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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALIAN BIOGRAPHY

PERCIVAL SERLE

Angus and Robertson--1949

Hi-Hu

Main Page and Index of Individuals 
Biographies:
A  Ba  Be-Bo  Br-By  Ca-Ch  Cl-Cu  D  E  F  G  Ha-He  Hi-Hu  I-K  L  Mc
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HIGGINS, HENRY BOURNES (1851-1929),

politician and judge,

was born at Newtownards, County Down, Ireland, on 30 June 1851. His, father, John Higgins, was a Methodist minister, whose wife, Anne Bournes, was the well-educated daughter of a county Mayo landholder. Henry Bournes Higgins was a delicate child and much of his early education came from his mother. At 10 years of age he was sent to the Wesleyan Connexional School, Dublin, where the headmaster, Dr Crook, was a distinguished scholar. The boys had a sound training in the classics, but the life of the school was spartan in its methods, and scarcely suitable for a delicate child. In 1865 he had an attack of inflammation of the lungs and was taken away from school. There followed work in a wholesale drapery in Belfast for a few months, and then more schooldays at Newry, a situation with a merchant tailor at Clonmel, and another at a furniture warehouse in Dublin. His father would have sent him to the university but the narrow income of a minister would not permit it. In June 1869 his elder brother died of consumption. A tendency to chest weakness was shown in other members of the family, and under physician's advice it was decided to emigrate to Victoria. Towards the end of the year the mother, having obtained a little money from her family estate, sailed for Australia with six children. The youngest, a boy of six, died a few days before they reached Port Phillip on 12 February 1870.

Melbourne was then a busy, prosperous city and Higgins, now 18, had to find work. After one or two false starts he became an assistant master at a private school at Fitzroy kept by a Mr James Scott. His father and another brother arrived in October, to find that Henry was preparing for the matriculation examination at which he won the classical exhibition of £25. He had to resign his position so that he could attend the university in 1871, but obtained some work at the Scotch College supervising in the evening, with an occasional day-class. Other exhibitions were gained during his course and he eventually qualified for the degrees of M.A. and LL.B. One disqualification for a barrister's career, a tendency to stutter, was overcome by intense training and determination. He might possibly have been appointed lecturer in history at Melbourne university but he would not risk his career at the bar. At the university he met other interesting students who were to make their mark, including Deakin (q.v.) and Alexander Sutherland (q.v.). By 1876 he was established in Temple Court sharing chambers with W. A. C. a'Beckett and acting as "devil" to E. D. Holroyd (q.v.), then the leader of the equity bar. His own fees were small, but he could scarcely have had better training. He still did a little coaching, but by 1879 his position was so much improved he was able to give it up. In a few years his reputation had become established, but in the meanwhile he had given evidence of his development in other directions. He was never to be afraid of taking a lonely path, and in 1882 he showed courage in attending the meetings of the home rule for Ireland advocates, John and William Redmond, who reached Australia just at the time when public feeling was most inflamed over the Phoenix Park outrage. In 1885 he gave an admirable address to the University Society on "The Muses in Australia" in which he urged the Australian poets to let their work grow out of their surroundings, to cultivate Australia's own character, discover its own way of expressing itself, and free itself from the conventions of older lands. Nearly 20 years later he was to found a scholarship for the study of poetry.

In December 1885 Higgins was married to Mary Alice Morrison, daughter of Dr George Morrison of Geelong, and a sister of "Chinese" Morrison (q.v.). A year was spent travelling in Europe and America, and when he returned in January 1887 he found himself leader of the equity bar, two of his seniors having become judges. He began to take an interest in the Melbourne university, was elected to its council in 1887, and sat on it for 37 years. He was not of a speculative nature and kept out of the land boom during the 1880s; in 1892 he made his first effort to enter parliament at Geelong. He was defeated but won the seat in 1894, and at once began to show interest in social legislation. He was a student of Henry George and inclined to free trade, but realized the difficulties of a young country trying to establish secondary industries. An inquiry into sweating led to his feeling the necessity of limiting the hours of labour even of people working by themselves, and he fought for the shops and factories act, which was the precursor of much legislation aimed at helping the worker. Words like conciliation and arbitration were in the air and the federation movement was growing. At the election for delegates to the convention of 1897-8 Higgins was one of the 10 selected to represent Victoria. At its meetings he tended to find himself in the minority and even opposed to his fellow Victorians. The principal point of difference arose from his belief that the provision for amending the constitution was inadequate. Time has possibly proved him to be right, but what he could not realize was that if no risks were taken federation might become impossible. During the campaign which followed he fought against the bill. In 1900 he published his Essays and Addresses on the Australian Commonwealth Bill, and was again in the unpopular camp when he opposed sending a contingent to the Boer war. This probably led to his losing his seat at Geelong in November 1900, but when federation was established he was elected for the North Melbourne seat in the house of representatives. He took an early opportunity of moving that the Commonwealth should acquire full powers for Australia as to wages and hours and conditions of labour. The motion was passed, but the opposition of the separate states prevented Australia being treated as a unit in economic matters. When Watson's (q.v.) Labour government came into power in 1904 Higgins was offered and accepted the position of attorney-general. After the formation of the Reid-McLean (q.v.) government he succeeded in getting a motion passed praying that home rule might be granted to Ireland. For this he has been criticized, largely because the petition was addressed to the king direct and not through the government. In 1903 he became a K.C. and, arising out of his difficulties over the Australian constitution, wrote a study of American constitutional difficulties, The Rigid Constitution. In 1906 he was appointed a judge of the high court, and in the following year became president of the arbitration court. In the high court he showed himself to be an able judge, but inclined to find himself dissenting alone, or with (Sir) Isaac Isaacs. In the arbitration court a famous early problem was the Harvester case, which led to his bringing forward the principle of the basic wage. He worked unceasingly and dealt with a very large number of cases. When the war came for once Higgins was with the majority, he held that in the special circumstances the Empire could not have kept out of the war. In 1916 his son and only child Mervyn Bournes Higgins was killed in action, a great grief, which, as he said, condemned him to "hard labour for the rest of his life". The passing of the amending arbitration act and the industrial peace act in 1920, in his opinion had fatally injured the usefulness of his court, and led to his resignation as president. In 1922 he published A New Province for Law and Order, being a review of the 14 years of the court during which he had been president. He continued his work as a justice of the high court. His study of the Australian constitution largely based on that of the United States of America, revived his interest in America which he had visited in 1914, and he revisited it in 1924 and renewed his acquaintance with Mr justice Holmes and other great jurists. He also revisited Ireland and delighted in meeting George Russell ("A.E."). Back in Melbourne and relieved of his arbitration court work he was able to spare time for reading, and to take an interest in the new Australian writers. Although apparently in good health he died suddenly on 13 January 1929. His wife survived him.

Higgins was a tall, rather slight man quiet and reserved in manner. He was interested in young people and in those who appeared to have the scales weighted against them. It would give a wrong impression to say that he had a brilliant mind; it would be nearer the truth to say that he had an honest and powerful mind always seeking the whole truth. His powers of work were enormous and this alone enabled him to get through the work of the arbitration court. A man of great integrity, he found it difficult to compromise or be a party man; one writer after his death went so far as to say that in "the game of politics he expected each party to keep in step with him". His opposition to the original federation bill, however, served the good purpose of having some of its defects removed, and when it became law he realized that the only thing to do was to be loyal to it. He remains one of those austere figures who, without attracting great popular affection or a following, do much work for their country of very great value.

