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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALIAN BIOGRAPHY

Sir Edward Macarthur Lady Jane Franklin James Cook Ada Cambridge Dame Nellie Melba Samuel Marsden

by PERCIVAL SERLE

Angus and Robertson--1949

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Main Page

Preface    Acknowledgments    Epigraph

Biographies:   A  Ba  Be-Bo  Br-By  Ca-Ch  Cl-Cu  D  E  F  G  Ha-He  Hi-Hu 
             I-K  L  Mc  Ma-Mo  Mu-My  N-O  P-Q  R  Sa-Sp  St-Sy  T-V  Wa  We-Wy  X-Z 

Index of Individuals: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


 

When Plutarch placed in noble array for the contemplation of ages to come his images of heroes and sages, or when Dr Johnson drew that gallery of poets, so many of whom only survive in his portraiture, the writers must have been conscious how little of the real men lay behind those strong or graceful representations, how much that was even faithfully recorded may convey a false impression, how much was inevitably omitted which might contradict every deduction and alter every estimate.

R. MONCTON MILNES, LORD HOUGHTON, Monographs, 1873.


A

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à BECKETT, SIR THOMAS

à BECKETT, SIR WILLIAM

ADAMS, ARTHUR HENRY

ADAMS, FRANCIS WILLIAM LAUDERDALE

ADAMSON, LAWRENCE ARTHUR

AGNEW, SIR JAMES WILLSON

ALEXANDER, SAMUEL

ALLAN, JOHN

ALLEN, SIR GEORGE WIGRAM

ALLEN, SIR HARRY BROOKES

ALLEN, WILLIAM

ANDERSON, SIR FRANCIS

ANDREWS, RICHARD BULLOCK

ANGAS, GEORGE FIFE

ANGAS, GEORGE FRENCH

ANGAS, JOHN HOWARD

ARCHER, THOMAS

ARCHIBALD, JULES FRANCOIS

ARGYLE, SIR STANLEY SEYMOUR

ARMSTRONG, HELEN PORTER

ARTHUR, SIR GEORGE

ASCHE, JOHN STANGER HEISS OSCAR

ASHTON, JAMES

ASHTON, JULIAN ROSSI

ASPINALL, BUTLER COLE

ASTLEY, WILLIAM

ATKINSON, CAROLINE LOUISA

AULD, JAMES MUIR

AYERS, SIR HENRY

 

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B

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BACKHOUSE, JAMES

BADHAM, CHARLES

BAILEY, FREDERICK MANSON

BAILLIEU, WILLIAM LAWRENCE

BAIRD, SIR JOHN LAWRENCE

BAKER, SIR RICHARD CHAFFEY

BAKER, RICHARD THOMAS

BAKER, SHIRLEY WALDEMAR

BALL, PERCIVAL

BANCROFT, JOSEPH

BANFIELD, EDMUND JAMES

BANKS, SIR JOSEPH

BANNERMAN, CHARLES

BANNISTER, SAXE

BARKER, COLLET

BARKER, FREDERIC

BARNES, GUSTAVE

BARNES, JOHN

BARNEY, GEORGE

BARRALLIER, FRANCIS

BARRINGTON, GEORGE

BARROW, JOHN HENRY

BARRY, ALFRED

BARRY, JOHN ARTHUR

BARRY, SIR REDMOND

BARTON, SIR EDMUND

BARTON, GEORGE BURNETT

BASEDOW, HERBERT

BASS, GEORGE

BATMAN, JOHN

BAUER, FERDINAND

BAVIN, SIR THOMAS RAINSFORD

BAYLEBRIDGE, WILLIAM

BAYLEY, ARTHUR WELLESLEY

BAYNTON, BARBARA JANET AINSLEIGH

BECKE, GEORGE LEWIS

BEDFORD, RANDOLPH

BEEBY, SIR GEORGE STEPHENSON

BELL, SIR JOSHUA PETER

BELL, JOSHUA THOMAS

BENNETT, GEORGE

BENT, ANDREW

BENT, ELLIS

BENT, JEFFERY HART

BENT, SIR THOMAS

BERNAYS, LEWIS ADOLPHUS

BERRY, ALEXANDER

BERRY, SIR GRAHAM

BEVAN, LLEWELYN DAVID

BIDWILL, JOHN CARNE

BIGGE, JOHN THOMAS

BLACKET, EDMUND THOMAS

BLACKHAM, JOHN McCARTHY

BLAIR, DAVID

BLAND, WILLIAM

BLASHKI, M.,

BLAXLAND, GREGORY

BLAXLAND, JOHN

BLIGH, WILLIAM

BLOCKSIDGE, CHARLES WILLIAM.

BLYTH, SIR ARTHUR

BOAKE, BARCROFT HENRY THOMAS

BOAS, ABRAHAM TOBIAS

BOCK, THOMAS

BOLDREWOOD, ROLF.

BONNEY, CHARLES

BONWICK, JAMES

BONYTHON, SIR JOHN LANGDON

BOOTHBY, GUY NEWELL

BOSCH, GEORGE HENRY

BOUCAUT, SIR JAMES PENN

BOUCICAULT, DION

BOURKE, JOHN PHILIP

BOURKE, SIR RICHARD

BOWEN, SIR GEORGE FERGUSON

BOWSER, SIR JOHN

BOYCE, FRANCIS BERTIE

BOYCE, WILLIAM BINNINGTON

BOYD, ARTHUR MERRIC

BOYD, BENJAMIN

BOYD, THEODORE PENLEIGH

BRACKEN, THOMAS

BRADDON, SIR EDWARD NICHOLAS COVENTRY

BRAGG, SIR WILLIAM HENRY

BRAY, SIR JOHN COX

BRENNAN, CHRISTOPHER JOHN

BRENNAN, LOUIS

BRERETON, JOHN LE GAY

BRIDGES, SIR WILLIAM THROSBY

BRIERLY, SIR OSWALD WALTERS

BRISBANE, SIR THOMAS MAKDOUGALL

BROMBY, CHARLES HENRY

BROMBY, JOHN EDWARD

BROOKE, GUSTAVUS VAUGHAN

BROUGHTON, WILLIAM GRANT

BROWN, GEORGE

BROWN, HENRY YORKE LYELL

BROWN, ROBERT

BROWN, WILLIAM JETHRO

BROWNE, JOHN HARRIS

BROWNE, THOMAS ALEXANDER, "Rolf Boldrewood"

