating a scene, in anyone less passionate
than Julien, love would have become impossible. Without departing for
a single instant from what she owed to herself, Mademoiselle de La
Mole had addressed to him certain of those disagreeable statements, so
well calculated that they can appear to be true, even when one
remembers them in cold blood.

The conclusion that Julien drew at the first moment from so
astonishing a scene was that Mathilde had an unbounded pride. He
believed firmly that everything was at an end for ever between them,
and yet, the following day, at luncheon, he was awkward and timid in
her presence. This was a fault that could not have been found with him
until then. In small matters as in great, he knew clearly what he
ought and wished to do, and carried it out.

That day, after luncheon, when Madame de La Mole asked him for a
seditious and at the same time quite rare pamphlet, which her parish
priest had brought to her secretly that morning, Julien, in taking it
from a side table, knocked over an old vase of blue porcelain, the
ugliest thing imaginable.

Madame de La Mole rose to her feet with a cry of distress and came
across the room to examine the fragments of her beloved vase. 'It was
old Japan,' she said, 'it came to me from my great-aunt the Abbess of
Chelles; it was a present from the Dutch to the Duke of Orleans when
he was Regent and he gave it to his daughter ...'

Mathilde had followed her mother, delighted to see the destruction of
this blue vase which seemed to her horribly ugly. Julien stood silent
and not unduly distressed; he saw Mademoiselle de La Mole standing
close beside him.

'This vase,' he said to her, 'is destroyed for ever; so is it with a
sentiment which was once the master of my heart; I beg you to accept
my apologies for all the foolish things it has made me do'; and he
left the room.

'Really, one would think,' said Madame de La Mole as he went, 'that
this M. Sorel is proud and delighted with what he has done.'

This speech fell like a weight upon Mathilde's heart. 'It is true,'
she told herself, 'my mother has guessed aright, such is the sentiment
that is animating him.' Then and then only ended her joy in the scene
that she had made with him the day before. 'Ah, well, all is at an
end,' she said to herself with apparent calm; 'I am left with a great
example; my mistake has been fearful, degrading! It will make me wise
for all the rest of my life.'

'Was I not speaking the truth?' thought Julien; 'why does the love
that I felt for that madwoman torment me still?'

This love, so far from dying, as he hoped, was making rapid strides.
'She is mad, it is true,' he said to himself, 'but is she any less
adorable? Is it possible for a girl to be more lovely? Everything that
the most elegant civilisation can offer in the way of keen pleasures,
was it not all combined to one's heart's content in Mademoiselle de La
Mole?' These memories of past happiness took possession of Julien, and
rapidly undid all the work of reason.

Reason struggles in vain against memories of this sort; its stern
endeavours serve only to enhance their charm.

Twenty-four hours after the breaking of the old Japanese vase, Julien
was decidedly one of the unhappiest of men.

The Secret Note

  For I saw everything that I am telling you; and if I
  may have been deceived when I saw it, I am most
  certainly not deceiving you in telling you of it.
    From a Letter to the Author

The Marquis sent for him; M. de La Mole seemed rejuvenated, there was
a gleam in his eye.

'Let us hear a little about your memory,' he said to Julien. 'I am
told it is prodigious! Could you learn four pages by heart and go and
repeat them in London? But without altering a word!'

The Marquis was feverishly turning the pages of that morning's
_Quotidienne_, and seeking in vain to dissimulate a highly serious air,
which Julien had never seen him display, not even when they were
discussing the Frilair case.

Julien had by this time sufficient experience to feel that he ought to
appear thoroughly deceived by the light manner that was being assumed
for his benefit.

'This number of the _Quotidienne_ is perhaps not very amusing; but, if
M. le Marquis will allow me, tomorrow morning I shall have the honour
to recite it to him from beginning to end.'

'What! Even the advertisements?'

'Literally, and without missing a word.'

'Do you give me your word for that?' went on the Marquis with a sudden

'Yes, Sir, only the fear of not keeping it might upset my memory.'

'What I mean is that I forgot to ask you this question yesterday; I do
not ask you on your oath never to repeat what you are about to hear; I
know you too well to insult you in that way. I have answered for you,
I am going to take you to a room where there will be twelve persons
assembled; you will take note of what each of them says.

'Do not be uneasy, it is not going to be a confused conversation, each
one will speak in his turn, I do not mean a set speech,' the Marquis
went on, resuming the tone of careless superiority which came so
naturally to him.  'While we are talking, you will write down twenty
pages or so; you will return here with me, we shall cut down those
twenty pages to four. It is those four pages that you shall recite to
me tomorrow morning instead of the whole number of the _Quotidienne_.
You will then set off at once; you will have to take post like a young
man who is travelling for his pleasure.  Your object will be to pass
unobserved by anyone. You will arrive in the presence of a great
personage. There, you will require more skill. It will be a question
of taking in everyone round him; for among his secretaries, among his
servants, there are men in the pay of our enemies, who lie in wait for
our agents to intercept them. You shall have a formal letter of
introduction. When His Excellency looks at you, you will take out my
watch here, which I am going to lend you for the journey. Take it now,
while you are about it, and give me yours.

'The Duke himself will condescend to copy out at your dictation the
four pages which you will have learned by heart.

'When this has been done, but not before, remember, you may, if His
Excellency questions you, give him an account of the meeting which you
are now about to attend.

'One thing that will prevent you from feeling bored on your jorney is
that between Paris and the residence of the Minister there are people
who would ask for nothing better than to fire a shot at M. l'abbe
Sorel. Then his mission is at an end and I foresee a long delay; for,
my dear fellow, how shall we hear of your death? Your zeal cannot go
so far as to inform us of it.

'Run off at once and buy yourself a complete outfit,' the Marquis went
on with a serious air. 'Dress in the style of the year before last.
This evening you will have to look a little shabby. On the journey,
however, you will dress as usual. Does that surprise you, does your
suspicious mind guess the reason? Yes, my friend, one of the venerable
personages whom you are about to hear discuss is fully capable of
transmitting information by means of which someone may quite possibly
administer opium to you, if nothing worse, in the evening, in some
respectable inn at which you will have called for supper.'

'It would be better,' said Julien, 'to travel thirty leagues farther
and avoid the direct route. My destination is Rome, I suppose ...'

The Marquis assumed an air of haughty displeasure which Julien had not
seen to so marked a degree since Bray-le-Haut.

'That is what you shall learn, Sir, when I think fit to tell you. I do
not like questions.'

'It was not a question,' replied Julien effusively: 'I swear to you,
Sir, I was thinking aloud, I was seeking in my own mind the safest

'Yes, it seems that your thoughts were far away. Never forget that an
ambassador, one of your youth especially, ought not to appear to be
forcing confidences.'

Julien was greatly mortified, he was in the wrong. His self-esteem
sought for an excuse and could find none.

'Understand then,' M. de La Mole went on, 'that people always appeal
to their hearts when they have done something foolish.'

An hour later, Julien was in the Marquis's waiting-room in the garb of
an inferior, with old-fashioned clothes, a doubtfully clean neckcloth
and something distinctly smug about his whole appearance.

At the sight of him, the Marquis burst out laughing, and then only was
Julien's apology accepted.

'If this young man betrays me,' M. de La Mole asked himself, 'whom can
I trust? And yet when it comes to action, one has to trust somebody.
My son and his brilliant friends of the same kidney have honest
hearts, and loyalty enough for a hundred thousand; if it were a
question of fighting, they would perish on the steps of the throne,
they know everything ...  except just what is required at the moment.
Devil take me if I can think of one of them who could learn four pages
by heart and travel a hundred leagues without being tracked. Norbert
would know how to let himself be killed like his ancestors, but any
conscript can do that ...'

The Marquis fell into a profound meditation: 'And even being killed,'
he said with a sigh, 'perhaps this Sorel would manage that as well as
he ...

'The carriage is waiting,' said the Marquis, as though to banish a
vexatious thought.

'Sir,' said Julien, 'while they were altering this coat for me, I
committed to memory the first page of today's _Quotidienne_.'

The Marquis took the paper, Julien repeated the page without a single
mistake. 'Good,' said the Marquis, every inch the diplomat that
evening; 'meanwhile this young man is not observing the streets
through which we are passing.'

They arrived in a large room of a distinctly gloomy aspect, partly
panelled and partly hung in green velvet. In the middle of the room, a
scowling footman had just set up a large dinner-table, which he
proceeded to convert into a writing table, by means of an immense
green cloth covered with ink stains, a relic of some Ministry.

The master of the house was a corpulent man whose name was never
uttered; Julien decided that his expression and speech were those of a
man engaged in digestion.

At a sign from the Marquis, Julien had remained at the lower end of
the table. To avoid drawing attention to himself he began to point the
quills.  He counted out of the corner of his eye seven speakers, but
he could see nothing more of them than their backs. Two of them
appeared to him to be addressing M. de La Mole on terms of equality,
the others seemed more or less deferential.

Another person entered the room unannounced. 'This is strange,'
thought Julien, 'no one is announced in this room. Can this precaution
have been taken in my honour?' Everyone rose to receive the newcomer.
He was wearing the same extremely distinguished decoration as three of
the men who were already in the room. They spoke in low tones. In
judging the newcomer, Julien was restricted to what he could learn
from his features and dress.  He was short and stout, with a high
complexion and a gleaming eye devoid of any expression beyond the
savage glare of a wild boar.

Julien's attention was sharply distracted by the almost immediate
arrival of a wholly different person. This was a tall man, extremely
thin and wearing three or four waistcoats. His eye was caressing, his
gestures polished.

'That is just the expression of the old Bishop of Besancon,' thought
Julien. This man evidently belonged to the Church, he did not appear
to be more than fifty or fifty-five, no one could have looked more

The young Bishop of Agde appeared, and seemed greatly surprised when,
in making a survey of those present, his eye rested on Julien. He had
not spoken to him since the ceremony at Bray-le-Haut. His look of
surprise embarrassed and irritated Julien. 'What,' the latter said to
himself, 'is knowing a man to be always to my disadvantage? All these
great gentlemen whom I have never seen before do not frighten me in
the least, and the look in this young Bishop's eyes freezes me! It
must be admitted that I am a very strange and very unfortunate

A small and extremely dark man presently made a noisy entrance, and
began speaking from the door; he had a sallow complexion and a
slightly eccentric air. On the arrival of this pitiless talker, groups
began to form, apparently to escape the boredom of listening to him.

As they withdrew from the fireplace they drew near to the lower end of
the table, where Julien was installed. His expression became more and
more embarrassed, for now at last, in spite of all his efforts, he
could not avoid hearing them, and however slight his experience might
be, he realised the full importance of the matters that were being
discussed without any attempt at concealment; and yet how careful the
evidently exalted personages whom he saw before him ought to be to
keep them secret.

Already, working as slowly as possible, Julien had pointed a score of
quills; this resource must soon fail him. He looked in vain for an
order in the eyes of M. de La Mole; the Marquis had forgotten him.

'What I am doing is absurd,' thought Julien as he pointed his pens;
'but people who are so commonplace in appearance, and are entrusted by
others or by themselves with such high interests, must be highly
susceptible. My unfortunate expression has a questioning and scarcely
respectful effect which would doubtless annoy them. If I lower my eyes
too far I shall appear to be making a record of their talk.'

His embarrassment was extreme, he was hearing some strange things

The Discussion

  The republic--for every person today willing to sacrifice
  all to the common good, there are thousands and millions
  who know only their own pleasures and their vanity. One
  is esteemed in Paris for one's carriage, not for one's virtue.
    NAPOLEON, _Memorial_

The footman burst in, announcing: 'Monsieur le Duc de ----.'

'Hold your tongue, you fool,' said the Duke as he entered the room. He
said this so well, and with such majesty that Julien could not help
thinking that knowing how to lose his temper with a footman was the
whole extent of this great personage's knowledge. Julien raised his
eyes and at once lowered them again. He had so clearly divined the
importance of this new arrival that he trembled lest his glance should
be thought an indiscretion.

This Duke was a man of fifty, dressed like a dandy, and treading as
though on springs. He had a narrow head with a large nose, and a
curved face which he kept thrusting forward. It would have been hard
for anyone to appear at once so noble and so insignificant. His coming
was a signal for the opening of the discussion.

Julien was sharply interrupted in his physiognomical studies by the
voice of M. de La Mole. 'Let me present to you M. l'abbe Sorel,' said
the Marquis. 'He is endowed with an astonishing memory; it was only an
hour ago that I spoke to him of the mission with which he might
perhaps be honoured, and, in order to furnish us with a proof of his
memory, he has learned by heart the first page of the _Quotidienne_.'

'Ah! The foreign news, from poor N ----,' said the master of the
house. He picked up the paper eagerly and, looking at Julien with a
whimsical air, in the effort to appear important: 'Begin, Sir,' he
said to him.

The silence was profound, every eye was fixed on Julien; he repeated
his lesson so well that after twenty lines: 'That will do,' said the
Duke. The little man with the boar's eyes sat down. He was the
chairman for, as soon as he had taken his place, he indicated a card
table to Julien, and made a sign to him to bring it up to his side.
Julien established himself there with writing materials.  He counted
twelve people seated round the green cloth.

'M. Sorel,' said the Duke, 'retire to the next room. We shall send for

The master of the house assumed an uneasy expression. 'The shutters
are not closed,' he murmured to his neighbour. 'It is no use your
looking out of the window,' he foolishly exclaimed to Julien. 'Here I
am thrust into a conspiracy at the very least,' was the latter's
thought. 'Fortunately, it is not one of the kind that end on the Place
de Greve. Even if there were danger, I owe that and more to the
Marquis. I should be fortunate, were it granted me to atone for all
the misery which my follies may one day cause him!'

Without ceasing to think of his follies and of his misery, he studied
his surroundings in such a way that he could never forget them. Only
then did he remember that he had not heard the Marquis tell his
footman the name of the street, and the Marquis had sent for a cab, a
thing he never did.

Julien was left for a long time to his reflections. He was in a
parlour hung in green velvet with broad stripes of gold. There was on
the side-table a large ivory crucifix, and on the mantelpiece the book
_Du Pape_, by M. de Maistre, with gilt edges, and magnificently bound.
Julien opened it so as not to appear to be eavesdropping. Every now
and then there was a sound of raised voices from the next room. At
length the door opened, his name was called.

'Remember, Gentlemen,' said the chairman, 'that from this moment we
are addressing the Duc de ----. This gentleman,' he said, pointing to
Julien, 'is a young Levite, devoted to our sacred cause, who will have
no difficulty in repeating, thanks to his astonishing memory, our most
trivial words.

'Monsieur has the floor,' he said, indicating the personage with the
fatherly air, who was wearing three or four waistcoats. Julien felt
that it would have been more natural to call him the gentleman with
the waistcoats.  He supplied himself with paper and wrote copiously.

(Here the author would have liked to insert a page of dots. 'That will
not look pretty,' says the publisher, 'and for so frivolous a work not
to look pretty means death.'

'Politics,' the author resumes, 'are a stone attached to the neck of
literature, which, in less than six months, drowns it.  Politics in
the middle of imaginative interests are like a pistol-shot in the
middle of a concert. The noise is deafening without being emphatic. It
is not in harmony with the sound of any of the instruments. This
mention of politics is going to give deadly offence to half my
readers, and to bore the other half, who have already found far more
interesting and emphatic politics in their morning paper.'

'If your characters do not talk politics,' the publisher retorts,
'they are no longer Frenchmen of 1830, and your book ceases to hold a
mirror, as you claim....')

Julien's report amounted to twenty-six pages; the following is a quite
colourless extract; for I have been obliged, as usual, to suppress the
absurdities, the frequency of which would have appeared tedious or
highly improbable. (Compare the _Gazette des Tribunaux_. )

The man with the waistcoats and the fatherly air (he was a Bishop,
perhaps), smiled often, and then his eyes, between their tremulous
lids, assumed a strange brilliance and an expression less undecided
than was his wont. This personage, who was invited to speak first,
before the Duke ('but what Duke?' Julien asked himself), apparently to
express opinions and to perform the functions of Attorney General,
appeared to Julien to fall into the uncertainty and absence of
definite conclusions with which those officers are often reproached.
In the course of the discussion the Duke went so far as to rebuke him
for this.

After several phrases of morality and indulgent philosophy, the man
with the waistcoats said:

'Noble England, guided by a great man, the immortal Pitt, spent forty
thousand million francs in destroying the Revolution. If this assembly
will permit me to express somewhat boldly a melancholy reflection,
England does not sufficiently understand that with a man like
Bonaparte, especially when one had had to oppose to him only a
collection of good intentions, there was nothing decisive save
personal measures ...'

'Ah! Praise of assassination again!' said the master of the house with
an uneasy air.

'Spare us your sentimental homilies,' exclaimed the chairman angrily;
his boar's eye gleamed with a savage light. 'Continue,' he said to the
man with the waistcoats. The chairman's cheeks and brow turned purple.

'Noble England,' the speaker went on, 'is crushed today, for every
Englishman, before paying for his daily bread, is obliged to pay the
interest on the forty thousand million francs which were employed
against the Jacobins. She has no longer a Pitt ...'

'She has the Duke of Wellington,' said a military personage who
assumed an air of great importance.

'Silence, please, Gentlemen,' cried the chairman; 'if we continue to
disagree, there will have been no use in our sending for M. Sorel.'

'We know that Monsieur is full of ideas,' said the Duke with an air of
vexation and a glance at the interrupter, one of Napoleon's Generals.
Julien saw that this was an allusion to something personal and highly
offensive. Everyone smiled; the turncoat General seemed beside
himself with rage.

'There is no longer a Pitt,' the speaker went on, with the discouraged
air of a man who despairs of making his hearers listen to reason.
'Were there a fresh Pitt in England, one does not hoodwink a nation
twice by the same means ...'

'That is why a conquering General, a Bonaparte is impossible now in
France,' cried the military interrupter.

On this occasion, neither the chairman nor the Duke dared show
annoyance, though Julien thought he could read in their eyes that they
were tempted to do so. They lowered their eyes, and the Duke contented
himself with a sigh loud enough to be audible to them all.

But the speaker had lost his temper.

'You are in a hurry for me to conclude,' he said with heat, entirely
discarding that smiling politeness and measured speech which Julien
had assumed to be the natural expression of his character: 'you are in
a hurry for me to conclude; you give me no credit for the efforts that
I am making not to offend the ears of anyone present, however long
they may be. Very well, Gentlemen, I shall be brief.

'And I shall say to you in the plainest of words: England has not a
halfpenny left for the service of the good cause. Were Pitt to return
in person, with all his genius he would not succeed in hoodwinking the
small landowners of England, for they know that the brief campaign of
Waterloo cost them, by itself, one thousand million francs. Since you
wish for plain speaking,' the speaker added, growing more and more
animated, 'I shall say to you: Help yourselves, for England has not a
guinea for your assistance, and if England does not pay, Austria,
Russia, Prussia, which have only courage and no money, cannot support
more than one campaign or two against France.

'You may hope that the young soldiers collected by Jacobinism will be
defeated in the first campaign, in the second perhaps; but in the
third (though I pass for a revolutionary in your prejudiced eyes), in
the third you will have the soldiers of 1794, who were no longer the
recruited peasants of 1792.'

Here the interruption broke out in three or four places at once.

'Sir,' said the chairman to Julien, 'go and make a fair copy in the
next room of the first part of the report which you have taken down.'
Julien left the room with considerable regret. The speaker had
referred to probabilities which formed the subject of his habitual

'They are afraid of my laughing at them,' he thought. When he was
recalled, M. de La Mole was saying, with an earnestness, which, to
Julien, who knew him, seemed highly amusing:

'Yes, Gentlemen, it is above all of this unhappy race that one can
say: "Shall it be a god, a table or a bowl?"

'"_It shall be a god_!" cries the poet. It is to you, Gentlemen, that
this saying, so noble and so profound, seems to apply. Act for
yourselves, and our noble France will reappear more or less as our
ancestors made her and as our own eyes beheld her before the death of
Louis XVI.

'England, her noble Lords at least, curses as heartily as we ignoble
Jacobinism: without English gold, Austria, Russia, Prussia cannot
fight more than two or three battles. Will that suffice to bring about
a glorious occupation, like that which M. de Richelieu squandered so
stupidly in 1817? I do not think so.'

At this point an interruption occurred, but it was silenced by a
general murmur. It arose once more from the former Imperial General,
who desired the Blue Riband, and was anxious to appear among the
compilers of the secret note.

'I do not think so,' M. de La Mole resumed after the disturbance. He
dwelt upon the word 'I' with an insolence which charmed Julien. 'That is
well played,' he said to himself as he made his pen fly almost as fast
as the Marquis's utterance. With a well-placed word, M. de La Mole
annihilated the twenty campaigns of the turncoat.

'It is not to foreigners alone,' the Marquis continued in the most
measured tone, 'that we can remain indebted for a fresh military
occupation. That youthful band who contribute incendiary articles to
the _Globe_ will provide you with three or four thousand young
captains, among whom may be found a Kleber, a Hoche, a Jourdan, a
Pichegru, but less well-intentioned.'

'We did wrong in not crowning him with glory,' said the chairman, 'we
ought to have made him immortal.'

'There must, in short, be two parties in France,' went on M. de La
Mole, 'but two parties, not in name only, two parties clearly defined,
sharply divided. Let us be certain whom we have to crush. On one side
the journalists, the electors, public opinion; in a word, youth and
all those who admire it. While it is dazed by the sound of its own
idle words, we, we have the certain advantage of handling the budget.'

Here came a fresh interruption.

'You, Sir,' M. de La Mole said to the interrupter with a supercilious
ease that was quite admirable, 'you do not handle, since the word
appears to shock you, you devour forty thousand francs borne on the
state budget and eighty thousand which you receive from the Civil

'Very well, Sir, since you force me to it, I take you boldly as an
example.  Like your noble ancestors who followed Saint Louis to the
Crusade, you ought, for those hundred and twenty thousand francs, to
let us see at least a regiment, a company, shall I say a half-company,
were it composed only of fifty men ready to fight, and devoted to the
good cause, alive or dead. You have only footmen who, in the event of
a revolt, would frighten nobody but yourself.

The Throne, the Altar, the Nobility may perish any day, Gentlemen, so
long as you have not created in each Department a force of five
hundred devoted men; devoted, I mean, not only with all the gallantry
of France but with the constancy of Spain.

'One half of this troop will have to be composed of our sons, our
nephews, in short of true gentlemen. Each of them will have by his
side, not a glib little cockney ready to hoist the striped cockade if
another 1815 should arrive, but an honest peasant, simple and open
like Cathelineau; our gentleman will have trained him, it should be
his foster-brother, if possible. Let each of us sacrifice the fifth
part of his income to form this little devoted troop of five hundred
men to a Department. Then you may count upon a foreign occupation.
Never will the foreign soldier cross our borders as far as Dijon even,
unless he is certain of finding five hundred friendly soldiers in each

'The foreign Kings will listen to you only when you can inform them
that there are twenty thousand gentlemen ready to take up arms to open
to them the gates of France. This service is arduous, you will say.
Gentlemen, it is the price of our heads. Between the liberty of the
press and our existence as gentlemen, there is war to the knife.
Become manufacturers, peasants, or take up your guns. Be timid if you
like, but do not be stupid.  Open your eyes.

'_Form your battalions_, I say to you, in the words of the Jacobin
song; then there will appear some noble Gustavus-Adolphus, who,
moved by the imminent peril to the monarchical principle will come
flying three hundred leagues beyond his borders, and do for you what
Gustavus did for the Protestant princes. Do you propose to go on
talking without acting? In fifty years there will be nothing in Europe
but Presidents of Republics, not one King left. And with those four
letters K-I-N-G, go the priests and the gentlemen. I can see nothing
but _candidates_ paying court to draggletailed _majorities_.

'It is no use your saying that France has not at this moment a
trustworthy General, known and loved by all, that the army is
organised only in the interests of Throne and Altar, that all the old
soldiers have been discharged from it, whereas each of the Prussian
and Austrian regiments includes fifty non-commissioned officers who
have been under fire.

'Two hundred thousand young men of the middle class are in love with
the idea of war....'

'Enough unpleasant truths,' came in a tone of importance from a grave
personage, apparently high on the ladder of ecclesiastical preferment,
for M. de La Mole smiled pleasantly instead of showing annoyance,
which was highly significant to Julien.

'Enough unpleasant truths; Gentlemen, to sum up: the man with whom it
was a question of amputating his gangrened leg would be ill-advised to
say to his surgeon: this diseased leg is quite sound. Pardon me the
simile, Gentlemen, the noble Duke of ----  is our surgeon.'  [Trans.
footnote: The Duke of Wellington.  C. K. S. M.]

'There is the great secret out at last,' thought Julien; 'it is to the
---- that I shall be posting tonight.'

The Clergy, their Forests, Liberty

  The first law for every creature is that of
  self-preservation, of life. You sow hemlock,
  and expect to see the corn ripen!

The grave personage continued; one could see that he knew; he set
forth with a gentle and moderate eloquence, which vastly delighted
Julien, the following great truths:

(1) England has not a guinea at our service; economy and Hume are the
fashion there. Even the Saints will not give us any money, and Mr
Brougham will laugh at us.

(2,) Impossible to obtain more than two campaigns from the Monarchs of
Europe, without English gold; and two campaigns will not be enough
against the middle classes.

(3) Necessity of forming an armed party in France, otherwise the
monarchical principle in the rest of Europe will not risk even those
two campaigns.

'The fourth point which I venture to suggest to you as self-evident is

'_The impossibility of forming an armed party in France without the
Clergy_.  I say it to you boldly, because I am going to prove it to
you, Gentlemen.  We must give the Clergy everything:

'(i) Because, occupying themselves with their own business night and
day, and guided by men of high capacity established out of harm's way
three hundred leagues from your frontiers ...'

'Ah! Rome! Rome!' exclaimed the master of the house ...

'Yes, Sir, _Rome_!' the Cardinal answered proudly. 'Whatever be the more
or less ingenious pleasantries which were in fashion when you were
young, I will proclaim boldly, in 1830, that the Clergy, guided by
Rome, speak and speak alone to the lower orders.

'Fifty thousand priests repeat the same words on the day indicated by
their leaders, and the people, who, after all, furnish the soldiers,
will be more stirred by the voice of their priests than by all the
cheap poems in the world. . ..' (This personal allusion gave rise to

'The Clergy have an intellect superior to yours,' the Cardinal went
on, raising his voice; 'all the steps that you have taken towards this
essential point, _having an armed party here in France_, have been
taken by us.' Here facts were cited. Who had sent eighty thousand
muskets to the Vendee? and so forth.