Nettie Palmer, Henry Bournes Higgins; The Argus and The Age, 14 January 1929; private information and personal knowledge.

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HIGGINS, SIR JOHN MICHAEL (1862-1937),

business man and metallurgist,

son of E. S. Higgins, was born at Castlemaine, Victoria, on 9 December 1862. He was educated at a school at Bendigo, and afterwards studied metallurgy and chemistry at the Bendigo school of mines. He was indentured to Mr Garside, a chemist at Bendigo, and afterwards had a pharmacy business of his own, which he sold to become an analyst in a New South Wales mine. He later became metallurgical chemist to the Australian Smelting Company at Dry Creek, South Australia, and when these works closed down, practised as a consulting metallurgist. He also acquired interests in the wool industry and had land in Queensland and New South Wales. This led to his making a study of wool and he became an expert in its technology. When the 1914-18 war began Higgins placed his knowledge at the disposal of the government, and was appointed honorary metallurgical adviser. He represented the government on the Zinc Producers' Association and on the Copper Producers' Association, and also founded the Australian Metal Exchange. After the Imperial government bought the Australian wool clip in 1916, Higgins became chairman and governing director of the central wool committee, and after the war he was chairman of directors of the British Australian Wool Realization Association, afterwards known as Bawra, and was most successful in the management of the sale of the wool carried over at the end of the war. Higgins would not accept any salary or fee for his work as adviser to the government, but had a large salary as chairman of Bawra, half of which was distributed every year to charitable and educational institutions. He held this position until 1926, when the association went into liquidation and he became trustee for a further six years. He died at Melbourne on 6 October 1937. He married in 1889 Frances Anna, daughter of R. L. Macgrath, who died in 1932. He had no children. He was created K.C.M.G. in 1918 and G.C.M.G. in 1934.

Higgins was a quiet, unassuming man who did most valuable work for the government and the pastoral community during and after the war. He was kind and charitable, and made many typically unostentatious gifts. With his wife he on various occasions gave sums amounting to about £10,000 to the university of Melbourne, and a further considerable sum will eventually go to it under his will. Hospitals and other institutions will also benefit.

The Argus, Melbourne, 7 October and 14 December 1937; The Age, Melbourne, 7 October 1937; Burke's Peerage, etc., 1937; The Melbourne University Calendar, 1942.

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HIGINBOTHAM, GEORGE (1826-1892),

chief justice of Victoria,

was born in Dublin on 19 April 1826. His father, Henry Higinbotham, was a merchant at Dublin who married Sarah, daughter of Joseph Wilson, a man of Scotch ancestry who had gone to America and became an American citizen after the War of Independence. He returned to Dublin as American consul. George Higinbotham was the youngest of eight children and was educated at the Royal School, Dungannon. Having gained a Queen's scholarship of £50 a year he entered Trinity College, Dublin, in 1844. He qualified for the degree of B.A. in 1847, after a good but not unusually distinguished course, and proceeded to London where soon afterwards he became a parliamentary reporter on the Morning Chronicle. He entered himself as a student at Lincoln's Inn on 20 April 1848, and on 6 June 1853 was called to the bar. On 1 December he left Liverpool for Australia on the Briseis and arrived at Melbourne on 10 March 1854.

Though the gold-fever was at its height Higinbotham did not go to the diggings, but began practising as a barrister and contributing to the press. On 30 September 1854 he was married to Margaret Foreman, and in August 1856 was appointed editor of the Argus in succession to Edward Wilson (q.v.) who wished to retire. Higinbotham held the position for nearly three years, when he resigned, finding that he could not reconcile his own opinions with the more conservative views of the proprietors. He had many qualifications for this work, but as one of his staff suggested he was too much of a solitary thinker and too little a man of affairs to be an ideal editor. He took up his practice as a barrister again, found his reputation growing, and in May 1861 was asked to stand for the Brighton seat in the legislative assembly. His policy included universal suffrage, assisted immigration, so long as it did not have the effect of lowering the wages of the working classes, and the continuance of the grant in aid of religion. He was elected without opposition, but a few weeks later parliament was dissolved and at the new election he refused to pledge himself to vote either for or against the government. Both government and opposition candidates stood and Higinbotham was placed second in the triangular contest. In the following, March there was a by-election and he gained the seat again as an independent candidate. In the house, though more often supporting the government than not, he still kept an independent course and his evident honesty was earning the respect of both parties. In June 1863 the O'Shanassy (q.v.) government was defeated, and the James McCulloch (q.v.) ministry was formed with Higinbotham as its attorney-general. This government was the most able Victoria had had and lasted five years. Higinbotham became a power in the cabinet, his ability could not be questioned, and his oratory increasing both in persuasiveness and fire had much effect in the house. In January 1865 the visit of the confederate cruiser the Shenandoah placed the government in a difficult position, and it has sometimes been assumed that the advice of Higinbotham as attorney-general must have been faulty in view of the subsequent arbitration proceedings going in favour of the United States. The voting, however, of the arbitrators was three to two, and one of the three appears to have given his decision with some hesitation. About this time began the long struggle between the legislative assembly and the legislative council concerning the powers of the upper chamber over money bills, which did not terminate until April 1866 when a conference of representatives of the two houses was held. Sir Charles Darling the governor had, however, in a dispatch forwarded in the previous December, used a phrase which suggested that he was allying himself with one of the parties to the dispute and was recalled. Higinbotham in his speech made in May 1866 on Darling's treatment declared that the real reason of his recall was that he had "assented to acts of his ministers which Mr Cardwell (secretary of state for the colonies) declares to be illegal". In another part of his speech he totally denied the right of the secretary of state to pronounce, in terms of authority, by virtue of his office, on the legality or illegality of the advice which the advisers of a responsible government tender to the governor. Higinbotham never abandoned this position, and his general attitude to the colonial office on this and similar questions was the real difficulty in later years when the question of appointing him lieutenant-governor came up. It was not a question of his loyalty to the crown, his real contention was that the secretary of state for the colonies should not be allowed to concern himself with the internal affairs of any self-governing colony.

In September 1866 a royal commission on education was appointed of which Higinbotham was made chairman. The work of the commission was done with great thoroughness and economy, and their recommendations were unanimous. Unfortunately one religious body had refused to be represented on the commission, and the feeling that arose caused the work that had been done to be nullified for the time being. In July 1868 McCulloch became premier again, but Higinbotham would accept only a subordinate position in the cabinet. He became vice-president of the board of land and works without salary. In February 1869 he resigned that position and never held office again. Later on in the year, in response to a request that representatives of the colony should be sent to a conference on colonial affairs in London, Higinbotham moved and succeeded in carrying five resolutions declining to send representatives, and repeating his views that the internal affairs of a colony are its own concern and that the colonial office should only look after matters that effect the whole empire. A year later at the election held in March 1871 Higinbotham was defeated by 14 votes. It was a contest between a realist and an idealist. His opponent, Thomas Bent (q.v.), was a man who understood the art of looking after his own constituency. Higinbotham cared nothing for its special needs and thought only of the good of the whole colony. He welcomed his release from the bickerings of politics and for two years built up his position as a barrister.