BRUNNICH, JOHANNES CHRISTIAN

BRYANT, CHARLES DAVID JONES

BUCHANAN, NATHANIEL

BUCKLEY, WILLIAM

BUNDEY, SIR WILLIAM HENRY

BURKE, ROBERT O'HARA

BURN, DAVID

BURNS, SIR JAMES

BURT, SIR ARCHIBALD PAULL

BURTON, SIR WILLIAM WESTBROOKE

BUSBY, JAMES

BUSBY, JOHN

BUTLER, SIR RICHARD

BUVELOT, ABRAM LOUIS

BUZACOTT, CHARLES HARDIE

BYRNES, THOMAS JOSEPH

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C

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CADELL, FRANCIS

CAFFYN, KATHLEEN MANNINGTON

CALEY, GEORGE

CALVERT, CAROLINE LOUISA WARING

CAMBAGE, RICHARD HIND

CAMBRIDGE, ADA

CAMPBELL, ROBERT

CAMPBELL, SIR THOMAS COCKBURN

CAPE, WILLIAM TIMOTHY

CARANDINI, MARIE

CARMICHAEL, GRACE ELIZABETH JENNINGS

CARR, THOMAS JOSEPH

CARRUTHERS, SIR JOSEPH HECTOR McNEIL

CARSTENSZ or CARSTENSZOON, JAN

CARTER, HERBERT JAMES

CASH, MARTIN

CATCHPOLE, MARGARET

CHAFFEY, GEORGE

CHAFFEY, WILLIAM BENJAMIN

CHALLIS, JOHN HENRY

CHALMERS, JAMES

CHAMBERS, CHARLES HADDON

CHAMP, WILL1AM THOMAS NAPIER

CHAMPION, HENRY HYDE

CHAPMAN, HENRY SAMUEL

CHAPMAN, THOMAS DANIEL

CHEVALIER, NICHOLAS

CHEWINGS, CHARLES

CHILDERS, HUGH CULLING EARDLEY

CHISHOLM, CAROLINE

CHRISTISON, ROBERT

CHURCH, HUBERT NEWMAN WIGMORE

CLARK, ANDREW INGLIS

CLARKE, SIR ANDREW

CLARKE, GEORGE

CLARKE, HENRY LOWTHER

CLARKE, MARCUS ANDREW HISLOP

CLARKE, WILLIAM BRANWHITE

CLARKE, SIR WILLIAM JOHN

CLAXTON, MARSHALL

CLOWES, EVELYN MARY

COATES, GEORGE JAMES

COCKBURN, SIR JOHN ALEXANDER

COCKBURN-CAMPBELL, SIR THOMAS

COCKLE, SIR JAMES

COGHLAN, SIR TIMOTHY AUGUSTINE

COLE, EDWARD WILLIAM

COLES, SIR JENKIN

COLLINS, DAVID

COLLINS, TOM

COLTON, SIR JOHN

CONDER, CHARLES

COOK, EBENEZER WAKE

COOK, JAMES

COOMBES, RICHARD

COOPER, SIR CHARLES

COOPER, SIR DANIEL

COOPER, SIR POPE ALEXANDER

COPPIN, GEORGE SELTH

COUVREUR, JESSIE CATHERINE

COWAN, EDITH DIRCKSEY

COWPER, SIR CHARLES

COWPER, WILLIAM

COWPER, WILLIAM MACQUARIE

COX, WILLIAM

CRAWFORD, ROBERT

CRESWELL, SIR WILLIAM ROOKE

CROSS, ADA

CROSSLEY, ADA

CROWTHER, WILLIAM LODEWYK

CULLEN, SIR WILLIAM PORTUS

CUNNINGHAM, ALLAN

CURR, EDWARD MICKLETHWAITE

CUSSEN, SIR LEO FINN BERNARD

CUTHBERTSON, JAMES LISTER

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D

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DAGLISH, HENRY

DAINTREE, RICHARD

DALEY, VICTOR JAMES WILLIAM PATRICK

DALLEY, JOHN BEDE

DALLEY, WILLIAM BEDE

DAMPIER, ALFRED

DAMPIER, WILLIAM

DAPLYN, ALFRED JAMES

D'ARCY, WILLIAM KNOX

DARLEY, SIR FREDERICK MATTHEW

DARLING, SIR RALPH

DAVENPORT, SIR SAMUEL

DAVEY, THOMAS

DAVID, SIR TANNATT WILLIAM EDGEWORTH

DAVIES, DAVID

DAVIS, ARTHUR HOEY, "Steele Rudd"

DAVY, EDWARD

DAWE, WILLIAM CARLTON LANYON

DAWES, WILLIAM

DAWSON, ANDREW

DEAKIN, ALFRED

DEANE, HENRY

DEAS-THOMSON, SIR EDWARD

de BURGH, ERNEST MACARTNEY

DEEMING, FREDERICK BAILEY

DELPRAT, GUILLAUME DANIEL

DENIEHY, DANIEL HENRY

DENISON, SIR WILLIAM THOMAS

DENNIS, CLARENCE MICHAEL JAMES

DERHAM, ENID

DEXTER, WILLIAM

DIBBS, SIR GEORGE RICHARD

DIBBS, SIR THOMAS ALLWRIGHT

DICKSON, SIR JAMES ROBERT

DIETRICH, AMALIE

DIXSON, SIR HUGH

DOBSON, HENRY

DOBSON, SIR WILLIAM LAMBERT

DODDS, SIR JOHN STOKELL

DONALDSON, ST CLAIR GEORGE ALFRED

DONALDSON, SIR STUART ALEXANDER

DOUGLAS, SIR ADYE

DOUGLAS, JOHN

DOWIE, JOHN ALEXANDER

DOWLING, SIR JAMES

DOWLING, ROBERT

DOWNER, SIR JOHN WILLIAM

DRUMMOND, JAMES

DRY, SIR RICHARD

DUDLEY, EARL OF

DUFFY, SIR CHARLES GAVAN

DUFFY, SIR FRANK GAVAN

DUN, WILLIAM SUTHERLAND

DUNLOP, JAMES

DUNN, EDWARD JOHN

DUNNE, ROBERT

DUTERREAU, BENJAMIN

DUTTON, FRANCIS STACKER

DYSON, EDWARD GEORGE

DYSON, WILLIAM HENRY

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E

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EARDLEY-WILMOT, SIR JOHN EARDLEY

EARLE, AUGUSTUS

EARLE, JOHN

EDGAR, ALEXANDER ROBERT

EDMENTS, ALFRED

EDMOND, JAMES

ELDER, SIR THOMAS

ELLERY, ROBERT LEWIS JOHN

ELLIOTT, HAROLD EDWARD

ELLIS, HENRY AUGUSTUS

ELLIS, HENRY HAVELOCK

EMBLEY, EDWARD HENRY

ETHERIDGE, ROBERT, JUN.

EVANS, GEORGE ESSEX

EVANS, GEORGE WILLIAM

EVANS, MRS MATILDA JANE

EVERGOOD, MILES

EWART, ALFRED JAMES

EYRE, EDWARD JOHN

 

 

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F

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FAIRBAIRN, STEPHEN

FAIRBRIDGE, KINGSLEY OGILVIE

FAIRFAX, JOHN

FARJEON, BENJAMIN LEOPOLD

FARNELL, JAMES SQUIRE

FARRELL, JOHN

FARRER, WILLIAM JAMES

FAVENC, ERNEST

FAWKNER, JOHN PASCOE

FELTON, ALFRED

FIELD, BARRON

FINCH-HATTON, HAROLD HENEAGE

FINK, THEODORE

FINN, EDMUND

FINNISS, BOYLE TRAVERS

FISHER, ANDREW

FISHER, SIR JAMES HURTLE

FISON, REV. LORIMER

FITCHETT, WILLIAM HENRY

FITZGERALD, ROBERT DAVID

FITZGERALD, SIR THOMAS NAGHTEN

FITZGIBBON, EDMOND GERALD

FITZROY, SIR CHARLES AUGUSTUS

FLEMING, SIR VALENTINE

FLETCHER, JOSEPH JAMES

FLINDERS, MATTHEW

FOLINGSBY, GEORGE FREDERICK

FOOTT, MARY HANNAY

FORBES, SIR FRANCIS

FORBES, JAMES

FORREST, ALEXANDER

FORREST, HELENA MABEL CHECKLEY

FORREST, SIR JOHN

FORSTER, SIR HENRY WILLIAM

FORSTER, WILLIAM

FORSTER, WILLIAM MARK

FOVEAUX, JOSEPH,

FOX, EMANUEL PHILLIPS

FOXTON, JUSTIN FOX GREENLAW

FRANC, MAUD JEAN née CONGREVE

FRANCIS, JAMES GOODALL

FRANKLIN, JANE, LADY

FRANKLIN, SIR JOHN

FRENCH, CHARLES

FRIEDENSEN, THOMAS

FROGGATT, WALTER WILSON

FRY, DOUGLAS

FULLWOOD, ALBERT HENRY

FULTON, HENRY

FURPHY, JOSEPH "Tom Collins"