'So long as the Clergy are deprived of their forests, they have no
tenure.  At the first threat of war, the Minister of Finance writes to
his agents that there is no more money except for the parish priests.
At heart, France is not religious, and loves war. Whoever it be that
gives her war, he will be doubly popular, for to make war is to starve
the Jesuits, in vulgar parlance; to make war is to deliver those
monsters of pride, the French people, from the menace of foreign

The Cardinal had a favourable hearing ... 'It was essential,' he said,
'that M. de Nerval should leave the Ministry, his name caused
needless irritation.'

Upon this, they all rose to their feet and began speaking at once.
'They will be sending me out of the room again,' thought Julien; but
the prudent chairman himself had forgotten Julien's presence and
indeed his existence.

Every eye turned to a man whom Julien recognised. It was M. de Nerval,
the First Minister, whom he had seen at the Duc de Retz's ball.

_The disorder was at its height_, as the newspapers say, when
reporting the sittings of the Chamber. After fully a quarter of an
hour, silence began to be restored.

Then M. de Nerval rose and, adopting the tone of an Apostle:

'I shall not for one moment pretend,' he said, in an unnatural voice,
'that I am not attached to office.

'It has been proved to me, Gentlemen, that my name doubles the
strength of the Jacobins by turning against us a number of moderate
men. I should willingly resign, therefore; but the ways of the Lord
are visible to but a small number; but,' he went on, looking fixedly
at the Cardinal, 'I have a mission; heaven has said to me: "You shall
lay down your head on the scaffold, or you shall reestablish the
Monarchy in France, and reduce the Chambers to what Parliament was
under Louis XV," and that, Gentlemen, _I will do_.'

He ceased, sat down, and a great silence fell.

'There is a good actor,' thought Julien. He made the mistake, then as
always, of crediting people with too much cleverness.

Animated by the debates of so lively an evening, and above all by the
sincerity of the discussion, at that moment M. de Nerval believed in
his mission. With his great courage the man did not combine any sense.

Midnight struck during the silence that followed the fine peroration
'_that I will do_'. Julien felt that there was something imposing and
funereal in the sound of the clock. He was deeply moved.

The discussion soon began again with increasing energy and above all
with an incredible simplicity. 'These men will have me poisoned,'
thought Julien, at certain points. 'How can they say such things
before a plebeian?'

Two o'clock struck while they were still talking. The master of the
house had long been asleep; M. de La Mole was obliged to ring to have
fresh candles brought in. M. de Nerval, the Minister, had left at a
quarter to two, not without having frequently studied Julien's face in
a mirror which hung beside him. His departure had seemed to create an
atmosphere of relief.

While the candles were being changed: 'Heaven knows what that fellow
is going to say to the King!' the man with the waistcoats murmured to
his neighbour. 'He can make us look very foolish and spoil our future.

'You must admit that he shows a very rare presumption, indeed
effrontery, in appearing here. He used to come here before he took
office; but a portfolio alters everything, swallows up all a man's
private interests, he ought to have felt that.'

As soon as the Minister was gone, Bonaparte's General had shut his
eyes. He now spoke of his health, his wounds, looked at his watch, and

'I would bet,' said the man with the waistcoats, 'that the General is
running after the Minister; he is going to make his excuses for being
found here, and pretend that he is our leader.'

When the servants, who were half asleep, had finished changing the

'Let us now begin to deliberate, Gentlemen,' said the chairman, 'and
no longer attempt to persuade one another. Let us consider the tenor
of the note that in forty-eight hours will be before the eyes of our
friends abroad. There has been reference to Ministers. We can say, now
that M. de Nerval has left us, what do we care for Ministers? We shall
control them.'

The Cardinal showed his approval by a delicate smile.

'Nothing easier, it seems to me, than to sum up our position,' said
the young Bishop of Agde with the concentrated and restrained fire of
the most exalted fanaticism. Hitherto he had remained silent; his eye,
which Julien had watched, at first mild and calm, had grown fiery
after the first hour's discussion. Now his heart overflowed like lava
from Vesuvius.

'From 1806 to 1814, England made only one mistake,' he said, 'which
was her not dealing directly and personally with Napoleon. As soon as
that man had created Dukes and Chamberlains, as soon as he had
restored the Throne, the mission that God had entrusted to him was at
an end; he was ripe only for destruction. The Holy Scriptures teach us
in more than one passage the way to make an end of tyrants.' (Here
followed several Latin quotations.)

'Today, Gentlemen, it is not a man that we must destroy; it is Paris.
The whole of France copies Paris. What is the use of arming your five
hundred men in each Department? A hazardous enterprise and one that
will never end.  What is the use of involving France in a matter which
is peculiar to Paris?  Paris alone, with her newspapers and her
drawing-rooms, has done the harm; let the modern Babylon perish.

'Between the Altar and Paris, there must be a fight to the finish.
This catastrophe is indeed to the earthly advantage of the Throne. Why
did not Paris dare to breathe under Bonaparte? Ask the artillery of

  * * *

It was not until three o'clock in the morning that Julien left the
house with M. de La Mole.

The Marquis was depressed and tired. For the first time, in speaking
to Julien, he used a tone of supplication. He asked him to promise
never to disclose the excesses of zeal, such was his expression, which
he had chanced to witness. 'Do not mention it to our friend abroad,
unless he deliberately insists on knowing the nature of our young
hotheads. What does it matter to them if the State be overthrown? They
will be Cardinals, and will take refuge in Rome. We, in our country
seats, shall be massacred by the peasants.'

The secret note which the Marquis drafted from the long report of six
and twenty pages, written by Julien, was not ready until a quarter to

'I am dead tired,' said the Marquis, 'and so much can be seen from
this note, which is lacking in precision towards the end; I am more
dissatisfied with it than with anything I ever did in my life.  Now,
my friend,' he went on, 'go and lie down for a few hours, and for fear
of your being abducted, I am going to lock you into your room.'

Next day, the Marquis took Julien to a lonely mansion, at some
distance from Paris. They found there a curious company who, Julien
decided, were priests. He was given a passport which bore a false
name, but did at last indicate the true goal of his journey, of which
he had always feigned ignorance. He started off by himself in a

The Marquis had no misgivings as to his memory, Julien had repeated
the text of the secret note to him several times; but he was greatly
afraid of his being intercepted.

'Remember, whatever you do, to look like a fop who is travelling to
kill time,' was his friendly warning, as Julien was leaving the room.
'There may perhaps have been several false brethren in our assembly
last night.'

The journey was rapid and very tedious. Julien was barely out of the
Marquis's sight before he had forgotten both the secret note and his
mission, and was thinking of nothing but Mathilde's scorn.

In a village, some leagues beyond Metz, the postmaster came to inform
him that there were no fresh horses. It was ten o'clock at night;
Julien, greatly annoyed, ordered supper. He strolled up and down
outside the door and passed unperceived into the stable-yard. He saw
no horses there.

'The man had a singular expression all the same,' he said to himself;
'his coarse eye was scrutinising me.'

We can see that he was beginning not to believe literally everything
that he was told. He thought of making his escape after supper, and in
the meanwhile, in order to learn something of the lie of the land,
left his room to go and warm himself by the kitchen fire. What was his
joy upon finding there Signor Geronimo, the famous singer!

Comfortably ensconced in an armchair which he had made them push up
close to the fire, the Neapolitan was groaning aloud and talking more,
by himself, than the score of German peasants who were gathered round
him open-mouthed.

'These people are ruining me,' he cried to Julien, 'I have promised to
sing tomorrow at Mayence. Seven Sovereign Princes have assembled there
to hear me. But let us take the air,' he added, in a significant tone.

When he had gone a hundred yards along the road, and was well out of

'Do you know what is happening?' he said to Julien; 'this postmaster
is a rogue. As I was strolling about, I gave a franc to a little
ragamuffin who told me everything. There are more than a dozen horses
in a stable at the other end of the village. They mean to delay some

'Indeed?' said Julien, with an innocent air.

It was not enough to have discovered the fraud, they must get on: this
was what Geronimo and his friend could not manage to do. 'We must wait
for the daylight,' the singer said finally, 'they are suspicious of
us. Tomorrow morning we shall order a good breakfast; while they are
preparing it we go out for a stroll, we escape, hire fresh horses, and
reach the next post.'

'And your luggage?' said Julien, who thought that perhaps Geronimo
himself might have been sent to intercept him. It was time to sup and
retire to bed. Julien was still in his first sleep, when he was
awakened with a start by the sound of two people talking in his room,
apparently quite unconcerned.

He recognised the postmaster, armed with a dark lantern. Its light was
concentrated upon the carriage-trunk, which Julien had had carried up
to his room. With the postmaster was another man who was calmly going
through the open trunk. Julien could make out only the sleeves of his
coat, which were black and close-fitting.

'It is a cassock,' he said to himself, and quietly seized the pocket
pistols which he had placed under his pillow.

'You need not be afraid of his waking, Monsieur le Cure,' said the
postmaster. 'The wine we gave them was some of what you prepared

'I can find no trace of papers,' replied the cure. 'Plenty of linen,
oils, pomades and fripperies; he is a young man of the world, occupied
with his own pleasures. The envoy will surely be the other, who
pretends to speak with an Italian accent.'

The men came up to Julien to search the pockets of his travelling
coat. He was strongly tempted to kill them as robbers. This could
involve no dangerous consequences. He longed to do it... 'I should be
a mere fool,' he said to himself, 'I should be endangering my
mission.' After searching his coat, 'this is no diplomat,' said the
priest: he moved away, and wisely.

'If he touches me in my bed, it will be the worse for him!' Julien was
saying to himself; 'he may quite well come and stab me, and that I
will not allow.'

The cure turned his head, Julien half-opened his eyes; what was his
astonishment! It was the abbe Castanede! And indeed, although the two
men had tried to lower their voices, he had felt, from the first, that
he recognised the sound of one of them. He was seized with a
passionate desire to rid the world of one of its vilest scoundrels ...

'But my mission!' he reminded himself.

The priest and his acolyte left the room. A quarter of an hour later,
Julien pretended to awake. He called for help and roused the whole

'I have been poisoned,' he cried, 'I am in horrible agony!' He wanted
a pretext for going to Geronimo's rescue. He found him half
asphyxiated by the laudanum that had been in his wine.

Julien, fearing some pleasantry of this kind, had supped upon
chocolate which he had brought with him from Paris. He could not
succeed in arousing Geronimo sufficiently to make him agree to leave
the place.

'Though you offered me the whole Kingdom of Naples,' said the singer,
'I would not forgo the pleasure of sleep at this moment.'

'But the seven Sovereign Princes!'

'They can wait.'

Julien set off alone and arrived without further incident at the abode
of the eminent personage. He spent a whole morning in vainly
soliciting an audience. Fortunately, about four o'clock, the Duke
decided to take the air. Julien saw him leave the house on foot, and
had no hesitation in going up to him and begging for alms. When within
a few feet of the eminent personage, he drew out the Marquis de La
Mole's watch, and flourished it ostentatiously. 'Follow me at
distance,' said the other, without looking at him.

After walking for a quarter of a league, the Duke turned abruptly in
to a little _Kaffeehaus_. It was in a bedroom of this humblest form of
inn that Julien had the honour of reciting his four pages to the Duke.
When he had finished: 'Begin again, and go more slowly,' he was told.

The Prince took down notes. 'Go on foot to the next post. Leave your
luggage and your calash here. Make your way to Strasbourg as best you
can, and on the twenty-second of the month'--it was now the tenth--'be
in this coffee-house here at half-past twelve. Do not leave here for
half an hour.  Silence!'

Such were the only words that Julien heard said. They sufficed to fill
him with the deepest admiration. 'It is thus,' he thought, 'that one
handles affairs; what would this great statesman say if he had heard
those hotheaded chatterboxes three days ago?'

Julien took two days to reach Strasbourg, he felt that there was
nothing for him to do there. He made a wide circuit. 'If that devil,
the abbe Castanede has recognised me, he is not the man to be easily
shaken off ... And what a joy to him to make a fool of me, and to
spoil my mission!'

The abbe Castanede, Chief of Police to the _Congregation_ along the
whole of the Northern frontier, had mercifully not recognised him. And
the Jesuits of Strasbourg, albeit most zealous, never thought of
keeping an eye on Julien, who, with his Cross and his blue greatcoat,
had the air of a young soldier greatly concerned with his personal


  Fascination! Thou sharest with love all its energy, all
  its capacity for suffering. Its enchanting pleasures, its
  sweet delights are alone beyond thy sphere. I could not
  say, as I saw her asleep: She is all mine with her angelic
  beauty and her sweet frailties! Behold her delivered into
  my power, as heaven made her in its compassion to enchant
  a man's heart.
    _Ode_ by SCHILLER

Obliged to spend a week in Strasbourg, Julien sought to distract
himself with thoughts of martial glory and of devotion to his country.
Was he in love, then? He could not say, only he found in his bruised
heart Mathilde the absolute mistress of his happiness as of his
imagination. He required all his natural energy to keep himself from
sinking into despair. To think of anything that bore no relation to
Mademoiselle de La Mole was beyond his power.  Ambition, the mere
triumphs of vanity, had I distracted him in the past from the
sentiments that Madame de Renal inspired in him.  Mathilde had
absorbed all; he found her everywhere in his future.

On every hand, in this future, Julien foresaw failure. This creature
whom we saw at Verrieres so filled with presumption, so arrogant, had
fallen into an absurd extreme of modesty.

Three days earlier he would have killed the abbe Castanede with
pleasure, and at Strasbourg, had a boy picked a quarrel with him, he
would have offered the boy an apology. In thinking over the
adversaries, the enemies whom he had encountered in the course of his
life, he found that invariably he, Julien, had been in the wrong.

The fact was that he had now an implacable enemy in that powerful
imagination, which before had been constantly employed in painting
such brilliant successes for him in the future.

The absolute solitude of a traveller's existence strengthened the
power of this dark imagination. What a treasure would a friend have
been! 'But,' Julien asked himself, 'is there a heart in the world that
beats for me? And if I had a friend, does not honour impose on me an
eternal silence?'

He took a horse and rode sadly about the neighbourhood of Kehl; it is
a village on the bank of the Rhine, immortalised by Desaix and Gouvion
Saint-Cyr. A German peasant pointed out to him the little streams,
the roads, the islands in the Rhine which the valour of those great
Generals has made famous. Julien, holding the reins in his left hand,
was carrying spread out in his right the superb map which illustrates
the Memoirs of Marshal Saint-Cyr. A joyful exclamation made him raise
his head.

It was Prince Korasoff, his London friend, who had expounded to him
some months earlier the first principles of high fatuity. Faithful to
this great art, Korasoff, who had arrived in Strasbourg the day
before, had been an hour at Kehl, and had never in his life read a
line about the siege of 1796, began to explain it all to Julien. The
German peasant gazed at him in astonishment; for he knew enough French
to make out the enormous blunders into which the Prince fell. Julien's
thoughts were a thousand leagues away from the peasant's, he was
looking with amazement at this handsome young man, and admiring his
grace in the saddle.

'A happy nature!' he said to himself. 'How well his breeches fit him,
how elegantly his hair is cut! Alas, if I had been like that, perhaps
after loving me for three days she would not have taken a dislike to

When the Prince had come to an end of his version of the siege of
Kehl: 'You look like a Trappist,' he said to Julien, 'you are
infringing the principle of gravity I taught you in London. A
melancholy air can never be the right thing; what you want is a bored
air. If you are melancholy, it must be because you want something,
there is something in which you have not succeeded.

'_It is shewing your inferiority_. If you are bored, on the other hand,
it is the person who has tried in vain to please you who is inferior.
Realise, my dear fellow, what a grave mistake you are making.'

Julien flung a crown to the peasant who stood listening to them,

'Good,' said the Prince, 'that is graceful, a noble disdain! Very
good!' And he put his horse into a gallop. Julien followed him, filled
with a stupefied admiration.

'Ah! If I had been like that, she would not have preferred Croisenois
to me!' The more his reason was shocked by the absurdities of the
Prince, the more he despised himself for not admiring them, and deemed
himself unfortunate in not sharing them. Self-contempt can be carried
no farther.

The Prince found him decidedly melancholy: 'Ah, my dear fellow,' he
said to him, as they rode into Strasbourg, 'have you lost all your
money, or can you be in love with some little actress?'

The Russians imitate French ways, but always at a distance of fifty
years.  They have now reached the days of Louis XV.

These jests, at the expense of love, filled Julien's eyes with tears:
'Why should not I consult so friendly a man?' he asked himself

'Well, yes, my friend,' he said to the Prince, 'you find me in
Strasbourg, madly in love, indeed crossed in love. A charming woman,
who lives in a neighbouring town, has abandoned me after three days of
passion, and the change is killing me.'

He described to the Prince, under an assumed name, the actions and
character of Mathilde.

'Do not go on,' said Korasoff: 'to give you confidence in your
physician, I am going to cut short your confidences. This young
woman's husband possesses an enormous fortune, or, what is more
likely, she herself belongs to the highest nobility of the place. She
must be proud of something.'

Julien nodded his head, he had no longer the heart to speak.

'Very good,' said the Prince, 'here are three medicines, all rather
bitter, which you are going to take without delay:

'First: You must every day see Madame ---- what do you call her?'

'Madame de Dubois.'

'What a name!' said the Prince, with a shout of laughter; 'but forgive
me, to you it is sublime. It is essential that you see Madame de
Dubois every day; above all do not appear to her cold and cross;
remember the great principle of your age: be the opposite to what
people expect of you. Show yourself precisely as you were a week
before you were honoured with her favours.'

'Ah! I was calm then,' cried Julien, in desperation, 'I thought that I
pitied her ...'

'The moth singes its wings in the flame of the candle,' the Prince
continued, 'a metaphor as old as the world.

'First of all: you will see her every day.

'Secondly: you will pay court to a woman of her acquaintance, but
without any appearance of passion, you understand? I do not conceal
from you, yours is a difficult part to play: you have to act, and if
she discovers that you are acting, you are doomed.'

'She is so clever, and I am not! I am doomed,' said Julien sadly.

'No, you are only more in love than I thought. Madame de Dubois is
profoundly taken up with herself, like all women who have received
from heaven either too high a rank or too much money. She looks at
herself instead of looking at you, and so does not know you. During
the two or three amorous impulses to which she has yielded in your
favour, by a great effort of imagination, she beheld in you the hero
of her dreams and not yourself as you really are ...

'But what the devil, these are the elements, my dear Sorel, are you
still a schoolboy? .. .

'Egad! Come into this shop; look at that charming black cravat; you
would say it was made by John Anderson, of Burlington Street; do me
the pleasure of buying it, and of throwing right away that dreadful
black rope which you have round your neck.

'And now,' the Prince went on as they left the shop of the first
hosier in Strasbourg, 'who are the friends of Madame de Dubois? Good
God, what a name!  Do not be angry, my dear Sorel, I cannot help it...
To whom will you pay court?'

'To a prude of prudes, the daughter of an enormously rich
stocking-merchant. She has the loveliest eyes in the world, which
please me vastly; she certainly occupies the first place in the
district; but amid all her grandeur she blushes and loses her head
entirely if anyone refers to trade and a shop. And unfortunately for
her, her father was one of the best-known tradesmen in Strasbourg.'

'So that if one mentions _industry_,' said the Prince, with a laugh,
'you may be sure that your fair one is thinking of herself and not of
you. The weakness is divine and most useful, it will prevent you from
ever doing anything foolish in her fair eyes. Your success is

Julien was thinking of Madame la Marechale de Fervaques, who often
came to the Hotel de La Mole. She was a beautiful foreigner who had
married the Marshal a year before his death. Her whole life seemed to
have no other object than to make people forget that she was the
daughter of an _industrial_, and in order to count for something in
Paris she had set herself at the head of the forces of virtue.

Julien admired the Prince sincerely; what would he not have given to
have his absurd affectations! The conversation between the friends was
endless; Korasoff was in raptures: never had a Frenchman given him so
long a hearing. 'And so I have succeeded at last,' the Prince said to
himself with delight, 'in making my voice heard when I give lessons to
my masters!

'It is quite understood,' he repeated to Julien for the tenth time,
'not a vestige of passion when you are talking to the young beauty,
the Strasbourg stocking-merchant's daughter, in the presence of Madame
de Dubois. On the contrary, burning passion when you write. Reading a
well-written love letter is a prude's supreme pleasure; it is a
momentary relaxation. She is not acting a part, she dares to listen to
her heart; and so, two letters daily.'

'Never, never!' said Julien, losing courage; 'I would let myself
be brayed in a mortar sooner than compose three sentences; I am a
corpse, my dear fellow, expect nothing more of me. Leave me to die by
the roadside.'

'And who said anything about composing phrases? I have in my hold-all
six volumes of love letters in manuscript. There are specimens for
every kind of woman, I have a set for the most rigid virtue. Didn't
Kalisky make love on Richmond Terrace, you know, a few miles out of
London, to the prettiest Quakeress in the whole of England?'

Julien was less wretched when he parted from his friend at two o'clock
in the morning.

Next day the Prince sent for a copyist, and two days later Julien had
fifty-three love letters carefully numbered, intended to cope with the
most sublime and melancholy virtue.

'There would be fifty-four,' said the Prince, 'only Kalisky was shown
the door; but what does it matter to you, being ill-treated by the
stocking-merchant's daughter, since you are seeking to influence only
the heart of Madame de Dubois?'

Every day they went out riding: the Prince was madly taken with
Julien. Not knowing what token to give him of his sudden affection, he
ended by offering him the hand of one of his cousins, a wealthy
heiress in Moscow; 'and once you are married,' he explained, 'my
influence and the Cross you are wearing will make you a Colonel in two

'But this Cross was not given me by Napoleon, quite the reverse.'

'What does that matter,' said the Prince, 'didn't he invent it? It is
still the first decoration by far in Europe.'

Julien was on the point of accepting; but duty recalled him to the
eminent personage; on parting from Korasoff, he promised to write. He
received the reply to the secret note that he had brought, and
hastened to Paris; but he had barely been by himself for two days on
end, before the thought of leaving France and Mathilde seemed to him a
punishment worse than death itself. 'I shall not wed the millions that
Korasoff offers me,' he told himself, 'but I shall follow his advice.

'After all, the art of seduction is his business; he has thought of
nothing else for more than fifteen years, for he is now thirty. One
cannot say that he is lacking in intelligence; he is shrewd and
cautious; enthusiasm, poetry are impossible in such a nature: he is
calculating; all the more reason why he should not be mistaken.

'There is no help for it, I am going to pay court to Madame de

'She will bore me a little, perhaps, but I shall gaze into those
lovely eyes which are so like the eyes that loved me best in the

'She is foreign; that is a fresh character to be studied.

'I am mad, I am going under, I must follow the advice of a friend, and
pay no heed to myself.'

The Office of Virtue

  But if I take this pleasure with so much prudence
  and circumspection, it ceases to be a pleasure for me.

Immediately on his return to Paris, and on leaving the study of the
Marquis de La Mole, who appeared greatly disconcerted by the messages
that were conveyed to him, our hero hastened to find Conte Altamira.
With the distinction of being under sentence of death, this handsome
foreigner combined abundant gravity and had the good fortune to be
devout; these two merits and, more than all, the exalted birth of the
Count were entirely to the taste of Madame de Fervaques, who saw much
of him.

Julien confessed to him gravely that he was deeply in love with her.

'She represents the purest and loftiest virtue,' replied Altamira,
'only it is a trifle Jesuitical and emphatic. There are days on which
I understand every word that she uses, but I do not understand the
sentence as a whole.  She often makes me think that I do not know
French as well as people say.  This acquaintance will make you talked
about; it will give you a position in society. But let us go and see
Bustos,' said Conte Altamira, who had an orderly mind; 'he has made
love to Madame la Marechale.'

Don Diego Bustos made them explain the matter to him in detail,
without saying a word, like a barrister in chambers. He had a plump,
monkish face, with black moustaches, and an unparalleled gravity; in
other respects, a good carbonaro.

'I understand,' he said at length to Julien. 'Has the Marechale de
Fervaques had lovers, or has she not? Have you, therefore, any hope of
success? That is the question. It is as much as to say that, for my
own part, I have failed. Now that I am no longer aggrieved, I put it
to myself in this way: often she is out of temper, and, as I shall
shortly prove to you, she is nothing if not vindictive.

'I do not find in her that choleric temperament which is a mark of
genius and covers every action with a sort of glaze of passion. It is,
on the contrary, to her calm and phlegmatic Dutch manner that she owes
her rare beauty and the freshness of her complexion.'

Julien was growing impatient with the deliberateness and imperturbable
phlegm of the Spaniard; now and again, in spite of himself, he gave
vent to a monosyllabic comment.

'Will you listen to me?' Don Diego Bustos inquired gravely.

'Pardon the _furia francese_;  I am all ears,' said Julien.

'Well, then, the Marechale de Fervaques is much given to hatred; she
is pitiless in her pursuit of people she has never seen, lawyers, poor
devils of literary men who have written songs like Colle, you know?

  "J'ai la marotte
  D'aimer Marote," etc.'

And Julien was obliged to listen to the quotation to the end. The
Spaniard greatly enjoyed singing in French.

That divine song was never listened to with greater impatience. When
he had finished: 'The Marechale,' said Don Diego Bustos, 'has ruined
the author of the song:

  "Un jour l'amant au cabaret ..."'

Julien was in an agony lest he should wish to sing it. He contented
himself with analysing it. It was, as a matter of fact, impious and
hardly decent.

'When the Marechale flew into a passion with that song,' said Don
Diego, 'I pointed out to her that a woman of her rank ought not to
read all the stupid things that are published. Whatever progress piety
and gravity may make, there will always be in France a literature of
the tavern. When Madame de Fervaques had the author, a poor devil on
half pay, deprived of a post worth eighteen hundred francs: "Take
care," said I to her, "you have attacked this rhymester with your
weapons, he may reply to you with his rhymes: he will make a song
about virtue. The gilded saloons will be on your side; the people who
like to laugh will repeat his epigrams." Do you know, Sir, what answer
the Marechale made me? "In the Lord's service all Paris would see me
tread the path of martyrdom; it would be a novel spectacle in France.
The people would learn to respect the quality. It would be the
happiest day of my life." Never were her eyes more brilliant.'

'And she has superb eyes,' exclaimed Julien.

'I see that you are in love ... Very well, then,' Don Diego Bustos
went on gravely, 'she has not the choleric constitution that impels
one to vengeance. If she enjoys injuring people, nevertheless, it is
because she is unhappy, I suspect _inward suffering_. May she not be a
prude who has grown weary of her calling?'

The Spaniard gazed at him in silence for fully a minute.

'That is the whole question,' he went on gravely, 'and it is from this
that you may derive some hope. I gave it much thought during the two
years in which I professed myself her most humble servant. Your whole
future, you, Sir, who are in love, hangs on this great problem. Is she
a prude, weary of her calling, and malicious because she is

'Or rather,' said Altamira, emerging at last from his profound
silence, 'can it be what I have said to you twenty times? Simply and
solely French vanity; it is the memory of her father, the famous cloth
merchant, that causes the unhappiness of a character naturally morose
and dry. There could be only one happiness for her, that of living in
Toledo, and being tormented by a confessor, who every day would show
her hell gaping for her.'