In May 1873 he was invited to contest the East Bourke Boroughs seat and won by a good majority, and at the general election in April 1874 won the seat again. But early in 1876, disgusted with the waste of time caused by stone-walling, he resigned his seat. He was feeling too that party-government was a failure and he could not join in the constant struggle for office. He was now a leader of the bar on the common law side. In 1880 he was made a supreme court judge, in 1886 became chief justice and shortly afterwards he declined a knighthood. He accepted the post of president of the executive commission of the centennial international exhibition at Melbourne in 1888, but resigned after doing much preliminary work. His position in the community was a high one, and no man was held in more respect. In 1890, however, at the time of the great maritime strike, Higinbotham caused a sensation by sending £50 to the strike leaders with a promise of a further £10 a week while, as he phrased it, "the United Trades are awaiting compliance with their reasonable request for a conference with the employers". In the same year he completed the consolidation of the statute law of Victoria. He had begun the task in 1888, and in December 1890 was accorded the thanks of both houses of parliament. Beyond asking that he might be given a copy of the completed volumes he would accept no payment or reward. But he felt the strain of the extra work very much. During the last two years of his life he tried to conserve his strength but was obviously becoming very fragile. He died on 31 December 1892 and was survived by his wife, two sons and three daughters. He had a dislike of anything like pomp and ceremony and directed that his funeral should be private. He was buried at Brighton near Melbourne. His known modesty and objection to anything like ostentation was probably the reason why no public memorial to his memory was erected after his death. Some 40 years later Donald Mackinnon, who as a young barrister had been associated with Higinbotham in the consolidation of the statutes, left a bequest to provide funds for a memorial. A statue by Paul Montford (q.v.), erected close to the treasury building, Melbourne, was unveiled on 12 November 1937.

Higinbotham was below medium height but erect and strongly built. He had great sweetness of expression and perfect courtesy. As a politician he could not compromise, to him the course proposed was either right or wrong, and this rigidity made him difficult to work with. He would like to have had a parliament elected from the colony as one constituency with every member paid the same whether a member of the cabinet or not. In this way he hoped to prevent scrambling for office or working for money to be spent for the benefit of the member's district. His fight for self-government by the colonies was necessary because the colonial office took a long while to realize that it was no longer dealing with crown colonies. Even in Higinbotham's lifetime modifications were made in the instructions sent to the governors. But to Higinbotham's mind these modifications were not sufficient. When the possibility of his becoming acting-governor had to be considered he was asked what position he would take regarding the colonial office. He replied that he would communicate with the secretary of state upon subjects of Imperial interest, but he would not for instance report a change of ministry or a dissolution of parliament. It was seen that these views might lead to difficulties and he was never appointed.

Higinbotham had a great reputation as an orator. He had an excellent, clear voice and a somewhat slow delivery, which enabled him not only to finish his sentences perfectly, but to make full use of the dramatic pause. Yet though unhurried he spoke with such earnestness, with such telling phrases, such persuasiveness and restrained fire, that he could carry all before him. He was a good judge, dignified and painstaking. His conscientiousness sometimes slowed up the court, but if he had been aware of this it would have troubled him little, the important thing was that justice should be done. It has been suggested that he may not have been "a great technical lawyer. He could not lose sight of the object in the instrument". He had, however, a profound knowledge of case law, and, having twice consolidated the Victorian statutes, could have had no lack of knowledge of them too. He became a peoples' leader. Long before his attitude to the maritime strike was known this was recognized. Once an opponent at a large meeting in an industrial suburb was getting along successfully when he mentioned Higinbotham's name, and the cheering was continued so long that the orator found it difficult to get a start again. His consideration for everyone with whom he came in contact, whether he were a brother judge or the youngest messenger, became known. His quiet and usually anonymous charity, his devotion to duty, his complete honesty, could not remain hidden. His nobility of character has become a legend.

E. E. Morris, Memoir of George Higinbotham; H. G. Turner, History of the Colony of Victoria, vol. II; The Age, Melbourne, 2 January 1893; The Argus, Melbourne, 2 January, 1893 and 13 November 1937.

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HILDER, JESSE JEWHURST (1881-1916),

artist,

the eighth child of Henry Hilder, an engineer who had come from Sussex to Australia, was born at Toowoomba, Queensland, on 23 July 1881. The family removed to Brisbane and Hilder was educated at the state school, Fortitude Valley. Winning a scholarship when 13 years of age, he spent three years at the Brisbane boys' grammar school and passed the junior public examination in 1897. Early in 1898 he be came a member of the staff of the Bank of New South Wales, Brisbane. In 1901 he was transferred to Goulburn, and in 1902 to Bega, on the south coast of New South Wales, where he joined some friends in week-end sketching. Later on he was to receive £1 for one of these sketches, his first sale. Unfortunately, about this time he began to develop pulmonary trouble. He was transferred to a Sydney suburb, but the sea air did not suit him, and during the next five years he had to obtain leave of absence from the bank several times. In 1906 he asked Julian Ashton for advice about his work and received much encouragement. He joined his classes and had practice in drawing which he realized was his weak point. Towards the end of the year he had to go into a sanatorium in Queensland for four months, but came back little improved in health. At his own request he was transferred to a branch west of the mountains in April 1907. In August he sent 21 water-colours to an exhibition of the Society of Artists. They were priced very low, from three to five guineas, and 19 were sold. These works created a sensation among the artists and critics. Hilder's health continued to be very bad and he kept moving about seeking vainly for improvement. He was able to do some painting, and at the spring exhibition of the Society of Artists his 14 waterColours were all sold.

About the beginning of 1909 Hilder was married to Phyllis Meadmore, a probationer nurse. He had told her frankly about the state of his health but it was decided to take the risk. In April 1909 the Bank of New South Wales accepted his resignation, and paid him nine months' leaving salary. He was grateful to his employers for the consideration he had received during his many years of ill-health. A cottage was taken at Epping in the hills a few miles from Sydney, and during the next two years Hilder and his wife went through many anxieties. His sales were uncertain and his prices were low. From the middle of 1911 he began to get better prices and his sales were more regular; he had no serious financial troubles for the remainder of his life, although towards the end he was feverishly trying to make some provision for his family. In April 1914 he visited Melbourne and held an exhibition of his work which was very successful. But the strain of the visit was too great, and he had to go into hospital for a fortnight. Returning to New South Wales, he was now living near Hornsby, he gradually became weaker though he continued to paint for the remaining two years of his life. He died on 10 April 1916, and was survived by his wife, who had done so much for him, and two children.