FYSH, SIR PHILIP OAKLEY

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G

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GARDINER, FRANK

GARRAN, ANDREW

GAUNT, MARY ELIZA BAKEWELL

GAWLER, GEORGE

GAY, WILLIAM

GELLIBRAND, JOSEPH TICE

GERRALD, JOSEPH

GIBLIN, WILLIAM ROBERT

GIBSON, GEORGE HERBERT

GIBSON, SIR ROBERT

GIFFEN, GEORGE

GILBERT, CHARLES WEB

GILBERT, JOHN

GILES, ERNEST

GILL, HARRY PELLING

GILL, SAMUEL THOMAS

GILLEN, FRANCIS JAMES

GILLIES, DUNCAN

GILLIES, WILLIAM NEAL

GIPPS, SIR GEORGE

GLEDDEN, ROBERT

GLOVER, JOHN

GLYNN, PATRICK McMAHON

GOE, FIELD FLOWERS

GOLDSBROUGH, RICHARD

GOOLD, JAMES ALIPIUS

GORDON, ADAM LINDSAY

GORDON, SIR JOHN HANNAH

GOUGER, ROBERT

GOULD, JOHN

GOULD, NATHANIEL

GRAHAM, SIR JAMES

GRANT, JAMES

GRANT, JAMES MACPHERSON

GRAVES, JOHN WOODCOCK

GRAYSON, HENRY JOSEPH

GREENWAY, FRANCIS HOWARD

GREGORY, SIR AUGUSTUS CHARLES

GREGORY, FRANCIS THOMAS

GREGORY, JOHN WALTER

GREGSON, THOMAS GEORGE

GREY, SIR GEORGE

GRICE, SIR JOHN

GRIFFIN, WALTER BURLEY

GRIFFITH, SIR SAMUEL WALKER

GRIMES, CHARLES

GRITTEN, HENRY

GROOM, SIR LITTLETON ERNEST

GROOM, WILLIAM HENRY

GROSE, FRANCIS

GRUNER, ELIOTH

GUERARD, JEAN EUGENE VON

GUILFOYLE, WILLIAM ROBERT

GUNN, RONALD CAMPBELL

GUTHRIE, FREDERICK BICKELL

GWYNNE, EDWARD CASTRES

 

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H

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HACKETT, SIR JOHN WINTHROP

HADDON, FREDERICK WILLIAM

HAINES, WILLIAM CLARK

HALE, MATTHEW BLAGDEN

HALES, ALFRED ARTHUR GREENWOOD

HALFORD, GEORGE BRITTON

HALL, BENJAMIN

HALL, EDWARD SMITH

HALL, GEORGE WILLIAM LOUIS MARSHALL

HALL, LINDSAY BERNARD

HALL, THOMAS SERGEANT

HALL, WALTER AND ELIZA

HALLORAN, LAURENCE HYNES

HANNAN, PATRICK

HANSON, ALBERT J.

HANSON, SIR RICHARD DAVIES

HARFORD, LESBIA VENNER

HARGRAVE, LAWRENCE

HARGRAVES, EDWARD HAMMOND

HARPER, ANDREW

HARPUR, CHARLES

HARRIS, RICHARD DEODATUS POULETT

HARRIS, SAMUEL HARRY

HARRISON, HENRY COLDEN ANTILL

HARRISON, JAMES

HART, JOHN

HARTLEY, JOHN ANDERSON

HASWELL, WILLIAM AITCHESON

HAWDON, JOSEPH

HAWKER, GEORGE CHARLES

HAWKER, HARRY GEORGE

HAY, SIR JOHN

HAYES, SIR HENRY BROWNE

HAYTER, HENRY HEYLYN

HEAD, FREDERICK WALDEGRAVE

HEALES, RICHARD

HEARN, WILLIAM EDWARD

HEATON, SIR JOHN HENNIKER

HEBBLETHWAITE, JAMES

HEDLEY, CHARLES

HENEY, THOMAS WILLIAM

HENTY, EDWARD

HENTY, JAMES

HERBERT, SIR ROBERT GEORGE WYNDHAM

HIGGINS, HENRY BOURNES

HIGGINS, SIR JOHN MICHAEL

HIGINBOTHAM, GEORGE

HILDER, JESSE JEWHURST

HINDMARSH, SIR JOHN

HINKLER, HERBERT JOHN LOUIS

HIRSCH, MAX

HOBBS, SIR JOSEPH JOHN TALBOT

HOBSON, WILLIAM

HODDLE, ROBERT

HODGSON, SIR ARTHUR

HOFF, GEORGE RAYNER

HOLDER, SIR FREDERICK WILLIAM

HOLMAN, WILLIAM ARTHUR

HOLROYD, SIR EDWARD DUNDAS

HOLT, JOSEPH

HOLT, JOSEPH BLAND

HOPE, JOHN ADRIAN LOUIS

HOPETOUN, LORD

HOPKINS, LIVINGSTON

HORNE, RICHARD HENRY

HORNUNG, ERNEST WILLIAM

HOTHAM, SIR CHARLES

HOVELL, WILLIAM HILTON

HOWARD, CHARLES BEAUMONT

HOWARD, HENRY

HOWCHIN, WALTER

HOWE, GEORGE

HOWE, MICHAEL

HOWITT, ALFRED WILLIAM

HOWSE, SIR NEVILLE REGINALD

HUDDART, JAMES

HUGHES, SIR WALTER WATSON

HUME, FERGUS

HUME, HAMILTON

HUNTER, JOHN

HUNTER, JOHN IRVINE

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I

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ILLINGWORTH, NELSON

INNES, FREDERICK MAITLAND

IRONSIDE, ADELAIDE ELIZA

IRVING, MARTIN HOWY

 

 

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J

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JACK, ROBERT LOGAN

JACKSON, SIR CYRIL

JACOBS, JOSEPH

JAMES, WINIFRED LEWELLIN

JAMISON, SIR JOHN

JANSZ or JANSSEN, WILLEM

JEFFERSON, JOSEPH

JENKINS, JOHN GREELEY

JENNINGS, SIR PATRICK ALFRED

JOHNS, FRED

JOHNSON, RICHARD

JOHNSON, SIR WILLIAM ELLIOT

JOHNSTON, GEORGE

JOHNSTON, ROBERT MACKENZIE

JONES, SIR HENRY

JONES, SIR PHILIP SYDNEY

JORGENSEN, JORGEN

JOSE, ARTHUR WILBERFORCE

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K

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KAVEL, AUGUSTUS

KELLY, EDWARD

KELLY, FREDERICK SEPTIMUS

KELLY, MICHAEL

KENDALL, HENRY

KENNEDY, EDMUND BESLEY COURT

KENNERLEY, ALFRED

KENNION, GEORGE WYNDHAM

KERFORD, GEORGE BRISCOE

KERNOT, WILLIAM CHARLES

KIDMAN, SIR SIDNEY

KIDSTON, WILLIAM

KING, JAMES

KING, PHILIP GIDLEY

KING, PHILLIP PARKER

KINGSLEY, HENRY

KINGSTON, CHARLES CAMERON

KNIBBS, SIR GEORGE HANDLEY

KNIGHT, JOHN GEORGE

KNIGHT, JOHN JAMES

KNOPWOOD, ROBERT

KNOX, SIR ADRIAN

KREFFT, JOHANN LUDWIG GERARD

 