As Julien rose to leave: 'Altamira tells me that you are one of us,'
Don Diego said to him, graver than ever. 'One day you will help us to
reconquer our freedom, and so I wish to help you in this little
diversion. It is as well that you should be acquainted with the
Marechale's style; here are four letters in her hand.'

'I shall have them copied,' cried Julien, 'and return them to you.'

'And no one shall ever learn from you a single word of what we have
been saying?'

'Never, upon my honour!' cried Julien.

'Then may heaven help you!' the Spaniard concluded; and he accompanied
Julien and Altamira in silence to the head of the stair.

This scene cheered our hero somewhat; he almost smiled. 'And here is
the devout Altamira,' he said to himself, 'helping me in an adulterous

Throughout the whole of the grave conversation of Don Diego Bustos,
Julien had been attentive to the stroke of the hours on the clock of
the Hotel d'Aligre.

The dinner hour was approaching, he was to see Mathilde again! He went
home, and dressed himself with great care.

'My first blunder,' he said to himself, as he was going downstairs; 'I
must carry out the Prince's orders to the letter.'

He returned to his room, and put on a travelling costume of the utmost

'Now,' he thought, 'I must consider how I am to look at her.' It was
only half-past five, and dinner was at six. He decided to go down to
the drawing-room, which he found deserted. The sight of the blue sofa
moved him to tears; soon his cheeks began to burn. 'I must get rid of
this absurd sensibility,' he said to himself angrily; 'it will betray
me.' He took up a newspaper to keep himself in countenance, and
strolled three or four times from the drawing-room to the garden.

It was only in fear and trembling and safely concealed behind a big
oak tree that he ventured to raise his eyes to the window of
Mademoiselle de La Mole's room. It was fast shut; he nearly fell to
the ground, and stood for a long time leaning against the oak; then,
with a tottering step, he went to look at the gardener's ladder.

The link of the chain, forced open by him in circumstances, alas, so
different, had not been mended. Carried away by a mad impulse, Julien
pressed it to his lips.

After a long course of wandering between drawing-room and garden, he
found himself horribly tired; this was an initial success which
pleased him greatly. 'My eyes will be dull and will not betray me!'
Gradually, the guests arrived in the drawing-room; the door never
opened without plunging Julien in mortal dread.

They sat down to table. At length Mademoiselle de La Mole appeared,
still faithful to her principle of keeping the others waiting. She
blushed a deep red on seeing Julien; she had not been told of his
arrival. Following Prince Korasoff's advice, Julien looked at her
hands; they were trembling.  Disquieted himself, beyond all
expression, by this discovery, he was thankful to appear to be merely

M. de La Mole sang his praises. The Marquise addressed him shortly
afterwards, and expressed concern at his appearance of fatigue. Julien
kept on saying to himself: 'I must not look at Mademoiselle de La Mole
too much, but I ought not either to avoid her eye. I must appear to be
what I really was a week before my disaster ...' He had occasion to be
satisfied with his success, and remained in the drawing-room.
Attentive for the first time to the lady of the house, he spared no
effort to make the men of her circle talk, and to keep the
conversation alive.

His politeness was rewarded: about eight o'clock, Madame la Marechale
de Fervaques was announced. Julien left the room and presently
reappeared, dressed with the most scrupulous care. Madame de La Mole
was vastly flattered by this mark of respect, and sought to give him a
proof of her satisfaction by speaking of his travels to Madame de
Fervaques. Julien took his seat beside the Marechale, in such a way
that his eyes should not be visible to Mathilde. Thus placed, and
following all the rules of the art, he made Madame de Fervaques the
object of the most awed admiration. It was with an outburst on this
sentiment that the first of the fifty-three letters of which Prince
Korasoff had made him a present began.

The Marechale announced that she was going on to the Opera-Bouffe.
Julien hastened there; he found the Chevalier de Beauvoisis, who took
him to the box of the Gentlemen of the Household, immediately beside
that of Madame de Fervaques. Julien gazed at her incessantly. 'I
must,' he said to himself, as he returned home, 'keep a diary of the
siege; otherwise I should lose count of my attacks.' He forced himself
to write down two or three pages on this boring subject, and thus
succeeded (marvel of marvels!) in hardly giving a thought to
Mademoiselle de La Mole.

Mathilde had almost forgotten him during his absence. 'After all, he
is only a common person,' she thought, 'his name will always remind me
of the greatest mistake of my life. I must return in all sincerity to
the recognised standards of prudence and honour; a woman has
everything to lose in forgetting them.' She showed herself ready to
permit at length the conclusion of the arrangement with the Marquis de
Croisenois, begun so long since. He was wild with joy; he would have
been greatly astonished had anyone told him that it was resignation
that lay at the root of this attitude on Mathilde's part, which was
making him so proud.

All Mademoiselle de La Mole's ideas changed at the sight of Julien.
'In reality, that is my husband,' she said to herself; 'if I return in
sincerity to the standards of prudence, it is obviously he that I
ought to marry.'

She was prepared for importunities, for an air of misery on Julien's
part; she prepared her answers: for doubtless, on rising from table,
he would endeavour to say a few words to her. Far from it, he remained
fixed in the drawing-room, his eyes never even turned towards the
garden, heaven knows with how great an effort! 'It would be better to
get our explanation over at once,' Mademoiselle de La Mole told
herself; she went out by herself to the garden, Julien did not appear
there. Mathilde returned and strolled past the drawing-room windows;
she saw him busily engaged in describing to Madame de Fervaques the
old ruined castles that crown the steep banks of the Rhine and give
them so distinctive a character. He was beginning to acquit himself
none too badly in the use of the sentimental and picturesque language
which is called _wit_ in certain drawing-rooms.

Prince Korasoff would indeed have been proud, had he been in Paris:
the evening was passing exactly as he had foretold.

He would have approved of the mode of behaviour to which Julien
adhered throughout the days that followed.

An intrigue among those constituting the Power behind the Throne was
about to dispose of several Blue Ribands; Madame la Marechale de
Fervaques insisted that her great-uncle should be made a Knight of the
Order. The Marquis de La Mole was making a similar claim for his
father-in-law; they combined their efforts, and the Marechale came
almost every day to the Hotel de La Mole. It was from her that Julien
learned that the Marquis was to become a Minister: he offered the
_Camarilla_ a highly ingenious plan for destroying the Charter,
without any fuss, in three years' time.

Julien might expect a Bishopric, if M. de La Mole entered the
Ministry; but to his eyes all these important interests were as though
hidden by a veil. His imagination perceived them now only vaguely, and
so to speak in the distance. The fearful misery which was driving him
mad made him see every interest in life in the state of his relations
with Mademoiselle de La Mole. He calculated that after five or six
years of patient effort, he might succeed in making her love him once

This coolest of heads had, as we see, sunk to a state of absolute
unreason.  Of all the qualities that had distinguished him in the
past, there remained to him only a trace of firmness. Faithful to the
letter to the plan of conduct dictated to him by Prince Korasoff,
every evening he took his place as near as possible to the armchair
occupied by Madame de Fervaques, but found it impossible to think of a
word to say to her.

The effort that he was imposing on himself to appear cured in the eyes
of Mathilde absorbed all his spiritual strength, he remained rooted
beside the Marechale like a barely animate being; his eyes even, as in
the extremity of physical suffering, had lost all their fire.

Since Madame de La Mole's attitude towards the world was never
anything more than a feeble copy of the opinions of that husband who
might make her a Duchess, for some days she had been lauding Julien's
merits to the skies.

Moral Love

  There also was of course in Adeline
    That calm patrician polish in the address,
  Which ne'er can pass the equinoctial line
    Of anything which nature would express;
  Just as a mandarin finds nothing fine,
    At least his manner suffers not to guess
  That anything he views can greatly please.
      _Don Juan_, XIII. 34

'There is a trace of madness in the way the whole of this family have
of looking at things,' thought the Marechale; 'they are infatuated
with their little abbe, who can do nothing but sit and stare at one;
it is true, his eyes are not bad-looking.'

Julien, for his part, found in the Marechale's manner an almost
perfect example of that patrician calm which betokens a scrupulous
politeness and still more the impossibility of any keen emotion. Any
sudden outburst, a want of self-control, would have shocked Madame de
Fervaques almost as much as a want of dignity towards one's inferiors.
The least sign of sensibility would have been in her eyes like a sort
of moral intoxication for which one ought to blush, and which was
highly damaging to what a person of exalted rank owed to herself. Her
great happiness was to speak of the King's latest hunt, her favourite
book the _Memoires du duc de Saint-Simon_, especially the genealogical

Julien knew the place in the drawing-room which, as the lights were
arranged, suited the style of beauty of Madame de Fervaques. He would
be there waiting for her, but took great care to turn his chair so
that he should not be able to see Mathilde. Astonished by this
persistence in hiding from her, one evening she left the blue sofa and
came to work at a little table that stood by the Marquise's armchair.
Julien could see her at quite a close range from beneath the brim of
Madame de Fervaques's hat.  Those eyes, which governed his destiny,
frightened him at first, seen at such close range, then jerked him
violently out of his habitual apathy; he talked, and talked very well.

He addressed himself to the Marechale, but his sole object was to
influence the heart of Mathilde. He grew so animated that finally
Madame de Fervaques could not understand what he said.

This was so much to the good. Had it occurred to Julien to follow it
up with a few expressions of German mysticism, religious fervour and
Jesuitry, the Marechale would have numbered him straightway among the
superior persons called to regenerate the age.

'Since he shows such bad taste,' Mademoiselle de La Mole said to
herself, 'as to talk for so long and with such fervour to Madame de
Fervaques, I shall not listen to him any more.' For the rest of the
evening she kept her word, albeit with difficulty.

At midnight, when she took up her mother's candlestick, to escort her
to her room, Madame de La Mole stopped on the stairs to utter a
perfect panegyric of Julien. This completed Mathilde's ill humour; she
could not send herself to sleep. A thought came to her which soothed
her: 'The things that I despise may even be great distinctions in the
Marechale's eyes.'

As for Julien, he had now taken action, he was less wretched; his eyes
happened to fall on the Russia-leather portfolio in which Prince
Korasoff had placed the fifty-three love letters of which he had made
him a present.  Julien saw a note at the foot of the first letter:
'Send No. 1 a week after the first meeting.'

'I am late!' exclaimed Julien, 'for it is ever so long now since I
first met Madame de Fervaques.' He set to work at once to copy out
this first love letter; it was a homily stuffed with phrases about
virtue, and of a deadly dullness; Julien was fortunate in falling
asleep over the second page.

Some hours later the risen sun surprised him crouching with his head
on the table. One of the most painful moments of his life was that in
which, every morning, as he awoke, he discovered his distress. This
morning, he finished copying his letter almost with a laugh. 'Is it
possible,' he asked himself, 'that there can ever have been a young
man who could write such stuff?' He counted several sentences of nine
lines. At the foot of the original he caught sight of a pencilled

'One delivers these letters oneself: on horseback, a black cravat, a
blue greatcoat. One hands the letter to the porter with a contrite
air; profound melancholy in the gaze. If one should see a lady's maid,
wipe the eyes furtively. Address a few words to the maid.'

All these instructions were faithfully carried out.

'What I am doing is very bold,' thought Julien, as he rode away from
the Hotel de Fervaques, 'but so much the worse for Korasoff. To dare
write to so notorious a prude! I am going to be treated with the
utmost contempt, and nothing will amuse me more. This is, really, the
only form of comedy to which I can respond. Yes, to cover with
ridicule that odious being whom I call myself will amuse me. If I
obeyed my instincts I should commit some crime for the sake of

For a month past, the happiest moment in Julien's day had been that in
which he brought his horse back to the stables. Korasoff had expressly
forbidden him to look, upon any pretext whatsoever, at the mistress
who had abandoned him. But the paces of that horse which she knew so
well, the way in which Julien rapped with his whip at the stable door
to summon a groom, sometimes drew Mathilde to stand behind her window
curtain. The muslin was so fine that Julien could see through it. By
looking up in a certain way from under the brim of his hat, he caught
a glimpse of Mathilde's form without seeing her eyes. 'Consequently,'
he told himself, 'she cannot see mine, and this is not the same as
looking at her.'

That evening, Madame de Fervaques behaved to him exactly as though she
had not received the philosophical, mystical and religious
dissertation which, in the morning, he had handed to her porter with
such an air of melancholy.  The evening before, chance had revealed to
Julien the secret springs of eloquence; he arranged himself so as to
be able to see Mathilde's eyes.  She, meanwhile, immediately after the
arrival of the Marechale, rose from the blue sofa: this was a
desertion of her regular company. M. de Croisenois showed
consternation at this new caprice; his evident distress relieved
Julien of the keenest pangs of his own sufferings.

This unexpected turn in his affairs made him talk like an angel; and
as self-esteem finds its way even into hearts that serve as temples to
the most august virtue: 'Madame de La Mole is right,' the Marechale
said to herself, as she stepped into her carriage, 'that young priest
has distinction. My presence must, at first, have frightened him.
Indeed, everything that one finds in that house is very frivolous; all
the virtue I see there is the result of age, and stood in great need
of the congealing hand of time. That young man must have seen the
difference; he writes well; but I am much afraid that the request that
I should enlighten him with my advice, which he makes in his letter,
is in reality only a sentiment unaware of itself.

'And yet, how many conversions have begun in this way! What leads me
to augur well of this one is the difference in his style from that of
the young men whose letters I have had occasion to see. It is
impossible not to recognise unction, a profound earnestness and great
conviction in the prose of this young Levite; he must have the
soothing virtue of Massillon.'

The Best Positions in the Church

  Service! talent! merit! bah! belong to a coterie.

Thus the idea of a Bishopric was for the first time blended with that
of Julien in the head of a woman who sooner or later would be
distributing the best positions in the Church of France. This prospect
would have made little difference to him; for the moment, his thoughts
rose to nothing that was alien to his present misery: everything
intensified it; for instance the sight of his bedroom had become
intolerable to him. At night, when he came upstairs with his candle,
each piece of furniture, every little ornament seemed to acquire the
power of speech to inform him harshly of some fresh detail of his

This evening, 'I am a galley slave,' he said to himself, as he entered
it, with a vivacity long unfamiliar to him: 'let us hope that the
second letter will be as boring as the first.'

It was even more so. What he was copying seemed to him so absurd that
he began to transcribe it line for line, without a thought of the

'It is even more emphatic,' he said to himself, 'than the official
documents of the Treaty of Muenster, which my tutor in diplomacy made
me copy out in London.'

It was only then that he remembered the letters from Madame de
Fervaques, the originals of which he had forgotten to restore to the
grave Spaniard, Don Diego Bustos. He searched for them; they were
really almost as fantastic a rigmarole as those of the young Russian
gentleman. They were completely vague. They expressed everything and
nothing. 'It is the Aeolian harp of style,' thought Julien. 'Amid the
most lofty thoughts about annihilation, death, the infinite, etc., I
can see no reality save a shocking fear of ridicule.'

The monologue which we have here abridged was repeated nightly for a
fortnight. Falling asleep while transcribing a sort of commentary on
the Apocalypse, going next day to deliver a letter with a melancholy
air, leaving his horse in the stable yard with the hope of catching a
glimpse of Mathilde's gown, working, putting in an appearance in the
evening at the Opera when Madame de Fervaques did not come to the
Hotel de La Mole; such were the monotonous events of Julien's
existence. They became more interesting when Madame de Fervaques paid
a visit to the Marquise; then he could steal a glance at Mathilde's
eyes beneath the side of the Marechale's hat, and would wax eloquent.
His picturesque and sentimental phrases began to assume a turn at once
more striking and more elegant.

He was fully aware that what he was saying seemed absurd to Mathilde,
but he sought to impress her by the elegance of his diction. 'The
falser the things I say, the more I ought to appeal to her,' thought
Julien; and then, with a shocking boldness, he began to exaggerate
certain aspects of nature.  He very soon perceived that, if he were
not to appear vulgar in the eyes of the Marechale, he must above all
avoid any simple or reasonable idea. He continued on these lines, or
abridged his amplifications according as he read success or
indifference in the eyes of the two great ladies to whom he must

On the whole, his life was less horrible than at the time when his
days passed in inaction.

'But,' he said to himself one evening, 'here I am transcribing the
fifteenth of these abominable dissertations; the first fourteen have
been faithfully delivered to the Marechale's Swiss. I shall soon have
the honour of filling all the pigeonholes in her desk. And yet she
treats me exactly as though I were not writing! What can be the end of
all this? Can my constancy bore her as much as it bores me? I am bound
to say that this Russian, Korasoff's friend, who was in love with the
fair Quakeress of Richmond, must have been a terrible fellow in his
day; no one could be more deadly.'

Like everyone of inferior intelligence whom chance brings into touch
with the operations of a great general, Julien understood nothing of
the attack launched by the young Russian upon the heart of the fair
English maid. The first forty letters were intended only to make her
pardon his boldness in writing. It was necessary to make this gentle
person, who perhaps was vastly bored, form the habit of receiving
letters that were perhaps a trifle less insipid than her everyday

One morning, a letter was handed to Julien; he recognised the armorial
bearings of Madame de Fervaques, and broke the seal with an eagerness
which would have seemed quite impossible to him a few days earlier: it
was only an invitation to dine.

He hastened to consult Prince Korasoff's instructions. Unfortunately,
the young Russian had chosen to be as frivolous as Dorat, just where
he ought to have been simple and intelligible; Julien could not
discover the moral attitude which he was supposed to adopt at the
Marechale's table.

Her drawing-room was the last word in magnificence, gilded like the
Galerie de Diane in the Tuileries, with oil paintings in the panels.
There were blank spaces in these paintings, Julien learned later on
that the subjects had seemed hardly decent to the lady of the house,
who had had the pictures corrected. 'A moral age!' he thought.

In this drawing-room he remarked three of the gentlemen who had been
present at the drafting of the secret note. One of them, the Right
Reverend Bishop of ----, the Marechale's uncle, had the patronage of
benefices, and, it was said, could refuse nothing to his niece. 'What
a vast stride I have made,' thought Julien, with a melancholy smile,
'and how cold it leaves me!  Here I am dining with the famous Bishop
of ----.'

The dinner was indifferent and the conversation irritating. 'It is
like the table of contents of a dull book,' thought Julien. 'All the
greatest subjects of human thought are proudly displayed in it. Listen
to it for three minutes, and you ask yourself which is more striking,
the emphasis of the speaker or his shocking ignorance.'

The reader has doubtless forgotten that little man of letters, named
Tanbeau, the nephew of the Academician and an embryo professor, who,
with his vile calumnies, seemed to be employed in poisoning the
drawing-room of the Hotel de La Mole.

It was from this little man that Julien first gleaned the idea that it
might well be that Madame de Fervaques, while refraining from
answering his letters, looked with indulgence upon the sentiment that
dictated them. The black heart of M. Tanbeau was torn asunder by the
thought of Julien's successes; but inasmuch as, looking at it from
another angle, a deserving man cannot, any more than a fool, be in two
places at once, 'if Sorel becomes the lover of the sublime Marechale,'
the future professor told himself, 'she will place him in the Church
in some advantageous manner, and I shall be rid of him at the Hotel de
La Mole.'

M. l'abbe Pirard also addressed long sermons to Julien on his
successes at the Hotel de Fervaques. There was a sectarian jealousy
between the austere Jansenist and the Jesuitical, regenerative and
monarchical drawing-room of the virtuous Marechale.

Manon Lescaut

  Now once he was fully convinced of the foolishness and
  idiocy of the prior, he succeeded quite straightforwardly
  by calling black white, and white black.

The Russian instructions laid down categorically that one must never
contradict in speech the person with whom one corresponded. One must
never depart, upon any account, from an attitude of the most ecstatic
admiration; the letters were all based upon this supposition.

One evening, at the Opera, in Madame de Fervaques's box, Julien
praised to the skies the ballet in _Manon Lescaut_.  [Trans. footnote:
Composed by Halevy upon a libretto by Scribe, and performed in 1830.]
His sole reason for doing so was that he found it insipid.

The Marechale said that this ballet was greatly inferior to abbe
Prevost's novel.

'What!' thought Julien, with surprise and amusement, 'a person of such
extreme virtue praise a novel!' Madame de Fervaques used to profess,
two or three times weekly, the most utter scorn for the writers, who,
by means of those vulgar works, sought to corrupt a younger generation
only too prone to the errors of the senses.

'In that immoral and pernicious class, _Manon Lescaut_,' the Marechale
went on, 'occupies, they say, one of the first places. The frailties
and well-merited sufferings of a thoroughly criminal heart are, they
say, described in it with a truth that is almost profound; which did
not prevent your Bonaparte from declaring on Saint Helena that it was
a novel written for servants.'

This speech restored all its activity to Julien's spirit. 'People have
been trying to damage me with the Marechale; they have told her of my
enthusiasm for Napoleon. This intelligence has stung her sufficiently
for her to yield to the temptation to let me feel her resentment.'
This discovery kept him amused for the rest of the evening and made
him amusing. As he was bidding the Marechale good night in the
vestibule of the Opera: 'Bear in mind, Sir,' she said to him, 'that
people must not love Napoleon when they love me; they may, at the
most, accept him as a necessity imposed by Providence. Anyhow, the man
had not a soul pliant enough to feel great works of art.'

'_When they love me_!' Julien repeated to himself; 'either that means
nothing at all, or it means everything. There is one of the secrets of
language that are hidden from us poor provincials.' And he thought
incessantly of Madame de Renal as he copied an immensely long letter
intended for the Marechale.

'How is it,' she asked him the following evening, with an air of
indifference which seemed to him unconvincing, 'that you speak to me
of _London_ and _Richmond_ in a letter which you wrote last night, it
appears, after leaving the Opera?'

Julien was greatly embarrassed; he had copied the letter line for
line, without thinking of what he was writing, and apparently had
forgotten to substitute for the words _London_ and _Richmond_, which
occurred in the original, _Paris_ and _Saint-Cloud_. He began two or
three excuses, but found it impossible to finish any of them; he felt
himself on the point of giving way to an outburst of helpless
laughter. At length, in his search for the right words, he arrived at
the following idea: 'Exalted by the discussion of the most sublime,
the highest interests of the human soul, my own, in writing to you,
must have become distracted.

'I am creating an impression,' he said to himself, 'therefore I can
spare myself the tedium of the rest of the evening.' He left the Hotel
de Fervaques in hot haste. That evening, as he looked over the
original text of the letter which he had copied the night before, he
very soon came to the fatal passage where the young Russian spoke of
London and Richmond.  Julien was quite surprised to find this letter
almost tender.

It was the contrast between the apparent frivolity of his talk and the
sublime and almost apocalyptic profundity of his letters that had
marked him out. The length of his sentences was especially pleasing to
the Marechale; this was not the cursory style brought into fashion by
Voltaire, that most immoral of men! Although our hero did everything
in the world to banish any suggestion of common sense from his
conversation, it had still an anti-monarchical and impious colour
which did not escape the notice of Madame de Fervaques. Surrounded by
persons who were eminently moral, but who often had not one idea in an
evening, this lady was profoundly impressed by everything that bore a
semblance of novelty; but, at the same time, she felt that she owed it
to herself to be shocked by it. She called this defect, 'retaining the
imprint of the frivolity of the age'.

But such drawing-rooms are worth visiting only when one has a favour
to ask. All the boredom of this life without interests which Julien
was leading is doubtless shared by the reader. These are the barren
moorlands on our journey.

Throughout the time usurped in Julien's life by the Fervaques episode,
Mademoiselle de La Mole had to make a constant effort not to think of
him.  Her heart was exposed to violent combats: sometimes she
flattered herself that she was despising this gloomy young man; but,
in spite of her efforts, his conversation captivated her. What
astonished her most of all was his complete insincerity; he never
uttered a word to the Marechale which was not a lie, or at least a
shocking travesty of his point of view, which Mathilde knew so
perfectly upon almost every subject. This Machiavellism impressed her.
'What profundity!' she said to herself; 'how different from the
emphatic blockheads or the common rascals, like M. Tanbeau, who speak
the same language!'

Nevertheless, Julien passed some fearful days. It was to perform the
most arduous of his duties that he appeared each evening in the
Marechale's drawing-room. His efforts to play a part ended by sapping
all his spiritual strength. Often, at night, as he crossed the vast
courtyard of the Hotel de Fervaques, it was only by force of character
and reason that he succeeded in keeping himself from sinking into

'I conquered despair at the Seminary,' he said to himself: 'and yet
what an appalling prospect I had before me then! I stood to make my
fortune or to fail; in either case, I saw myself obliged to spend my
whole life in the intimate society of all that is most contemptible
and disgusting under heaven. The following spring, when only eleven
short months had passed, I was perhaps the happiest of all the young
men of my age.'

But often enough all these fine arguments proved futile when faced
with the frightful reality. Every day he saw Mathilde at luncheon and
at dinner.  From the frequent letters which M. de La Mole dictated to
him, he knew her to be on the eve of marrying M. de Croisenois.
Already that amiable young man was calling twice daily at the Hotel de
La Mole: the jealous eye of an abandoned lover did not miss a single
one of his actions.

When he thought he had noticed that Mademoiselle de La Mole was
treating her suitor kindly, on returning to his room, Julien could not
help casting a loving glance at his pistols.

'Ah, how much wiser I should be,' he said to himself, 'to remove the
marks from my linen, and retire to some lonely forest, twenty leagues
from Paris, there to end this accursed existence! A stranger to the
countryside, my death would remain unknown for a fortnight, and who
would think of me after a fortnight had passed?'

This reasoning was extremely sound. But next day, a glimpse of
Mathilde's arm, seen between her sleeve and her glove, was enough to
plunge our young philosopher in cruel memories, which, at the same
time, made him cling to life. 'Very well!' he would then say to
himself, 'I shall follow out this Russian policy to the end. How is it
going to end?

'As for the Marechale, certainly, after I have copied these
fifty-three letters, I shall write no more.

'As for Mathilde, these six weeks of such painful play-acting, will
either fail altogether to appease her anger, or will win me a moment
of reconciliation. Great God! I should die of joy!' And he was unable
to pursue the idea farther.

When, after a long spell of meditation, he succeeded in recovering the
use of his reason: 'Then,' he said to himself, 'I should obtain a
day's happiness, after which would begin again her severities,
founded, alas, upon the scant power that I have to please her, and I
should be left without any further resource, I should be ruined, lost
for ever ...

'What guarantee can she give me, with her character? Alas, my scant
merit is responsible for everything. I must be wanting in elegance in
my manners, my way of speaking must be heavy and monotonous. Great
God! Why am I myself?'