Hilder was simple and modest, shy, sensitive and reserved. His highly strung nature, constantly fretted by illness, sometimes led to estrangement from his best friends. He was fortunate in his wife, in the admiration of his fellow artists, and in finding early buyers of his paintings. He was very critical of his own work and tore up much of it; sometimes the final result was the third or fourth effort to capture the subject. He was not afraid of empty spaces and everything in the drawing was beautifully placed. His colour was always excellent, though some of his later work is painted almost in monochrome washed in on very rough paper. The treatment generally is broad, yet full of refinement and poetical feeling. The best collection of his work will be found at the national gallery at Sydney. He is also represented at the Melbourne, Adelaide and other galleries. The Ewing collection at the university of Melbourne has a good example, "The Island Trader".

The Art of J. J. Hilder, edited by Sydney Ure Smith and Bertram Stevens; J. J. Hilder Water-Colourist, 1916.

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HINDMARSH, SIR JOHN (c. 1782-1860),

first governor of South Australia,

was probably born about the year 1782. Later dates are sometimes given, but as he entered the navy in 1793, and at the battle of the Nile in 1798, being the only surviving officer on the quarter-deck of the Bellerophon, gave orders which saved the ship from destruction, it seems scarcely likely that he would have been sufficiently experienced to know what to do before he was 16. He was promoted lieutenant in 1803, and had a distinguished career until the end of the Napoleonic wars in 1815. A period of inaction followed, but in 1830 he was in command of the Scylla and was made a captain in 1831. In 1836 he was made a knight of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order and went to South Australia as its first governor, arriving on 28 December. Hindmarsh, though a brave man with an excellent record, had no special qualifications for his post. He had come in conflict with the South Australian colonization commissioners before leaving London, and a very short while after his arrival was at odds with the surveyor-general Colonel William Light (q.v.) on the question of the capital site. Hindmarsh wanted it near the mouth of the Murray, instead of at the present site which had been selected by Light. The situation was complicated by the fact that there was some question as to the respective powers of the governor and the resident commissioner, J. Hurtle Fisher (q.v.), and the two came into open conflict. Feeling ran high and when Hindmarsh went so far as to suspend Robert Gouger (q.v.) and other public officers, the commissioners brought the matter before the secretary of state for the colonies. As a result Hindmarsh was recalled and left the colony on 14 July 1838. In September 1840 he was appointed lieutenant-governor of Heligoland, and held this position for about 16 years. He was knighted by Queen Victoria on 7 August 1851 (The Times, 20 August 1851), and attained the rank of rear-admiral in 1856. He died on 31 July 1860 and was survived by a son and two daughters.

Hindmarsh was governor of South Australia for little more than a year, an unfortunate episode in an otherwise distinguished career. His position was anomalous from the start, and, though he was sometimes wanting in both tact and wisdom, his difficulties were great. For an interesting summary see A. Grenfell Price's Founders and Pioneers of South Australia, p. 92.

The Annual Register, 1860; W, R. O'Byrne, A Naval Biographical Dictionary; A. Grenfell Price, The Foundation and Settlement of South Australia and Founders and Pioneers of South Australia; E. Hodder, The Founding of South Australia; J. H. Heaton, Australian Dictionary of Dates.

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HINKLER, HERBERT JOHN LOUIS (1892-1933),

generally known as Bert Hinkler, aviator,

was born at Bundaberg, Queensland, on 8 December 1892. While still in his teens he spent his pocket money on constructing gliders in which he made successful flights. He became mechanic to H. Stone who gave some exhibition flights at Sydney, and then worked his passage to Europe to extend his knowledge of flying. When war broke out in 1914 Hinkler joined the Royal Flying Corps, for a time was on the Italian front and was awarded the D.S.M. for flights into Germany. When the Australian government offered £10,000 as a prize for the first flight to Australia, Hinkler entered, but his machine crashed in Europe during a storm. He went to Australia in 1920 and demonstrated the Avro Baby machine, and in March 1921 made a non-stop flight of about 700 miles from Sydney to Bundaberg. Returning to England he was employed for some years by A. V. Rae Limited, as a test pilot. In February 1928 he made his record-breaking flight to Australia reducing the time from 28 days to just under 15½ days. It was the first solo flight, and his machine was the tiny Avro-Avian with a wing spread of 26 ft. 9 in. and a length of 23 feet. After visiting the principal cities of Australia and returning to England, he was awarded the Air Cross for the finest aerial exploit of the year. He joined the Bristol Aircraft Company as a test pilot, and also did some designing. In 1931 he did his most remarkable feat. He first flew from New York to Jamaica 1500 miles non-stop, then to Brazil, and then across the South Atlantic to Africa. This part of the journey was done in extremely bad weather, but despite a tearing gale and practically no visibility for part of the way because of low and heavy clouds, he drifted a comparatively small distance off his course. From West Africa he flew to London. For this he was awarded the Seagrave memorial trophy, the Johnston memorial prize, and the Britannia trophy for the most meritorious flying performance of the year. On 7 January 1933 Hinkler left Feltham aerodrome, England, in an attempt to break the flying record to Australia of 8 days 10 hours. Nothing more was heard of him until his body was discovered in the Tuscan Mountains in Italy. His plane had crashed into the mountains, probably on 8 January 1933. He was temporarily buried, with full military honours, in the protestant cemetery at Florence. The body was afterwards brought to Brisbane. A mormment in his memory was erected at Passo Della Vacche in the Pratomagno Alps by the Aretino Aero Club. He was married and his wife survived him.

Hinkler was more than a great airman, he was a fine mechanic with a fertile brain continually throwing up ideas which were often given to his employers, and his engines frequently had gadgets of his own invention. He had little business sense and never made any real attempt to exploit his capabilities. He was thoroughly courageous without being reckless, and was successful in his most amazing feats because he was practically faultless as a pilot, and knew exactly what he and his machines could do.

The Times, 29 April, 12 and 27 September 1933; The Argus, 23 February 1928, 1 May 1933.

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HIRSCH, MAX (c. 1852-1909),

economist,

was born at Cologne, Prussia, on 21 September 1852. (Argus, Melbourne, 5 March 1909. The biography prefixed to his memorial volume The Problem of Wealth, however, states that he was born in September 1853.) His father was a writer on economic subjects, and a member of the Reichstag who came in conflict with the German authorities on account of his democratic principles. The boy was educated at a high school and also did some work at the university of Berlin, but at 19 years of age began a career as a commercial traveller. Before he was 20 he was sent to Persia to buy carpets and obtained many fine old specimens. These were brought to London by way of Russia. Hirsch spent some time in Italy studying art, and taking up his travelling again became a representative of British linen manufacturers. He visited Australia in 1879, and in the following year returned to Germany. He next went to Ceylon and engaged in coffee planting and was also for some time a member of the civil service. While in Ceylon he found that the rice tax was driving native cultivators off the land. His sympathies were aroused and he wrote several pamphlets on the question, which led to the removal of the tax.

In 1890 Hirsch settled at Melbourne, and two years later gave up business and devoted himself to the fight for free-trade and land-values taxation. In 1895 he published The Fiscal Superstion, and in the following year Economic Principles, A Manual of Political Economy. In 1901 was published Social Conditions. Materials for Comparisons between New South Wales and Victoria, Great Britain, The United States and Foreign Countries. His most important work Democracy versus Socialism was published at London in the same year.