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L

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LALOR, PETER

LAMB, SIR HORACE

LAMBERT, GEORGE WASHINGTON T

LANDSBOROUGH, WILLIAM

LANE, WILLIAM

LANG, JOHN

LANG, JOHN DUNMORE

LAPÉROUSE, JEAN FRANCOIS GALAUP

LA TROBE, CHARLES JOSEPH

LAWES, WILLIAM GEORGE

LAWSON, ABERCROMBIE A

LAWSON, HENRY

LAWSON, WILLIAM

LEA, ARTHUR MILLS

LEACH, JOHN ALBERT

LEAKE, GEORGE

LEDGER, CHARLES

LEEPER, ALEXANDER

LEES, HARRINGTON CLARE

LEE-STEERE, SIR JAMES GEORGE

LEFROY, SIR HENRY BRUCE

LEGGE, WILLIAM VINCENT

LEICHHARDT, FRIEDRICH WILHELM LUDWIG

LENNOX, DAVID

LEWIN, JOHN WILLIAM

LEWIS, DAVID EDWARD

LEWIS, SIR NEIL ELLIOTT

LIGHT, WILLIAM

LILLEY, SIR CHARLES

LINDSAY, DAVID

LINDSAY, RUBY

LINLITHGOW, LOR

LITTLEJOHN, WILLIAM STILL

LIVERSIDGE, ARCHIBALD

LOCKYER, EDMUND

LONG, GEORGE MERRICK

LONGSTAFF, SIR JOHN

LONSDALE, WILLIAM

LORD, SIMEON

LOWE, ROBERT, VISCOUNT SHERBROOKE

LOWRIE, WILLIAM

LUCAS, ARTHUR HENRY SHAKESPEARE

LYCETT, JOSEPH

LYNCH, ARTHUR ALFRED

LYNE, SIR WILLIAM JOHN

LYONS, JOSEPH ALOYSIUS

LYSTER, WILLIAM SAURIN

 

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M

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MACALISTER, ARTHUR

MACARTHUR, SIR EDWARD

MACARTHUR, JOHN

MacCALLUM, SIR MUNG0 WILLIAM

McCAUGHEY, SIR SAMUEL

McCAWLEY, TH0MAS WILLIAM

McCAY, SIR JAMES WHITESIDE

McCOLL, HUGH

McCOLL, JAMES HIERS

McCOY, SIR FREDERICK

McCRAE, GEORGE GORDON

McCRAE, GEORGIANA HUNTLY

McCUBBIN, FREDERICK

McCULLOCH, ALLAN RIVERSTONE

McCULLOCH, SIR JAMES

McDONALD, CHARLES

MACDONALD, DONALD

MacDONNELL, SIR RICHARD GRAVES

MacFARLAND, SIR JOHN HENRY

McGOWEN, JAMES SINCLAIR TAYLOR

MACGREGOR, SIR WILLIAM

McILWRAITH, SIR THOMAS

McINNES, WILLIAM BECKWITH

McKAY, HUGH VICTOR

MACKELLAR, SIR CHARLES KINNAIRD

MACKENNAL, SIR EDGAR BERTRAM

MACKENZIE, SIR ROBERT RAMSEY BART.

MACKENZIE, SIR WILLIAM COLIN

McKINLAY, JOHN

McLAREN, DAVID

McLAREN, SAMUEL BRUCE

MacLAURIN, SIR HENRY NORMAND

McLEAN, ALLAN

MACLEAY, ALEXANDER

MACLEAY, SIR GEORGE

MACLEAY, SIR WILLIAM JOHN

MACLEAY, WILLIAM SHARP

MACLEOD, WILLIAM

McMAHON, GREGAN

McMILLAN, ANGUS

McMILLAN, SIR ROBERT FURSE

McNESS, SIR CHARLES

MACONOCHIE, ALEXANDER

MACPHERSON, JOHN ALEXANDER

McPHERSON, SIR WILLIAM MURRAY

MACQUARIE, LACHLAN

MACROSSAN, JOHN MURTAGH

MADDEN, SIR JOHN

MAHONY, FRANCIS PROUT

MAIDEN, JOSEPH HENRY

MAIS, HENRY COATHUPE

MAITLAND, SIR HERBERT LETHINGTON

MANNING, FREDERIC

MANNING, SIR WILLIAM MONTAGU,

MARCHANT, GEORGE

MARSDEN, SAMUEL

MARTENS, CONRAD

MARTIN, ARTHUR PATCHETT

MARTIN, MRS CATHERINE EDITH MACAULEY

MARTIN, SIR JAMES

MASSON, SIR DAVID ORME

MATHER, JOHN

MATHEW, REV. JOHN

MATRA, JAMES MARIO

MAUGER, SAMUEL

MAURICE, FURNLE

MAY, PHILIP WILLIAM,

MEEHAN, JAMES

MELBA, DAME NELLI

MENPES, MORTIMER

MEREDITH, CHARLES

MEREDITH, LOUISA ANNE

MICHAEL, JAMES LIONEL

MICHELL, JOHN HENRY

MICHIE, SIR ARCHIBALD

MILLER, SIR DENISON SAMUEL KING

MILLER, WILLIAM

MILNE, SIR WILLIAM

MINNS, BENJAMIN EDWIN

MITCHEL, JOHN

MITCHELL, DAVID SCOTT

MITCHELL, SIR THOMAS LIVINGSTONE

MITCHELL, SIR WILLIAM HENRY FANCOURT

MOFFITT, ERNEST

MOLESWORTH, SIR ROBERT

MONASH, GENERAL SIR JOHN

MONCRIEFF, ALEXANDER BAIN

MONTAGU, JOHN

MONTFORD, PAUL RAPHAEL

MONTGOMERY, HENRY HUTCHINSON

MOORE, MAGGIE

MOORE, SIR NEWTON JAMES

MOORE, WILLIAM

MOORE, SIR WILLIAM HARRISON

MOORHOUSE, JAMES

MOORHOUSE, MATTHEW

MORAN, PATRICK FRANCIS

MORDAUNT, ELINOR

MOREHEAD, BOYD DUNLOP

MORGAN, SIR ARTHUR

MORGAN, SIR WILLIAM

MORPHETT, SIR JOHN

MORRIS, EDWARD ELLIS

MORRISON, ALEXANDER

MORRISON, GEORGE ERNEST

MORT, THOMAS SUTCLIFFE

MORTON, FRANK

MUELLER, BARON SIR FERDINAND JAKOB HEINRICH VON

MUIR, THOMAS

MULLEN, SAMUEL

MUNRO, JAMES

MUNRO-FERGUSON, SIR RONALD CRAUFURD, VISCOUNT NOVAR

MURDOCH, WILLIAM DAVID

MURDOCH, WILLIAM LLOYD

MURPHY, EDWIN GREENSLADE

MURPHY, FRANCIS

MURRAY, SIR GEORGE JOHN ROBERT

MURRAY, JOHN

MURRAY, JOHN

MURRAY, SIR JOHN HUBERT PLUNKETT

MURRAY, REGINALD AUGUSTUS FREDERICK

MUSGROVE, GEORGE

MYER, SIDNEY BAERSKI

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NATHAN, ISAAC

NEILSON, JOHN SHAW

NELSON, SIR HUGH MUIR

NERLI, MARCHESE GEROLAMO BALLATTI

NEUMAYER, GEORGE BALTHASAR VON

NEWBURY, ALBERT ERNEST

NEWLAND, SIMPSON

NICHOLSON, SIR CHARLES

NICHOLSON, JOHN HENRY

NICHOLSON, WILLIAM

NISBET, HUME

NIXON, FRANCIS RUSSELL

NOBLE, MONTAGUE ALFRED

NORTHCOTE, HENRY STAFFORD

NORTON, ALBERT

NOVAR, VISCOUNT

NUTTALL, CHARLES

 

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O'CONNELL, SIR MAURICE CHARLES the elder

O'CONNELL, SIR MAURICE CHARLES the younger

O'CONNOR, CHARLES YELVERTON

O'CONNOR, RICHARD EDWARD

O'DOHERTY, KEVIN IZOD

OFFICER, EDWARD CAIRNS

OGILVIE, ALBERT GEORGE

O'HARA, JOHN BERNARD

OLIPHANT, ERNEST HENRY CLARK

O'LOGHLEN, SIR BRYAN

O'REILLY, DOWELL PHILIP

O'REILLY, JOHN BOYLE

ORMOND, FRANCIS

ORTON, ARTHUR

O'SHANASSY, SIR JOHN

O'SULLIVAN, EDWARD WILLIAM

OXLEY, JOHN JOSEPH WILLIAM MOLESWORTH

 