  Sacrificing oneself to one's passions is one thing;
  but to passions that one doesn't have! O sad nineteenth century!

After having read without pleasure at first Julien's long letters,
Madame de Fervaques began to take an interest in them; but one thing
distressed her: 'What a pity that M. Sorel is not really a priest! One
could admit him to a sort of intimacy: with that Cross and what is
almost a layman's coat, one is exposed to cruel questions, and how is
one to answer them?' She did not complete her thought: 'some malicious
friend may suppose and indeed spread the report that he is some humble
little cousin, one of my father's family, some tradesman decorated by
the National Guard.'

Until the moment of her first meeting Julien, Madame de Fervaques's
greatest pleasure had been to write the word Marechale before her own
name.  Thenceforward the vanity of an upstart, morbid and easily
offended, had to fight a nascent interest.

'It would be so easy for me,' the Marechale said to herself, 'to make
a Vicar-General of him in some diocese not far from Paris! But M.
Sorel by itself, and to add to that a mere secretary of M. de La Mole!
It is deplorable.'

For the first time, this spirit which _dreaded everything_ was stirred
by an interest apart from its own pretensions to rank and to social
superiority.  Her old porter noticed that, when he brought her a
letter from that handsome young man, who wore such a melancholy air,
he was certain to see vanish the distracted and irritated expression
which the Marechale always took care to assume when any of her
servants entered the room.

The boredom of a mode of life whose sole ambition was to create an
effect on the public, without there being at the bottom of her heart
any real enjoyment of this kind of success, had become so intolerable
since she had begun to think of Julien, that, if her maids were not to
be ill-treated throughout the whole of a day, it was enough that
during the previous evening she should have spent an hour with this
strange young man. His growing credit survived anonymous letters, very
well composed. In vain did little Tanbeau supply MM. de Luz, de
Croisenois, de Caylus, with two or three most adroit calumnies which
those gentlemen took pleasure in spreading abroad, without stopping to
consider the truth of the accusations. The Marechale, whose mind was
not framed to withstand these vulgar methods, reported her doubts to
Mathilde, and was always comforted.

One day, after having inquired three times whether there were any
letters, Madame de Fervaques suddenly decided to write to Julien. This
was a victory gained by boredom. At the second letter, the Marechale
was almost brought to a standstill by the unpleasantness of writing
with her own hand so vulgar an address as: 'a M. Sorel, chez M. le
Marquis de La Mole'.

'You must,' she said to Julien that evening in the driest of tones,
'bring me some envelopes with your address written on them.'

'So now I am to combine the lover and the flunkey,' thought Julien,
and bowed, amusing himself by screwing up his face like Arsene, the
Marquis's old footman.

That same evening he brought a supply of envelopes, and next day,
early in the morning, he received a third letter: he read five or six
lines at the beginning, and two or three towards the end. It covered
four pages in a small and very close script.

Gradually she formed the pleasant habit of writing almost every day.
Julien replied with faithful copies of the Russian letters, and, such
is the advantage of the emphatic style, Madame de Fervaques was not at
all surprised by the want of connection between the replies and her
own letters.

What would have been the irritation to her pride if little Tanbeau,
who had appointed himself a voluntary spy upon Julien's actions, had
been able to tell her that all these letters, with their seals
unbroken, were flung pell-mell into Julien's drawer!

One morning, the porter brought to him in the library a letter from
the Marechale; Mathilde met the man, saw the letter, and read the
address in Julien's hand. She entered the library as the porter left
it; the letter was still lying on the edge of the table; Julien,
busily engaged in writing, had not placed it in his drawer.

'This is what I cannot endure,' cried Mathilde, seizing the letter;
'you are forgetting me entirely, me who am your wife. Your conduct is
appalling, Sir.'

With these words, her pride, astonished by the fearful impropriety of
her action, stifled her; she burst into tears, and a moment later
appeared to Julien to be unable to breathe.

Surprised, confounded, Julien did not clearly distinguish all the
admirable and happy consequences which this scene foreboded for
himself. He helped Mathilde to a seat; she almost abandoned herself in
his arms.

The first instant in which he perceived this relaxation was one of
extreme joy. His second thought was of Korasoff: 'I may ruin
everything by a single word.'

His arms ached, so painful was the effort imposed on him by policy. 'I
ought not even to allow myself to press to my heart this supple and
charming form, or she will despise and abuse me. What a frightful

And as he cursed Mathilde's nature, he loved her for it a hundred
times more; he felt as though he were holding a queen in his arms.

Julien's unfeeling coldness intensified the misery of wounded pride
which was tearing the heart of Mademoiselle de La Mole. She was far
from possessing the necessary coolness to seek to read in his eyes
what he was feeling for her at that moment. She could not bring
herself to look at him; she trembled lest she should meet an
expression of scorn.

Seated on the divan in the library, motionless and with her head
turned away from Julien, she was a prey to the keenest suffering that
pride and love can make a human heart feel. Into what a frightful
course of action had she fallen!

'It was reserved for me, wretch that I am, to see the most indelicate
advances repulsed! And repulsed by whom?' added a pride mad with
suffering, 'by one of my father's servants.

'That is what I will not endure,' she said aloud.

And, rising with fury, she opened the drawer of Julien's table, which
stood a few feet away from her. She remained frozen with horror on
seeing there nine or ten letters unopened, similar in every respect to
the letter which the porter had just brought in. On all the envelopes,
she recognised Julien's hand, more or less disguised.

'And so,' she cried, beside herself with rage, 'not only have you
found favour with her, but you despise her. You, a man of nought, to
despise Madame la Marechale de Fervaques!

'Ah, forgive me, my dear,' she went on, flinging herself at his
feet, 'despise me if you wish, but love me, I can no longer live
deprived of your love.' And she fell to the ground in a dead faint.

'So there she is, that proud creature, at my feet!' thought Julien.

A Box at the Bouffes

  As the blackest sky Foretells the heaviest tempest.
    _Don Juan_, I. 73

In the thick of all this great commotion, Julien was more bewildered
than happy. Mathilde's abuse of him showed him how wise the Russian
policy had been. '_Say little, do little_, that is my one way of

He lifted up Mathilde and without a word laid her down again on the
divan.  Gradually she gave way to tears.

To keep herself in countenance, she took Madame de Fervaques's
letters in her hands; she broke the seals slowly. She gave a nervous
start on recognising the Marechale's handwriting. She turned over the
sheets of these letters without reading them; the majority of them
covered six pages.

'Answer me this, at least,' said Mathilde at length in the most
supplicating tone, but without venturing to look at Julien. 'You know
very well that I am proud; it is the misfortune of my position, and
indeed of my nature, I must admit; so Madame de Fervaques has stolen
your heart from me ... Has she offered you all the sacrifices to which
that fatal passion led me?'

A grim silence was Julien's only answer. 'By what right,' he thought,
'does she ask of me an indiscretion unworthy of an honourable man?'

Mathilde endeavoured to read the letters; the tears that filled her
eyes made it impossible for her to do so.

For a month past she had been miserable, but that proud spirit was far
from confessing its feelings to itself. Chance alone had brought about
this explosion. For an instant jealousy and love had overcome pride.
She was seated upon the divan and in close proximity to him. He saw
her hair and her throat of alabaster; for a moment he forgot all that
he owed to himself; he slipped his arm round her waist, and almost
hugged her to his bosom.

She turned her head towards him slowly: he was astonished at the
intense grief that was visible in her eyes, and made them quite
unrecognisable as hers.

Julien felt his strength begin to fail him, so colossal was the effort
involved in the act of courage which he was imposing on himself.

'Those eyes will soon express nothing but the coldest disdain,' he
said to himself, 'if I allow myself to be carried away by the joy of
loving her.' Meanwhile, in a faint voice and in words which she had
barely the strength to utter, she was repeating to him at that moment
her assurance of all her regret for the action which an excessive
pride might have counselled her to take.

'I too, have my pride,' Julien said to her in a voice that was barely
articulate, and his features indicated the extreme limit of physical

Mathilde turned sharply towards him. The sound of his voice was a
pleasure the hope of which she had almost abandoned. At that moment
she recalled her pride only to curse it, she would fain have
discovered some unusual, incredible act to prove to him how greatly
she adored him and detested herself.

'It is probably because of that pride,' Julien went on, 'that you have
singled me out for an instant; it is certainly because of that
courageous firmness, becoming in a man, that you respect me at this
moment. I may be in love with the Marechale ...'

Mathilde shuddered; her eyes assumed a strange expression. She was
about to hear her sentence uttered. This movement did not pass
unobserved by Julien; he felt his courage weaken.

'Ah!' he said to himself, listening to the sound of the vain words
that came from his lips, as he might have listened to a noise from
without; 'if I could only cover those pale cheeks with kisses, and you
not feel them!

'I may be in love with the Marechale,' he continued . .. and his voice
grew fainter and fainter; 'but certainly, of her interest in myself I
have no decisive proof...'

Mathilde gazed at him; he met her gaze, at least he hoped that his
features had not betrayed him. He felt himself penetrated by love to
the innermost recesses of his heart. Never had he adored her so
intensely; he was scarcely less mad than Mathilde. Could she have
found sufficient self-control and courage to manoeuvre, he would have
fallen at her feet, forswearing all idle play-acting. He had strength
enough to be able to continue to speak. 'Ah! Korasoff,' he exclaimed
inwardly, 'why are not you here? How I need a word of advice to direct
my conduct!' Meanwhile his voice was saying:

'Failing any other sentiment, gratitude would suffice to attach me to
the Marechale; she has shown me indulgence, she has comforted me when
others scorned me ... I may perhaps not repose an unbounded faith in
certain signs which are extremely flattering, no doubt, but also,
perhaps, are of very brief duration.'

'Ah! Great God!' cried Mathilde.

'Very well! What guarantee will you give me?' Julien went on in sharp,
firm accents, seeming to abandon for an instant the prudent forms of
diplomacy.  'What guarantee, what god will assure me that the position
which you seem disposed to restore to me at this moment will last for
more than two days?'

'The intensity of my love and of my misery if you no longer love me,'
she said, clasping his hands and turning her face towards him.

The violent movement which she thus made had slightly displaced her
pelerine: Julien caught a glimpse of her charming shoulders. Her hair,
slightly disordered, recalled to him an exquisite memory ...

He was about to yield. 'An imprudent word,' he told himself, 'and I
begin once more that long succession of days passed in despair. Madame
de Renal used to find reasons for obeying the dictates of her heart:
this young girl of high society allows her heart to be moved only when
she has proved to herself with good reasons that it ought to be

He perceived this truth in a flash, and in a flash also regained his

He freed his hands which Mathilde was clasping in her own, and with
marked respect withdrew a little way from her. Human courage can go no
farther. He then busied himself in gathering together all Madame de
Fervaques's letters which were scattered over the divan, and it was
with a show of extreme politeness, so cruel at that moment, that he

'Mademoiselle de La Mole will deign to permit me to think over all
this.' He withdrew rapidly and left the library; she heard him shut
all the doors in turn.

'The monster is not in the least perturbed,' she said to herself...

'But what am I saying, a monster! He is wise, prudent, good; it is I
who have done more wrong than could be imagined.'

This point of view persisted. Mathilde was almost happy that day, for
she was altogether in love; you would have said that never had that
heart been stirred by pride--and such pride!

She shuddered with horror when, that evening in the drawing-room, a
footman announced Madame de Fervaques; the man's voice seemed to her
to have a sinister sound. She could not endure the sight of the
Marechale, and quickly left the room. Julien, with little pride in his
hard-won victory, had been afraid lest his own eyes should betray him,
and had not dined at the Hotel de La Mole.

His love and his happiness increased rapidly as the hour of battle
receded; he had already begun to find fault with himself. 'How could I
resist her?' he asked himself; 'if she was going to cease to love me!
A single moment may alter that proud spirit, and I must confess that I
have treated her scandalously.'

In the evening, he felt that he absolutely must appear at the Bouffes
in Madame de Fervaques's box. She had given him an express invitation:
Mathilde would not fail to hear of his presence there or of his
discourteous absence. Despite the self-evidence of this argument, he
had not the strength, early in the evening, to plunge into society. If
he talked, he would forfeit half his happiness.

Ten o'clock struck: he must absolutely show his face.

Fortunately he found the Marechale's box filled with women, and was
relegated to a place by the door, and entirely concealed by their
hats.  This position saved him from making a fool of himself; the
divine accents of despair of Carolina in _Il matrimonio segreto_ made
him burst into tears. Madame de Fervaques saw these tears; they were
in so marked a contrast to the manly firmness of his usual appearance,
that this spirit of a great lady long saturated in all the most
corrosive elements of the pride of an upstart was touched by them.
What little she had left of a woman's heart led her to speak. She
wished to enjoy the sound of her own voice at that moment.

'Have you seen the ladies de La Mole,' she said to him, 'they
are in the third tier.' Instantly Julien bent forward into the house,
leaning somewhat rudely upon the ledge of the box: he saw Mathilde;
her eyes were bright with tears.

'And yet it is not their day for the Opera,' thought Julien; 'what

Mathilde had made her mother come to the Bouffes, despite the inferior
position of the box which a sycophant of their circle had made haste
to offer them. She wished to see whether Julien would spend that
evening with the Marechale.

Making Her Afraid

  So this is the fine miracle of your civilisation!
  You have turned love into an ordinary matter.

Julien hurried to Madame de La Mole's box. His eyes met first the
tearful eyes of Mathilde; she was weeping without restraint, there was
no one present but people of minor importance, the friend who had lent
them the box and some men of her acquaintance. Mathilde laid her hand
upon Julien's; she seemed to have forgotten all fear of her mother.
Almost stifled by her sobs, she said nothing to him but the single
word: 'Guarantees!'

'Whatever I do, I must not speak to her,' thought Julien, greatly
moved himself, and covering his eyes as best he could with his hand,
ostensibly to avoid the lustre that was blazing into the boxes on the
third tier. 'If I speak, she can no longer doubt the intensity of my
emotion, the sound of my voice will betray me, all may be lost once

His struggles were far more painful than in the morning, his spirit
had had time to grow disturbed. He was afraid of seeing Mathilde's
vanity wounded.  Frantic with love and passion, he pledged himself not
to speak to her.

This is, to my mind, one of the finest traits of his character; a
person capable of such an effort to control himself may go far, _si
fata sinant_.

Mademoiselle de La Mole insisted upon taking Julien home.  Fortunately
it was raining in torrents. But the Marquise made him sit facing
herself, talked to him continuously, and prevented his saying a word
to her daughter. One would have thought that the Marquise was
concerned for Julien's happiness; no longer afraid of destroying
everything by the intensity of his emotion, he abandoned himself to it
with frenzy.

Dare I say that on entering his own room Julien threw himself on his
knees and covered with kisses the love letters given him by Prince

'Oh, you great man! What do I not owe to you?' he cried in his frenzy.

Gradually a little coolness returned to him. He compared himself to a
general who had just won the first half of a great battle. 'The
advantage is certain, immense,' he said to himself; 'but what is going
to happen tomorrow? An instant may ruin everything.'

He opened with a passionate impulse the _Memoirs dictated at Saint
Helena by Napoleon_, and for two solid hours forced himself to read
them; his eyes alone read the words, no matter, he forced himself to
the task. During this strange occupation, his head and heart, rising
to the level of everything that is most great, were at work without
his knowledge. 'This is a very different heart from Madame de Renal's,'
he said to himself, but he went no farther.

'Make her afraid,' he cried of a sudden, flinging the book from him.
'The enemy will obey me only so long as I make him fear me, then he
will not dare to despise me.'

He paced up and down his little room, wild with joy. To be frank, this
happiness was due to pride rather than love.

'Make her afraid!' he repeated proudly to himself, and he had reason
to be proud. 'Even in her happiest moments, Madame de Renal always
doubted whether my love were equal to hers. Here, it is a demon that I
am conquering, I must therefore conquer.'

He knew well that next morning, by eight o'clock, Mathilde would be in
the library; he did not appear there until nine, burning with love,
but his head controlled his heart. Not a single minute passed,
perhaps, without his repeating to himself: 'Always keep her mind
occupied with the great uncertainty: "Does he love me?" Her privileged
position, the flattery she receives from all who speak to her make her
a little too much inclined to self-assurance.'

He found her pale, calm, seated upon the divan, but incapable,
apparently, of making any movement. She offered him her hand.

'Dear, I have offended you, it is true; you are perhaps vexed with

Julien was not expecting so simple a tone. He was on the point of
betraying himself.

'You wish for guarantees, dear,' she went on after a silence which she
had hoped to see broken; 'that is only fair. Carry me off, let us
start for London. I shall be ruined for ever, disgraced ...' She found
the courage to withdraw her hand from Julien so as to hide her eyes
with it. All the sentiments of modesty and feminine virtue had
returned to her heart ... 'Very well! Disgrace me,' she said at length
with a sigh, 'it is a guarantee.'

'Yesterday I was happy, because I had the courage to be severe with
myself,' thought Julien. After a brief interval of silence, he gained
sufficient mastery over his heart to say in an icy tone:

'Once we are on the road to London, once you are disgraced, to use
your own words, who can promise me that you will love me? That my
company in the post-chaise will not seem to you an annoyance? I am not
a monster, to have ruined your reputation will be to me only an
additional grief. It is not your position in society that is the
obstacle, it is unfortunately your own nature. Can you promise
yourself that you will love me for a week?

'(Ah! Let her love me for a week, for a week only,' Julien murmured to
himself, 'and I shall die of joy. What do I care for the future, what
do I care for life itself? And this divine happiness may begin at this
moment if I choose, it depends entirely upon myself!)'

Mathilde saw him turn pensive.

'So I am altogether unworthy of you,' she said, clasping his hand.

Julien embraced her, but at once the iron hand of duty gripped his
heart.  'If she sees how I adore her, then I lose her.' And, before
withdrawing himself from her arms, he had resumed all the dignity that
befits a man.

On that day and the days that followed, he managed to conceal the
intensity of his bliss; there were moments in which he denied himself
even the pleasure of clasping her in his arms.

At other moments, the frenzy of happiness swept aside all the counsels
of prudence.

It was beside a bower of honeysuckle arranged so as to hide the
ladder, in the garden, that he was accustomed to take his stand in
order to gaze at the distant shutters of Mathilde's window and lament
her inconstancy. An oak of great size stood close by, and the trunk of
this tree prevented him from being seen by indiscreet persons.

As he passed with Mathilde by this spot which recalled to him so
vividly the intensity of his grief, the contrast between past despair
and present bliss was too strong for him; tears flooded his eyes, and,
carrying to his lips the hand of his mistress: 'Here I lived while I
thought of you; from here I gazed at that shutter, I awaited for hours
on end the fortunate moment when I should see this hand open it ...'

He gave way completely. He portrayed to her, in those true colours
which one does not invent, the intensity of his despair at that time.
In spasmodic utterances he spoke of his present happiness which had
put an end to that cruel suffering ...

'What am I doing, Great God!' said Julien, coming suddenly to his
senses.  'I am destroying everything.'

In the height of his alarm he thought he already saw less love in the
eyes of Mademoiselle de La Mole. This was an illusion; but Julien's
face changed rapidly and was flooded with a deathly pallor. His eyes
grew dull for a moment, and an expression of arrogance not devoid of
malice succeeded that of the most sincere, the most whole-hearted

'Why, what is the matter with you, dear?' Mathilde tenderly, anxiously

'I am lying,' said Julien savagely, 'and I am lying to you. I reproach
myself for it, and yet God knows that I respect you sufficiently not
to lie. You love me, you are devoted to me, and I have no need to make
fine speeches in order to please you.'

'Great God! They were only fine speeches, all the exquisite things you
have been saying to me for the last ten minutes?'

'And I reproach myself for them strongly, dear friend. I made them up
long ago for a woman who loved me and used to bore me ... That is the
weak spot in my character, I denounce myself to you, forgive me.'

Bitter tears streamed down Mathilde's cheeks.

'Whenever some trifle that has shocked me sets me dreaming for a
moment,' Julien went on, 'my execrable memory, which I could curse at
this moment, offers me a way of escape, and I abuse it.'

'So I have unconsciously done something that has displeased you?' said
Mathilde with a charming simplicity.

'One day, I remember, as you passed by these honeysuckles, you plucked
a flower, M. de Luz took it from you, and you let him keep it. I was
close beside you.'

'M. de Luz? It is impossible,' replied Mathilde with the dignity that
came so naturally to her: 'I never behave like that.'

'I am certain of it,' Julien at once rejoined.

'Ah, well! Then it must be true, dear,' said Mathilde, lowering her
eyes sadly. She was positive that for many months past she had never
allowed M. de Luz to take any such liberty.

Julien gazed at her with an inexpressible tenderness:

'No,' he said to himself, 'she does not love me any the less.'

She rebuked him that evening, with a laugh, for his fondness for
Madame de Fervaques: a _bourgeois_ in love with a _parvenue_. 'Hearts
of that class are perhaps the only ones that my Julien cannot inflame.
She has turned you into a regular dandy,' she said, playing with his

During the period in which he supposed himself to be scorned by
Mathilde, Julien had become one of the best-dressed men in Paris. But
he had an additional advantage over the other men of this sort; once
his toilet was performed, he never gave it another thought.

One thing still vexed Mathilde. Julien continued to copy out the
Russian letters, and to send them to the Marechale.

The Tiger

  Alas! why these things and not others!

An English traveller relates how he lived upon intimate terms with a
tiger; he had reared it and used to play with it, but always kept a
loaded pistol on the table.

Julien abandoned himself to the full force of his happiness only at
those moments when Mathilde could not read the expression of it in his
eyes. He was punctilious in his performance of the duty of addressing
a few harsh words to her from time to time.

When Mathilde's meekness, which he observed with astonishment, and the
intensity of her devotion came near to destroying all his
self-control, he had the courage to leave her abruptly.

For the first time Mathilde was in love.

Life, which had always crawled for her at a snail's pace, now flew.

As it was essential, nevertheless, that her pride should find some
outlet, she sought to expose herself with temerity to all the risks
that her love could make her run. It was Julien who showed prudence;
and it was only when there was any question of danger that she did not
comply with his wishes; but, submissive, and almost humble towards
him, she showed all the more arrogance towards anyone else who came
near her in the house, relatives and servants alike.

In the evenings in the drawing-room, she would summon Julien, and
would hold long conversations with him in private.

Little Tanbeau took his place one evening beside them; she asked him
to go to the library and fetch her the volume of Smollett which dealt
with the Revolution of 1688; and as he seemed to hesitate: There is
no need to hurry,' she went on with an expression of insulting
arrogance, which was balm to Julien's spirit.

'Did you notice the look in that little monster's eyes?' he asked her.

'His uncle has done ten or twelve years of service in this
drawing-room, otherwise I should have him shown the door this

Her behaviour towards MM. de Croisenois, de Luz, and the rest,
perfectly polite in form, was scarcely less provoking in substance.
Mathilde blamed herself severely for all the confidences she had made
to Julien in the past, especially as she did not dare confess to him
that she had exaggerated the almost wholly innocent marks of interest
of which those gentlemen had been the object.

In spite of the most admirable resolutions, her womanly pride
prevented her every day from saying to Julien: 'It was because I
was speaking to you that I found pleasure in the thought of my
weakness in not withdrawing my hand when M. de Croisenois laid his
hand on a marble table beside mine, and managed to touch it.'

Nowadays, whenever one of these gentlemen had spoken to her for a few
moments, she found that she had a question to ask Julien, and this was
a pretext for keeping him by her side.

She found that she was pregnant, and told the news joyfully to Julien.

'Now will you doubt me? Is not this a guarantee? I am your wife for

This announcement filled Julien with profound astonishment. He was on
the point of forgetting his principle of conduct. 'How can I be
deliberately cold and offensive to this poor girl who is ruining
herself for me?' Did she appear at all unwell, even on the days on
which wisdom made her dread accents heard, he no longer found the
courage to address to her one of those cruel speeches, so
indispensable, in his experience, to the continuance of their love.

'I mean to write to my father,' Mathilde said to him one day; 'he is
more than a father to me; he is a friend; and so I should feel it
unworthy of you and of myself to seek to deceive him, were it only for
a moment.'

'Great God! What are you going to do?' said Julien in alarm.

'My duty,' she replied, her eyes sparkling with joy.

She felt herself to be more magnanimous than her lover.

'But he will turn me from the house in disgrace!'

'He is within his rights, we must respect them. I shall give you my
arm, and we shall go out by the front door, in the full light of day.'

Julien in astonishment begged her to wait for a week.

'I cannot,' she replied, 'the voice of honour speaks. I have seen what
is my duty, I must obey, and at once.'

'Very well! I order you to wait,' said Julien at length. 'Your honour
is covered, I am your husband. This drastic step is going to alter
both our positions. I also am within my rights. Today is Tuesday; next
Tuesday is the day of the Duc de Retz's party; that evening, when M.
de La Mole comes home, the porter shall hand him the fatal letter ...
He thinks only of making you a Duchess, of that I am certain; think of
his grief!'

'Do you mean by that: think of his revenge?'

'I may feel pity for my benefactor, distress at the thought of
injuring him; but I do not and never shall fear any man.'

Mathilde submitted. Since she had told Julien of her condition, this
was the first time that he had spoken to her with authority; never had
he loved her so dearly. It was with gladness that the softer side of
his heart seized the pretext of Mathilde's condition to forgo the duty
of saying a few cruel words. The idea of a confession to M. de La Mole
disturbed him greatly. Was he going to be parted from Mathilde? And,
however keen the distress with which she saw him go, a month after his
departure would she give him a thought?

He felt almost as great a horror of the reproaches which the Marquis
might justly heap upon him.

That evening, he admitted to Mathilde this second cause of his
distress, and then, carried away by love, admitted the other also.

She changed colour.

'Indeed,' she said, 'six months spent out of my company would be a
grief to you!'

'Immense, the only one in the world on which I look with terror.'

Mathilde was delighted. Julien had played his part with such
thoroughness that he had succeeded in making her think that of the two
she was the more in love.

The fatal Tuesday came. At midnight, on returning home, the Marquis
found a letter with the form of address which indicated that he was to
open it himself, and only when he was unobserved.


'Every social tie that binds us is broken, there remain only the ties
of nature. After my husband, you are and will ever be the dearest
person in the world to me. My eyes fill with tears, I think of the
distress that I am causing you, but, that my shame may not be made
public, to give you time to deliberate and act, I have been unable to
postpone any further the confession that I owe you. If your affection
for me, which I know to be extreme, chooses to allow me a small
pension, I shall go and settle myself where you please, in
Switzerland, for instance, with my husband. His name is so obscure
that no one will recognise your daughter in Madame Sorel,
daughter-in-law of a carpenter of Verrieres. There you have the name I
have found it so hard to write. I dread, for Julien, your anger,
apparently so righteous. I shall not be a Duchess, Father; but I knew
it when I fell in love with him; for it was I that fell in love first,
it was I who seduced him. I inherit from you a spirit too exalted to
let my attention be arrested by what is or seems to me vulgar. It is
in vain that with the idea of pleasing you I have thought of M. de
Croisenois. Why did you place real merit before my eyes? You told me
yourself on my return from Hyeres: "This young Sorel is the only
person who amuses me"; the poor boy is as greatly distressed as
myself, if it be possible, by the pain which this letter must cause
you. I cannot prevent your being angry with me as a father; but care
for me still as a friend.

