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The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay
by
Arthur Phillip



The Voyage
of
Governor Phillip
to
Botany Bay
with an
Account of the Establishment of the Colonies of
Port Jackson and Norfolk Island;
compiled from Authentic Papers,
which have been obtained from the several Departments
to which are added
the Journals of Lieuts. Shortland, Watts, Ball and Capt. Marshall
with an Account of their New Discoveries,
embellished with fifty five Copper Plates,
the Maps and Charts taken from Actual Surveys,
and the plans and views drawn on the spot,
by Capt. Hunter, Lieuts. Shortland, Watts, Dawes, Bradley, Capt. Marshall, etc.


London
Printed for John Stockdale, Piccadilly
1789


TO THE MOST NOBLE
THE MARQUIS OF SALISBURY,
LORD CHAMBERLAIN OF HIS MAJESTY'S HOUSEHOLD, ETC., ETC.
THIS VOLUME,
CONTAINING ALL THAT IS YET KNOWN OF THE
SETTLEMENT AT SYDNEY COVE,
IS MOST RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED, BY
HIS LORDSHIP'S
MUCH OBLIGED, AND
MOST FAITHFUL
HUMBLE SERVANT,
JOHN STOCKDALE.
NOVEMBER 25, 1789.


ANECDOTES OF GOVERNOR PHILLIP.

Arthur Phillip is one of those officers, who, like Drake, Dampier, and
Cook, has raised himself by his merit and his services, to distinction
and command. His father was Jacob Phillip, a native of Frankfort, in
Germany, who having settled in England, maintained his family and educated
his son by teaching the languages. His mother was Elizabeth Breach, who
married for her first husband, Captain Herbert of the navy, a kinsman of
Lord Pembroke. Of her marriage with Jacob Phillip, was her son, Arthur,
born in the parish of Allhallows, Bread-street, within the city of London,
on the 11th of October, 1738.

Being designed for a seafaring life, he was very properly sent to the
school of Greenwich, where he received an education suitable to his early
propensities. At the age of sixteen, he began his maritime career, under
the deceased Captain Michael Everet of the navy, at the commencement of
hostilities, in 1755: and at the same time that he learned the rudiments
of his profession under that able officer, he partook with him in the early
misfortunes, and subsequent glories of the seven years war. Whatever
opulence Phillip acquired from the capture of the Havannah, certain it is,
that, at the age of twenty-three, he there was made a Lieutenant into the
Stirling-castle, on the 7th of June, 1761, by Sir George Pococke, an
excellent judge of naval accomplishments.

But of nautical exploits, however they may raise marine officers, there
must be an end. Peace, with its blessings, was restored in 1763. And Phillip
now found leisure to marry; and to settle at Lyndhurst, in the New Forest,
where he amused himself with farming, and like other country gentlemen,
discharged assiduously those provincial offices, which, however unimportant,
occupy respectably the owners of land, who, in this island, require no office
to make them important.

But sailors, like their own element, are seldom at rest. Those occupations,
which pleased Phillip while they were new, no longer pleased him when
they became familiar. And he hastened to offer his skill and his services to
Portugal when it engaged in warfare with Spain. His offer was readily
accepted, because such skill and services were necessary amidst an arduous
struggle with a too powerful opponent. And, such was his conduct and such
his success, that when the recent interference of France, in 1778, made
it his duty to fight for his king, and to defend his country, the Portugueze
court regretted his departure, but applauded his motive.

His return was doubtless approved by those who, knowing his value, could
advance his rank: For he was made master and commander into the Basilisk
fireship, on the 2d of September, 1779. But in her he had little opportunity
of displaying his zeal, or of adding to his fame. This step, however, led
him up to a higher situation; and he was made post-captain into the Ariadne
frigate, on the 13th of November, 1781, when he was upwards of three and
forty. This is the great epoch in the lives of our naval officers, because
it is from this that they date their rank. In the Ariadne, he had little
time for active adventures, or for gainful prizes, being appointed to the
Europe of sixty-four guns, on the 23d of December, 1781. During the memorable
year 1782, Phillip promoted its enterprises, and shared in its glories.
And in January, 1783, he sailed with a reinforcement to the East Indies,
where superior bravery contended against superior force, till the policy
of our negotiators put an end to unequal hostilities by a necessary peace.

The activity, or the zeal of Phillip, was now turned to more peaceful
objects. And when it was determined to form a settlement on that part of
New Holland, denominated New South Wales, he was thought of as a proper
officer to conduct an enterprize, which required professional knowledge,
and habitual prudence. His equipment, his voyage, and his settlement, in
the other hemisphere, will be found in the following volume. When the time
shall arrive that the European settlers on Sydney Cove demand their historian,
these authentic anecdotes of their pristine legislator will be sought for
as curious, and considered as important.


ERRATA (These have been corrected in this eBook)
Page, line
1, 15, for enterprizes, read enterprises.
13, penult. for only fifty, read an hundred.
Ibid. ult. for Penryn, read Penrhyn.
75, 7, for Surprize, read Surprise.
87, 14, after 17, dele th.
96, 13, for into, read in.
149, 10, for Kangooroo, read Kanguroo. The orthography of a word
            derived only from oral sound is in some degree arbitrary; but
            it ought to be consistant. The plates, by mistake, have Kangooroo.
185, 14, for it were were, read if it were.
203, 3, for Fobn, read Thomas.
213, 10, for four, read forty.
228, 23, bis, for Macauley, read Macaulay.
231, 15, for Patri, read Pabi.
252, Margin, for May, read June.
253, Ditto.
255, Margin, for July, read June.
256, Ditto.
232, 18, for Taha, read Toha.
242, 9, for who, read whom.
246, 25, for veer'd, read near'd.


N. B. Some of the early impressions of the plates have erroneously Wulpine
Oppossum for Vulpine Opossum. After a few were work'd off the fault was
perceived, and corrected.


ADVERTISEMENT.

The arrangement of materials in this volume being in some respects less
perfect than might be wished, it is necessary that something should be
said to obviate any imputation of negligence. The truth will be the best,
and, as it ought, the only apology. The official papers of Governor Phillip,
which were liberally communicated by Government, formed at first our principal
source of intelligence. These, from their nature, could contain but little
information on subjects of natural history, and many other points, concerning
which the curiosity of every reader would naturally be excited. The efforts
of the publisher to give satisfaction to the public in these respects produced
a gradual influx of materials; and the successive arrival of different vessels
from the Indian seas, occasioned additions to the work, which made it
necessary to engrave new plates. While, therefore, the completion
of the book was anxiously pressed by many who were eager to possess it,
that desirable point has constantly been deferred by the communications of
those who were studious to render it more valuable; and the word Finis, has
seemed to fly from us, like Italy before the wandering Trojans. From the
combination of these circumstances it has arisen, that every separate part
has been hurried on in the execution; and yet, in the finishing of the
whole, more time has elapsed, than would have been necessary to complete
a much more ample volume. The defects that proceed from these causes, it
is hoped, the reader will forgive, and accept with complacency a volume
in which, it is confidently hoped, nothing material has been omitted that
is connected with its principal object, the formation of a settlement
promising both glory and advantage to this country; in which several
important discoveries are announced; no small accession is made to the
stores of natural history; and interesting notices are communicated of
countries visited before, and persons in whose fate the public has long
felt an interest.

The publisher thinks it his duty, in this place, to return thanks to the
following noblemen and gentlemen, for their kind assistance and free
communications. The Marquis of Salisbury, Viscount Sydney, Lord Hood,
Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. Mr. Rose, Mr. Nepean, Mr. Stephens, Sir Charles
Middleton, Sir Andrew Snape Hammond, Mr. Dalrymple, and Mr. Chalmers: but,
to Mr. Latham particularly, the most grateful acknowledgements are due,
for having furnished many drawings and accurate descriptions, which stamp
a value on the natural history contained in this work, and must for ever
render it an object of attention to all lovers of that science: and to
Lieutenant Shortland, Lieutenant Watts, and Captain Marshall, of the
Scarborough transport, the public owe whatever important discoveries and
useful knowledge may be found in their journals, which they communicated
with a disinterestedness that the publisher will be always happy to
acknowledge.


ACCOUNT OF THE VIGNETTE.

The elegant vignette in the title-page, was engraved from a medallion which
the ingenious Mr. Wedge-wood caused to be modelled from a small piece of
clay brought from Sydney Cove. The clay proves to be of a fine texture,
and will be found very useful for the manufactory of earthern ware. The
design is allegorical; it represents Hope encouraging Art and Labour,
under the influence of Peace, to pursue the employments necessary to give
security and happiness to an infant settlement. The following verses upon
the same subject, and in allusion to the medallion, were written by the
author of The Botanic Garden, and will speak more powerfully for themselves
than any encomium we could bestow.


VISIT OF HOPE TO SYDNEY-COVE, NEAR BOTANY-BAY.

Where Sydney Cove her lucid bosom swells,
Courts her young navies, and the storm repels;
High on a rock amid the troubled air
HOPE stood sublime, and wav'd her golden hair;
Calm'd with her rosy smile the tossing deep,
And with sweet accents charm'd the winds to sleep;
To each wild plain she stretch'd her snowy hand,
High-waving wood, and sea-encircled strand.
"Hear me," she cried, "ye rising Realms! record
"Time's opening scenes, and Truth's unerring word.--
"There shall broad streets their stately walls extend,
"The circus widen, and the crescent bend;
"There, ray'd from cities o'er the cultur'd land,
"Shall bright canals, and solid roads expand.--
"There the proud arch, Colossus-like, bestride
"Yon glittering streams, and bound the chasing tide;
"Embellish'd villas crown the landscape-scene,
"Farms wave with gold, and orchards blush between.--
"There shall tall spires, and dome-capt towers ascend,
"And piers and quays their massy structures blend;
"While with each breeze approaching vessels glide,
"And northern treasures dance on every tide!"--
Then ceas'd the nymph--tumultuous echoes roar,
And JOY's loud voice was heard from shore to shore--
Her graceful steps descending press'd the plain,
And PEACE, and ART, and LABOUR, join'd her train.


VIEW of the FLEET and ESTABLISHMENT sent out with
GOVERNOR PHILLIP to NEW SOUTH WALES.

Captain ARTHUR PHILLIP of the Navy, Governor and Commander in Chief of
the territory of New South Wales, and of his Majesty's ships and vessels
employed on that coast.

Major Robert Ross, Lieutenant Governor.
Richard Johnson, Chaplain.
Andrew Miller, Commissary.
David Collins, Judge Advocate.
John Long, Adjutant.
James Furzer, Quarter-Master.
*George Alexander, Provost Martial.
John White, Surgeon.
Thomas Arndell, Assistant Ditto.
William Balmain, Ditto Ditto.

His Majesty's ship Sirius,
Captain Arthur Phillip.
Captain John Hunter.

His Majesty's armed tender Supply,
Lieutenant H. L. Ball.

Six transports carrying the convicts.
Alexander         210 men convicts.   women convicts.
Scarborough       210 men convicts.
Friendship         80 men convicts.             24
Charlotte         100 men convicts.             24
Prince of Wales              --          --    100
Lady Penrhyn                 --          --    102

Each transport had a detachment of marines on board.

Three store ships:

The Golden Grove, Fishburn, and Borrowdale;
With provisions, implements for husbandry, cloathing,
etc. for the convicts.

Lieutenant John Shortland, agent for the transports.

The garrison is formed from the marines.


Distribution of the Detachment of MARINES for NEW SOUTH
WALES, with the Number embarked on board of each of
the Transports upon that Service.

Ships  |Names           |Captains  |Subs|Serj-|Corp-|Drum and|Privates|Embarked|
Names  |of Officers     |          |    |eants|orals|fife    |        |        |

Lady    Captain Campbell         1    2     0     0        0       3  Portsmouth
Penrhyn Lieut G. Johnston
        Lieut. Wm Collins

Scarb-  Captain Shea             1    2     2     2        1      26  Portsmouth
orough  Lieutenant Kellow
        Lieutenant Morrison

Friend- Capt. Lieut. Meredith    1    2     2     3        1      36  Plymouth
ship    Lieutenant Clarke
        Lieutenant Faddy

Charl-  Captain Tench            1    2     3     3        1      34  Plymouth
otte    Lieutenant Cresswell
        Lieutenant Poulden

Alex-   Lieutenant J. Johnston   0    2     2     2        1      30  Woolwich.
ander   Lieutenant Shairp

Prince  Lieutenant Davy          0    2     2     2        1      25
of      Lieutenant Timmins
Wales   Provost Martial
                              ---------------------------------------
                                 4   12    11    12        5     154
put on board his Majesty's ship  0    0     1     0        3       6
Sirius, as supernumeraries.
                              ---------------------------------------
Total of the detachment          4   12    12    12        8     160
                              ---------------------------------------

Forty women, wives to the Marines, permitted to go out with the Garrison.


CONTENTS

Chapter I.

Public utility of voyages--Peculiar circumstances of this--New Holland
properly a continent--Reasons for fixing our settlement
there--Transportation to America, its origin, advantages, and
cessation--Experiments made--The present plan adopted--Disadvantages of
other expedients.

Chapter II.

Preparation of the fleet ordered to Botany Bay.--Particulars of its
arrangement.--Departure and passage to the Canary Isles.

Chapter III.

Reasons for touching at the Canary Isles--Precautions for preserving
Health--Their admirable Success--Some Account of the Canaries--Fables
respecting them--Attempt of a Convict to escape--Departure.
Report of the Marines and Convicts under medical treatment, June 4, 1787

Chapter IV.

Attempt to put in at Port Praya--Relinquished--Weather--Sail for Rio de
Faneiro--Reasons for touching at a South American port--The Fleet passes
the Line--Arrives at Rio de Faneiro--Account of that Place--Transactions
there--Departure.

Chapter V.

Prosperous passage from Rio to the Cape--Account of the Harbours there--The
Cape of Good Hope not the most Southern point--Height of Table Mountain
and others--Supineness of the European nations in neglecting to occupy the
Cape--Live stock laid in--Departure--Separation of the fleet--Arrival of the
Supply at Botany Bay.

Chapter VI.

First interview with the natives--the bay examined--arrival of the whole
fleet--Port Jackson examined--second interview with the natives--and
third--Governor Phillip returns to Botany Bay--and gives orders for the
evacuation of it.

Chapter VII.

Removal from Botany Bay--Arrival of two French ships--Account of
them--Preparations for encampment--Difficulties--Scurvy breaks out--Account
of the red and yellow gum trees.

Chapter VIII.

Description of Port Jackson and the adjacent country--The Governor's
commission read--his Speech--his humane resolutions respecting the
Natives--difficulties in erecting huts and other buildings--departure of
Lieutenant King to Norfolk Island. Instructions for P. G. King, Esq;
Superintendant and Commandant of the Settlement of Norfolk Island

Chapter IX.

A Criminal Court held--Broken Bay explored by Governor Phillip--Interviews
with the Natives--Peculiarities remarked--Friendly behaviour and
extraordinary courage of an old man.

Chapter X.

Departure of the French Ships--Death of M. Le Receveur--Return of the
Supply from Norfolk Island--Description of that Place--Howe Island
discovered. Particulars of the life of P. G. King, Esq

Chapter XI.

Three of the transports cleared--Two excursions made into the country, on
the fifteenth of April, and on the twenty-second--Huts of the
natives--Sculpture, and other particulars. Description of the Kanguroo.
Dimensions of the stuffed Kanguroo, in the possession of Mr. Stockdale.
Account of the live stock in the settlement at Port Jackson, May 1, 1788

Chapter XII.

The Supply returns from Lord Howe Island--Some convicts assaulted by the
natives--excursion of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay by Land--interview
with many natives--the fourth of June celebrated--some account of the
climate. Return of Sick, &c. June 30, 1788

Chapter XIII.

Particular description of Sydney Cove--Of the buildings actually
erected--and of the intended town--A settlement made at the head of the
harbour.

Chapter XIV.

Fish violently seized by the natives--Another expedition of the
Governor--Further account of the manners and manufactures of the native
inhabitants of New South Wales--Difficulty of obtaining any intercourse.
Remarks and Directions for sailing into PORT JACKSON, by Capt. J. HUNTER,
of the SIRIUS. Height of neap and spring tides, at full and change of the moon.

Chapter XV.

Some Specimens of Animals from New South Wales; description of The spotted
Opossum; Vulpine Opossum; Norfolk Island Flying-Squirrel. Blue Bellied Parrot;
Tabuan Parrot; Pennantian Parrot; Pacific Parrakeet; Sacred King's-fisher;
Superb Warbler, male; Superb Warbler, female; Caspian Tern; Norfolk Island
Petrel; Bronze-winged Pigeon; White-fronted Heron; Wattled Bee-Eater;
Psittaceous Hornbill; dimensions of a large Kanguroo.

Chapter XVI.

Papers relative to the settlement at Port Jackson.--General return of
marines.--Return of officers.--Artificers belonging to the Marine
Detachment.--List of officers and privates desirous of remaining in the
country.--Return of provisions.--Return of Sick.

Chapter XVII.

Nautical directions, and other detached remarks, by Lieutenant Ball,
concerning Rio de Janeiro, Norfolk Island, Ball Pyramid, and Lord Howe
Island.

Chapter XVIII.

Concise account of Lieutenant Shortland--His various services--Appointed
agent to the transports sent to New South Wales--Ordered by Governor
Phillip to England, by Batavia--Journal of his voyage--New discoveries.

Chapter XIX.

August 1788 to February 1789

Appearance of the scurvy--The boats land at one of the Pelew
Islands--Account of the Natives who were seen, and conjectures concerning
them--Distresses--The Friendship cleared and sunk--Miserable condition of
the Alexander when she reached Batavia.--Conclusion.

Chapter XX.

Lieutenant Watts's Narrative of the Return of the Lady Penrhyn Transport;
containing an Account of the Death of Omai, and other interesting
Particulars at Otaheite.

Chapter XXI.

The Scarborough leaves Port Jackson--Touches at Lord Howe's Island--Joins
the Charlotte--Falls in with a large Shoal--Discover a number of
Islands--Short account of the Inhabitants--Canoes described--Ornaments--
Discover Lord Mulgrave's Islands--Arrival at Tinian--Sick people sent on
shore--Departure from Tinian--Arrival in Mocao Roads.

CHAPTER XXII.

Supplemental Account of Animals from New South Wales, containing, Descriptions
of the Bankian Cockatoo; Red-shouldered Parrakeet; Crested Goat Sucker;
New Holland Cassowary; White Gallinule; Dog from New South Wales; Spotted
Martin; Kanguroo Rat; Laced Lizard; Port Jackson Shark; Bag Throated Balistes;
Unknown Fish from New South Wales; Watts's Shark; Great Brown
Kingsfisher.--Additional Account of the Kanguroo--Anecdote of Captain Cook
and Otoo, by Mr. Webber.--Dr. Blane's Account of the good Effects of the
Yellow Gum.--Botany Bay Plants.--Lieut. Watts's Account of the Weather at
Botany Bay and Port Jackson.--Conclusion.

CONTENTS OF THE APPENDIX.

Table I.   Route of the Alexander, Lieutenant Shortland, from the Cape
           of Good Hope to Botany Bay
Table II.  Route of the Supply, Lieut. Ball, after parting with the
           Alexander, to Botany Bay
Table III. Route of the Supply, Lieut. Ball, from Port Jackson to Norfolk
           Island
Table IV.  Route of the Supply from Norfolk Island to Port Jackson
Table V.   Route of the Supply from Port Jackson to Lord Howe Island,
           and from thence to Port Jackson
Table VI.  Route of the Alexander, Lieut. Shortland, from Port Jackson
           to Batavia
Table VII. Route of the Lady Penrhyn, Capt. Sever, from Port Jackson
           to Otaheite
Table VIII.Route of the Lady Penrhyn, Capt. Sever, from Otaheite to China
Table IX.  Route of the Scarborough, Capt. Marshall, from Port Jackson to China
List of the Convicts sent to New South Wales


A LIST OF THE SUBSCRIBERS

A.

ANDREWS, James Pettit, Esq. F. A. S.
Apsley, Viscount, M. P.
Aubrey, Sir John, Bart. M. P.
Allen, Robert, Esq.
Aylesford, Earl of
A'Court, William Pierce Ashe, Esq. M. P.
Aldersey, William, Esq.
Andrews, Sir Joseph, Bart.
Addington, Right Hon. Henry, Speaker of the House of Commons
Arden, John, Esq. Arden Hall
Addington, John Hiley, Esq. M. P.
Arden, Sir Richard Pepper, M. P. Master of the Rolls
Anson, George, Esq. M. P.
Adams, Mr. James Blake
Arnold, George, Esq.
Astley, Sir Edward, Bart. M. P.
Annesley, Hon. Richard
Appleyard, Mr. 6 copies
Allen, Thomas, Esq.
Ashton, Nicholas, Esq.
Aisley, Stephen, Esq. Kensington

B.

Bath, Marchioness of
Bickingham, Mr.
Baber, Edward, Esq.
Bathurst, Thomas, Esq.
Blackburne, John, Esq. M. P.
Breadalbane, Earl of
Belgrave, Lord, M. P.
Buccleugh, Duke of
Barwell, Thomas Smith, Esq.
Barker, Francis, Esq.
Bootle, R. Wilbraham, Esq. M. P.
Bissett, Maurice, Fsq.
Banks, Sir Joseph, Bart.
Bolton, Duke of
Butler, Rev. Mr.
Black, Captain Alexander
Bosville, William, Esq.
Buckingham, Marquis of
Barwell, Richard, Esq. M. P.
Bland, General
Beaufort, Duke of
Bearcroft, Edward, Esq. M. P.
Bath, Marquis of
Black, Mr. 4 copies
Bond, Mr.
Berkeley, Earl
Beresford, Right Hon. John
Bull, Mr. bookseller, Bath, 6 copies
Baleman, Mr.
Beach, Captain
Baldwin, Mr. bookseller, 20 copies
Brown, Mr. bookseller
Blamire, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Booker, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Beckett, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Binns, Mr. bookseller, Leeds
Breadhower, Mr. bookseller, Portsmouth
Burbage, Mr. bookseller, Nottingham
Baker, Mr. Bookseller, Southampton, 3 copies
Blackwell, Sir L. Bart.
Bevor, Dr.
Boucher, Rev. Mr.
Brown, Richard
Barry, Mr. Library, Hastings
Bell, Mr. bookseller, 3 copies
Buckland, Mr. bookseller, 5 copies
Byfield, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Bindley, James, Esq. F. S. A.
Boosey, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Bagshaw, John, Esq.
Bew, Mr. bookseller, 12 copies
Barnet, Mr. Thomas

C.

Cottrell, John, Esq.
Clements, John, Esq.
Chalmers, George, Esq.
Chatham, Earl of
Calthorpe, Sir Henry Gough, Bart.
Call, John, Esq. M. P.
Clayton, George, Esq.
Campbell, Major
Chesterfield, Earl of
Cox, Mr.
Crauford, Mr. A. 2 copies
Charlival, Countess of
Chiswell, R. M. T. Esq.
Chetwynd, Hon. Richard
Chichester, Sir John, Bart.
Crespigny, P. C. Esq.
Carysfort, Earl of
Collins, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Cadell, Mr. bookseller, 20 copies
Cornell, Mr. bookseller, 3 copies
Clarke, Mr. bookseller, Manchester
Collins, Mr. bookseller, Salisbury
Constable, Golding, Esq.
Cook, Mr. bookseller, Godalming, 2 copies.
Clarke, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Cuthell, Mr. bookseller, 3 copies
Charlton, St. John, Esq.
Cooper, Dr.

D.

Dickens, Francis, Esq. M. P.
De Salis, Rev. Dr.
Dodswell, T. Esq. Pool-court
De Lancy, Colonel
Donowell, Mr. architect
Dalrymple, Alexander, Esq.
Dayrell, Edmund, Esq.
Davies, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Debrett, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Dalling, Sir John, Bart.
Dartmouth, Earl of
De Freire, Chevalier, 2 copies
Dacre, Lord
Davison, Alexander, Esq.
Dilly, Mr. bookseller, 50 copies
Dangerfield, Mr. bookseller
Drewry, Mr. bookseller, Derby
Dover, Lord
Dawes, John, Esq. M. P.
Delaval, Lord
Drummond, John, Esq. M. P.

E.

Effingham, Earl of
Essex, Earl of
East, Gilbert, Esq.
Eliott, Lord
Egerton, Colonel William, M. P.
Enderby, Mr. Samuel
Eardley, Lord
Elliott, William, Esq.
Erving, George, Esq.
Edwards, Captain
Eyre, Edward, Esq.
Evans, Mr. bookseller, 30 copies
Egertons, Messrs. booksellers, 12 copies
Edwards, Mr. bookseller, 20 copies
Edwards, Mr. bookseller, Halifax
Enderby, Mr. Charles
Ernst, Anthony, Esq. jun. Camberwell
Enderby, Mr. George
Edmiston, Rev. William
Elmsley, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies

F.

Fairford, Lord
Finch, Hon. William
Ford, Richard, Esq. M. P.
Fitzgerald, Lord Robert
Fane, Francis, Esq. M. P.
Frost, John, Esq.
Frederic, Sir John, Bart. M. P.
Fletcher, Mr. bookseller, Oxford, 6 copies
Fortescue, Earl of
Forster, Mr. bookseller, 12 copies
Forsyth, William, Esq. Kensington
Faulder, Mr. bookseller, 31 copies
Fife, Earl of
Fetherston, Thomas, Esq. Lincoln's-inn
Ferrier, Robert England, Esq.
Faden, Mr. bookseller, 3 copies

G.

Goulding, Mr. Geo. bookseller, 25 copies
Glover, Richard, Esq.
Grigby, Joshua, Esq. M. P.
Greame, Charles, Esq.
Graham, Sir James, Bart. M. P.
Gregory, Rev. Edward Langar
Grenville, Hon. Mrs.
Gardner, Mr. bookseller, 25 copies
Gernay, Mr. bookseller, Dublin, 50 copies
Goodwyn, Henry, Esq.
Goodwin, Henry, Esq. jun.
Grey de Wilton, Lord
Grote, George, Esq.

H.

Hopetoun, Earl of
Hawke, Lord
Hanmer, Job, Esq. Holbrook Hall
Harpur, Sir Harry, Bart.
Hunt, Joseph, Esq.
Hood, Lord, M. P.
Houghton, Sir Henry, Bart. M. P.
Hayes, Mr. Charles
Hetherington, J. Esq.
Hodges, Mr.
Humphries, Captain James
Hannay, John, Esq.
Herman, Francis Anthony, Esq.
Hanrot, Mr.
Hamilton, Duke of
Hardinge, George, Esq. M. P.
Hannay, Sir Samuel, Bart. M. P.
Hill, Mr. bookseller, 12 copies
Hughes, Mr.
Hobart, Major, M. P.
Howard de Walden, Lord
Hoare, Charles, Esq.
Hawkins, Christopher, Esq. M. P.
Hinuber, Mr.
Haydon and son, booksellers, Plymouth, 5 copies
Hooper, Mr.
Hookham, Mr. bookseller, 25 copies
Hastings, Warren, Esq.
Hill, Sir Richard, Bart. M. P.
Harlow, Mrs. bookseller, 12 copies
Hall, Micah, Esq.

I.

Johnston, Peter, Esq.
Jenkyns, Mr.
Irwin, ----, Esq.
Jackson, William, jun. Esq. Exeter
Jolliffe, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Inchiquin, Earl of, M. P.
Johnson, Mr. bookseller, 20 copies

K.

Keith, Captain, R. N.
Kingsmill, Captain, R. N. M. P.
Kynaston, John, Esq. M. P.
Kent, Sir Charles, Bart. M. P.
Kensington, Charles, Esq.
Kirby, Mr. bookseller
King, Mr. bookseller, 4 copies
Knight and Son, booksellers, 3 copies

L.

Lewisham, Lord
Lambert, J. Esq.
Law, Edward, Esq.
Lane, Mr. bookseller, 2 copies
Lane, Mrs.
Loveden, Edward Loveden, Esq. M. P.
Long, ------, Esq. Aldermaston
Latrobe, Mr. Benjamin Henry
Lucas, Mr. William
Lovaine, Lord
Long, Samuel, Esq.
Lee, Mr. James, Hammersmith
Longmate, Mr. engraver
Lindergreen, Andrew, Esq.
Leinster, Duke of
Lodge, John, Esq.
Lister, Thomas, Esq. M. P.
Long, Sir James Tylney, Bart. M. P.
Le Mesurier, Paul, Esq. M. P.
Lowndes, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Longman, Mr. bookseller, 20 copies
Law, Mr. bookseller, 20 copies
Lackington, Mr. bookseller, 25 copies
Le Fleming, Sir Michael, Bart. M. P.
Latham, John, Esq. M. D.
Latham, John, jun. Esq.
Latham, Miss Ann
Langston, John, Esq. M. P.
Luttrell, Lady Elizabeth
Lewisham, Viscount, M. P.
Little, Richard, Esq. Kensington
Lewis, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies

M

Mitchel, Capt. A. R. N.
Miles, William, Esq.
Mornington, Lord, M. P.
Moreau, Simon, Esq. Cheltenham
Martin, George, Esq.
Martin, Edwin, Esq. Priory
Mazell, Mr. Peter, engraver
Medland, Mr. engraver
Macclesfield, Earl of
Middleton, R. Esq.
Mineur, Mr.
Marshall, Lieutenant S. E.
Mehaux, John, Esq.
Milnes, Richard Slater, Esq. M. P.
Mecormick, Mrs.
Murray, Mr. bookseller, 18 copies
Marshall, John, Esq.
Maberly, Mr. Stephen
Martindale, John, Esq.
Mulgrave, Lord, M. P.
Monro, Dr.
M'Queen, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Matthews, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Merrill, Mr. bookseller, Cambridge
Mapletoft, Mr.
Macbride, Captain John, Esq. M. P. R. N.
Mainwaring, William, Esq. M. P.
Macnamara, John, Esq. M. P.
Middleton, William, Esq. M. P.
Morshead, Sir John, Bart. M. P.
Muncaster, Lord, M. P.
Marsh, Samuel, Esq.
Marsham, Charles, Esq.
Melbourne, Lady
Montolieu, Lewis, Esq.

N

Nepean, Evan, Esq.
Norton, Mr. James, bookseller, Bristol, 6 copies
Nares, Rev. Mr.
Nicol, Mr. George, bookseller, 12 copies
Neville, Richard Aldworth, Esq. M. P.
Nicholls, Frank, Esq. Whitchurch
Nash, Mr. jun.
Nowell, Henry Constantine, Esq. Shiplake
Newberry, Mrs. bookseller, 6 copies

O

Orchard, Paul, Esq. M. P.
Ogilvie and Speare, booksellers, 9 copies
Otridge, Mr. bookseller, 18 copies

P

Portlock, Capt. Nathaniel, R. N.
Pye, Walter, Esq.
Potenger, Thomas, Esq.
Prattent, Mr. engraver
Pitt, Right Hon. William, M. P.
Pocock, Sir Isaac, Bart. Reading
Peachey, John, Esq. M. P.
Penn, Granville, Esq.
Pochin, William, Esq. M. P.
Phiney, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Parkyns, Thomas Boothby, Esq. M. P. F. R. S. and F. A. S.
Pennant, Thomas, Esq.
Pitman, Thomas, Esq. Loxford Hall
Pye, Henry James, Esq. M. P.
Putland, William, Esq.
Peachey, Sir James, Bart.
Popham, Home, Esq.
Pollock, W. Esq.
Pierse, Henry, Esq. M. P.
Pery, Rev. John
Prince and Cook, booksellers, Oxford, 6 copies
Patterson, Captain
Phillips, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Peat and Newcomb, booksellers, Stamford
Pearson and Rollason, booksellers, Birmingham
Payne and Son, booksellers, 12 copies
Petrie, William, Esq.
Plampin, Lieutenant, R. N.
Phipps, Hon. Henry, M. P.
Pitt, William Morton, Esq. M. P.
Popham, William, Esq. M. P.

R

Rivers, Lord
Richards, Mr.
Ramsay, Capt. John
Rose, George, Esq. M. P.
Robinson, William, Esq.
Rolle, John, Esq. M. P.
Rawstorne, Lieut. Col.
Robinsons, Messrs. booksellers, 200 copies
Richardson, Mr. bookseller, 20 copies
Rome, George, Esq.
Roberts, Mr.
Ramsford, Nicholas, Esq.
Rous, Sir John, Bart. M. P.
Rodney, James, Esq.
Rivington, and Sons, booksellers, 20 copies
Robson and Clarke, booksellers, 25 copies

S

Salisbury, Marquis of, 2 copies
Salisbury, Marchioness of
St. Albans, Duke of
Stanley, Thomas, Esq. M. P.
Sturt, Charles, Esq. M. P.
Speke, Mrs.
Swale, John, Esq.
Smyth, John, Esq.
Saville, Hon. Henry
Scott, Major, M. P.
Shuckburgh, Sir George, Bart. M. P.
Stephens, Philip, Esq. M. P.
Skipwith, Sir Thomas George, Bart.
Sykes, Sir Francis, Bart. M. P.
St. John, St. Andrew, Esq.
Stanley, John, Esq. M. P.
Shore, Samuel, Esq.
Sitwell, Francis, Esq.
Spooner, Charles, Esq.
Smith, Sir John, Bart.
Smart, Baptist, Esq.
Sydney, Viscount, two copies
Spence, Mr. George
Scott, Thomas, Esq. M. P.
Sotheron, William, Esq. M. P.
Strahan, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Steele, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Scatcherd and Whittaker, booksellers, 6 copies
Sewell, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Spens, Walter, Esq.
Silvester, Mr. John, architect
Smith and Gardner, booksellers
Simmons and Kerby, booksellers, Canterbury
Swinney, Mr. bookseller, Birmingham
Smart and Cowslade, booksellers, Reading
Steele, Thomas, Esq. M. P.
Secker, George, Esq.
Swain, Rev. John Hadley
Scowen, James, Esq.
Staunton, G. T. Esq.
Sumner, John, Esq.
Society, the Philosophical, Derby
Stockdale, Mr. Jeremiah
Selkirk, Lord
Sumner, George, Esq. M. P.
Stanley, John Thomas, Esq.
Stalker, Mr. bookseller, 12 copies
Southern, Mr. bookseller, 3 copies

T

Townsend, Hon. John Thomas, M. P.
Thomson, Rev. Doctor, Kensington
Temple, Grenville, Esq.
Tullock, Mr.
Turnor, John, Esq. Gray's-inn
Tattersall, Mr. jun.
Townley, Charles, Esq.
Todd, Mr. bookseller, York, 6 copies
Tutte, Rev. Mr.
Townson, Lieutenant
Thorkelin, Dr. G. J.
Tessyman, Mr. bookseller, York
Trewman, Mr. bookseller, Exeter
Trotman, Fiennes, Esq. M. P.
Thorold, Sir John, Bart. M. P.
Temple, Sir John, Bart.
Thornton, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies

V

Vansittart, George, Esq. M. P.
Vansittart, Nicholas, Esq.
Vernor, Mr. bookseller, 18 copies

W.

Weymouth, Lord
Warren, Sir John Borlase, Bart.
Wolfe, Arthur, Esq. Attorney-General, Ireland
Walsh, John, Esq.
Wentworth, Lord
Willis, H. N. Esq.
Wright, Mr.
Woodford, Col. John
Wray, Sir Cecil, Bart.
Willis, Rev. Thomas
Wolfe, Lewis, Esq.
Watts, Lieutenant John, R. N.
Watts, Mr. D. P.
Wilton, George, Esq.
Wale, G. Esq.
Watts, Mr. Thomas
Warren, Sir George, M. P.
Walter, Mr. bookseller, 12 copies
Webber, Mr. John
Walker, James, Esq.
Watson, Serjeant
Welch, Mr. Joseph
White and Son, booksellers, 12 copies
Ware and Son, booksellers, White-haven
Woodmason, Mr.
Williamson, Captain
Wright, Mr. Thomas
Walcot, John, Esq.
Wood, Mr. bookseller, Shrewsbury
Wilson, Mr.
Wetton, Mr. bookseller, Chertsey
Wenman, Mr. bookseller, 3 copies
Wigglesworth, John, Esq.
Wedgewood, Josiah, Esq.
Wheeler, Mr. G. Wanstead
Wilkie, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Whieldon, Mr. bookseller, 12 copies
Williams, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies
Walker, Mr. bookseller, 3 copies
Wynne, Mr. bookseller, 6 copies

Y

Yorke, Hon. Philip, M. P.
Yorke, Charles, Esq.
Young, Sir Wm. Bart. M. P.
Yorke, the Hon. Mrs. Sydney-Farm
Young, William, Esq.
Yonge, Right Hon. Sir George, Bart. M. P.
Younge, Major William, Little Darnford Place.


LIST OF THE PLATES.

1.  Head of Governor Phillip
2.  View of Botany Bay
3.  Yellow Gum Plant
4.  View in Port Jackson
5.  Caspian Tern
6.  Natives of Botany Bay
7.  Chart of Norfolk Island
8.  Lieutenant King
9.  Hut in New South Wales
10. The Kanguroo
11. View in New South Wales
12. Sketch of Sydney Cove
13. Axe, Basket, and Sword
14. Plan of Port Jackson
15. Spotted Opossum
16. Vulpine Opossum
17. Flying Squirrel
18. Blue-bellied Parrot
19. Tabuan Parrot
20. Pennantian Parrot
21. Pacific Parrakeet
22. Sacred Kings-fisher
23. Male Superb Warbler
24. Female Superb Warbler
25. Norfolk Island Petrel
26. Bronze-winged Pigeon
27. White-fronted Heron
28. Wattled Bee-eater
29. Psittaceous Hornbill
30. Skeleton of the Head of the Kanguroo and Vulpine Opossum
31. Map and View of Lord Howe Island
32. Ball's Pyramid
33. Lieutenant Shortland
34. Chart of the Track of the Alexander
35. Shortland's Chart of New Georgia
36. Curtis's Isles
37. Macaulay's Isles
38. Track of the Scarborough
39. A Canoe, &c. Mulgrave's Range
40. Bankian Cockatoo
41. Red Shouldered Parrakeet
42. New Holland Goat-sucker
43. New Holland Cassowary
44. White Gallinule
45. Dog of New South Wales
46. Martin Cat
47. Kanguroo Rat
48. Laced Lizard
49. Bag-throated Balistes
50. Fish of New South Wales
51. Port Jackson Shark
52. Watt's Shark
53. Great brown Kingsfisher
54. Black flying Opossum
55. Vignette in title page.--For an explanation see the Preface.


Chapter I.

Public utility of voyages--Peculiar circumstances of this--New Holland
properly a continent--Reasons for fixing our settlement
there--Transportation to America, its origin, advantages, and
cessation--Experiments made--The present plan adopted--Disadvantages of
other expedients.

From voyages undertaken expressly for the purpose of discovery, the
public naturally looks for information of various kinds: and it is a fact
which we cannot but contemplate with pleasure, that by the excellent
publications subsequent to such enterprises, very considerable additions
have been made, during the present reign, to our general knowledge of the
globe, of the various tribes by which it is peopled, and of the animals
and vegetables to which it gives support.

An expedition occasioned by motives of legislative policy, carried on by
public authority, and concluded by a fixed establishment in a country
very remote, not only excites an unusual interest concerning the fate of
those sent out, but promises to lead us to some points of knowledge
which, by the former mode, however judiciously employed, could not have
been attained. A transient visit to the coast of a great continent
cannot, in the nature of things, produce a complete information
respecting its inhabitants, productions, soil, or climate: all which when
contemplated by resident observers, in every possible circumstance of
variation, though they should be viewed with less philosophical
acuteness, must yet gradually become more fully known: Errors, sometimes
inseparable from hasty observation, will then be corrected by infallible
experience; and many objects will present themselves to view, which
before had escaped notice, or had happened to be so situated that they
could not be observed.

The full discovery of the extent of New Holland, by our illustrious
navigator, Capt. Cook, has formed a singular epocha in geography; a doubt
having arisen from it, whether to a land of such magnitude the name of
island or that of continent may more properly be applied. To this
question it may be answered, that though the etymology of the word
island,* and of others synonymous to it, points out only a land
surrounded by the sea, or by any water, (in which sense the term is
applicable even to the largest portions of the habitable globe) yet it is
certain that, in the usual acceptation, an island is conceived to signify
a land of only moderate extent, surrounded by the sea.** To define at what
point of magnitude precisely, a country so situated shall begin to be a
continent, could not answer any purpose of utility; but the best and
clearest rule for removing the doubt appears to be the following: As long
as the peculiar advantages of an insular situation can be enjoyed by the
inhabitants of such a country, let it have the title of an island; when
it exceeds those limits let it be considered as a continent. Now the
first and principal advantage of an island, is that of being capable of a
convenient union under one government, and of deriving thence a security
from all external attacks, except by sea. In lands of very great
magnitude such an union is difficult, if not impracticable, and a
distinction founded on this circumstance, is therefore sufficient for
convenience at least, if*** not for speculative accuracy. If we suppose
this extent to be something about one thousand miles each way, without,
however, affecting much rigour in the limitation, the claim of New
Holland to be called a continent, will be indisputable: The greatest
extent of that vast country being, from East to West, about two thousand
four hundred English miles, and, from North to South, not less than two
thousand three hundred.****

[* Insula, from which island is derived, is formed from in sulo, in the
sea; and, the corresponding word in Greek, is usually deduced from to
swim, as appearing, and probably having been originally supposed to swim
in the sea.]

[** Thus when Dionysius Periegetes considers the whole ancient world as
surrounded by the sea, he calls it, an immense island; on which
Eustathius remarks, that the addition of the epithet immense was
necessary, otherwise the expression would have been low and inadequate.]

[*** We do not here consider whether a country be actually united under one
government, but whether from its size it might be so conveniently. If we
might derive from, or to inhabit, the etymological distinction would be
complete on these principles. An island being one distinct habitation of
men; and a continent land continued from one state to another. The former
derivation might be rendered specious by remarking how singularly Homer
and others use with, as if they had a natural connection. See II. B.
626. and, Sophoc. Ajax. 601.]

[**** In or near the latitude of 30° South, New Holland extends full 40
degrees of longitude, which, under that parallel, may be estimated at 60
English miles to a degree. The extent from York Cape to South Cape is full
33 degrees of latitude, which are calculated of course at 69½ English
miles each.]

To New South Wales England has the claim which a tacit consent has
generally made decisive among the European States, that of prior
discovery. The whole of that Eastern coast, except the very Southern
point, having been untouched by any navigator, till it was explored by
Captain Cook. This consideration, added to the more favourable accounts
given of this side of the continent than of the other, was sufficient to
decide the choice of the British government, in appointing a place for
the banishment of a certain class of criminals.

The cause of the determination to send out in this manner the convicts
under sentence of transportation, was, as is well known, the necessary
cessation of their removal to America; and the inconveniences experienced
in the other modes of destination adopted after that period.

Virginia, greatly in want, at its first settlement, of labourers to clear
away the impenetrable forests which impeded all cultivation, was willing,
from very early times, to receive as servants, those English criminals
whom our Courts of Law deemed not sufficiently guilty for capital
punishment.* The planters hired their services during a limited term; and
they were latterly sent out under the care of contractors, who were
obliged to prove, by certificates, that they had disposed of them,
according to the intention of the law.

[* Banishment was first ordered as a punishment for rogues and vagrants,
by statute 39 Eliz. ch. 4. See Blackst. Com. IV. chap. 31. But no place
was there specified. The practice of transporting criminals to America is
said to have commenced in the reign of James I; the year 1619 being the
memorable epoch of its origin: but that destination is first expressly
mentioned in 18 Car. II. ch. 2.--The transport traffic was first
regulated by statute 4 George I. ch. II. and the causes expressed in the
preamble to be, the failure of those who undertook to transport
themselves, and the great want of servants in his Majesty's plantations.
Subsequent Acts enforced further regulations.]

The benefits of this regulation were various. The colonies received by
it, at an easy rate, an assistance very necessary; and the mother country
was relieved from the burthen of subjects, who at home were not only
useless but pernicious: besides which, the mercantile returns, on this
account alone, are reported to have arisen, in latter times, to a very
considerable amount.* The individuals themselves, doubtless, in some
instances, proved incorrigible; but it happened also, not very
unfrequently, that, during the period of their legal servitude, they
became reconciled to a life of honest industry, were altogether reformed
in their manners, and rising gradually by laudable efforts, to situations
of advantage, independence, and estimation, contributed honourably to the
population and prosperity of their new country.**

[* It is said, forty thousand pounds per annum, about two thousand
convicts being sold for twenty pounds each.]

[** The Abbe Raynal has given his full testimony to the policy of this
species of banishment, in the fourteenth Book of his History, near the
beginning.]

By the contest in America, and the subsequent separation of the thirteen
Colonies, this traffic was of course destroyed. Other expedients, well
known to the public, have since been tried; some of which proved highly
objectionable;* and all have been found to want some of the principal
advantages experienced from the usual mode of transportation.--The
deliberations upon this subject, which more than once employed the
attention of Parliament, produced at length the plan of which this volume
displays the first result. On December 6, 1786, the proper orders were
issued by his Majesty in Council, and an Act establishing a Court of
Judicature in the place of settlement, and making such other regulations
as the occasion required, received the sanction of the whole legislature
early in the year 1787.

[* ¶ Particularly, the transporting of criminals to the coast of Africa,
where what was meant as an alleviation of punishment too frequently ended
in death.]