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PADBURY, WALTER

PALMER, SIR ARTHUR HUNTER

PALMER, SIR JAMES FREDERICK

PALMER, ROSINA MARTHA HOZANAH

PALMER, THOMAS FYSHE

PANTON, JOSEPH ANDERSON

PARKER, SIR HENRY WATSON

PARKER, SIR STEPHEN HENRY

PARKES, SIR HENRY

PATERSON, ANDREW BARTON

PATERSON, JOHN FORD

PATERSON, WILLIAM

PATON, JOHN GIBSON

PATTERSON, SIR JAMES BROWN

PEACOCK, SIR ALEXANDER JAMES

PEAKE, ARCHIBALD HENRY

PEARSON, CHARLES HENRY

PEDDER, SIR JOHN LEWES

PEEL, THOMAS

PERRY, CHARLES

PETHERICK, EDWARD AUGUSTUS

PETRIE, THOMAS

PHILLIP, ARTHUR

PHILP, SIR ROBERT

PIGOT, EDWARD FRANCIS

PIGUENIT, WILLIAM CHARLES

PIPER, JOHN

PLAYFORD, THOMAS

PLUNKETT, JOHN HUBERT

POLDING, JOHN BEDE

POLLOCK, JAMES ARTHUR

POWERS, SIR CHARLES

PRAED, ROSA CAROLINE

PRENDERGAST, GEORGE MICHAEL

PRICE, THOMAS

PRICE, THOMAS CARADOC ROSE

PROPSTING, WILLIAM BISPHAM

PROUT, JOHN SKINNER

PURVES, JAMES LIDDELL

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QUICK, SIR JOHN

 

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R

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RAALTE, HENRI BENEDICTUS VAN

RAE, JOHN

RAMSAY, EDWARD PIERSON

RAMSAY, HUGH

RANDELL, WILLIAM RICHARD

RASON, SIR CORNTHWAITE HECTOR

REDFERN, WILLIAM

REIBEY, THOMAS

REID, SIR GEORGE HOUSTON

RENNIE, EDWARD HENRY

RENTOUL, JOHN LAURENCE

RENWICK, SIR ARTHUR

REYNOLDS, TH0MAS

RICHARDSON, CHARLES DOUGLAS

RICKARDS, HARRY

RIDLEY, JOHN

RIDLEY, WILLIAM

RIGNOLD, GEORGE

RILEY, CHARLES OWEN LEAVER

RIVERS, RICHARD GODFREY

ROBE, FREDERICK HOLT

ROBERTS, MORLEY

ROBERTS, THOMAS WILLIAM

ROBERTSON, GEORGE

ROBERTSON, GEORGE

ROBERTSON, SIR JOHN

ROBERTSON, THORBURN BRAILSFORD

ROBINSON, GEORGE AUGUSTUS

ROBINSON, MICHAEL MASSEY

RODWAY, LEONARD

ROE, JOHN SEPTIMUS

ROE, REGINALD HEBER

ROGERS, GEORGE HERBERT

ROSE, HERBERT

ROSENHAIN, WALTER

ROSS, SIR ROBERT DALRYMPLE

ROTH, HENRY LING

ROTH, WALTER EDMUND

ROWAN, MARION ELLIS

ROWE, RICHARD

ROWLANDSON, ALFRED CECIL

RUDD, STEELE

RÜMKER, KARL LUDWIG CHRISTIAN

RUSDEN, GEORGE WILLIAM

RUSE, JAMES

RUSSELL, HENRY CHAMBERLAIN

RUSSELL, JOHN

RUSSELL, SIR PETER NICOL

RUSSELL, ROBERT

RUSSELL, ROBERT HAMILTON

RUTHERFORD, JAMES

RYAN, THOMAS JOSEPH

RYRIE, SIR GRANVILLE DE LAUNE

 

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SALOMONS, SIR JULIAN EMANUEL