Hirsch made more than one attempt to enter political life without success, but in 1902 was elected to the legislative assembly for Mandurang. He resigned this seat in November 1903 to contest the Wimmera constituency in the federal house of representatives as the fiscal question was now purely a federal matter. He was defeated by 160 votes. He had become the recognized leader of the single tax movement, and his ability in both handling this question in public debates and in his writings brought him many followers. In his fight for free trade, then a live question in Australia, he met with much hostility from vested interests, and his opponents did not forget to remind the public that he was German and a Jew. It was even suggested that he was opposed to reasonable wages being paid to the workers. This was quite contrary to the facts, as Hirsch was essentially democratic in his outlook, and held strongly that the higher the wages paid the better for trade. In 1906 he again failed to win the election for Wimmera. In October 1908 he left Melbourne on a business mission to Siberia. His health had not been good and it was hoped that the sea voyage would benefit him. He died at Vladivostock after a short illness on 4 March 1909. He never married. In 1910 his admirers published his Land Values Taxation in Practice, and in 1911 his The Problem of Wealth and Other Essays was published as a memorial volume.

The friends of Hirsch considered that had he given himself entirely to business he would have become a rich man. He was, however, devoted to his ideals, and preferred to work for causes which could bring him little personal reward but which would be for the good of the people. He was a clear and vigorous writer and speaker, keenly logical, careful of his facts, and always prepared to meet the difficulties of his case. He was no revolutionist, and stated on one occasion that if he were appointed dictator he would bring in the single tax system gradually, so that people who had acquired property under the present system should not be unfairly treated. His most important book Democracy versus Socialism went into a second edition in England in 1924. The vitality of this work is shown by the fact that when the third American edition appeared in 1940 a well-known writer stated in the Atlantic Monthly:--"Of the innumerable books on economics . . . published in the last seven years the one which is most important at just this moment . . . is a reprint of Democracy versus Socialism by Max Hirsch . . . it presents the complete case against every known form and shade of state collectivism, from Marxism . . . to the New Deal."

The Argus, Melbourne, 5 March 1909; Memoir prefixed to The Problem of Wealth and Other Essays; A. J. Nock, The Atlantic Monthly, June 1940.

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HOBBS, SIR JOSEPH JOHN TALBOT (1864-1938),

general,

was born at Chelsea, London, on 24 August 1864, the son of Joseph and Frances Hobbs. Educated at St Mary's church school, Merton, Surrey, he joined the volunteer artillery in 1883. He came to Australia in 1887 and practised his profession as an architect at Perth. Joining the volunteer artillery as a gunner he rose to the command of the battery in 1897, in 1906 was a lieutenant-colonel commanding a West Australian mixed brigade, and in 1913 was colonel commanding the 22nd infantry brigade. On four occasions he went to England and did intensive courses in artillery training with the British army. He was thus thoroughly equipped when war broke out, and on 8 August 1914 was selected by General Bridges (q.v.) to command the 1st Australian divisional artillery. After training in Egypt he was at the landing at Gallipoli on 25 April 1915, and was soon ashore searching for positions for his guns. He was in command of the artillery until 11 November 1915 when he was struck down with dysentery and invalided to Cairo. He was then promoted brigadier-general and made a C.B. In March 1916 he went with the first Australian division to France, and was in command of the Australian artillery when Pozières was captured. In December 1916 he was given command of the 5th division and was made a major-general. This division was in the thick of the fighting in the spring of 1917, and in September did magnificent work at Polygon Wood. It was a great piece of staff work in which every officer and man fitted into his allotted place, did his work with distinction, and together achieved a great victory. Hobbs was created a K.C.B. on 1 January 1918. At the end of April his division fought a great fight at the second battle for Villers-Bretonneux, which probably contributed to the abandonment of the German operations towards Amiens. Towards the end of May General Monash (q.v.) was placed in command of the Australian Army Corps, and Hobbs became the senior divisional commander in the corps. His division was then given a well-earned rest but took a worthy share in the great counter attack which began on 8 August. It did not take a leading part in the capture of Mont St Quentin, one of the greatest and most important feats of the war, but Monash, in his The Australian Victories in France, stated that he was "concerned . . . that the fine performance of the Fifth Division should not be underrated. The circumstances under which general Hobbs was called upon to intervene in the battle, at very short notice, imposed upon him, personally, difficulties of no mean order". One of his tasks it may be mentioned was the crossing of the Somme in the face of strong opposition, and when Hobbs sent a message to the men of his war-worn division on its beginning a rest period on 8 September, he was able to say that they had "earned imperishable fame for their gallantry and valour". It was but a short rest, for they were in the line again later on in the same month, and Hobbs was making careful plans for the attack on the Hindenburg line which was successfully breached by the 3rd and 5th divisions on 30 September and 1 October. The Australians had done the work allotted to them and were not called upon to fight again. Monash was put in charge of the repatriation and demobilization of the Australian troops, and Hobbs succeeded him in the command of the Army Corps until this was completed in May 1919.

Hobbs returned to Perth and resumed his work as an architect. With his partners he was responsible for many important buildings in Perth including the state war memorial, St George's College, Crawley, the Temperance and General and Royal Insurance buildings. He was also architect for the Church of England diocese of Perth. He interested himself very much in the claims of returned soldiers, in the university, the Church of England, and in many sporting and social organizations. He was also responsible for the erection of battle memorials to four Australian divisions. He died at sea on 21 April 1938 while on his way to Europe to attend the unveiling of the Australian war memorial at Villers-Bretonneux. He married in 1890 Edith Ann Hurst, who survived him with two sons and three daughters. He was created K.C.M.G. in January 1919. He was mentioned in dispatches six times and received many war honours. After the war he was promoted lieutenant-general.

Hobbs was a short and slight man, whose ordinary life was that of a successful citizen who had a full realization of his responsibilities to the society of which he was a member. He was capable and self-sacrificing and measured his life by high standards. From his youth he seems to have realized that some day his country might need him as a soldier, and he set to work to qualify himself for the highest positions. This knowledge was invaluable in France, and when he became a divisional commander his kindliness, tact and firmness gained the affection and respect of his men, while his carefulness of preparation and knowledge made him an excellent divisional commander. Monash said of him that he "succeeded fully as the Commander of a Division by his sound common sense and his sane attitude towards every problem that confronted him". To this may be added the eulogy of general Sir Brudenell White (q.v.) "he was not only a soldier, he was also a great citizen, and a great Christian gentleman . . . who knew none other than the straight path".

The West Australian, 22 and 23 April 1938; The Argus, Melbourne, 22 April 1938; C. E. W. Bean, The Official History of Australia in the War of 1914-1918, vols. I, III, IV and V; A. D. Ellis, The Story of the Fifth Australian Division; Sir John Monash, The Australian Victories in France, 1918; Sir Brudenell White, The Argus, Melbourne, 14 May 1938.