To expatiate upon the principles of penal law is foreign to the purpose
of this work, but thus much is evident to the plainest apprehension, that
the objects most to be desired in it are the restriction of the number of
capital inflictions, as far as is consistent with the security of
society; and the employment of every method that can be devised for
rendering the guilty persons serviceable to the public, and just to
themselves; for correcting their moral depravity, inducing habits of
industry, and arming them in future against the temptations by which they
have been once ensnared.

For effectuating these beneficial purposes, well regulated penitentiary
houses seem, in speculation, to afford the fairest opportunity; and a
plan of this kind, formed by the united efforts of Judge Blackstone, Mr.
Eden, and Mr. Howard, was adopted by Parliament in the year 1779.
Difficulties however occurred which prevented the execution of this
design: a circumstance which will be something the less regretted when it
shall be considered, that it is perhaps the fate of this theory, in
common with many others of a very pleasing nature, to be more attractive
in contemplation than efficacious in real practice. A perfect design,
carried on by imperfect agents, is liable to lose the chief part of its
excellence; and the best digested plan of confinement must in execution
be committed, chiefly, to men not much enlightened, very little armed
against corruption, and constantly exposed to the danger of it. The
vigilance which in the infancy of such institutions effectually watches
over the conduct of these public servants, will always in a little time
be relaxed; and it will readily be conceived that a large penitentiary
house, very corruptly governed, would be, of all associations, one of the
most pernicious to those confined, and most dangerous to the peace of
society.

In some countries, malefactors not capitally convicted, are sentenced to
the gallies or the mines; punishments often more cruel than death, and
here, on many accounts, impracticable. In other places they are employed
in public works, under the care of overseers. This method has been
partially tried in England on the Thames, but has been found by no means
to produce the benefits expected from it. There is, therefore, little
temptation to pursue it to a further extent. The employment of criminals
in works carried on under the public eye, is perhaps too repugnant to the
feelings of Englishmen ever to be tolerated. Reason, indeed, acquiesces
in the melancholy necessity of punishing, but chains and badges of
servitude are unpleasing objects, and compassion will always revolt at
the sight of actual infliction. Convicts so employed would either by an
ill placed charity be rewarded, or the people, undergoing a change of
character far from desirable, would in time grow callous to those
impressions which naturally impel them to give relief.

It remains therefore, that we adhere as much as possible to the practice
approved by long experience, of employing the services of such criminals
in remote and rising settlements. For this purpose the establishment on
the eastern coast of New Holland has been projected, and carried on with
every precaution to render it as beneficial as possible. That some
difficulties will arise in the commencement of such an undertaking must
be expected; but it is required by no moral obligation that convicts
should be conveyed to a place of perfect convenience and security; and
though the voluntary emigrants and honourable servants of the state, must
in some measure, be involved for a time in the same disadvantages, yet to
have resisted difficulties is often finally an advantage rather than an
evil; and there are probably few persons so circumstanced who will repine
at moderate hardships, when they reflect that by undergoing them they are
rendering an essential and an honourable service to their country.


Chapter II.

March 1787 to June 1787

Preparation of the fleet ordered to Botany Bay.--Particulars of its
arrangement.--Departure and passage to the Canary Isles.

16 March 1787

The squadron destined to carry into execution the above design, began to
assemble at its appointed rendezvous, the Mother Bank, within the Isle of
Wight, about the 16th of March, 1787. This small fleet consisted of the
following ships: His Majesty's frigate Sirius, Captain John Hunter, and
his Majesty's armed tender Supply, commanded by Lieutenant H. L. Ball.
Three store-ships, the Golden Grove, Fishburn, and Borrowdale, for
carrying provisions and stores for two years; including instruments of
husbandry, clothing for the troops and convicts, and other necessaries;
and lastly, six transports, the Scarborough, and Lady Penrhyn, from
Portsmouth; the Friendship, and Charlotte, from Plymouth; the Prince of
Wales, and the Alexander, from Woolwich. These were to carry the
convicts, with a detachment of Marines in each, proportioned to the
nature of the service; the largest where resistance was most to be
expected, namely, in those ships which carried the greatest number of
male convicts. Altogether they formed a little squadron of eleven sail.

They only who know the nature of such equipments, and consider the
particular necessity in the present instance for a variety of articles
not usually provided, can judge properly of the time required for
furnishing out this fleet. Such persons will doubtless be the least
surprised at being told that nearly two months had elapsed before the
ships were enabled to quit this station, and proceed upon their voyage:
and that even then some few articles were either unprepared, or, through
misapprehension, neglected. The former circumstance took place respecting
some part of the cloathing for the female convicts, which, being
unfinished, was obliged to be left behind; the latter, with respect to
the ammunition of the marines, which was furnished only for immediate
service, instead of being, as the Commodore apprehended, completed at
their first embarkation: an omission which, in the course of the voyage,
was easily supplied.

This necessary interval was very usefully employed, in making the
convicts fully sensible of the nature of their situation; in pointing out
to them the advantages they would derive from good conduct, and the
certainty of severe and immediate punishment in case of turbulence or
mutiny. Useful regulations were at the same time established for the
effectual governing of these people; and such measures were taken as
could not fail to render abortive any plan they might be desperate enough
to form for resisting authority, seizing any of the transports, or
effecting, at any favourable period, an escape. We have, however, the
testimony of those who commanded, that their behaviour, while the ships
remained in port, was regular, humble, and in all respects suitable to
their situation: such as could excite neither suspicion nor alarm, nor
require the exertion of any kind of severity.

When the fleet was at length prepared for sailing, the complement of
convicts and marines on board the transports was thus arranged. The
Friendship carried a Captain and forty-four marines, subalterns and
privates, with seventy-seven male and twenty female convicts. The
Charlotte, a Captain and forty-three men, with eighty-eight male and
twenty female convicts. In the Alexander, were two Lieutenants and
thirty-five marines, with two hundred and thirteen convicts, all male. In
the Scarborough, a Captain and thirty-three marines, with male convicts
only, two hundred and eight in number. The Prince of Wales transport had
two Lieutenants and thirty marines, with an hundred convicts, all female.
And the Lady Penrhyn, a Captain, two Lieutenants, and only three privates,
with one hundred and two female convicts. Ten marines, of different
denominations, were also sent as supernumeraries on board the Sirius. The
whole complement of marines, including officers, amounted to two hundred
and twelve; besides which, twenty-eight women, wives of marines, carrying
with them seventeen children, were permitted to accompany their husbands.
The number of convicts was seven hundred and seventy-eight, of whom five
hundred and fifty-eight were men. Two, however, on board the Alexander,
received a full pardon before the departure of the fleet, and
consequently remained in England.

13 May 1787

Governor Phillip, on his arrival at the station, hoisted his flag on
board the Sirius, as Commodore of the squadron: and the embarkation being
completed, and the time requiring his departure, at day break on the 13th
of May, he gave the signal to weigh anchor. To the distance of about an
hundred leagues clear of the channel, his Majesty's frigate Hyena, of
twenty-four guns, was ordered to attend the fleet, in order to bring
intelligence of its passage through that most difficult part of the
voyage; with any dispatches which it might be requisite for the Governor
to send home.

20 May 1787

On the 20th of May, the ships being then in latitude 47° 57', and
longitude 12° 14' west of London, the Hyena returned. She brought,
however, no exact account of the state of the transports; for the sea at
that time ran so high, that the Governor found it difficult even to sit
to write, and quite impracticable to send on board the several ships for
exact reports of their situation, and of the behaviour of the convicts.
All, however, had not been perfectly tranquil; the convicts in the
Scarborough, confiding probably in their numbers, had formed a plan for
gaining possession of that ship, which the officers had happily detected
and frustrated. This information was received from them just before the
Hyena sailed, and the Governor had ordered two of the ringleaders on
board the Sirius for punishment. These men, after receiving a proper
chastisement, were separated from their party by being removed into
another ship, the Prince of Wales. No other attempt of this kind was made
during the voyage.

We may now consider the adventurers in this small fleet as finally
detached, for the present, from their native country; looking forward,
doubtless with very various emotions, to that unknown region, which, for
a time at least, they were destined to inhabit. If we would indulge a
speculative curiosity, concerning the tendency of such an enterprize,
there are few topics which would afford an ampler scope for conjecture.
The sanguine might form expectations of extraordinary consequences, and
be justified, in some degree, by the reflection, that from smaller, and
not more respectable beginnings, powerful empires have frequently arisen.
The phlegmatic and apprehensive might magnify to themselves the
difficulties of the undertaking, and prognosticate, from various causes,
the total failure of it. Both, perhaps, would be wrong. The opinion
nearest to the right was probably formed by the Governor himself, and
such others among the leaders of the expedition, as from native courage,
felt themselves superior to all difficulties likely to occur; and by
native good sense were secured from the seduction of romantic reveries.
To all it must appear a striking proof of the flourishing state of
navigation in the present age, and a singular illustration of its vast
progress since the early nautical efforts of mankind; that whereas the
ancients coasted with timidity along the shores of the Mediterranean, and
thought it a great effort to run across the narrow sea which separates
Crete from Egypt, Great Britain, without hesitation, sends out a fleet to
plant a settlement near the antipodes.

3 June 1787

The high sea which had impeded the intercourse between the ships, as they
were out of the reach of rocks and shoals, was not, in other respects, an
unfavourable circumstance. On the whole, therefore, the weather was
reckoned fine, and the passage very prosperous from Spithead to Santa
Cruz, in the Isle of Teneriffe, where the fleet anchored on the 3d of
June.


Chapter III.

June 1787

Reasons for touching at the Canary Isles--Precautions for preserving
Health--Their admirable Success--Some Account of the Canaries--Fables
respecting them--Attempt of a Convict to escape--Departure.

3 June 1787

The chief object proposed by Governor Phillip in touching at Teneriffe,
was the obtaining a fresh supply of water and vegetables. It was
adviseable also at this period to give the people such advantages and
refreshments, for the sake of health, as this place would readily supply,
but which can only be obtained on shore. In this, and every port, the
crews, soldiers, and convicts, were indulged with fresh meat, fruit,
vegetables, and every thing which could conduce to preserve them from the
complaints formerly inevitable in long voyages. The allowance was, to the
marines, a pound of bread, a pound of beef, and a pint of wine per man,
daily: the convicts had three quarters of a pound of beef, and of bread,
but no wine. The fruits obtained here were only figs and mulberries, but
these were plentiful and excellent. How successfully precautions of every
kind, tending to this great end, were employed throughout the voyage, the
reports of the number of sick and dead will sufficiently evince.

Captain Cook had very fully shown, how favourable such expeditions might
be made to the health of those engaged in them; and Governor Phillip was
happy enough to confirm the opinion, that the success of his great
predecessor, in this essential point, was not in any degree the effect of
chance, but arose from that care and attention of which he has humanely
given us the detail; and which, in similar circumstances, may generally
be expected to produce the same result. If the number of convicts who
died between the time of embarkation and the arrival of the fleet at this
place, should seem inconsistent with this assertion, it must be
considered that the deaths were confined entirely to that class of
people, many of whom were advanced in years, or labouring under diseases
contracted in prison or elsewhere, while they were yet on shore.

A week was passed at this place, during which time the weather was very
moderate, the thermometer not exceeding 70° of Fahrenheit's scale. The
barometer stood at about 30 inches.

The Governor of the Canaries, at this time, was the Marquis de
Brancifort, by birth a Sicilian. He was resident as usual at Santa Cruz,
and paid to Governor Phillip, and the other officers, a polite attention
and respect equally honourable to all parties. The port of Santa Cruz,
though not remarkably fine, is yet the best in the Canaries, and the
usual place at which vessels touch for refreshment; the residence of the
Governor General is therefore fixed always in Teneriffe, for the sake of
a more frequent intercourse with Europe: in preference to the great
Canary Isle, which contains the Metropolitan church, and the palace of
the Bishop. The Marquis de Brancifort has lately established some useful
manufactures in Teneriffe.

To enter into much detail concerning the Canary Islands, which lie
exactly in the course of every ship that sails from Europe to the Cape,
and consequently have been described in almost every book of voyages,
must be superfluous. A few general notices concerning them may, perhaps,
not be unacceptable. They are in number about fourteen, of which the
principal, and only considerable are, Canary, Teneriffe, Fortaventure,
Palma, Ferro, Gomera, Lancerotta. Their distance from the coast of Africa
is from about forty to eighty leagues. The circumference of Teneriffe is
not above one hundred and twenty miles, but that of Canary, or as it is
usually called, the Great Canary, is one hundred and fifty. They have
been possessed and colonized by Spain from the beginning of the 15th
century.

There is no reason to doubt that these are the islands slightly known to
the ancients under the name of Fortunate: though the mistake of Ptolemy
concerning their latitude has led one of the commentators on Solinus to
contend, that this title belongs rather to the Islands of Cape Verd.
Pliny mentions Canaria, and accounts for that name from the number of
large dogs which the island contained; a circumstance which some modern
voyagers, perhaps with little accuracy, repeat as having occasioned the
same name to be given by the Spaniards. Nivaria, spoken of by the same
author, is evidently Teneriffe, and synonymous, if we are rightly
informed, to the modern name*. Ombrion, or Pluvialia, is supposed to be
Ferro; where the dryness of the soil has at all times compelled the
inhabitants to depend for water on the rains.

[* Occasioned by the perpetual snows with which the Peak is covered. Tener
is said to mean snow, and itte or iffe a mountain, in the language of the
island.]

If the ancients made these islands the region of fable, and their poets
decorated them with imaginary charms to supply the want of real
knowledge, the moderns cannot wholly be exempted from a similar
imputation. Travellers have delighted to speak of the Peak of Teneriffe,
as the highest mountain in the ancient world, whereas, by the best
accounts, Mont Blanc exceeds it* by 3523 feet, or near a mile of
perpendicular altitude. The Isle of Ferro, having no such mountain to
distinguish it, was celebrated for a century or two on the credit of a
miraculous tree, single in its kind, enveloped in perpetual mists, and
distilling sufficient water for the ample supply of the island.** But this
wonder, though vouched by several voyagers, and by some as eye-witnesses,
vanished at the approach of sober enquiry, nor could a single native be
found hardy enough to assert its existence. The truth is, that the Canary
Isles, though a valuable possession to Spain, and an excellent resource
to voyagers of all nations, contain no wonders, except what belong
naturally to volcanic mountains such as the Peak, which, though it always
threatens, has not now been noxious for more than eighty years***.

[* The height of Mont Blanc, on a mean of the best accounts, is 15,673
English feet from the level of the sea, Teneriffe 12,150.]

[** Clipperton speaks of it as a fact, Harris's Voyages, Vol. I. p. 187.
Mandelsloe pretended to have seen it, ibid. p. 806. Baudrand was the
first who by careful enquiry detected the fiction. An account of this
imaginary tree, curious from being so circumstantial, is here given from
a French book of geography, of some credit in other respects. "Mais ce
qu'il-y-a de plus digne de remarque, est cet arbre merveilleux qui
fournit d'eau toute l'isle, tant pour les hommes que pour les bêtes. Cet
arbre, que les habitans appellent Caroë, Garoë, ou Arbre Saint, unique en
son espéce, est gros, et large de branches; son tronc a environ douze
pieds de tour; ses feuilles sont un peu plus grosses que celles des
noiers, et toujours vertes; il porte un fruit, semblable à un gland, qui
a un noiau d'un goût aromatique, doux et piquant. Cet arbre est
perpétuellement convert d'un nuage, qui l'humecte partout, en sorte que
l'eau en distille goutte à goutte par les branches et par les feuilles,
en telle quantité qu'on en peut emplir trente tonneaux par jour. Cette
eau est extrémement fraiche, claire, fort bonne a boire, et fort saine.
Elle tombe dans deux bassins de pierre que les insulaires ont bâtis pour
la recevoir. La nuage qui couvre cet arbre ne se dissipe pas; settlement
dans les grandes chaleurs de l'été il se diminue un peu; mais en échange
la mer envoie une vapeur epaisse, qui se jette sur l'arbre, et qui
supplée a ce manquement." Du Bois Geogr. Part. iii. ch. 17. Can all this
have arisen from Pliny's arbores ex quibus aquae exprimantur?]

[*** See Captain Glasse's elaborate account of the Canaries, and Captain
Cook's last Voyage.]

The capital of Teneriffe is Laguna, or more properly San Christoval de la
Laguna, St. Christopher of the Lake, so called from its situation near a
lake. Both this and Santa Cruz are built of stone, but the appearance of
the latter is more pleasing than that of Laguna. They are distant from
each other about four miles. The capital of the Great Canary, and
properly of the whole government, is the City of Palms: But that place
has been for some time the centre of ecclesiastical government only. The
custom of reckoning the first meridian as passing through these isles was
begun by Ptolemy; and perhaps it is still to be wished that the French
regulations on that subject were generally adopted.

9 June 1787.

Our ships were at length preparing to depart, when on the evening of the
9th of June, a convict belonging to the Alexander, having been employed
on deck, found means to cut away the boat, and make a temporary escape;
but he was missed and soon retaken. It is not probable that he had formed
any definite plan of escape; the means of absconding must have been
accidentally offered, and suddenly embraced; and for making such an
attempt, the vague hope of liberty, without any certain prospect, would
naturally afford sufficient temptation.

10 June 1787

By the 10th of June the ships had completed their water, and early the
next morning, the Governor gave the signal for weighing anchor, and the
fleet pursued its course.


Report of the marines and convicts under medical treatment, given in to
Governor Phillip, June 4th, 1787.

Charlotte,   --   Marines 4 Convicts 16
Alexander,   --   Marines 2 Convicts 26
Scarborough, --   Marine  1 Convicts  9
Friendship,  --             Convicts 13
Lady Penrhyn,               Convicts 11
Prince of Wales, Marines  2 Convicts  7
                                    ---
                      Total Marines   9
                            Convicts 72

Convicts dead since the first embarkation 21
Children of convicts                       3

Of these only fifteen, and one child, had died since the departure from
Spithead.


Chapter IV.

June 1787 to September 1787

Attempt to put in at Port Praya--Relinquished--Weather--Sail for Rio de
Faneiro--Reasons for touching at a South American port--The Fleet passes
the Line--Arrives at Rio de Faneiro--Account of that Place--Transactions
there--Departure.

Vegetables not having been so plentiful at Santa Cruz as to afford a
sufficient supply, it was the intention of Governor Phillip to anchor for
about twenty-four hours in the Bay of Port Praya. The islands on this
side of the Atlantic, seem as if expressly placed to facilitate the
navigation to and from the Cape of Good Hope: by offering to vessels,
without any material variation from their course, admirable stations for
supply and refreshment. About latitude 40, north, the Azores; in 33, the
Madeiras; between 29 and 27, the Canaries; and between 18 and 16, the
Islands of Cape Verd, successively offer themselves to the voyager,
affording abundantly every species of accommodation his circumstances can
require. On the Southern side of the Equator, a good harbour and
abundance of turtles give some consequence even to the little barren
island of Ascension; and St. Helena, by the industry of the English
settlers, has become the seat of plenty and of elegance. Without the
assistance derived, in going or returning, from some of these places, the
interval of near forty degrees on each side of the line, in a sea exposed
to violent heat, and subject to tedious calms, would be sufficient to
discourage even the navigators of the eighteenth century.

18 June 1787

On the 18th of June, the fleet came in sight of the Cape Verd Islands,
and was directed by signal to steer for St. Jago. But the want of
favourable wind, and the opposition of a strong current making it
probable that all the ships would not be able to get into the Bay, the
Governor thought it best to change his plan. The signal for anchoring was
hauled down, and the ships were directed to continue their first course;
a circumstance of much disappointment to many individuals on board, who,
as is natural in long voyages, were eager on every occasion to enjoy the
refreshments of the shore. As an additional incitement to such wishes,
the weather had now become hot; the thermometer stood at 82°, which,
though not an immoderate heat for a tropical climate, is sufficient to
produce considerable annoyance. But, unmoved by any consideration except
that of expedience, Governor Phillip persisted in conducting his ships to
their next intended station, the harbour of Rio de Janeiro.

It may appear perhaps, on a slight consideration, rather extraordinary,
that vessels bound to the Cape of Good Hope should find it expedient to
touch at a harbour of South America. To run across the Atlantic, and take
as a part of their course, that coast, the very existence of which was
unknown to the first navigators of these seas, seems a very circuitous
method of performing the voyage. A little examination will remove this
apparent difficulty. The calms so frequent on the African side, are of
themselves a sufficient cause to induce a navigator to keep a very
westerly course; and even the islands at which it is so often convenient
to touch will carry him within a few degrees of the South American
coast.--The returning tracks of Captain Cooks's three voyages all run
within a very small space of the 45th degree of west longitude, which is
even ten degrees further to the west than the extremity of Cape St.
Roque: and that course appears to have been taken voluntarily, without
any extraordinary inducement. But in the latitudes to which Governor
Phillip's squadron had now arrived, the old and new continent approach so
near to each other, that in avoiding the one it becomes necessary to run
within a very moderate distance of the opposite land.

In the passage from the Cape Verd Islands, the fleet suffered for some
time the inconvenience of great heat, attended by heavy rains. The heat,
however, did not at any time exceed the point already specified,* and the
precautions unremittingly observed in all the ships happily continued
efficacious in preventing any violent sickness. Nor did the oppression of
the hot weather continue so long as in these latitudes might have been
expected; for before they reached the equator the temperature had become
much more moderate.

[* 82°, 51. It is not unusual in England, to have the thermometer, for a
day or two in a summer, at 81°.]

5 July 1787

On July 5, 1787, being then in long. 26° 10' west from Greenwich, the
Botany Bay fleet passed from the Northern into the Southern Hemisphere.
About three weeks more of very favourable and pleasant weather conveyed
them to Rio de Janeiro.

5-6 August 1787

On the 5th of August they anchored off the harbour, and on the evening
of the 6th were at their station within it. The land of Cape Frio had been
discovered some days before, but a deficiency of wind from that time a
little slackened their course.

Rio de Janeiro, or January River, so called because discovered by Dias de
Solis on the feast of St. Januarius, (Sept. 19) 1525, is not in fact a
river, though its name denotes that it was then supposed to be so: it is
an arm of the sea, into which a considerable number of small rivers
descends.

The city of Rio de Janeiro, called by some writers St. Sebastian, from
the name of its tutelar patron, is situated on the west side of this bay,
within less than a degree of the tropic of Capricorn, and about 43° west
of Greenwich. It is at present the capital of all Brasil, and has been
for some time the residence of the Viceroy. These distinctions it
obtained in preference to St. Salvador, which was formerly the capital,
by means of the diamond mines discovered in its vicinity, in the year
1730. The place increasing rapidly by the wealth thus brought to it, was
fortified and put under the care of a governor in 1738. The port is one
of the finest in the world, very narrow at the entrance, and within
capacious enough to contain more ships than ever were assembled at one
station. It has soundings from twenty to one hundred and twenty fathoms.
A hill shaped like a sugar loaf, situated on the west side, marks the
proper bearing for entering the harbour: the situation of which is fully
pointed out at the distance of two leagues and a half by some small
islands, one of which, called Rodonda, is very high, and in form not
unlike a haycock. The mouth of the harbour is defended by forts,
particularly two, called Santa Cruz and Lozia; and the usual anchorage
within it is before the city, north of a small island named Dos Cobras.

There are in this port established fees, which are paid by all merchant
ships, Portuguese as well as strangers: 3l. 12s. each on entering the
bay, the same on going out, and 5s. 6d. a day while they remain at
anchor. The entrance fee was demanded for the transports in this
expedition, but when Governor Phillip had alledged that they were loaded
with King's stores, the payment was no more insisted upon. Nevertheless,
the Captain of the Port gave his attendance, with his boat's crew, to
assist the ships in coming in, there being at that time only a light air,
hardly sufficient to carry them up the bay.

In the narrative of Captain Cook's Voyage in 1768, we find, on his
arrival at this place, great appearance of suspicion on the part of the
Viceroy, harsh prohibitions of landing, even to the gentlemen employed in
philosophical researches, and some proceedings rather of a violent
nature. The reception given by the present Viceroy to Governor Phillip
and his officers was very different: it was polite and flattering to a
great degree, and free from every tincture of jealous caution.

Don Lewis de Varconcellos, the reigning Viceroy, belongs to one of the
noblest families in Portugal; is brother to the Marquis of Castello
Methor, and to the Count of Pombeiro. Governor Phillip, who served for
some years as a Captain in the Portuguese navy, and is deservedly much
honoured by that nation, was not personally unknown to the Viceroy,
though known in a way which, in a less liberal mind, might have produced
very different dispositions. There had been some difference between them,
on a public account, in this port, when Governor Phillip commanded the
Europe: each party had acted merely for the honour of the nation to which
he belonged, and the Viceroy, with the true spirit of a man of honour,
far from resenting a conduct so similar to his own, seemed now to make it
his object to obliterate every recollection of offence. As soon as he was
fully informed of the nature of Governor Phillip's commission, he gave it
out in orders to the garrison that the same honours should be paid to
that officer as to himself. This distinction the Governor modestly wished
to decline, but was not permitted. His officers were all introduced to
the Viceroy, and were, as well as himself, received with every possible
mark of attention to them, and regard for their country. They were
allowed to visit all parts of the city, and even to make excursions as
far as five miles into the country, entirely unattended: an indulgence
very unusual to strangers, and considering what we read of the jealousy
of the Portuguese Government respecting its diamond mines, the more
extraordinary.

Provisions were here so cheap, that notwithstanding the allowance of meat
was fixed by Governor Phillip at twenty ounces a day, the men were
victualled completely, rice, fresh vegetables, and firing included, at
three-pence three-farthings a head. Wine was not at this season to be
had, except from the retail dealers, less was therefore purchased than
would otherwise have been taken. Rum, however, was laid in; and all such
seeds and plants procured as were thought likely to flourish on the coast
of New South Wales, particularly coffee, indigo, cotton, and the
cochineal fig.* As a substitute for bread, if it should become scarce,
one hundred sacks of cassada were purchased at a very advantageous price.

[* Cactus Cochinilifer, of Linnaeus.]

Cassada, the bread of thousands in the tropical climates, affords one of
those instances in which the ingenuity of man might be said to triumph
over the intentions of nature, were it not evidently the design of
Providence that we should in all ways exert our invention and sagacity to
the utmost, for our own security and support. It is the root of a shrub
called Cassada, or Cassava Jatropha, and in its crude state is highly
poisonous. By washing, pressure, and evaporation, it is deprived of all
its noxious qualities, and being formed into cakes becomes a salubrious
and not an unpalatable substitute for bread.

By the indulgence of the Viceroy, the deficiency in the military stores
observed at the departure of the transports from England, was made up by
a supply purchased from the Royal arsenal; nor was any assistance
withheld which either the place afforded, or the stores of government
could furnish.

The circumstances, which in this place most astonish a stranger, and
particularly a Protestant, are, the great abundance of images dispersed
throughout the city, and the devotion paid to them. They are placed at
the corner of almost every street, and are never passed without a
respectful salutation; but at night they are constantly surrounded by
their respective votaries, who offer up their prayers aloud, and make the
air resound in all quarters with the notes of their hymns. The strictness
of manners in the inhabitants is not said to be at all equivalent to the
warmth of this devotion; but in all countries and climates it is found
much easier to perform external acts of reputed piety, than to acquire
the internal habits so much more essential. It must be owned, however,
that our people did not find the ladies so indulgent as some voyagers
have represented them.

It was near a month before Governor Phillip could furnish his ships with
every thing which it was necessary they should now procure. At length, on
the 4th of September he weighed anchor, and as he passed the fort,
received from the Viceroy the last compliment it was in his power to pay,
being saluted with twenty-one guns. The salute was returned by an equal
number from the Sirius; and thus ended an intercourse honourable to both
nations, and particularly to the principal officer employed in the
service of each.


Chapter V.

September 1787 to January 1788

Prospercus passage from Rio to the Cape--Account of the Harbours there--The
Cape of Good Hope not the most Southern point--Height of Table Mountain
and others--Supineness of the European nations in neglecting to occupy the
Cape--Live stock laid in--Departure--Separation of the fleet--Arrival of the
Supply at Botany Bay.

4 September 1787

A Prosperous course by sea, like a state of profound peace and
tranquility in civil society, though most advantageous to those who enjoy
it, is unfavourable to the purposes of narration. The striking facts
which the writer exerts himself to record, and the reader is eager to
peruse, arise only from difficult situations: uniform prosperity is
described in very few words. Of this acceptable but unproductive kind was
the passage of the Botany Bay fleet from Rio de Janeiro to the Cape of
Good Hope; uniformly favourable, and not marked by any extraordinary
incidents. This run, from about lat. 22° south, long. 43 west of London,
to lat. 34° south, long. 18° east of London, a distance of about four
thousand miles, was performed in thirty-nine days: for having left Rio on
the 4th of September, on the 13th of October the ships came to anchor in
Table Bay. Here they were to take their final refreshment, and lay in
every kind of stock with which they were not already provided. In this
period no additional lives had been lost, except that of a single convict
belonging to the Charlotte transport, who fell accidentally into the sea,
and could not by any efforts be recovered.

13 October 1787

Table Bay, on the north-west side of the Cape of Good Hope, is named from
the Table Mountain, a promontory of considerable elevation, at the foot
of which, and almost in the centre of the Bay, stands Cape Town, the
principal Dutch settlement in this territory. This Bay cannot properly be
called a port, being by no means a station of security; it is exposed to
all the violence of the winds which set into it from the sea; and is far
from sufficiently secured from those which blow from the land. The gusts
which descend from the summit of Table Mountain are sufficient to force
ships from their anchors, and even violently to annoy persons on the
shore, by destroying any tents or other temporary edifices which may be
erected, and raising clouds of fine dust, which produce very troublesome
effects. A gale of this kind, from the south-east, blew for three days
successively when Capt. Cook lay here in his first voyage, at which time,
he informs us, the Resolution was the only ship in the harbour that had
not dragged her anchors. The storms from the sea are still more
formidable; so much so, that ships have frequently been driven by them
from their anchorage, and wrecked at the head of the Bay. But these
accidents happen chiefly in the quaade mousson, or winter months, from
May 14 to the same day of August; during which time few ships venture to
anchor here. Our fleet, arriving later, lay perfectly unmolested as long
as it was necessary for it to remain in this station.

False Bay, on the south-east side of the Cape, is more secure than Table
Bay, during the prevalence of the north-west winds, but still less so in
strong gales from the south-east. It is however less frequented, being
twenty-four miles of very heavy road distant from Cape Town, whence
almost all necessaries must be procured. The most sheltered part of False
Bay is a recess on the west side, called Simon's Bay.

The Cape of Good Hope, though popularly called, and perhaps pretty
generally esteemed so, is not in truth the most southern point of Africa.
The land which projects furthest to the south is a point to the east of
it, called by the English Cape Lagullus; a name corrupted from the
original Portugueze das Agulhas, which, as well as the French appellation
des Aiguilles, is descriptive of its form, and would rightly be
translated Needle Cape. Three eminences, divided by very narrow passes,
and appearing in a distant view like three summits of the same mountain,
stand at the head of Table Bay.--They are however of different heights, by
which difference, as well as by that of their shape, they may be
distinguished. Table Mountain is so called from its appearance, as it
terminates in a flat horizontal surface, from which the face of the rock
descends almost perpendicularly. This mountain rises to about 3567 feet
above the level of the sea. Devil's Head, called also Charles mountain,
is situated to the east of the former, and is not above 3368 feet in
height; and on the west side of Table Mountain, Lion's Head, whose name
is also meant to be descriptive, does not exceed 2764 feet. In the
neighbourhood of the latter lies Constantia, a district consisting of two
farms, wherein the famous wines of that name are produced.

Our voyagers found provisions less plentiful and less reasonable in price
at Cape Town than they had been taught to expect. Board and lodging,
which are to be had only in private houses, stood the officers in two
rix-dollars a day, which is near nine shillings sterling. This town, the
only place in the whole colony to which that title can be applied with
propriety, is of no great extent; it does not in any part exceed two
miles: and the country, colonized here by the Dutch, is in general so
unfavourable to cultivation, that it is not without some astonishment
that we find them able to raise provisions from it in sufficient
abundance to supply themselves, and the ships of so many nations which
constantly resort to the Cape.

When we consider the vast advantages derived by the Dutch colonists from
this traffic, and the almost indispensible necessity by which navigators
of all nations are driven to seek refreshment there, it cannot but appear
extraordinary, that from the discovery of the Cape in 1493, by Barthelemi
Diaz, to the year 1650, when, at the suggestion of John Van Riebeck, the
first Dutch colony was sent, a spot so very favourable to commerce and
navigation should have remained unoccupied by Europeans. Perhaps all the
perseverance of the Dutch character was necessary even to suggest the
idea of maintaining an establishment in a soil so burnt by the sun, and
so little disposed to repay the toil of the cultivator. The example and
success of this people may serve, however, as an useful instruction to
all who in great undertakings are deterred by trifling obstacles; and
who, rather than contend with difficulties, are inclined to relinquish
the most evident advantages.

But though the country near the Cape had not charms enough to render it
as pleasing as that which surrounds Rio de Janeiro, yet the Governor,
Mynheer Van Graaffe, was not far behind the Viceroy of Brazil in
attention to the English officers. They were admitted to his table, where
they were elegantly entertained, and had reason to be pleased in all
respects with his behaviour and disposition. Yet the minds of his people
were not at this time in a tranquil state; the accounts from Holland were
such as occasioned much uneasiness, and great preparations were making at
the fort, from apprehension of a rupture with some other power.

In the course of a month, the live stock and other provisions were
procured; and the ships, having on board not less than five hundred
animals of different kinds, but chiefly poultry, put on an appearance
which naturally enough excited the idea of Noah's ark. This supply,
considering that the country had previously suffered from a dearth, was
very considerable; but it was purchased of course at a higher expence
considerably than it would have been in a time of greater plenty.

12 November 1787

On the 12th of November the fleet set sail, and was for many days much
delayed by strong winds from the south-east.

25 November 1787

On the 25th, being then only 80 leagues to the eastward of the Cape,
Governor Phillip left the Sirius and went on board the Supply tender;
in hopes, by leaving the convoy, to gain sufficient time for examining
the country round Botany Bay, so as to fix on the situation most
eligible for the colony, before the transports should arrive. At the
same time he ordered the agents for the transports, who were in the
Alexander, to separate themselves from the convoy with that ship,
the Scarborough and Friendship, which, as they were better sailors
than the rest, might reasonably be expected sooner: in which case,
by the labour of the convicts they had on board, much might be done
in making the necessary preparations for landing the provisions and
stores.

Major Ross, the Commandant of Marines, now left the Sirius, and went on
board the Scarborough, that he might accompany that part of the
detachment which probably would be landed first. Captain Hunter, in the
Sirius, was to follow with the store-ships, and the remainder of the
transports; and he had the necessary instructions for his future
proceedings, in case the Supply had met with any accident. Lieutenant
Gidley King, since appointed Commandant of Norfolk Island, accompanied
Governor Phillip in the Supply.

3 January 1788

From this time to the 3d of January, 1788, the winds were as favourable
as could be wished, blowing generally in very strong gales from the
north-west, west, and south-west. Once only the wind had shifted to the
east, but continued in that direction not more than a few hours. Thus
assisted, the Supply, which sailed but very indifferently, and turned
out, from what she had suffered in the voyage, to be hardly a safe
conveyance, performed in fifty-one days a voyage of more than seven
thousand miles. On the day abovementioned she was within sight of the
coast of New South Wales. But the winds then became variable, and a
current, which at times set very strongly to the southward, so much
impeded her course, that it was not till the 18th that she arrived at
Botany Bay.


Chapter VI.

January 1788

First interview with the natives--the bay examined--arrival of the whole
fleet--Port Jackson examined--second interview with the natives--and
third--Governor Phillip returns to Botany Bay--and gives orders for the
evacuation of it.

18 January 1788

At the very first landing of Governor Phillip on the shore of Botany Bay,
an interview with the natives took place. They were all armed, but on
seeing the Governor approach with signs of friendship, alone and unarmed,
they readily returned his confidence by laying down their weapons. They
were perfectly devoid of cloathing, yet seemed fond of ornaments, putting
the beads and red baize that were given them, on their heads or necks,
and appearing pleased to wear them. The presents offered by their new
visitors were all readily accepted, nor did any kind of disagreement
arise while the ships remained in Botany Bay. This very pleasing effect
was produced in no small degree by the personal address, as well as by
the great care and attention of the Governor. Nor were the orders which
enforced a conduct so humane, more honourable to the persons from whom
they originated, than the punctual execution of them was to the officers
sent out: it was evident that their wishes coincided with their duty; and
that a sanguinary temper was no longer to disgrace the European settlers
in countries newly discovered.

The next care after landing was the examination of the bay itself, from
which it appeared that, though extensive, it did not afford a shelter
from the easterly winds: and that, in consequence of its shallowness,
ships even of a moderate draught, would always be obliged to anchor with
the entrance of the bay open, where they must be exposed to a heavy sea,
that rolls in whenever it blows hard from the eastward.

Several runs of fresh water were found in different parts of the bay, but
there did not appear to be any situation to which there was not some very
strong objection. In the northern part of it is a small creek, which runs
a considerable way into the country, but it has water only for a boat,
the sides of it are frequently overflowed, and the low lands near it are
a perfect swamp. The western branch of the bay is continued to a great
extent, but the officers sent to examine it could not find there any
supply of fresh water, except in very small drains.

Point Sutherland offered the most eligible situation, having a run of
good water, though not in very great abundance. But to this part of the
harbour the ships could not approach, and the ground near it, even in the
higher parts, was in general damp and spungy. Smaller numbers might
indeed in several spots have found a comfortable residence, but no place
was found in the whole circuit of Botany Bay which seemed at all
calculated for the reception of so large a settlement. While this
examination was carried on, the whole fleet had arrived. The Supply had
not so much outsailed the other ships as to give Governor Phillip the
advantage he had expected in point of time. On the 19th of January, the
Alexander, Scarborough, and Friendship, cast anchor in Botany Bay; and on
the 20th, the Sirius, with the remainder of the convoy*. These ships had
all continued very healthy; they had not, however, yet arrived at their
final station.

[* The annexed view of Botany Bay, represents the Supply, etc. at anchor,
and the Sirius with her convoy coming into the bay.]

The openness of this bay, and the dampness of the soil, by which the
people would probably be rendered unhealthy, had already determined the
Governor to seek another situation. He resolved, therefore, to examine
Port Jackson, a bay mentioned by Captain Cook as immediately to the north
of this. There he hoped to find, not only a better harbour, but a fitter
place for the establishment of his new government. But that no time might
be lost, in case of a disappointment in these particulars, the ground
near Point Sutherland was ordered immediately to be cleared, and
preparations to be made for landing, under the direction of the
Lieutenant Governor.

These arrangements having been settled, Governor Phillip prepared to
proceed to the examination of Port Jackson: and as the time of his
absence, had he gone in the Supply, must have been very uncertain,
he went round with three boats; taking with him Captain Hunter
and several other officers, that by examining several parts of the
harbour at once the greater dispatch might be made.

22d January, 1788.

On the 22d of January they set out upon this expedition, and early
in the afternoon arrived at Port Jackson, which is distant about three
leagues. Here all regret arising from the former disappointments was
at once obliterated; and Governor Phillip had the satisfaction to find
one of the finest harbours in the world, in which a thousand sail of
the line might ride in perfect security.

The different coves of this harbour were examined with all possible
expedition, and the preference was given to one which had the finest
spring of water, and in which ships can anchor so close to the shore,
that at a very small expence quays may be constructed at which the
largest vessels may unload. This cove is about half a mile in length, and
a quarter of a mile across at the entrance. In honour of Lord Sydney, the
Governor distinguished it by the name of Sydney Cove.

On the arrival of the boats at Port Jackson, a second party of the
natives made its appearance near the place of landing. These also were
armed with lances, and at first were very vociferous; but the same gentle
means used towards the others easily persuaded these also to discard
their suspicions, and to accept whatsoever was offered. One man in
particular, who appeared to be the chief of this tribe, shewed very
singular marks both of confidence in his new friends, and of determined
resolution. Under the guidance of Governor Phillip, to whom he
voluntarily intrusted himself, he went to a part of the beach where the
men belonging to the boats were then boiling their meat: when he
approached the marines, who were drawn up near that place, and saw that
by proceeding he should be separated from his companions, who remained
with several of the officers at some distance, he stopped, and with great
firmness, seemed by words and gestures to threaten revenge if any
advantage should be taken of his situation. He then went on with perfect
calmness to examine what was boiling in the pot, and by the manner in
which he expressed his admiration, made it evident that he intended to
profit by what he saw. Governor Phillip contrived to make him understand
that large shells might conveniently be used for the same purpose, and it
is probable that by these hints, added to his own observation, he will be
enabled to introduce the art of boiling among his countrymen. Hitherto
they appear to have known no other way of dressing food than broiling.
Their methods of kindling fire are probably very imperfect and laborious,
for it is observed that they usually keep it burning, and are very rarely
seen without either a fire actually made, or a piece of lighted wood,
which they carry with them from place to place, and even in their
canoes.* The perpetual fires, which in some countries formed a part of
the national religion, had perhaps no other origin than a similar
inability to produce it at pleasure; and if we suppose the original flame
to have been kindled by lightning, the fiction of its coming down from
heaven will be found to deviate very little from the truth.

[* In Hawksw. Voy. vol. iii. p. 234, it is said that they produce fire
with great facility, etc. which account is the more correct, time will
probably show.]

In passing near a point of land in this harbour, the boats were perceived
by a number of the natives, twenty of whom waded into the water unarmed,
received what was offered them, and examined the boat with a curiosity
which impressed a higher idea of them than any former accounts of their
manners had suggested. This confidence, and manly behaviour, induced
Governor Phillip, who was highly pleased with it, to give the place the
name of Manly Cove. The same people afterwards joined the party at the
place where they had landed to dine. They were then armed, two of them
with shields and swords, the rest with lances only. The swords were made
of wood, small in the gripe, and apparently less formidable than a good
stick. One of these men had a kind of white clay rubbed upon the upper
part of his face, so as to have the appearance of a mask. This ornament,
if it can be called such, is not common among them, and is probably
assumed only on particular occasions, or as a distinction to a few
individuals. One woman had been seen on the rocks as the boats passed,
with her face, neck and breasts thus painted, and to our people appeared
the most disgusting figure imaginable; her own countrymen were perhaps
delighted by the beauty of the effect.

During the preparation for dinner the curiosity of these visitors
rendered them very troublesome, but an innocent contrivance altogether
removed the inconvenience. Governor Phillip drew a circle round the place
where the English were, and without much difficulty made the natives
understand that they were not to pass that line; after which they sat
down in perfect quietness. Another proof how tractable these people are,
when no insult or injury is offered, and when proper means are to
influence the simplicity of their minds.

24 January 1788

January 24th, 1788. On the 24th of January, Governor Phillip having
sufficiently explored Port Jackson, and found it in all respects highly
calculated to receive such a settlement as he was appointed to establish,
returned to Botany Bay. On his arrival there, the reports made to him,
both of the ground which the people were clearing, and of the upper parts
of the Bay, which in this interval had been more particularly examined,
were in the greatest degree unfavourable. It was impossible after this to
hesitate concerning the choice of a situation; and orders were
accordingly issued for the removal of the whole fleet to Port Jackson.

That Botany Bay should have appeared to Captain Cook in a more
advantageous light than to Governor Phillip, is not by any means
extraordinary. Their objects were very different; the one required only
shelter and refreshment for a small vessel, and during but a short time:
the other had great numbers to provide for, and was necessitated to find
a place wherein ships of very considerable burthen might approach the
shore with ease, and lie at all times in perfect security. The appearance
of the place is picturesque and pleasing, and the ample harvest it
afforded, of botanical acquisitions, made it interesting to the
philosophical gentlemen engaged in that expedition; but something more
essential than beauty of appearance, and more necessary than
philosophical riches, must be sought in a place where the permanent
residence of multitudes is to be established.


Chapter VII.

January 1788

Removal from Botany Bay--Arrival of two French ships--Account of
them--Preparations for encampment--Difficulties--Scurvy breaks out--Account
of the red and yellow gum trees.

24 January 1788

Preparations for a general removal were now made with all convenient
expedition: but on the morning of the 24th the greatest astonishment was
spread throughout the fleet by the appearance of two ships, under French
colours. In this remote region visitors from Europe were very little
expected, and their arrival, while the cause of it remained unknown,
produced in some minds a temporary apprehension, accompanied by a
multiplicity of conjectures, many of them sufficiently ridiculous.
Governor Phillip was the first to recollect that two ships had been sent
out some time before from France for the purpose of discovery, and
rightly concluded these to be the same. But as the opposition of the
wind, and a strong current prevented them at present from working into
the harbour, and even drove them out of sight again to the south, he did
not think proper to delay his departure for the sake of making further
enquiry.

25 January 1788

On the 25th of January therefore, seven days after the arrival of the
Supply, Governor Phillip quitted Botany Bay in the same ship, and sailed
to Port Jackson. The rest of the fleet, under convoy of the Sirius, was
ordered to follow, as soon as the abatement of the wind, which then blew
a strong gale, should facilitate its working out of the Bay. The Supply
was scarcely out of sight when the French ships again appeared off the
mouth of the harbour, and a boat was immediately sent to them, with
offers of every kind of information and assistance their situation could
require. It was now learnt that these were, as the Governor had supposed,
the Boussole and the Astrolabe, on a voyage of discovery, under the
conduct of Monsieur La Perouse.