SALTING, GEORGE

SALVADO, RUDESINDUS

SANDES, JOHN

SARGOOD, SIR FREDERICK THOMAS

SCADDON, JOHN

SCHULER, GOTTLIEB FREDERICK HENRY

SCOTT, SIR ERNEST

SCOTT, ROSE

SCOTT, THOMAS HOBBES

SCOTT, WALTER

SCRATCHLEY, SIR PETER HENRY

SEE, SIR JOHN

SELWYN, ALFRED RICHARD CECIL

SERVICE, JAMES

SHARP, CECIL JAMES

SHARP, GERALD

SHENTON, SIR GEORGE

SHERBROOKE, VISCOUNT

SHERWIN, AMY

SHIELS, WILLIAM

SHIRLOW, JOHN ALEXANDER THOMAS

SHORT, AUGUSTUS

SIMPSON, HELEN DE GUERRY

SLADEN, SIR CHARLES

SMITH, SIR CHARLES EDWARD KINGSFORD

SMITH, SIR EDWIN THOMAS

SMITH, SIR FRANCIS VILLENEUVE

SMITH, SIR GRAFTON ELLIOT

SMITH, HENRY GEORGE

SMITH, JAMES

SMITH, JAMES

SMITH, JOHN McGARVIE

SMITH, JOHN THOMAS

SMITH, ROBERT BARR

SMITH, SIR ROSS MACPHERSON

SMITH, WILLIAM RAMSAY

SMITH, WILLIAM SAUMAREZ

SMYTH, ROBERT BROUGH

SOLANDER, DANIEL CHARLES

SOLOMON, ALBERT EDGAR

SORELL, WILLIAM

SOUTER, DAVID HENRY

SOUTHERN, CLARA

SPENCE, CATHERINE HELEN

SPENCE, PERCY FREDERICK SEATON

SPENCE, WILLIAM GUTHRIE

SPENCER, THOMAS EDWARD

SPENCER, SIR WALTER BALDWIN

SPOFFORTH, FREDERICK ROBERT

STANFORD, WILLIAM

STAWELL, FLORENCE MELIAN

STAWELL, SIR RICHARD RAWDON

STAWELL, SIR WILLIAM FOSTER

STEELE, BERTRAM DILLON

STEERE, SIR JAMES GEORGE LEE

STEPHEN, SIR ALFRED

STEPHEN, GEORGE MILNER

STEPHENS, ALFRED GEORGE

STEPHENS, JAMES BRUNTON

STEVENS, BERTRAM

STEVENSON, GEORGE

STEWART, NELLIE

STICHT, ROBERT CARL

STIRLING, SIR EDWARD CHARLES

STIRLING, SIR JAMES

STIRLING, SIR JOHN LANCELOT

STOKES, JOHN LORT

STONE, SIR EDWARD ALBERT

STONE, LOUIS

STONEHAVEN, LORD

STOREY, JOHN

STOW, RANDOLPH ISHAM

STOW, THOMAS QUINTON

STRANGWAYS, HENRY BULL TEMPLER

STREET, SIR PHILIP WHISTLER

STRONG, SIR ARCHIBALD THOMAS

STRONG, CHARLES

STRONG, HERBERT AUGUSTUS

STRUTT, WILLIAM

STRZELECKI, SIR PAUL EDMUND EVE

STUART, SIR ALEXANDER

STUART, JOHN McDOUALL

STUART, SIR THOMAS PETER ANDERSON

STURGESS, REGINALD WARD

STURT, CHARLES

SUGDEN, EDWARD HOLDSWORTH

SULLIVAN, BARRY

SULMAN, SIR JOHN

SUMMERS, CHARLES

SUTHERLAND, ALEXANDER

SUTHERLAND, WILLIAM

SUTTOR, SIR FRANCIS BATHURST

SUTTOR, GEORGE

SWINBURNE, GEORGE

SYME, DAVID

SYME, EBENEZER

SYME, SIR GEORGE ADLINGTON

SYMON, SIR JOSIAH HENRY

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TASMAN, ABEL JANSZ

TATE, FRANK

TATE, HENRY

TATE, RALPH

TAYLOR, GEORGE AUGUSTINE

TEBBITT, HENRI

TEBBUTT, JOHN

TEMPLETON, JOHN MONTGOMERY

TENCH, WATKIN

TENNYSON, HALLAM, 2nd Baron Tennyson

THERRY, JOHN JOSEPH

THERRY, SIR ROGER

THOMAS, MARGARET

THOMAS, MORGAN

THOMPSON, JOHN ASHBURTON

THOMSON, ALEXANDER

THOMSON, SIR EDWARD DEAS

THORN, GEORGE

THRELFALL, SIR RICHARD

THRELKELD, LANCELOT EDWARD,

THROSBY, CHARLES

THROSSELL, GEORGE

THYNNE, ANDREW JOSEPH

TILLYARD, ROBERT JOHN

TITHERADGE, GEORGE SUTTON

TODD, SIR CHARLES

TOMPSON, CHARLES

TORRENS, SIR ROBERT RICHARD

TOWNS, ROBERT

TOZER, SIR HORACE,

TRAILL, WILLIAM HENRY

TRENWITH, WILLIAM ARTHUR

TROTT, GEORGE HENRY STEVENS

TRUMBLE, HUGH

TRUMPER, VICTOR THOMAS

TUCKER, TUDOR ST GEORGE

TURNER, SIR GEORGE

TURNER, HENRY GYLES

TWELVETREES, WILLIAM HARPER

TYRRELL, WILLIAM

TYSON, JAMES

 

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ULLATHORNE, WILLIAM BERNARD

 

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VAN RAALTE, HENRI BENEDICTUS

VAUGHAN, ROGER WILLIAM BEDE

VERBRUGGHEN, HENRI

VERCO, SIR JOSEPH COOKE

VERDON, SIR GEORGE FREDERIC

VERNON, HOWARD

VERRAN, JOHN

VIDAL, MARY THERESA

 

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WADDELL, THOMAS

WADDY, PERCIVAL STACY

WADE, SIR CHARLES GREGORY

WAINEWRIGHT, THOMAS GRIFFITHS

WAITE, EDGAR RAVENSWOOD

WAITE, PETER

WAKEFIELD, EDWARD GIBBON

WALKER, DAME EADITH CAMPBELL

WALKER, GEORGE WASHINGTON

WALKER, THOMAS

WALLACE, WILLIAM VINCENT

WANT, JOHN HENRY

WARBURTON, PETER EGERTON

WARD, FREDERICK WILLIAM

WARD, MARY AUGUSTA

WARD, WILLIAM HUMBLE

WARDELL, ROBERT

WARDELL, WILLIAM WILKINSON

WARREN, WILLIAM HENRY

WARUNG, PRICE

WATERHOUSE, GEORGE MARSDEN

WATSON, ARCHIBALD

WATSON, JOHN CHRISTIAN

WATT, WALTER OSWALD

WAY, ARTHUR SANDERS

WAY, SIR SAMUEL JAMES

WEBBER, JOHN

WEBBER, WILLIAM THOMAS THORNHILL

WEDGE, JOHN HELDER

WEIGALL, ALBERT BYTHESEA

WELD, FREDERICK ALOYSIUS

WENTWORTH, WILLIAM CHARLES

WEST, REV. JOHN

WESTALL, WILLIAM

WESTGARTH, WILLIAM

WESTON, WILLIAM PRITCHARD

WHITE, SIR CYRIL BRUDENELL BINGHAM

WHITE, JAMES

WHITE, JOHN

WHITEHEAD, CHARLES

WHYTE, JAMES

WILKIE, LESLIE ANDREW

WILKINSON, CHARLES SMITH

WILLIAMSON, FRANK SAMUEL

WILLIAMSON, JAMES CASSIUS

WILLIS, JOHN WALPOLE

WILLOUGHBY, HOWARD

WILLS, WILLIAM JOHN

WILLSON, ROBERT WILLIAM

WILMOT, FRANK LESLIE THOMSON

WILMOT, SIR JOHN EARDLEY EARDLEY-

WILSON, ANNE, LADY

WILSON, EDWARD

WILSON, FRANK

WILSON, SIR JAMES MILNE

WILSON, SIR SAMUEL

WINDEYER, RICHARD

WINDEYER, SIR WILLIAM CHARLES

WINDSOR, ARTHUR LLOYD

WISE, BERNHARD RINGROSE

WITHERS, WALTER HERBERT

WOOD, GEORGE ARNOLD

WOODHOUSE, WILLIAM JOHN

WOODS, JULIAN EDMUND TENISON

WOOLCOCK, JOHN LASKEY

WOOLLEY, JOHN

WOOLLS, WILLIAM

WRENFORDSLEY, SIR HENRY THOMAS

WRIGHT, DAVID McKEE

WRIGHT, JOHN CHARLES

WRIXON, SIR HENRY JOHN

WYATT, WILLIAM

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Y

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YOUNG, SIR HENRY EDWARD FOX

YOUNG, SIR WALTER JAMES

YOUNG, WILLIAM BLAMIRE

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Z

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ZEAL, SIR WILLIAM AUSTIN

ZELMAN, ALBERTO

 

 


 

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PREFACE

The first attempt at a dictionary of Australian biography is contained in (Sir) J. Henniker Heaton's Australian Dictionary of Dates and Men of the Time. It was published in 1879 and within its limits was a conscientious piece of work. David Blair in his Cyclopaedia of Australasia, published in 1881, leaned heavily on Heaton and added little to his work, but Philip Mennell's The Dictionary of Australasian Biography from the Inauguration of Responsible Government, which appeared in 1892, had many good qualities and, though not free from errors, is usually reliable. It was a pity, however, that the author restricted himself to the period mentioned, and that one consequently finds no account in his book of Phillip, Macquarie, Macarthur, and many other remarkable men belonging to the early days of Australia. In 1906 Fred Johns of Adelaide began his series of volumes Johns's Notable Australians. Johns was careful and conscientious and seldom fell into error. Towards the end of his life he prepared his comprehensive An Australian Biographical Dictionary, which contains about 3000 biographies. He had not finished it when he died, and it was published posthumously in 1934 without the benefit of his final revision. It is and will remain a very useful publication, but as the average length of each biography is about ninety words, it is evident that in most cases it was not possible to give more than the bare facts. The Australian Encyclopaedia, published in 1925-6, has a large number of accounts of prominent Australians and is especially strong in connexion with men belonging to the early days. These biographies are of great interest.

The present volumes contain 1030 biographies of Australians, or men who were closely connected with Australia, who died before the end of 1942. This date practically closes the first one hundred and fifty years of Australia's history, for although the first fleet arrived in January 1788, the first emigrant ship, the Bellona, did not come until January 1793. Until then Australia had been merely a dumping ground for convicts, but the arrival of free emigrants foreshadowed the founding of a nation. The average length of the biographies is about 640 Words, and they may be roughly classified into the following twelve groups:


1.  Army and Navy                                              10
2.  Artists, including architects, actors, and musicians      130
3.  Governors and administrators                               50
4.  Lawyers                                                    69
5.  Literary men and women                                    137
6.  Notorieties                                                17
7.  Pioneers, explorers, pastoralists, men of business        161
8.  Politicians                                               174
9.  Scholars, philosophers, clergymen                          76
10. Scientists, including physicians, surgeons, and engineers 140
11. Social reformers, philanthropists, educationists           53
12. Sporting men (cricketers and athletes)                     13

                                                             1030

The number of women included is 42.