'Julien respected me. If he spoke to me now and again, it was solely
because of his profound gratitude to you: for the natural pride of his
character leads him never to reply save officially to anyone who is
placed so far above him. He has a strong and inborn sense of the
differences of social position. It was I, I admit, with a blush, to my
best friend, and never shall such an admission be made to any other,
it was I who one day in the garden pressed his arm.

'In twenty-four hours from now, why should you be angry with him? My
fault is irreparable. If you require it, I shall be the channel to
convey to you the assurances of his profound respect and of his
distress at displeasing you. You will not set eyes on him; but I shall
go and join him wherever he may choose. It is his right, it is my
duty, he is the father of my child.  If in your generosity you are
pleased to allow us six thousand francs upon which to live, I shall
accept them with gratitude: otherwise, Julien intends to settle at
Besancon where he will take up the profession of teacher of Latin and
Literature. However low the degree from which he springs, I am certain
that he will rise. With him, I have no fear of obscurity. If there be
a Revolution, I am sure of a leading part for him.  Could you say as
much for any of those who have sought my hand? They have fine estates?
I cannot find in that single circumstance a reason for admiration. My
Julien would attain to a high position even under the present form of
government, if he had a million and were protected by my father ...'

Mathilde, who knew that the Marquis was a man entirely governed by
first impressions, had written eight pages.

'What is to be done?' Julien said to himself while M. de La Mole was
reading this letter; 'where do, first of all, my duty, secondly, my
interest lie? The debt that I owe him is immense: I should have been,
but for him, a rascally understrapper, and not rascal enough to be
hated and persecuted by the rest. He has made me a man of the world.
My necessary rascalities will be, first of all, rarer, and secondly,
less ignoble. That is more than if he had given me a million. I owe to
him this Cross and the record of so-called diplomatic services which
have raised me above my rank.

'If he were to take his pen to prescribe my conduct, what would he

Julien was sharply interrupted by M. de La Mole's old valet.

'The Marquis wishes to see you this moment, dressed or undressed.'

The valet added in an undertone as they were side by side: 'He is
furious, beware.'

The Torment of the Weak

  In cutting this diamond, a clumsy jeweller removed some
  of its brightest sparkles. In the Middle Ages, what am
  I saying? even under Richelieu, a Frenchman still had
  the power to desire.

Julien found the Marquis furious: for the first time in his life,
perhaps, this gentleman was guilty of bad taste; he heaped on Julien
all the insults that came to his lips. Our hero was astonished,
irritated, but his sense of gratitude was not shaken. 'How many fine
projects long cherished in his secret thoughts, the poor man sees
crumble in an instant. But I owe it to him to answer him, my silence
would increase his rage.' His answer was furnished for him from the
part of Tartuffe.

'_I am no angel_ ... I have served you well, you have rewarded me
generously ... I was grateful, but I am twenty-two years old ... In
this household, my thoughts were intelligible only to yourself, and to
that obliging person ...'

'Monster!' cried the Marquis. 'Obliging! Obliging! On the day when you
found her obliging, you ought to have fled.'

'I made an attempt; I asked you if I might go to Languedoc.'

Tired of pacing the room in fury, the Marquis, broken by grief, threw
himself into an armchair; Julien heard him murmur to himself: 'This is
no scoundrel.'

'No, I am not one to you,' cried Julien, falling at his feet. But he
felt extremely ashamed of this impulse and rose quickly.

The Marquis was really out of his mind. On seeing this movement he
began again to shower upon Julien atrocious insults worthy of a
cab-driver. The novelty of these oaths was perhaps a distraction.

'What? My daughter is to be called Madame Sorel! What! My daughter is
not to be a Duchess!' Whenever these two ideas presented themselves in
such clear terms, the Marquis was in torment, and his impulses were
uncontrolled. Julien began to fear a thrashing.

In his lucid intervals, and when the Marquis began to grow accustomed
to his disgrace, his reproaches became quite reasonable.

'You ought to have gone, Sir,' he said. 'It was your duty to go ...
You are the meanest of mankind ...'

Julien went to the table and wrote:

'_For a long time my life has been insupportable, I am putting an end
to it.  I beg Monsieur le Marquis to accept, with my expression of a
gratitude that knows no bounds, my apologies for the trouble which my
death in his house may cause_.'

'Will Monsieur le Marquis deign to peruse this paper ... Kill me,'
said Julien, 'or have me killed by your valet. It is one o'clock in
the morning, I am going to stroll in the garden towards the wall at
the far end.'

'Go to the devil,' the Marquis shouted after him as he left the room.

'I understand,' thought Julien; 'he would not be sorry to see me spare
his valet the responsibility for my death ... Let him kill me, well
and good, it is a satisfaction that I am offering him ... But, by
Jove, I am in love with life ... I owe myself to my child.'

This idea, which for the first time appeared thus clearly before his
imagination, completely absorbed him after the first few minutes of
his stroll had been devoted to the sense of danger.

This entirely novel interest made a prudent creature of him. 'I need
advice to guide me in dealing with that fiery man ... He has no
judgment, he is capable of anything. Fouque is too far off, besides he
would not understand the sentiments of a heart like the Marquis's.

'Conte Altamira ... Can I be sure of eternal silence? My request for
advice must not be a definite action, nor complicate my position.
Alas!  There is no one left but the sombre abbe Pirard ... His mind is
narrowed by Jansenism ... A rascally Jesuit would know the world
better, and would be more to my purpose ... M. Pirard is capable of
beating me, at the mere mention of my crime.'

The genius of Tartuffe came to Julien's aid: 'Very well, I shall go
and confess to him.' This was the resolution to which he finally came
in the garden, after pacing it for fully two hours. He no longer
thought that he might be surprised by a gunshot; sleep was
overpowering him.

Next morning, before daybreak, Julien was several leagues from Paris,
knocking at the door of the stern Jansenist. He found, greatly to his
astonishment, that the other was not unduly surprised at his

'I ought perhaps to blame myself,' the abbe said to himself, more
anxious than angry. 'I had thought that I detected this love affair.
My affection for yourself, you little wretch, restrained me from
warning her father ...'

'What will he do?' Julien asked him boldly.

(At that moment, he loved the abbe and a scene would have been most
painful to him.)

'I can see three courses of action,' Julien continued: 'First of all,
M. de La Mole may have me put to death'; and he told the abbe of the
letter announcing his suicide which he had left with the Marquis;
'secondly, he may have me shot down by Comte Norbert, who will
challenge me to a duel.'

'You would accept?' said the abbe in a fury, rising to his feet.

'You do not allow me to finish. Certainly I should never fire at the
son of my benefactor.

'Thirdly, he may send me away. If he says to me: "Go to Edinburgh, to
New York," I shall obey. Then they can conceal Mademoiselle de La
Mole's condition; but I shall never allow them to destroy my child.'

'That, you may be sure, will be the first idea to occur to that
corrupt man ...'

In Paris, Mathilde was in despair. She had seen her father about seven
o'clock. He had shown her Julien's letter, she trembled lest he should
have deemed it noble to put an end to his life: 'And without my
permission?' she said to herself with an agony which partook of anger.

'If he is dead, I shall die,' she said to her father. 'It is you that
will be the cause of my death ... You will rejoice at it, perhaps ...
But I swear to his ghost that I shall at once put on mourning, and
shall be publicly _Madame veuve Sorel_ [the widow of M. Sorel], I
shall send out the usual announcements, you may count on that ... You
will not find me pusillanimous nor a coward.'

Her love rose to the pitch of madness. It was now M. de La Mole's turn
to be left speechless.

He began to look upon what had happened more reasonably. At luncheon
Mathilde did not put in an appearance. The Marquis was relieved of an
immense burden, and flattered as well, when he discovered that she had
said nothing to her mother.

Julien dismounted from his horse. Mathilde sent for him, and flung
herself into his arms almost in the sight of her maid. Julien was not
unduly grateful for this transport, he had come away most diplomatic
and most calculating from his long conference with the abbe Pirard.
His imagination was extinguished by the calculation of possibilities.
Mathilde, with tears in her eyes, informed him that she had seen the
letter announcing his suicide.

'My father may change his mind; oblige me by setting off instantly for
Villequier. Mount your horse, leave the premises before they rise from

As Julien did not in any way alter his air of cold astonishment, she
burst into a flood of tears.

'Allow me to manage our affairs,' she cried to him with a transport,
clasping him in her arms. 'You know very well that it is not of my own
free will that I part from you. Write under cover to my maid, let the
address be in a strange hand; as for me, I shall write you volumes.
Farewell! Fly.'

This last word wounded Julien, he obeyed nevertheless. 'It is fated,'
he thought, 'that even in their best moments, these people must find a
way of hurting me.'

Mathilde put up a firm resistance to all her father's prudent plans.
She steadfastly refused to set the negotiation upon any other basis
than this: She was to be Madame Sorel, and would live in poverty with
her husband in Switzerland, or with her father in Paris. She thrust
from her the suggestion of a clandestine confinement. 'That would pave
the way to the possibility of calumny and dishonour. Two months after
our marriage, I shall travel abroad with my husband, and it will be
easy for us to pretend that my child was born at a suitable date.'

Received at first with transports of rage, this firmness ended by
inspiring the Marquis with doubts.

In a weak moment: 'Here,' he said to his daughter, 'is a transfer of
ten thousand livres a year in the Funds, send it to your Julien, and
let him speedily make it impossible for me to reclaim it.'

To obey Mathilde, whose love of giving orders he knew, Julien had made
an unnecessary journey of forty leagues: he was at Villequier,
examining the accounts of the agents; this generosity on the part of
the Marquis was the occasion of his return. He went to seek asylum
with the abbe Pirard, who, during his absence, had become Mathilde's
most effective ally. As often as he was interrogated by the Marquis,
he proved to him that any other course than a public marriage would be
a crime in the sight of God.

'And happily,' the abbe added, 'the wisdom of the world is here in
accordance with religion. Could you reckon for an instant, knowing the
fiery character of Mademoiselle de La Mole, upon a secrecy which she
had not imposed on herself? If you do not allow the frank course of a
public marriage, society will occupy itself for far longer with this
strange misalliance. Everything must be stated at one time, without
the least mystery, apparent or real.'

'It is true,' said the Marquis, growing pensive. 'By this method, to
talk of the marriage after three days becomes the chatter of a man who
lacks ideas. We ought to profit by some great anti-Jacobin measure by
the Government to slip in unobserved in its wake.'

Two or three of M. de La Mole's friends shared the abbe Pirard's view.
The great obstacle, in their eyes, was Mathilde's decided nature. But
in spite of all these specious arguments, the Marquis could not grow
reconciled to abandoning the hope of a _tabouret_ for his daughter.

His memory and his imagination were full of all sorts of trickeries
and pretences which had still been possible in his younger days. To
yield to necessity, to go in fear of the law seemed to him an absurd
thing and dishonouring to a man of his rank.  He was paying dearly for
those enchanting dreams in which he had indulged for the last ten
years as to the future of his beloved daughter.

'Who could have foreseen it?' he said to himself. 'A girl of so
haughty a character, so elevated a mind, prouder than myself of the
name she bears!  One whose hand had been asked of me in advance by all
the most illustratious blood in France!

'We must abandon all prudence. This age is destined to bring
everything to confusion! We are marching towards chaos.'

A Man of Spirit

  The prefect riding along on his horse thought to himself,
  Why should I not be a minister, head of the Cabinet, a duke?
  This is how I would wage war ... In that way I would have
  innovators put in chains.
    _Le Globe_

No argument is sufficient to destroy the mastery acquired by ten years
of pleasant fancies. The Marquis thought it unreasonable to be angry,
but could not bring himself to forgive. 'If this Julien could die by
accident,' he said to himself at times ... Thus it was that his
sorrowful imagination found some relief in pursuing the most absurd
chimeras. They paralysed the influence of the wise counsels of the
abbe Pirard. A month passed in this way without the slightest advance
in the negotiations.

In this family affair, as in affairs of politics, the Marquis had
brilliant flashes of insight which would leave him enthusiastic for
three days on end. At such times a plan of conduct would not please
him because it was backed by sound reasons; the reasons found favour
in his sight only in so far as they supported his favourite plan. For
three days, he would labour with all the ardour and enthusiasm of a
poet, to bring matters to a certain position; on the fourth, he no
longer gave it a thought.

At first Julien was disconcerted by the dilatoriness of the Marquis;
but, after some weeks, he began to discern that M. de La Mole had, in
dealing with this affair, no definite plan.

Madame de La Mole and the rest of the household thought that Julien
had gone into the country to look after the estates; he was in hiding
in the abbe Pirard's presbytery, and saw Mathilde almost every day;
she, each morning, went to spend an hour with her father, but
sometimes they remained for weeks on end without mentioning the matter
that was occupying all their thoughts.

'I do not wish to know where that man is,' the Marquis said to her one
day; 'send him this letter.' Mathilde read:

'The estates in Languedoc bring in 20,600 francs. I give 10,600 francs
to my daughter, and 10,000 francs to M. Julien Sorel. I make over the
estates themselves, that is to say. Tell the lawyer to draft two
separate deeds of gift, and to bring me them tomorrow; after which, no
further relations between us. Ah! Sir, how was I to expect such a
thing as this?


'I thank you very much,' said Mathilde gaily. 'We are going to settle
in the Chateau d'Aiguillon, between Agen and Marmande. They say that
the country there is as beautiful as Italy.'

This donation came as a great surprise to Julien. He was no longer the
severe, cold man that we have known. The destiny of his child absorbed
all his thoughts in anticipation. This unexpected fortune, quite
considerable for so poor a man, made him ambitious. He now saw,
settled on his wife or himself, an income of 30,600 francs. As for
Mathilde, all her sentiments were absorbed in one of adoration of her
husband, for thus it was that her pride always named Julien. Her
great, her sole ambition was to have her marriage recognised. She
spent her time in exaggerating the high degree of prudence that she
had shown in uniting her destiny with that of a superior man. Personal
merit was in fashion in her brain.

Their almost continuous separation, the multiplicity of business, the
little time that they had to talk of love, now completed the good
effect of the wise policy adopted by Julien in the past.

Finally Mathilde grew impatient at seeing so little of the man whom
she had now come to love sincerely.

In a moment of ill humour she wrote to her father, and began her
letter like Othello:

'That I have preferred Julien to the attractions which society offered
to the daughter of M. le Marquis de La Mole, my choice of him
sufficiently proves. These pleasures of reputation and petty vanity
are nothing to me.  It will soon be six weeks that I have lived apart
from my husband. That is enough to prove my respect for you. Before
next Thursday, I shall leave the paternal roof. Your generosity has
made us rich. No one knows my secret save the estimable abbe Pirard. I
shall go to him; he will marry us, and an hour after the ceremony we
shall be on our way to Languedoc, and shall never appear again in
Paris save by your order. But what pierces me to the heart is that all
this will furnish a savoury anecdote at my expense, and at yours. May
not the epigrams of a foolish public oblige our excellent Norbert to
seek a quarrel with Julien? In that event, I know him, I should have
no control over him. We should find in his heart the plebeian in
revolt. I implore you on my knees, O my father, come and attend our
wedding, in M. Pirard's church, next Thursday. The point of the
malicious anecdote will be blunted, and the life of your only son, my
husband's life will be made safe,' etc., etc.

This letter plunged the Marquis in a strange embarrassment. He must
now at length make up his mind. AH his little habits, all his
commonplace friends had lost their influence.

In these strange circumstances, the salient features of his character,
stamped upon it by the events of his younger days, resumed their full
sway.  The troubles of the Emigration had made him a man of
imagination. After he had enjoyed for two years an immense fortune and
all the distinctions of the Court, 1790 had cast him into the fearful
hardships of the Emigration.  This hard school had changed the heart
of a man of two and twenty. Actually he was encamped amid his present
wealth rather than dominated by it. But this same imagination which
had preserved his soul from the gangrene of gold, had left him a prey
to an insane passion for seeing his daughter adorned with a
fine-sounding title.

During the six weeks that had just elapsed, urged at one moment by a
caprice, the Marquis had decided to enrich Julien; poverty seemed to
him ignoble, dishonouring to himself, M. de La Mole, impossible in the
husband of his daughter; he showered money upon him. Next day, his
imagination taking another direction, it seemed to him that Julien
would hear the silent voice of this generosity in the matter of money,
change his name, retire to America, write to Mathilde that he was dead
to her. M. de La Mole imagined this letter as written, and traced its
effect on his daughter's character ...

On the day on which he was awakened from these youthful dreams by
Mathilde's real letter, after having long thought of killing Julien or
of making him disappear, he was dreaming of building up for him a
brilliant future. He was making him take the name of one of his
properties; and why should he not secure the transmission of his
peerage to him? M. le Duc de Chaulnes, his father-in-law, had spoken
to him several times, since his only son had been killed in Spain, of
wishing to hand on his title to Norbert ...

'One cannot deny that Julien shows a singular aptitude for business,
audacity, perhaps even brilliance,' the Marquis said to himself...
'But at the back of that character, I find something alarming. It is
the impression that he produces on everyone, therefore there must be
something real in it' (the more difficult this reality was to grasp,
the more it alarmed the imaginative spirit of the old Marquis).

'My daughter expressed it to me very cleverly the other day' (in a
letter which we have suppressed): '"Julien belongs to no drawing-room,
to no set." He has not contrived to find any support against me, not
the slightest resource if I abandon him ... But is that due to
ignorance of the actual state of society? Two or three times I have
said to him: "There is no real and profitable candidature save that of
the drawing-rooms . . ."

'No, he has not the adroit and cautious spirit of a pettifogger who
never loses a minute or an opportunity ... It is not at all the
character of a Louis XI. On the other hand, I see in him the most
ungenerous maxims ... I lose track of him ... Does he repeat those
maxims to himself, to serve as a dam to his passions?

'Anyhow, one thing is clear: he cannot endure contempt, in that way I
hold him.

'He has not the religious feeling for high birth, it is true, he does
not respect us by instinct ... That is bad; but, after all, the heart
of a seminarist should be impatient only of the want of pleasure and
money. He is very different; he cannot endure contempt at any price.'

Forced by his daughter's letter, M. de La Mole saw the necessity of
making up his mind: 'Well, here is the great question: has Julien's
audacity gone the length of setting him to make love to my daughter,
because he knows that I love her more than anything in the world, and
that I have an income of a hundred thousand crowns?

'Mathilde protests the opposite ... No, master Julien, that is a point
upon which I wish to be under no illusion.

'Has there been genuine, unpremeditated love? Or rather a vulgar
desire to raise himself to a good position? Mathilde is perspicacious,
she felt from the first that this suspicion might ruin him with me;
hence that admission: it was she who thought first of loving him ...

'That a girl of so lofty a character should so far have forgotten
herself as to make tangible advances! ... Press his arm in the garden,
one evening, how horrible! As though she had not had a hundred less
indelicate ways of letting him know that she favoured him.

'To excuse is to accuse; I distrust Mathilde .. .' That day, the
Marquis's arguments were more conclusive than usual. Habit, however,
prevailed; he resolved to gain time and to write to his daughter; for
they communicated by letter between different parts of the house. M.
de La Mole dared not discuss matters with Mathilde and hold out
against her. He was afraid of bringing everything to an end by a
sudden concession.

'Take care not to commit any fresh act of folly; here is a commission
as Lieutenant of Hussars for M. le Chevalier Julien Sorel de La
Vernaye. You see what I am doing for him. Do not cross me, do not
question me. He shall start within twenty-four hours, and report
himself at Strasbourg, where his regiment is quartered. Here is a draft
upon my banker; I expect obedience.'

Mathilde's love and joy knew no bounds; she sought to profit by her
victory and replied at once:

'M. de La Vernaye would be at your feet, speechless with gratitude, if
he knew all that you are deigning to do for him. But, in the midst of
this generosity, my father has forgotten me; your daughter's honour is
in danger. A single indiscretion may leave an everlasting blot, which
an income of twenty thousand crowns would not efface. I shall send
this commission to M. de La Vernaye only if you give me your word
that, in the course of the next month, my marriage shall be celebrated
in public, at Villequier. Soon after that period, which I beg you not
to prolong, your daughter will be unable to appear in public save with
the name of Madame de La Vernaye. How I thank you, dear Papa, for
having saved me from the name of Sorel,' etc., etc.

The reply was unexpected.

'Obey or I retract all. Tremble, rash girl, I do not yet know what
your Julien is, and you yourself know even less than I. Let him start
for Strasbourg, and put his best foot foremost. I shall make my wishes
known in a fortnight's time.'

The firmness of this reply astonished Mathilde. 'I do not know
Julien'; these words plunged her in a day-dream which presently ended
in the most enchanting suppositions; but she believed them to be the
truth. 'My Julien's mind has not donned the tawdry little uniform of
the drawing-rooms, and my father disbelieves in his superiority
because of the very fact which proves it ...

'Anyhow, if I do not obey this sudden impulse, I foresee the
possibility of a public scene; a scandal lowers my position in
society, and may make me less attractive in Julien's eyes. After the
scandal ... ten years of poverty; and the folly of choosing a husband
on account of his merit can only be saved from ridicule by the most
brilliant opulence. If I live apart from my father, at his age, he may
forget me ... Norbert will marry some attractive, clever woman: the
old Louis XIV was beguiled by the Duchesse de Bourgogne ...'

She decided to obey, but refrained from communicating her father's
letter to Julien; his unaccountable nature might lead him to commit
some act of folly.

That evening, when she informed Julien that he was a Lieutenant of
Hussars, his joy knew no bounds. We may form an idea of it from the
ambition that marked his whole life, and from the passionate love that
he now felt for his child. The change of name filled him with

'At last,' he thought, 'the tale of my adventures is finished, and the
credit is all mine. I have contrived to make myself loved by this
monster of pride,' he added, looking at Mathilde; 'her father cannot
live without her, nor she without me.'

A Storm

  My God, give me mediocrity!

He was completely absorbed; he made only a half-hearted response to
the keen affection that she showed for him. He remained taciturn and
sombre.  Never had he appeared so great, so adorable in the eyes of
Mathilde. She feared some subtle refinement of his pride which would
presently upset the whole position.

Almost every morning, she saw the abbe Pirard come to the Hotel.
Through his agency might not Julien have penetrated to some extent
into her father's intentions? Might not the Marquis himself, in a
moment of caprice, have written to him? After so great a happiness,
how was she to account for Julien's air of severity? She dared not
question him.

_Dared not_! She, Mathilde! There was, from that moment, in her feeling
for Julien, something vague, unaccountable, almost akin to terror.
That sere heart felt all the passion that is possible in one brought
up amid all that excess of civilisation which Paris admires.

Early next morning, Julien was in the abbe Pirard's presbytery. A pair
of post-horses arrived in the courtyard drawing a dilapidated chaise,
hired at the nearest post.

'Such an equipage is no longer in keeping,' the stern abbe told him,
with a cantankerous air. 'Here are twenty thousand francs, of which M.
de La Mole makes you a present; he expects you to spend them within
the year, but to try and make yourself as little ridiculous as
possible.' (In so large a sum, bestowed on a young man, the priest saw
only an occasion of sin.)

'The Marquis adds: "M. Julien de La Vernaye will have received this
money from his father, whom there is no use in my identifying more
precisely. M. de La Vernaye will doubtless think it proper to make a
present to M. Sorel, carpenter at Verrieres, who looked after him in
his childhood ..." I will undertake this part of the commission,' the
abbe went on; 'I have at last made M. de La Mole decide to compromise
with that abbe de Frilair, who is such a Jesuit. His position is
unquestionably too strong for us. The implicit recognition of your
noble birth by that man who governs Besancon will be one of the
implied conditions of the arrangement.'

Julien was no longer able to control his enthusiasm, he embraced the
abbe, he saw himself recognised.

'Fie!' said M. Pirard, and thrust him away; 'what is the meaning of
this worldly vanity? As for Sorel and his sons, I shall offer them, in
my name, an annual pension of five hundred francs, which will be paid
to each of them separately, so long as I am satisfied with them.'

Julien was by this time cold and stiff. He thanked the abbe, but in
the vaguest terms and without binding himself to anything. 'Can it
indeed be possible,' he asked himself, 'that I am the natural son of
some great nobleman, banished among our mountains by the terrible
Napoleon?' Every moment this idea seemed to him less improbable . . .
'My hatred for my father would be a proof ... I should no longer be a

A few days after this monologue, the Fifteenth Regiment of Hussars,
one of the smartest in the Army, was drawn up in order of battle on
the parade ground of Strasbourg. M. le Chevalier de La Vernaye was
mounted upon the finest horse in Alsace, which had cost him six
thousand francs. He had joined as Lieutenant, without having ever been
a Second Lieutenant, save on the muster-roll of a Regiment of which he
had never even heard.

His impassive air, his severe and almost cruel eyes, his pallor, his
unalterable coolness won him a reputation from the first day. In a
short time, his perfect and entirely measured courtesy, his skill with
the pistol and sabre, which he made known without undue affectation,
removed all temptation to joke audibly at his expense. After five or
six days of hesitation, the general opinion of the Regiment declared
itself in his favour. 'This young man has everything,' said the older
officers who were inclined to banter, 'except youth.'

>From Strasbourg, Julien wrote to M. Chelan, the former cure of
Verrieres, who was now reaching the extreme limits of old age:

'You will have learned with a joy, of which I have no doubt, of the
events that have led my family to make me rich. Here are five hundred
francs which I beg you to distribute without display, and with no
mention of my name, among the needy, who are poor now as I was once,
and whom you are doubtless assisting as in the past you assisted me.'

Julien was intoxicated with ambition and not with vanity; he still
applied a great deal of his attention to his outward appearance. His
horses, his uniforms, the liveries of his servants were kept up with a
nicety which would have done credit to the punctiliousness of a great
English nobleman.  Though only just a Lieutenant, promoted by favour
and after two days' service, he was already calculating that, in order
to be Commander in Chief at thirty, at latest, like all the great
Generals, he would need at three and twenty to be something more than
Lieutenant. He could think of nothing but glory and his son.

It was in the midst of the transports of the most frenzied ambition
that he was interrupted by a young footman from the Hotel de La Mole,
who arrived with a letter.