26 January 1788

On the 26th, the transports and store ships, attended by the Sirius,
finally evacuated Botany Bay; and in a very short time they were all
assembled in Sydney Cove, the place now destined for their port, and for
the reception of the new settlement. The French ships had come to anchor
in Botany Bay just before the departure of the Sirius; and during the
intercourse which then took place, M. la Perouse had expressed a strong
desire of having some letters conveyed to Europe. Governor Phillip was no
sooner informed of this, than he dispatched an officer to him with full
information of the time when it was probable our ships would sail, and
with assurances that his letters should be punctually transmitted. By
this officer the following intelligence was brought back concerning the
voyage of the Astrolabe and Boussole.

These vessels had sailed from France in June 1785. They had touched at
the Isle of Santa Catharina on the coast of Brasil, from thence had gone
by the extremity of South America into the Pacific Ocean, where they had
run along by the coasts of Chili and California. They had afterwards
visited Easter Island, Nootka Sound, Cook's River, Kamschatka, Manilla,
the Isles des Navigateurs, Sandwich and the Friendly Islands. M. la
Perouse had also anchored off Norfolk Island, but could not land, on
account of the surf. In this long voyage he had not lost any of his
people by sickness; but two boats crews had unfortunately perished in a
surf on the north-west coast of America; and at Masuna, one of the Isles
des Navigateurs, M. L'Angle, Captain of the Astrolabe, had met with a
fate still more unfortunate. That officer had gone ashore with two long
boats for the purpose of filling some water casks. His party amounted to
forty men, and the natives, from whom the French had received abundance
of refreshments, and with whom they had been uniformly on the best terms,
did not on their landing show any signs of a change of disposition.
Malice unprovoked, and treachery without a motive, seem inconsistent even
with the manners of savages; the French officers therefore, confiding in
this unbroken state of amity, had suffered their boats to lie aground.
But whether it were that the friendly behaviour of the natives had
proceeded only from fear, or that some unknown offence had been given,
they seized the moment when the men were busied in getting out the boats,
to make an attack equally furious and unexpected. The assault was made
with stones, of which prodigious numbers were thrown with extraordinary
force and accuracy of direction. To this treachery M. L'Angle fell a
sacrifice, and with him twelve of his party, officers and men, the
long-boats were destroyed, and the remainder of those who had gone ashore
escaped with difficulty in their small boats. The ships in the mean time
were under sail, and having passed a point of land that intercepted the
view, knew nothing of this melancholy and unaccountable affray till the
boats returned. This fatal result from too implicit a confidence, may,
perhaps very properly, increase the caution of Europeans in their
commerce with savages, but ought not to excite suspicion. The resentments
of such people are sudden and sanguinary, and, where the intercourse of
language is wanting, may easily be awakened by misapprehension: but it
seems possible to treat them with sufficient marks of confidence, without
abandoning the guards of prudence. Offence is often given by the men,
while the officers are most studious to preserve harmony, and against the
transports of rage which arise on such occasions, it is always necessary
to be prepared. Perhaps, also, a degree of awe should always be kept up,
even to preserve their friendship. It has been uniformly remarked by our
people, that defenceless stragglers are generally ill-treated by the
natives of New South Wales, while towards parties armed and on their
guard, they behave in the most amicable manner.

The debarkation was now made at Sydney Cove, and the work of clearing the
ground for the encampment, as well as for the storehouses and other
buildings, was begun without loss of time. But the labour which attended
this necessary operation was greater than can easily be imagined by those
who were not spectators of it. The coast, as well as the neighbouring
country in general, is covered with wood; and though in this spot the
trees stood more apart, and were less incumbered with underwood than in
many other places, yet their magnitude was such as to render not only the
felling, but the removal of them afterwards, a task of no small
difficulty. By the habitual indolence of the convicts, and the want of
proper overseers to keep them to their duty, their labour was rendered
less efficient than it might have been.

26 January 1788

In the evening of the 26th the colours were displayed on shore,
and the Governor, with several of his principal officers and others,
assembled round the flag-staff, drank the king's health, and success
to the settlement, with all that display of form which on such occasions
is esteemed propitious, because it enlivens the spirits, and fills
the imagination with pleasing presages. From this time to the end
of the first week in February all was hurry and exertion. They who
gave orders and they who received them were equally occupied; nor
is it easy to conceive a busier scene than this part of the coast
exhibited during the continuance of these first efforts towards
establishment. The plan of the encampment was quickly formed, and places
were marked out for every different purpose, so as to introduce, as much
as possible, strict order and regularity. The materials and frame work to
construct a slight temporary habitation for the Governor, had been
brought out from England ready formed: these were landed and put together
with as much expedition as the circumstances would allow. Hospital tents
were also without delay erected, for which there was soon but too much
occasion. In the passage from the Cape there had been but little
sickness, nor had many died even among the convicts; but soon after
landing, a dysentery prevailed, which in several instances proved fatal,
and the scurvy began to rage with a virulence which kept the hospital
tents generally supplied with patients. For those afflicted with this
disorder, the advantage of fish or other fresh provisions could but
rarely be procured; nor were esculent vegetables often obtained in
sufficient plenty to produce any material alleviation of the complaint.
In the dysentery, the red gum of the tree which principally abounds on
this coast, was found a very powerful remedy. The yellow gum has been
discovered to possess the same property, but in an inferior degree.

The tree which yields the former kind of gum is very considerable in
size, and grows to a great height before it puts out any branches. The
red gum is usually compared to that called sanguis draconis, but differs
from it by being perfectly soluble in water, whereas the other, being
more properly a resin, will not dissolve except in spirits of wine. It
may be drawn from the tree by tapping, or taken out of the veins of the
wood when dry, in which it is copiously distributed. The leaves are long
and narrow, not unlike those of a willow. The wood is heavy and fine
grained, but being much intersected by the channels containing the gum,
splits and warps in such a manner as soon to become entirely useless;
especially when worked up, as necessity at first occasioned it to be,
without having been properly seasoned.

The yellow gum as it is called, is strictly a resin, not being at all
soluble in water; in appearance it strongly resembles gamboge, but has
not the property of staining. The plant that produces it is low and
small, with long grassy leaves; but the fructification of it shoots out
in a singular manner from the centre of the leaves, on a single straight
stem, to the height of twelve or fourteen feet. Of this stem, which is
strong and light, like some of the reed class, the natives usually make
their spears; sometimes pointing them with a piece of the same substance
made sharp, but more frequently with bone. The resin is generally dug up
out of the soil under the tree, not collected from it, and may perhaps be
that which Tasman calls "gum lac of the ground." The form of this plant
is very exactly delineated in the annexed plate, and its proportion to
other trees may be collected from the plate, entitled, A View in New
South Wales, in which many of this species are introduced.

The month of February was ushered in by a very violent storm of thunder
and rain. The lightning struck and shivered a tree, under which a shed
had been erected for some sheep, and five of those animals were at the
same time unfortunately destroyed by it. The encampment still went on
with great alacrity, so that in the beginning of this month the work of
building public storehouses was undertaken; and unremitting diligence
began, though very gradually, to triumph over the obstacles which the
nature of the place presented.

Chapter VIII.

February 1788

Description of Port Jackson and the adjacent country--The Governor's
commission read--his Speech--his humane resolutions respecting the
Natives--difficulties in erecting huts and other buildings--departure of
Lieutenant King to Norfolk Island.
A View in Port Jackson.

Port Jackson was not visited or explored by Captain Cook; it was seen
only at the distance of between two or three miles from the coast: had
any good fortune conducted him into that harbour, he would have found it
much more worthy of his attention as a seaman, than that in which he
passed a week. Governor Phillip himself pronounces it to be a harbour, in
extent and security, superior to any he has ever seen: and the most
experienced navigators who were with him fully concur in that opinion.
From an entrance not more than two miles across, Port Jackson gradually
extends into a noble and capacious bason; having soundings sufficient for
the largest vessels, and space to accommodate, in perfect security, any
number that could be assembled. It runs chiefly in a western direction,
about thirteen miles into the country, and contains not less than an
hundred small coves, formed by narrow necks of land, whose projections
afford admirable shelter from all winds. Sydney Cove lies on the South
side of the harbour, between five and six miles from the entrance. The
necks of land that form the coves are mostly covered with timber, yet so
rocky that it is not easy to comprehend how the trees could have found
sufficient nourishment to bring them to so considerable a magnitude; but
the soil between the rocks is very good, and into those spaces the
principal roots have found their way. The soil in other parts of the
coast immediately about Port Jackson is of various qualities. That neck
of land which divides the south end of the harbour from the sea is
chiefly sand. Between Sydney Cove and Botany Bay the first space is
occupied by a wood, in some parts a mile and a half, in others three
miles across; beyond that, is a kind of heath, poor, sandy, and full of
swamps. As far as the eye can reach to the westward, the country is one
continued wood. The head of the bay in Port Jackson, seemed at first to
offer some advantages of ground, but as it is partly left dry at low
water, and as the winds are much obstructed there by the woods and by the
windings of the channel, it was deemed that it must probably be
unhealthful, till the country can be cleared.

There are several parts of the harbour in which the trees stand at a
greater distance from each other than in Sydney Cove; some of these which
have small runs of water, and a promising soil, Governor Phillip purposed
to cultivate as soon as hands could be spared; but the advantage of being
able to land the stores and provisions with so much ease, unavoidably
determined his choice of a place for the principal settlement. Had it
been attempted to remove those necessaries only one mile from the spot
where they were landed, the undertaking probably would have been
fruitless; so many were the obstacles to land carriage. At the head of
Sydney Cove, therefore, Governor Phillip had fixed the seat of his
government; but intent upon providing the best and earliest accommodation
for those who were to be encamped with him; and wholly occupied by the
continual necessity of giving directions, he had not yet found leisure
for assuming regularly his powers and title of Governor. At length the
hurry of the first preparations gave way to this more tranquil business.

7 February 1788

The 7th of February, 1788, was the memorable day which established a
regular form of Government on the coast of New South Wales. For obvious
reasons, all possible solemnity was given to the proceedings necessary on
this occasion. On a space previously cleared, the whole colony was
assembled; the military drawn up, and under arms; the convicts stationed
apart; and near the person of the Governor, those who were to hold the
principal offices under him. The Royal Commission was then read by Mr. D.
Collins, the Judge Advocate. By this instrument Arthur Phillip was
constituted and appointed Captain General and Governor in Chief in and
over the territory, called New South Wales; extending from the northern
cape, or extremity of the coast, called Cape York, in the latitude of ten
degrees, thirty-seven minutes south, to the southern extremity of the
said territory of New South Wales, or South Cape, in the latitude of
forty-three degrees, thirty-nine minutes south, and of all the country
inland to the westward, as far as the one hundred and thirty-fifth degree
of east longitude, reckoning from the meridian of Greenwich, including
all the islands adjacent in the Pacific Ocean, within the latitudes
aforesaid of 10°. 37'. south, and 43°. 39'. south, and of all towns,
garrisons, castles, forts, and all other fortifications, or other
military works which may be hereafter erected upon the said territory, or
any of the said islands. The act of Parliament establishing the courts of
judicature was next read; and lastly, the patents under the great seal,
empowering the proper persons to convene and hold those courts whenever
the exigency should require. The Office of Lieutenant Governor was
conferred on Major Ross, of the Marines. A triple discharge of musquetry
concluded this part of the ceremony; after which Governor Phillip
advanced, and addressing first the private soldiers, thanked them for
their steady good conduct on every occasion: an honour which was repeated
to them in the next general orders. He then turned to the convicts, and
distinctly explained to them the nature of their present situation. The
greater part, he bade them recollect, had already forfeited their lives
to the justice of their country: yet, by the lenity of its laws, they
were now so placed that, by industry and good behaviour, they might in
time regain the advantages and estimation in society of which they had
deprived themselves. They not only had every encouragement to make that
effort, but were removed almost entirely from every temptation to guilt.
There was little in this infant community which one man could plunder
from another, and any dishonest attempts in so small a society would
almost infallibly be discovered. To persons detected in such crimes, he
could not promise any mercy; nor indeed to any whom, under their
circumstances, should presume to offend against the peace and good order
of the settlement. What mercy could do for them they had already
experienced; nor could any good be now expected from those whom neither
past warnings, nor the peculiarities of their present situation could
preserve from guilt. Against offenders, therefore, the rigour of the law
would certainly be put in force: while they whose behaviour should in any
degree promise reformation, might always depend upon encouragement fully
proportioned to their deserts. He particularly noticed the illegal
intercourse between the sexes as an offence which encouraged a general
profligacy of manners, and was in several ways injurious to society. To
prevent this, he strongly recommended marriage, and promised every kind
of countenance and assistance to those who, by entering into that state,
should manifest their willingness to conform to the laws of morality and
religion. Governor Phillip concluded his address, by declaring his
earnest desire to promote the happiness of all who were under his
government, and to render the settlement in New South Wales advantageous
and honourabe to his country.

This speech, which was received with universal acclamations, terminated
the ceremonial peculiar to the day. Nor was it altogether without its
proper effect: For we are informed, that in the course of the ensuing
week fourteen marriages took place among the convicts. The assembly was
now dispersed, and the Governor proceeded to review the troops on the
ground cleared for a parade: after which, he gave a dinner to the
officers, and the first evening of his government was concluded
propitiously, in good order and innocent festivity, amidst the repetition
of wishes for its prosperity.

A rising government could not easily be committed to better hands.
Governor Phillip appears to have every requisite to ensure the success of
the undertaking intrusted to him, as far as the qualities of one man can
ensure it. Intelligent, active, persevering with firmness to make his
authority respected, and mildness to render it pleasing, he was
determined, if possible, to bring even the native inhabitants of New
South Wales into a voluntary subjection; or at least to establish with
them a strict amity and alliance. Induced also by motives of humanity, it
was his determination from his first landing, to treat them with the
utmost kindness: and he was firmly resolved, that, whatever differences
might arise, nothing less than the most absolute necessity should ever
compel him to fire upon them. In this resolution, by good fortune, and by
his own great address, he has happily been enabled to persevere. But
notwithstanding this, his intentions of establishing a friendly
intercourse have hitherto been frustrated. M. De la Peyrouse,* while he
remained in Botany Bay, had some quarrel with the inhabitants, which
unfortunately obliged him to use his fire-arms against them: this affair,
joined to the ill behaviour of some of the convicts, who in spite of all
prohibitions, and at the risque of all consequences, have wandered out
among them, has produced a shyness on their parts which it has not yet
been possible to remove, though the properest means have been taken to
regain their confidence. Their dislike to the Europeans is probably
increased by discovering that they intend to remain among them, and that
they interfere with them in some of their best fishing places, which
doubtless are, in their circumstances, objects of very great importance.
Some of the convicts who have straggled into the woods have been killed,
and others dangerously wounded by the natives, but there is great reason
to suppose that in these cases the convicts have usually been the
aggressors.

[* This is the right form of that officer's name; it was printed otherwise
in a former passage by mistake.]

As the month of February advanced heavy rains began to fall, which
pointed out the necessity of procuring shelter for the people as soon as
possible. To have expedited this work in the degree which was desirable a
great number of artificers would have been required. But this advantage
could not be had. Only sixteen carpenters could be hired from all the
ships; among the convicts no more than twelve were of this profession,
and of them several were sick. These therefore together formed but a
small party, in proportion to the work which was to be done. One hundred
convicts were added as labourers; but with every effort, it was found
impossible to complete either the barracks for the men, or the huts for
the officers, as soon as was desired. As late as the middle of May these
were yet unfinished, as well as the hospital, and the storehouse for
those provisions which were not landed at first. The Governor himself at
that time was still lodged in his temporary house of canvas, which was
not perfectly impervious either to wind or weather.

14 February 1788.

On the 14th of February a party was sent out in the Supply, to settle on
a small island to the north-west of New Zealand, in latitude 29° south,
and longitude 168°. 10'. east from London, which was discovered and much
commended by Captain Cook, and by him named Norfolk Island, in honour of
the noble family to which that title belongs. To the office of
superintendant and commandant of this island, and the settlement to be
made upon it, Governor Phillip appointed Philip Gidley King, second
lieutenant of his Majesty's ship Sirius, an officer much esteemed by him
as of great merit in his profession; and highly spoken of in his letters
as a man, whose perseverance in that or any other service might fully be
depended on. As it was known that there were no inhabitants on Norfolk
Island, there was sent with Lieut. King only a small detachment,
consisting of one subaltern officer, and six marines, a very promising
young man who was a midshipman, a surgeon,* two men who understood the
cultivation and dressing of flax, with nine men and six women convicts.
That the nature of this settlement may be fully understood, a copy of the
instructions delivered to Mr. King at his departure is subjoined to this
chapter.

[* The surgeon's name is Jamison, whose intelligent letters to Lewis
Wolfe, Esq; were kindly lent to the publisher, and have afforded much
useful information.]


INSTRUCTIONS for PHILIP GIDLEY KING, Esq; Superintendant and Commandant
of the Settlement of NORFOLK ISLAND.

With these instructions you will receive my Commission, appointing you to
superintend and command the settlement to be formed in Norfolk Island,
and to obey all such orders as you shall from time to time receive from
me, his Majesty's Governor in Chief, and Captain General of the territory
of New South Wales and its dependencies, or from the Lieutenant-Governor
in my absence.

You are therefore to proceed in his Majesty's armed tender Supply, whose
commander has my orders to receive you, with the men and women, stores
and provisions necessary for forming the intended settlement; and on your
landing on Norfolk Island you are to take upon you the execution of the
trust reposed in you, causing my commission, appointing you
superintendant over the said settlement, to be publicly read.

After having taken the necessary measures for securing yourself and
people, and for the preservation of the stores and provisions, you are
immediately to proceed to the cultivation of the Flax Plant, which you
will find growing spontaneously on the island: as likewise to the
cultivation of cotton, corn, and other plants, with the seeds of which
you are furnished, and which you are to regard as public stock, and of
the increase of which you are to send me an account, that I may know what
quantity may be drawn from the island for public use, or what supplies it
may be necessary to send hereafter. It is left to your discretion to use
such part of the corn that is raised as may be found necessary; but this
you are to do with the greatest oeconomy; and as the corn, flax, cotton,
and other grains are the property of the Crown, and as such are to be
accounted for, you are to keep an exact account of the increase, and you
will in future receive directions for the disposal thereof.

You are to inform yourself of the nature of the soil, what proportion of
land you find proper for the cultivation of corn, flax, and cotton, as
likewise what quantity of cattle may be bred on the island, and the
number of people you judge necessary for the above purpose. You will
likewise observe what are the prevailing winds in the different seasons
of the year, the best anchorage according to the season, the rise and
fall of the tides, likewise when the dry and rainy seasons begin and end.

You will be furnished with a four oared boat, and you are not on any
consideration to build, or to permit the building of any vessel or boat
whatever that is decked; or of any boat or vessel that is not decked,
whose length of keel exceeds twenty feet: and if by any accident any
vessel or boat that exceeds twenty feet keel should be driven on the
island, you are immediately to cause such boat or vessel to be scuttled,
or otherwise rendered unserviceable, letting her remain in that situation
until you receive further directions from me.

You will be furnished with six months provisions, within which time you
will receive an additional supply, but as you will be able to procure
fish and vegetables, you are to endeavour to make the provisions you
receive serve as long as possible.

The convicts being the servants of the Crown, till the time for which
they are sentenced is expired, their labour is to be for the public; and
you are to take particular notice of their general good or bad behaviour,
that they may hereafter be employed or rewarded according to their
different merits.

You are to cause the Prayers of the Church of England to be read with all
due solemnity every Sunday, and you are to inforce a due observance of
religion and good order, transmitting to me, as often as opportunity
offers, a full account of your particular situation and transactions.

You are not to permit any intercourse or trade with any ships or vessels
that may stop at the island, whether English or of any other nation,
unless such ships or vessels should be in distress, in which case you are
to afford them such assistance as may be in your power.

Given under my hand, at Head Quarters in Port Jackson, New South Wales,
this 12th day of February, 1788.

(Signed)

ARTHUR PHILLIP.


Chapter IX.

February 1788 to March 1788

A Criminal Court held--Broken Bay explored by Governor Phillip--Interviews
with the Natives--Peculiarities remarked--Friendly behaviour and
extraordinary courage of an old man.

Governor Phillip soon found with great regret, though doubtless without
much surprise, that in the community committed to his care the strict
enforcement of the sanctions of law was peculiarly necessary. There were
in it many individuals whom neither lenity could touch, nor rigour
terrify; who, with all sense of social duty, appeared to have lost all
value for life itself, and with the same wantonness exposed themselves to
the darts of the savages, and to the severe punishments which, however
reluctantly, every society must inflict when milder methods have been
tried without success. Towards the latter end of February a criminal
court was convened, in which six of the convicts received sentence of
death. One, who was the head of the gang, was executed the same day; of
the rest, one was pardoned; the other four were reprieved, and afterwards
exiled to a small island within the bay, where they were kept on bread
and water. These men had frequently robbed the stores, and the other
convicts. He who suffered, and two others, had been detected in stealing
from the stores the very day that they had received a week's provision;
at a time when their allowance, as settled by the Navy Board, was the
same as that of the soldiers, spirituous liquors excepted. So inveterate
were their habits of dishonesty, that even the apparent want of a motive
could not repress them.

2 March 1788

On the 2d of March Governor Phillip went with a long boat and cutter to
examine the broken land, mentioned by Captain Cook, about eight miles to
the northward of Port Jackson, and by him named Broken Bay. This bay
proved to be very extensive. The first night they slept in the boats,
within a rocky point in the north-west part of the bay, as the natives,
though friendly, appeared to be numerous; and the next day, after passing
a bar that had only water for small vessels, they entered a very
extensive branch, from which the ebb tide came out so strong that the
boats could not row against it in the stream; and here was deep water.
This opening appeared to end in several small branches, and in a large
lagoon which could not then be examined, as there was not time to seek a
channel for the boats among the banks of sand and mud. Most of the land
in the upper part of this branch was low and full of swamps. Pelicans and
various other birds were here seen in great numbers. Among the rest an
uncommon kind, called then the Hooded Gull, and supposed to be a non
descript; but it appears from a drawing sent to England, a plate from
which is here inserted, to be of that species called by Mr. Latham the
Caspian Tern, and is described by him as the second variety of that
species.*

[* Latham's Synopsis of Birds, vol. vi. p. 351.]

Leaving this north-west branch they proceeded across the bay, and went
into the south-west branch. This is also very extensive; and from it runs
a second opening to the westward, affording shelter for almost any number
of ships. In this part, as far as could then be examined, there is water
for vessels of the greatest burthen, the soundings being at the entrance
seven fathoms, and in going up still more. Continual rains prevented them
from taking a survey. The land here was found much higher than at Port
Jackson, more rocky, and equally covered with timber. Large trees were
seen growing even on the summits of the mountains, which appeared
accessible only to birds. Immediately round the headland that forms the
southern entrance into the bay, there is a third branch, which Governor
Phillip thought the finest piece of water he had ever seen; and which
therefore he thought worthy to be honoured with the name of Pitt Water.
This, as well as the south-west branch, is of sufficient extent to
contain all the navy of Great Britain. But on a narrow bar which runs
across the entrance it has only eighteen feet depth at low water. Within
the bar there are from seven to fifteen fathoms. The land is not so high
in this part as in the south-west branch, and there are some good
situations where the land might be cultivated. Small springs of water
were seen in most of the coves, and three cascades falling from heights,
which the rains at that time rendered inaccessible.

In this excursion some interviews with the natives took place. When the
party first landed in Broken Bay several women came down to the beach
with the men. One of these, a young woman, was very talkative and
remarkably cheerful. This was a singular instance, for in general they
are observed on this coast to be much less cheerful than the men, and
apparently under great awe and subjection. They certainly are not treated
with much tenderness, and it is thought that they are employed chiefly in
the canoes, in which women have frequently been seen with very young
children at the breast. The lively young lady, when she joined the party
the second day in her canoe, stood up and gave a song which was far from
unpleasing. The men very readily gave their assistance to the English in
making a fire, and behaved in the most friendly manner. In a bay where
Governor Phillip and his company landed to draw the seine, a number of
the natives again came to them. It was now first observed by the Governor
that the women in general had lost two joints from the little finger of
the left hand. As these appeared to be all married women, he at first
conjectured this privation to be a part of the marriage ceremony; but
going afterwards into a hut where were several women and children, he saw
a girl of five or six years of age whose left hand was thus mutilated;
and at the same time an old woman, and another who appeared to have had
children, on both of whom all the fingers were perfect. Several instances
were afterwards observed of women with child, and of others that were
evidently wives, who had not lost the two joints, and of children from
whom they had been cut. Whatever be the occasion of this mutilation, it
is performed on females only; and considering the imperfection of their
instruments, must be a very painful operation. Nothing has been seen in
the possession of these people that is at all calculated for performing
such an amputation, except a shell fixed to a short stick, and used
generally for pointing their spears, or for separating the oysters from
the rocks. More fingers than one are never cut; and in every instance it
is the same finger that has suffered.*

[* In Patterson's Travels in Africa, lately published, we are told, that
he met with a tribe of Hottentots near Orange River, all of whom had lost
the first joint of the little finger: the reason they gave for cutting it
off was, that it was a cure for a particular sickness to which they were
subject when young. Fourth Journey, p. 117. It would be a curious
coincidence of customs should it be discovered that the natives of New
Holland do it for any similar reason.]

The men are distinguished in a different manner: their fingers are not
mutilated, but most of them, as other voyagers have observed, want the
right front tooth in the upper jaw. Governor Phillip having remarked
this, pointed out to them that he had himself lost one of his front
teeth, which occasioned a general clamour; and it was thought he derived
some merit in their opinion from this circumstance. The perforation of
the cartilage that divides the nostrils, and the strange disfiguring
ornament of a long bone or stick thrust through it, was now observed, as
described by Captain Cook; and the same appellation of sprit-sail yard,
was ludicrously applied to it by the sailors. But several very old men
were seen in this excursion who had not lost the tooth, nor had their
noses prepared to receive that grotesque appendage: probably, therefore,
these are marks of distinction: ambition must have its badges, and where
cloaths are not worn, the body itself must be compelled to bear them.

Whether the scars raised upon the skin were of this kind, or as Captain
Cook understood by their signs, marks of sorrow for deceased friends,
could not now be learnt. They are of a very singular nature: sometimes
the skin is raised from the flesh for several inches, appearing as if it
were filled with wind, and forming a round surface of more than a quarter
of an inch diameter. Their bodies are scarred in various parts,
particularly about the breast and arms, and frequently on the instep. Nor
does the head always escape; one man in particular, putting aside the
hair on the forepart of his head, showed a scar, and then pointing to one
on the foot, and to others on different parts of the body, seemed to
intimate that he thought himself much honoured by having these marks upon
him from head to foot. The women did not appear equally forward to
produce the mutilated finger; nor was it always possible to ascertain
whether they had lost the joints or not. For though they made no attempt
to secrete themselves, nor seemed impressed with any idea that one part
of the body more requires concealment than another, yet there was a
shyness and timidity among them which frequently kept them at a distance.
They never would approach so readily as the men, and sometimes would not
even land from their canoes, but made signs that what was offered should
be given to the men. We are not yet enough acquainted with the manners of
the people to decide whether this reserve proceeds from the fears of the
women, or from the jealousy of their husbands, by whom they are evidently
kept in great subordination.

One of their modes of fishing was now observed: their hooks are made of
the inside of a shell resembling mother of pearl. When a fish which has
taken the bait is supposed to be too strong to be landed with the line,
the canoe is paddled to shore, and while one man gently draws the fish
along, another stands prepared to strike it with a spear: in this attempt
they seldom fail. In the plate which represents this action, the engraver
has inadvertently left the bodies of the figures rather too white; in
other respects it is very accurate.

When the southern branch of Broken Bay was first visited, the getting
round the headland that separates the branches, was attended with some
difficulty, on account of very heavy squalls of wind, accompanied with
rain. An attempt was made to land, where there proved not to be
sufficient water for the boat. During this transaction, an old man and a
youth were standing on the rocks where the boat was trying to approach.
Having seen how much our men had laboured to get under land, they were
very solicitous to point out the deepest water. Afterwards they brought
fire, and seemed willing to render any service in their power. Two of the
officers suffered themselves to be conducted by the old man to a cave at
some distance, but declined going in, though he invited them by all the
signs he could invent. This was rather unfortunate, as the rain was
falling very violently, and the cave was found next day sufficiently
large to have sheltered the whole party. The old man certainly took great
pains to make this understood, but the motive of his earnestness
unluckily was mistaken, and his visitors suffered for their suspicions.
He afterwards assisted in clearing away the bushes, and making
preparations for the party to sleep on shore, and next morning was
rewarded with presents for his very friendly behaviour. Two days
afterwards, when Governor Phillip returned to the same spot, the old man
met him with a dance and a song of joy. His son was with him, and several
of the natives; a hatchet was given them and other presents; and as the
Governor was to return next day to Port Jackson, it was hoped that the
friendship thus begun, and so studiously cultivated, would have continued
firm. But as soon as it was dark, the old man stole a spade, and was
caught with it in his hand. Governor Phillip thought it necessary, on
this occasion, to shew some tokens of displeasure, and therefore when the
delinquent approached, he gave him two or three slight slaps on the
shoulder, and then pushed him away, at the same time pointing to the
spade. This gentle chastisement at once destroyed their friendship. The
old man immediately seized a spear, and coming close up to the Governor,
poized it, and seemed determined to strike. But seeing that his threats
were disregarded, (for his antagonist chose rather to risk the effects of
his anger than to fire upon him) or perhaps dissuaded by something the
other natives said, in a few moments he dropped the spear and went away.
It was impossible not to be struck with the courage displayed by him on
this occasion, for Governor Phillip at the time was not alone, but had
several officers and men about him. From this and other similar events,
personal bravery appears to be a quality in which the natives of New
South Wales are not by any means deficient. The old man returned the next
morning with many other natives, but, in order to convince him of his
fault, he was less noticed than his companions, who were presented with
hatchets and various other articles.

9 March 1788

It was now the 9th of March, and Governor Phillip returned to Port
Jackson: having gained some useful knowledge of the country, and
maintained an intercourse with the natives without departing from his
favourite plan of treating them with the utmost kindness. He had
endeavoured at the same time to gain their confidence, if possible, and
secure their friendship. If these humane endeavours were afterwards
rendered fruitless by the wanton profligacy of some depraved individuals,
however he might regret it, he could have no reason to reproach himself.

The rain, which was almost constant, prevented the Governor from
returning by land, which otherwise he meant to have done, for the sake of
exploring a part of the country which appeared to be good and free from
timber.


Chapter X.

March 1788

Departure of the French Ships--Death of M. Le Receveur--Return of the
Supply from Norfolk Island--Description of that Place--Howe Island
discovered.

10 March 1788

On the 10th of March, the French ships sailed from Botany Bay. M. De la
Peyrouse during his stay there had set up two long boats, the frames of
which he had brought with him from Europe. There had not been much
intercourse between the French and English in this interval: both being
too busily employed to waste their time in parties of pleasure. Captain
Clonard had waited on Governor Phillip with the letters which were to be
forwarded to the French ambassador; and a few of the English officers had
gone over by land about the same time to pay a visit in Botany Bay; both
parties were of course received with politeness and hospitality. Some few
of the convicts contrived to abscond, and endeavoured to get admitted
into the French ships, but were, with great propriety, rejected. Those
vessels returned towards the north, where they were to make another
voyage.

During the stay of M. De la Peyrouse in Botany Bay, Father Le Receveur,
who had come out in the Astrolabe as a naturalist, died. His death was
occasioned by wounds which he received in the unfortunate rencounter at
the Navigator's Islands. A slight monument was erected to his memory,
with the following inscription.

Hic jacet LE RECEVEUR,
E. F. F. Minimis Galliae Sacerdos,
Physicus in circumnavigatione
Mundi,
Duce DE LA PEYROUSE,
Ob. 17 Feb. 1788.

The monument being soon after destroyed by the natives, Governor Phillip
caused the inscription to be engraved on copper, and affixed to a
neighbouring tree. M. De la Peyrouse had paid a similar tribute of
respect to the memory of Captain Clerke, at the harbour of St. Peter and
Paul in Kamtschatka.

19 March 1788

On the 19th of this month, Lieutenant Ball arrived in the Supply from
Norfolk Island. He had made that island on the 29th of February, but was
five days off the coast before a place could be found at which it was
possible to land the stores and provisions. So completely do the rocks
surround the island, that it was not easy to find a place even to land a
man. At length, however, they succeeded, having discovered at the
south-west end, a small opening in a reef that runs across a bay. Here
the people, provisions and stores were all put on shore in perfect
safety. The Commandant wrote in high spirits at the promising appearance
of his new territory; and subsequent accounts have proved, that the
opinion he then formed was not erroneous. He described Norfolk Island as
one entire wood, or rather as a garden overrun with the noblest pines, in
straightness, size, and magnitude, far superior to any he had ever seen.
Nothing can exceed the fertility of its soil. Wherever it has been since
examined, a rich black mould has been found to the depth of five or six
feet: and the grain and garden seeds which have been sown, such only
excepted as were damaged in the carriage, or by the weevil, have
vegetated with the utmost luxuriance. To prevent repetitions, it may
perhaps be best to unite in this place the accounts which have been
received of this island, though many of them will easily be perceived to
be greatly posterior to this first return of the Supply.

Norfolk Island is about seven leagues in circumference, and if not
originally formed, like many other small islands, by the eruption of
volcanic matter from the bed of the sea, must doubtless have contained a
volcano. This conclusion is formed from the vast quantity of pumice stone
which is scattered in all parts of it, and mixed with the soil. The
crater, or at least some traces of its former existence, will probably be
found at the summit of a small mountain, which rises near the middle of
the island. To this mountain the Commandant has given the name of Mount
Pitt. The island is exceedingly well watered. At, or near Mount Pitt,
rises a strong and copious stream, which flowing through a very fine
valley, divides itself into several branches, each of which retains
sufficient force to be used in turning mills: and in various parts of the
island excellent springs have been discovered.

The climate is pure, salubrious, and delightful, preserved from
oppressive heats by constant breezes from the sea, and of so mild a
temperature throughout the winter, that vegetation continues there
without interruption, one crop succeeding another. Refreshing showers
from time to time maintain perpetual verdure; not indeed of grass, for
none has yet been seen upon the island, but of the trees, shrubs, and
other vegetables which in all parts grow abundantly. On the leaves of
these, and of some kinds in particular, the sheep, hogs, and goats, not
only live, but thrive and fatten very much. To the salubrity of the air
every individual in this little colony can bear ample testimony, from the
uninterrupted state of good health which has been in general enjoyed.

When our settlers landed, there was not a single acre clear of wood in
the island, and the trees were so bound together by that kind of creeping
shrub called supple jack, interwoven in all directions, as to render it
very difficult to penetrate far among them. The Commandant, small as his
numbers were at first, by indefatigable activity soon caused a space to
be cleared sufficient for the requisite accommodations, and for the
production of esculent vegetables of all kinds in the greatest abundance.
When the last accounts arrived, three acres of barley were in a very
thriving state, and ground was prepared to receive rice and Indian corn.
In the wheat there had been a disappointment, the grain that was sown
having been so much injured by the weevil, as to be unfit for vegetation.
But the people were all at that time in commodious houses; and, according
to the declarations of Mr. King himself, in his letters to Governor
Phillip, there was not a doubt that this colony would be in a situation
to support itself entirely without assistance, in less than four years:
and with very little in the intermediate time. Even two years would be
more than sufficient for this purpose, could a proper supply of black
cattle be sent.

Fish are caught in great plenty, and in the proper season very fine
turtle. The woods are inhabited by innumerable tribes of birds, many of
them very gay in plumage. The most useful are pigeons, which are very
numerous, and a bird not unlike the Guinea fowl, except in colour, (being
chiefly white,) both of which were at first so tame as to suffer
themselves to be taken by hand. Of plants that afford vegetables for the
table, the chief are cabbage palm, the wild plantain, the fern tree, a
kind of wild spinage, and a tree which produces a diminutive fruit,
bearing some resemblance to a currant. This, it is hoped, by
transplanting and care, will be much improved in size and flavour.

But the productions which give the greatest importance to Norfolk Island
are the pines and the flax plant, the former rising to a size and
perfection unknown in other places, and promising the most valuable
supply of masts and spars for our navy in the East Indies; the latter not
less estimable for the purposes of making sail-cloth, cordage, and even
the finest manufactures; growing in great plenty, and with such
luxuriance as to attain the height of eight feet.* The pines measure
frequently one hundred and sixty, or even one hundred and eighty feet in
height, and are sometimes nine or ten feet in diameter at the bottom of
the trunk. They rise to about eighty feet without a branch; the wood is
said to be of the best quality, almost as light as that of the best
Norway masts; and the turpentine obtained from it is remarkable for
purity and whiteness. The fern tree is found also of a great height for
its species, measuring from seventy to eighty feet, and affords excellent
food for the sheep and other small cattle. A plant producing pepper, and
supposed to be the true oriental pepper, has been discovered lately in
the island, growing in great plenty; and specimens have been sent to
England, in order to ascertain this important point.

[* The flax plant is thus described in Captain Cook's first voyage, vol.
iii. p. 39. as found at New Zealand. "There is, however, a plant that
serves the inhabitants instead of hemp and flax, which excels all that
are put to the same purposes in other countries. Of this plant there are
two sorts; the leaves of both resemble those of flags, but the flowers
are smaller and their clusters more numerous; in one kind they are
yellow, and in the other a deep red. Of the leaves of these plants, with
very little preparation, they make all their common apparel; and of these
they also make their strings, lines, and cordage for every purpose, which
are so much stronger than any thing we can make with hemp, that they will
not bear a comparison. From the same plant, by another preparation, they
draw long slender fibres which shine like silk, and are as white as snow:
of these, which are also surprizingly strong, the finer clothes are made;
and of the leaves, without any other preparation than splitting them into
proper breadths and trying the strips together, they make their fishing
nets; some of which, as I have before remarked, are of an enormous size."
It is added, that it is found in every kind of soil. It is perennial, and
has a bulbous root. Some of the roots have lately been sent to England.]

The chief disadvantage experienced by those who are sent to Norfolk
Island, is the want of a good landing place. The bay which has been used
for this purpose is inclosed by a reef of coral rock, through which there
is a passage only for a boat; and during the tide of flood, when the wind
is westerly, the landing is rather dangerous. In one of the debarkations
a midshipman, who was ordered to lie within the reef, that he might
attend the boats coming to shore, imprudently suffered his own boat to
drive into the surf, and was lost, with four men. He had been once before
overset in consequence of a similar inattention, and then had lost one
man. On the coast of the island are several small bays, and there are
still hopes that a better landing place may be discovered; but the
necessity of employing all the men in sheltering themselves and the
stores from the weather, or in clearing ground for various purposes, has
hitherto prevented Mr. King from sending out any persons to complete the
examination. Should this enquiry prove unsuccessful, it is proposed to
attempt the blowing up of one or two small rocks, by which the reef is
rendered dangerous. If this expedient also should fail, the evil must be
borne with patience. In summer the landing will generally be sufficiently
secure; and seamen, who have seen the bay of Riga, in the Baltic,
declare, that it will at all times be safer for a ship to load with masts
and spars at Norfolk Island, than in that place, where so many ships are
freighted yearly.

Rats are the only quadrupeds which have been found in this island; and
from these, as well as from the ants, it was feared the crops might
suffer; but no great inconvenience has yet been experienced from them;
and proper exertions seldom fail in a short time to reduce the number of
such enemies, enough to make their depredations very inconsiderable. On
the whole, Norfolk Island certainly deserves to be considered as an
acquisition of some importance, and is likely to answer even the most
sanguine expectations. Some canoes have been found on the rocks, which
were supposed to have been driven from New Zealand; but the appearance of
a fresh cocoa nut and a small piece of manufactured wood, which seemed to
have been only a small time in the water, has lately suggested an idea
that probably some inhabited island may lie at no great distance. There
has not been as yet any opportunity to determine whether this opinion be
well founded or not.

A small island, but entirely uninhabited, was discovered by Lieutenant
Ball in his passage to Norfolk Island. In his return he examined it, and
found that the shore abounded with turtle, but there was no good
anchorage. He named it Lord Howe Island. It is in 31° 36' south latitude,
and 159° east longitude. Part of this island being very high may be seen
at the distance of sixteen leagues, and a rock to the south-east of it,
may be discerned even at eighteen leagues. In latitude 29° 25' south,
longitude 159° 59' east, a very dangerous reef has since been seen. The
ship from which it was observed was then four leagues to the southward,
and it could not at that time be ascertained how far it extends to the
northward.

To expedite the cultivation of Norfolk Island a fresh detachment was sent
thither in October, consisting of an officer and eight marines, with
thirty convicts, consisting of ten women and twenty men: Thus, there
existed on this islet, when the last accounts were transmitted,
forty-four men and sixteen women, who, having eighteen months provisions,
lived comfortably on this sequestered spot, under the prudent management
of a youthful ruler, of whose busy life the reader may wish to know all
the particulars, which at present can be authentically told.

Philip Gidley King, who had the honour to conduct the original settlers
to Norfolk Island, was born at Launceston in Cornwall, on the 23d of
April, 1758. He is the son of Philip King, of that town, draper, who
married the daughter of John Gidley, of Exeter, attorney at law. Much as
he owes to his parents, he is indebted for his scholastic learning to Mr.
Bailey at Yarmouth. He derives, probably, some advantages from making an
early choice of his profession. At the age of twelve, he went to the East
Indies on board the Swallow frigate, Captain Shirley, by whom he was
rated a midshipman. From this station he returned to England, at the end
of five years, with much knowledge of his business, and some acquaintance
with the world. In 1775, he entered upon real service; and has continued
in active employment from that period to this great epoch of his life. He
went to Virginia with Captain Bellew, in the Liverpool, during the year
1775; with whom he continued till the shipwreck of that frigate in
Delaware Bay. And having entered on board the Princess Royal, in October
1778, he was made a Lieutenant by Admiral Byron, in the Renown, on the
26th of November following. He returned to England in the subsequent
year; and served in the Channel on board the Kite cutter, and Ariadne
frigate, till the beginning of 1783. With Captain Phillip he went to the
East Indies, as Lieutenant of the Europe, in January 1783; from whence he
returned on the restoration of complete peace, in May 1784. In this
service it was, that Phillip and King became acquainted with the merit of
each other. And when the expedition to New South Wales was projected,
King was appointed Lieutenant of the Sirius, on the 25th of October,
1786, at the same time that Phillip was nominated Commander of the
voyage.


Chapter XI.

March 1788 to May 1788

Three of the transports cleared--Two excursions made into the country, on
the fifteenth of April, and on the twenty-second--Huts of the
natives--Sculpture, and other particulars.

25 March 1788

On the 25th of March, the Charlotte, Lady Penrhyn, and Scarborough
transports, having been cleared of all their stores, were discharged from
government service, and left at liberty to proceed for China, whenever
their commanders should think proper. The other ships were of necessity
detained till the store-houses could be finished.

15 April 1788

The month of April was not distinguished by any events that deserve to be
related, except two expeditions of Governor Phillip for the purpose of
exploring the country. On the first of these excursions he set out on the
15th with provisions for four days; attended by several officers, and a
small party of marines. They landed at the head of a small cove, called
Shell Cove, near the entrance of the harbour on the north side.
Proceeding in this direction they arrived at a large lake, which they
examined, though not without great labour. It was surrounded by a
considerable extent of bog and marshy ground, in which, in the course of
their progress, they were frequently plunged up to the waist. On this
lake they first observed a black swan, which species, though proverbially
rare in other parts of the world, is here by no means uncommon, being
found on most of the lakes. This was a very noble bird, larger than the
common swan, and equally beautiful in form. On being shot at, it rose and
discovered that its wings were edged with white: the bill was tinged with
red.

In three days, with great difficulty, they passed the swamps and marshes
which lie near the harbour. Nothing can more fully point out the great
improvement which may be made by the industry of a civilized people in
this country, than the circumstances of the small streams which descend
into Port Jackson. They all proceed from swamps produced by the
stagnation of the water after rising from the springs. When the obstacles
which impede their course can be removed, and free channels opened
through which they may flow, the adjacent ground will gradually be
drained, and the streams themselves will become more useful; at the same
time habitable and salubrious situations will be gained in places where
at present perpetual damps prevail, and the air itself appears to
stagnate.

On leaving these low grounds, they found them succeeded by a rocky and
barren country. The hills were covered with flowering shrubs, but by
means of various obstacles the ascending and descending was difficult,
and in many parts impracticable. At the distance of about fifteen miles
from the sea coast Governor Phillip obtained a very fine view of the
inland country and its mountains, to several of which he now gave names.
The most northern of them he named Carmarthen Hills, the most southern
Lansdown Hills; one which lay between these was called Richmond Hill.
From the manner in which these mountains appeared to rise, it was thought
almost certain that a large river must descend from among them. But it
was now necessary to return, without making any further examination.

22 April 1788

On the 22d another excursion of the same kind was undertaken: Governor
Phillip landed with his party near the head of the harbour. Here they
found a good country, but in a short time arrived at a very close cover;
and after passing the chief part of the day in fruitless attempts to make
their way through it, were obliged to relinquish the attempt, and return.
The next day, by keeping close to the banks of a small creek for about
four miles, they contrived to pass the cover, and for the three
succeeding days continued their course to the west-ward. The country
through which they travelled was singularly fine, level, or rising in
small hills of a very pleasing and picturesque appearance. The soil
excellent, except in a few small spots where it was stony. The trees
growing at the distance of from twenty to forty feet from each other, and
in general entirely free from underwood, which was confined to the stony
and barren spots. On the fifth day they ascended a small eminence,
whence, for the first time in this second expedition, they saw Carmarthen
and Lansdown Hills. The country round this hill was so beautiful, that
Governor Phillip gave it the name of Belle-vue. They were still
apparently thirty miles from the mountains which it had been their object
to reach, and not having found it practicable, with the tents, arms, and
other necessaries, to carry more than six days provisions, were obliged
to return. Even with this small stock, the officers as well as men, had
been under the necessity of carrying heavy loads. Water for the use of
the day was always taken; for though it happened in every instance that
pools of water were found which had remained after the rains, yet this
was a supply on which they could not previously depend. The extraordinary
difficulty of penetrating into this country had now been fully
experienced; where unexpected delays from deep ravines and other
obstacles, frequently force the traveller from his direct course, and
baffle every conjecture concerning the time required for passing a
certain tract. The utmost extent of this excursion in a direct line had
not been more than thirty miles, and it had taken up five days. The
return of the party was effected with much more ease; the track was made,
and the trees marked the whole way where they had passed; with these
assistances they reached their boats in a day and a half.