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HOBSON, WILLIAM (1793-1842),

first governor of New Zealand,

son of Samuel Hobson, a barrister, was born at Waterford, Ireland, on 26 September 1793. He joined the navy on 25 August 1803 as a second-class volunteer. It was a rough life to enter on for a boy still under 10 years of age, but somehow Hobson obtained an education. He became a midshipman in 1806 and some seven years later was a first lieutenant. He was promoted commander in May 1824. In 1834 he was appointed captain of the Rattlesnake and early in 1835 sailed to India. In 1836 he was ordered to Australia and arrived at Hobart on 5 August, and at Sydney 18 days later. On 18 September the Rattlesnake left for Port Phillip conveying Captain Lonsdale (q.v.) and other officials to the new colony. During the next three months Hobson and his officers thoroughly surveyed Port Phillip, the northern portion of which, by direction of Governor Sir Richard Bourke (q.v.), was named after Hobson. He was offered the position of superintendent of the Bombay marine at a salary of £2000 a year, but he had taken a liking to Australia and was a candidate for the governorship of Port Phillip, although the salary was not expected to be more than £800 a year. On 20 February 1837 the Rattlesnake left Sydney for Port Phillip with Bourke and other officials on board and arrived On 4 March. Melbourne was surveyed and named a few days later. Shortly afterwards word was received from James Busby (q.v.) that war had broken out between tribes in New Zealand, and Hobson was sent on the Rattlesnake to afford any protection to the missionaries and others that might be necessary. He made various investigations and returned in July with the Rev. S. Marsden (q.v.) on board. The Rattlesnake then returned to the India station and to England.

In July 1839 Hobson was appointed lieutenant-governor of New Zealand. He went first to Sydney and in January 1840 sailed from there to the Bay of Islands, where Busby was British resident, and arrived on 29 January. Next day Hobson landed and read the proclamation announcing his appointment as lieutenant-governor. He had a difficult time in harmonizing the views of the missionaries, the traders, and the Maoris, and in February he suffered a stroke of paralysis. He was ill for some time and was glad of the help of Busby in drawing up the famous treaty of Waitangi in February 1840. In November New Zealand became a separate colony and Hobson was nominated as governor. But there were still many difficulties to cope with, such as the rights of the New Zealand Company, and the respective merits of Wellington and Auckland as sites for the seat of government. Hobson was not entirely fortunate in the officials who had been appointed to assist him, and the settlement of land claims added to his difficulties. Worn out with contentions of various kinds he had another stroke and died on 10 September 1842, much mourned by the Maoris, who fully recognized his justice and humanity. He married in 1827 Eliza, daughter of R. W. Elliott, who survived him with one son, who became a captain in the navy, and four daughters.

Guy H. Scholefield, Captain William Hobson; Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols XIX and XX; R. D. Boys, First Years at Port Phillip; Erie Ramsden, Busby of Waitangi.

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HODDLE, ROBERT (1794-1881),

surveyor,

son of a chief clerk of the discount office of the Bank of England, was born at Westminster, London, on 20 April 1794. He was appointed a cadet in the Royal military surveyors in 1812, and 10 years later was engaged in a military survey at Cape Colony. He then went to Australia, in September 1823 was appointed an assistant surveyor at Svdney, and in 1824 was assisting Oxley in the survey of Moreton Bay. During the following 12 years he was engaged on surveys in many parts of New South Wales, including the first detailed survey of the site of Canberra. At the end of February 1837 he went to Port Phillip to take charge of the surveying work which had been begun by Robert Russell (q.v.). Hoddle's first map of Melbourne, completed on 25 March 1837, covered the area from Flinders-street to Lonsdale-street, and from Spencer-street to Spring-street. The principal streets were made one and a half chains wide, and the smaller, then intended merely to furnish back entrances, a half chain wide. Later Hoddle provided for wide exits from the city such as Wellington and Victoria parades, and the continuation from Elizabeth-street to Sydney and Mount Alexander roads. He also made provisions for squares and reserves in the city itself and in the immediate suburbs. He was in no way responsible for the narrow streets which later were formed in Fitzroy, Collingwood and Richmond. These were made when comparatively large areas were subdivided by their owners. Hoddle acted as auctioneer at the first land sale at Melbourne in June 1837, and in 1838 fixed the site of Geelong in spite of opposition from the Sydney authorities who favoured Point Henry. In 1840 he was granted a gratuity of £500 as he was leaving the survey department on account of ill-health. However, after a few months holiday he recovered his health, took up his duties again, and the gratuity was not paid to him. He later did valuable work in the country districts of Victoria, became surveyor-general in 1851, and retired in July 1853 with a pension of £1000 a year. He had bought in 1837 the block of land in Elizabeth-street, Melbourne, on which the State Savings Bank now stands, for a comparatively small sum, and he became a wealthy man. After his retirement he took an interest in the Old Colonists' Association and was elected a life governor in December 1873. He died at his residence at the west end of Bourke-street, the site of the present general post office, on 24 October 1881. He was married twice and left a widow and children. Hoddle-street, East Melbourne, was named after him. He did excellent work in New South Wales, and Victoria owes much to his wisdom and foresight.

The honour of having laid out the town of Melbourne has also been claimed by Robert Russell. In an interview reported in the Melbourne Argus for 26 April 1899 Russell, then a very old man, stated his case in a reasonable way. He undoubtedly made a plan of the settlement as it was before Hoddle arrived, for Hoddle in a report dated 10 April 1837 said: "From Mr Russell I could only obtain a plan of the settlement executed by himself and Mr Darke, on which I drew a plan of the Town of Melbourne." Hoddle had left the ship which brought him from Sydney on 4 March and immediately accompanied Governor Bourke on a tour round the settlement. The governor's diary for that date states that he "rode over the ground adjacent to the huts with Surveyor Hoddle and traced the general outline of a township". Hoddle's field-book for the same date gives the bearing of Spencer-street as N.332 which was evidently fixed by the governor in consultation with Hoddle. It was no part of Russell's instructions that he should lay out a township (see Victorian Historical Magazine, January 1919, pp. 37-40), and he certainly, while at Port Phillip, gave no evidence of desiring to go beyond his instructions.

The Age and The Argus, Melbourne, 25 October 1881; Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols XII, XIV, XV, XXI; T. O'Callaghan, The Victorian Historical Magazine, January 1919; Isaac Selby, ibid., December 1928; H. S. McComb, ibid., May 1937, and May 1938; F. Watson, A Brief History of Canberra; Henry Selkirk, Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. XI, pp. 52-6; James Jervis, ibid., vol. XXIII, pp. 42-56.

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HODGSON, SIR ARTHUR (1818-1902),

Queensland pioneer and politician,

son of the Rev. Edward Hodgson, was born in England on 29 June 1818 and was educated at Eton and Cambridge. He entered the royal navy and for three years was on the China station. He then went to Australia, arrived at Sydney in 1840, and soon afterwards became one of the early settlers in the Moreton Bay district, now Queensland. In 1856 he was appointed general superintendent of the Australian Agricultural Company. He represented Darling Downs in the New South Wales parliament, and after the foundation of Queensland, was elected to its legislative assembly. He was minister for public works in the Mackenzie (q.v.) ministry from September to November 1868 and colonial secretary in the Lilley (q.v.) ministry from January to November 1869. He was acting-premier during the visit of the Duke of Edinburgh. In 1874 Hodgson returned to England, settled at Stratford-on-Avon, of which he became mayor, and took much interest in the Shakespearian memorials there, and also in the volunteer movement. He represented Queensland at various European exhibitions, and did useful work in helping to develop the Queensland trade in meat and other products. He died at Stratford on 24 December 1902. He married in 1842 Eliza, daughter of Sir James Dowling (q.v.), who died before him. He was created C.M.G. in 1878, and K.C.M.G. in 1886.