An investigation into the average age at death of the men and women in each group resulted as follows:

                                                                 Av. age

1.  Scholars, philosophers, clergymen                          76   74.5
2.  Lawyers                                                    69   71.5
3.  Social reformers, philanthropists, educationists           53   70.4
4.  Scientists, including physicians, surgeons and engineers  140   70.1
5.  Politicians                                               174   68.8
6.  Governors and administrators                               50   68.5
7.  Pioneers, explorers, pastoralists, men of business        161   68.2
8.  Army and navy                                              10   68.2
9.  Sporting men (cricketers and athletes)                     13   67.5
10. Literary men and women                                    137   65.1
11. Artists, including architects, actors and musicians       130   63.9
12. Notorieties                                                17   55 2

TOTAL                                                        1030   68.0

In three cases, Nos 8, 9, and 12 the figures are valueless because of the small number in each group, and in the last some were executed or met violent deaths. The average ages of the groups are usually what might have been expected. Literary men and artists have often passed through hard times in Australia, in conditions in no way conducive to longevity and it is natural to find them at the bottom of the list.

Of the total of 1030 it was possible to trace the father's occupation in only about 560 cases. It was found that 84 of these were the sons of clergymen, and even if we assume there were no clergymen's sons among the remainder, it means that more than one in every 13 of the 1030 were sons of the parsonage. An article in Munsey's Magazine for September 1907, showed that in the United States nearly one in 12 of Americans who had risen to distinction were clergymen's sons, practically the same as the Australian figures. An investigation made some time ago, the details of which I have been unable to trace, showed I believe, that the sons of clergy headed the list in the English Dictionary of National Biography. Contrary to a popular belief that "clergymen's sons are always the worst" it may be mentioned that three of our most distinguished judges, Sir Samuel Griffith, Mr Justice Higgins, and Sir Samuel Way, were all clergymen's sons. After the clergy came pastoralists and country gentlemen, 49; lawyers, 47; Army officers, 42; merchants (including probably shopkeepers), 38; medical men, farmers, and officials, about 30 each. Teachers had 20, after which the numbers for each occupation rapidly tapered off.

An investigation into the countries of origin showed that approximately:

47 per cent were born in England.
27  "    "    "    "   " Australia.
12  "    "    "    "   " Scotland.
8   "    "    "    "   " Ireland.
1   "    "    "    "   " Wales.
5   "    "    "    "   " the rest of the world.

Included in the last group were 12 from the United States, 9 from Germany, and 6 from New Zealand. These figures came as a shock, but consideration showed they should have been expected. In the early years all the population of mature years had of course come from Europe, and in the middle of the 19th century there was an immense influx of immigrants. Of distinguished Australians born after the middle of the century a large proportion was still alive on 31 December 1942.

The question of selection was full of difficulties and it was impossible to make set rules. In science, all Fellows of the Royal Society London were included, and preference was given to other men who had added something to the sum of human knowledge; in politics, most premiers of States, all prime ministers of the Commonwealth, and others who had brought forward legislation of importance; in law, most chief justices of States, and all judges of the High Court; in literature all of established reputation, or who had been highly popular, or represented in the best anthologies; in art, most artists whose work had been purchased for the leading Australian national galleries were considered to have claims. But in a large number of cases it was most difficult to decide what should be considered sufficient grounds for inclusion, and I was fortunate in being able to obtain advice from personal friends and others in all the States. It must, however, be understood that these gentlemen are in no way to be considered responsible for any sins of omission or commission. I have frequently had to make almost arbitrary decisions and cannot hope that the course taken was always the right one. It may possibly cause surprise that so many artists and literary men have been included. It will, however, be found that the position is similar in the English Dictionary of National Biography, and there is a good reason for it. Many politicians, men of business, and professional men, who seemed important in their day, are soon completely forgotten; but books persist in living on, if only in public libraries, pictures continue to be exhibited in national galleries, and there is always the possibility of some inquiry arising to which a book of this kind may give the answer. There is, too, another reason. It is notoriously difficult to judge the artistic and literary work of one's own generation, and if too much discrimination is exercised it may be found after a few years that some authors or artists rejected had come to be considered of much more importance than some included.

The term Australian has covered several men and women whose connexion with Australia was comparatively slight. If anyone of distinction was merely born in Australia that in itself was not considered sufficient ground for inclusion. As a general rule it has been thought necessary, as in the case of Samuel Alexander, that he should have stayed long enough in Australia for his life to have been influenced by his education and surroundings. Mrs Humphrey Ward, the novelist, was an exception. She left at five years of age, and the eventual cause of her inclusion was that she was really an Australian of the third generation. Her mother was an Australian, one grandfather spent all his adult life in Australia, and one of her great-grandfathers was William Sorell, one of the ablest governors that ever came to Australia. Her inclusion also gave an opportunity to say a few words about her father, Thomas Arnold, who influenced the early days of education in Tasmania. With regard to people not born in Australia, the endeavour was to omit mere birds of passage. The extreme limit of inclusion may be instanced by the famous actors Joseph Jefferson, G. V. Brooke, and Barry Sullivan. All three were in Australia for fairly long periods and there can be little doubt that the usually high standard of theatrical productions in Australia was based on the foundations laid by these men. Brooke indeed is so much a tradition that he simply could not be omitted. Most of the early governors were included, but when responsible government had been granted the influence of the governors was much lessened, and it was decided to omit later State governors. Most of those who were men of real distinction will be found recorded in the Dictionary of National Biography.

There has been a fairly general impression that the only important productions of Australia have been wool, wheat, and cricketers. I hope this book will help to remove that impression. Too low a place has been allowed in the past to Australian literature, largely because of the undue prominence given to some of the more popular writers. Australian painting has been more and more appreciated of late years, but there is still far too little encouragement given to sculpture, architecture, and music. Some excellent singers and executive musicians have made their mark in the world among whom may be mentioned Melba, Ada Crossley, and William Murdoch; but though some interesting music has been composed little is known of it and comparatively little has been published. A few outstanding scientists have been born here, such as Sir Grafton Elliot Smith, and a few others, such as Sir William Henry Bragg, have come from Europe to Australia and found the conditions favourable to the development of their great ability. There has also been an enormous amount of honest spade work in science done in Australia, much of which has been recorded here. W. J. Farrer did very valuable early work in wheat-breeding; Lawrence Hargrave had much more say in the development of flying than is generally allowed in America and Great Britain; Bertram Dillon Steele's micro-balance has been of great value to science and Grayson was a great pioneer in the ruling of diffraction gratings. James Harrison was a pioneer in refrigeration; J. H. Michell and William Sutherland in their modest unobtrusive way did some remarkable work in mathematics and physics; Charles Ledger, who practically saved quinine for the world, had more than one connexion with Australia and ended his days there; John Ridley and H. V. McKay were responsible for great improvements in harvesting. J. M. Templeton established the non-forfeiture principle in life assurance policies now universally adopted, and Sir Robert Torrens's simplification of the transfer of land has been of great benefit to the public.