It was still the general opinion that the appearance of the country
promised the discovery of a large river in that district, whenever the
line now taken could be fully pursued. Another expedition was therefore
planned, in which it was determined, if possible, to reach either
Lansdown or Carmarthen Hills: and the hope of so important a discovery as
that of a river made every one anxious to go, notwithstanding the great
fatigue with which these undertakings were attended. But this design was
for the present unavoidably deferred. Governor Phillip, who had not been
perfectly well even at the time of setting out on the excursion to Broken
Bay, had then contracted a severe pain in his side, by sleeping
frequently on the wet ground. This complaint had in the two last journeys
received so much increase, that he found it absolutely necessary to allow
himself the respite of a few weeks, before he again encountered so much
fatigue.

The country explored in this last journey was so good and so fit for the
purposes of cultivation, that the Governor resolved to send a detachment
to settle there, as soon as a sufficient number could be spared from
works of more immediate necessity. But notwithstanding the goodness of
the soil it is a matter of astonishment how the natives, who know not how
to avail themselves of its fertility, can subsist in the inland country.
On the coast fish makes a considerable part of their food, but where that
cannot be had, it seems hardly possible that with their spears, the only
missile weapon yet observed among them, they should be able to procure
any kind of animal food. With the assistance of their guns the English
gentlemen could not obtain, in the last six days they were out, more than
was barely sufficient for two meals. Yet, that these parts are frequented
by the natives was undeniably proved by the temporary huts which were
seen in several places. Near one of these huts the bones of a kanguroo
were found, and several trees were seen on fire. A piece of a root
resembling that of the fern tree was also picked up by Governor Phillip;
part of this root had been chewed, and so recently that it was thought it
could not have been left many minutes. It seemed evident by several
marks, that the natives had only fled at the approach of the English
party, but so effectually did they conceal themselves that not one was
seen.

The number of the natives in these inland parts must, however, be very
small. Whether these reside by choice where they must encounter so many
difficulties, or whether they are driven from the society of those who
inhabit the coast, has not yet been discovered. The huts seen here
consisted of single pieces of bark, about eleven feet in length, and from
four to six in breadth, bent in the middle while fresh from the tree, and
set up so as to form an acute angle, not a little resembling cards set up
by children. In the plate inserted here, not only the huts, but some of
the spears of the natives are introduced. It was conjectured, that the
chief use of these imperfect structures might be, to conceal them from
the animals for which they must frequently be obliged to lie in wait.
They may also afford shelter from a shower of rain to one or two who sit
or lie under them. The bark of many trees was observed to be cut into
notches, as if for the purpose of climbing; and in several there were
holes, apparently the retreat of some animal, but enlarged by the natives
for the purpose of catching the inhabitant. The enlargement of these
holes with their imperfect instruments, must itself be a work of time,
and must require no little patience. In some places, where the hole was
rather too high to be reached from the ground, boughs of trees were laid
to facilitate the ascent. The animals that take refuge in those places
are probably the squirrel, the opossum, or the kanguroo-rat. At the
bottom of one of these trees, the skin of a flying squirrel was found.

In many places fires had lately been made; but in one only were seen any
shells of oysters or muscles, and there not more than half a dozen.
Fish-bones were not found at all, which seems to prove, that in their
journies inland these people do not carry with them any provisions of
that kind. Kanguroos were frequently seen, but were so shy that it was
very difficult to shoot them. With respect to these animals, it is rather
an extraordinary circumstance, that, notwithstanding their great shyness,
and notwithstanding they are daily shot at, more of them are seen near
the camp than in any other part of the country. The kanguroo, though it
resembles the jerboa in the peculiarity of using only the hinder legs in
progression, does not belong to that genus. The pouch of the female, in
which the young are nursed, is thought to connect it rather with the
opossum tribe. This extraordinary formation, hitherto esteemed peculiar
to that one genus, seems, however, in New Holland not to be sufficiently
characteristic: it has been found both in the rat and the squirrel kind.
The largest kanguroo which has yet been shot weighed about one hundred
and forty pounds. But it has been discovered that there are two kinds,
one of which seldom exceeds sixty pounds in weight: these live chiefly on
the high grounds: their hair is of a reddish cast, and the head is
shorter than in the larger sort. Young kanguroos which have been taken,
have in a few days grown very tame, but none have lived more than two or
three weeks. Yet it is still possible that when their proper food shall
be better known, they may be domesticated. Near some water, in this
journey, was found the dung of an animal that fed on grass, which, it was
supposed, could not have been less than a horse. A kanguroo, so much
above the usual size, would have been an extraordinary phaenomenon,
though no larger animal has yet been seen, and the limits of growth in
that species are not ascertained. The tail of the kanguroo, which is very
large, is found to be used as a weapon of offence, and has given such
severe blows to dogs as to oblige them to desist from pursuit. Its flesh
is coarse and lean, nor would it probably be used for food, where there
was not a scarcity of fresh provisions. The disproportion between the
upper and lower parts of this animal is greater than has been shown in
any former delineations of it, but is well expressed in the plate
inserted here.

The dimensions of a stuffed kanguroo in the possession of Mr. Nepean,
are these,

                                                          f. in.
Length from the point of the nose to the end of the tail, 6   1
-- of the tail,                                           2   1
----      head,                                           0   8
----      fore legs,                                      1   0
----      hinder legs,                                    2   8
Circumference of the forepart, by the legs,               1   1
----             lower parts,         ----                3   2

The middle toe of the hind feet is remarkably long, strong, and sharp.

The natives of New South Wales, though in so rude and uncivilized a state
as not even to have made an attempt towards clothing themselves,
notwithstanding that at times they evidently suffer from the cold and
wet, are not without notions of sculpture. In all these excursions of
Governor Phillip, and in the neighbourhood of Botany Bay and Port
Jackson, the figures of animals, of shields, and weapons, and even of
men, have been seen carved upon the rocks, roughly indeed, but
sufficiently well to ascertain very fully what was the the object
intended. Fish were often represented, and in one place the form of a
large lizard was sketched out with tolerable accuracy. On the top of one
of the hills, the figure of a man in the attitude usually assumed by them
when they begin to dance, was executed in a still superior style. That
the arts of imitation and amusement, should thus in any degree precede
those of necessity, seems an exception to the rules laid down by theory
for the progress of invention. But perhaps it may better be considered as
a proof that the climate is never so severe as to make the provision of
covering or shelter a matter of absolute necessity. Had these men been
exposed to a colder atmosphere, they would doubtless have had clothes and
houses, before they attempted to become sculptors.

In all the country hitherto explored, the parties have seldom gone a
quarter of a mile without seeing trees which had been on fire. As violent
thunder storms are not uncommon on this coast, it is possible that they
may have been burnt by lightning, which the gum-tree is thought
particularly to attract; but it is probable also that they may have been
set on fire by the natives. The gum-tree is highly combustible, and it is
a common practice with them to kindle their fires at the root of one of
these trees. When they quit a place they never extinguish the fire they
have made, but leave it to burn out, or to communicate its flames to the
tree, as accidental circumstances may determine.

Governor Phillip, on his return from this excursion, had the
mortification to find that five ewes and a lamb had been killed very near
the camp, and in the middle of the day. How this had happened was not
known, but it was conjectured that they must have been killed by dogs
belonging to the natives. The loss of any part of the stock of cattle was
a serious misfortune, since it must be a considerable time before it
could be replaced. Fish affords, in this place, only an uncertain
resource: on some days great quantities are caught, though not sufficient
to save any material part of the provisions; but at times it is very
scarce. An account of the live stock at this time in the settlement is
subjoined to this chapter.

The three transports bound to China, sailed the 5th, 6th, and 8th of May;
and the Supply having been caulked, sailed on the 6th to Lord Howe Island
for turtle, in hopes of giving some check to the scurvy, with which the
people were still so much affected that near two hundred were incapable
of work.

From the great labour which attended the clearing of the ground it proved
to be impracticable to sow at present more than eight or ten acres with
wheat and barley*: and it was apprehended that even this crop would
suffer from the depredations of ants and field mice. In the beginning of
May it was supposed, as it had been once or twice before, that the rainy
season was set in; but in about a week the weather became fine again.

[* Besides what was sown by the Lieutenant Governor and other individuals,
for the support of their own stock: to assist whom, the labour of the
convicts was occasionally lent.]


AN ACCOUNT OF THE LIVE STOCK IN THE SETTLEMENT AT PORT JACKSON, MAY 1ST, 1788.

Government

Stallions 1
Mares     2
Bulls     2
Cows      2
Sheep:
Ram       1
Ewes     12
Wethers   3
Goats     1
Hogs:
Boar      1
Sows     19

Governor

Mares     1
Colts     3
Cows      2
Sheep:
Ewe       1
Lamb      1
Hogs     10
Rabbits   3
Turkies   5
Geese     8
Ducks    17
Fowls    22

Lieutenant Governor

Goats     1
Hogs      1
Pigs      7
Turkies   5
Geese     6
Ducks     4
Fowls     9

Officers and men belonging to the detachment

Cows      1
Goats    12
Hogs     10
Pigs     17
Rabbits   2
Turkies   6
Geese     9
Ducks     8
Fowls    55
Chickens 25

Staff

Sheep    11
Goats     5
Hogs      7
Pigs      1
Turkies   2
Geese     6
Ducks     6
Fowls    36
Chickens 62

Other individuals

Hogs      1

Totals

Stallions 1
Mares     3
Colts     3
Bulls     2
Cows      5
Sheep    29
Goats    19
Hogs     49
Pigs     25
Rabbits   5
Turkies  18
Geese    29
Ducks    35
Fowls   122
Chickens 87

(Signed,) ANDREW MILLER, Commissary.


Chapter XII.

May 1788 to June 1788

The Supply returns from Lord Howe Island--Some convicts assaulted by the
natives--excursion of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay by Land--interview
with many natives--the fourth of June celebrated--some account of the
climate.

25 May 1788

On the 25th of May, the Supply tender returned from Lord Howe Island, but
unfortunately without having been able to procure any turtle. She had met
with squally weather, and had been obliged to cut away her best bower
anchor, but suffered no other damage. The three transports bound for
China had all appeared off the island while the Supply remained there.

About this time one of the convicts who, in searching for vegetables, had
gone a considerable way from the camp, returned very dangerously wounded
in the back. He said, that another man who had gone out for the same
purpose, had been carried off by the natives in his sight, after having
been wounded in the head. A shirt and hat were afterwards found, both
pierced with spears, in one of the huts of the natives; but no
intelligence of the man could be gained. There could be little doubt that
the convicts had been the aggressors, though the man who returned
strongly denied having given any kind of provocation.

30 May 1788

On the thirtieth of May, two men who had been employed in collecting
rushes for thatch at some distance from the camp, were found dead. One of
them had four spears in his body, one of which had pierced entirely
through it: the other had not any marks of violence upon him. In this
case it was clearly proved that the first injury had been offered by the
unfortunate men, who paid so dearly for their dishonesty and disobedience
of orders; for they had been seen with a canoe, which they had taken from
one of the fishing places. These events were much regretted by Governor
Phillip, as tending entirely to the frustration of the plan he had so
much at heart, of conciliating the affections of the natives, and
establishing a friendly intercourse with them.

As the rush-cutters tools had been carried away, the Governor thought it
might be possible to discover the natives who had been concerned in this
unfortunate affray; and to make them understand that the conduct of their
assailants had been entirely unwarranted, and was very highly
disapproved. He judged the attempt to be at least worth making, as it
seemed the only way to restore that confidence which must have been
interrupted by this affair. The next day, therefore, he went out with a
small party, consisting altogether of twelve persons, and landed at the
place where the men were killed. After traversing the country for more
than twenty miles, they arrived at the north shore of Botany Bay, without
having met with one of the natives.

In this place, at length, they saw about twenty canoes employed in
fishing: and when the fires were made, and the party encamped to pass the
night upon the beach, it was fully expected that some of those in the
canoes would have joined them, but not one appeared. The next morning,
though fifty canoes were drawn up on the beach, not a single person could
be found belonging to them. Governor Phillip had now determined to return
to Port Jackson; but as he went, keeping for some time near the sea
coast, he discovered a great number of the natives, apparently more than
could belong to that district, assembled at the mouth of a cave. The
party was within ten yards of them before they were perceived, and the
Governor had hardly time to make his people halt before numbers appeared
in arms. The man who seemed to take the lead, as he advanced made signs
for the English to retire, but when he saw Governor Phillip approach
alone, unarmed, and in a friendly manner, he gave his spear away and met
him with perfect confidence. In less than three minutes the English party
found itself surrounded by two hundred and twelve men; but nothing
occurred in this transaction which could in the least confirm the idea,
that the natives were accustomed to act with treachery, or inclined to
take any cruel advantage of superiority in numbers. The moment the
offered friendship was accepted on their side, they laid down their
spears and stone hatchets, and joined the party in the most amicable
manner. Numbers of women and children remained at a small distance, some
of whom the men afterwards brought down to receive the little articles
which were offered as presents. Nothing was seen among these people which
could at all prove that any of them had been engaged in the affray with
the rush-cutters; and the Governor parted with them on the most friendly
terms, but more convinced than ever of the necessity of treating them
with a proper degree of confidence, in order to prevent disagreement. Had
he gone up with all his party, or had he even hesitated a moment before
he advanced himself, making the signals of friendship, a lance would
probably have been thrown, after which nothing could have prevented a
rencounter, which in such circumstances must have been fatal.

Here was seen the finest stream of water that had hitherto been
discovered in the country, but the cove into which it runs lies very open
to the sea. When the natives saw that the English were going forward
towards the next cove, one of them, an old man, made signs that he might
be allowed to go first. He did so, and as soon as he had ascended the
hill, called out, holding up both his hands, (the usual signal of amity
among these people) to signify to the natives in the next cove that they
who were advancing were friends. The Governor's party did not, however,
descend to that cove, but saw about forty men, so that, unless they had
assembled themselves on some particular occasion, they must be more
numerous in that part than had been before imagined. Governor Phillip had
calculated before, from the parties he had seen, that in Botany Bay, Port
Jackson, Broken Bay, and all the intermediate country, the inhabitants
could not exceed one thousand five hundred. In crossing the hills at this
time between Botany Bay and Port Jackson, smoke was seen on the top of
Lansdown Hills, which seems to prove beyond a doubt, that the country is
inhabited as far as those mountains, which are not less than fifty miles
from the sea.

Further enquiries having given some reason to suppose, that one of the
natives had been murdered, and several wounded, previously to the attack
made upon the rush-cutters, Governor Phillip on his return, proclaimed
the reward of emancipation to any convict who should discover the
aggressors. This step, if it did not in this instance procure any
information, seemed likely to prevent such acts of violence in future.

No very good fortune had hitherto attended the live stock belonging to
the settlement, but the heaviest blow was yet to come. About this time
the two bulls and four cows, belonging to Government, and to the
Governor, having been left for a time by the man who was appointed to
attend them, strayed into the woods, and though they were traced to some
distance, never could be recovered. This was a loss which must be for
some time irreparable.

4 June 1788

The fourth of June was not suffered to pass without due celebration. It
was a day of remission from labour, and of general festivity throughout
the settlement. At sun-rise the Sirius and Supply fired each a salute of
twenty-one guns, and again at one o'clock, when the marines on shore also
saluted with three vollies. At sunset the same honours were a third time
repeated from the ships; large bonfires were lighted, and the whole camp
afforded a scene of joy. That there might not be any exception to the
happiness of this day, the four convicts who had been reprieved from
death, and banished to an island in the middle of the harbour, received a
full pardon, and were sent for to bear their part in the general
exultation. The Governor, in his letters, with that humanity which so
strongly distinguishes his character, says, he trusts that on this day
there was not a single heavy heart in this part of his Majesty's
dominions. His own house was the centre of conviviality to all who could
be admitted to that society, nor was any thing neglected which in such a
situation could mark a day of celebrity, consistently with propriety and
good order. Perhaps no birth-day was ever celebrated in more places, or
more remote from each other, than that of his Majesty on this day.

It was now, it seems, first generally known, that the name of Cumberland
County had been given by the Governor to this part of the territory. This
name had been fixed before the assembling of the first courts, for the
sake of preserving regularity in the form of the public acts, in which it
is usual to name the county. The boundaries fixed for Cumberland County
were, on the west, Carmarthen and Lansdown Hills: on the north, the
northern parts of Broken Bay; and to the southward, the southern parts of
Botany Bay. Thus including completely these three principal bays, and
leaving the chief place of settlement at Sydney Cove nearly in the
centre.

On the 22d of June was a slight shock of an earthquake, which did not
last more than two or three seconds. It was felt by most people in the
camp, and by the Governor himself, who heard at the same time a noise
from the southward, which he took at first for the report of guns fired
at a great distance.

24 June 1788

On the 24th, a convict who had absconded on the 5th, having been guilty
of a robbery, returned into the camp almost starved. He had hoped to
subsist in the woods, but found it impossible. One of the natives gave
him a fish, and then made signs for him to go away. He said, that
afterwards he joined a party of the natives, who would have burnt him,
but that with some difficulty he made his escape; and he pretended to
have seen the remains of a human body actually lying on a fire, but
little credit can be given to reports from such a quarter. He was of
opinion that the natives were at this time in great distress for food,
and said, that he had seen four of them dying in the woods, who made
signs for something to eat, as if they were perishing through hunger. It
is certain that very little fish could be caught at this time, and the
convict seemed desirous to suggest the notion that they supplied their
necessities occasionally with human flesh; but there seems to be no good
foundation for such an opinion. This man was tried for his offence,
pleaded guilty, and suffered with another criminal.

It was now sufficiently ascertained, that though the necessity of
subsisting so long chiefly upon salt provisions, and of remaining
encamped in very wet weather had produced the scurvy, and other disorders
common in such circumstances, the climate itself wherein this new
settlement is fixed is mild and salubrious. Heavy rains had generally
attended the changes of the moon during the winter months, but there had
not been any time that could properly be called a rainy season. The
clearing away of the woods will of course assist the circulation of air,
and continually increase the healthfulness of the place. Violent storms
of thunder and lightning sometimes happened, and Governor Phillip
observed the variation of his thermometer, in the shade, to amount
frequently to thirty-three degrees, between eight in the morning and two
in the afternoon. The report of the surgeon at this time is subjoined.

A RETURN OF SICK, ETC. JUNE 30, 1788.

Marines sick in the hospital                                   4
Convalescents in the hospital                                  2
Marines sick in camp                                          18
Convalescents in the hospital                                  6
Wives and children of marines sick in the hospital             6
Total belonging to the battalion under medical treatment      36

Of marines dead from the time of embarkation to landing        1
Women dead from the time of embarkation to landing             1
Children dead from the time of embarkation to landing          1
Marines dead since landing                                     3
Women dead since landing                                       0
Children dead since landing                                    2
Total dead from the time of embarkation to the present date    8

Convicts sick in the hospital                                 20
Convalescents in the hospital                                  4
Convicts sick in camp                                         26
Convalescents in the hospital                                 16
Total of convicts under medical treatment                     66

Male convicts dead from the time of embarkation to landing    36
Female convicts dead from the time of embarkation to landing   4
Convicts children dead from the time of embarkation to landing 5
Total                                                         45

Male convicts dead since landing                              20
Female convicts dead since landing                             8
Convicts children dead since landing                           8
Total dead, from the time of embarkation to the present date  81

Convicts unfit for labour, from old age, infirmities, etc.    52

JOHN WHITE, Surgeon.
Sydney Cove, Port Jackson.


Chapter XIII.

June 1788 to July 1788

Particular description of Sydney Cove--Of the buildings actually
erected--and of the intended town--A settlement made at the head of the
harbour.

There are few things more pleasing than the contemplation of order and
useful arrangement, arising gradually out of tumult and confusion; and
perhaps this satisfaction cannot any where be more fully enjoyed than
where a settlement of civilized people is fixing itself upon a newly
discovered or savage coast. The wild appearance of land entirely
untouched by cultivation, the close and perplexed growing of trees,
interrupted now and then by barren spots, bare rocks, or spaces overgrown
with weeds, flowers, flowering shrubs, or underwood, scattered and
intermingled in the most promiscuous manner, are the first objects that
present themselves; afterwards, the irregular placing of the first tents
which are pitched, or huts which are erected for immediate accommodation,
wherever chance presents a spot tolerably free from obstacles, or more
easily cleared than the rest, with the bustle of various hands busily
employed in a number of the most incongruous works, increases rather than
diminishes the disorder, and produces a confusion of effect, which for a
time appears inextricable, and seems to threaten an endless continuance
of perplexity. But by degrees large spaces are opened, plans are formed,
lines marked, and a prospect at least of future regularity is clearly
discerned, and is made the more striking by the recollection of the
former confusion.

To this latter state the settlement at Sydney Cove had now at length
arrived, and is so represented in the plan annexed. Lines are there
traced out which distinguish the principal street of an intended town, to
be terminated by the Governor's house, the main guard, and the criminal
court. In some parts of this space temporary barracks at present stand,
but no permanent buildings will be suffered to be placed, except in
conformity to the plan laid down. Should the town be still further
extended in future, the form of other streets is also traced in such a
manner as to ensure a free circulation of air. The principal streets,
according to this design, will be two hundred feet wide; the ground
proposed for them to the southward is nearly level, and is altogether an
excellent situation for buildings. It is proposed by Governor Phillip
that when houses are to be built here, the grants of land shall be made
with such clauses as will prevent the building of more than one house on
one allotment, which is to consist of sixty feet in front, and one
hundred and fifty feet in depth. These regulations will preserve a kind
of uniformity in the buildings, prevent narrow streets, and exclude many
inconveniences which a rapid increase of inhabitants might otherwise
occasion hereafter. It has been also an object of the Governor's
attention to place the public buildings in situations that will be
eligible at all times, and particularly to give the storehouses and
hospital sufficient space for future enlargement, should it be found
necessary.

The first huts that were erected here were composed of very perishable
materials, the soft wood of the cabbage palm, being only designed to
afford immediate shelter. The necessity of using the wood quite green
made it also the less likely to prove durable. The huts of the convicts
were still more slight, being composed only of upright posts, wattled
with slight twigs, and plaistered up with clay. Barracks and huts were
afterwards formed of materials rather more lasting. Buildings of stone
might easily have been raised, had there been any means of procuring lime
for mortar. The stone which has been found is of three sorts: A fine free
stone, reckoned equal in goodness to that of Portland; an indifferent
kind of sand stone, or firestone; and a sort which appears to contain a
mixture of iron. But neither chalk, nor any species of lime-stone has yet
been discovered. In building a small house for the Governor on the
eastern side of the Cove, (marked 1 in the plan) lime was made of oyster
shells, collected in the neighbouring coves; but it cannot be expected
that lime should be supplied in this manner for many buildings, or indeed
for any of great extent. Till this difficulty shall be removed by the
discovery of chalk or lime-stone, the public buildings must go on very
slowly, unless care be taken to send out those articles as ballast in all
the ships destined for Port Jackson. In the mean time the materials can
only be laid in clay, which makes it necessary to give great thickness to
the walls, and even then they are not so firm as might be wished. Good
clay for bricks is found near Sydney Cove, and very good bricks have been
made. The wood, from the specimens that have been received in England,
appears to be good; it is heavy indeed, but fine grained, and apparently
strong, and free from knots. The imperfections that were found in it at
first arose probably from the want of previous seasoning.

The hospital is placed on the west side of the Cove, in a very healthful
situation, entirely clear of the town; and is built in such a manner as
to last for some years. On the high ground between the hospital and the
town, if water can be found by sinking wells, it is the Governor's
intention to erect the barracks, surrounding them with proper works.
These were to have been begun as soon as the transports were cleared, and
the men hutted, but the progress of work was rendered so slow by the want
of an adequate number of able workmen, that it was necessary to postpone
that undertaking for a time. The ground marked out for a church lies
still nearer to the town, so that this edifice will form in part one side
of the principal parade. The design which demanded the most immediate
execution was that of a storehouse, which might be secure from the danger
of fire. In a country exposed to frequent storms of thunder and
lightning, it was rather an uneasy situation to have all the provisions
and other necessaries lodged in wooden buildings, covered with thatch of
the most combustible kind. On the point of land that forms the west side
of the Cove, and on an elevated spot, a small observatory has been raised
under the direction of Lieutenant Dawes, who was charged by the Board of
Longitude with the care of observing the expected comet. The longitude of
this observatory is ascertained to be 159° 19' 30" east from Greenwich,
and the latitude 32° 52' 30" south. A small house, built by the
Lieutenant Governor for himself, forms at present the corner of the
parade; the principal street will be carried on at right angles with the
front of this building. Instead of thatch, they now use shingles made
from a tree in appearance like a fir, but producing a wood not unlike the
English oak. This, though more secure than thatching, is not enough so
for storehouses. For these, if slate-stone should not be found, tiles
must be made of the clay which has been used for bricks. The principal
farm is situated in the next cove to the east of the town, and less than
half a mile from it. When the plan was drawn it contained about nine
acres laid down in corn of different kinds. Later accounts speak of six
acres of wheat, eight of barley, and six of other grain, as raised on the
public account, and in a very promising way.

Sydney cove lies open to the north-east, and is continued in a south-west
direction for near a thousand yards, gradually decreasing from the
breadth of about one thousand four hundred feet, till it terminates in a
point, where it receives a small stream of fresh water. The anchorage
extends about two thousand feet up the cove, and has soundings in general
of four fathoms near the shore, and five, six, or seven, nearer the
middle of the channel. It is perfectly secure in all winds; and for a
considerable way up on both sides, ships can lie almost close to the
shore: nor are there, in any part of it, rocks or shallows to render the
navigation dangerous. Such a situation could not fail to appear
desireable to a discerning man, whose object it was to establish a
settlement, which he knew must for some time depend for support on the
importation of the principal necessaries of life.

It is supposed that metals of various kinds abound in the soil on which
the town is placed. A convict, who had formerly been used to work in the
Staffordshire lead mines, declared very positively, that the ground which
they were now clearing, contains a large quantity of that ore: and copper
is supposed to lie under some rocks which were blown up in sinking a
cellar for the public stock of spirituous liquors. It is the opinion of
the Governor himself that several metals are actually contained in the
earth hereabouts, and that mines may hereafter be worked to great
advantage: but at present he strongly discourages any search of this
kind, very judiciously discerning, that in the present situation of his
people, which requires so many exertions of a very different nature, the
discovering of a mine would be the greatest evil that could befal the
settlement. In some places where they dug, in making wells, they found a
substance which at first was taken for a metal, but which proving
perfectly refractory in a very strong and long continued heat, has since
been concluded to be black lead. The kind of pigment called by painters
Spanish brown, is found in great abundance, and the white clay with which
the natives paint themselves is still in greater plenty. The Abbe le
Receveur was of opinion, that this clay, if cleared from the sand, which
might easily be separated, would make excellent porcelain.

The climate at Sydney Cove is considered, on the whole, as equal to the
finest in Europe. The rains are not ever of long duration, and there are
seldom any fogs: the soil, though in general light, and rather sandy in
this part, is full as good as usually is found so near the sea-coast. All
the plants and fruit trees brought from Brasil and the Cape, which were
not damaged in the passage, thrive exceedingly; and vegetables have now
become plentiful, both the European sorts and such as are peculiar to
this country. In the Governor's garden are excellent cauliflowers, and
melons very fine of their kinds. The orange trees flourish, and the fig
trees and vines are improving still more rapidly. In a climate so
favourable, the cultivation of the vine may doubtless be carried to any
degree of perfection; and should not other articles of commerce divert
the attention of the settlers from this point, the wines of New South
Wales may, perhaps, hereafter be sought with avidity, and become an
indispensable part of the luxury of European tables.

The rank grass under the trees, unfortunately proved fatal to all the
sheep purchased by Governor Phillip, on his own and on the public
account. Those which private individuals kept close to their own tents,
and fed entirely there, were preserved. Hogs and poultry not only thrive
but increase very fast; black cattle will doubtless succeed as well, and
it will be easy in future to secure them from straying. The horses have
not met with any accident.

The last dispatches from Governor Phillip bring an account of his having
sent a small detachment up to that ground at the upper end of Port
Jackson, which he discovered in one of his excursions to be so highly fit
for cultivation. This party consisted of a captain, two lieutenants of
marines, with twenty-five non-commissioned officers and privates: about
fifty convicts were added as labourers. This spot is very pleasant, and
has been named by the Governor, Rose-hill. The flax-plant, which was seen
at the first arrival of our people, has not been found since in any great
abundance. A most ample supply of this valuable article may, however,
always be obtained from Norfolk Island. Governor Phillip, when he judged
the seeds to be ripe, ordered them to be collected, but at that time very
few of the plants were found, and not any in the places where the
greatest quantity had been seen. It is thought that the natives pull up
the plant when it is in flower to make their fishing lines.

On the whole, notwithstanding the difficulties and disadvantages at first
experienced, which, though great, were not more than must naturally be
expected to occur in such an undertaking; notwithstanding the sicknesses
which from various causes prevailed for some time among the people, the
settlement at Sydney Cove wore a very promising aspect at the time when
the last accounts were sent; and there can be no doubt that it will be
found hereafter fully to answer every expectation which was formed when
the design was projected. The scantiness of the streams of fresh water
was thought at first unfavourable, but good springs have since been found
by digging. The house built for Governor Phillip stands about fifty-six
feet above high-water mark, and there, by sinking a well about fifteen
feet in the rock, an excellent spring of pure water has been obtained.


Chapter XIV.

July 1788 to October 1788

Fish violently seized by the natives--Another expedition of the
Governor--Further account of the manners and manufactures of the native
inhabitants of New South Wales--Difficulty of obtaining any intercourse.

9 July 1788

On the ninth of July, an effort was made by a party of natives, which
seems to indicate that they were still distressed for provisions, or that
they very highly resent the incroachments made upon their fishing places.
A general order had been issued to those sent out on fishing parties, to
give a part of what was caught to the natives if they approached, however
small the quantity taken might be; and by these means they had always
been sent away apparently satisfied. But on this day, about twenty of
them, armed with spears, came down to the spot where our men were
fishing, and without any previous attempt to obtain their purpose by fair
means, violently seized the greatest part of the fish which was in the
seine. While this detachment performed this act of depredation, a much
greater number stood at a small distance with their spears poized, ready
to have thrown them if any resistance had been made. But the cockswain
who commanded the fishing party, very prudently suffered them to take
away what they chose, and they parted on good terms. This is the only
instance in which these people have attempted any unprovoked act of
violence, and to this they probably were driven by necessity. Since this
transaction, an officer has always been sent down the harbour with the
boat.

Governor Phillip went out about this time with a small party, to examine
the land between Port Jackson and Broken Bay. Here were found many
hundred acres of land, free from timber, and very fit for cultivation. He
proceeded as far as Pitt Water, and saw several of the natives, but none
of them chose to approach. When the party returned to the boats near the
mouth of the harbour, about sixty of these people, men, women, and
children, were assembled there. Some hours were passed with them in a
peaceful and very friendly manner, but though in all this time they
discovered no uneasiness, they seemed best pleased when their visitors
were preparing to depart. This has always been the case, since it has
been known among them that our people intend to remain on the coast. Many
of the women were employed at this time in fishing, a service which is
not uncommonly performed by them, the men being chiefly occupied in
making canoes, spears, fish-gigs, and the other articles that constitute
their small stock of necessary implements. Two women were here observed
to be scarred on the shoulders like the men; this was the first instance
in which they had been seen so marked.

The sailors who waited on the beach to take care of the boat saw about
two hundred men assembled in two parties, who after some time drew
themselves up on opposite sides, and from each party men advanced singly
and threw their spears, guarding themselves at the same time with their
shields. This seemed at first to be merely a kind of exercise, for the
women belonging to both parties remained together on the beach;
afterwards it had a more serious aspect, and the women are said to have
run up and down in great agitation uttering violent shrieks. But it was
not perceived that any men were killed.

As it had been supposed that many of the natives had left this part of
the coast, on account of the great scarcity of fish, the different coves
of the harbour were examined in one day. At this time, not more than
sixty-seven canoes were counted, and about one hundred and thirty of the
people were seen. But it was the season in which they make their new
canoes, and large parties were known to be in the woods for that purpose.

A few days after this examination, Governor Phillip himself went again to
explore the coast between Port Jackson and Botany Bay. In this journey
few of the natives were seen, but new proofs were observed of their
having been distressed for food. In the preceding summer they would not
eat either the shark or the sting-ray, but now even coarser meat was
acceptable, and indeed any thing that could afford the smallest
nourishment. A young whale had just been driven upon the coast, which
they were busily employed in carrying away. All that were seen at this
time had large pieces of it, which appeared to have been laid upon the
fire only long enough to scorch the outside. In this state they always
eat their fish, never broiling it for more than a few minutes; they broil
also the fern root, and another root, of which the plant is not yet
known; and they usually eat together in families. Among the fruits used
by them is a kind of wild fig; and they eat also the kernels of that
fruit which resembles a pine-apple. The latter, when eaten by some of the
French seamen, occasioned violent retchings; possibly the natives may
remove the noxious qualities, by some process like those employed upon
the cassada. The winter months, in which fish is very scarce upon the
coast, are June, July, August, and part of September. From the beaten
paths that are seen between Port Jackson and Broken Bay, and in other
parts, it is thought that the natives frequently change their situation,
but it has not been perceived that they make any regular migrations to
the northward in the winter months, or to the south in summer.

In consequence of the very extraordinary shyness of these people since
the arrival of our settlement, little addition has been made to the
knowledge of their manners attained by Captain Cook: but most of his
observations have been confirmed. The whole, indeed, that can be known of
a people, among whom civilization and the arts of life have made so small
a progress, must amount to very little. The assertion that they have no
nets*, is amongst the very few that have been found erroneous. Some small
nets have been brought over, the manufacture of which is very curious.
The twine of which they are made, appears to be composed of the fibres of
the flax plant, with very little preparation; it is very strong, heavy,
and so admirably well twisted as to have the appearance of the best
whipcord. Governor Phillip mentions having had lines of their
manufacture, which were made from the fur of some animal, and others that
appeared to be of cotton. The meshes of their nets are formed of large
loops, very artificially inserted into each other, but without any knots.
At a small distance they have exactly the appearance of our common nets,
but when they are closely examined the peculiar mode in which the loops
are managed is very remarkable. Some ladies who have inspected one of
these nets lately imported, declare that it is formed exactly on the same
principle as the ground of point lace, except that it has only one turn
of the thread, instead of two, in every loop. This net appears to have
been used either as a landing net, or for the purpose of carrying the
fish when taken. They have also small hoop nets, in which they catch
lobsters, and sea crayfish. Their canoes and other implements are very
exactly described by Captain Cook.

[* Cook's first voyage, Hawkesworth, Vol. III. p. 233.--If it was only
meant that they have no large nets for fishing, like the feine, as the
New Zealanders have, the remark is certainly true.]

The inhabitants of New South Wales have very few ornaments, except those
which are impressed upon the skin itself, or laid on in the manner of
paint. The men keep their beards short, it is thought by scorching off
the hair, and several of them at the first arrival of our people seemed
to take great delight in being shaved. They sometimes hang in their hair
the teeth of dogs, and other animals, the claws of lobsters, and several
small bones, which they fasten there by means of gum; but such ornaments
have never been seen upon the women. Though they have not made any
attempt towards clothing themselves, they are by no means insensible of
the cold, and appear very much to dislike the rain. During a shower they
have been observed to cover their heads with pieces of bark, and to
shiver exceedingly. Governor Phillip was convinced by these circumstances
that clothing would be very acceptable to them, if they could be induced
to come enough among the English to learn the use of it. He has therefore
applied for a supply of frocks and jackets to distribute among them,
which are to be made long and loose, and to serve for either men or
women.

The bodies of these people in general smell strongly of oil, and the
darkness of their colour is much increased by dirt. But though in these
points they shew so little delicacy, they are not without emotions of
disgust, when they meet with strong effluvia to which their organs are
unaccustomed. One of them, after having touched a piece of pork, held out
his finger for his companions to smell, with strong marks of distaste.
Bread and meat they seldom refuse to take, but generally throw it away
soon after. Fish they always accept very eagerly.

Whether they use any particular rites of burial is not yet known, but
from the following account it seems evident that they burn their dead.
The ground having been observed to be raised in several places, like the
ruder kind of graves of the common people in our church yards, Governor
Phillip caused some of these barrows to be opened. In one of them a jaw
bone was found not quite consumed, but in general they contained only
ashes. From the manner in which these ashes were disposed, it appeared
that the body must have been laid at length, raised from the ground a few
inches only, or just enough to admit a fire under it; and having been
consumed in this posture, it must then have been covered lightly over
with mould. Fern is usually spread upon the surface, with a few stones,
to keep it from being dispersed by the wind. These graves have not been
found in very great numbers, nor ever near their huts.

When the latest accounts arrived from Port Jackson, the natives still
avoided all intercourse with our settlement, whether from dislike or from
contempt is not perfectly clear: They think perhaps that we cannot teach
them any thing of sufficient value to make them amends for our
encroachments upon their fishing places. They seem to be among themselves
perfectly honest, and often leave their spears and other implements upon
the beach, in full confidence of finding them untouched. But the convicts
too frequently carry them off, and dispose of them to vessels coming to
England, though at the hazard on one side of being prosecuted for theft,
and on the other for purchasing stolen goods. Injuries of this nature
they generally revenge on such stragglers as they happen to meet; and
perhaps have already learnt to distinguish these freebooters, by their
blue and yellow jackets, as they very early did the soldiers by their red
clothes. Beyond these attacks they have not yet committed any open acts
of hostility, except the seizing of the fish in the instance above
related. They have not attempted to annoy the settlers by setting fire to
the grass, as they did when Captain Cook was on the coast; nor have they,
which is more important, shown any desire to burn the crops of corn. So
absolutely indispensable to the welfare of the settlement is the
preservation of the grain, that an attempt of this kind must at all
events be counteracted; but in no other case will any harsh measures be
adopted, or any effort made to drive them to a greater distance.
Conciliation is the only plan intended to be pursued: But Governor
Phillip, when he last wrote, seemed to despair of getting any of them to
remain among his people, long enough for either to acquire the language
of the other, except by constraint. Hitherto he has been unwilling to
take this method, but if it can be done in such a manner as not to create
any general alarm among them, it will probably turn out to be the kindest
piece of violence that could be used. Whenever it shall be practicable,
by any means, to explain to them the friendly disposition of Governor
Phillip and his people towards them, and to make them understand, that
the men from whom they receive occasional injuries, are already a
disgraced class, and liable to severe punishment for such proceedings,
they will then perhaps acquire sufficient confidence in their new
countrymen to mix with them, to enrich themselves with some of their
implements, and to learn and adopt some of the most useful and necessary
of their arts. It may, indeed, admit of a doubt whether many of the
accommodations of civilized life, be not more than counterbalanced by the
artificial wants to which they give birth; but it is undeniably certain
that to teach the shivering savage how to clothe his body, and to shelter
himself completely from the cold and wet, and to put into the hands of
men, ready to perish for one half of the year with hunger, the means of
procuring constant and abundant provision, must be to confer upon them
benefits of the highest value and importance.

According to the latest advices from Governor Phillip, the Sirius sailed
for the Cape on the 2d of October, 1788, to purchase grain, flour, and
other necessaries. Live stock was not to be procured by this ship, as
being less wanted in the present state of the settlement, which had
provisions in store for eighteen months, but not grain enough for seed,
and for the support of cattle. The Fishburn and Golden Grove storeships
sailed in November for England; the Supply was detained in Port Jackson
for occasional use. At this time the officers were all in separate
houses, and the whole detachment comfortably lodged, though the barracks
were yet unfinished. Nothing more, that requires to be related, has yet
been heard from the settlement.

* * * * *

REMARKS and DIRECTIONS for SAILING into PORT JACKSON, by Capt. J. HUNTER,
of the Sirius.

In coming in with Port Jackson, you will not immediately discover where
the harbour is: Steer right in for the outer points, for there is not any
thing in the way but what shows itself by the sea breaking on it, except
a reef on the south shore which runs off a small distance only: when you
are past this reef and are a-breast the next point on the same side, you
will open to the south-ward of you an extensive branch of the harbour,
into which you will sail; taking care to keep the shore on either side
well on board, for there is a reef which dries at low water and lies very
near the mid-channel, right off the first sandy cove on the east shore;
this reef is pretty broad athwart, as well as up and down the channel,
and shoals very gradually: The marks for it are, the outer north point
and inner south point touching, Green Point will then be on with a
remarkable notch in the back land. To avoid it to the eastward, pass the
inner south head a cable's length from it, and when you open any part of
the sandy beach of Camp Cove, haul short in for it until you bring the
inner north head and inner south head on with each other; that mark will
carry you up in five and six fathom: But if you cannot weather the reef,
tack and stand into Camp Cove, which shoals gradually. If you pass to the
westward of the reef, steer in for Middle Cape, which is steep too, then
steer up for the next point above it on the same side; when you are that
length, you may take what part of the channel you please, or anchor where
you like.

It flows Full and Change a quarter past eight.
Rises 4 6 Neap   Tide.
Rises 6 0 Spring Tide.


Chapter XV.

The great advantage of a scientific eye over that of the unlearned
observer, in viewing the productions of nature, cannot be more strongly
exemplified than by the present state of the natural history of Botany
Bay, and its vicinity. The English who first visited this part of the
coast, staid there only a week, but having among them persons deeply
versed in the study of nature, produced an account, to which the present
settlers, after a residence of near eleven months when the last
dispatches were dated, have been able to add but very little of
importance. The properties and relations of many objects are known to the
philosopher at first sight, his enquiries after novelty are conducted
with sagacity, and when he cannot describe by name what he discovers, as
being yet unnamed, he can at least refer it to its proper class and
genus. The observation of unskilful persons is often detailed by trivial
resemblances, while it passes by the marks which are really
characteristic. Governor Phillip, in one of his letters, remarking the
prodigious variety of vegetable productions then before his eyes,
laments, that among all the people with him there happens not to be one
who has any tolerable knowledge of botany. This circumstance is perhaps
less to be regretted than a deficiency in any other branch of natural
knowledge. The researches of some gentlemen among the first voyagers were
particularly directed to botanical discoveries, and a work which is now
preparing, in a style of uncommon accuracy and elegance by one of the
most illustrious of them, will probably discover that there was little
left undone, even in their short stay, towards completing that branch of
enquiry. Of quadrupeds the whole stock contained in the country appears
to be confined to a very few species: Wolves have not been seen, though
the tracks of them were so frequently thought to be detected on this
coast by Captain Cook's party. Birds are numerous, but they belong in
general to classes already known to naturalists; a few drawings however,
and specimens of both, have been sent over. These, to gratify, as far as
possible, the curiosity of those readers whose attention is particularly
directed to natural history, have been engraved, and a short account of
them is thrown together in this chapter. Of reptiles few have been seen
that are at all curious. A large Lizard, of the Scincus kind, with the
remarkable peculiarity of a small spine or horn standing near the
extremity of the tail, is said to be among some specimens sent over as
private presents; and also a kind of frog, whose colour is blue; but
these do not in other respects differ materially from the usual form of
their respective species. The ants are fully described in Captain Cook's
first voyage.

* * * * *

QUADRUPEDS.

The KANGUROO has been particularly described already.

THE SPOTTED OPOSSUM.

The annexed plate represents a small animal of the opossum kind, which
has not before been delineated. It is perhaps the same which is slightly
described in Captain Cook's first voyage as resembling a polecat, having
the back spotted with white; and is there said to be called by the
natives Quoll.* The colour however is darker, being rather black than
brown.

[* Hawkesw. iii. p. 222.]

The Spotted Opossum, for so it may properly be named, is in length from
the nose to the extremity of the tail about twenty-five inches, of which
the tail itself takes up about nine or ten. The general colour of the
animal is black, inclining to brown beneath; the neck and body spotted
with irregular roundish patches of white; the ears are pretty large, and
stand erect, the visage is pointed, the muzzle furnished with long
slender hairs; the fore, as well as hind legs, from the knees downward,
almost naked, and ash-coloured; on the fore feet are five claws, and on
the hind, four and a thumb without a claw; the tail, for about an inch
and an half from the root, covered with hairs of the same length as those
on the body, from thence to the end with long ones not unlike that of a
squirrel. The specimen from which the above account was taken, is a
female, and has six teats placed in a circle, within the pouch.

Another animal of the opossum kind has been sent alive to the Rev. Dr.
Hamilton, Rector of St. Martin's, Westminster, and is now living in the
possession of Mr. J. Hunter. It appears to be of the same sort as that
mentioned in Captain Cook's first voyage,* and that also which was found
near Adventure Bay, represented in the eighth plate of Captain Cook's
third voyage, and slightly described in Vol. I. p. 109 of that work: but
it must be owned, that neither its form nor character is very well
expressed in that plate.

[* Hawkesw. vol. iii. p. 182.]