'All is lost,' Mathilde wrote to him; 'hasten here as quickly as
possible, sacrifice everything, desert if need be. As soon as you
arrive, wait for me in a cab, outside the little gate of the garden,
No.-- Rue ----. I shall come out to speak to you; perhaps I may be
able to let you into the garden. All is lost, and, I fear, beyond hope
of repair; count upon me, you will find me devoted and steadfast in
adversity. I love you.'

In a few minutes, Julien obtained leave from his Colonel, and left
Strasbourg at a gallop; but the fearful anxiety which was devouring him
did not allow him to continue this method of travel farther than Metz.
He flung himself into a post-chaise; and it was with an almost
incredible rapidity that he arrived at the appointed place, outside
the little gate of the garden of the Hotel de La Mole. The gate was
flung open, and in a moment, Mathilde, forgetting all self-respect,
threw herself into his arms.  Fortunately, it was but five o'clock in
the morning and the street was still deserted.

'All is lost; my father, dreading my tears, went away on Thursday
night.  Where? No one knows. Here is his letter; read it.' And she got
into the cab with Julien.

'I could forgive everything, except the plan of seducing you because
you are rich. That, unhappy girl, is the appalling truth. I give you
my word of honour that I will never consent to a marriage with that
man. I promise him an income of ten thousand livres if he consents to
live abroad, beyond the frontiers of France, or better still in
America. Read the letter which I have received in reply to a request
for information. The shameless scoundrel had himself invited me to
write to Madame de Renal. Never will I read a line from you about the
man. I have a horror of Paris and of you. I request you to cloak with
the greatest secrecy what must shortly happen. Renounce honestly a
vile fellow, and you will regain a father.'

'Where is Madame de Renal's letter?' said Julien coldly. 'Here it is.
I did not wish to show it to you until you were prepared.'


'What I owe to the sacred cause of religion and morals obliges me,
Sir, to the painful step which I take in addressing you; a rule, which
admits of no relaxation, orders me at this moment to do harm to my
neighbour, but in order to avoid a greater scandal. The grief which I
feel must be overborne by a sense of duty. It is only too true, Sir,
the conduct of the person with regard to whom you ask me to tell the
whole truth may have seemed inexplicable or indeed honourable. It may
have been thought expedient to conceal or to disguise a part of the
truth, prudence required this as well as religion. But that conduct,
which you desire to know, has been in fact extremely reprehensible,
and more so than I can say. Poor and avaricious, it is by the aid of
the most consummate hypocrisy, and by the seduction of a weak and
unhappy woman, that this man has sought to make a position for himself
and to become somebody. It is a part of my painful duty to add that I
am obliged to believe that M. J---- has no religious principles. I am
bound in conscience to think that one of his avenues to success in a
household is to seek to seduce the woman who has most influence there.
Cloaked by a show of disinterestedness and by phrases from novels, his
great and sole object is to contrive to secure control over the master
of the house and over his fortune. He leaves in his wake misery and
undying regret,' etc., etc., etc.

This letter, extremely long and half obliterated by tears, was
certainly in the hand of Madame de Renal; it was even written with
greater care than usual.

'I cannot blame M. de La Mole,' said Julien when he had finished
reading it; 'he is just and prudent. What father would give his
beloved daughter to such a man! Farewell!'

Julien sprang out of the cab, and ran to his post-chaise which had
drawn up at the end of the street. Mathilde, whom he seemed to have
forgotten, followed him for a little way; but the sight of the
tradesmen who were coming to the doors of their shops, and to whom she
was known, forced her to retire in haste into the garden.

Julien had set off for Verrieres. On this rapid journey, he was unable
to write to Mathilde as he had intended, his hand traced nothing more
than an illegible scrawl on the paper.

He arrived at Verrieres on a Sunday morning. He entered the shop of
the local gunsmith, who congratulated him effusively on his recent
access to fortune. It was the talk of the town.

Julien had some difficulty in making him understand that he required a
brace of pistols. The gunsmith, at his request, loaded the pistols.

The _three bells_ sounded; this is a signal well known in French
villages, which, after the various peals of the morning, announces
that mass is just about to begin.

Julien entered the new church of Verrieres. All the tall windows of
the building were screened by crimson curtains. He found himself
standing a few yards behind Madame de Renal's bench. He had the
impression that she was praying with fervour. The sight of this woman
who had loved him so dearly made Julien's arm tremble so violently
that he could not at first carry out his design. 'I cannot,' he said
to himself; 'I am physically incapable of it.'

At that moment, the young clerk who was serving mass rang the bell for
the Elevation. Madame de Renal bowed her head which for a moment was
almost entirely concealed by the folds of her shawl. Her aspect was
less familiar to Julien; he fired a shot at her with one pistol and
missed her, he fired a second shot; she fell.

Painful Details

  Do not look for any weakness on my part. I have
  avenged myself. I have deserved death, and here
  I am. Pray for my soul.

Julien remained motionless, seeing nothing. When he came to himself a
little, he noticed the whole congregation rushing from the church; the
priest had left the altar. Julien set off at a leisurely pace in the
wake of some women who were screaming as they went. One woman, who was
trying to escape faster than the rest, gave him a violent push; he
fell. His feet were caught in a chair overturned by the crowd; as he
rose, he felt himself gripped by the collar; it was a gendarme in full
uniform who was arresting him. Mechanically Julien's hand went to his
pocket pistols; but a second gendarme seized him by the arms.

He was led away to prison. They took him into a room, put irons on his
wrists, and left him by himself; the door was shut on him and
double-locked; all this was carried out quickly, and he remained
unconscious of it.

'Faith, all is over,' he said aloud on coming to himself... 'Yes, in a
fortnight the guillotine ... or suicide between now and then.'

His reasoning went no farther; he felt a pain in his head as though it
had been gripped with violence. He looked round to see if anyone was
holding it. A few moments later, he fell into a deep slumber.

Madame de Renal was not mortally wounded. The first bullet had passed
through her hat; as she turned round, the second shot had been fired.
This bullet had struck her in the shoulder, and, what was surprising,
had glanced back from the shoulder-blade, which nevertheless it
shattered, against a gothic pillar, from which it broke off a huge
splinter of stone.

When, after a long and painful examination, the surgeon, a grave man,
said to Madame de Renal: 'I answer for your life as for my own,' she
was deeply affected.

For a long time she had sincerely longed for death. The letter which
she had been ordered to write by her confessor of the moment, and had
written to M. de La Mole, had dealt the final blow to this creature
weakened by an ever-present sorrow. This sorrow was Julien's absence;
she herself called it remorse. Her director, a young cleric, virtuous
and fervent, recently arrived from Dijon, was under no illusion.

'To die thus, but not by my own hand, is not a sin,' thought Madame de
Renal. 'God will pardon me perhaps for rejoicing in my death.' She
dared not add: 'And to die by the hand of Julien is the acme of

As soon as she was rid of the presence of the surgeon, and of all her
friends who had come crowding round her, she sent for Elisa, her maid.

'The gaoler,' she said to her, blushing deeply, 'is a cruel man.
Doubtless he intends to maltreat him, thinking that by so doing he
will be pleasing me ... The thought of such a thing is unendurable.
Could you not go, as though on your own behalf, and give the gaoler
this packet which contains a few louis? You will tell him that
religion does not permit his maltreating him ... But on no account
must he mention this gift of money.'

It was to this circumstance that Julien was indebted for the humanity
of the gaoler of Verrieres; he was still that M. Noiroud, the loyal
supporter of the government, whom we have seen thrown into such a
panic by the arrival of M. Appert.

A magistrate appeared in the prison. 'I have taken life with
premeditation,' Julien said to him; 'I bought the pistols and had them
loaded by So-and-so, the gunsmith. Article 1342. of the Penal Code is
quite clear, I deserve death and await it.' The magistrate, surprised
by the character of this reply, sought to multiply his questions so
that the accused might contradict himself in his answers.

'But don't you see,' Julien said to him with a smile, 'that I am
making myself out as guilty as you can wish? Go, Sir, you shall not
lack the quarry that you are pursuing. You shall have the pleasure of
passing sentence. Spare me your presence.

'I have still a tiresome duty to perform,' thought Julien, 'I must
write to Mademoiselle de La Mole.

'I have avenged myself,' he told her. 'Unfortunately, my name will
appear in the newspapers, and I cannot escape from this world
incognito. I shall die within two months. My revenge has been
terrible, like the grief of being parted from you. From this moment, I
forbid myself to write and to utter your name. Never speak of me, even
to my son: silence is the only way of honouring me. To the average man
I shall be a common murderer ... Allow me to tell the truth in this
supreme moment: you will forget me. This great catastrophe, as to
which I recommend you never to open your lips to a living soul, will
suppress for some years all the romantic and unduly adventurous
element that I saw in your character. You were made to live among the
heroes of the Middle Ages; show in this crisis their firmness of
character. Let what is bound to happen be accomplished in secret and
without compromising you. You will take a false name and dispense with
a confidant. If you must absolutely have the assistance of a friend, I
bequeath to you the abbe Pirard.

'Do not speak to anyone else, especially to men of your own class; de
Luz or Caylus.

'A year after my death, marry M. de Croisenois; I order you as your
husband. Do not write to me at all, I should not answer you. Though
far less of a villain than Iago, or so it seems to me, I shall say
like him: _From this time forth I never will speak word_.

'No one shall see me either speak or write; you will have had my last
words, with my last adoration.

'J. S.'

It was after he had sent off this letter that for the first time,
Julien, having slightly recovered himself, became extremely unhappy.
One by one, each of the hopes of his ambition must be wrenched from
his heart by those solemn words: 'I am to die.' Death, in itself, was
not _horrible_ in his eyes.  His whole life had been merely a long
preparation for misfortune, and he had certainly never forgotten what
is reckoned the greatest misfortune of all.

'Why!' he said to himself, 'if in sixty days I had to fight a duel
with a man who was a champion fencer, should I be so weak as to think
of it incessantly and with terror in my soul?'

He spent more than an hour in seeking to discover his exact sentiments
in this connection.

When he had seen clearly into his soul, and the truth appeared before
his eyes as sharply defined as one of the pillars of his prison, he
thought of remorse.

'Why should I feel any? I have been outraged in a terrible manner; I
have taken life, I deserve death, but that is all. I die after having
paid my reckoning with humanity. I leave behind me no unfulfilled
obligation, I owe nothing to anyone; there is nothing shameful in my
death but the instrument of it: that by itself, it is true, will amply
suffice to shame me in the eyes of the townsfolk of Verrieres; but,
from an intellectual point of view, what could be more contemptible?
There remains one way of acquiring distinction in their eyes: namely,
by scattering gold coins among the crowd on my way to the scaffold. My
memory, linked with the thought of gold, will then be resplendent to

After this consideration, which at the end of a minute seemed to him
conclusive: 'I have nothing more to do on earth,' Julien said to
himself and fell into a deep slumber.

About nine o'clock in the evening, the gaoler awakened him by bringing
in his supper.

'What are they saying in Verrieres?'

'Monsieur Julien, the oath that I took before the Crucifix, in the
King's court, the day I was installed in my post, compels me to keep

He was silent, but remained in the room. The spectacle of this vulgar
hypocrisy amused Julien. 'I must,' he thought, 'keep him waiting a
long time for the five francs which he wants as the price of his

When the gaoler saw the meal come to an end without any attempt at

'The friendship that I feel for you, Monsieur Julien,' he began, with
a false, winning air, 'obliges me to speak; although they may say that
it is against the interests of justice, because it may help you to
arrange your defence ... Monsieur Julien, who has a good heart, will
be glad if I tell him that Madame de Renal is going on well.'

'What! She is not dead?' cried Julien, beside himself with amazement.

'What! Didn't you know?' said the gaoler with an air of stupidity
which presently turned to one of joyful greed. 'It would only be right
for Monsieur to give something to the surgeon who, according to law
and justice, ought not to speak. But, to oblige Monsieur, I went to
his house, and he told me everything ...'

'In short, the injury is not mortal,' said Julien, losing patience,
'you answer for that with your life?'

The gaoler, a giant six feet in stature, took fright and retreated
towards the door. Julien saw that he was going the wrong way to reach
the truth, he sat down again and tossed a napoleon to M. Noiroud.

As the man's story began to convince Julien that Madame de Renal's
injury was not mortal, he felt himself overcome by tears. 'Leave me!'
he said suddenly.

The gaoler obeyed. As soon as the door was shut: 'Great God! She is
not dead!' exclaimed Julien; and he fell on his knees, weeping hot

In this supreme moment he was a believer. What matter the hypocrisies
of the priests? Can they destroy anything of the truth and sublimity
of the idea of God?

Only then did Julien begin to repent of the crime that he had
committed. By a coincidence which saved him from despair, at that
moment only had passed away the state of irritation and semi-insanity
in which he had been plunged since leaving Paris for Verrieres.

His tears sprang from a generous source, he had no doubt as to the
sentence that was in store for him.

'And so she will live!' he said to himself ... 'She will live to pardon
me and to love me.'

Late next morning, when the gaoler awakened him:

'You must have a wonderful heart, Monsieur Julien,' the man said to
him.  'Twice I have come in and did not want to wake you. Here are two
bottles of excellent wine which M. Maslon, our cure, sends you.'

'What? Is that rascal here still?' said Julien.

'Yes, Sir,' replied the gaoler, lowering his voice, 'but do not speak
so loud, it may damage you.'

Julien laughed heartily.

'At the stage I have reached, my friend, you alone could damage me, if
you ceased to be gentle and human ... You shall be well paid,' Julien
broke off, resuming his imperious air. This air was immediately
justified by the gift of a small coin.

M. Noiroud told him once more, going into the fullest detail, all that
he had heard about Madame de Renal, but he did not mention Miss
Elisa's visit.

This man was as menial and submissive as possible. An idea came into
Julien's head: 'This sort of ungainly giant may earn three or four
hundred francs, for his prison is never crowded; I can guarantee him
ten thousand francs, if he cares to escape to Switzerland with me ...
The difficulty will be to persuade him of my sincerity.' The thought
of the long colloquy that he would have to hold with so vile a
creature filled Julien with disgust, he turned his mind to other

That evening, there was no longer time. A post-chaise came to fetch
him at midnight. He was charmed with the gendarmes, his travelling
companions. In the morning, when he arrived at the prison of Besancon,
they were so kind as to lodge him on the upper floor of a gothic
dungeon. He guessed the architecture to date from the beginning of the
fourteenth century; he admired its grace and pointed airiness. Through
a narrow gap between two walls on the farther side of a deep
courtyard, there was a glimpse of a superb view.

Next day he was examined, after which, for several days, he was left
to himself. His spirit was calm. He could find nothing that was not
quite simple in his case: 'I sought to kill, I must be killed.'

His thoughts did not linger to consider this argument. The trial, the
annoyance of appearing in public, the defence, he regarded as so many
trifling embarrassments, tiresome ceremonies of which it would be time
to think when the day came. The prospect of death detained him almost
as little: 'I shall think of that after the sentence.' Life was by no
means tedious to him, he looked at everything in a fresh light. He had
no ambition left. He thought rarely of Mademoiselle de La Mole. His
remorse occupied him a great deal and often called up before him the
image of Madame de Renal, especially in the silence of the night,
disturbed only, in this lofty dungeon, by the cry of the osprey!

He thanked heaven for not having let him wound her mortally. 'An
astonishing thing!' he said to himself, 'I thought that by her letter
to M. de La Mole she had destroyed my future happiness for all time,
and, in less than a fortnight after the date of that letter, I no
longer think of all that was occupying my mind ... Two or three
thousand livres a year to live quietly in a mountain village like
Vergy ... I was happy then ... I did not recognise my own happiness!'

At other moments, he would rise with a bound from his chair. 'If I had
wounded Madame de Renal mortally, I should have killed myself ... I
require that certainty to make me feel a horror of myself. ,,,

'Kill myself! That is the great question,' he said to himself. Those
judges so steeped in formalities, so thirsty for the blood of the
wretched prisoner, who would have the best of citizens hanged in order
to hang a Cross from their own buttonholes ... I should remove myself
from their power, from their insults in bad French, which the local
newspaper will proceed to call eloquence.

'I may live for five or six weeks still, more or less ... Kill
myself!  Faith, no,' he said to himself after a few days, 'Napoleon

'Besides, life is pleasant to me; this is a quiet spot to stay in; I
have no worries,' he added, laughing, and set to work to make a list
of the books which he wished to have sent to him from Paris.

A Dungeon

  The tomb of a friend.

He heard a great din in the corridor; it was not the hour for visiting
his cell; the osprey flew away screaming, the door opened, and the
venerable cure Chelan, trembling all over and leaning upon his cane,
flung himself into Julien's arms.

'Ah, great God! Is it possible, my child ... Monster, I ought to

And the good old man could not add another word. Julien was afraid of
his falling. He was obliged to lead him to a chair. The hand of time
had fallen heavily upon this man, so vigorous in days gone by. He
appeared to Julien to be only the ghost of his former self.

When he had recovered his breath: 'Only the day before yesterday, I
received your letter from Strasbourg, with your five hundred francs for
the poor of Verrieres; it was brought to me up in the mountains at
Liveru, where I have gone to live with my nephew Jean. Yesterday, I
learned of the catastrophe ... Oh, heavens! Is it possible?' The old
man's tears ceased to flow, he seemed incapable of thought and added
mechanically: 'You will need your five hundred francs, I have brought
them back to you.'

'I need to see you, Father!' Julien exclaimed with emotion. 'I have
plenty of money.'

But he could not extract any coherent answer. From time to time, M.
Chelan shed a few tears which rolled in silence down his cheeks; then
he gazed at Julien, and was almost stupefied at seeing him take his
hands and raise them to his lips. That countenance, once so lively,
and so vigorous in its expression of the noblest sentiments, was no
longer to be aroused from a state of apathy. A sort of peasant came
presently to fetch the old man. 'It does not do to tire him,' he said
to Julien, who realised that this was the nephew. This visit left
Julien plunged in bitter grief which stopped his tears. Everything
seemed to him sad and comfortless; he felt his heart freeze in his

This was the most cruel moment that he had experienced since the
crime. He had seen death face to face, and in all its ugliness. All
the illusions of greatness of soul and generosity had been scattered
like a cloud before the storm.

This fearful situation lasted for some hours. After moral poisoning,
one requires physical remedies and a bottle of champagne. Julien would
have deemed himself a coward had he had recourse to them. Towards the
end of a horrible day, the whole of which he had spent in pacing the
floor of his narrow dungeon: 'What a fool I am!' he exclaimed. 'It
would be if I expected to die in my bed that the sight of that poor
old man ought to make me so utterly wretched; but a swift death in the
springtide of life is the very thing to save me from that miserable

Whatever arguments he might thus advance, Julien found that he was
moved like any pusillanimous creature and made wretched in consequence
by this visit.

There was no longer any trace of rugged grandeur in him, any Roman
virtue; death appeared to him on a higher plane, and as a thing less
easily to be won.

'This shall be my thermometer,' he said to himself. This evening I am
ten degrees below the level of courage that must lead me to the
guillotine.  This morning, I had that courage. What does it matter,
after all? Provided that it returns to me at the right moment.' This
idea of a thermometer amused him and succeeded finally in distracting

Next morning, on waking, he was ashamed of his behaviour the day
before.  'My happiness, my tranquillity are at stake.' He almost made
up his mind to write to the Attorney-General to ask that nobody should
be admitted to his cell. 'And Fouque?' he thought. 'If he can manage
to come to Besancon, how distressed he will be.'

It was perhaps two months since he had given Fouque a thought. 'I was
an utter fool at Strasbourg, my thoughts never went beyond my coat
collar.' Memories of Fouque kept recurring to his mind and left him in
a more tender mood. He paced the floor with agitation. 'Now I am
certainly twenty degrees below the level of death ... If this weakness
increases, it will pay me better to kill myself. What a joy for the
abbe Maslons and the Valenods if I die here like a rat!'

Fouque arrived; the simple, honest fellow was shattered by grief. His
sole idea, if he had one at all, was to sell all that he possessed in
order to corrupt the gaoler and so save Julien's life. He spoke to him
for hours of the escape of M. de Lavalette.

'You distress me,' Julien said to him; 'M. de Lavalette was innocent,
I am guilty. Without meaning to do so, you make me realise the
difference ...

'But is it true? What! You would sell all that you have?' said Julien,
suddenly becoming observant and suspicious once more.

Fouque, delighted to see his friend at last responsive to his dominant
idea, explained to him in full detail, and to within a hundred francs
or so, what he expected to receive for each of his properties.

'What a sublime effort in a small landowner!' thought Julien. 'How
many savings, how many little cheese-parings, which made me blush so
when I saw him make them, he is willing to sacrifice for me! None of
those fine young fellows whom I used to see at the Hotel de La Mole,
who read _Rene_, would have any of his absurdities; but apart from
those of them who are very young and have inherited fortunes, as well,
and know nothing of the value of money, which of those fine Parisians
would be capable of such a sacrifice?'

All Fouque's mistakes in grammer, all his vulgar mannerisms vanished,
he flung himself into his arms. Never have the provinces, when
contrasted with Paris, received a nobler homage. Fouque, delighted by
the enthusiasm which he read in his friend's eyes, mistook it for
consent to an escape.

This glimpse of the _sublime_ restored to Julien all the strength of
which M. Chelan's visit had robbed him. He was still very young; but,
to my mind, he was a fine plant. Instead of his advancing from
tenderness to cunning, like the majority of men, age would have given
him an easy access to emotion, he would have been cured of an insane
distrust ... But what good is there in these vain predictions?

The examinations became more frequent, in spite of the efforts of
Julien, whose answers were all aimed at cutting the whole business
short. 'I have taken life, or at least I have sought to take life, and
with premeditation,' he repeated day after day. But the magistrate was
a formalist first and foremost. Julien's statements in no way cut
short the examinations; the magistrate's feelings were hurt. Julien
did not know that they had proposed to remove him to a horrible
cellar, and that it was thanks to Fouque's intervention that he was
allowed to remain in his charming room one hundred and eighty steps
from the ground.

M. l'abbe de Frilair was one of the important persons who contracted
with Fouque for the supply of their firewood. The honest merchant had
access even to the all-powerful Vicar-General. To his inexpressible
delight, M. de Frilair informed him that, touched by the good
qualities of Julien and by the services which he had rendered in the
past to the Seminary, he intended to intervene on his behalf with the
judges. Fouque saw a hope of saving his friend, and on leaving his
presence, bowing to the ground, begged the Vicar-General to expend
upon masses, to pray for the acquittal of the prisoner, a sum of ten

Fouque was strangely in error. M. de Frilair was by no means a
Valenod. He refused, and even tried to make the worthy peasant
understand that he would do better to keep his money in his pocket.
Seeing that it was impossible to make his meaning clear without
indiscretion, he advised him to distribute the sum in alms, for the
poor prisoners, who, as a matter of fact, were in need of everything.

'This Julien is a strange creature, his action is inexplicable,'
thought M. de Frilair, 'and nothing ought to be inexplicable to me ...
Perhaps it will be possible to make a martyr of him ... In any case, I
shall get to the true _inwardness_ of this business and may perhaps
find an opportunity of inspiring fear in that Madame de Renal, who has
no respect for us, and detests me in her heart... Perhaps I may even
discover in all this some sensational means of reconciliation with M.
de La Mole, who has a weakness for this little Seminarist.'

The settlement of the lawsuit had been signed some weeks earlier, and
the abbe Pirard had left Besancon, not without having spoken of the
mystery of Julien's birth, on the very day on which the wretched
fellow tried to kill Madame de Renal in the church of Verrieres.

Julien saw only one disagreeable incident in store for him before his
death, namely a visit from his father. He consulted Fouque as to his
idea of writing to the Attorney-General, asking to be excused any
further visitors. This horror at the sight of a father, at such a
moment, shocked the honest and respectable heart of the
timber-merchant profoundly.

He thought he understood why so many people felt a passionate hatred
of his friend. Out of respect for another's grief, he concealed his

'In any case,' he replied coldly, 'an order for solitary confinement
would not apply to your father.'

A Man of Power

  But there is such mystery in her movements,
  such elegance in her form.  Who can she be?

The doors of the dungeon were thrown open at a very early hour the
next morning. Julien awoke with a start.

'Oh, good God,' he thought, 'here comes my father. What a disagreeable

At that moment, a woman dressed as a peasant flung herself into his
arms; he had difficulty in recognising her. It was Mademoiselle de La

'Miscreant, it was only from your letter that I learned where you
were.  What you call your crime, though it is nothing but a
noble revenge which shows me all the loftiness of the heart that beats
in your bosom, I learned only at Verrieres ...'

Notwithstanding his prejudices against Mademoiselle de La Mole,
prejudices of which, moreover, he had not himself formed any definite
idea, Julien found her extremely good-looking. How could he fail to
see in all this manner of speech and action a noble, disinterested
sentiment, far above anything that a petty, vulgar spirit would have
dared? He imagined once again that he was in love with a queen, and
after a few moments it was with a rare nobility of speech and thought
that he said to her:

'The future was tracing itself quite clearly before my eyes. After my
death, I married you to Croisenois, who would be marrying a widow. The
noble but slightly romantic spirit of this charming widow, startled
and converted to the service of common prudence by an event at once
singular, tragic and for her momentous, would have deigned to
appreciate the quite genuine merit of the young Marquis. You would
have resigned yourself to enjoying the happiness of the rest of the
world: esteem, riches, high rank ... But, dear Mathilde, your coming
to Besancon, if it is suspected, is going to be a mortal blow to M. de
La Mole, and that is what I will never forgive myself. I have already
caused him so much sorrow! The Academician will say that he has been
warming a serpent in his bosom.'

'I must confess that I hardly expected so much cold reasoning, so much
thought for the future,' said Mademoiselle de La Mole, half annoyed.
'My maid, who is almost as prudent as yourself, procured a passport
for herself, and it is in the name of Madame Michelet that I have
travelled post.'

'And Madame Michelet found it so easy to make her way in to me?'

'Ah! You are still the superior man, the man of my choice! First of
all, I offered a hundred francs to a magistrate's secretary, who
assured me that it was impossible for me to enter this dungeon. But
after taking the money, this honest man made me wait, raised
objections, I thought that he meant to rob me ...' She broke off.

'Well?' asked Julien.

'Do not be angry with me, my little Julien,' she said, embracing him,
'I was obliged to give my name to this secretary, who took me for a
young milliner from Paris, enamoured of the handsome Julien ...
Indeed, those are his very words. I swore to him that I was your wife,
and I am to have permission to see you every day.'

'That finishes everything,' thought Julien; 'I could not prevent it.
After all, M. de La Mole is so great a nobleman that public opinion
will easily find an excuse for the young Colonel who will wed this
charming widow. My approaching death will cover everything'; and he
abandoned himself with ecstasy to Mathilde's love; there followed
madness, magnanimity, everything that was most strange. She seriously
proposed to him that she should die with him.