I began collecting the materials for this book some twenty years ago. Realizing how quickly records disappear, I felt that a good service would be done if an attempt were made to gather together information likely to be useful to the compilers of the future Australian Dictionary of National Biography. The work was interrupted a great deal, but by 1936 some 17,000 items relating to about 7,000 men, largely clipped from various books of reference and newspapers, had been arranged and indexed. It was difficult, however, to provide for the safe keeping of these records in future years, for though they could be given or bequeathed to the Public Library of some State, a biographical dictionary might be compiled in another State without its editor being aware of the existence of these records. I mentioned this problem when writing to my friend, H. M. Green, librarian of the Fisher Library, Sydney, and he suggested that I should write the dictionary myself. Eventually I decided to do so. I realized that the ideal way of preparing a book of this kind would be to have a strong editor in charge of a staff of experts. But they would have to be paid, and there seemed to be no likelihood of the money being available. I hope Mr Green's confidence in me has not been unjustified. In many cases the biographies will fall short of what might have been desired. I tried to find the best authorities, but, excellent as the Melbourne Public Library is, there were occasional instances when required books or newspapers were not available. In other cases information may have been missed for want of the knowledge of where to look for it. Often after careful search I found that my only authorities were old newspapers, and I owe much to them. Many of the obituary notices in them had evidently been prepared with much care and were excellently done. In recent years, however, there has been a falling off in these biographies, and during the war years it has no doubt been impossible to spare adequate space. It would be well to have biographies of eminent men written soon after their death. Sometimes a pamphlet of thirty or forty pages might give an adequate short account. Such organizations as the Fellowship of Australian Writers would be able to suggest biographers who would do a competent and accurate piece of work. If something of the kind is not done it will become extremely difficult to compile supplementary volumes of this and similar works. I would stress the necessity for accuracy.

In preparing this book, though every endeavour was made to be accurate, hundreds of statements had to be accepted which could not possibly be checked. It was found, too, that frequently an error had been made in an early authority which had been copied in later books, and it was decided that it would be best to work from the earliest authorities. When it was known that biographies of a particular person would be available in the Dictionary of National Biography, Johns's An Australian Biographical Dictionary, or the Australian Encyclopaedia, the biography for this book was written quite independently. Occasionally, when some essential fact could not be traced, recourse was had to these works, but in those cases a direct reference is made to the authority used. Though Heaton's and Mennell's books frequently appear among the authorities cited, they also were used sparingly. I have had to decide between many conflicting statements; on two occasions at least there was a choice of four different dates of birth. All that could be done was to adopt the date for which there appeared to be the best evidence. Though it was many years before Australia was generally accepted as a title, I have used this name from the beginning, and the same applies to Tasmania, though Van Diemen's Land was used until well into the middle of the nineteenth century. In New South Wales premiers were always prime ministers until 1901, but in this work to save confusion the leader of the government in that State has been called premier from the beginning. I have endeavoured to make the book worthy of its subject. It would have been better could I have spent another five years on it, but at seventy-five years of age one realizes there is a time to make an end.

PERCIVAL SERLE.
70 Church Street, Hawthorn E.2.,
Victoria.

 


 

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

A work of this kind could not possibly have been completed without much help from librarians and others. I am much indebted to the staff of the Public Library, Melbourne, especially to Mr E. R. Pitt, formerly chief librarian, to the late W. C. Baud, formerly chief librarian, to the late A. B. Foxcroft, assistant-librarian, to Mr C. A. McCallum, the present chief librarian, and indeed to all the staff, including that of the newspaper room. Mr T. Fleming Cooke, formerly librarian of the lending library, and his staff were also often helpful to me. Other librarians were most kind in answering inquiries, in particular Miss Ida Leeson, formerly librarian of the Mitchell Library, Sydney, and Miss M. Flower, formerly of the same library; Mr H. M. Green, formerly librarian of the Fisher Library, University of Sydney; Mr Kenneth Binns, formerly librarian of the National Library at Canberra; Mr Leigh Scott, librarian of the University of Melbourne Library; the late H. Rutherford Purnell, librarian of the Public Library of South Australia; Mr G. H. Pitt, formerly archivist, now librarian of the same institution; Dr J. S. Battye, public librarian of Western Australia; Mr J. D. A. Collier, State librarian, Hobart; and Mr J. H. Hornibrook, honorary secretary of the John Oxley Memorial Library, Brisbane. The late D. J. Mahony, formerly director of the National Museum, Melbourne, his successor, Mr R. T. M. Pescott, other members of the museum staff, including Messrs A. R. Keble, J. Clark, G. Mack, and M. J. C. Malone, and Mr E. H. Penrose, director of the Museum of Applied Science, have obtained information for me relating to scientists. Mr J. S. MacDonald, formerly director of the National Gallery, and Mr Daryl Lindsay, the present director, have both added to my knowledge of Australian artists. In Melbourne many other men and women have helped me in various ways and 1 should like to record my obligations to Mr W. Baragwanath, the late L. V. Biggs, Mr W. Brennan, the late F. Chapman, Mr A. H. Chisholm, the late R. H. Croll, Mr J. F. Foster, Mr J. S. Grierson, Dr C. A. Kellaway, the late A. S. Kenyon, Dr Charles Mackay, Mr J. K. Moir, Mr P. F. Morris, Sir Keith Murdoch, Professor W. A. Osborne, Mr Vance Palmer, the late E. L. Piesse, the late Frank Wilmot, Constable Harrington of Avenel, Mrs J. S. Grierson, Mrs Nettie Palmer, Mrs Dora B. Serle, Mrs Marian Serle, and Lady Scott.

Among residents of Sydney to whom I owe thanks I should like to record Mr C. H. Bertic, Sir William Dixson, Professor A. P. Elkin, Mr W. E. FitzHenry, the late Sir Kelso King, Dr G. Mackaness, the late William Moore, Mr C. Pearl, Dr A. B. Walkorn, and Sir Robert Strachan Wallace. In Adelaide I received help from Mr Travers C. Borrow, Professor J. B. Cleland, Mr B. R. Elliott, Mr H. J. Keyes, and Mr J. A. Somerville; in Brisbane from Professor Alcock, Mr C. Christesen, Mr E. J. Hanson (formerly Speaker of the Legislative Assembly), Mr H. A. Longman, Mr Firmin McKinnon, Professor H. C. Richards, and Professor F. W. Robinson; in Perth from the Rev. Canon P. U. Henn, Sir John Kirwan, and Professor Walter Murdoch, and in Hobart from Professor E. Morris Miller.

I should also like to thank the University of Melbourne which made a grant from its research fund towards the cost of collecting and preserving materials, and the Commonwealth Literary Fund for a similar grant towards the cost of typing the manuscript.

P.S.

 


 

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Percival Serle

SERLE, Percival (1871-1951),

editor and biographer,

(View this painting at the National Library of Australia Web Site)

[NOTE: This biographical note did not form part of the Dictionary of Australian Biography. It just seemed like a good idea to have a biography of the biographer.--Colin Choat]

was born at Elsternwick, Victoria. He worked for twenty years in a life assurance office before becoming chief clerk and accountant at the University of Melbourne. In 1910 he married the artist Dora Beatrice Hake. Moderately successful with investments, he was able to retire in 1920 to pursue his cultural interests, although he ran a second-hand bookshop in the Eastern Market, Melbourne, in the Depression years 1931-36. He was guide-lecturer at the National Gallery of Victoria 1929-38, curator of the Art Museum of the Gallery 1934-36, and member of the council of the Victorian Artists' Society for about forty years. He was also president of the Australian Literature Society 1944-46. Serle's first publication was an edition, with notes, of A Song to David and Other Poems (1923) by Christopher Smart, the eighteenth-century English poet. Serle's meticulous scholarship is evident in A Bibliography of Australasian Poetry and Verse: Australia and New Zealand (1925), a much-needed reference work of Australian literature at that time, to which later bibliographies were indebted. To complement his Bibliography he published, in collaboration with 'Furnley Maurice' and R.H. Croll, An Australasian Anthology (1927), a standard Australian literary work not supplanted until after the Second World War. His most significant work, laboured over for almost twenty years, was his Dictionary of Australian Biography (1949). It comprises more than 1000 biographical sketches of prominent Australians or people connected closely with Australia. In 1944 Serle edited the poems of 'Furnley Maurice' and in 1951 published A Primer of Collecting. Serle brought to all his literary work a rigorous sense of, and passion for, scholarship. A commemorative number of Southerly was published in 1953 and his son, Geoffrey Serle, has written the memoir Percival Serle (1988).

From The Oxford Companion to Australian Literature (Second Edition, 1994).

 

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