The Times, 25 December 1902; Burke's Peerage, etc., 1902; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography.

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HOFF, GEORGE RAYNER, known as Rayner Hoff (1894-1937),

sculptor,

was born in the Isle of Man in 1894. His father, who was of Dutch descent, was a woodcarver and stonecarver, often employed in restoring old houses in England. The boy began to learn carving at home, and then went to the Nottingham art school, where he studied drawing, design, and modelling, from 1910 to 1915. He then enlisted, and after a year in the trenches was employed until the end of the war on making maps based on aerial photographs. He then entered the Royal College of Art, studied under Derwent Wood for three years, and winning the Prix de Rome, went to Italy in 1922. There he did little work in sculpture beyond making sketch models, but drew much and mentally studied the many examples of classical and Renaissance art to be found in that country. In May 1923, on the recommendation of Sir George Frampton, R.A., and F. Derwent Wood, R.A., he became director of sculpture and drawing at the East Sydney technical school.

Hoff's coming to Sydney was a great gain to Australia. He speedily reorganized the school and succeeded in winning the enthusiasm of the students. He became a member of the Society of Artists and sent work to their exhibitions. In 1924 he designed their medal, and in 1927 was responsible for sculpture for the national war memorial at Adelaide. In the same year he was awarded the Wynne prize at Sydney. His best known works are the figures on the exterior of the Anzac Memorial in Hyde Park, Sydney, the central group in the interior, and the bronze reliefs. An example of his sculpture associated with architecture is at Sydney university, where four medallion portraits of great scientists are on the façade of the physics building.

Hoff also produced a variety of smaller work, built up a fine school of sculpture, and in 1934 was commissioned to design the Victorian centenary medal. His use of a ram's head as the design for one side of it was much criticized, and it is not one of his most successful efforts. At the time of his death on 19 November 1937 he was engaged on the George V Memorial for Canberra. He had recently been commissioned to design part of the new coinage for the Commonwealth. He was survived by his wife and two daughters.

Coming to Australia as a young man of 28, Hoff soon adapted himself to Australian conditions, and his quiet, slightly whimsical personality made him generally liked. He was a quick worker and an artist of great originality. That is not to say he had paid no heed to tradition, for his work, originally based on the Greeks, showed that he had studied much that was best in Italian work of the Renaissance, the Assyrian friezes, the attempt to retain only the essentials, characteristic of some of the moderns, and the simple sincerity of the Chinese. All this was, however, fused in his own personality, and his too early death was a great loss to the art of Australia.

W. Moore, The Story of Australian Art; The Sydney Morning Herald, 20 November 1937; The Herald, Melbourne, 20 November 1937; Art in Australia, October, 1932; The Earl Beauchamp and others, Sculpture of Raynor Hoff, 1934.

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HOLDER, SIR FREDERICK WILLIAM (1850-1909),

premier of South Australia and first federal speaker,

the son of James Morecott Holder and his wife, Martha Breakspear Roby, was born at Happy Valley, South Australia, on 12 May 1850. His father was a state school teacher who gave his son a good education. On leaving school he entered the education department but soon became a journalist. He for a time edited the Burra Record and also wrote for the Adelaide Register. He took an interest in municipal affairs, was elected a member of the Burra Corporation, and for two years was mayor. In 1887 he was returned to parliament as a representative for Burra, and retained his seat at ensuing elections with large majorities until the coming of federation. From June 1889 to August 1890 he was treasurer in the J. A. Cockburn (q.v.) ministry, and on its defeat was elected leader of the opposition. He sat on many royal commissions during his parliamentary career in South Australia, and his reasonableness and sincerity made him a very valuable committee man. In June 1892 he carried a vote of want of confidence in the Playford (q.v.) ministry, and took office as premier and treasurer. He had only a small majority and it was a time of great financial difficulty. He was defeated in October 1892. When the Kingston (q.v.) government was formed in June 1893, Holder was allotted the portfolio of commissioner of public works, but in April 1894, when Playford became agent-general for South Australia, Holder took his place in the government as treasurer and minister controlling the Northern Territory, and held these positions until December 1899. Australia was going through a period of lean years and Holder proved himself to be a capable and careful treasurer. When the Kingston ministry was defeated the succeeding Solomon ministry lasted only a week, and Holder was commissioned to form a government. He became premier and treasurer on 8 December 1899 and continued in power until he entered the federal house in May 1901.

Holder had played no small part in the federal campaign in South Australia. He travelled the country, spoke at many meetings, and was elected a representative of South Australia at the 1897 convention. He was a member of the finance committee, was responsible for the scheme by which the bookkeeping period was to be shortened to one year with a sliding scale of payments to the end of five years, when the federal surplus was to be distributed on a per capita basis. This was adopted at the Adelaide session but afterwards was abandoned. He was elected a member of the federal house of representatives, and when parliament met he was the only nominee for the speaker's position. He was twice re-elected to the position, and presided over many debates when feeling ran high and the greatest tact and firmness was required to keep the house in order. The fact of there being three parties in the house made it extremely difficult to transact business and tempers were easily ruffled. The climax came with the sitting that began on 20 July 1909, when the speaker continually had to call members to order and it took all his powers to keep the house in control. On 22 July, after a sitting of 14 hours, Sir William Lyne (q.v.) made an intemperate speech which brought a storm of interruptions only stayed when the speaker fell insensible on the floor of the house. He died a few hours later on 23 July 1909. He married in 1878 Julia Maria Stephens who survived him with four sons and four daughters. He was created K.C.M.G. on 26 June 1902. He published in 1892 Our Pastoral Industry, a reprint of a series of articles which appeared originally in the South Australian Register. A few of his speeches were also published and he wrote a good deal for newspapers and reviews.

Holder was a comparatively frail man who did an enormous amount of work. He was a lay preacher in the Methodist Church, much valued in church councils, a total abstainer who often lectured on total abstinence and other subjects, and he was also interested in philanthropic work. In politics he showed great qualities of leadership, was a good treasurer and a good administrator, and his courtesy, fair mindedness, and great knowledge of parliamentary procedure eminently qualified him to be the first speaker of the Commonwealth parliament. In the early troubled years, however much the leaders of the different parties might distrust each other, all united in their tributes to the speaker at the end of each parliament, for all recognized that he not only knew the duties of his position but carried them out impartially and inflexibly.

The Register, Adelaide, 24 July 1909; The Argus, Melbourne, 24 July 1909; H. G. Turner, The First Decade of the Commonwealth; Quick and Garran, The Annotated Constitution of the Australian Commonwealth; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography.