After these first transports, and when she had grown used to the
happiness of seeing Julien, a keen curiosity suddenly took possession
of her soul.  She examined her lover, and found him far superior to
what she had imagined. Boniface de La Mole seemed to her reincarnate
in him, but in a more heroic mould.

Mathilde saw the leading counsel of the place, whom she insulted by
offering them gold too crudely; but they ended by accepting.

She speedily came to the conclusion that in doubtful matters of high
import, everything in Besancon depended upon M. l'abbe de Frilair.

Under the obscure name of Madame Michelet, she at first found
insuperable obstacles in the way to the presence of the all-powerful
leader of the Congregation. But the rumour of the beauty of a young
milliner, madly in love, who had come from Paris to Besancon to
comfort the young abbe Julien Sorel, began to spread through the town.

Mathilde went alone and on foot through the streets of Besancon; she
hoped that she might not be recognised. In any event, she thought that
it must help her cause to create a strong impression upon the
populace. In her folly she thought of making them revolt, to save
Julien on his way to the scaffold. Mademoiselle de La Mole imagined
herself to be dressed simply and in a manner becoming a woman stricken
with grief; she was dressed in such a fashion as to attract every eye.

She was the sole object of attention in Besancon, when, after a week
of solicitation, she obtained an audience of M. Frilair.

Great as her courage might be, the idea of an influential head of the
Congregation and that of a profound and cautious rascality were so
closely associated in her mind that she trembled as she rang the bell
at the door of the Bishop's palace. She could barely stand when she
had to climb the stair that led to the First Vicar-General's
apartment. The loneliness of the episcopal palace chilled her with
fear. 'I may sit down in an armchair, and the armchair grip me by the
arms, I shall have vanished. Of whom can my maid ask for news of me?
The Captain of Police will decline to interfere ... I am all alone in
this great town!'

Her first sight of the apartment set Mademoiselle de La Mole's heart
at rest. First of all, it was a footman in the most elegant livery
that had opened the door to her. The parlour in which she was asked to
wait displayed that refined and delicate luxury, so different from
vulgar magnificence, which one finds in Paris only in the best houses.
As soon as she caught sight of M. de Frilair, who came towards her
with a fatherly air, all thoughts of a dastardly crime vanished. She
did not even find on his handsome countenance the imprint of that
energetic, that almost wild virtue, so antipathetic to Parisian
society. The half-smile that animated the features of the priest who
was in supreme control of everything at Besancon, betokened the man
used to good society, the cultured prelate, the able administrator.
Mathilde imagined herself in Paris.

It needed only a few minutes for M. de Frilair to lead Mathilde on to
admit to him that she was the daughter of his powerful adversary, the
Marquis de La Mole.

'I am not, as a matter of fact, Madame Michelet,' she said, resuming
all the loftiness of her bearing, 'and this admission costs me little,
for I have come to consult you, Sir, as to the possibility of
procuring the escape of M. de La Vernaye. In the first place he is
guilty of nothing worse than a piece of stupidity; the woman at whom
he fired is doing well.  In the second place, to corrupt the
subordinates, I can put down here and now fifty thousand francs, and
bind myself to pay double that sum. Lastly, my gratitude and the
gratitude of my family will consider no request impossible from the
person who has saved M. de La Vernaye.'

M. de Frilair appeared to be surprised at this name. Mathilde showed
him a number of letters from the Ministry of War, addressed to M.
Julien Sorel de La Vernaye.

'You see, Sir, that my father undertook to provide for his future. I
married him secretly, my father wished him to be a senior officer
before making public this marriage, which is a little odd for a La

Mathilde remarked that the expression of benevolence and of a mild
gaiety speedily vanished as M. de Frilair began to arrive at important
discoveries. A subtlety blended with profound insincerity was
portrayed on his features.

The abbe had his doubts, he perused the official documents once more

'What advantage can I gain from these strange confidences?' he asked
himself. 'Here I am suddenly brought into close personal contact with
a friend of the famous Marechale de Fervaques, the all-powerful niece
of the Lord Bishop of ----, through whom one becomes a Bishop in

'What I have always regarded as hidden in the future suddenly presents
itself. This may lead me to the goal of all my ambition.'

At first Mathilde was alarmed by the rapid change in the physiognomy
of this powerful man, with whom she found herself shut up alone in a
remote part of the building. 'But why!' she said to herself presently,
'would it not have been worse to have made no impression upon the cold
egoism of a priest sated with the enjoyment of power?'

Dazzled by this rapid and unexpected avenue to the episcopate that was
opening before his eyes, astonished at Mathilde's intelligence, for a
moment M. de Frilair was off his guard. Mademoiselle de La Mole saw
him almost at her feet, trembling nervously with the intensity of his

'Everything becomes clear,' she thought, 'nothing will be impossible
here for a friend of Madame de Fervaques.' Despite a sense of jealousy
that was still most painful, she found courage to explain that Julien
was an intimate friend of the Marechale, and almost every evening used
to meet, in her house, the Lord Bishop of ----.

'If you were to draw by lot four or five times in succession a list of
thirty-six jurymen from among the principal inhabitants of this
Department,' said the Vicar-General with the harsh glare of ambition,
dwelling upon each of his words, 'I should consider myself most
unfortunate if in each list I did not find eight or nine friends, and
those the most intelligent of the lot. Almost invariably I should have
a majority, more than that, even for a verdict of guilty; you see,
Mademoiselle, with what ease I can secure an acquittal ..."

The abbe broke off suddenly, as though startled by the sound of his
words; he was admitting things which are never uttered to the profane.

But Mathilde in turn was stupefied when he informed her that what was
most astonishing and interesting to Besancon society in Julien's
strange adventure, was that in the past he had inspired a grand
passion in Madame de Renal, which he had long reciprocated. M. de
Frilair had no difficulty in perceiving the extreme distress which his
story produced.

'I have my revenge!' he thought. 'Here, at last, is a way of
controlling this decided young person; I was trembling lest I should
not succeed in finding one.' Her distinguished air, as of one not
easily led, intensified in his eyes the charm of the rare beauty which
he saw almost suppliant before him. He recovered all his
self-possession and had no hesitation in turning the knife in the

'I should not be surprised after all,' he said to her lightly, 'were
we to learn that it was from jealousy that M. Sorel fired two shots at
this woman whom once he loved so dearly. She must have had some
relaxation, and for some time past she had been seeing a great deal of
a certain abbe Marquinot of Dijon, a sort of Jansenist, utterly
without morals, like all of them.'

M. de Frilair went on torturing with voluptuous relish and at his
leisure the heart of this beautiful girl, whose weak spot he had

'Why,' he said, fixing a pair of burning eyes on Mathilde, 'should M.
Sorel have chosen the church, if not because at that very moment his
rival was celebrating mass there? Everyone agrees in ascribing
boundless intelligence and even more prudence to the man who is so
fortunate as to enjoy your protection. What more simple than to
conceal himself in M. de Renal's gardens, which he knows so well?
There, with almost a certainty of not being seen, nor caught, nor
suspected, he could have inflicted death on the woman of whom he was

These arguments, apparently so well founded, reduced Mathilde to utter
despair. Her spirit, haughty enough but saturated with all that dry
prudence which passes in society as a faithful portrayal of the human
heart, was not made to understand in a moment the joy of defying all
prudence which can be so keen a joy to an ardent soul. In the upper
classes of Parisian society, in which Mathilde had lived, passion can
only very rarely divest itself of prudence, and it is from the attics
on the fifth floor that girls throw themselves out of windows.

At last the abbe de Frilair was sure of his control. He gave Mathilde
to understand (he was probably lying) that he could influence as he
chose the Crown Counsel, who would have to support the charge against

After the names of the thirty-six jurors for the assize had been drawn
by lot, he would make a direct and personal appeal to at least thirty
of them.

If M. de Frilair had not thought Mathilde so good-looking, he would
not have spoken to her in such plain terms until their fifth or sixth


  Castres, 1676.--He that endeavoured to kill his sister in our
  house, had before killed a man, and it had cost his father
  five hundred ecus to get him off; by their secret distribution,
  gaining the favour of the counsellors.
    LOCKE, _Travels in France_  [Trans. footnote:  I am indebted to
    the patience and ingenuity of Mr. Vyvyan Holland, who has
    traced the original text of this motto in _The Life of John
    Locke, with extracts from his Correspondence, Journals and
    Commonplace Books by Lord King_ (new edition, 1830)  C. K. S. M.]

On leaving the Bishop's palace, Mathilde did not hesitate to send a
messenger to Madame de Fervaques; the fear of compromising herself did
not restrain her for a second. She implored her rival to obtain a
letter for M. de Frilair, written throughout in the hand of the Lord
Bishop of ----. She even went the length of beseeching the other to
hasten, herself, to Besancon. This was a heroic measure on the part of
a proud and jealous spirit.

On the advice of Fouque, she had taken the precaution of saying
nothing about what she was doing to Julien. Her presence was
disturbing enough in itself. A more honourable man at the approach of
death than he had been during his life, he now felt compunction at the
thought not only of M. de La Mole, but also of Mathilde.

'What is this?' he asked himself, 'I experience in her company moments
of abstraction and even of boredom. She is ruining herself for me, and
it is thus that I reward her. Can I indeed be wicked?' This question
would have troubled him little when he was ambitious; then, not to
succeed in life was the only disgrace in his eyes.

His moral uneasiness, in Mathilde's presence, was all the more marked,
in that he inspired in her at that moment the most extraordinary and
insensate passion. She could speak of nothing but the strange
sacrifices which she was anxious to make to save him.

Carried away by a sentiment of which she was proud and which
completely overbore her pride, she would have liked not to allow a
moment of her life to pass that was not filled with some extraordinary
action. The strangest plans, the most perilous to herself, formed the
theme of her long conversations with Julien. His gaolers, well
rewarded, allowed her to have her way in the prison. Mathilde's ideas
were not confined to the sacrifice of her reputation; it mattered
nothing to her though she made her condition known to the whole of
society. To fling herself on her knees to crave pardon for Julien, in
front of the King's carriage as it came by at a gallop, to attract the
royal attention, at the risk of a thousand deaths, was one of the
tamest fancies of this exalted and courageous imagination.  Through
her friends who held posts at court, she could count upon being
admitted to the reserved parts of the park of Saint-Cloud.

Julien felt himself to be hardly worthy of such devotion, to tell the
truth he was tired of heroism. It would have required a simple,
artless, almost timid affection to appeal to him, whereas on the
contrary, Mathilde's proud spirit must always entertain the idea of a
public, of what _people would say_.

In the midst of all her anguish, of all her fears for the life of this
lover, whom she was determined not to outlive, she had a secret
longing to astonish the public by the intensity of her love and the
sublimity of her actions.

He resented the discovery that he was unable to feel at all touched by
all this heroism. What would his resentment have been, had he known of
all the follies with which Mathilde overpowered the devoted, but
eminently reasonable and limited mind of the good Fouque?

The latter could scarcely find fault with Mathilde's devotion; for he,
too, would have sacrificed his whole fortune and exposed his life to
the greatest risks to save Julien. He was stupefied by the quantity of
gold which Mathilde scattered abroad. At first, the sums thus spent
impressed Fouque, who had for money all the veneration of a

Later, he discovered that Mademoiselle de La Mole's plans often
varied, and, to his great relief, found a word with which to reproach
this character which was so exhausting to him: she was _changeable_. To
this epithet, that of _wrongheaded_, the direst anathema in the
provinces, is the immediate sequel.

'It is strange,' Julien said to himself one day as Mathilde was
leaving his prison, 'that so warm a passion, and one of which I am the
object, leaves me so unmoved! And I worshipped her two months ago! I
have indeed read that at the approach of death we lose interest in
everything; but it is frightful to feel oneself ungrateful and to be
unable to change. Can I be an egoist?' He heaped on himself, in this
connection, the most humiliating reproaches.

Ambition was dead in his heart, another passion had risen from its
ashes; he called it remorse for having murdered Madame de Renal.

As a matter of fact, he was hopelessly in love with her. He found a
strange happiness when, left absolutely alone and without any fear of
being disturbed, he could abandon himself entirely to the memory of
the happy days which he had spent in the past at Verrieres or at
Vergy. The most trifling incidents of that time, too swiftly flown,
had for him a freshness and a charm that were irresistible. He never
gave a thought to his Parisian successes; they bored him.

This tendency, which grew rapidly stronger, was not entirely hidden
from the jealous Mathilde. She saw quite plainly that she had to
contend with the love of solitude. Now and again, she uttered with
terror in her heart the name of Madame de Renal. She saw Julien
shudder. From that moment, her passion knew no bounds nor measure.

'If he dies, I die after him,' she said to herself with absolute
sincerity.  'What would the drawing-rooms of Paris say, to see a girl
of my rank carry to such a point her adoration of a lover condemned to
death? To find such sentiments, we must go back to the days of the
heroes; it was love of this nature that set hearts throbbing in the
age of Charles IX and Henri III.'

Amid the most impassioned transports, when she pressed Julien's head
to her heart: 'What!' she said to herself with horror, 'can this
precious head be doomed to fall? Very well!' she added, inflamed by a
heroism that was not devoid of happiness, 'my lips, which are now
pressed against these dear locks, will be frozen within twenty-four
hours after.'

Memories of these moments of heroism and fearful ecstasy seized her in
an ineluctable grip. The thought of suicide, so absorbing in itself,
and hitherto so remote from that proud spirit, penetrated its defences
and soon reigned there with an absolute sway. 'No, the blood of my
ancestors has not grown lukewarm in its descent to me,' Mathilde told
herself proudly.

'I have a favour to ask you,' her lover said to her one day: Put your
child out to nurse at Verrieres, Madame de Renal will look after the

'That is a very harsh saying . . .' Mathilde turned pale.

'True, and I ask a thousand pardons,' cried Julien, awakening from his
dream and pressing her to his bosom.

Having dried her tears, he returned to the subject of his thoughts,
but with more subtlety. He had given the conversation a turn of
melancholy philosophy. He spoke of that future which was soon to close
for him. 'You must agree, my dear friend, that the passions are an
accident in life, but this accident is to be found only in superior
beings ... The death of my son would be in reality a relief to the
pride of your family, so much the subordinate agents will perceive.
Neglect will be the lot of that child of misery and shame ... I hope
that at a date which I do not wish to specify, which however I have
the courage to anticipate, you will obey my final behest: You will
marry the Marquis de Croisenois.'

'What, dishonoured!'

'Dishonour can have no hold over such a name as yours. You will be a
widow, and the widow of a madman, that is all. I shall go farther: my
crime, being free from any pecuniary motive, will be in no way
dishonouring.  Perhaps by that time some philosophical legislator will
have secured, from the prejudices of his contemporaries, the
suppression of capital punishment. Then, some friendly voice will
cite as an instance: "Why, Mademoiselle de La Mole's first husband was
mad, but not a wicked man, he was no criminal. It was absurd to cut
his head off ..." Then my memory will cease to be infamous; at least,
after a certain time ... Your position in society, your fortune, and,
let me say, your genius will enable M. de Croisenois to play a part,
once he is your husband, to which by himself he could not hope to

He has only his birth and his gallantry, and those qualities by
themselves, which made a man accomplished in 1729, are an anachronism
a hundred years later, and only give rise to pretensions. A man must
have other things besides if he is to place himself at the head of the
youth of France.

'You will bring the support of a firm and adventurous character to the
political party in which you will place your husband. You may succeed
the Chevreuses and Longuevilles of the Fronde ... But by then, my
dear friend, the heavenly fire which animates you at this moment will
have cooled a little.

'Allow me to tell you,' he went on, after many other preliminary
phrases, 'in fifteen years from now you will regard as an act of
folly, pardonable but still an act of folly, the love that you have
felt for me ...'

He broke off abruptly and returned to his dreams. He found himself
once again confronted by that idea, so shocking to Mathilde: 'In
fifteen years Madame de Renal will adore my son, and you will have
forgotten him.'


  It is because I was foolish then that I am now wise.
  O philosopher who see nothing save in a flash, how
  short is your vision! Your eye is not made to follow
  the underground working of the passions.

This conversation was interrupted by a judicial examination, followed
by a conference with the lawyer retained for the defence. These were
the only absolutely disagreeable moments in a heedless existence full
of tender fantasies.

'It was murder, and premeditated murder,' said Julien to magistrate
and counsel alike. 'I am sorry, gentlemen,' he added, smiling; 'but
this reduces your task to a very small matter.

'After all,' thought Julien, when he had succeeded in ridding himself
of these two persons, 'I must be brave, and braver, evidently, than
these two men. They regard as the worst of evils, as the _king of
terrors_, this duel to a fatal issue, of which I shall begin to think
seriously only upon the day itself.

'That is because I have known a greater evil,' Julien continued,
philosophising to himself. 'I suffered far more keenly on my first
journey to Strasbourg, when I thought that I had been abandoned by
Mathilde ... And to think that I longed with such passion for this
perfect intimacy which today leaves me so unmoved! Indeed, I am
happier by myself than when that lovely girl shares my solitude ...'

The lawyer, a man of rules and formalities, thought him mad, and
supposed, with the rest of the public, that it was jealousy that had
put the pistol in his hand. One day, he ventured to suggest to Julien
that this allegation, whether true or false, would be an excellent
line of defence.  But the prisoner became in a flash passionate and

'On your life, Sir,' cried Julien beside himself with rage, 'bear in
mind never again to utter that abominable falsehood.' The prudent
advocate was afraid for a moment of being murdered himself.

He prepared his defence, because the decisive moment was rapidly
approaching. Besancon and the whole Department could talk of nothing
but this cause celebre. Julien was in ignorance of this, he had begged
that no one should ever speak to him of such matters.

That very day, Fouque and Mathilde having sought to inform him of
certain public rumours, which seemed to them to furnish grounds for
hope, Julien had cut them short at the first word.

'Leave me to enjoy my ideal life. Your petty bickerings, your details
of real life, all more or less irritating to me, would bring me down
from heaven. One dies as best one can; as for me, I wish to think of
death only in my own way. What do I care for other people? My
relations with other people are soon to be cut short. For pity's sake,
do not speak to me of them again: it is quite enough to have to see
the magistrate and my counsel.

'Indeed,' he said to himself, 'it appears to be my destiny to die in a
dream. An obscure creature, like myself, sure of being forgotten
within a fortnight, would indeed be foolish, one must admit, were he
to play a part ...

'It is strange, all the same, that I have learned the art of enjoying
life only now that I see its term draw so near.'

He spent these last days in pacing the narrow terrace on the roof of
his dungeon, smoking some excellent cigars for which Mathilde had sent
a courier to Holland, and with no suspicion that his appearance was
daily awaited by all the telescopes in the town. His thoughts were at
Vergy. Never did he speak of Madame de Renal to Fouque, but on two or
three occasions this friend told him that she was recovering rapidly,
and these words echoed in his heart.

While Julien's spirit was almost always completely lost in the world
of ideas, Mathilde, occupied with realities, as becomes an
aristocratic heart, had contrived to increase the intimacy of the
direct correspondence between Madame de Fervaques and M. de Frilair to
such a point that already the mighty word Bishopric had been uttered.

The venerable prelate, in whose hands was the list of benefices, added
as a postscript to one of his niece's letters: 'That poor Sorel is
nothing worse than a fool, I hope that he will be restored to us.'

At the sight of these lines, M. de Frilair was almost out of his mind.
He had no doubt of his ability to save Julien.

'But for that Jacobinical law which prescribes the registration of an
endless list of jurors, and has no other real object than to take
away all influence from well-born people,' he said to Mathilde, on the
eve of the drawing by lot of the thirty-six jurors for the assize, 'I
could have answered for the verdict. Did I not secure the acquittal of
the cure N---- ?'

It was with pleasure that, on the following day, among the names drawn
from the urn, M. de Frilair found those of five members of the
Congregation of Besancon, and, among those who were strangers to the
town, the names of MM. Valenod, de Moirod and de Cholin. 'I can
answer at once for these eight jurors,' he told Mathilde. 'The first
five are _machines_. Valenod is my agent, Moirod owes all he has to me,
Cholin is an imbecile, who is afraid of everything.'

The newspaper published throughout the Department the names of the
jurors, and Madame de Renal, to the inexpressible terror of her
husband, decided to come to Besancon. All that M. de Renal could
obtain from her was that she would not leave her bed, so that she
might not be exposed to the nuisance of being summoned to give
evidence. 'You do not understand my position,' said the former Mayor
of Verrieres. 'I am now a Liberal of the defection, as they call it;
no doubt but that rascal Valenod and M. de Frilair will easily
persuade the Attorney General and the Judges to anything that can be
unpleasant for me.'

Madame de Renal yielded without protest to her husband's orders, 'f I
were to appear at the Assize Court,' she told herself, 'I should seem
to be demanding vengeance.'

Notwithstanding all the promises of prudence made to her spiritual
director and to her husband, no sooner had she arrived in Besancon
than she wrote with her own hand to each of the thirty-six jurors:

'I shall not appear in Court upon the day of the trial, Sir, because
my presence might prejudice M. Sorel's case. I desire but one thing in
the world, and that passionately, namely his acquittal. Be assured of
this, the terrible thought that on my account an innocent man has been
sent to his death would poison the remainder of my life, and would
doubtless shorten it. How could you sentence him to death, while I
still live? No, beyond question, society has not the right to take
life, especially from such a man as Julien Sorel. Everyone at
Verrieres has seen him in moments of distraction. This poor young man
has powerful enemies; but, even among his enemies (and how many they
are!) who is there that has any doubt of his admirable talents and his
profound learning? It is not an ordinary person that you are about to
judge, Sir. For nearly eighteen months we have all known him to be
pious, wise, studious; but, two or three times in the year, he was
seized by fits of melancholy which bordered on insanity. The whole
town of Verrieres, all our neighbours at Vergy where we go in the fine
weather, all my family, the Sub-Prefect himself, will bear testimony
to his exemplary piety; he knows by heart the whole of the Holy Bible.
Would an unbeliever have applied himself for years on end to learning
the Holy Scriptures? My sons will have the honour to present this
letter to you: they are children. Deign to question them, Sir, they
will furnish you with all the details relative to this poor young man
that may still be necessary to convince you of the barbarity of
condemning him. Far from avenging me, you would be sentencing me to

'What is there that his enemies can advance in rebuttal of the
following fact? The injury that ensued from one of those moments of
insanity which my children themselves used to remark in their tutor
was so far from dangerous that within less than two months, it has
allowed me to post from Verrieres to Besancon. If I learn, Sir, that
you have even the slightest hesitation in saving from the barbarity of
our laws a person who is so little guilty, I shall leave my bed, to
which I am confined solely by my husband's orders, and shall come to
throw myself at your feet.

'Declare, Sir, that the premeditation is not proven, and you will not
have to reproach yourself with the blood of an innocent man,' etc.,

The Trial

  The country will remember this celebrated trial for a
  long time to come.  Interest in the accused reached fever
  pitch; this was because his crime was astonishing and yet
  not atrocious. Even if it had been, the young man was so
  handsome! His great destiny abruptly cut short heightened
  the pity felt for him. Will he be condemned? the women
  would ask the men of their acquaintance and one could see
  them grow pale as they awaited the reply.

At length the day dawned so dreaded by Madame de Renal and Mathilde.

The strange appearance of the town increased their terror, and did not
leave even Fouque's stout heart unmoved. The whole Province had
swarmed into Besancon to witness the trial of this romantic case.

For some days past there had not been a bed to be had in the inns. The
President of the Assize Court was assailed with requests for cards of
admission; all the ladies of the town wished to be present at the
trial; Julien's portrait was hawked through the streets, etc., etc.

Mathilde was keeping in reserve for this supreme moment a letter
written throughout in the hand of the Lord Bishop of ----. This
Prelate, who controlled the Church in France and appointed Bishops,
deigned to ask for the acquittal of Julien. On the eve of the trial,
Mathilde took this letter to the all-powerful Vicar-General.

At the close of the interview, as she was leaving the room in a flood
of tears: 'I answer for the verdict of the jury,' M. de Frilair told
her, emerging at length from his diplomatic reserve, and almost
showing signs of emotion himself. 'Among the twelve persons charged
with the duty of finding whether your protege's crime is proven, and
especially whether there was premeditation, I number six friends
devoted to my welfare, and I have given them to understand that it
rested with them to raise me to the episcopate.  Baron de Valenod,
whom I have made Mayor of Verrieres, has entire control over two of
his subordinates, MM. de Moirod and de Cholin. To tell the truth,
chance has given us, for dealing with this affair, two jurors who are
extremely disaffected; but, although Ultra-Liberals, they loyally obey
my orders on great occasions, and I have sent word asking them to vote
with M. Valenod. I learn that a sixth juror of the industrial class,
an immensely rich and garrulous Liberal, is secretly hoping for a
contract from the Ministry of War, and no doubt he would not wish to
vex me. I have let him know that M. Valenod has my last word.'

'And who is this M. Valenod?' said Mathilde, anxiously.

'If you knew him, you would have no doubt of our success. He is a bold
speaker, impudent, coarse, a man made to be the leader of fools. 1814
raised him from penury, and I am going to make him a Prefect. He is
capable of thrashing the other jurors if they refuse to vote as he

Mathilde was somewhat reassured.

There was another discussion in store for her that evening. In order
not to prolong a painful scene, the outcome of which appeared to him
certain, Julien was determined not to open his mouth.

'My counsel will speak, that is quite sufficient,' he said to
Mathilde. 'As it is, I shall be all too long exposed as a spectacle to
my enemies. These provincials are shocked by the rapid advancement
which I owe to you, and, believe me, there is not one of them that
does not wish for my conviction, except that he will cry like a fool
when I am led to the scaffold.'

'They wish to see you humiliated, it is only too true,' replied
Mathilde, 'but I do not believe that they are cruel. My presence in
Besancon and the spectacle of my grief have interested all the women;
your handsome face will do the rest. If you say but one word before
your judges, the whole court will be on your side,' etc., etc.

The following morning at nine o'clock, when Julien came down from his
prison to enter the great hall of the Law Courts, it was with the
utmost difficulty that the gendarmes succeeded in clearing a passage
through the immense crowd that packed the courtyard. Julien had slept
well, he was quite calm, and felt no other sentiment than one of
philosophical piety towards this crowd of envious persons who, without
cruelty, were ready to applaud his sentence of death. He was quite
surprised when, having been detained for more than a quarter of an
hour among the crowd, he was obliged to admit that his presence was
inspiring a tender pity in the assembly. He did not hear a single
unpleasant remark. 'These provincials are less evil-minded than I
supposed,' he said to himself.

On entering the court, he was struck by the elegance of the
architecture.  It was pure gothic, with a number of charming little
pillars carved in stone with the most perfect finish. He imagined
himself in England.