The countenance of this animal much resembles that of a fox, but its
manners approach more nearly to those of the squirrel. When disposed to
sleep, or to remain inactive, it coils itself up into a round form; but
when eating, or on the watch for any purpose, sits up, throwing its tail
behind it. In this posture it uses its fore feet to hold any thing, and
to feed itself. When irritated, it sits still more erect on the hind
legs, or throws itself upon its back, making a loud and harsh noise. It
feeds only on vegetable substances.

This specimen is a male. The fur is long, but close and thick; of a mixed
brown or greyish colour on the back, under the belly and neck, of a
yellowish white. Its length is about eighteen inches, exclusive of the
tail, which is twelve inches long, and prehensile. The face is three
inches in length, broad above and very pointed at the muzzle, which is
furnished with long whiskers. The eyes are very large, but not fierce. On
the fore feet are five claws; on the hind, three and a thumb. The teeth
are two in the front of the upper jaw, and two in the lower; the upper
projecting beyond the under. In the Kanguroo it is remarkable that there
are four teeth in the upper jaw, opposed to two in the under. The
testicles are contained in a pendulous scrotum, between the two thighs of
the hind legs, as in the common opossum. The affinity of almost all the
quadrupeds yet discovered on this coast to the opossum kind, in the
circumstance of the pouch in which the female receives and suckles her
young, seems to open a field of investigation most interesting to the
naturalist: and the public will doubtless learn with pleasure, that it is
the intention of the most able comparative anatomist of the age, to give
a paper on this subject to the Royal Society. It cannot, therefore, be
necessary at present to pursue the enquiry any farther.

THE VULPINE OPOSSUM.

This is not unlike the common fox in shape, but considerably inferior to
it in respect to size, being, from the point of the nose to the setting
on of the tail, only twenty-six inches; the tail itself fifteen inches:
the upper parts of the body are of a grisly colour, arising from a
mixture of dusky and white hairs, with rufous-yellow tinge; the head and
shoulders partaking most of this last colour: round the eyes blackish:
above the nostrils ten or twelve black whiskers, four inches or more in
length: all the under parts of the body are of a tawny buff-colour,
deepest on the throat, where the bottom of the hairs are rust-colour: the
tail is of the colour of the back for about one quarter of its length,
from thence to the end, black: the toes on the fore feet are five in
number, the inner one placed high up: on the hind feet four toes only:
with a thumb, consisting of two joints, without a claw, placed high up at
the base of the inner toe. The whole foot serving the purpose of a hand,
as observable in many of the opossum genus. The legs are much shorter in
proportion than those of the common fox: the ears about one inch and an
half in length: in the upper jaw are six cutting teeth, and four
grinders, with two small canine teeth placed at an equal distance between
them: in the under jaw two long cutting teeth, not unlike those of a
squirrel, and four grinders to answer those in the upper jaw, but no
canine teeth.--A representation of the mouth and teeth may be seen in one
of the following plates.

NORFOLK ISLAND FLYING SQUIRREL.

Size of the American grey squirrel, and the general colour of the upper
parts very nearly resembling that animal; the under parts white: from the
nose to the tail runs a streak of dusky black, and another springs on
each side of the head behind the nostrils, passing over the eyes and
finishing behind them: ears not rising from the head: on each side of the
body is a broad flap or membrane, as in other flying squirrels, which is
united to both the fore and hind legs, as usual in many of this division:
this membrane is black, fringed on the outer edge with white: the tail
for two-thirds of the length, is of an elegant ash colour, paler than the
body, from thence to the end dusky black: the toes on the fore legs are
five in number; those of the hinder uncertain, as the legs behind were
wanting: length from head to rump nine inches; the tail is ten inches.

BIRDS.

BLUE BELLIED PARROT. Order II. Pies. Genus V. Species XIV. Var. B.

BLUE BELLIED PARROT.

Described thus by Mr. Latham.

"The length of this beautiful parrot is fifteen inches. The bill is
reddish: orbits black: head and throat dark blue, with a mixture of
lighter blue feathers: back part of the head green; towards the throat
yellow green: back and wings green: prime quills dusky, barred with
yellow: breast red, mixed with yellow: belly of a fine blue: thighs green
and yellow: tail cuneiform; the two middle feathers green; the others the
same, but bright yellow on the outer edges: legs dusky. Inhabits Botany
Bay in New Holland." Latham's Synopsis, vol. i. p. 213.

To this account little need be added, except that in our present
specimens the parts there said to be blue are rather a bright lilac: the
bill is a deep orange; and there are red spots on the back between the
wings, and a few near the vent feathers.

TABUAN PARROT. Order and Genus the same. Species XVI. A Variety.


The bird here represented has been seen by Mr. Latham, and was by him
referred to this species; of which however it seems a very remarkable
variety: The prevalent colour of the head, neck and breast, being,
instead of a deep crimson or purplish red, as in his description and
plate, as well as in a fine specimen now in his own collection, a very
bright scarlet: the blue mark across the lower part of the neck appears
the same; but the blue feathers in the wings are entirely wanting; and
the bill is not black. (See Latham's Synopsis, vol. i. p. 214.)

The specimen here delineated may be thus described.

Length twenty-four inches: bill brown, the upper mandible tinged with
red: the head, neck, and all the under parts of the body a bright
scarlet: the back and wings a fine green. On the lower part of the neck,
between that and the back, a crescent of blue: the tail long and
cuneiform, most of its feathers deep blue: the legs ash coloured: on the
upper part of the wings a narrow line of lighter green.

PENNANTIAN PARROT. Order and Genus the same. Species, 134.

Size of the scarlet lory, length sixteen inches: the bill of a blueish
horn colour; the general colour of the plumage scarlet; the base of the
under mandible and the chin covered with rich blue feathers: the back
black, the feathers edged with crimson: wings blue, down the middle much
paler than the rest: the quills and tail black, the feathers edged
outwardly with blue, and three of the outer tail feathers, from the
middle to the end, of a pale hoary blue: the tail is wedge shaped, the
middle feathers eight inches in length; the outermost, or shortest, only
four: the bottom of the thighs blue, legs dusky, claws black.

This beautiful bird is not unfrequent about Port Jackson, and seems to
correspond greatly with the Pennantian Parrot, described by Mr. Latham in
the supplement to his General Synopsis of Birds, p. 61. differing in so
few particulars, as to make us suppose it to differ only in sex from that
species.

PACIFIC PAROQUET. Order and Genus the same. Species L VI. A new variety.

Mr. Latham's description is this:

"Length twelve inches, bill of a silvery blue; end black: in some, the
forehead and half the crown; in others, the forehead only, of a deep
crimson: behind each eye a spot of the same colour: on each side of the
vent a patch of the same: the plumage in general of a dark green, palest
on the under parts: the tail is cunei-form; the two middle feathers are
five inches and an half in length; the outer ones two inches and an half;
upper parts of it the same green with the body; beneath ash colour: the
outer edge of the wings, as far as the middle of the quills, deep blue;
the ends of the quills dusky: legs brown: claws black." Latham's Synopsis,
vol. I. p. 252.

The variety here represented has a brown bill, tinged with red at the
end, and a cap of azure blue at the back of the head, interspersed with a
few small feathers of a yellowish green; the top of the wings is of a
yellow hue, and there are no blue feathers in the wings.

THE SACRED KING'S FISHER. Order of Birds II. Pies. Genus XXIII. Species 12.

The following description is extracted from Mr. Latham's Synopsis of
Birds, vol. ii. p. 623. The specimen here represented, being the same as
his fourth variety of that species marked D.

"This in size is rather less than a blackbird: the bill is black; the
lower mandible yellowish at the base: head, back, wings, and tail, blue
tinged with green: the under parts of the body white, extending round the
middle of the neck like a collar: legs blackish."

To which account we may add, that the bill is very strong at the base,
and sharp at the point; that the feathers immediately above the bill are
tinged with yellow; and that the toes, as in most of this species, are
three before and one behind.

SUPERB WARBLER, MALE. Birds, Order III. Passerine. Genus XLI. Warbler.
Species 137. A new variety.


"The length of this beautiful species is five inches and a half: the bill
black: the feathers of the head are long, and stand erect like a full
crest; from the forehead to the crown they are of a bright blue; from
thence to the nape, black like velvet: through the eyes from the bill, a
line of black; beneath the eye springs a tuft of the same blue feathers;
beneath these and on the chin, it is of a deep blue almost black, and
feeling like velvet: on the ears is another patch of blue, and across the
back part of the head a band of the same, (in some specimens, the patches
of blue under the eye and on the ear unite together, and join with the
band at the nape, as in the plate*) the whole giving the head a greater
appearance of bulk than is natural: the hind part of the neck and upper
parts of the body and tail, deep blue black; the under, pure white:
wings, dusky; shafts of the quills chesnut: the tail, two inches and a
quarter long, and cuneiform; the two outer feathers very short: legs
dusky brown: claws black." Latham's Synopsis, vol. iv. p. 501.

[* Latham's Synopsis, vol. iv. pl. 53.]

The disposition of the blue is found to differ in most of the specimens.
In the present variety, the whole head is enveloped in blue, which
terminates in an irregularly waving line, and is continued below the eye
in a broad band, edged in the same manner, and running almost to a point,
as low as the bottom of the neck on each side; but there is no band
continued round the neck, which, both above and below, is of the deep
blue like velvet, mentioned by Mr. Latham. Some feathers of a very bright
orange lie immediately under that blue, and above the wings*.

[* The Specimens from which Mr. Latham took his descriptions were met with
at Van Diemen's Land, the most southern part of New Holland.]

SUPERB WARBLER, Female.

When Mr. Latham's Synopsis was published, the female of this species was
entirely unknown; and it was conjectured by that author that the
disposition of the blue might possibly mark the sexes. The female is now
discovered to be entirely destitute of all the fine blue colours, both
pale and dark, by which the male is adorned, except that there is a very
narrow circle of azure round each eye, apparently on the skin only: all
the upper feathers consist of shades of brown, and the whole throat and
belly is pure white. Except from the shape and size, this bird would not
be suspected at first sight to belong to the same species as the male:
the epithet of superb applies very ill to the female.

CASPIAN TERN. Birds, Order IX. Webfooted. Genus LXXXVIII. Species I. Variety B.

The plate of this bird is inserted at pag. 77. Mr. Latham's description
is as follows.

"Length nineteen or twenty inches: bill three inches, stout and of a pale
yellow: nostrils pervious: the crown of the head black; the feathers
longish, and forming a kind of pensile crest at the nape; the rest of the
head, neck, and under parts of the body, white: back and wings pale
cinereous grey: quills grey, with the ends dusky; the inner webs, half
way from the base, white: tail grey, forked; the end half of the other
feathers white; the last is exceeded by the first an inch: legs black.
Supposed to inhabit China; seen also, or very similar, from the
Friendly Isles; also found at Hapaee, one of the Sandwich Islands."
Syn. Vol. vi. p. 351.

NORFOLK ISLAND PETREL. Order IX. Web-Footed. Genus Xc.

Length sixteen inches, bill one inch and an half long, black, and very
hooked at the tip: the head as far as the eyes, the chin and throat,
waved, brown and dusky white: the rest of the body on the upper parts of
a sooty brown, the under of a deep ash colour; the inner part of the
quills, especially next the base, very pale, nearly white, and the wings,
when closed, exceed the tail by about an inch: the tail is much rounded
in shape, and consists of twelve feathers, of the same colour as the
upper parts of the body: the legs are pale yellow, the outer toe black
the whole length, the middle one half way from the tip, the webs also
correspond, the outer one being black, except just at the base; and the
inner one black for about one third from the end: the claws black; the
spur, which serves in place of a back toe, is also black.

This inhabits Norfolk Island, and burrows in the sand like a rabbit,
lying hid in the holes throughout the day, and coming out of evenings in
quest of food. This bird appears to differ so very little from the dark
grey Petrel of Cook's Voyage, vol. i. p. 258. that it is not improbable
it may prove to be the same species. This is described in the General
Synopsis of Birds, vol. vi. p. 399. under the name of Grey Petrel; as
also another species, in p. 400. by the name of White-breasted Petrel,
differing only in the breast from our specimen.

BRONZE-WINGED PIGEON. Order IV. Columbine. Genus XLVI.

Size of a large dove-house pigeon: general colour of the plumage
ash-coloured, brown on the upper parts, the feathers margined with pale
rufous; the under parts pale ash-colour, with very pale margins: the wing
coverts are much the same colour as the back, but the greater ones, or
lower series, have each of them a large oval spot of bronze on the outer
webs near the ends, forming together, when the wings are closed, two bars
of the most brilliant and beautiful bronze, changing into red, copper,
and green, in different reflections of light: several of the feathers
also among the other coverts have the same spots on them, but are
irregularly placed: the quills are brown, with the inner webs, from the
middle to the base, pale rufous; as are the sides of the body and all the
under wing coverts: the tail consists of sixteen feathers; the two middle
ones are brown, the others pale lead, or dove colour, with a bar of black
near the tips: the bill is of a dull red: the forehead very pale, nearly
white, passing a little way under the eye: the chin and throat pale grey:
the legs are red.

This bird inhabits Norfolk Island; and is clearly a non-descript species.

WHITE-FRONTED HERON. Order VII. Cloven-footed. Genus LXV.

This is little more than half the size of the common Heron: length 28
inches: the general colour of the plumage is bluish ash, inclining to
lead colour: top of the head black, and a trifle crested; the forehead,
sides of the head, chin, and throat white, passing downwards, and
finishing in a point about the middle of the neck before: on the lower
part of the neck the feathers are long and loose, and of a pale rufous
cinnamon colour; all the under parts of the body also incline to this
last colour, but are much paler: the quills and tail are dark lead
colour, nearly black: on the back the feathers are long and narrow, and
hang part of the way on the tail: the bill is four inches long, and
black; but the base half of the under mandible is yellowish: the legs are
formed as in other herons, of a yellowish brown colour, and the claws are
black.

This bird was sent from Port Jackson in New Holland, and as it has not
been noticed by any author, we consider it as a new species.

WATTLED BEE-EATER. Order II. Pies. Genus XXVI.

The size of this bird is nearly that of a cuckow: length fourteen inches
and a half: the bill one inch long, and of nearly the same shape and size
as in the Poe Bird; the colour black: the general colour of the plumage
is brown, palest on the under parts; most of the feathers are pointed in
shape, and have a streak of white down the middle: the fore part of the
head, as far as the eyes, is smooth, but the rest of the head appears
full, the feathers being longer: from the gape of the bill a broad streak
of silvery white passes under the eye, and beneath this, on each side of
the throat, hangs a pendulous wattle, about half an inch in length, and
of an orange colour: the wings, when closed, reach about one third on the
tail, which is about half the length of the bird, and cuneiform in shape:
both the quills and tail feathers are of a darker brown than the rest of
bird, and have the tips white: the middle of the belly is yellow: the
legs are of a pale brown, the hind toe very stout, and the outer toe
connected to the middle one as far as the first joint.

The above inhabits New Holland; it was received from Port Jackson, and is
no doubt a non-descript species.

PSITTACEOUS HORNBILL. Order II. Pies. Genus VIII.

The bird is about the size of a crow: the total length two feet three
inches: the bill is large, stout at the base, much curved at the point,
and channelled on the sides; the colour pale brown, inclining to yellow
near the end: the nostrils are quite at the base, and are surrounded with
a red skin, as is the eye also, on the upper part: the head, neck, and
under parts of the body are pale blue-grey; the upper parts of the body,
wings, and tail, ash colour; and most of the feathers are tipt with dusky
black, forming bars of that colour across the wings: the wings, when
closed, reach to near three-quarters of the length of the tail: the tail
itself is long, and cuneiform, the two middle feathers measuring eleven
inches, and the outer one on each side little more than seven; a bar of
black crosses the whole near the end, and the tips of all the feathers
are white: the legs are short and scaly, and the toes placed two
forwards, and two backwards, as in those of the toucan or parrot genus:
the colour of legs and claws black.*

[* Mr. Latham, who has been kind enough to give his sentiments on this
occasion, is of opinion that this bird does not strictly belong to any of
the present established genera. The make indeed is altogether that of an
hornbill, and the edges of the mandible are smooth, but the toes being
placed two forwards and two backwards, seem to rank it with the Parrots
or Toucans; and it has been unlucky that in the specimen from which the
description was taken, the tongue was wanting, which might in a great
measure have determined the point: but the inducement for placing it with
the hornbills has had the greater weight, as not a single species of the
toucan tribe has yet been met with in that part of the world.]

This bird was killed at Port Jackson, and we believe it to be hitherto
non-descript.

* * * * *

Such is the account of the birds of which drawings or specimens have been
obtained from Port Jackson or from Norfolk Island. Wild ducks, teal,
quails, and other common species are numerous in both places, and the
variety, as well as number of the small birds is considerable. Birds of
the Cassowary or Emu kind have very frequently been seen; but they are so
shy, and run so swiftly, that only one has yet been killed. That bird was
shot near the camp, while Governor Phillip was absent on his first
expedition to Broken Bay, and was thought by him to differ materially
both from the ostrich and cassowary; the skin was sent over, but at the
time when this sheet was printed off, had not been stuffed, or put into
form. Should it, on examination, exhibit any remarkable peculiarities, we
shall endeavour to obtain a description of it, to subjoin at the
conclusion of this volume.

* * * * *

Since stating the dimensions of the kanguroo, in page 106, Lord Sydney
has received from Governor Phillip, a male of a much larger size, which
measures as follows.

                                                          f. in.
Length from the point of the nose to the end of the tail, 8   5
Length of the tail,                                       3   1
--            head,                                       0  11
--            fore legs,                                  2   0
--            hind legs                                   3   7
Circumference of the fore part by the legs,               1   9
----                 lower parts  --                      4   5
Round the thicker part of the tail, which gradually
tapers to the end.                                        1   1

The above is the largest kanguroo that has yet been seen, and there is
every reason to believe that even this had not nearly attained its full
growth.

Lieutenant Shortland describes them as feeding in herds of about thirty
or forty, and assures us, that one is always observed to be apparently
upon the watch, at a distance from the rest.


Chapter XVI.

No. I.

PAPERS RELATIVE TO THE SETTLEMENT AT PORT JACKSON.

General Return of the four Companies of Marines, doing duty in the
settlement of New South Wales.

Return of the OFFICERS.

* * * * *

No. II.

Artificers belonging to the Marine Detachment, employed from the 17th May
to the 30th September, 1788, both Days inclusive.

[These tables are not included here. Refer to html version of this ebook
available from http://gutenberg.org]


These artificers were employed on the representation of the
Lieutenant-Governor to Governor Phillip, that it was impossible to erect
the barracks necessary for the officers and men of the detachment,
without employing such artificers for that purpose as could be found
among themselves. It was at the same time represented, that these men
could not properly be retained at such work, unless they were to be paid
in the customary manner of paying all troops employed on extra works for
the public service: and more especially, as it was known that the
artificers taken from the ships of war and transports were to be paid for
all work done on shore.

Governor Phillip agreed entirely as to the necessity of employing the
artificers, and with respect to their pay, had no doubt that the matter
must be decided by custom: In consequence of which he issued an order for
that purpose on the 17th of May, 1788.

* * * * *

No. III.

The Right Hon. the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, in a letter,
dated the 8th of October, 1786, addressed to the commanding officers of
each division of the marines, directed them to signify to such marines as
would make a voluntary tender of their service for Botany Bay, that they
should at the expiration of their station of three years be entitled to
their discharge on their return to England, provided their good behaviour
during this service should have merited such marks of favour: Or that, if
they preferred it, they should at the time of relief be discharged in New
South Wales, and permitted to settle there. In consequence of this, at
the date of the following paper, the question was put by the Lieutenant
Governor to all the officers and men, whether they chose to remain in the
country, either as soldiers or settlers. Before this question was asked,
Major Ross applied to Governor Phillip to know what encouragement
Government held out to those who should wish to remain in either
capacity. To this application it was answered by the Governor, that the
proper instructions and authorities for giving every reasonable
encouragement to such of the military and others as should be desirous to
remain in New South Wales, and for making grants of land, were to be sent
from England as soon as Government being sufficiently informed of the
actual state of the country, and the quality of the soil, at and near the
settlement, could determine what was the most eligible mode of granting
the lands.

Those documents having been received, the amplest powers are now to be
sent out to Governor Phillip, that he may make such grants and give such
encouragement as may be proportioned to the merits of those who apply,
and satisfactory to every individual.

The following list exhibits the result of the question put by the
Lieutenant Governor to the officers and men of the marines, concerning
their desire to return, or to remain in New South Wales.

LIST of such OFFICERS, NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS, DRUMMERS, and PRIVATES,
as are desirous of remaining in this Country, after the time when their
Lordships the Commissioners of the Admiralty intended to relieve the
Detachment, as expressed in their Letter of the 8th October, 1788.

NEW SOUTH WALES, 1st October, 1788.

Names and quality. Desirous of remaining in this country.

Watkin Tench, Capt. Lieutenant, as a soldier for one tour more of three
years.

George Johnstone, First Lieutenant, having been so short a time in this
country, cannot determine whether he would wish to remain or not, as to
settling can say nothing.

John Johnstone, ditto, having been so short a time in this country,
cannot determine whether he would wish to remain another tour or not, as
to settling can say nothing, till he knows on what terms.

James Maitland Shairp, ditto, being so short a time in the country, he
cannot yet judge whether he would wish to remain or not another tour, as
to settling, until he knows the terms and nature of the grants, cannot
determine.

William Dawes, Second Lieutenant, as a soldier for one tour more of three
years.

William Baker, Serjeant, as a soldier.
George Flemming, private, as a soldier for three years more.
Isaac Tarr, ditto, as a settler.
James Manning, as a soldier.


All the officers, non-commissioned officers, drummers, and private men of
the detachment, whose names are not expressed in the above list, wish to
return to England, at the time proposed by their Lordship's letter of the
8th October, 1786, or as soon after as their Lordships may find it
convenient.

R. ROSS, MAJOR.

* * * * *

No. IV

AN ACCOUNT OF PROVISIONS REMAINING IN HIS MAJESTY'S STORES, AT SYDNEY
COVE, NEW SOUTH WALES, 30TH SEPTEMBER, 1788.

Flour, 414,176 pounds, is  62 weeks ration.
Rice,   51,330 -- --       15 --
Beef,  127,608 -- --       43 --
Pork,  214,344 -- --      128 --
Pease,   2,305 bushels, -- 58 --
Butter, 15,450 pounds,  -- 49 --

Number of Persons victualled.
Men, 698. Women, 193. Children, 42.

Provisions at Norfolk Island, twenty months.

Number of Persons victualled.
Men,44. Women, 16.

ANDREW MILLER, Commissary.

* * * * *

No. V.

Return of Sick, September 27th, 1788.

Marines sick in hospital           4
              ---- camp           21
Marine women and children in camp  5
Deaths since last return           0
Total belonging to the battalion
under medical treatment           30

Male convicts sick                62
Female ditto and children         31
Total of convicts under medical
treatment                         93

Male convicts dead since the last
report of June 30                  6
Female convicts ditto since ditto  4
Total convicts dead since ditto 10
Convicts unserviceable from old
age, infirmities, etc.            53


Chapter XVII.

Nautical directions, and other detached remarks, by Lieutenant Ball,
concerning Rio de Janeiro, Norfolk Island, Ball Pyramid, and Lord Howe
Island.

Some notice has already been taken in the preceding sheets of Rio de
Janeiro, Norfolk Isle, and Lord Howe Isle; but since they were committed
to the press, the following particulars respecting those places have very
obligingly been communicated to the editor, by Lieutenant Henry Lidgbird
Ball. As these remarks are the result of minute observation, they cannot
fail of being useful and interesting to the seafaring reader, which, it
is presumed, will be a sufficient apology for giving them a place here.

There is no danger in going up the harbour to Rio de Janeiro but what may
easily be seen. The course up the harbour is north-west by north; you
anchor before the town in seventeen fathoms water, over a muddy bottom;
the middle of the town bearing west by north, west, or west by south,
about a mile and an half distant from the watering place, and the Fort
Saint Cruz bearing south-east. No pilot is necessary; the soundings
a-breast of St. Cruz Fort are twenty-two fathoms, and shoal gradually to
seventeen fathoms, where the ships moored a-breast of the town. The tide
flows two hours and thirty minutes at full and change, and rises in
general about eight feet. In going into the harbour, it is necessary to
keep the starboard shore best aboard, as the tide sets on the other side,
till you get nearly a-breast of St. Cruz Fort, and in that situation you
must be on your guard, if going in with the flood, as the passage is
narrow: and there are whirlpools in many places, which will take all
command from the rudder. Water is procured at a pipe, by which it is
conveyed from a fountain situated in the large square near the principal
landing place, which is opposite the palace. This pipe is continued down
to the waterside, and you fill your casks in boats: the water is so
plentiful, that a fleet might be supplied in a short time.

Bullocks, sheep, and Portugal wine, may be had here in plenty; there is
also an excellent market for poultry and vegetables every day; in short,
every refreshment that is necessary for a fleet may be procured in great
abundance, and very cheap.

The whole harbour, as well as the town, is defended by a number of strong
fortifications; and as far as Lieutenant Ball had an opportunity of
examining the harbour, the draft of it published in the East India chart
is very true, the soundings right, and the bearings very accurate.

Their trade is chiefly to Portugal, and consists of bullion, indigo,
sugar, rum, tobacco, brazil wood, whale-oil, whale bone, spermaceti, etc.
and of late years diamonds and many other valuable commodities.

In approaching Norfolk Island there is no danger: Lieut. Ball anchored in
nineteen fathoms, over a bottom of coarse sand and coral, the north-east
end of the island bearing west south-west quarter west; the easternmost
rocks east south-east, about a mile distant from the nearest shore: at
this place Capt. Cook landed. Ships have anchored also at south end of
the isle in twenty-two fathoms, the westernmost point of Phillip Isle
south south-east, the body of Nepean's Isle east north-east half east,
and the south point of Norfolk Isle north-east by east. They anchored
again in eighteen fathoms, over a bottom of sand and coral, the west
point of Phillip Isle bearing south, the easternmost point of it south
south-east half east, and the south point of Norfolk Isle north-east. The
pine trees on this island are of an immense size, measuring from twenty
to twenty-seven and even thirty feet in girth, and so tall that it was
not easy to form any exact judgment of their height. This place affords
vast numbers of cabbage trees, and amazing quantities of fish may be
procured on the banks that lie on the west side of the small island;
those they got on board the Supply were of the snapper kind, and very
good, yet they were caught in such abundance that many of the people were
as much satiated with them as the sailors are with cod on the banks of
Newfoundland.

The only places where it was found practicable to land was a-breast of
their first station (which is the place described by Captain Cook, and
where the people landed with the utmost difficulty,) and at Sydney Bay on
the south end of the isle, the outer breaker off the westernmost point in
sight bearing north-west by west half west.

Lord Howe Island was discovered by Lieutenant Henry Lidgbird Ball,
Commander of his Majesty's tender Supply, on the 17th February, 1788, and
was so named by him, in honour of the Right Honourable Lord Howe. At the
same time he observed a remarkably high pyramidical rock at a
considerable distance from the island, which has been named Ball's
Pyramid; from a correct drawing of this rock and others near it, the
annexed engraving was taken.

There is no danger in approaching Lord Howe island, the Supply anchored
there in thirteen fathoms, sand and coral; but there lies about four
miles from the south-west part of the pyramid, a dangerous rock, which
shows itself a little above the surface of the water, and appears not to
be larger than a boat. Lieutenant Ball had no opportunity of examining
whether there is a safe passage between them or not. The island is in the
form of a crescent, the convex side towards the north-east. Two points at
first supposed to be separate islands, proved to be high mountains on its
south-west end, the southernmost of which was named Mount Gower, and the
other Mount Lidgbird; between these mountains there is a very deep
valley, which obtained the name of Erskine Valley; the south-east point
was called Point King, and the north-west point, Point Phillip. The land
between these two points forms the concave side of the island facing the
south-west, and is lined with a sandy beach, which is guarded against the
sea by a reef of coral rock, at the distance of half a mile from the
beach, through which there are several small openings for boats; but it
is to be regretted that the depth of water within the reef no where
exceeds four feet. They found no fresh water on the island, but it
abounds with cabbage-palms, mangrove and manchineal trees, even up to to
the summits of the mountains. No vegetables were to be seen. On the shore
there are plenty of ganets, and a land-fowl, of a dusky brown colour,
with a bill about four inches long, and feet like those of a chicken;
these proved remarkably fat, and were very good food; but we have no
further account of them. There are also many very large pigeons, and the
white birds resembling the Guinea fowl, which were found at Norfolk
Island, were seen here also in great numbers. The bill of this bird is
red, and very strong, thick, and sharp-pointed. Innumerable quantities of
exceeding fine turtle frequent this place in the summer season, but at
the approach of winter they all go to the northward. There was not the
least difficulty in taking them. The sailors likewise caught plenty of
fish with a hook and line.


Chapter XVIII.

July 1788 to August 1788

Concise account of Lieutenant Shortland--His various services--Appointed
agent to the transports sent to New South Wales--Ordered by Governor
Phillip to England, by Batavia--Journal of his voyage--New discoveries.

We have been induced to subjoin in this place a concise account of
Lieutenant Shortland, as well because his experience as an officer has
been great, as from the consideration that his journal has been deemed,
by those who best know its value, of very serious importance.

Lieutenant John Shortland very early in life had a strong predilection
for the Navy, and in 1755, at the age of sixteen, he entered into his
Majesty's service, on board the Anson, a sixty gun ship, which went out
in the fleet under the command of Admiral Boscawen. On the Banks of
Newfoundland this fleet fell in with, and took the Alcide and Ly's, two
French ships, of seventy-four guns. On his return from this expedition,
he went on board the Culloden, a seventy-four gun ship, and was in the
fleet under Admiral Byng, off Minorca. Shortly afterwards, he went into
the Hampton Court, commanded by Capt. Harvey, in which ship he was
present at the taking of the Foudroyant and Arpè. On his arrival in
England, he went on board the Vanguard, Commodore Swanton, to the West
Indies, in the fleet under Admiral Rodney, and was present at the
reduction of Martinique, the Grenades, and the other islands which were
then captured. In 1763, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant by
Admiral Swanton; since which period he has always been employed in active
and important services. During the late war, and for some time
afterwards, he was chiefly employed in going to and from America, except
in the year 1782, when he was appointed to command the transports with
the 97th regiment on board, destined for the relief of Gibraltar, under
convoy of his Majesty's ships Cerberus and Apollo: he was not only
successful in getting all the transports in safe, but he also landed the
men without any loss.

On Lieutenant Shortland's return home from this service, in endeavouring
to get through the Gut of Gibraltar in the night, he was chased by a
squadron of Spanish frigates, who took three of the transports in
company, but he was so fortunate as to escape in the Betsey transport,
and arrived safe in England, without either loss or damage. In the year
1786, he was appointed Agent to the transports sent by Government to New
South Wales, at which place he arrived in January, 1788. After remaining
six months at the new settlement at Port Jackson, he was ordered to
England by way of Batavia, by his Excellency Governor Phillip, who
honoured him with the official dispatches for Government, and he arrived
in England on the 29th of May, 1789.

This summary recapitulation of Mr. Shortland's services sufficiently
points out his merit and ability as an experienced seaman, without any
further elogium; which, it were were wanted, might be abundantly supplied
from the subsequent account of his passage from Port Jackson to Batavia.

* * * * *

The Alexander, the Friendship, the Prince of Wales, and the Borrowdale,
were got ready in the beginning of July, 1788, to sail for England, under
the care and conduct of Lieutenant Shortland; at which time Governor
Phillip took the opinions of the masters of those transports concerning
their route. The season was thought to be too far advanced for them to
attempt the southern course, by Van Diemen's Land; and the passage by
Cape Horn was objected to by the Governor. It was therefore agreed
unanimously that they should go to the northward, either through
Endeavour Straits, or round New Guinea. Unfortunately the ships were ill
prepared to encounter the difficulties, which were to be expected in
every mode of return; their complement of men was small, only six to an
hundred tons, officers included; they were without a surgeon, and
unprovided with those articles which have been found essential to the
preservation of health in long voyages, such as bore-cole, sour-crout,
portable soup, and the other antiseptics recommended by the Royal
Society. It cannot therefore be wondered, though it must be deeply
regretted, that the sailors should have suffered so dreadfully from the
scurvy, in the length of time necessary for exploring a passage through
an unknown sea perplexed with islands, where they were destitute of
assistance from charts, or observations of former navigators; and were
not fortunate enough to obtain a supply of salutary refreshments.

14 July 1788

Lieutenant Shortland, in the Alexander transport, sailed out of the
harbour of Port Jackson, on Monday, July 14, 1788, directing his course
to the east-north-east, with intention to touch at Lord Howe Island, and
there to appoint each ship a place of rendezvous in case of separation.
This necessary step, which ought to have been previously taken, had been
prevented by the hurry of preparation; the Alexander not having been able
to join the other transports till the evening before their departure.
Even then, the boats, booms, and spare anchors, were stowed loose between
decks, in a manner which must have produced the most dangerous
consequences, had the ship been exposed in that condition to the heavy
sea which it was likely she would meet with off the shore. To the very
last moment, therefore, the men and officers were most busily employed in
providing against this danger; and as soon as the weather appeared
tolerably favourable for working out of the harbour, Lieutenant Shortland
made the signal to the masters of the other transports to get under way,
without waiting for his ship. When the transports had cleared the harbour
they were obliged to carry a press of sail in order to get off the coast,
the vessels being very light, and a powerful swell then setting in upon
the shore. The wind was at the same time strong from the south-east, and
continued so for two days, with the same heavy swell, which made it very
difficult to keep the ships off shore.

16 July 1788

At eight, A. M. on the 16th of July, the rocks off the entrance of
Port Stephens bore north-west by west distant three leagues. Lieutenant
Shortland very much regretted that this place had not been surveyed;
had it been known to afford safe anchorage, it would have been much
more prudent to put in there and wait for a change of wind, than to
attempt keeping the sea in circumstances so very unfavourable, with
ships so little calculated to run along a great extent of lee shore.
This day the Prince of Wales being two or three miles to the leeward,
the signal was made for her to tack into the fleet. At nine in
the evening the wind coming to the east-south-east, Lieutenant
Shortland fired a gun, and made the signal to veer ship and sail on the
other tack. At this time the Prince of Wales was about five miles on the
lee bow of the Alexander, and the Borrowdale and Friendship close in
company; but by twelve at midnight the Friendship only was in sight. At
two, the wind shifting again to the south-south-east, the signal was once
more made to veer ship, and change the tack, as lying off east would
clear the coast; a strong current setting to the southward.

19 July 1788

Lieutenant Shortland, having now lost sight of the Prince of Wales and
Borrowdale, was fully determined to go to Lord Howe Island to wait a day
or two for them, expecting that they might probably touch there with
similar intentions. On the 19th, therefore, he steered a direct course
for that island, with a strong gale at south-west, but as this wind,
which was exactly favourable to the intended course of the voyage, and
made the anchoring place off Lord Howe Island a lee shore, continued
unvaried, and blew very hard on the 20th, it appeared best to relinquish
the design of calling there. At two in the afternoon, therefore,
Lieutenant Shortland again altered his course and sailed north-east by
north. The Prince of Wales and Borrowdale transports, were seen no more
throughout the voyage, and it has since been known that they took another
course; but the Friendship continued close in company with the Alexander.
About noon this day, the men at the mast head discovered a very extensive
shoal on the larboard beam, bearing from north by west to north by south,
distant between two and three leagues. It trended north by east and south
by west, and was judged to be in length about three leagues and a half.
The breadth could not be ascertained, for, while the ship ran along it,
the sand bank was seen to extend as far as the eye could discern. It lies
in latitude 29°. 20'. south, and in longitude 158°. 48'. east, and was
named by Lieutenant Shortland, Middleton Shoals.

21 July 1788

At ten in the morning, on Monday July 21, the master of the Friendship
went on board the Alexander, and Carteret's harbour in New Ireland, was
appointed by Lieutenant Shortland as the place of rendezvous. The same
day, at half past five in the afternoon, land was discovered, bearing
from south-west by west, to west half south, at the distance of about
eight leagues. It trended to the north-north-west, and was about six or
seven leagues in length, the land very high, with a remarkable peak,
which bore south-south-west. This island was now named Sir Charles
Middleton's Island: It lies in latitude 28°. 10. south, and in longitude
159°. 50. east. Lieutenant Shortland thinks it probable that the reef
seen on the preceding day may be connected with this island, as it
trended in a right direction for it; but it must, in that case, be of
very great extent. The island was still in sight on the morning of the
22d.

24 July 1788

On Thursday July 24th, they had an accurate observation of the sun and
moon to determine the longitude, and found the effect of a current to
have been so great as to set the ship two degrees of longitude to the
eastward of the dead reckoning. The longitude of Sir Charles Middleton's
Island must therefore be corrected by that observation, and placed
considerably further to the east. The latitude may be depended upon, as
the bearing was observed when the sun was on the meridian.

27 July 1788

Many land birds being seen on the 27th and 28th, when the ship was by
reckoning and observation near the north-west end of New Caledonia,
Lieutenant Shortland very reasonably concluded that he must have passed
very close to that land, though it did not happen to be discerned:
probably it is low at that extremity.

31 July 1788

At noon, on Thursday the 31st, land was discovered, bearing from north
half west to east-north-east, and distant about five or six leagues. As
the ship was now in latitude 10°. 52'. south, Lieutenant Shortland at
first conjectured it might be Egmont Island, which was seen by Capt.
Carteret, notwithstanding a considerable difference in longitude, which
might be accounted for from the effect of currents, as they had been for
some time very strong. The longitude laid down by Captain Carteret was
164°. 49'. east; that of the Alexander at this time about 161°. 11'. It
proved however that the difference was real, and that this was another
island. Lieutenant Shortland now kept a north-west course, in which
direction the land trended. He ran along the coast about six or seven
leagues, and found it formed into an island by two points, the south-east
of which he called Cape Sydney, the north-west, Cape Phillip. Having
passed this point, he continued steering in a north-west direction till
about seven o'clock the same afternoon, when the men who were reefing the
top-sails for the night, discovered land bearing exactly in the ship's
course. On receiving this intelligence he immediately brought to, with
the ship's head off from the land, and gave a signal for the Friendship
to do the same. They lay to all night, and the next morning were
surprised with the sight of a most mountainous coast, bearing from
north-east by east to west-north-west, about five or six leagues distant.
This proved sufficiently that the land seen the preceding day could not
be Egmont Island, and Lieutenant Shortland was inclined to think that
this was united to it. At six in the morning he bore away west by north,
and west by north half north, as the land trended, running along the
shore at five or six leagues distance. The most eastern point of this
land he called Cape Henslow, the most western which was then in sight,
Cape Hunter. Between these two points the land is very singularly
mountainous, the summits of the mountains rising among the clouds to a
prodigious height. It may be known by one summit more elevated than the
rest, which, from being discovered on the first of August, was named
Mount Lammas, and is thought in height to equal, if not to exceed the
Peak of Teneriffe. This day the latitude was by observation 9°. 58'.
south, and the longitude 160°. 21'. east. More land still continued to
open to the west-north-west, and the same course was therefore kept at an
equal distance from the shore till three in the afternoon, when the water
appearing suddenly of a different colour, they brought to, and sounded,
but found no ground at 120 fathoms. At four, a part of the land which had
the appearance of a harbour, bore north-north-east distant seven leagues.
The land still continued mountainous, and at six o'clock bore from
north-east to north-west by west. The furthest land then in sight
appeared to be at the distance of about thirteen or fourteen leagues, and
was named Cape Marsh. At half past six the ships were brought to, and lay
to for the night, the weather being very squally, with violent thunder,
lightning, and rain.

2 August 1788

Soon after five in the morning of August the 2d, the ships made sail
again, and bore away west by north, but the weather being hazy, no land
was then in sight; many flying fish were seen at this time. At eleven,
there being a prospect of clearer weather, Lieutenant Shortland
endeavoured to make the land again. At noon the latitude was, by
observation, 9°. 40'. south, and the longitude 158°. 42'. east.
Lieutenant Shortland continued to steer north-west to discover whether he
had reached the utmost extent of the land, and at eight in the evening
spoke to the Friendship, and told the master that he intended to bring to
at nine.

3 August 1788

At three in the morning, on Sunday August 3, land was discovered
bearing from north-north-east to north-west, on which the ships stood off
again with a light air of wind. At six, the land in sight appeared like
several islands, and an endeavour was made to pass between them to the
north, but on approaching sufficiently near, it was discovered that all
these points were joined together by a low neck of land covered with
trees. As the land rose in nine roundish points, which seamen call
hummocks, this place was named Nine Hummock Bay. At noon on this day, the
ship then standing to the south-west, in latitude 8°. 55'. south, and
longitude 158°. 14'. east, the extreme points of land bore from east by
north to west, when Lieutenant Shortland named the western point Cape
Nepean, and the eastern Cape Pitt. The intermediate land may, he says,
easily be known by the nine hummocks, and the exact resemblance they bear
to islands when seen from the distance of five or six leagues. They had
now light airs and calm weather, but at two in the afternoon a breeze
sprung up from the eastward, and at four Cape Nepean bore north-west,
half west, distant five or six leagues. At six the Alexander shortened
sail, and stood off and on for the night under double reefed top-sails,
Lieutenant Shortland imagining that he had reached the utmost extent of
this land. At five, on Monday morning, the 4th of August, he made sail
again, and at six a bluff point of the island bore north-north-west,
distant five or six leagues: this he called Point Pleasant. At noon the
latitude was by observation 8°. 54'. south, the longitude 154°. 44'.
east. Point Pleasant then bore east by north; at four, the most western
point of land in sight, which was then supposed to be the extreme point
of the island, but proved not to be so, bore north-west by north, distant
four or five leagues. From this mistake it was named Cape Deception.

Under the persuasion that he had reached the extremity of the land, but
desirous to ascertain that point, Lieutenant Shortland kept the ships
standing under an easy sail all night. Some islands lying close to Cape
Deception, and seeming to form a good harbour, were called Hammond's
Isles. At day light on the 5th of August, land was again discovered,
bearing from east north-east to west by north half north, and forming a
very deep bay. This land appeared in six hummocks, like islands, but was
joined by a low neck of sand. Not knowing how far it might trend to the
north-west, Lieutenant Shortland stood out to the south. At eleven
o'clock, the longitude was observed to be 157° 30' east; and at noon the
latitude was also determined by observation to be 8° 44' south. At the
same time, Cape Deception bore north-east four or five leagues distant;
and two remarkable hills, from their similiarity called the Two Brothers,
forming the most western point then in view, bore north-west half north,
distant ten leagues. At three in the afternoon, they bore away for the
two Brothers, which at six bore north-west by north, distant seven
leagues. At eight, the ships lay to for the night.

6 August 1788

At five o'clock in the morning of Wednesday, August 6th, they made sail
again to the north-west; and at eight discerned a rock which had exactly
the appearance of a ship under sail, with her top-gallant sails flying.
So strongly were all the Alexander's people prepossessed with this
imagination, that the private signal was made, under the supposition that
it might be either the Boussole or Astrolabe, or one of the two
transports which had parted from them on the coast of New South Wales.
Nor was the mistake detected till they approached it within three or four
miles. This rock bore from the Two Brothers south south-west, distant one
league.

Between ten and eleven, some canoes were seen with Indians in them, who
came close up to the ship without any visible apprehension. Ropes were
thrown to them over the stern, of which they took hold, and suffered the
ship to tow them along; in this situation they willingly exchanged a kind
of rings which they wore on their arms, small rings of bone, and beads of
their own manufacture, for nails, beads, and other trifles, giving
however a manifest preference to whatever was made of iron. Gimlets were
most acceptable, but they were also pleased with nails, and pieces of
iron hoops. They dealt very fairly, not betraying the least desire to
steal or to defraud. But though they so readily suffered themselves to be
towed after the ship, they could not by any means be prevailed upon to go
along side, and whenever an attempt was made to haul up a canoe by one of
the ropes, the men in it immediately disengaged themselves from that
rope, and took hold of another. At the same time they appeared extremely
desirous that our people should anchor on the coast, and go ashore with
them; and, by way of enticement, held up the rind of an orange or lemon,
the feathers of tame fowls, and other things, signifying that they might
be procured on shore. They presented also to Lieutenant Shortland, a
fruit, which he conceived to be the bread-fruit; it was about the size of
a small cocoa-nut, brown on the outside and white within, and contained a
kind of soft pithy substance which stuck between the teeth, and was
rather troublesome to chew, besides three or four kernels not unlike
chesnuts, but very white. The leaves of the plantain served the Indians
to make boxes or small cases, of which every man had one to contain his
small rings and beads. At noon a point of land which runs from the Two
Brothers, and was now named Cape Satisfaction, bore north north-east; and
the rock which had been mistaken for a ship was called the Eddystone, and
bore north by west, distant four leagues. The Eddystone bears from Cape
Satisfaction south south-west, distant two leagues. As the land from Cape
Satisfaction began to trend northward, Lieutenant Shortland again
entertained hopes of finding a passage.

It was understood from the natives that they called the island from which
they came, Simboo; for whenever an attempt was made to put that question
to them, they pointed to the land near Cape Satisfaction, and uttered
that word. Of these men, Lieutenant Shortland remarks, that they were
remarkably stout and well built, from which appearance he very
judiciously drew a favourable conclusion with respect to the goodness and
plenty of their food. Their superiority over the New Hollanders in size
and strength, he says, was very striking. Their canoes, which contained
from six to fourteen men, seemed to be well put together, the bows and
stems very lofty, carved with various figures, and stained with a kind of
red paint; in a word, they were to all appearance formed exactly upon the
same model and construction as those of Otaheite. The ornaments worn by
the inhabitants of Simboo were large rings of a white bone, one or more
of which every man had upon his wrist, and a shell with a feather, which
was tied upon the head. Lieutenant Shortland was desirous to purchase one
of their lances, but could not obtain it. About two in the afternoon his
visitors, finding perhaps that they had followed the ship as far as they
could venture to trust themselves, left him, and made immediately for the
shore. From what was seen in the possession of these people, there can be
no doubt that their land produces cocoa-nuts, bread-fruit, bananas, and
most other vegetables of the Society and Friendly Isles. Nor was it
without the greatest regret that Lieutenant Shortland declined the
invitations of the natives, and proceeded without touching for
refreshments, which doubtless might have been obtained in plenty; but the
length and uncertainty of his passage seemed to forbid the least delay;
nor was it at this time foreseen how much superior to every other
consideration the acquirement of a wholesome change of diet would be
found. The bay from which these men had come he named Indian Bay. At
three P. M. the longitude was, by lunar observation, 156° 55' east; and
at six the furthest land in sight bore north, Cape Satisfaction east by
south half east, and the body of the land north-east, distant five or six
leagues. The furthest point of land north was named Cape Middleton.

7 August 1788

After lying to in the night, the ships made sail again at four in the
morning of August 7th, and bore away to the north by west. At five, they
saw the land which they had left the preceding night, and six or more
small islands bearing from north-east to west. These were called the
Treasury Isles; they are moderately high and seemed to be well clothed
with trees and herbage. At noon, the latitude was by observation 7° 24'
south, the longitude 156° 30' east; and the north-west extremity of the
land then in sight, which was named Cape Allen, bore east by south,
distant six leagues: Cape Middleton, south-east, distant eight leagues.
Off Cape Allen lies a small island, to which the name of Wallis Island
was given. At six in the afternoon the extremes of the islands in sight
bore from north-east by east to west by north; and the entrance between
two islands, which formed a passage or strait, bore north by east,
distant five or six leagues.

The Alexander and the Friendship had now run from the latitude of 10° 44'
south, and longitude 161° 30' east, to the latitude of 7° 10' south, and
longitude 156° 50' east, the whole way nearly in sight of land. As,
therefore, proceeding westward, to the south of the next land, might have
entangled them with New Guinea, Lieutenant Shortland determined to try
the passage which was now before him; and being very well convinced,
before it was dark, that the way was clear, kept under a commanding sail
all night. At ten o'clock in the evening, the Alexander was nearly
a-breast of the two points that form the passage, and the soundings were
very irregular, from ten to thirty fathoms, on a soft, sandy bottom: the
anchors were therefore cleared, that they might immediately be dropped if
it should prove necessary.

8 August 1788

At two in the morning of August the 8th, a strong ripple of a current
was very plainly to be perceived; and by five the ship had nearly
cleared the straits. She had then the following bearings: Cape
Alexander, south-east; some islands and rocks that lie off the most
western island of those which form the straits, west by south; and
the remotest point in sight to the north-westward, north-west by
north, distant fourteen or fifteen leagues. This point is remarkably high
and forms the centre of a large body of land, between the first and last
point of the straits on the western side, which were called Cape
Friendship, and Cape Le Cras.

These straits Lieutenant Shortland judged to be between four and five
leagues in length, and about seven or eight miles broad, running in a
north-west direction; and, conceiving himself to be the first navigator
who had sailed through them, he ventured to give them the name of
Shortland's Straits. On comparing his account with the narrative of M.
Bougainville, which he had not then by him, there seems to be reason to
suspect that this is the same passage through which that navigator sailed
at the latter end of June, 1768; and that the island supposed to be
called Simboo, is the same which was then named Choiseul Island. To
corroborate this suspicion, M. Bougainville's description of the canoes
and persons of the natives agrees entirely, as far as it goes, with that
given by Mr. Shortland*. A small difference in longitude affords the
chief reason for doubting the identity of the passage, which, should it
be proved, will not detract at all from the merit of the latter
navigator, who proceeded entirely by his own attention and sagacity, in a
sea unknown to himself and those who were with him, which, if not wholly
unexplored, had not, however, been surveyed before with equal minuteness
of observation.

[* Some of the vessels indeed were larger. "Il y avoit vingt-deux hommes
dans la plus grande, dans les moyennes, huit ont dix, deux ou trois dans
les plus petites. Ces pirogues paroissoient bien faites; elles ont
I'avant et I'amere fort relévés, etc. Ils portent des bracelets, et des
plaques au front et sur le col. J'ignore de quelle matiere, elle m'a paru
etre blanche." Boug. Chap. v. p. 264.]

Lieutenant Shortland now congratulated himself on having cleared this
large tract of land, which he had the greatest reason to suppose united
the whole way from the place at which he first fell in with it; as in
sailing at a very moderate distance from the coast, he had made every
effort in his power to find a passage to the northward. A place called by
one of the French navigators, Port Surville, is probably a part of it, as
well as Choiseul Bay, but the points seen and described by the French
discoverers are very few; and for the knowledge of the form and bearings
of the rest of the coast, throughout the whole extent of near three
degrees of latitude, and full five of longitude, we are indebted entirely
to the researches of our own countryman, as we are for the beautiful
delineation of the whole coast, to the care and ingenuity of his son, Mr.
John George Shortland. The only places in which Lieutenant Shortland
suspected there might possibly be a passage which had escaped his
observation, was between Cape Phillip and Cape Henslow, and again between
the capes Marsh and Pitt. The ascertaining of these matters he leaves to
other navigators, at the same time recommending the route he took as the
safest and most expeditious passage within his knowledge from Port
Jackson to China; Middleton Shoal, on the coast of New South Wales, being
the only place of danger he had hitherto discovered. Should any objection
be made to passing through a strait, where a more open sea can be
obtained, he would recommend the much wider channel between Egmont Island
and Simboo, and not by any means the whole circuit to the east of the New
Hebrides. To the whole of this land, consisting of the two principal
islands on each side of the straits, and the Treasury Isles between them,
Lieutenant Shortland gave the name of New Georgia. There is, indeed, an
island of Georgia, to the east of Staten Land, so named by Captain Cook
in 1775: but between these, it seems to be a sufficient distinction to
call the one the Isle of Georgia, and the other New Georgia. The land on
the western side of Shortland's Straits, continued to be very high, and
extended as far as the eye could reach; from these circumstances, and
from the direction in which it trended, no doubt was entertained of its
joining that which was called by Captain Carteret, Lord Anson's Isle.
With respect to the charts here given of these discoveries, Lieutenant
Shortland, though he cannot, from the distance at which they were taken,
presume to vouch for the laying down of every single point, as if the
coast had undergone a regular survey, undertakes to promise, that they
are sufficiently accurate for the direction of any future navigators; as
he had, in the course of his progress along it, many opportunities of
taking lunar observations.

9 August 1788

At six in the afternoon of Saturday, August 9th, the extreme point in
sight of the high land to the westward of the passage, bore south-west by
south, distant twelve or fourteen leagues: and two islands which the ship
had just made, bore north-west by north, distant five or six leagues.
They are supposed to lie in latitude 4° 50' south, and longitude 156° 11'
east. At day light on Sunday August 10th, Lieutenant Shortland set his
steering sails, and bore away to the north-west, in order to make more
distinctly the islands seen the preceding evening.

10 August 1788

At six in the morning, four were in sight, and bore south-west,
distant six leagues. It was at first thought that they would prove to
be the nine islands seen by Captain Carteret; but as neither the
number nor the longitude was found to correspond, Lieutenant Shortland
afterwards concluded they were not the same; and determined, as the
weather appeared squally and unsettled, not to attempt pursuing the
tract of that officer through St. George's Channel, but to go round
New Ireland.


Chapter XIX.

August 1788 to February 1789

Appearance of the scurvy--The boats land at one of the Pelew
Islands--Account of the Natives who were seen, and conjectures concerning
them--Distresses--The Friendship cleared and sunk--Miserable condition of
the Alexander when she reached Batavia.--Conclusion.

10 August 1788

Hitherto no difficulties had been encountered but such as necessarily
attend the exploring of new coasts, wherein the anxiety is fully
compensated by the satisfaction of becoming a discoverer: but a dreadful
scourge now hung over our navigators, the severity of which cannot easily
be conceived, even by those who have been placed in similar scenes, so
much did it exceed in degree every thing of the same kind that has been
usually experienced. It was about this time, the 10th of August, that the
scurvy began to make its appearance, which, for want of the proper
remedies, increased to a malignity that was destructive of many lives,
rendered it necessary to sacrifice one of the ships, and finally reduced
the consolidated crews of both in the remaining transport to such a state
of weakness, that without immediate assistance they must have perished
even in port, or would have been driven adrift again, from total
inability to take the necessary steps for their own preservation.

13 August 1788

On the thirteenth of August, five seamen of the Alexander were already on
the sick list, complaining of pains in the legs and breast, with their gums
so swelled, and their teeth so loose that they could not without
difficulty eat even flour or rice. The weather was now very variable,
often sultry, at other times squally, with occasional showers. The ships
were probably at no great distance from some land, as birds were
frequently seen in great numbers; and on the 16th the Friendship made the
signal for seeing land, but it could not be descried from the Alexander.
Sharks were also caught with the hook, and now and then some floating
wood and vegetables were observed. On this day the two transports passed
the equator. On the 24th, Lieutenant Shortland found by observation, that
a current had set the ship to the west north-west or north-west by west
of her account, at the rate of eleven miles a day since the 13th, when
the last lunar observation had been taken.

The scurvy gained ground rapidly in the Alexander, notwithstanding the
precautions of smoking the ship, washing with vinegar, and distributing
porter, spruce-beer, and wine among the seamen. On the 2d of September
six men and a boy, on the 5th eight, and on the 8th ten, were disabled by
it from performing any duty. An increase of this kind, in the midst of
all the efforts that could be made to counteract the malignity of the
disorder, gave but too certain a prognostic of the ravages it was
afterwards to make.

10 September 1788

About noon on the 10th of September, the looming of land was discerned to
the westward, which an hour after was clearly perceived, bearing west
north-west, at the distance of six leagues. As the ships were then in
latitude about 6° 49' north, and longitude 135° 25' east, it is evident
that this must have been one of the Pelew Islands, lately so much
celebrated for their hospitable reception of Captain Wilson and his crew.
As the account of that voyage was not then published, and Lieutenant
Shortland had no charts with him that noticed these islands, he concluded
that he was among the most southern of the New Carolines; but finding his
longitude, from accurate observation, to be more westerly than the
situation of those islands, he conceived their longitude to be laid down
in the charts erroneously.

11 September 1788

At six in the morning, September 11th, a small island not seen before,
bore west south-west, distant five leagues; and the wind coming round
to the south south-west, Lieutenant Shortland bore away for the passage
between the two islands. At nine, having entered the passage, he
founded and found thirteen fathoms, with a fine sandy bottom, and a
strong current setting through very rapidly. Many cocoa-palms were
seen on the shore, and excited an earnest expectation of procuring
effectual refreshment for the sick: a boat from each of the ships was
therefore manned and sent out. While the boats were sounding a-head, many
Indians approached in their canoes, and by signs invited our people to
shore, giving them to understand that they might be supplied with cocoa
nuts and many other things; but when they attempted to land at a place
which had the appearance of a Morai or burying-place, they would not
suffer it, insisting that they should proceed further one way or the
other. In the mean time many persons of both sexes swam off from shore,
holding up bamboos* full of water, which they imagined the ships to want.
Mr. Sinclair, the Master of the Alexander, being in the boat, brought the
following account of this expedition. "Finding I could not make them
understand that I wanted cocoa-nuts, and not water, I was resolved to
land, and therefore put on shore as soon as I found a convenient place,
amidst a concourse of between three and four hundred people. I
immediately fixed upon an old man, (whom, from an ornament of bone upon
his arm, I concluded to be a chief) and made him a present of some nails
and beads, which were accepted with evident pleasure, and immediately
conciliated his friendship. This was a fortunate step, as he afterwards
often showed his authority by checking the most insolent of his people
when they pressed forward and endeavoured to steal whatever they could
seize. One seaman holding his cutlass rather carelessly had it snatched
from him, and the thief had so well watched his opportunity, that he was
almost out of sight before he was distinguished. Notwithstanding the
offers of the natives in the canoes, I could not procure above thirty
cocoanuts, and those green; whether it was that the people did not
comprehend my signs, or that they were not inclined to carry on the
traffic. These islanders were well limbed men, moderately tall, with long
hair: many of them chewed the betel nut, and these were all furnished
with a small hollow stick, apparently of ebony, out of which they struck
a kind of powder like lime* Their arms were a lance, and a kind of adze
hung over the shoulder; some men carrying one, and others two. These
adzes were of iron, and evidently of European manufacture. As the place
where we landed was very rocky and unpleasant for walking, when I found
myself unsuccessful in the chief object for which I was sent out, I
returned as expeditiously as I could. In return for my presents, the old
chief gave one to me which was not equally acceptable. It was a mixture
of fish, yams, and many other things, the odour of which, probably from
the staleness of the composition, was very far from being agreeable. When
we first landed, many of the natives repeated the word, Englees, as if to
enquire whether we were of that nation, but when they understood that we
were they shook their heads and said, Espagnol: possibly, therefore, the
discovery of our nation might prevent them from being as courteous on
shore as they had been in their canoes."

[* Bamboos were the only water vessels in the Pelew Islands. See Wilson,
chap. xxv. p. 312.]

[* This was the Chinam, or coral, burnt to lime, always used with the
betel. See Wilson's Account, p. 27. The Areca is the nut, the leaves only
of betel are used. These are produced by different plants.]

From some of the above circumstances it is undeniably evident that these
people have had intercourse with Europeans, and probably with the
Spaniards; and from the aversion which they expressed to the English, it
seems not an unfair conjecture that this island might perhaps be
Artingall, where our countrymen had distinguished themselves five years
before by the assistance they gave to a hostile state*: but if so, their
knowledge of the Spaniards must have been posterior to the departure of
the English, who from the narrative must have been the first Europeans
seen there. Had the adventures of the Antelope's crew been then made
known to the world, Lieutenant Shortland would with joy have presented
himself before the beneficent Abba Thulle; and probably by obtaining a
stock of fresh provisions and vegetables might have preserved the lives
of many of his companions, and prevented the sufferings of the rest; but
he was not fortunate enough to know that so propitious a retreat was
within so small a distance.

[* It might, perhaps, be thought by some readers, that if this had been
the case they would now have endeavoured to take revenge, but we find
from Captain Wilson's narrative, that all animosity was dropped as soon
as peace had been established with the inhabitants of Pelew. See that
work, Chap. xvi. p. 192.]

23 September 1788

His people were doomed to find their distresses augmented instead of
diminished. Towards the latter end of September, agues and intermittent
fevers began to prevail among them; the proportion of those disabled by
the scurvy was constantly great, some deaths had happened, and the few
men who still had health enough to carry them with difficulty through the
necessary duty, were subject to the swelling of the legs, and harrassed
by violent pains in the breast. Hitherto the Friendship had been much
more happily circumstanced. On the 23d of September she was spoken to,
and had then only one man disabled by the scurvy: but this advantage was
of short duration, and the more rapid increase of the malady made a fatal
compensation for the greater delay of its commencement.

27 September 1788-19 October 1788

On the 27th of September, about noon, the Alexander made the land of
Mindanao. It bore from west by north to north-west by west, distant
fourteen leagues. Part of it was remarkably high, and at this distance
appeared like a separate island, but on a nearer approach was found to be
all connected. On the 30th, about four in the afternoon, Hummock Island
bore west by south, half south, distant six or seven leagues. In all this
sea a strong current constantly set the ship considerably to the south of
her reckoning. On the third of October the wind fell suddenly, and the
Alexander being in great danger of driving with the current upon the
shore of Karkalang or Sanguir Island, was obliged to drop her anchor,
which happily brought her up in forty fathoms water. In the evening of the
17th, the Friendship actually struck upon a reef on the coast of Borneo,
when the Alexander immediately cast anchor, and sent a boat to her
assistance; but at day light the next morning it appeared that she also
lay so encompassed with sand-keys and shoals, that it was difficult to
discern how she had sailed into that situation, or what track she must
pursue to be extricated from it. The Friendship, however, fortunately got
off from the reef without sustaining any material damage: and in the
morning of the nineteenth a narrow channel was found, through which the
Alexander with difficulty sailed out of her dangerous station. Attempts
had been made to weigh anchor the preceding day, but the wind failing,
the force of the currents prevented it. The ships were at this time not
more than eight leagues from the coast of Borneo.

The scurvy had now brought both the crews to a most pitiable situation.
The Alexander had lost eight of her complement, and was reduced to two
men in a watch, only four seamen and two boys being at all fit for duty:
and though these were willing to do their best, and further encouraged by
the promise of double wages when they should arrive at Batavia, their
utmost exertions were inadequate to the necessities of the ship, which
they were hardly able to put about; nor could they have weighed even a
small anchor had the currents obliged them to bring to again. The
Friendship had only five men not disabled, and was by no means well
provided with provisions. In this melancholy state of both ships, the
western monsoon being expected soon to set in, it was indispensably
necessary to give up one for the sake of preserving the other. Upon this
subject the masters consulted, and after some time came to an agreement.
As the Friendship was the smaller vessel, and would be cleared more
easily than the Alexander, having fewer stores on board, Mr. Walton, her
master, consented that she should be evacuated and sunk, on condition
that he should be allowed half freight of the Alexander. In four days the
Friendship had her crew and stores transferred to the Alexander, after
which she was bored and turned adrift. The ships company thus made out
from both vessels was of no great strength, not amounting to half the
proper complement of the Alexander, nor was it more than, allowing for
the further ravages of disease, was absolutely necessary to work that
ship to Batavia.

The following list contains the whole number of persons now on board the
Alexander.

BELONGING TO THE ALEXANDER.

In Health.

Lieutenant Shortland, Commander.
Duncan Sinclair, Master.
W. A. Long, first Mate.
T. G. Shortland, second ditto.
John Winter, Seamen.
Ant. Hedley,
Edward Waters,
John Lewis,
Thomas Frazer, Boys.
John White

Sick.

Charles Clay, Seamen.
James Stockell,
Robert Ranson,
William Dixon, Boy.

FROM THE FRIENDSHIP.

Well.

Francis Walton, Master.
Robert Laurence, first Mate.
J. Walton, second Mate.
Robert Barnes, Boatswain.
William Hern, Steward.
William Bruce, Cook.
James Craven, Seamen.
William Allen


Sick.

John Philpot, Corp.
Corn. Du Heg, Seamen.
R. Smith,
Robert George,
Rich. Sandell,
John Morris,
Robert Cockran,
Lieutenant Collins, a passenger.

29 October 1788

On the 29th of October, at five in the morning, a land wind
springing up from the coast of Borneo, within six miles of which the
Alexander had lain at anchor, she got again under way, and at ten was
abreast of the point that forms the entrance into the harbour of
Pamanookan. At five in the afternoon Pulo Laoot bore from
south-south-west to south-west by south, distant twelve or fourteen
leagues; but the wind being now southerly, and the current strongly
against the vessel, she did not get round this island till November the
5th.

1 November 1788

Wine was constantly served in due proportions to the sick and well, but
neither that, nor any other remedy that could be tried amended the
condition of the people. Sickness continued to spread among them,
insomuch that in the beginning of November only one man besides the
officers was able to go aloft. A short alarm by no means added to the
comfort of their condition: on the first of this month four large boats,
three of which rowed eighteen oars, and the fourth not less than twelve
or fourteen, bore down upon the ship, apparently with hostile intentions.
When they approached within about a mile they lay to, as if to consult
with each other, and then continued to row and sail after the Alexander.
Lieutenant Shortland hoisted English colours, which one of the boats
answered by hoisting Dutch, and another Portugueze colours. They
continued in chase till five in the afternoon, and it was imagined that
their design was to board and seize the ship in the night. During the
pursuit the little strength that could be raised was put in motion, all
were stationed at their quarters, and the carronades and great guns put
in order. When these preparations were made, Lieutenant Shortland
determined to show his own resolution, and to try that of his assailants,
by firing a shot in a direct line over them. This was done accordingly,
and fully answered the intention, for they immediately desisted from the
pursuit, and made hastily for the shore.

Had the Alexander been at this time a very few days sail more distant
from Batavia, she must inevitably have been lost, not from any stress of
weather, or danger of coasts or shoals, but merely from inability to
conduct her into port, as every man on board must have been totally
disabled.

17 November 1788

On the 17th of November only one man was fit for work, besides the
officers; a very little longer continuance would have reduced her to
the condition of floating at the mercy of winds and waves, without any
possibility of assisting, impeding, or directing her course. At six that
evening, the wind being too scanty to carry her into the roads of
Batavia, an effort was made by all indiscriminately who were able to
work, and anchor was cast between the islands of Leyden and Alkmara; soon
after a gun was fired, and a signal made for assistance. At two in the
afternoon on the 18th, as no assistance arrived, the still greater effort
of weighing anchor was tried, and the task performed with the utmost
difficulty; after which, standing in with the sea breeze, the ship came
again to anchor at five, in nine fathoms. The boat was now hoisted out,
and sent to beg assistance from the Dutch Commodore, the crew of the
Alexander being so much reduced as to be unable to furl their own sails.
A party was immediately sent to assist, and six of the Dutch seamen
remained on board all night, lest any blowing weather should come on.
Never, perhaps, did any ship arrive in port more helpless, without being
shattered by weather, from the mere effects of a dreadful and invincible
disorder.

19 November 1788-7 December 1788

At five in the morning of the 19th, the welcome sight appeared of a boat
from the Dutch Commodore, which he had humanely laded with refreshments.
She brought also a boatswain's mate and twelve seamen to assist in
refitting the ship for sea. The sick were sent on the 20th to the
hospital, where several of them died, being too far gone for any
accommodation or skill to recover. From the Bridgewater and Contractor
East Indiamen, which lay in the road when the Alexander arrived; and from
the Raymond, Asia, and Duke of Montrose, which came in a few days after;
with the assistance of a few men from the Dutch Commodore, a fresh crew
was at length made up, in which only four of the original seamen
remained, the rest being either dead, or not enough recovered to return
with the Alexander, when she sailed again on the 7th of December.

18 February 1789

The remaining part of the voyage was attended with few circumstances
worthy of notice, and was made in a track sufficiently known to all
navigators to permit us to dispense with a minute description of it. At
the Cape they met with Captain Hunter, in the Sirius, who, when the
Alexander arrived, on the 18th of February, 1789, had been in Table Bay
six weeks. From him Lieutenant Shortland learned that the Borrowdale and
the Prince of Wales transports, which had parted from him on the coast of
New South Wales, had returned by the southern passage, and had been heard
of from Rio de Janeiro. In Table Bay the Alexander remained at anchor
till the 16th of March, when she sailed again, and arrived off the Isle
of Wight on the 28th of May.

Thus concluded a voyage, the first part of which was enlivened and
rendered important by discoveries; the next involved in gloom through the
virulent attacks of distemper, and the frequent inroads of death. Much
was certainly performed, and very much was suffered, but from the whole
we are authorized to conclude, that the settlement of our countrymen on
the new southern continent, must powerfully tend to the improvement of
navigation, and the extension of geographical knowledge. Nor is it
necessary, that any ill-omened apprehensions should be excited by the
misfortunes of the Alexander and the Friendship. It may not happen again
that ships shall quit Port Jackson so ill prepared with antidotes against
the malignant poison of the scurvy: nor, if they should, is it by any
means certain that their visitation will be equally severe.

LATITUDES and LONGITUDES of CAPES, HEADLANDS, ISLANDS, and SHOALS,
according to the Track of the ALEXANDER, under the Directions of
Lieutenant JOHN SHORTLAND, Agent for Transports.

[Table not included in this ebook]


Chapter XX.

Lieutenant Watts's Narrative of the Return of the Lady Penrhyn Transport;
containing an Account of the Death of Omai, and other interesting
Particulars at Otaheite.

5 May 1788-17 May 1788

The Lady Penrhyn, Capt. Sever, left Port Jackson on the 5th of May, 1788.
In the evening of the 7th, imagining they saw a fire on shore, they
sounded, but found no bottom with ninety fathoms of line. By their
observation at noon, on the 9th, they found a current had set the vessel
eighty miles to the southward since their leaving Port Jackson. The
scurvy began already to make its appearance amongst them; one man was
rendered unfit for duty, and several others complained very much. The
weather in general was squally, with thunder, lightning, and rain. In the
morning of the 14th they saw an island bearing north-east, half north, 18
or 20 leagues distant, which made in two detached hummocks: At seven in
the afternoon, the island seen in the morning was about nine leagues
distant, on which they brought to for the night, and next morning made
sail and stood for it. At noon they spoke to the Supply, Lieutenant Ball,
who informed them that this island is named Lord Howe's Island. During
the afternoon and night they stood off and on, and at nine o'clock the
next morning a boat was hoisted out, and Lieutenant Watts with a party
went on shore in search of turtle, but they could distinguish no traces
of any, though the different bays were very closely explored: about noon,
Mr. Watts returned on board. This disappointment did not deter them from
making another effort, as some turtle would have been a very valuable
acquisition: accordingly Mr. Anstis went with a party in the pinnace to
try his success in the night. About noon the next day Mr. Anstis returned
without having seen one turtle, but to make some amends, the party had
met with great success in fishing, having caught a sufficient quantity to
serve the ship's company three or four days.

Lord Howe's Island was discovered by Lieutenant Ball on his passage to
Norfolk Island in the month of February, and on his return he stopt and
surveyed it; at that time he caught a quantity of fine green turtles, of
which there were great numbers: this induced Governor Phillip to send the
Supply a second time to this island, but she then was unsuccessful, the
weather probably being so cold as to occasion the turtle to remove to the
northward. The island is about two leagues in extent, and lies in the
direction of north 30° west, and south 30° east; the south-east end
making in two very high mounts, which may be seen at the distance of more
than twenty leagues, and at first appear like two detached isles. About
three leagues from these, and nearly in a south-east direction, is a
remarkably high and pointed rock,* which may be seen at least twelve
leagues off; from this there are dangerous rocks extending three or four
miles, both in a south-east and south-west line; those to the south-west
not shewing themselves above water: there are also rocks extending four
or five miles off the north-west and north-east ends of the island, which
is of a moderate height. Both extremes are bluff, and there appears to be
much foul ground about them: within the north-west point lies a rock with
eleven fathoms water close to it, and there is a passage between it and
the island. The reef on the west side extends nearly to both extremes
with breaks in it, through which boats may pass with safety, but within
the reef it is in general very shoaly. The island is tolerably broad at
each end, and very narrow, with low land in the center, forming two bays,
that should the wind be from south-east to north-east, or south-west to
north-west, a ship may always be secure by running to the leeward of the
island. There are regular soundings on the west side, but the ground is
too hard for holding well, being coral rocks. The east side they did not
examine. The low narrow part has evidently been overflowed and the island
disjointed, for in the very center, as they walked across, they saw large
beds of coral rocks, and shells in great abundance; and on the east side,
which seems in general to be the weather side, the sea has thrown up a
bank of sand, from twenty-five to thirty feet in height, which serves as
a barrier against future inundations. The island has likewise every
appearance of having undergone a volcanic revolution, as they found great
quantities of burnt stone and pumice stone; and Mr. Anstis, who landed on
the reef which shelters the west bay, at dead low water, found the whole
a burnt up mass.

[* Ball's Pyramid.]

The inhabitants of this island were all of the feathered tribe, and the
chief of these was the ganet, of which there were prodigious numbers, and
it should seem that this is the time of their incubation, the females
being all on their nests: these are places simply hollowed in the sand,
there not being a single quadruped that could be found upon the island to
disturb them. The people brought numbers of their eggs on board. Very
large pigeons were also met with in great plenty; likewise beautiful
parrots and parroquets; a new species, apparently, of the coote, and also
of the rail, and magpie; and a most beautiful small bird, brown, with a
yellow breast and yellow on the wing; it seemed to be a species of
humming bird: there was also a black bird, like a sheerwater, with a
hooked bill, which burrows in the ground. Numbers of ants were seen,
which appeared the only insect at this place, except the common earth
worm. The soil is of a sandy nature, and fresh water extremely scarce in
those places which they had an opportunity of examining.

This island is well covered with wood, the chief of which is the large
and dwarf mangrove, the bamboo, and the cabbage tree. The different
vegetables met with were scurvy grass, wild celery, spinach, endive, and
samphire.

31 May 1788

From the mean of all their observations they found this island to be
situated in 31°. 30'. 49". south latitude, and by comparing their lunar
observations with those of Lieutenant Ball, they found its longitude to
be 159°. 10'. 00". east of Greenwich. The mean state of the thermometer,
during their short stay, was 66°. and the variation of the compass, by
many observations, was found to be 10°. east. In the afternoon the
pinnace was hoisted in, and they made sail to the eastward with a fresh
breeze at south-west. Nothing material occurred till the 31st, when about
three o'clock in the afternoon they saw two islands, one bearing
north-east, half east, seven leagues, and the other east by south, about
six leagues distant. Not having an opportunity of getting well in with
the land before night came on, they plied occasionally under an easy
sail, and at day-light next morning [1 June 1788] made sail and bore up for
it. On approaching the southernmost land, they found it to form two barren
isles, separated by a channel about a quarter of a mile over, and
apparently free from danger: the north island lies in a north half east
direction from these, and about five leagues distant. At noon, the body
of the north island bore north-east by north three miles distant: their
latitude at that time was 30°. 11'. south, and the longitude by lunar
observation 180°. 58'. 37". east. At one o'clock they bore round the west
end of the island, and hove to near the center of it, about a mile off
shore. They were in hopes, from the appearance of the island at a
distance, that they should have found it productive of something
beneficial to the people, (the scurvy gaining ground daily) but they were
greatly disappointed; both the north and south sides are surrounded by
rocks, over which the water flows, without the least opening for a boat;
however, Capt. Sever ordered the small boat to be hoisted out, and went
on shore accompanied by Mr. Anstis: they found great difficulty in
landing, and, when upon the rocks, they had to mount a very dangerous
precipice, in order to gain the level part of the island. This island
forms very high at the west end, and slopes gradually to the east end,
where it terminates in a cliff of a moderate height: both sides have a
range of these cliffs extending the whole length, which are chiefly
composed of white sand. The whole of the island bears the strongest marks
of being a volcanic production, having great quantities of pumice stone
on it, and the rocks quite burnt up. The top of the land was covered with
a coarse kind of grass, and the place affords great plenty of the wild
mangrove. The extent of this island is about two miles and an half,
nearly in the direction of east-south-east and west-north-west; the soil
a mixture of mould and sand. The inhabitants are the brown gull, the
light-grey bird, ganets, and a parroquet of the same species with those
met with at Lord Howe's Island. The gentlemen could scarcely walk a step
without being up to the knee in holes: they saw a great number of rats
and mice, and found many birds lying dead at the entrances of their
burrows: they saw no appearance of fresh water, though from the gullies
that were formed in various parts, the island must certainly be subject
to very heavy rains. This island was named Macaulay's Island, after G. M.
Macaulay, Esq; and the two islands to the southward, Curtis's Isles,
after Timothy and William Curtis, Esqrs. At five in the afternoon, the
Captain returning on board, the boat was hoisted in, and they made sail,
standing to the eastward with a moderate breeze at south-west. Macaulay's
Island is situated in 30°. 09'. south latitude, and 180°. 58'. 37''.
east longitude.

6 June 1788-10 July 1788

The scurvy now began to spread very fast among the crew, and by the 6th,
they had nine men unable to get out of their hammocks, and many others
complained very much: swelled gums, the flesh exceeding black and hard, a
contraction of the sinews, with a total debility; were the general
appearances. Wine was daily served out to them, and there was sour-krout
on on board, but the people refused to eat it. From this to the 17th they
had little variety; by that time the people were in a deplorable state,
for with every person on board, the Captain included, they could only
muster ten men able to do duty, and some of them were in a very weakly
state: sour-krout, which before had been refused, now began to be sought
after, and they had all the Captain's fresh stock, himself and officers
living solely on salt provisions; and to add to their melancholy
situation the wind hung almost constantly in the eastern board, so that
they could scarcely make any progress. For several days they had very
squally unsettled weather, attended with almost constant heavy rain, and
frequent storms of thunder and lightning. On the 24th, being then in 32°.
12'. south latitude, and 207°. 28'. east longitude, the wind shifted to
the westward, but the weather still continued squally and unsettled. On
the 7th July, in 21°. 57'. south latitude, they fell in with the
south-east trade wind, and as the people were in a very weak condition,
it was determined to make Otaheite as soon as possible. At six o'clock in
the morning of the 9th, they saw Osnaburgh Island, bearing north by east,
half east, four or five leagues distant. At seven they bore up for
Otaheite, and at ten o'clock that island made its appearance, bearing
west by north; by five in the afternoon they were abreast of Oaitepeha
Bay, and ten canoes presently came alongside with bread-fruit, cocoa
nuts, etc. The Indians pressed them very much to come to an anchor there,
but as they were not able to purchase their anchor again when once let
go, Mr. Watts advised the Captain to stand on for Matavai Bay. During the
night they wore occasionally, and at day-light in the morning of the 10th
stood in for the land. At noon, Point Venus bore south-west by south
about three miles distant. In standing into Matavai Bay the ship got
rather too close on the Dolphin Bank, having only two and a half fathoms
water for several casts, over a hard bottom, but she deepened at once to
seventeen fathoms, and they stood over to the south side of the bay, in
hopes by making a board, to fetch the Resolution's old birth, which would
have made the watering place very handy; but the ship missing stays, they
were obliged to let go the anchor, and content themselves in their
situation. They anchored at nine o'clock in eight fathoms water, over a
soft bottom, Point Venus bearing north-north-east, and One Tree Hill
south by east, half east, distant from shore about half a mile. On
approaching the bay, they could perceive a prodigious number of the
natives on Point Venus, and round the beach, and several canoes put off
from the shore, the Indians waving pieces of white cloth and making signs
for them to come into the bay. When anchored they had only three men in
one watch, and two in the other besides the mates, and two of these
ailing; the rest of the crew were in a truly deplorable state.

Their first care was naturally to procure some refreshments, and it was a
pleasing circumstance for them to see the natives flock round the ship,
calling out "Tayo Tayo," which signifies friends; and "Pabii no Tutti,"
Cook's ship; and bringing in very great plenty cocoa nuts, bread-fruit,
plantains and taro, and a fruit known by the name of the Otaheite apple;
they also brought some hogs and fowls. All the Indians appeared glad to
see them, and disposed of their various commodities on very moderate
terms, and indeed their whole behaviour indicated the most friendly
intentions. In the evening, the Chief of Matavai came on board, and in
him Lieutenant Watts recollected an old friend: the Chief was greatly
pleased to see Mr. Watts, as he was the only person in the ship who had
been here before, except the steward, who had been before the mast in the
Resolution; therefore, when Mona (which was the chief's name) saw his old
acquaintance, he explained to his companions who he was, and that he had
been with Capt. Cook, and they seemed very glad to have some of their old
visitors again. Mr. Watts learnt from Mona, that O'too was still living,
that he was always called Earee Tutti, and then was absent on a visit to
the eastward, but expected to return in four or five days: At the same
time, he said, messengers had been sent to acquaint him of the ship's
arrival. He also informed Mr. Watts, that Maheine, the chief of Eimeo, to
retaliate the mischief done him by Capt. Cook, had, after the departure
of the Resolution and Discovery from the islands, landed in the night at
Oparree, and destroyed all the animals and fowls he could lay hold of,
and that O'too was obliged to fly to the mountains. He likewise intimated
that the Attahooroo men joined Maheine in this business. Indeed, it
occurred to Mr. Watts, that when here in the Resolution, Toha, the chief
of that district, threatened something of the kind in a quarrel with
O'too, and probably smothered his resentment only for a time, fearful of
Capt. Cook revenging it, should it come to his knowledge.

11 July 1788

The next day, Oediddee agreeably surprised them with a visit on board:
he was greatly rejoiced to see them, and enquired after all his friends in
a very affectionate manner: He took great pleasure in recounting his route
in the Resolution, had treasured up in his memory the names of the several
places he had been at in her, nor had he forgot his English compliments.
He informed them that no ship had been at the islands since Capt. Cook:
therefore, they concealed his death, and Capt. Sever made Oediddee a
present, as coming from Capt. Cook. Oediddee confirmed the report of the
cattle, etc. being destroyed by Maheine, and likewise informed them that
Omai, and the two New Zealand boys had been dead a considerable time
through illness, and that one horse only was alive at Huaheine, but they
could not learn any further particulars from him.

13 July 1788

In the evening of the 13th, a messenger came on board with a present from
O'too of a small pig, a dog, and some white cloth, and intimated that he
would be at Matavai the next day. Early in the next morning but few
canoes came off to the ship, and the natives were observed assembling on
the shore in prodigious numbers: soon afterwards, a canoe came alongside
and informed them that O'too was on the beach; on this, the Captain and
Mr. Watts went on shore immediately, and found him surrounded by an
amazing concourse of people, amongst whom were several women cutting
their foreheads very much with the shark's tooth, but what both surprised
and pleased them very much, was, to see a man carrying the portrait of
Captain Cook, drawn by Webber in 1777. Notwithstanding so much time had
elapsed since the picture was drawn, it had received no injury, and they
were informed that O'too always carried it with him wherever he went.
After the first salutations were over, Mr. Watts asked O'too to accompany
him to the ship, to which he readily agreed; but previously to his
entering the boat he ordered the portrait in, and when he got alongside
the ship he observed the same ceremony. When on board he appeared much
pleased, asked after his old friends, and was very particular in his
enquiries after Capt. Cook. He visited the ship between decks, was
astonished to see so few people on board, and the greatest part of them
in a debilitated state, and enquired if they had lost any men at sea. He
acquainted them with the revenge taken by the Eimeo people, and asked why
they had not brought out some cattle, etc. He also mentioned the death of
Omai, and the New Zealand boys, and added, that there had been a skirmish
between the men of Uliatea and those of Huaheine, in which the former
were victorious, and that a great part of Omai's property was carried to
Uliatea. O'too was considerably improved in his person, and was by much
the best made man of any that they saw; nor was he, as yet, disfigured by
the baneful effects of the ava. He preserved his original character in
supplying the ship with provisions of every kind in the most liberal
manner; and when any of the natives who had come from a considerable
distance, begged his intercession with them on board to take their hogs,
etc. off their hands, which, on account of the few people they had, they
were often obliged, much against their inclination, to refuse, he was
very moderate: indeed, he generally left the matter to themselves, and
whenever he undertook to dispose of another person's property was always
well paid for his trouble. During their stay at Otaheite he daily paid
them a visit, and importuned the Captain very much to move the ship into
the Resolution's old birth: where she then lay, she was nearly in the
situation of the Dolphin on her first anchoring; and though at some
distance from the watering place, yet, considering the small number of
people on board, and their weak situation, the Captain judged it prudent
to remain where he was, as in case of necessity he could put to sea
instantly.

O'too was always accompanied by a woman, whose advice he asked upon every
occasion; she was by no means handsome, neither did she possess that
delicacy, or those engaging manners that so much distinguish her
countrywomen in general: she was of the Earree class, and seemed to have
great authority; but whether or no she was his wife they did not learn,
though Mr. Watts was rather inclined to think they were married, and he
appeared to be greatly attached to her. The king and all the chiefs were
very urgent for Captain Sever to go to Eimeo, and revenge their quarrel,
and several of them offered to get a stock of provisions and accompany
him; however, to this request he gave a positive refusal. About three
days before they quitted Matavai Bay, O'too brought the ring of an anchor
on board, observing it might be made into small hatchets: Mr. Watts upon
examining it, recollected that it certainly belonged to an anchor which
Captain Cook bought of Opooni, at Bola Bola, in 1777: as there was no
forge on board the Lady Penrhyn, the Captain offered O'too three hatchets
for it, which he readily took. When Captain Cook bought the anchor just
mentioned it wanted the ring and one of the palms, and at that time they
knew that it had been carried from Otaheite, and belonged to Mons.
Bougainville: how O'too came by the ring, Mr. Watts could not learn, but
had he possessed it when the Resolution was here, it is reasonable to
suppose he would have brought it to Captain Cook, and the more so as at
that time the natives used to bring many large pieces of iron (which they
had obtained from the Spaniards) to be either worked up or exchanged for
trinkets. Though from the season of the year they had reason to expect a
scarcity of vegetables, yet they were agreably surprised to find them in
the greatest plenty and profusion; hogs were multiplied amazingly, and
from the proceedings of the natives, Mr. Watts was induced to think they
were desirous to thin them, as they brought none to barter but sows, and
the greatest part of them were with pig: fowls were obtained in tolerable
plenty, but they were all cocks, and old; the natives likewise brought
goats alongside for sale, and some of them brought cats and offered them
in barter. Captain Sever purchased a fine male and milch goat with two
kids.

Cocoa nuts are a never failing article at this place, and the
bread-fruit, which was so scarce when the Endeavour was here at the same
season of the year, was now exceedingly plentiful, and in high
perfection, as was the Otaheite apple; plantains, both ripe and green,
and taro, the natives brought in great quantities, but yams and sweet
potatoes were very scarce. They purchased seven or eight dozen of
pumkins, and a quantity of chilipods, which were some of the produce of
the Resolution's garden, and one of the Indians brought some cabbage
leaves on board, but the cabbages, as well as sundry other vegetables,
were gone to ruin for want of proper care and attention. The natives
could not be enticed to eat any of the pumkins, and the chilipods they
said poisoned them.

It already has been observed, that no ship of any nation had visited this
island since Captain Cook, and from appearances, the iron which the
natives obtained at that time was pretty well exhausted, as the only iron
now seen was the blade of a table-knife; neither did they bring any tools
on board to be sharpened, which certainly would have been the case had
they been possessed of any, and such was their avidity to obtain
hatchets, knives, etc. that every produce the island afforded was
purchased at very reasonable rates, nor were the first prices given,
attempted to be altered during their stay. Besides hatchets, knives, and
nails, the natives were very desirous to have gimlets, files, and
scissars; they also asked for looking-glasses, and white transparent
beads, but of these latter articles they had none on board: red feathers,
which had formerly been held in great esteem, were now of no value; they
would accept them as presents indeed, but would not barter any one
article for them.

As their situation was not a very eligible one, Mr. Watts did not think
it prudent to go any great distance from the ship, or even to be much on
shore, so that he was prevented from gaining much information, or seeing
into many matters that might have enabled him to judge whether the whole
of their report respecting Omai, and the loss of his property, etc. was
true or not; however, he was inclined to think that the cattle and all
the animals were killed, except goats, as Oediddee, when he confirmed the
revenge of the Eimeo people, never mentioned that any one animal was
saved: goats, indeed, had been left on former voyages, and from increase
had become the property of many, but Maheine's resentment, it seems, was
levelled at O'too only.

23 July 1788

Great numbers of the natives had been carried off by the
venereal disease, which they had caught from their connections with the
crews of the Resolution and Discovery; nor were the women so free from
this complaint as formerly, especially the lowest class, the better sort
seemingly not wishing to hazard the catching so terrible a disorder. The
people having recovered in a most astonishing manner, and being now able
to assist in the duties of the ship, Captain Sever thought it adviseable
to run down amongst the Society Isles, as they had got a plentiful supply
of provisions on board; accordingly, they got under way before daylight
in the morning of the 23d. The natives soon took the alarm, and the
breeze slackening, they were soon crowded with visitors, none of whom
came empty handed. Their friends parted from them with great reluctance,
and the suddenness of their departure seemed to disappoint the natives
greatly; indeed, they would not have left the place so abruptly, had they
not been apprehensive that if their intention was known, the Indians
would have flocked on board in too great numbers, and have been
troublesome. They had the satisfaction of leaving this Island in perfect
amity with the natives, and it is but doing them justice to say, that
during the time the Lady Penrhyn lay here, not one occasion offered to
induce them to fire a musquet. Oediddee regretted their departure
exceedingly, and importuned the Captain very much to take him to Uliatea,
but O'too (whatever were his reasons) begged that he might by no means be
taken from Otaheite; the Captain promised he should not, and taking leave
of Oediddee, put him into his canoe, on which he shed tears in abundance,
said he was very unhappy, and when he put from the ship never once turned
to look at her: his situation was much to be pitied, and he truly merited
every friendship that could be shown him; during the time they lay here,
he was a constant visitor, and daily brought on board a supply of ready
drest provisions. O'too was one of the earliest on board in the morning,
and did not leave the ship till they had cleared the reef; he expressed
great sorrow at their departure, mentioned how much time had elapsed
since the Resolution and Discovery were at Otaheite, begged they would
not be so long absent any more, and desired very much to have some horses
brought to him, more particularly than any other animal: just before he
quitted the ship, he asked for a few guns to be fired, with which the
Captain complied. A breeze now springing up, their friends took a last
farewell, and they stood to the north-west for Huaheine; at noon, Point
Venus was about five miles distant.

It may, perhaps, be lamented, that Lieutenant Watts (whose acquaintance
with the Chiefs, and knowledge of their language, rendered him a proper
person to make enquiries) should not have been able to give a more full
account of matters, at an island that has so much engaged the public
notice; but, when the short stay of the ship, and her situation are
considered, it will be natural to imagine, that the officers found their
time very fully employed: such particulars, however, as have been above
related may be depended on as facts.

25 July 1788

At noon on the 25th, they saw the island, Huaheine, bearing west
three-quarters north, fourteen leagues distant: from this time they had
very light winds, and those westerly, which prevented their reaching the
island before noon on the 26th; when the extremes of it bore from west
half north to south by west half west, off shore three miles. They kept
standing off and on, on the east side (the wind continuing in the western
board) till the 29th, during which time the natives brought off plenty of
refreshments, but they were far more exorbitant in their demands than
their neighbours.