But presently his whole attention was absorbed in twelve or fifteen
pretty women who, seated opposite the dock, filled the three galleries
above the bench and the jurybox. On turning round towards the public
seats, he saw that the circular gallery which overhung the well of the
court was filled with women; most of them were young and seemed to him
extremely pretty; their eyes were bright and full of interest. In the
rest of the court, the crowd was enormous; people were struggling at
the doors, and the sentries were unable to preserve silence.

When all the eyes that were looking for Julien became aware of his
presence, on seeing him take his place on the slightly raised bench
reserved for the prisoner, he was greeted with a murmur of
astonishment and tender interest.

One would have said that morning that he was not yet twenty; he was
dressed quite simply, but with a perfect grace; his hair and brow were
charming; Mathilde had insisted on presiding in person over his
toilet. His pallor was intense. As soon as he had taken his seat on
the bench, he heard people say on all sides: 'Lord, how young he is!
...' 'But he is a boy.' 'He is far better looking than his portrait.'

'Prisoner,' said the gendarme seated on his right, 'do you see those
six ladies who are on that balcony?' The gendarme pointed to a little
gallery which jutted out above the amphitheatre in which the jury was
placed. 'That is the Prefect's lady,' the gendarme continued; 'next to
her, Madame la Marquise de M ---- ; that one loves you dearly. I heard
her speak to the examining magistrate. Next to her is Madame

'Madame Derville,' exclaimed Julien, and a vivid blush suffused his
brow.  'When she leaves the court,' he thought, 'she will write to
Madame de Renal.' He knew nothing of Madame de Renal's arrival at

The witnesses were quickly heard. At the first words of the speech for
the prosecution made by the counsel for the prosecution, two of the
ladies seated on the little balcony burst into tears. 'Madame Derville
is not so easily moved,' thought Julien. He noticed, however, that she
was extremely flushed.

The counsel for the prosecution was labouring an emotional point in
bad French about the barbarity of the crime that had been committed;
Julien noticed that Madame Derville's neighbours showed signs of
strong disapproval. Several of the jury, evidently friends of these
ladies, spoke to them and seemed to reassure them. 'That can only be a
good sign,' thought Julien.

Until then he had felt himself penetrated by an unmixed contempt for
all the men who were taking part in this trial. The insipid eloquence
of the counsel for the prosecution increased this sense of disgust.
But gradually the sereneness of Julien's heart melted before the marks
of interest of which he was plainly the object.

He was pleased with the firm expression of his counsel. 'No fine
language,' he murmured to him as he stood up to speak.

'All the emphasis stolen from Bossuet, which has been displayed
against you, has helped your case,' said the counsel. And indeed, he
had not been speaking for five minutes before almost all the ladies
had their handkerchiefs in their hands. The counsel, encouraged by
this, addressed the jury in extremely strong language. Julien
shuddered, he felt that he was on the point of bursting into tears.
'Great God! What will my enemies say?'

He was about to yield to the emotion that was overpowering him, when,
fortunately for himself, he caught an insolent glance from M. Valenod.

'That wretch's eyes are ablaze,' he said to himself; 'what a triumph
for that vile nature! Had my crime led to this alone, I should be
bound to abhor it. Heaven knows what he will say of me to Madame de

This thought obliterated all the rest. Shortly afterwards, Julien was
recalled to himself by sounds of approval from the public. His counsel
had just concluded his speech. Julien remembered that it was the
correct thing to shake hands with him. The time had passed quickly.

Refreshments were brought to counsel and prisoner. It was only then
that Julien was struck by a curious circumstance: none of the women
had left the court for dinner.

'Faith, I am dying of hunger,' said his counsel, 'and you?'

'I am also,' replied Julien.

'Look, there is the Prefect's lady getting her dinner, too,' his
counsel said to him, pointing to the little balcony. 'Cheer up,
everything is going well.' The trial was resumed.

As the President was summing up, midnight struck. He was obliged to
pause; amid the silence of the universal anxiety, the echoing notes of
the clock filled the court.

'Here begins the last day of my life,' thought Julien. Presently he
felt himself inflamed by the idea of duty. He had kept his emotion in
check until then, and maintained his determination not to speak; but
when the President of the Assizes asked him if he had anything to say,
he rose. He saw in front of him the eyes of Madame Derville, which, in
the lamplight, seemed to shine with a strange brilliance. 'Can she be
crying, by any chance,' he wondered.

'Gentlemen of the Jury,

'My horror of the contempt which I believed that I could endure at the
moment of my death, impels me to speak. Gentlemen, I have not the
honour to belong to your class, you see in me a peasant who has risen
in revolt against the lowliness of his station.

'I ask you for no mercy,' Julien went on, his voice growing stronger.
'I am under no illusion; death is in store for me; it will be a just
punishment.  I have been guilty of attempting the life of the woman
most worthy of all respect, of all devotion. Madame de Renal had been
like a mother to me. My crime is atrocious, and it was _premeditated_.
I have, therefore, deserved death, Gentlemen of the Jury. But, even
were I less guilty, I see before me men who, without pausing to
consider what pity may be due to my youth, will seek to punish in me
and to discourage forever that class of young men who, born in an
inferior station and in a sense burdened with poverty, have the good
fortune to secure a sound education, and the audacity to mingle with
what the pride of rich people calls society.

'That is my crime, Gentlemen, and it will be punished with all the
more severity inasmuch as actually I am not being tried by my peers. I
do not see, anywhere among the jury, a peasant who has grown rich, but
only indignant bourgeois ...'

For twenty minutes Julien continued to speak in this strain; he said
everything that was in his heart; the counsel for the prosecution, who
aspired to the favour of the aristocracy, kept springing from his
seat; but in spite of the somewhat abstract turn which Julien had
given the debate, all the women were dissolved in tears. Madame
Derville herself had her handkerchief pressed to her eyes. Before
concluding, Julien returned to the question of premeditation, to his
repentance, to the respect, the filial and unbounded adoration which,
in happier times, he had felt for Madame de Renal ... Madame
Derville uttered a cry and fainted.

One o'clock struck as the jury retired to their waiting-room. None of
the women had left their seats; several of the men had tears in their
eyes. The general conversation was at first most lively; but
gradually, as the jury delayed their verdict, the feeling of weariness
spread a calm over the assembly. It was a solemn moment; the lamps
burned more dimly. Julien, who was dead tired, heard them discussing
round him whether this delay augured well or ill. He noticed with
pleasure that everyone was on his side; the jury did not return, and
still not a woman left the court.

Just as two o'clock had struck, a general stir was audible. The little
door of the jury-room opened. M. le Baron de Valenod advanced with a
grave, theatrical step, followed by the rest of the jury. He coughed,
then declared that on his soul and conscience the unanimous opinion of
the jury was that Julien Sorel was guilty of murder, and of murder
with premeditation: this verdict inferred a sentence of death; it was
pronounced a moment later. Julien looked at his watch, and remembered
M. de Lavalette; it was a quarter past two. Today is Friday,' he

'Yes, but this is a lucky day for Valenod, who is sentencing
me ... I am too closely guarded for Mathilde to be able to effect my
escape, like Madame de Lavalette . .. And so, in three days, at this
same hour, I shall know what to think of the _great hereafter_.'

At that moment, he heard a cry and was recalled to the things of this
world. The women round him were sobbing; he saw that every face was
turned towards a little gallery concealed by the capital of a gothic
pilaster. He learned afterwards that Mathilde had been hidden there.
As the cry was not repeated, everyone turned back to look at Julien,
for whom the gendarmes were trying to clear a passage through the

'Let us try not to give that rascal Valenod any food for laughter,'
thought Julien. 'With what a contrite and coaxing air he uttered the
verdict that involved the death penalty! Whereas that poor president,
even though he has been a judge for all these years, had tears in his
eyes when he sentenced me. What a joy for Valenod to have his revenge
for our old rivalry for Madame de Renal! And so I shall never see her
any more! It is all finished ... A last farewell is impossible between
us, I feel it ... How happy I should have been to express to her all
the horror I feel for my crime!

'These words only: I feel that I am justly condemned.'

In the Prison

When Julien was lee back to prison he had been put in a cell reserved
for those under sentence of death. He, who, as a rule, observed the
most trifling details, had never noticed that he was not being taken
up to his old dungeon. He was thinking of what he would say to Madame
de Renal, if, before the fatal moment, he should have the good fortune
to see her. He felt that she would not allow him to speak, and was
seeking a way of expressing his repentance in the first words he would
utter. 'After such an action, how am I to convince her that I love her
and her only? For after all I sought to kill her either out of
ambition or for love of Mathilde.'

On getting into bed he found himself between sheets of a coarse cloth.
The scales fell from his eyes. 'Ah! I am in the condemned cell,' he
said to himself, 'awaiting my sentence. It is right ...

'Conte Altamira told me once that, on the eve of his death, Danton
said in his loud voice: "It is strange, the verb to guillotine cannot
be conjugated in all its tenses; one can say: I shall be guillotined,
thou shalt be guillotined, but one does not say: I have been

'Why not,' Julien went on, 'if there is another life? Faith, if I meet
the Christian Deity, I am lost: He is a tyrant, and, as such, is full
of ideas of vengeance; His Bible speaks of nothing but fearful
punishments. I never loved Him! I could never even believe that anyone
did love Him sincerely.  He is devoid of pity.' (Here Julien recalled
several passages from the Bible.) 'He will punish me in some
abominable manner ...

'But if I meet the God of Fenelon! He will say to me perhaps: "Much
shall be pardoned thee, because thou hast loved much ..."

'Have I loved much? Ah! I did love Madame de Renal, but my conduct has
been atrocious. There, as elsewhere, I abandoned a simple and modest
merit for what was brilliant ...

'But then, what a prospect! Colonel of Hussars, should we go to war;
Secretary of Legation in time of peace; after that, Ambassador ... for
I should soon have learned the business ... and had I been a mere
fool, need the son-in-law of the Marquis de La Mole fear any rival?
All my foolish actions would have been forgiven me, or rather counted
to me as merits. A man of distinction, enjoying the most splendid
existence in Vienna or London ...

'Not precisely that, Sir, to be guillotined in three days' time.'

Julien laughed heartily at this sally of his own wit. 'Indeed, man has
two different beings inside him,' he reflected. 'What devil thought of
that malicious touch?

'Very well, yes, my friend, guillotined in three days' time,' he
replied to the interrupter. 'M. de Cholin will hire a window, sharing
the expense with the abbe Maslon. Well, for the cost of hiring that
window, which of those two worthies will rob the other?'

A passage from Rotrou's _Venceslas_ entered his head suddenly.

_Ladislas_: My soul is well prepared.
_The King (his father)_: So is the scaffold; lay your head thereon.

'A good answer,' he thought, and fell asleep. Someone awakened him in
the morning by shaking him violently.

'What, already!' said Julien, opening a haggard eye. He imagined
himself to be in the headsman's hands.

It was Mathilde. 'Fortunately, she did not understand.' This
reflection restored all his presence of mind. He found Mathilde
changed as though after six months of illness: she was positively

'That wretch Frilair has betrayed me,' she said to him, wringing her
hands; rage prevented her from speaking.

'Was I not fine yesterday when I rose to speak?' replied Julien. 'I
was improvising, and for the first time in my life! It is true that
there is reason to fear it may also be the last.'

At this moment Julien was playing upon Mathilde's nature with all the
calm of a skilled pianist touching the keys of a piano ... 'The
advantage of noble birth I lack, it is true,' he went on, 'but the
great heart of Mathilde has raised her lover to her own level. Do you
suppose that Boniface de La Mole cut a better figure before his

Mathilde, that morning, was tender without affectation, like any poor
girl dwelling in an attic; but she could not win from him any simpler
speech. He paid her back, unconsciously, the torment that she had
often inflicted on him.

'We do not know the source of the Nile,' Julien said to himself; 'it
has not been granted to the eye of man to behold the King of Rivers in
the form of a simple rivulet: similarly no human eye shall ever see
Julien weak, if only because he is not weak. But I have a heart that
is easily moved; the most commonplace words, if they are uttered with
an accent of truth, may soften my voice and even make my tears begin
to flow. How often have not the sere hearts despised me for this
defect! They believed that I was begging for mercy: that is what I
cannot endure.

'They say that the thought of his wife overcame Danton at the foot of
the scaffold; but Danton had given strength to a nation of coxcombs,
and prevented the enemy from reaching Paris . . I alone know what I
might have managed to do ... To others, I am at best only a

'If Madame de Renal had been here, in my cell, instead of Mathilde,
should I have been able to control myself? The intensity of my despair
and of my repentance would have appeared in the eyes of the Valenods,
and of all the patricians of the neighbourhood, a craven fear of
death; they are so proud, those feeble hearts, whom their financial
position places out of reach of temptation!  "You see what it is," M.
de Moirod and M. de Cholin, who have just sentenced me to death, would
have said, "to be born the son of a carpenter!  One may become
learned, clever, but courage! ...  Courage is not taught at school."
Even this poor Mathilde, who is now weeping, or rather who can no
longer weep,' he said, looking at her red eyes ... and he took her in
his arms: the sight of genuine grief made him forget his syllogism.
'She has been weeping all night, perhaps,' he said to himself: 'but
one day how ashamed she will be when she remembers! She will regard
herself as having been led astray, in early youth, by the low opinions
of a plebeian ...  Croisenois is weak enough to marry her, and, i'
faith, he will do well for himself.  She will make him play a part,

    "By that right
  Which a firm spirit planning vast designs
  Has o'er the loutish minds of common men."

'Ah, now; here is a pleasant thing: now that I am to die, all the
poetry I ever learned in my life comes back to me. It must be a sign
of decadence ...'

Mathilde kept on saying to him in a faint voice: 'He is there, in the
next room.' At length he began to pay attention to her words. 'Her
voice is feeble,' he thought, 'but all her imperious nature is still
in its accents.  She lowers her voice in order not to lose her temper.

'Who is there?' he asked her gently.

'The lawyer, to make you sign your appeal.'

'I shall not appeal.'

'What! You will not appeal,' she said, rising to her feet, her eyes
ablaze with anger, 'and why not, if you please?'

'Because at this moment I feel that I have the courage to die without
exciting undue derision. And who can say that in two months' time,
after a long confinement in this damp cell, I shall be so well
prepared? I foresee interviews with priests, with my father ... I can
imagine nothing so unpleasant. Let us die.'

This unexpected obstinacy awoke all the latent pride in Mathilde's
nature.  She had not been able to see the abbe de Frilair before the
hour at which the cells in the prison of Besancon were opened; her
anger fell upon Julien. She adored him, and for the next quarter of an
hour he was reminded by her imprecations against his character, her
regrets that she had ever loved him, of that proud spirit which in the
past had heaped such poignant insults upon him, in the library of the
Hotel de La Mole.

'Heaven owed it to the glory of your race to bring you into the world
a man,' he told her.

'But as for myself,' he thought, 'I should be a rare fool to live two
months longer in this disgusting abode, the butt of all the infamous
and humiliating lies that the patrician faction is capable of
inventing, [Footnote: A Jacobin is speaking. (Stendhal's note.)]
my sole comfort the imprecations of this madwoman ...  Well, the day
after tomorrow, I shall be fighting a duel in the morning with a man
well known for his coolness and for his remarkable skill ... Very
remarkable,' whispered Mephistopheles, 'he never misses his stroke.

'Very well, so be it, all's well that ends well.' (Mathilde's
eloquence continued to flow.) 'Begad, no,' he said to himself, 'I
shall not appeal.'

Having made this decision, he relapsed into his dreams ... 'The
postman on his rounds will bring the newspaper at six o'clock, as
usual; at eight, after M. de Renal has read it, Elisa, entering the
room on tiptoe, will lay it down on her bed. Later, she will awake:
suddenly, as she reads, she will grow troubled; her lovely hand will
tremble; she will come to the words: _At five minutes past ten he had
ceased to live_.

'She will shed hot tears, I know her; in vain did I seek to murder
her, all will be forgotten, and the person whose life I sought to take
will be the only one who will weep sincerely for my death.

'Ah, this is a paradox!' he thought, and, for the next quarter of an
hour, while Mathilde continued to make a scene, he thought only of
Madame de Renal. In spite of himself, and albeit frequently replying
to what Mathilde said to him, he could not free his mind from the
memory of that bedroom at Verrieres. He saw the _Gazette de Besancon_
lying on the counterpane of orange taffeta. He saw that snowy hand
clutching it with a convulsive movement; he saw Madame de Renal weep
... He followed the course of each tear over that charming face.
Mademoiselle de La Mole, having failed to get anything out of Julien,
made the lawyer come in. He was fortunately an old Captain of the Army
of Italy, of 1796, when he had served with Manuel.

For the sake of form, he opposed the condemned man's decision. Julien,
wishing to treat him with respect, explained all his reasons to him.

'Faith, one may think as you do,' M. Felix Vaneau (this was the
lawyer's name) said to him at length. 'But you have three clear days
in which to appeal, and it is my duty to come back each day. If a
volcano opened beneath the prison, in the next two months, you would
be saved. You may die a natural death,' he said, looking at Julien.

Julien shook his hand. 'I thank you, you are an honest man. I shall
think it over.'

And when Mathilde left him, finally, with the lawyer, he felt far more
affection for the lawyer than for her.

Last Adieux

An hour later, when he was fast asleep, he was awakened by the tears
which he felt trickling over his hand. 'Ah! Mathilde again,' he
thought to himself, half awake. 'She has come, faithful to her theory,
to attack my resolve by force of tender sentiments.' Irritated by the
prospect of this fresh scene in the pathetic manner, he did not open
his eyes. The lines of Belphegor flying from his wife came into his

He heard a strange sigh; he opened his eyes; it was Madame de Renal.

'Ah! Do I see you again before my death? Is it a phantom?' he cried,
as he flung himself at her feet.

'But forgive me, Madame, I am nothing but a murderer in your eyes,' he
at once added, regaining his composure.

'Sir, ... I have come to implore you to appeal, I know that you do not
wish to ...' She was choked by her sobs; she was unable to speak.

'Deign to forgive me.'

'If you wish me to forgive you,' she said to him, rising and throwing
herself into his arms, 'appeal at once from the sentence of death.'

Julien covered her with kisses.

'Will you come and see me every day during the next two months?'

'I swear it to you. Every day, unless my husband forbids me.'

'Then I sign!' cried Julien. 'What! You forgive me! Is it possible?'

He clasped her in his arms; he was mad. She uttered a faint cry.

'It is nothing,' she told him, 'you hurt me.'

'In your shoulder,' cried Julien, bursting into tears. He stepped back
from her, and covered her hand with burning kisses. 'Who would ever
have said, last time I saw you, in your bedroom, at Verrieres ... ?'

'Who would ever have said then that I should write M. de La Mole that
infamous letter ... ?'

'Know that I have always loved you, that I have never loved anyone but

'Is it really possible?' cried Madame de Renal, equally enraptured.
She bowed herself over Julien, who was kneeling at her feet, and for a
long time they wept in silence.

At no time in his life had Julien experienced such a moment.

After a long interval, when they were able to speak:

'And that young Madame Michele!' said Madame de Renal, 'or rather
that Mademoiselle de La Mole; for I am beginning really to believe
this strange tale!'

'It is true only in appearance,' replied Julien. 'She is my wife, but
she is not my mistress ...'

And, each interrupting the other a hundred times, they managed with
difficulty, each of them, to tell what the other did not know. The
letter sent to M. de La Mole had been written by the young priest who
directed Madame de Renal's conscience, and then copied out by her.
'What a terrible crime religion has made me commit!' she said to him;
'though I did modify the worst passages in the letter....'

Julien's transports of joy proved to her how completely he forgave
her.  Never had he been so madly in love.

'And yet I regard myself as pious,' Madame de Renal told him in the
course of their conversation. 'I believe sincerely in God; I believe
equally, indeed it has been proved to me, that the crime I am
committing is fearful, and yet, as soon as I set eyes on you, even
after you have fired at me twice with a pistol...' Here, in spite of
her resistance, Julien covered her with kisses.

'Let me alone,' she went on, 'I wish to argue with you, before I
forget ...  As soon as I set eyes on you, all sense of duty vanishes,
there is nothing left of me but love for you, or rather love is too
feeble a word. I feel for you what I ought to feel only for God: a
blend of respect, love, obedience ... In truth, I do not know what
feeling you inspire in me. Were you to bid me thrust a knife into your
gaoler, the crime would be committed before I had had time to think.
Explain this to me in simple terms before I leave you, I wish to see
clearly into my own heart; for in two months we must part ... For that
matter, need we part?' she said, with a smile.

'I take back my word,' cried Julien, springing to his feet; 'I shall
not appeal from the sentence of death, if by poison, knife, pistol,
charcoal or any other means whatsoever, you seek to put an end to, or
to endanger your life.'

Madame de Renal's expression altered suddenly; the warmest affection
gave place to a profound abstraction.

'If we were to die at once?' she said to him at length.

'Who knows what we shall find in our next life?' replied Julien;
'torments perhaps, perhaps nothing at all. Can we not spend two months
together in a delicious manner? Two months, that is ever so many days.
Never shall I have been so happy.'

'You will never have been so happy?'

'Never,' replied Julien with rapture, 'and I am speaking to you as I
speak to myself. Heaven preserve me from exaggeration.'

'To speak so is to command me,' she said with a timid and melancholy

'Very well! You swear, by the love that you bear me, not to attempt
your life by any direct means, or indirect means ... Remember,' he
added, 'that you are compelled to live for my son, whom Mathilde will
abandon to the care of servants as soon as she is Marquise de

'I swear,' she replied coldly, 'but I mean to take away with me your
appeal written and signed by your hand. I shall go myself to the

'Take care, you will compromise yourself.'

'After coming publicly to see you in prison, I am for ever, for
Besancon and the whole of the Franche-Comte, a heroine of anecdotes,'
she said with an air of profound distress. 'I have gone beyond the
last limits of modesty ... I am a woman who has forfeited her honour;
it is true that it was for your sake ...'

Her tone was so melancholy that Julien embraced her with a happiness
that was quite new to him. It was no longer the intoxication of love,
it was extreme gratitude. He had just realised, for the first time,
the full extent of the sacrifice that she had made for him.

Some charitable soul doubtless informed M. de Renal of the long visits
which his wife was paying to Julien's prison; for, after three days,
he sent his carriage for her, with express orders that she was to
return immediately to Verrieres.

This cruel parting had begun the day ill for Julien. He was informed,
two or three hours later, that a certain intriguing priest, who for
all that had not succeeded in making any headway among the Jesuits of
Besancon, had taken his stand that morning outside the gate of the
prison, in the street.  It was raining hard, and outside there the man
was trying to pose as a martyr. Julien was out of temper, this piece
of foolishness moved him profoundly.

That morning he had already refused a visit from the priest, but the
man had made up his mind to hear Julien's confession, and to make a
name for himself among the young women of Besancon, on the strength of
all the confidences which he would pretend to have received.

He declared in a loud voice that he was going to remain day and night
at the gate of the prison: 'God has sent me to touch the heart of this
other apostate.' And the lower orders, always curious spectators of a
scene, began to assemble in crowds.

'Yes, my brethren,' he said to them, 'I shall spend the day here, and
the night, and every day and night from now onwards. The Holy Spirit
has spoken to me. I have a mission from on high; it is I that am to
save the soul of young Sorel. Join with me in my prayers,' etc., etc.

Julien had a horror of scandal, and of anything that might attract
attention to himself. He thought of seizing the opportunity to escape
from the world unknown; but he had still some hope of seeing Madame de
Renal again, and was desperately in love.

The gate of the prison was situated in one of the most frequented
streets. The thought of that mud-bespattered priest, drawing a crowd
and creating a scandal, was torture to his soul. 'And, without a
doubt, at every instant he is repeating my name!' This moment was more
painful than death itself.

He called two or three times, at intervals of an hour, for a turnkey
who was devoted to him, to send him out to see whether the priest were
still at the gate of the prison.

'Sir, he is on both his knees in the mud,' was the turnkey's
invariable answer; 'he is praying aloud, and repeating Litanies for
your soul.' 'The impertinent fellow!' thought Julien. At that moment,
indeed, he heard a dull roar, it was the crowd responding to the
Litany. To increase his impatience, he saw the turnkey move his lips
as he repeated the Latin words. 'They are beginning to say,' the
turnkey added, 'that your heart must indeed be hardened if you refuse
the succour of this holy man.'

'O my country! How barbarous you still are!' cried Julien in a frenzy
of rage. And he continued his reasoning aloud, without a thought of
the turnkey's presence.

'The man wants an article in the paper, and now he is certain of
obtaining it.

'Oh, cursed provincials! In Paris, I should not have been subjected to
all these vexations. They are more adept there in charlatanism.

'Let this holy priest come in,' he said at length to the turnkey, and
the sweat trickled in great drops from his brow. The turnkey made the
sign of the Cross, and left the cell radiant.

The holy priest proved to be hideously ugly, and was even more foul
with mud. The cold rain outside intensified the darkness and dampness
of the cell. The priest tried to embrace Julien, and began to show
emotion as he spoke to him. The vilest hypocrisy was all too evident;
never in his life had Julien been in such a rage.

A quarter of an hour after the priest had entered, Julien found
himself a complete coward. For the first time death appeared to him
horrible. He thought of the state of putrefaction in which his body
would be two days after his execution, etc., etc.

He was on the point of betraying himself by some sign of weakness, or
of flinging himself upon the priest and strangling him with his chain,
when it occurred to him to beg the holy man to go and say a good
forty-franc mass for him, that very day.

As it was almost midday, the priest decamped.

The Shadow of the Guillotine

As soon as he had gone, Julien began to weep copiously, at the thought
of dying. After a while he said to himself that, if Madame de Renal
had been at Besancon, he would have confessed his weakness to her. ...

At the moment when he most regretted the absence of that beloved
woman, he heard Mathilde's step.

'The worst drawback of a prison,' he thought, 'is that one can never
close one's door.' All that Mathilde had to say served only to
irritate him.

She informed him that, on the day of the trial, M. de Valenod, having
in his pocket his appointment as Prefect, had ventured to defy M. de
Frilair and indulge himself in the pleasure of condemning Julien to

'"Whatever induced your friend," M. de Frilair said to me just now,
"to go and arouse and attack the petty vanity of that middle-class
aristocracy?  Why speak of caste? He showed them what they ought to do
in their own political interest: the fools had never thought of it,
and were ready to cry. This caste interest blinded their eyes to the
horror of condemning a man to death. You must admit that M. Sorel
shows great inexperience. If we do not succeed in saving him by an
appeal to clemency, his death will be a sort of suicide ..."'

Mathilde did not, of course, mention to Julien a thing which she
herself did not yet suspect; namely, that the Abbe de Frilair, seeing
Julien irremediably lost, thought that it would serve his own ambition
to aspire to become his successor.

Almost out of his mind with helpless rage and vexation: 'Go and hear a
mass for me,' he said to Mathilde, 'and leave me a momen