29 July 1788

In the morning of the 29th, the wind veering to the south south-east,
they stood round the north end of the island, and brought to off Owharree
harbour; the natives appeared perfectly friendly, and constantly supplied
them with every article except bread-fruit, which they said had failed
that season: they were very importunate for them to go into the harbour,
but as Captain Sever did not intend to stay more than a day or two, he
did not think it worth the trouble.

In the evening, an elderly chief, who went by the name of Tutti, and whom
Mr. Watts recollected to have frequently seen with Captain Cook, came on
board; he confirmed the reports they had heard at Otaheite, and told
them, that after Omai had got perfectly settled, he found himself under
the necessity of purchasing a great quantity of cloth, and other
necessaries, for himself and family, of which his neighbours took
advantage, and made him pay extravagantly for every article he purchased;
that he frequently visited Uliatea, and never went empty handed, so that
by these means he expended much of his treasure: he died at his own
house, as did the New Zealand boys, but in what order their deaths had
happened, Tutti could not give information. Upon Omai's decease, the
Uliatea men came over and attacked them for his property, alledging that
as he was a native of their island they had an undoubted right to it.
Tutti said they carried away a considerable part of his remaining
property, and particularly his musquets, the stocks of which they broke,
and took the powder and buried it in the sand: he added, that the
conflict had been very fierce, and that great numbers were slain on both
sides, nor were they friends even at this time. Three of the natives who
came on board, had the os frontis fractured in a terrible manner, but
they were then perfectly recovered of their wounds. The house that
Captain Cook had built for Omai was still in being, and was covered by a
very large one built after the country fashion; it was taken possession
of by the chief of the island. With respect to the horses, the mare had
foaled, but died soon afterwards, as did the foal, the horse was still
living though of no benefit: thus were rendered fruitless the benevolent
intentions of his Majesty, and all the pains and trouble Captain Cook had
been at in preserving the cattle, during a tedious passage to these
islands.

2 August 1788-24 August 1788

Having recruited their stock of provisions, and added a large quantity of
yams and sugar cane, and the wind coming to the eastward (which had not
been the case more than four or five days since their first anchoring in
Matavai Bay) they on the 2d of August took leave of their friends, and
stood to the northward until noon, when they steered north-west. They
carried away from these hospitable islands, sixty hogs, weighing from
seventy to two hundred and twenty pounds each, besides near fifty small
pigs, ten dozen of fowls, an immense quantity of cocoa-nuts, green
plantains, sugar cane, taro, and yams, and about eight dozen of pumkins;
the people were all perfectly recovered, and from the plentiful stock of
provisions on board there was reason to hope that they would not be any
more alarmed for their safety. At day light in the Morning of the 8th,
they saw a low flat island, bearing from east to north-east seven or
eight miles distant; it appeared to be well clothed with trees, but the
weather at that time being squally allowed them a very imperfect view.
Captain Sever named it Penrhyn's Island; it is situated in 9°. 10'. south
latitude, and 202°. 15'. east longitude. In the afternoon of the 20th,
the Captain and some others imagining they saw land, and the sun setting
in a fog-bank, which prevented them ascertaining the reality, they
shortened sail, and lay by for the night; but at five o'clock the next
morning no land being in sight, they made sail and stood to the
north-west by west, with a fine breeze at north-east. In the evening of
the 23d, being near the situation of an island and reef, as laid down in
Lord Anson's chart, they brought to for the night. A number of ganets and
other birds were flying about the next day, but no land appeared in
sight: their latitude at noon was 9° 30' north, and 179° 18' east
longitude.

15 September 1788

Nothing occured worthy of note till the 15th of September, when about
noon they saw the island of Saypan, bearing west half north, twelve
leagues distant. The next day at noon the south end of Tinian was about
four leagues distant: in the afternoon the small boat was hoisted out,
and Mr. Anstis went in her to sound a small bay round the south point of
Saypan; he returned at seven o'clock, having found from ten to twenty
fathoms water about a mile off shore, but the ground hard. The next
morning, Mr. Anstis went on shore in the small boat to endeavour to
procure a bullock, great numbers of which were seen grazing on the island
Tinian. At six in the afternoon, they stood round the south point of
Tinian, but finding they could not fetch into the road, they brought to
for the night. In the evening, Mr. Anstis returned with the best part of
a young bullock. The next morning at day light, they made sail and stood
in for the road, and at nine o'clock came to anchor in eighteen fathoms,
over a bottom of coral, about a mile and an half distant from shore. Soon
after they anchored, a party were sent on shore to hunt.

25 September 1788-29 September 1788

From this to the 25th, they had light winds varying from south to east,
with frequent showers over the land, and the flies so very troublesome
that they found Captain Byron's account of them perfectly just. On coming
to an anchor, they observed a buoy a little to the southward, with a slip
buoy to it, they swept for the anchor, weighed it, and found it belonged
to the Charlotte (Gilbert, master) one of the ships from Port Jackson
bound to China; there were two-thirds of a cable to it. The party on
shore also found some spars, apparently erected for a tent, and three
water casks, one of which was full: it is most likely the Charlotte was
blown out of the road, and could not regain her station again. Observing
that their anchor was foul, on the 25th they hove it up to clear, and let
it go again; presently afterwards, finding the ship adrift, they sounded,
and had twenty-five fathoms, but as she was at the edge of the bank, they
hove the anchor up, and made a stretch to the southward, but did not
again fetch the bay till the evening of the 26th. The two following days
they had dark heavy weather with very hard squalls, and almost continual
rain, the wind from north-east to south-east. At day light in the morning
of the 29th, the wind veered round to the south south-west, and soon
afterwards, a very severe squall, attended with heavy rain, set the ship
adrift, and the tide making strong to the north-west with a large hollow
sea, they veered the reef very fast; however, the squall something
abating, and fortunately backing round to the south south-east, they got
their anchor up (which they otherwise would not have been able to have
effected) and bore away to the north north-west. At noon the body of
Tinian bore east half south, about four leagues distant.

During their stay at Tinian, filling water took up the whole of their
time, the well not affording more than three tons a day, sometimes only
two tons: the water was rather brackish, but otherwise not ill tasted.
They found the fowls and hogs very shy, and the cattle had quite deserted
the south part of the island, owing, as was imagined, to the alarm the
Charlotte's people had occasioned among them.

They obtained two bulls, eight hogs, and about a dozen fowls; they also
got bread fruit, but it was at some distance up the country, and the
generality of it not ripe: there was abundance of guavas but they were
not in season; limes and sour oranges were also very plentiful. Cocoa-nut
trees were in abundance, but those within a moderate distance from the
beach were cut down, so that the distance they had to go for any was
attended with too much fatigue to compensate for the advantages which
could be derived from them, as they experienced from two or three
attempts of the kind: the season in general seemed very backward. In
addition to the animals of this place, they found wild cats, The country
had exactly the same appearance as when Captains Byron and Wallis visited
it, but many of the pyramidical pillars had fallen down and were much
decayed. The mean state of the thermometer during their stay, was 87°. In
their passage from hence to China, no material circumstance occurred, and
on the 19th of October they anchored in Macao Roads.


Chapter XXI.

May 1788 to September 1788

The Scarborough leaves Port Jackson--Touches at Lord Howe's Island--Joins
the Charlotte--Falls in with a large Shoal--Discover a number of
Islands--Short account of the Inhabitants--Canoes described--Ornaments--
Discover Lord Mulgrave's Islands--Arrival at Tinian--Sick people sent on
shore--Departure from Tinian--Arrival in Mocao Roads.

6 May 1788-22 May 1788

The Scarborough transport, Captain Marshall, left Port Jackson on the 6th
of May 1788, and proceeded towards China, being engaged to take in a
cargo of teas at Canton for the East India Company. For several days they
had very unsettled weather, with frequent squalls and heavy rain. In the
afternoon of the 16th, they saw Lord Howe's Island, bearing east by south
seven leagues distant; and the next day at noon, they found the Supply
brig, the Lady Penrhyn, and the Charlotte, standing off and on under the
island. By two o'clock the Scarborough was close in with the land, but
the weather not permitting them to go on shore, the night was spent in
standing off and on. Early the next morning, Captain Marshall sent his
boat with the chief mate and six men on shore at Lord Howe's Island, in
expectation of procuring some turtle, as the Supply, Lieutenant Ball, had
caught a large quantity at this island in February: however, they were
not able, after the most diligent search, to meet with any turtle; but
this excursion was not altogether a fruitless one, for they brought off a
quantity of fine birds, sufficient to serve the ship's crew three days;
many of them were very fat, somewhat resembling a Guinea hen, and proved
excellent food. Having procured such refreshments as the island afforded,
they made sail at four o'clock, with the Charlotte in company, and stood
to the eastward, with a moderate breeze at south-west. At eight o'clock
in the morning of the 22d, they saw Norfolk Island, bearing east by south
twelve leagues distant. At two o'clock, they were within one mile of the
land, and had soundings in sixteen fathoms water over a hard bottom: the
Charlotte being a considerable distance a-stern, Captain Marshall lay to
for her to come up, and when she joined the Scarborough he stood under an
easy sail to the distance of six leagues westward of the island, and
carried soundings from sixteen to twenty-five fathoms, the ground
various; in some places being soft, in other parts a corally bottom, and
sometimes coarse white sand, intermixed with broken shells.

26 May 1788

After leaving Norfolk Island, they stretched to the northward and
eastward, and at one o'clock on the twenty-sixth they saw a small island
bearing north north-east eight or nine leagues distant; when about four
miles from the island, they sounded with fifty fathoms of line, but got
no bottom. Towards evening, Captain Marshall was close in with the
island, and being desirous to examine it, he plied occasionally during
the night. At day light the next morning, he was close to the land, and
found it to be a barren rock, not more than half a mile over in the
broadest part; it is very high, and was entirely covered with birds of
various kinds, but there was no possibility of landing on account of a
frightful surf that entirely surrounded it. This rock was seen first by
Captain Gilbert, of the Charlotte, in the forenoon of the 26th, and named
by him, Matthew's Island; it is situated in 22° 22' south latitude, and
170° 41' longitude, east of Greenwich.

30 May 1788-13 June 1788

On the 30th, in 17° 13' south latitude, and 172° 43' east longitude, they
passed several large trees, and a number of cocoa-nuts floating in the
water, but no land was to be seen. Nothing occurred worthy of note till
the 4th of June, when the water appearing coloured, they sounded and
struck the ground in fifteen fathoms water, although no land was to be
seen: a man was then sent to the mast-head, who could plainly discern
that the shoal run to the westward, on which Captain Marshall altered his
course and stretched to the eastward, carrying soundings from fifteen to
thirty fathoms water, over a rocky bottom, and in many places they could
see the ground very distinctly. After running to the eastward, about
eight miles, they found no bottom with seventy fathoms of line, which
occasioned the Captain to tack and stand to the southward. Vast numbers
of birds of different kinds were flying to the westward of the shoal, so
that there probably is an island near that situation. The east part of
this shoal is situated in 173° 12' east longitude, and the south part of
it in 15° 50' south latitude, but how far it extends to the westward and
northward is very uncertain, though doubtless to a considerable distance,
as the water had a white appearance from the mast head as far as the eye
could reach. Being now entirely free from the shoal, they stood to the
northward, with a light easterly breeze, and moderate weather. On the
9th, in 7° 59' south latitude, the wind shifted to the westward and
continued in the western board till the 13th when it again changed to the
eastward.

18 June 1788

At six o'clock in the morning of the 18th they saw an island right
a-head, bearing north half west eight or nine miles distant: they sounded
when about six miles from the land, but got no bottom with sixty fathoms
of line; at this time Captain Marshall perceived several canoes with
their sails set, and two or three men in each canoe, coming towards the
ship, but they presently put back again and made for the shore. This
island is very low and level, and extends north-east, and south-west,
terminating at each end in a low, flat point, with an appearance of a
large bay in the middle; the Captain named it Hopper's Island; it is
situated in 00° 03' south latitude, and 173° 43' longitude east from
Greenwich.

At seven o'clock they saw another island smaller than the former, lying
about six miles to the south-west of Hopper's Island, and nearly the same
in appearance; this was named Henderville's Island. Towards noon, another
island made its appearance, which Captain Marshall named Woodle's Island,
situated three miles to the north-west of Henderville's Island. Five
large canoes with sails set put off from Woodle's Island, and came
towards the ship, but when about four miles distant, they turned back and
stood for the shore. The wind blowing off the land prevented them from
getting in with the shore, so as to enable them to give a particular
description of these islands; they seemed to abound with cocoa-nut, and a
variety of other trees. At three o'clock in the afternoon, the
Scarborough being within three miles of Henderville's Island, they
sounded with sixty fathoms of line, but got no ground. Several large
fires were lighted up on the shore, and the natives assembled in vast
numbers on the beach, many of them pointing at the ship with looks of
wonder and surprise; presently afterwards, nineteen canoes, with five or
six men in each, came off from the shore and made towards the ship, on
which Captain Marshall lay to, in hopes they would come along side;
several of them came within a quarter of a mile of the ship, and then
taking down their sails, they stopt to gaze at the vessel, but nothing
would induce them to come alongside; however, as more canoes were seen
coming from the island, Captain Marshall determined to lay to till they
all returned on shore, as there was a probability of his procuring some
refreshments from them: two of the last canoes made for the ship without
the least hesitation; on this, the Captain ordered his people out of
sight that the natives might not be intimidated. When the canoes were
close to the ship, the Indians began to talk, and made signs for them to
bring the ship nearer the island.

After talking with the natives some time, the Captain shewed them a few
small nails, a quart bottle, and a looking-glass, all of which they
seemed very desirous to obtain; however, they could not be prevailed on
to bring their canoes along-side, but three of them jumped out and swam
to the ship; a rope was given them to take hold of, but they could not be
persuaded to come on board. On receiving their little presents they
laughed very heartily, and by way of exchange gave the Captain some beads
and teeth of beasts or animals, which they wore about their necks as
ornaments: this circumstance serves to show that they have some idea of
barter.

After making signs a second time for them to bring the ship nearer the
island, they took their leave, and presently afterwards all the canoes
returning towards the shore, Captain Marshall made sail and stood to the
northward. The situation of these islands has already been mentioned,
they lie in nearly a north-west and south-east direction: Hopper's Island
appears to be about ten leagues in length, Henderville's Island six
leagues, and Woodle's Island the same.

It is to be lamented that Captain Marshall had not an opportunity of
surveying these islands more minutely, as there is scarcely a doubt of
their affording a variety of refreshments; for though nothing of the kind
was seen in the canoes, yet the natives were plump and fleshy, and seemed
to live at their ease: there is also an appearance of a most excellent
harbour at Hopper's Island.

The inhabitants seem to be a fine set of people; they are of a copper
colour, stout and well made; their hair is long and black, with black
eyes and eye brows, and they seem to have very fine teeth. The only
ornaments seen amongst them were necklaces made of beads intermixed with
teeth, and many of them had their faces painted white.

If we may judge of these people from the construction of their canoes,
they certainly possess a considerable share of contrivance and ingenuity:
many of them are large enough to contain sixteen or twenty people; they
are narrow, and built to sail very fast, yet there is not the least
danger of their oversetting, as they are steadied with an out-rigger
resembling a ladder on the weather side, to one end of which a log of
wood is fastened, cut sharp at each end in the form of a boat; this not
only serves to keep the canoe upright, but likewise holds her to
windward. At the other end of the out-rigger, a stout rope is fixed,
which leads up to the mast head and serves as a shroud; and when the wind
blows fresh, two or more men, according to the size of the canoe, go out
upon the ladder to keep her upright.

Though these canoes always sail on the same side, yet they are so
contrived as to sail one way as well as the other, and the Indians manage
them with such dexterity that they put about much sooner than our boats.
Every canoe has a sail, which in general is very large; they appear to be
made of raw-silk, neatly sewed together, and are cut in the form of our
shoulder of mutton sail, with a yard at the fore-leach, and another at
the foot, so that when they want to put their canoe about, they only have
to shift their tack and bring it to leeward of the mast: in short, from
what little Captain Marshall saw of these people, they appeared to be
lively, ingenious and expert.

20 June 1788

After quitting these new discovered Islands, Captain Marshall stood to
the northward, with a light breeze at east north-east, and at five
o'clock in the morning of the 20th, they saw an island bearing east
north-east, eight miles distant; it appeared very low, and almost level
with the water, so that when only four miles distant they could perceive
nothing but trees. When Captain Marshall got close in with the land, he
found it to be a chain of islands, extending from south-east to
north-west for the distance of more than thirty leagues. Having a
favourable breeze, they run along the islands about three miles from
shore, and several canoes with sails set, came after the ship, but none
of them would come near her. Great numbers of the natives presently
assembled on the beach, in order to gratify their curiosity in looking at
the ship; this induced Captain Marshall to lay to in expectation of the
natives coming along-side, but not one of them ventured near the ship: at
one time he had an intention of sending his boat on shore in order to
procure some refreshments, as many of his crew were laid up with the
scurvy; however, he prudently declined taking this step, as it certainly
would have been hazarding too much to have sent a few men amongst an
ignorant multitude, with whose temper and disposition they were perfectly
unacquainted.

The centre of these islands is situated in 1° 50' north latitude, 173°
00' east longitude. They are very low, and yet it is rather remarkable,
that on sounding, when not more than a mile from the land, there was no
bottom found with eighty fathoms of line. Within the islands there
appeared to be some fine harbours, and they probably afford a variety of
refreshments. The natives seemed to be nearly black, and their canoes
were constructed much in the same manner as those already described.

22 June 1788

There being no prospect of procuring any refreshments from these people,
Captain Marshall made sail, and at noon on the 22d they saw land in the
direction of north by east, eight miles distant; it appeared very low,
flat, and full of trees. By four o'clock, they were close in with the
southernmost land, and saw a great number of canoes sailing close to the
shore, some of which came towards the ship, and two of them very near,
but nothing would entice them to come along-side. The people appeared
much the same as those at Henderville's Island, and their canoes were of
a similar construction; one of them had a kind of vane at the mast head,
which appeared to be made of the same materials as their sail. In running
along shore, they found it to consist of six different islands, extending
from north by east to south by west, to the length of fourteen or fifteen
leagues; the centre of them is situated in 2° 58' north latitude, and
173° 00' east longitude. The southernmost island, Captain Marshall named
Allen's Island; the second, Gillespy's Island; the third, Touching's
Island; the fourth, Clarke's Island; the fifth, Smith's Island; and the
northernmost, Scarborough Island. They ran along these islands about
three miles distant from the land, and kept the lead constantly going,
but could get no bottom, which appeared rather extraordinary as the land
is very low. There appears to be good anchorage between these islands,
and the water very smooth, and they seem to abound with cocoa-nut and
cabbage trees. By the time they were abreast of Scarborough Island, it
grew so dark that they could not see the land; luckily, however, the
Indians lighted two very large fires which enabled them to get entirely
clear of all the islands.

23 June 1788

At six o'clock in the afternoon of the 23d, more land made its
appearance, bearing north to north-west, four leagues distant, but night
coming on, they tacked and stood to the southward.

24 June 1788

By two o'clock the next day, they were within two miles of the land, and
found it to be a chain of islands, extending from east to nearly west for
more than twenty-five leagues; and they perceived a reef from the
easternmost point of land, which ran at least three leagues into the sea.
The shore on the north-west side of these islands is bold and steep; the
Scarborough coasted along within a mile of the land, and frequently
sounded with an hundred fathoms of line, but could get no bottom; at the
same time they saw the water break near the shore, and a vast number of
the natives were collected on the beach. About three o'clock, a small
canoe with two men in her came off from the shore, on which Captain
Marshall hove to, in order to give them an opportunity of coming up with
the ship, but when they were about one hundred yards from the vessel,
they put back again as fast as possible, seemingly very much frightened:
these men had skins wrapped round their waists, and their hair was
ornamented with shells and beads. After they left the ship, Captain
Marshall made sail, being desirous to make the westward part of the
islands if possible before the night came on; but in this he was
disappointed, as the wind grew light and baffling. Several large canoes
now put off from the shore with eight or ten men in each; it already has
been observed that the Charlotte, Captain Gilbert, was in company with
the Scarborough; at this time she was some distance a-stern, and the
canoes all went along-side her; several of them went on board the
Charlotte, and ran fore and aft, stealing every thing that lay in their
way; one of them in particular, got hold of the pump-break, and attempted
to jump over-board with it, but was stopped by one of the sailors. They
appeared to be very civilized, and all of them had coverings round the
waist: their ornaments were necklaces made of beads, to which a cross was
suspended, in the same manner as those worn by the Spaniards.

25 June 1788-27 June 1788

Captain Marshall distinguished these islands by the name of Lord
Mulgrave's Islands, in honour of the Right Honourable Lord Mulgrave. The
southernmost of them is situated in 5° 58' north latitude, and 172° 3'
east longitude, and the northernmost in 6° 29' north latitude, and 171°
10' east longitude. At noon on the 25th, they got round the westernmost
island, and thought themselves entirely clear of them all, as the day was
very fair, and no land could be seen from the mast-head; at the same time
they had a long swell: on this, Captain Marshall stood on under an easy
sail during the night, but was very much surprised at daylight the next
morning to see land on the weather quarter, and a large island on the lee
quarter, between which they must have passed in the night, and certainly
very near that on their lee, though they sounded every half hour, but
never struck the ground. Lord Mulgrave's Islands abound with
cocoa-nut-trees, and they could perceive remnants of oranges and various
other sorts of fruit, although the natives offered nothing of the sort to
barter. These islanders had not any offensive weapons whatever, so that
they probably are on very friendly terms with each other. With a light
easterly breeze, they kept their course to the northward, and at noon on
the 27th, in 7° 25' north latitude, and 171° 10' east longitude, they saw
land bearing from north by east to north north-west. Having now a fresh
breeze, Captain Marshall run in with the land, and found it to be a
cluster of small islands lying east and west of each other, but no
appearance was seen of their being inhabited.

28 June 1788

At noon on the 28th, more islands were seen, bearing from north to
north-west by west, three or four leagues distant, their latitude at that
time was 8° 02' north, and 170° 57' east longitude. The weather being
very hazy, with constant rain, they wore, and stood from the land;
however, the afternoon proving tolerably clear, they again stood towards
it, and by four o'clock were close in with the westernmost island. Two
large canoes were lying on a sandy beach, but they did not perceive any
inhabitants. At five o'clock they saw several more islands, bearing north
north-east, five or six leagues distant. During the night, Captain
Marshall stood under an easy sail, and at day-light the next morning land
was seen a-head bearing north by east six leagues, and some land bearing
east seventeen leagues distant. These islands, like all they had yet
seen, were very low, and entirely covered with lofty trees; on sounding,
they got no ground with an hundred fathoms of line. Their latitude at
noon was 8° 59' north, and 170° 24' east longitude.

30 June 1788

At five in the afternoon, more islands were seen, bearing north, five
leagues distant, but night coming on they wore and stood to the
southward. In the forenoon of the 30th, they ran between two islands,
about five leagues distant from each other, and surrounded by a number of
breakers: by eleven o'clock they were entirely clear of all the land.
Their observation at noon gave 9° 34' north latitude, and the longitude
was 169° 22' east. These last islands were supposed by Captain Marshall
to be those which Lord Anson discovered, and named Barbadoes Islands.

31 July 1788

Having now a clear navigation, they prosecuted their voyage without
meeting with any thing worthy of notice till the 31st of July, when at
six clock in the morning they saw the island of Saypan bearing west by
south six leagues distant. Having light baffling winds, they did not get
in with the land till the approach of evening, so that the night was
spent in standing off and on. At day-light the next morning, Captain
Marshall sent his boat on shore, with the chief mate and four seamen, to
procure some refreshments, and look for anchorage. At two o'clock in the
afternoon, the boats returned loaded with cocoa-nuts and cabbage, both,
as the men reported, from the same tree, but they could find no place for
a vessel to anchor in, the water being very deep close to the land, with
a rocky bottom, and so heavy a surf that the boat did not land without
great difficulty. Not meeting with a harbour at Sapan, the Captain
determined to make the best of his way to Tinian, where he might come to
anchor and get his sick people on shore, having no less than fifteen men
laid up with the scurvy, and the rest of his crew were so weak that they
could scarcely work the ship: the wind, however, was so variable, that
they did not reach the south-west side of that island till afternoon on
the 4th, when they anchored in twenty-five fathoms water, and soon
afterwards the Charlotte came to anchor a small distance from the
Scarborough.

5 August 1788-8 August 1788

Early the next morning, Captain Marshall sent his sick people on shore,
with a tent, and a sufficient quantity of provisions to serve them five
days. After landing the sick, and erecting their tent, the boats crew
walked about the island, and saw a great number of cattle, hogs, and
fowls, but they only caught a calf, one hog, and a fowl or two, and
loaded the boat with cocoanuts, oranges, and limes. On the 6th, the chief
mate was sent on shore to look for fresh water; he soon found out the
well, mentioned in Lord Anson's voyage, but it was quite dry, and there
was not any fresh water to be met with within two miles of the landing
place. The boat returned at noon, loaded with fruit of different sorts.
Toward evening the wind came round to south south-west blowing very
strong, which sent a heavy sea rolling into the bay, and occasioned the
Scarborough to pitch very much. The wind still blowing strongly into the
bay, Captain Marshall sent his boat on shore on the 7th, to bring off the
sick people, which they accomplished with much danger and difficulty; in
the mean time, every thing was got ready for sea, the Captain being
determined to get away the moment the wind shifted to south or south by
east, so that they could clear the west part of the island. During the
night, they had so heavy a gale at south-west that they expected every
minute to be driven on shore; fortunately, however, at day-break, the
wind shifted to south south-east, on which they immediately cut the cable
and ran clear of the land: Captain Gilbert cut both his cables and
followed the Scarborough. Scarce had they cleared the land before the
wind again shifted to south-south-west, and blew a complete hurricane, so
that had the vessels then been at anchor, they must inevitably have been
driven on shore. Though Captain Marshall's people were on land so short a
time, they found amazing benefit from it, their strength gradually
returned, and soon afterwards they were perfectly restored to health.

7 September 1788

No particular occurrence happened during their passage from Tinian to
China; they saw the Lema Islands in the afternoon of the 7th of
September, and came to anchor in Macao Roads the following afternoon.


Chapter XXII.

Supplemental Account of Animals

BIRDS.

NO. 139. BANKIAN COCKATOO.  Order II. Pies. Genus V. Parrot.


This is about the size of the great white cockatoo; the length twenty-two
inches. The bill is exceedingly short, and of a pale lead-colour. The
head feathers are pretty long, so as to enable the bird to erect them
into a crest at will: The colour of the head, neck, and under parts of
the body are dusky brown, inclining to olive, darkest on the belly: the
feathers of the top of the head and back part of the neck are edged with
olive; the rest of the plumage on the upper part of the body, the wings,
and tail, are of a glossy black; the last is pretty long and a little
rounded at the end; the two middle feathers are wholly black; the others
of a fine vermilion in the middle for about one-third, otherwise black;
the outer edge of the exterior feather black the whole length. Legs
black.

This bird was met with in New South Wales, and is supposed to be a
variety, if not a different sex, from the Bankian Cockatoo described in
the General Synopsis of Birds, Supplement, p. 63. pl. 109. It varies,
however, in not having the feathers of the head or those of the
wing-coverts marked with buff-coloured spots; nor is the red part of the
tail crossed with black bars, as in that bird.

With the above specimen was sent the head of another, which differed in
having a mixture of yellow in various parts of it. We have been informed,
that the red part of the tail in this last is barred with black, not
unlike that described by Mr. Latham in the Synopsis. From these
circumstances, it may be presumed, that this bird is subject to great
variety.

RED SHOULDERED PARROT. Order II. Pies. Genus V.

This bird is about the size of the Guinea Parrakeet. Total length ten
inches and a half: the general colour of the plumage is green, inclining
to yellow on the under parts: the top of the head, the outer edge of the
wing, and some parts of the middle of the same are deep blue: all round
the base of the bill crimson, with a mixture of the same on the fore part
of the neck, but between the bill and eye is a mixture of yellow: the
shoulders, and under parts of the wings are blood red: two or three of
the inner quills, and the vent pale red: the greater quills dusky,
fringed outwardly with yellow: the tail is greatly wedged in shape, the
feathers at the base chesnut, towards the end dull blue: the bill and
legs are brown.

This species inhabits New South Wales; and we believe it to be hitherto
non-descript.

CRESTED GOAT SUCKER. Order III. Passerine. Genus XLV.

This bird is somewhat smaller than our European species, measuring only
nine inches and a half in length. The general colour of the plumage on
the upper parts is dark-brown, mottled and crossed with obscure whitish
bars: the quills are plain brown, but five or six of the outer ones
marked with dusky white spots on the outer webs: the tail is rounded in
shape, and marked with twelve narrow bars of a dusky white, mottled with
black, as are the various whitish marks on the upper parts: the under
parts of the body are more or less white; but the fore part of the neck
and breast are crossed with numerous dusky bars: the bill is black, but
the gape and within yellow; the sides of the mouth furnished with
bristles, as in other goat-suckers; besides which, at the base of the
bill are ten or twelve erect stiff bristles, thinly barbed on their
sides, and standing perfectly upright as a crest, giving the bird a
singular appearance: the legs are weak, longer than in most of the tribe,
and of a pale yellow colour; claws brown.

NEW HOLLAND CASSOWARY. Order VI. Struthious. Genus LIX. Cassowary.

This is a species differing in many particulars from that generally
known, and is a much larger bird, standing higher on its legs, and having
the neck longer than in the common one. Total length seven feet two
inches. The bill is not greatly different from that of the common
Cassowary; but the horny appendage, or helmet on the top of the head, in
this species is totally wanting: the whole of the head and neck is also
covered with feathers, except the throat and fore part of the neck about
half way, which are not so well feathered as the rest; whereas in the
common Cassowary, the head and neck are bare and carunculated as in the
turkey.

The plumage in general consists of a mixture of brown and grey, and the
feathers are somewhat curled or bent at the ends in the natural state:
the wings are so very short as to be totally useless for flight, and
indeed, are scarcely to be distinguished from the rest of the plumage,
were it not for their standing out a little. The long spines which are
seen in the wings of the common sort, are in this not observable,--nor is
there any appearance of a tail. The legs are stout, formed much as in the
Galeated Cassowary, with the addition of their being jagged or sawed the
whole of their length at the back part.

This bird is not uncommon in New Holland, as several of them have been
seen about Botany Bay, and other parts. The one from which the plate was
taken, was shot within two miles of the settlement at Sydney Cove, and
the drawing made on the spot by Lieutenant Watts. The skin being sent
over to England in spirits, has been put into attitude, and is now the
property of Sir Joseph Banks, to whom it was presented by Lord Sydney.
Although this bird cannot fly, it runs so swiftly, that a greyhound can
scarcely overtake it. The flesh is said to be in taste not unlike beef.

WHITE GALLINULE. Order VII. Cloven-footed. Genus LXXV.

This beautiful bird greatly resembles the purple Gallinule in shape and
make, but is much superior in size, being as large as a dunghil fowl. The
length from the end of the bill to that of the claws is two feet three
inches: the bill is very stout, and the colour of it, the whole of the
top of the head, and the irides red; the sides of the head round the eyes
are reddish, very thinly sprinkled with white feathers; the whole of the
plumage without exception is white. The legs the colour of the bill.

This species is pretty common on Lord Howe's Island, Norfolk Island, and
other places, and is a very tame species. The other sex, supposed to be
the male, is said to have some blue on the wings.

Genus XII. Canis.--Lin. Syst. Nat.

Genus XVII. Dog.--Penn. Hist. Quad.

DOG OF NEW SOUTH WALES.

The height of this species, standing erect, is rather less than two feet:
the length two feet and a half. The head is formed much like that of a
fox, the ears short and erect, with whiskers from one to two inches in
length on the muzzle. The general colour of the upper parts is pale
brown, growing lighter towards the belly: the hind part of the fore legs,
and the fore part of the hinder ones white, as are the feet of both: the
tail is of a moderate length, somewhat bushy, but in a less degree than
that of the fox: the teeth are much the same as is usual in the genus, as
may be seen in the top of the plate where the animal is represented.

This species inhabits New South Wales. The specimen from which the
annexed plate was taken, (a female) is now alive in the possession of the
Marchioness of Salisbury, at Hatfield-House, and was sent over as a
present to Mr. Nepean, from Governor Phillip. It has much of the manners
of the dog, but is of a very savage nature, and not likely to change in
this particular. It laps like other dogs, but neither barks nor growls if
vexed and teized; instead of which, it erects the hairs of the whole body
like bristles, and seems furious: it is very eager after its prey, and is
fond of rabbits or chickens, raw, but will not touch dressed meat. From
its fierceness and agility it has greatly the advantage of other animals
much superior in size; for a very fine French fox-dog being put to it, in
a moment it seized him by the loins, and would have soon put an end to
his existence, had not help been at hand. With the utmost ease it is able
to leap over the back of an ass, and was very near worrying one to death,
having fastened on it, so that the creature was not able to disengage
himself without assistance; it has been also known to run down both deer
and sheep.

A second of these is in the possession of Mr. Lascelles, of which we have
received much the same account in respect to its ferocity; whence it is
scarcely to be expected that this elegant animal will ever become
familiar.

Genus XV. Mustela.--Lin. Syst. Nat.

Genus XXIII. Weesel.--Penn. Hist. Quad.

SPOTTED MARTIN.

The species is about the size of a large polecat, and measures from the
tip of the nose to the setting on of the tail eighteen inches; the tail
itself being nearly the same length. The visage is pointed in shape, and
the whole make of the animal does not ill resemble that of the Fossane.
The general colour of the fur is black, marked all over with irregular
blotches of white, the tail not excepted, which has an elegant
appearance, and tapers gradually to a point.

The situation of the teeth and jaws is much the same as in the rest of
the genus, as may be seen in the upper part of the plate.

Inhabits the neighbourhood of Port Jackson.

Genus XVII. Didelphis.--Lin. Syst. Nat.

Genus XXII. Opossum.--Penn. Hist. 2uad.

KANGUROO RAT.

The upper jaw of this species has two cutting teeth in front, with three
others on each side of them, and at a distance one false grinder, sharp
at the edge, and channelled, or fluted, on the sides, and close to these,
two true grinders: in the lower jaw are two long cutting teeth, formed
like those of the squirrel, with three grinders, corresponding with those
in the upper jaw.

The general shape of the body is not widely different from that of the
Kanguroo, both in respect to the shortness of the fore legs and the
peculiar construction of the hind ones; but the visage being strongly
similar to that of the rat, and the colour of the whole not ill
resembling that animal, it has obtained the name of the Kanguroo Rat.

This is an inhabitant of New Holland, and two of the species are now to
be seen alive at the curious exhibition of animals over Exeter Exchange.
One of these, being a female, has brought forth young, one of which is
represented in the same plate with the adult animal. On the upper part of
the same plate is figured the jaw of a full grown subject.

Genus CXXII. Lacerta.--Lin. Sist. Nat.

THE LACED LIZARD.

This most elegant species is in length, from the nose to the
end of the tail, about forty inches: in the mouth are a few weak teeth,
though rather sharp, at about a quarter of an inch distance one from
another: the tongue is long and forked: the general shape is slender; and
the ground colour of the skin, on the upper parts, a brownish or bluish
black, whimsically marked with golden yellow; in some parts this colour
is beautifully mottled or freckled, like some kinds of lace-work; in
others, striped in various directions, particularly on the legs, which
seem as if striped across with black and white: the under parts are
yellow, crossed with single bars of black on the chin and throat, and
double clouded ones on the belly: the toes are five in number on each
foot, barred across with black and yellow, as the legs, and each
furnished with a crooked black claw: the tail measures more in length
than the whole of the body; towards the base, clouded and marked as the
rest; but the further half banded with black and yellow, each band three
inches broad, the end running to a very sharp point.

This beautiful Lizard is not uncommon at Port Jackson, where it is
reputed a harmless species. Individuals vary much one from another, in
respect to the length of the tail, as also in the colour of the markings;
some having those parts marked with a pure silvery white, which in the
above described are yellow.

Genus CXXXV. Balistes.--Lin. Syst. Nat.

BAG-THROATED BALISTES.

The size of the fish figured in the plate is uncertain, as we have only
obtained a drawing of it without any description.--It agrees in many
things with others of the genus, and does not greatly differ from one
figured in Willughby's Icthyologia, Tab. 1. 22. but has the body longer
in proportion. The erect horn or spine is placed over, and a little
behind the eyes, as in Willughby's figure, attended with two shorter ones
directly behind the first: the long spine is quite straight, sharp at the
point, and deeply sawed on the back part. Another singularity presents
itself in this species, which is, a deep pouch-like appendage beneath the
throat, in shape not unlike what is called Hippocrates's sleeve, or
rather a jelly bag.

This fish is found pretty commonly on the coast of New South Wales, and
was called by the sailors the Old Wife, having much resemblance in many
things to the species so named. When skinned, it was thought pretty good
eating.

A FISH OF NEW SOUTH WALES.

Of this fish it can only be said, that the ground colour is much the same
as that of our mackarel, marked with several round, blue and white spots;
and that, in the plate, it is represented faithfully from a drawing by
Daniel Butler sent from New South Wales, where it is in great plenty, and
is thought to taste much like a dolphin. As to the genus, it is difficult
to say with certainty to which it belongs, as it is deficient in the
characteristics of those generally known; it is therefore left to the
reader to settle this matter according to his own opinion.

Genus CXXXI. Squalus.--Lin. Syst. Nat.

PORT JACKSON SHARK.

The length of the specimen from which the drawing was taken, is two feet;
and it is about five inches and an half over at the broadest part, from
thence tapering to the tail: the skin is rough, and the colour, in
general, brown, palest on the under parts: over the eyes on each side is
a prominence, or long ridge, of about three inches; under the middle of
which the eyes are placed: the teeth are very numerous, there being at
least ten or eleven rows; the forward teeth are small and sharp, but as
they are placed more backward, they become more blunt and larger, and
several rows are quite flat at top, forming a kind of bony palate,
somewhat like that of the Wolf-fish; differing, however, in shape, being
more inclined to square than round, which they are in that fish: the
under jaw is furnished much in the same manner as the upper: the
breathing holes are five in number, as is usual in the genus: on the back
are two fins, and before each stands a strong spine, much as in the
Prickly Hound, or Dog, fish: it has also two pectoral, and two ventral
fins; but besides these, there is likewise an anal fin, placed at a
middle distance between the last and the tail: the tail itself, is as it
were divided, the upper part much longer than the under.

At first sight, the above might be taken for the Prickly Hound-fish, or
Squalus Spinax of Linnoeus, of which a good figure may be seen in
Willughby's Icthyol. Tab. B. 5. f. 1, but it differs, first, in having
the prominent ridge over the eyes, of a great length; secondly, in the
formation of the teeth; thirdly, in having an anal fin, of which the
Prickly Hound is destitute; all these circumstances concur to prove it a
new species.

This was taken at Port Jackson, but to what size it may usually arrive
cannot be determined; perhaps not to a great one, as the teeth appear
very complete. Some sharks, however, of an enormous size have been seen
and caught thereabouts, though of what sort cannot here be determined.

Genus CXXXI. Squalus.--Lin. Syst.

WATTS'S SHARK.

This, we believe, is a species which has hitherto escaped the researches
of our Icthyologists. The length of the specimen is nineteen inches: the
head is broad, and angular in shape; but the body rounded, and nearly
equal in its dimensions for above half the length, when it suddenly grows
very small, and so continues to the end of the tail: the colour of the
body is brown in different shades, and there are three rows of large pale
spots, of an irregular shape, most of them dark within; one row passes
down the middle, the others are on each side; besides which there are
others below them less conspicuous. The mouth is placed nearer the end of
the head than in most of the genus, and furnished in the front with nine
sharp crooked teeth, in three rows, and a great number of small ones on
each side. The eyes project considerably above the rest of the head, and
are placed on the upper part of it; the space between is hollowed or sunk
in: at the most forward part of the head are two cartilaginous
appendages, jagged at the end, with four others, nearly similar, on each
side between the first and the breathing holes: the pectoral fins are
placed beneath these last; the abdominal about the middle of the body;
and the anal, more than half way between the last and the tail; besides
which, the under part is finned from that place to the end: on the upper
part of the body are two fins, both placed uncommonly far back, as in the
figure.

This fish was met with in Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, by Lieutenant Watts,
and is supposed to be full as voracious as any of the genus, in
proportion to its size; for after having lain on the deck for two hours,
seemingly quiet, on Mr. Watts's dog passing by, the shark sprung upon it
with all the ferocity imaginable, and seized it by the leg; nor could the
dog have disengaged himself had not the people near at hand come to his
assistance.

Order II. Pies. Genus XXIII. Kingsfisher.

GREAT BROWN KINGSFISHER.--Lath. Syn. ii. p. 603, No. 1.

The length of this species is from sixteen to eighteen inches: the bill,
three inches and an half, or even more; the upper mandible is brown, and
the under white, but brown at the base: the head is pretty full of
feathers, sufficiently so to form a crest when erected; the colour
whitish, and most of the feathers either tipped or crossed with black:
the neck and under parts of the body are much the same in colour, crossed
on the sides with dusky lines: over the forehead the colour is dusky
brown, almost black, passing backwards in an irregular shaped streak a
good way behind the eye: the back, and major part of the wing, is black
or dusky, but the middle of the wing is of a glossy blue-green, as is
also the lower part of the back and rump: the tail is barred with pale
rust-colour and black, inclining to purple, and towards the end whitish:
the legs are of a dusky yellow, the claws are black.

These birds vary much, the colours being more or less brilliant, and in
some of them the tail is wholly barred with white and black, and the legs
brown or blackish.

This species inhabits various places in the South Seas, being pretty
common at New Guinea; but the specimen from which our figure was taken,
was sent from Port Jackson in South Wales, where, likewise, it is not
unfrequently met with. We believe it has not yet been figured in any
British work.

KANGUROO.

This very curious animal being naturally an object of particular
curiosity, we are happy to be enabled, before this book is given to the
world, to correct some errors which had crept into our account and
representation of it. In page 149 it is stated, that the Kanguroo has
four teeth (by which were meant cutting teeth) in the upper jaw, opposed
to two in the under. The truth is, that there are six opposed to two, as
may be perceived in the engraved representation of the skeleton of a
Kanguroo's head, inserted at page 168. The same arrangement of teeth
takes place in the Opossum, described in that page, which is there, still
more erroneously, said to have only two cutting teeth opposed to two.
This latter mistake arose from the difficulty of examining the mouth of
the living animal. It is since dead, and the teeth are found to be
disposed as now stated, and as represented in the scull of the Vulpine
Opossum, in the same plate with that of the Kanguroo.

But the most important error is in the position of the Kanguroo, as
represented in our plate at page 106. The true standing posture of the
Kanguroo is exactly the same as that of the Kanguroo Rat, delineated at
page 277; namely, with the rump several inches from the ground, (in large
specimens, not less than eight) and resting entirely on the long last
joint of the hinder legs, the whole under side of which is bare and
callous like a hoof. This mistake was occasioned merely by the adherence
of the engraver to the drawing from which he worked; which, among others,
came from Mr. White, the surgeon at Port Jackson: too implicit reliance
being placed on an authority which, in this respect, turned out delusive.

With respect to the representations of the Kanguroo which have hitherto
been published, it may be observed, that nothing is wanting to that in
Captain Cook's first voyage, except the character of the toes of the
hinder legs, and in particular the distinguishing of a minute, but very
characteristic circumstance, in the inner claw of each, which is divided
down the middle into two, as if split by some sharp instrument. The same
remark is applicable to the plate in Mr. Pennant's History of Quadrupeds,
which appears to have been copied from the other. Mr. Pennant was the
first author who gave a scientific description of the Kanguroo, in his
History of Quadrupeds, p. 306. No. 184. and of the New Holland Opossum,
p. 310. No. 188.

Zimmerman, in his Zoologia Geographica, p. 527, confounds the Kanguroo
with the great Jerboa of Africa, described by Allamand, in his additions
to Buffon; and by Mr. Pennant, History of Quadrupeds, p. 432. No. 293.

Our own plate of the Kanguroo very accurately expresses the form and
character of that animal, and is deficient only in the position, which
unfortunately was not remarked till the plate was worked off, and the
book almost ready for delivery.

ANECDOTE OF CAPTAIN COOK AND O'TOO.

As nothing can be devoid of interest which relates to a man so justly
admired as Captain Cook, the reader will probably be pleased to find
here, though out of its proper place, an anecdote communicated by Mr.
Webber. It exhibits in a pleasing point of view the friendship which
subsisted between that great navigator and the Otaheitean chief O'too, a
circumstance highly to the honour of both; since it displays in them the
power of discerning real merit, though obscured by diversity of manners,
and that of being able to impress a steady attachment, where nothing more
was to be expected than transient regard. Under every species of
disparity, goodness of heart supplies both a medium of attraction, and an
indissoluble bond of union.

Every reader must have seen with pleasure the charming proof of O'too's
tender and inviolable friendship for Captain Cook, which appears in page
233 of this work; where he is described as attended by a man carrying the
portrait of that illustrious Englishman, without which he never moves
from one place to another. That portrait, as Mr. Webber assures us, was
obtained in the following manner.

O'too, by the Captain's particular desire, sat to Mr. Webber, in order to
furnish such a memorial of his features, as might serve for the subject
of a complete whole length picture, on the return of the ship to England.
When the portrait was finished, and O'too was informed that no more
sittings would be necessary, he anxiously enquired of Captain Cook, and
Captain Clerke, what might be the particular meaning and purpose of this
painting. He was informed, that it would be kept by Captain Cook, as a
perpetual memorial of his person, his friendship, and the many favours
received from him. He seemed pleased with the idea, and instantly
replied, that, for the very same reasons, a picture of Captain Cook would
be highly acceptable to him. This answer, so unexpected, and expressed
with strong tokens of real attachment, made both Captain Clerke and Mr.
Webber his advocates; and Captain Cook, charmed with the natural
sincerity of his manner, complied with his request much more readily than
on any other occasion he would have granted such a favour.

When the portrait was finished it was framed, and with a box, lock, and
key, by which it was secured, was delivered to O'too; who received it
with inexpressible satisfaction. He readily, and, as the event has
proved, most faithfully promised that he would preserve it always with
the utmost care; and would show it to the commanders of such ships as
might in future touch at the Society Islands. Who can fail to love a
character like that of O'too, in which unalterable steadiness of
affection is as conspicuous, as honest and natural ardour? Long may he
enjoy his authority and his health; and preserve the honourable memorial
of his friend, without being afflicted by the knowledge of that
melancholy catastrophe which terminated the career of his glory!

* * * * *

With respect to the yellow gum, or resin, mentioned in page 60, we are
informed by Dr. Blane, physician to St. Thomas's Hospital, that he has
found it remarkably efficacious in the cure of old fluxes; and this not
only in a few instances, but in many obstinate cases. Of the plants in
general which have been brought from Botany Bay, and the adjacent
country, no notice has been taken in this work, as it would have led to
such a detail as must too considerably have extended its limits. Many of
them are now to be seen in the highest perfection at the nursery gardens
of that eminent and learned botanist, Mr. Lee, of Hammersmith: who still
retains enough of zeal for his favourite science, to regret that the
discovery of those countries was not made at a period of his life, when
he could have gone personally to reap the glorious harvest they afford.

* * * * *

The following account of the weather in Botany Bay and Port Jackson,
communicated by Lieutenant Watts, may perhaps be found important.

During the seven days we were in Botany Bay the weather was generally
fine, and very warm. The thermometer on a mean stood at 78°. it never
exceeded 80°. and one day, which was thick and rainy, the wind blowing
strongly from the south, it fell to 63°. In Port Jackson the weather was
at first much the same, but afterwards, the days became very hot, and the
nights constantly brought on tremendous thunder, lightning, and rain. The
thermometer, at eleven o'clock in the forenoon, was generally about 80°.
but when the sea breezes set in it usually fell two or three degrees. One
very sultry day was felt soon after the arrival of the fleet. The
thermometer, on board, stood at 88°. and on shore, though in the shade,
at 92°. On the 15th of March was a terrible squall of wind, accompanied
by thunder, lightning, and rain. The thermometer then fell from 80° to
50°. and in other squalls it frequently fell 15 or 20 degrees.

Such are the principal notices hitherto received from the new settlement
on the southern continent, which, if from unavoidable circumstances, they
are a little deficient in point of order, will, it is hoped, make ample
amends by their novelty, importance, and authenticity.

Genus XVII. Didelphis. Lin. Syst. Nat.

Genus XXII. Opossum. Penn. Hist. Quad.

BLACK FLYING OPOSSUM.

The following is, according to every appearance, a new animal of this
genus. The length from the tip of the nose, which is pointed in shape, to
the root of the tail, is twenty inches; of the tail itself twenty-two
inches, at the base quite light, increasing gradually to black at the
end: the width across the loins sixteen inches: the ears are large and
erect: the coat or fur is of a much richer texture or more delicate than
the sea-otter of Cook's River: on the upper parts of the body, at first
sight, appearing of a glossy black, but on a nicer inspection, is really
what the French call petit gris, or minever, being mixed with grey; the
under parts are white, and on each hip may be observed a tan-coloured
spot, nearly as big as a shilling; at this part the fur is thinnest, but
at the root of the tail it is so rich and close that the hide cannot be
felt through it. The fur is also continued to the claws: the membrane,
which is expanded on each side of the body, is situated much as in the
grey species, though broader in proportion. The jaws are furnished with
teeth, placed as in some others of this genus: in the upper jaw forwards
are four small cutting teeth, then two canine ones, and backwards five
grinders: the under jaw has two long large cutting teeth, like the
Vulpine Opossum, [See skeleton on the plate at page 168.] five grinders,
with no intermediate canine ones, the space being quite vacant. The fore
legs have five toes on each foot, with a claw on each; the hinder ones
four toes, with claws, (the three outside ones without any separation)
and a thumb without a claw, enabling the animal to use the foot as a
hand, as many of the opossum tribe are observed to do. See the skeleton
of the foot in the annexed plate.

This beautiful quadruped inhabits New South Wales. The specimen from
which the above account has been taken, is a male, and the property of
Henry Constantine Nowell, Esq. of Shiplake, in Oxfordshire. The fur of it
is so beautiful, and of so rare a texture, that should it hereafter be
found in plenty, it might probably be thought a very valuable article of
commerce.


APPENDIX

[Tables of the Route taken by each of the ships of the First Fleet after
leaving Port Jackson--not included in this ebook.]


A LIST OF CONVICTS SENT TO NEW SOUTH WALES, IN 1787.

Name. Where Convicted. Date Of Conviction. Years.

Abel, Robert London 23 Feb. 1785. 7
Abrams, Henry
Abrahams, Esther London 30 August, 1786 7
Abell, Mary, alias Tilley Worcester 5 March, 1785 7
Acres, Thomas Exeter 14 March, 1786 7
Adams, John London 26 May, 1784 7
Adams, Mary Ditto 13 Decem. 1786 7
Agley, Richard Winchester 2 March, 1784 7
Allen, John Hertford 2 March, 1786 7
Allen, William Ormskirk 11 April, 1785 7
Allen, Charles London 7 July, 1784 7
Allen, Susannah Ditto 18 April, 1787 7
Allen, Mary Ditto 25 October, 1786 7
Allen, Jamasin, alias Boddington Ditto 25 Oct. 1786 7
Allen, Mary, alias Conner Ditto 10 Jan. 1787 7
Anderson, John Exeter 20 March, 1786 7
Anderson, Elizabeth London 10 Jan. 1787 7
Anderson, John Ditto 26 May, 1784 7
Anderson, Fanny Winchester 7 March, 1786 7
Archer, John London 26 May, 1784 7
Arscott, John Bodmin 18 August, 1783 7
Atkinson, George London 21 April, 1784 7
Ault, Sarah Ditto 21 Feb. 1787 7
Ayners, John, alias Agnew Ditto 26 May, 1784 7
Ayres John Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Bartlett, James Winchester 1 March, 1785 7
Barsby, George Ditto 1 March, 1785 Life
Barnett, Henry, alias Barnard, alias Burton Warwick 21 March, 1785 7
Bails, Robert Reading 28 Feb. 1785 Life
Barnes, Stephen York 9 July, 1785 7
Bannister, George London 1 April, 1784 7
Barferd, John Ditto 14 Decem. 1784 7
Barland, George Ditto 7 July, 1784 7
Balding, James, alias William Ditto 23 Feb. 1785 7
Bason, Elizabeth, wife of William Bason New Sarum 24 July, 1784 7
Bayley, James Ditto 11 March, 1786 7
Bazley, John Exeter 12 Jan. 1785 7
Baker, Thomas Ditto 10 Jan. 1786 7
Barrett, Thomas Ditto 24 May, 1784 Life
Batley, Caten Ditto 24 May, 1784 7
Barsby, Samuel Ditto 20 March, 1786 7
Ball, John Ditto 20 March, 1786 7
Barry, John Bristol 23 Novem. 1785 7
Barret, Daniel
Barber, Elizabeth
Baldwin, Ruth, alias Bowyer London 20 August, 1786 7
Baker, Martha Ditto 30 August, 1786 7
Bell, William Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Benear, Samuel Ditto 26 May, 1784 7
Bellett, Jacob Ditto 12 Jan. 1785 7
Beardsley, Ann Derby 5 August, 1786 5
Best, John
Beckford, Elizabeth London 10 Jan. 1787 7
Bellamy, Thomas Worcester 9 July, 1785 7
Bird, James Croydon 20 July, 1785 7
Bird, Samuel Ditto 20 July, 1785 7
Bishop, Joseph
Bingham, John, alias Baughan
Bingham, Elizabeth, alias Mooring London
Bird, Elizabeth, alias Winisred Maidstone 14 March, 1787 7
Blackhall, William Abingdon 6 March, 1786 7
Blunt, William London 10 Decem. 1783 7
Blake, Francis Ditto 26 May, 1784 7
Blatherhorn, William Exeter 24 May, 1784 Life
Bloedworth, James Kingstone 3 Oct. 1785 7
Blanchett, Susannah Ditto 2 April, 1787 7
Bond, Peter London 23 Feb. 1785 7
Boyle, John London 23 Feb. 1785 7
Boggis, William
Bond, William Exeter 18 July, 1785 7
Bond, Mary, wife of John Bond Wells 19 August, 1786 7
Boulton, Rebecca Lincoln 16 July, 1784 7
Bonner, Jane London 18 April, 1787 7
Bolton, Mary Shrewsbury 12 March, 1785 7
Brown, James Hertford 2 March, 1785 7
Brown, William Southwark 10 Jan. 1786 7
Brindley, John Warwick 21 March, 1785 7
Brown, Richard Reading 15 July, 1783 7
Brough, William Stafford 9 March, 1789 7
Bradley, James London 29 June, 1785 7
Bradley, James Ditto 6 May, 1784 7
Brown, Thomas Ditto 10 Septem. 1783 7
Bradbury, William Ditto 10 Septem. 1783 7
Bryant, Thomas Maidstone 15 March, 1784 7
Bryant, William Launceston 20 March, 1784 7
Brown, Thomas Exeter 24 May, 1784 7
Bradford, John Ditto 9 Jan. 1786 7
Brannegan, James Ditto 24 May, 1784 7
Bruce, Robert Ditto 24 May, 1784 7
Brown, William Ditto 24 May, 1784 7
Bryant, John Ditto 14 March, 1786 7
Brewer, William Ditto 20 March, 1786 7
Brice, William Bristol 11 Feb. 1785 7
Brand, Curtis
Bryant, Michael
Brand, Lucy, alias Wood London 19 July, 1786 7
Branham, Mary Ditto 23 Feb. 1785 7
Bruce, Elizabeth Ditto 10 Jan. 1787 7
Burleigh, James Ditto 7 July, 1784 7
Burn, Peter Ditto 10 Septem. 1783 7
Burne, James Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Butler, William Ditto 7 July, 1784 7
Buckley, Joseph Dorchester 16 March, 1786 7
Burridge, Samuel Ditto 3 August, 1786 7
Burn, Patrick
Burn, Simon
Busley, John
Bunn, Margaret London 26 April, 1786 7
Burkitt, Mary Ditto 20 August, 1786 7
Burdo, Sarah Ditto 25 Oct. 1786 7
Carver, Joseph Maidstone 13 March, 1786 7
Castle, James London 7 July, 1784 7
Campbell, James, alias George Ditto 23 Feb. 1785 7
Campbell, James Guildford 11 August, 1784 7
Carney, John Exeter 22 July, 1782 7
Carty, Francis Bodmin 14 August, 1786 7
Carey, Ann Taunton 30 March, 1786 7
Carter, Richard, alias Michael Cartwright Shrewsbury 13 March, 1784 7
Cable, Henry
Carroll, Mary, wife of James Carroll London 25 Oct. 1786 7
Cesar, John Maidstone 14 March, 1785 7
Chields, William
Chaddick, Thomas London 7 July, 1784 7
Church, William Dorchester 16 March, 1786 7
Chaaf, William Exeter 20 March, 1786 7
Chinery, Samuel Ditto 7 August, 1786 7
Chanin, Edward Ditto 7 August, 1786 7
Clough, Richard Durham 19 July, 1785 7
Clements, Thomas London 7 July, 1784 7
Clark, John, alias Hosier Ditto 6 April, 1785 7
Clark, William Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Clarke, John Exeter 7 August, 1786 7
Cleaver, Mary Bristol 4 April, 1786 7
Clear, George
Clark, Elizabeth
Connelly, William Bristol 3 Feb. 1785 7
Cormick, Edward Hertford 2 March, 1786 7
Corden, James Warwick 21 March, 1785 7
Colling, Joseph London 7 July, 1784 7
Cole, William Ditto 7 July, 1784 7
Cox, John Matthew Ditto 23 Feb. 1785 7
Collier, Richard Kingstone 24 March, 1784 7
Connolly, William Bodmin 14 August, 1786 7
Conelly, Cornelius Exeter 7 August, 1786 7
Colman, Ishmael Dorchester 16 March, 1786 7
Coffin, John Exeter 9 Jan. 1786 7
Cole, Elizabeth Ditto 20 March, 1786 7
Cox, James Ditto 24 May, 1784 Life
Copp, James Ditto 20 March, 1786 7
Coombes, Ann, wife of Samuel Coombes Taunton 30 March, 1786 7
Cole, Elizabeth London 26 April, 1786 7
Colley, Elizabeth London 23 Feb. 1785 14
Cooke, Charlotte Ditto 10 Jan. 1787 7
Cooper, Mary Worcester 19 July, 1785 7
Colpitts, Ann Durham 2 Oct. 1786 7
Cross, John New Sarum 25 March, 1785 7
Cropper, John London 14 Decem. 1784 7
Cross, William Coventry 21 March, 1783 7
Creamer, John Exeter 12 Jan. 1785 7
Creek, Jane London 14 Septem. 1785 7
Cunningham, Edward Ditto 7 July, 1784 7
Cullen, James Bryen Ditto 6 April, 1785 7
Cullyhorn, John Exeter 22 July, 1782 7
Cudlip, Jacob, alias Norris Bodmin 25 July, 1785 7
Cuss, John, alias Hanaboy New Sarum 11 March, 1786 7
Cuckow, William
Davis, Aaron Bristol 29 March, 1785 7
Day, Richard Reading 24 July, 1786 7
Davies, Edward Stafford 27 July, 1785 7
Day, Samuel Glocester 23 March, 1785 14
Davis, Samuel Ditto 13 July, 1785 7
Davis, William
Davis, James London 8 Decem. 1784 7
Daniells, Daniel Ditto 6 May, 1784 7
Daley, James Ditto 26 May, 1784 7
Davidson, John Ditto 23 Feb. 1785 7
Davis, William Brecon 15 July 1785 Life
Davis Richard
Daley, Ann, wife of Gore Daley, alias Ann Warburton Nether Knutsford 3 Oct1786 7
Darnell, Margaret London 18 April, 1787 7
Davis, Ann Ditto 26 April, 1786 7
Dalton, Elizabeth Ditto 14 Sept. 1785 7
Davidson, Rebecca, wife of Robert Davidson Ditto 25 Oct. 1786 7
Dawson, Margaret Ditto 10 Jan. 1787 7
Davis, Frances Chelmsford 6 March, 1786 14
Davies, Sarah Worcester 2 August, 1783 7
Davies, Mary Shrewsbury 12 March, 1785 7
Dennison, Michael Poole 15 April, 1785 7
Denison, Barnaby Bristol 30 April, 1783 7
Delany, Patrick
Dickson, Thomas, alias Ralph Raw Durham 19 July, 1785 7
Discall, Timothy Bodmin 25 July, 1785 7
Dixon, Mary London 31 May, 1786 7
Dickenson, Mary Southwark 8 Jan. 1787 7
Douglas, William Lincoln 9 July, 1785 7
Dowland, Ferdinand London 23 Feb. 1785 7
Dodding, James, alias Doring
Dring, William Kingston upon Hull 7 Oct. 1784 7
Dunnage, Joseph London 21 April, 1784 Life
Dudgens, Elizabeth
Dundass, Jane London 18 April, 1787 7
Dutton, Ann Ditto 26 April, 1786 7
Deyer, Leonard Southwark 10 Jan. 1786 7
Dykes, Mary London 26 April, 1786 7
Earle, William New Sarum 5 March, 1785 7
Eagleton, William, alias Bones Kingston 22 March, 1786 7
Eaton, Mary, alias Shephard
Early, Rachel Reading 24 July, 1786 7
Eaton, Martha
Eccles, Thomas Guildford 22 July, 1782 Life
Edmunds, William Monmouth 21 March, 1785 7
Edwards, William
Eggleston, George Maidstone 13 March, 1786 7
Ellam, Peter Ormskirk 18 July, 1785 7
Elliot, William Croydon 18 August, 1783 7
Elliot, Joseph Bristol 24 Nov. 1784 7
Ellam, Deborah Chester 30 August, 1784 7
English, Nicholas London 8 Decem. 1784 7
Everett, John Hertford 2 March, 1786 7
Everingham, Matthew London 7 July, 1784 7
Evans, Williams Shrewsbury 12 March, 1785 7
Evans, Elizabeth London 13 Decem. 1786 7
Farrell, Phillip London 15 Sep. 1784 7
Farley, William Bristol 10 Feb. 1785 7
Farmer, Ann London
Fentum, Benjamin Ditto 10 Oct. 1783 7
Ferguson, John Exeter 20 March, 1786 7
Fillesey, Thomas Bristol 29 April, 1783 7
Fitzgerald, Jane, alias Phillips Ditto 4 April, 1786 7
Field, William
Finlow, John, alias Hervey
Field, Jane London
Fitzgerald, Elizabeth Ditto 13 Decem. 1786 7
Flyn, Edward
Flarty, Phebe London 21 Feb. 1787 7
Fowkes, Francis Ditto 13 Decem. 1785 7
Forrester, Robert Ditto 10 Sept. 1783 7
Foyle, William New Sarum 9 July, 1785 7
Fowles, Ann London 6 April, 1785 7
Fownes, Margaret Shrewsbury 4 August, 1784 7
Forbes, Ann Kingston 2 April, 1787 7
Freeman, James Hertford 3 March, 1784 7
Freeman, Robert London 10 Decem. 1784 7
Francis, William Ditto 14 Decem. 1784 7
Francisco, George Ditto 8 Decem. 1784 7
Fry, George
Fryer, Catherine, alias Prior
Fraser, William Manchester Jan. 1787 7
Fraser, Ellen Ditto Jan. 1787 7
Fuller, John Ditto 15 March, 1784 7
Gardner, Francis London 21 April, 1784 7
Garth, Edward Ditto 23 Feb. 1785 7
Garland, Francis Exeter 24 May, 1784 7
Garth, Susannah, alias Grath
Gabel, Mary Southwark 13 Jan. 1784 7
Gascoygne, Olive Worcester 5 March, 1785 7
Gearing, Thomas Oxford 8 March, 1786 Life
Gess, George Glocester 24 March, 1784 7
George, Anne London 11 May, 1785 7
Glenton, Thomas Northallerton 5 April, 1785 7
Gloster, William London 29 June, 1785 7
Gordon, Daniel Winchester 5 April, 1785 7
Goodwin, Edward London 21 April, 1784 7
Goodwin, Andrew Ditto 7 July, 1784 7
Gould, John Exeter 20 March, 1786 7
Gray, Charles Southwark 16 Feb. 1785 7
Griffiths, Samuel, alias Briscow, alias Butcher Gloucester 24 March, 1784 7
Greenwell, Nicholas London 10 Decem. 1784 7
Green, John Reading 11 July, 1786 7
Griffiths, Thomas London 15 Septem. 1784 7
Granger, Charles Plymouth 20 Decem. 1786 7
Grace, James
Green, Hannah
Groves, Mary Lincoln 9 July, 1785 7
Green, Mary London 18 August, 1787 7
Green, Ann Ditto 13 Decem. 1786 7
Greenwood, Mary Ditto 13 Decem. 1786 7
Gunter, William Bristol 4 August, 1783 7
Handford, John Winchester 1 March, 1785 7
Hatcher, John Ditto 1 March, 1785 7
Hatfield, William Maidstone 14 March, 1785 7
Hawkes, Richard Reading 28 July, 1785 7
Harris, William Maidstone 11 July, 1785 7
Hatch, John Reading 10 Jan. 1786 7
Hartley, John Oxford 2 March, 1785 7
Hart, John Stafford 27 July, 1785 7
Haines, Joseph Gloucester 13 July, 1785 7
Hathaway, Henry Ditto 24 March, 1784 7
Hayes, Dennis London 10 Decem. 1784 7
Hall, Samuel Ditto 12 March, 1785 7
Harbine, Joseph
Harper, Joshua London 10 Septem. 1783 7
Hayton, George, alias Clayton Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Harrison, Joseph Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Hart, John Ditto 12 Jan. 1785 7
Harris, John Ditto 23 Feb. 1785 Life
Hayes, John Guildford 11 August, 1784 7
Hattom, Joseph
Harrison, Joseph
Hamlin, William Exeter 12 Jan. 1784 7
Hall, Joseph Ditto 12 Jan. 1784 Life
Hall, John Ditto 24 May, 1784 7
Hadon, John Ditto
Hares, William
Handy, Cooper
Haynes, William
Hervey, Elizabeth
Hall, Margaret
Hart, Frances
Harrison, Mary Lincoln 6 March, 1784 7
Heading, James Chelmsford 7 March, 1785 Life
Headington, Thomas Abingdon 7 July, 1785 7
Herbert, John London 21 April, 1784 7
Hart, Catherine Ditto 23 Feb. 1785 7
Herbert, John Exeter 14 March, 1786 7
Handland, Dorothy, alias Gray London 22 Feb. 1786 7
Hall, Sarah Ditto 10 Jan. 1787 7
Hamilton, Maria Ditto 19 October, 1785 7
Harrison, Mary Ditto 19 October, 1785 7
Harwood, Esther, alias Howard Ditto 20 August, 1786 7
Hayward, Elizabeth Ditto 10 Jan. 1787 7
Hall, Elizabeth Newcastle 18 Jan. 1786 7
Herbert, Jane, alias Rose, alias Jenny Russell London 30 August, 1786 7
Henry, Catherine Ditto 10 Jan. 1787 7
Hill, John Maidstone 14 March, 1785 Life
Hindley, William, alias Platt Ormskirk 18 July, 1785 7
Hindle, Ottiwell Preston 6 Oct. 1785 7
Hill, John London 6 May, 1784 7
Hill, Thomas Ditto 7 July, 1784 7
Hilt, William Exeter 18 July, 1785 Life
Hill, Thomas   7
Hipsley, Elizabeth London 23 Feb. 1785 7
Hill, Mary Ditto 25 Oct. 1786 7
Hollister, Job Bristol 10 Feb. 1785 7
Hawell, Thomas Stafford 5 Oct. 1785 7
Holmes, William London 7 July, 1784 7
Holloway, James Ditto 24 Aug. 1784 7
Howard, Thomas Ditto 12 Jan. 1785 7
Hogg, William Ditto 23 Feb. 1786 14
Howard, John Ditto 23 July, 1783 7
Hortop, James Exeter 20 March, 1786 7
Holland, William Ditto 7 August, 1786 7
Holmes, Susannah
Hollogin, Elizabeth London 18 April, 1787 7
Hughes, Hugh Southwark 16 Feb. 1785 7
Humphrey, Edward London 8 Decem. 1784 7
Husband, William Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Hughes, John Maidstone 15 March, 1784 7
Hurley, Jeremiah Exeter 22 July, 1782 7
Hubbard, William
Humphreys, Henry Exeter 20 March, 1786 7
Hughes, Thomas
Hudson, John
Hussey, James
Hughes, Frances Ann Lancaster 6 March, 1787 7
Hussnell, Susannah Worcester 2 Oct. 1786 7
Humphries, Mary
Hylids, Thomas Guildford 1 Aug. 1784 7
Jackson, William Durham 19 July, 1785 7
Jacobs, David London 20 Oct. 1784 7
Jacobs, John Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Jackson, Hannah Bristol 27 July, 1785 7
Jameson, James
Jackson, Jane, alias Esther Roberts London 29 June, 1785 7
Jackson, Mary Ditto 20 August, 1786 7
Jeffries, Robert Devizes 5 April, 1785 7
Jefferies, John Maidstone 11 July, 1785 7
Jenkins, Robert, alias Brown Ditto 13 March, 1786 7
Jepp, John London 10 Decem. 1784 7
Jenkins, William Exeter 20 March, 1786 7
Ingram, Benjamin London 8 Decem. 1784 7
Inett, Ann Worcester 11 March, 1786 7
Jones, Francis Winchester 12 July, 1785 7
Jones, Thomas Warwick 21 March, 1785 7
Johnson, Charles Manchester 14 April, 1785 7
Jones, Edward London 15 Septem. 1784 7
Josephs, Thomas Ditto 10 Septem. 1783 7
Johnson, William Kingston 24 March, 1784 7
Johns, Stephen Launceston 25 March, 1786 7
Jones, Margaret Ditto 8 March, 1783 14
Johnson, Edward Dorchester 16 March, 1786 7
Jones, John Exeter 24 May, 1784 14
Jones, William Shrewsbury 12 March, 1785 7
Jones, Richard Ditto 4 August, 1784 7
Jones, Thomas Bristol 30 March, 1784 14
Johnson, Catherine London 18 April, 1787 7
Johnson, Mary Ditto 26 April, 1786 7
Irvine, John, alias Aderson, alias Law Lincoln 6 March, 1784 7
Kelly, Thomas Pontefract 13 Jan. 1785 7
Kellan, John, alias Keeling London 10 Septem. 1783 Life
Kennedy, Martha Kingston 2 April, 1787 7
Kidney, Thomas Bristol 20 Oct. 1783 7
Kilby, William Reading 16 Jan. 1784 7
King, John London 21 April, 1784 7
Kilpack, David Ditto 10 Septem. 1783 Life
Kimberley, Edward Coventry 20 March, 1783 7
Knowler, John Maidstone 14 March, 1785 7
Knowland, Andrew
Lankey, David London 26 May, 1784 7
Lane, Richard Winchester 2 March, 1784 7
Lawrell, John Bodmin 18 August, 1783 7
Lane, William Chelmsford 8 July, 1784 7
Larne, James Exeter 12 July, 1785 7
Lambeth, John Bristol 31 May, 1785 7
Lavell, Henry
Lara, Flora London
Laycock, Carolina Ditto
Langley, Jane Ditto 14 Sept. 1785 7
Lawrence, Mary Ditto 23 Feb. 1785 7
Lemon, Isaac Chelmsford 7 March, 1785 7
Levy, Joseph London 6 May, 1784 7
Leary, John Winchester 3 March, 1783 7
Legg, George Dorchester 16 March, 1786 7
Leary, Jeremiah Bristol 30 March, 1784 14
Legrove, Stephen
Lee, Elizabeth London 23 Feb. 1785 7
Lewis, Sophia Ditto 25 Oct. 1786 7
Leonard, Elizabeth Ditto 23 Feb. 1785 7
Levy, Amelia Southwark 9 Jan. 1787 7
List, George, London 10 Septem. 1783 Life
Limeburner, John New Sarum 9 July, 1785 7
Limpus, Thomas Exeter 24 May, 1784 Life
Lightfoot, Samuel Ditto 14 March, 1786 7
Longstreet, Joseph Marlborough 5 Oct. 1784 7
Long, Joseph Glocester 23 March, 1785 14
Lockley, John London 10 Jan. 1787 7
Long, Mary Ditto 21 Feb. 1787 Life
Love, Mary Maidstone 14 March, 1785 7
Lock, Elizabeth Gloucester 26 March, 1783 7
Lucas, Nathaniel London 7 July, 1784 7
Lynch, Humphry New Sarum 25 March, 1785 7
Lynch, Ann Bristol 20 March, 1786 14
Lyde, John
May, Richard New Sarum 25 March, 1785 7
Martin, Stephen Bristol 28 April, 1783 7
Mansfield, John Chelmsford 6 March, 1786 7
M'Lean, Francis Guildford 11 August, 1784 7
M'Lean, Thomas Ditto 11 August, 1784 7
Maton, Thomas Maidstone 11 July, 1785 7
M'Donnaugh, James Ditto 11 July, 1785 7
Mariner, William Oxford 8 March, 1786 7
Marrott, John Gloucester 24 March, 1784 7
M'Laughlin, Charles Durham 19 July, 1785 7
Macintire, John Ditto 19 July, 1785 7
Martin, John London 3 July, 1782 7
M'Donald, Alexander Ditto 10 Decem. 1784 7
Marney, William Ditto 7 July, 1784 7
Marshall, Joseph Ditto 21 April, 1784 14
M'Lean, Edward Maidstone 15 March, 1784 7
Martin, Abraham New Sarum 11 March, 1786 7
Martin, Thomas Exeter 24 May, 1784 7
Martyn, James Ditto 20 March, 1786 7
M'Cormick, Sarah Manchester 4 May, 1786 7
M'Cormack, Mary Liverpool 12 Aug. 1784 7
Mason, Betty Gloucester 23 March, 1785 14
M'Grah, Redman
M'Deed, Richard
M'Na Mar, William
Mackrie, James
Marriott, Jane London 18 April, 1787 7
Mather, Ann Ditto 18 April, 1787 7
Mather, Mather Ditto 18 April, 1787 7
Mason, Susannah, alias Gibbs Ditto
M'Cabe, Eleanor Ditto 11 May, 1785 7
Marshall, Mary Ditto 23 Feb. 1785 Life
Marshall, Mary Ditto 10 Jan. 1787 7
Martin, Ann Southwark 9 Jan. 1787 7
Meynell, John, alias William Radford Nottingham 10 March, 1785 7
Messiah, Jacob
Meech, Jane, wife of William Meech Exeter 20 March, 1786 7
Milton, Charles Maidstone 14 March, 1785 7
Midgley, Samuel Lancaster 22 March, 1785 7
Middleton, Richard London 23 Feb. 1785 7
Mitchell Nathaniel Dorchester 3 August, 1786 7
Mills Matthew
Mitchcraft, Mary Kingston 2 April, 1787 7
Mitchell, Mary Ditto 3 Oct. 1785 7
Morris, Peter Bristol 12 July, 1784 7
Mowbray, John Lincoln 5 March, 1785 7
Morgan, Richard Glocester 23 March, 1785 7
Morrisby, John London 7 July, 1784 7
Moore, William Ditto 21 Jan. 1785 7
Morley, John Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Moorin, John Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Morgan, Robert Ditto 6 May, 1784 7
Mobbs, Samuel Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Morgan, William Ditto 15 Septem. 1784 7
Mould, William Guildford 11 August, 1784 7
Mollands, John Launceston 20 March, 1784 7
Moyle, Edward Ditto 19 March, 1785 7
Mood, Charles
Mortimore, John Exeter 20 March, 1786 7
Morley, Joseph
Morton, Mary London 23 Feb. 1785 7
Mullock, Jesse New Sarum 25 March, 1785 7
Murphy, William Liverpool 26 Jan. 1785 7
Munroe, John, alias Nurse London 21 April, 1784 7
Mullis, Stephen Exeter 12 Jan. 1785 7
Murphy, James   7
Munro, Lydia Kingston 2 April, 1787 14
Mullens, Hannah London 10 Jan. 1787 Life
Nettleton, Robert Kingston upon Hull 12 October, 1784 7
Newland, John London 21 April, 1784 7
Neal, John Ditto 26 May, 1784 7
Neal, James Bristol 10 Feb. 1785 7
Needham, Elizabeth London 19 July, 1786 7
Nicholls, John Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Norton, Phebe Ditto 25 Oct. 1786 7
Nunn, Robert Ditto 7 July, 1784 7
O'Craft, John Exeter 24 May, 1784 7
Ogden, James Manchester 20 Jan. 1785 7
Okey, William Gloucester 24 March, 1784 7
Oldfield, Thomas Manchester 20 July, 1786 7
Oldfield, Isabella Ditto 20 July, 1786 7
Opley, Peter Maidstone 13 March, 1786 7
Orford, Thomas London 7 July, 1784 7
Osborne, Thomas Ditto 14 Decem. 1784 7
Osborne, Elizabeth, alias Jones Ditto 30 August, 1786 7
Owles, John Croydon 20 July, 1785 7
Owen, John London 10 Septem. 1783 7
Owen, Joseph Shrewsbury 12 March, 1785 14
Page, Paul Lincoln 11 March, 1786 7
Pane, William Nottingham 10 March, 1785 7
Parry, Edward Stafford 27 July, 1785 7
Parr, William Liverpool 17 Jan. 1785 7
Palmer, John Herry London 10 Jan. 1786 7
Parker, John Ditto 1 April, 1784 7
Parish, William Ditto 20 Oct. 1784 7
Partridge, Richard Ditto 10 Sep. 1783 Life
Parris, Peter Exeter 17 March, 1783 7
Paget, Joseph Ditto 10 Jan. 1786 7
Parkinson, Jane, alias Partington, alias Ann Marsden Manchester 21 July, 1785 7
Parker, Elizabeth Gloucester 23 March, 1785 7
Parsley, Ann London 21 Feb. 1787 7
Parker, Mary Ditto 26 April, 1786 7
Partridge, Sarah, alias Roberts Ditto 23 Feb. 1785 7
Parry, Sarah Ditto 10 Jan. 1787 Life
Perrot, Edward Bearcroft Bristol 3 Feb. 1785 7
Petrie, John London 14 Jan. 1784 7
Peyton, Samuel Ditto 26 May, 1785 7
Percival, Richard Ditto 7 July, 1784 7
Pettitt, John Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Peaulet, James Ditto 7 July, 1784 7
Peet, Charles Ditto 23 Feb. 1785 Life
Peck, Joshua Exeter 20 March, 1786 7
Perkins, Edward Plymouth 26 Jan. 1785 7
Petherick, John Plymouth 26 Jan. 1785 7
Penny, John   7
Phillimore, William London 10 Sept. 1783 7
Phillips, Richard Ditto 10 Decem. 1783 7
Phillips, Mary Taunton 30 March, 1786 7
Phyfield, Roger, alias Twyfield Shrewsbury 12 March, 1785 7
Phyn, Mary London 14 Septem. 1785 7
Pigott, Samuel Exeter 20 March, 1786 7
Pinder, Mary Lincoln 13 Jan. 1787 7
Pipkin, Elizabeth London  7
Piles, Mary Ditto 6 April, 1785 7
Pope, David Southwark 16 Feb. 1785 7
Power, John London 14 Decem. 1786 7
Pontie, John Ditto 23 Feb. 1785 Life
Poole, Jane Wells 19 August, 1786 7
Power, William
Powley, Elizabeth
Powell, Ann London 13 Decem. 1786 7
Price, John Southwark 16 Feb. 1785 7
Prior, Thomas Reading 16 Jan. 1784 7
Price, James Gloucester 13 July, 1785 7
Pritchard, Thomas
Pugh, Edward Gloucester 5 Oct. 1784 7
Randall, John Manchester 14 April, 1785 7
Reymond, George London 12 Jan. 1785 7
Ramsey, John Kingston 24 March, 1784 7
Repeat, Charles Warwick 21 March, 1785 7
Read, William Croydon 18 August, 1783 7
Reardon, Bartholemew Winchester 15 July, 1783 7
Read, Ann London 23 Feb. 1785 Life
Risdale, Thomas, alias Crowder Bristol 29 March, 1785 Life
Richard, James East Grinstead 20 March, 1786 7
Richardson, James Maidstone 14 March, 1785 7
Risby, Edward Gloucester 24 March, 1784 7
Richardson, William London 10 Decem. 1784 7
Richardson, Hardwicke Ditto 25 Oct. 1785 7
Richardson, John Ditto 7 July, 1784 7
Richard, David Ditto 26 May, 1784 7
Richardson, Samuel Ditto 15 Septem. 1784 7
Rickson, William Chelmsford 8 July, 1784 7
Richards, John, alias Williams Winchester 2 March, 1784 7
Richard, James Launceston 25 March, 1786 7
Rice, John Exeter 18 July, 1785 7
Rope, Anthony Chelmsford 7 March, 1785 7
Rogers, Daniel Croydon 20 July, 1785 7
Robinson, George Lincoln 9 July, 1785 7
Rogers, Isaac Gloucester 23 March, 1785 14
Robinson, Thomas Kingston upon Hull 7 Oct. 1784 7
Robert, John Liverpool 26 Jan. 1785 7
Robinson, George London 21 April, 1784 7
Romain, John, Ditto 15 Septem. 1784 7
Rowe, John Launceston 19 March, 1785 7
Rowe, William Ditto 19 March, 1785 7
Roberts, William Bodmin 14 August, 1786 7
Robinson, William Exeter 24 May, 1784 7
Roach, Henry Ditto 24 May, 1784 7
Robins, John, alias Major Ditto 18 July, 1785 7
Rous, Walton, alias Batley
Rolt, Mary London
Rosson, Isabella Ditto 10 Jan. 1787 7
Russel, John Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Ruglass, John Ditto 23 Feb. 1785 Life
Russler, John Ditto 23 Feb. 1785 Life
Ruce, James Bodmin 29 July, 1782 7
Ruth, Robert Exeter 14 March, 1786 7
Ryan, John
Saltmarsh, William Kingston 28 March, 1785 7
Sanderson, Thomas Lincoln 9 July, 1785 7
Sands, William Ditto 9 July, 1785 7
Sampson, Peter London 7 July, 1784 7
Sandlin, Ann, alias Lynes, alias Pattens Ditto 13 Decem. 1786 7
Scattergood, Robert Stafford 6 Oct. 1785 7
Scott, Elizabeth London 21 Feb. 1787 7
Selshire, Samuel Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Seymour, John Sherborne 25 April, 1786 7
Shearman, William Reading 7 Oct. 1785 7
Shaw, Joseph Stafford 27 July, 1785 7
Shepherd, Robert Durham 19 July, 1785 7
Sharpe, George Ditto 19 July, 1785 7
Shore, William Lancaster 22 March, 1785 7
Shore, John
Shiers, James London 23 Feb. 1785 Life
Silverthorn, John New Sarum 6 March, 1784 7
Sideway, Robert
Slater, Sarah London 23 Feb. 1785 7
Smart, Richard Gloucester 10 Jan. 1786 7
Smart, Daniel Ditto 10 Jan. 1786 7
Smith, Thomas Lancaster 22 March, 1785 7
Smith, William Liverpool 26 Jan. 1785 7
Smith, Edward London 15 Oct. 1784 7
Smith, William Ditto 10 April, 1783 7
Smith, Thomas, alias Haynes Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Smith, James Ditto 23 Feb. 1785 7
Smith, John Guildford 11 August, 1784 7
Smith, William Bodmin 25 July, 1785 7
Smith, Ann, wife of John Smith Winchester 1 March, 1785 7
Smith, Hannah Ditto 5 April, 1785 7
Smith, William Dorchester 16 March, 1786 7
Smith, Edward Exeter 14 March, 1786 7
Smith, John Ditto 14 March, 1786 7
Small, John Ditto 14 March, 1786 7
Smith, Ann London 18 April, 1787 7
Smith, Catherine Ditto 18 April, 1787 7
Smith, Ann Ditto 30 August, 1786 7
Smith, Catherine Ditto 10 Jan. 1787 7
Smith, Mary Ditto 10 Jan. 1787 7
Snaleham, William Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Sparks, Henry
Spencer, Daniel Dorchester 3 August, 1786 14
Spencer, John, alias Pearce
Spence, Mary Wigan Jan. 1786 5
Sprigmore, Charlotte London 19 August, 1785 7
Springham, Mary Ditto 25 October, 1786 7
Squires, James Kingston 11 April, 1785 7
Stanley, William New Sarum 25 March, 1785 7
Strong, James Dorchester 10 March, 1784 7
Stow, James Lincoln 9 July, 1785 7
Stone, Martin Warwick 21 March, 1785 7
Stokee, John Durham 19 July, 1785 7
Stone, Charles London 10 Decem. 1784 7
Stone, Henry Ditto 10 Decem. 1784 7
Stogdell, John Ditto 20 Decem. 1784 14
Stuart, James Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Stanton, Thomas, alias Ebden Launceston 20 March, 1784 7
Stephens, John Morris Dorchester 16 March, 1786 7
Stewart, Margaret Exeter 28 August, 1786 7
Strech, Thomas Shrewsbury 16 August, 1783 7
Summers, John Gloucester 13 July, 1784 7
Taylor, Joshua Manchester 14 Oct. 1784 7
Taylor, Henry
Taylor, Sarah Kingston 2 April, 1787 7
Tenant, Thomas Hilton, alias Phillip Divine Chelmsford 6 March, 1786 7
Teague, Cornelius Bodmin 25 July, 1785 7
Tenchall, James, alias Tenninghill
Thompson, William Durham 19 July, 1785 7
Thomas, James London 10 Decem. 1784 7
Thompson, James Ditto 7 July, 1784 7
Thomas, James Ditto 10 Septem. 1783 7
Thomas, John Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Thompson, William Ditto 26 May, 1784 7
Thackery, Elizabeth Manchester 4 May, 1786 7
Thoudy, James
Thomas, Elizabeth Wigan Jan. 1787 7
Thornton, Ann London 13 Decem. 1786 7
Tunmins, Thomas Warwick 21 March, 1785 7
Tilley, Thomas Stafford 27 July, 1785 7
Till, Thomas London 23 Feb. 1785 7
Todd, Nicholas Ditto 21 April, 1784 7
Trotter, Joseph Maidstone 13 March, 1786 7
Trace, John Exeter 20 March, 1786 7
Trippett, Susannah London 20 August, 1786 7
Turner, Ralph Manchester 14 April, 1785 7
Tuso, Joseph London 23 Feb. 1785 Life
Turner, John
Tucker, Moses Plymouth 7 June, 1786 7
Turner, Thomas
Turner, John
Turner, Mary Worcester 5 March, 1785 7
Twyneham, William Reading 10 Jan. 1786 7
Twyfield, Ann, since said to be married to William Dawley,
          a convict Shrewsbury 4 August, 1784 7
Tyrrell, William Winchester 1 March, 1785 7
Vandell, Edward East Grinstead 22 March, 1784 7
Vincent, Henry London 21 April, 1784 7
Vickery, William Exeter 20 March, 1786 7
Underwood, James New Sarum 11 March, 1786 14
Usher, John Maidstone 14 March, 1785 7
Waterhouse, William Kingston 28 March, 1785 7
Watsan, John Maidstone 13 March, 1786 7
Ward, John Lowth 11 July, 1786 7
Wall, William Oxford 8 March, 1786 7
Wager, Benjamin London 20 Oct. 1784 7
Walsh, William Ditto 15 Septem. 1784 7
Walker, John Ditto 20 Oct. 1784 7
Walbourne, James Ditto 10 Septem. 1783 7
Watson, Thomas Exeter 20 March, 1786 7
Ware, Charlottee
Watkins, Mary
Wainwright, Ellen, alias Estther Eccles Preston Jan. 1787 7
Ward, Ann London 19 Decem. 1786 7
Wade, Mary, alias Cacklane Ditto 19 July, 1786 14
Welch, James Maidstone 14 March, 1785 7
Welch, John Durham 19 July, 1785 7
West, Benjamin London 10 Decem. 1784 7
Westwood, John Ditto 20 October, 1784 7
Welch, John Ditto 26 May, 1784 7
Welch, John Ditto 10 Septem. 1783 Life
Westlale, Edward Exeter 20 March, 1786 7
Waddicomb, Richard Ditto 20 March, 1786 7
Wheeler, Samuel Croydon 20 July, 1785 7
Whitaker, George Maidstone 14 March, 1785 7
Whiting, William Gloucester 23 March, 1785 7
Whitton, Edward Maidstone 10 March, 1783 Life
White, James Ditto 11 August, 1783 7
Wilcocks, Samuel Dorcester 10 March, 1784 7
Wilton, William Bristol 12 Jan. 1784 7
Wilson, Peter Manchester 20 Jan. 1785 7
Wilson, John Wigan 10 Oct. 1785 7
Williams, Charles London 7 July, 1784 7
Williams, James Ditto 11 May, 1785 7
Wilson, Charles Ditto 10 Septem. 1783 Life
Williams, John, alias Black Jack Maidstone 2 August, 1784 7
Williams, Robert Launceston 25 March, 1786 7
Williams, John, alias Floyd Bodmin 18 August, 1783 7
Wilding, John, alias Warren Bury 23 March, 1784 7
Wickham, Mary New Sarum 2 August, 1788 14
Williams, Peter, alias Flaggett, alias Creamer Exeter 24 May, 1784 7
Wilcocks, Richard Ditto 20 March, 1786 7
Williams, John Ditto 7 August, 1786 7
Wisehammer, John Bristol 10 Feb. 1785 7
Williams, Daniel Preston 23 March, 1785 7
Williams, Frances Mold 2 Septem. 1783 7
Williams, Mary London 22 Feb. 1786 7
Wood, George Ditto 20 Oct. 1784 7
Woodcock, Peter Ditto 7 July, 1784 7
Woodham, Samuel Ditto 23 Feb. 1785 Life
Worsdell, William Launceston 22 March, 1783 7
Woolcot, John Exeter 18 July, 1785 Life
Woodcock, Francis Shrewsbury 13 March, 1784 7
Wood, Mark
Wright, Thomas Reading 28 Feb. 1785 7
Wright, Benjamin London 6 May, 1784 7
Wright, Joseph Ditto 26 May, 1784 7
Wright, William Ditto 15 Sept. 1783 7
Wright, James Maidstone 11 August, 1783 7
Wright, Ann London 23 Feb. 1785 7
Yardsley, Thomas, Shrewsbury 4 August, 1784 7
Yates, Nancy York 9 July, 1785 7
Young, John London 20 Oct. 1784 7
Young, Simon Ditto 23 Feb. 1785 7
Youngson, Elizabeth Lancaster 6 March, 1787 7
Youngson, George Ditto 6 March, 1787 7


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