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HOLMAN, WILLIAM ARTHUR (1871-1934),

labour leader, premier of New South Wales,

son of William Holman, an actor, was born at London on 4 August 1871. His mother was also on the stage under the name of May Burney. There were bad times in the theatrical profession during the 1880s, and the Holmans were glad to obtain an engagement with Brough and Boucicault (q.v.) in Australia. They arrived in Melbourne in October 1888 with their two sons, both of whom had been apprenticed to a cabinet maker in London. W. A. Holman, the elder of the two, though he had been successful at school, showed little ability at his trade, but he was a great reader and was falling under the influence of Mill, Morris, Darwin, Spencer, and later, Marx. The burning of the Bijou theatre, Melbourne, left the company without wardrobe or engagement, and the Holmans removed to Sydney where the sons obtained employment at their trade. William joined the Sydney School of Arts Debating Society, where he came under the notice of Barton (q.v.), who encouraged him. He was taking much interest in the foundation of the New South Wales Labour party, but was too young to be a possible candidate at the 1891 election, when 36 labour men were returned. But he gave evidence before the select committee on banking as representative of the socialist league, and did much lecturing on socialism and economics. In July 1894 he was a candidate for Leichhardt at the election for the legislative assembly, when he was defeated by 95 votes, and in 1895, at Grenfell, he was again defeated. He had become a director of a company formed to publish a daily paper with Labour sympathies, called the Daily Post, but it was a failure and the company went into liquidation. The directors were charged with conspiracy to defraud by a man who had lent the company money, and four of them including Holman were found guilty and sentenced to imprisonment. A point, however, had been reserved, and the conviction was subsequently quashed. Holman had in the meanwhile spent nearly two months in gaol, and felt the indignity and mortification deeply. Dr Evatt, his biographer, after examining the evidence, considered that Holman was morally and legally not guilty, and that the judge should have advised the jury to acquit the directors out of hand.

Though discouraged by this experience, Holman began to interest himself again in the organization of Labour, and did some writing for a weekly paper, The Grenfell Vedette, of which he afterwards became the proprietor. In July 1898 he was elected a member of the assembly for Grenfell, and in October made a remarkable maiden speech during the federal resolution debate. He became one of the leading opponents of the bill, objecting principally to the difficulty of amending the constitution and the nature of the financial clauses. When the South African war broke out Holman was again with the minority, and opposed the sending of a New South Wales contingent to South Africa. This brought him some unpopularity, but the Labour movement as a whole was consolidating its strength, and had influenced much legislation passed by both Lyne (q.v.) and See (q.v.). Holman had been studying law, and having passed the necessary examinations was admitted as a barrister of the supreme court on 31 July 1903, and practised with success for many years. He became deputy-leader of the Labour party in 1905, and in 1906 had a great public debate with Reid (q.v.) on socialism, a meeting of two worthy antagonists. A report of this debate was published as a pamphlet. At the 1907 election Holman was advocating a state national bank and a graduated land tax, and was returned for Cootamundra after a strenuous contest. Labour now had 32 members in a house of 90 and there were several independents. Encouraged by the increase in the party's strength, Holman did a great deal of organizing during the next three years, covering much ground on his bicycle. In 1909, with P. A. Jacobs, he brought out a volume on Australian Mercantile Law, and he worked hard during the federal election campaign in 1910, when Labour had a complete victory and came into power. In New South Wales Labour won no fewer than 18 out of the 27 seats for the house of representatives. At the state election held in October Labour for the first time came back with a majority, winning two seats more than the combined liberal and independent candidates. McGowen (q.v.) became premier and Holman attorney-general. During the 1911-12 session a graduated income tax act, a criminal appeal act, and an industrial arbitration act, were among the measures passed, and it had become apparent that Holman was the driving force in the cabinet. But he was over-working, and at the end of 1912 made a short trip to England which renewed his health and spirits. McGowen resigned his premiership in June 1913, and was succeeded by Holman who was a stronger leader. At the election held at the end of 1913 Labour won 50 out of the 90 seats, but a struggle followed with the legislative council which threw out many of the bills passed by the assembly. Dr Evatt considers that Holman should have swamped the upper house with Labour nominations (Australian Labour Leader, p. 534), but it would have required a very large number of nominations, and difficulties might have arisen. War broke out in August 1914 and Holman threw himself into the recruiting movement and worked hard and successfully. On 22 August 1915 he said in an interview, that if the voluntary system did not work satisfactorily he would support conscription as he considered it the most logical and satisfactory way of carrying on the war. His adherence to this principle was later to have fateful consequences for him. At the first conscription referendum Holman supported W. M. Hughes, the prime minister of Australia, though various Labour conferences had decided against conscription. As a result, although not formally expelled from the Labour party, Holman's endorsement was withdrawn, and he was unable to stand for parliament as a Labour candidate at the next election.

Conscription was defeated by a small majority, and Holman formed a coalition with Wade (q.v.), the leader of the opposition, under the name of the Nationalist party with himself as premier. He was elected for Cootamundra as a Nationalist candidate in March 1917. Holman was no doubt quite sincere in believing he could still be of use to his country in the new circumstances, especially in carrying on the war effort. Probably too he hoped to influence local legislation in the direction of Labour ideals. The new workers' compensation act was in fact a great advance on the previous act, and Holman also succeeded in having the various state enterprises established by the Labour government continued. In May he visited England and America and in both places made a most favourable impression. At the second conscription referendum Holman again spoke in favour of conscription, although he strongly objected to the methods used by Hughes during the campaign. During 1918 Holman was subjected to much criticism from his own and the Labour party, and from the press, and he felt the strain severely. At the next state election, held in March 1920, he was defeated, after having been premier for six years and nine months, then a record for New South Wales.

Before resuming his practice at the bar Holman brought actions for libel against two newspapers that had reflected on his character. He obtained damages from one, and a public apology and unreserved withdrawal from the other. He was given a public luncheon and a presentation from his admirers, and speaking at the luncheon, with characteristic generosity, asked that the Nationalists should extend every consideration to John Storey (q.v.) the new Labour premier. Taking up his practice after a short rest Holman was made a K.C. and had no difficulty in getting briefs, but spent much nervous energy on his cases. He was appointed to the J. M. Macrossan (q.v.) lectureship at Brisbane and in 1928 his Three Lectures on the Australian Constitution were delivered and published. In December 1931 he was elected to the federal house of representatives as a United Australian party candidate for Martin, but though only 60 his health was deteriorating, and he looked like an old man. He had an operation in 1933 which was apparently successful, but he died quietly on 6 June 1934, apparently from shock and loss of blood after a difficult tooth extraction on the previous day. He married in 1901 Ada Kidgell who survived him with a daughter. Mrs Holman was the author of a novel, Sport of the Gods, three books for children, and Memoirs of a Premier's Wife.

Holman looked what he was, a highly cultured, scholarly man with a fascinating personality. He had a beautiful speaking voice, was one of the greatest orators Australia has ever known, an excellent debater, and a first-rate parliamentarian and leader. There is no reason to think that he broke with the Labour party for any other reason than that he thought the course he followed was the right one. His biographer discusses this at some length without sufficiently demonstrating that it was a question of principle. But the result was that Holman, after giving nearly 30 years of his life to a much loved cause, was practically finished with politics before he was 50. He was much interested in the cultural life of Sydney which owed the Verbrugghen (q.v.) orchestra largely to his efforts, and his belief in education led to the extension of high schools so that the poorest, if sufficiently able, should have their opportunity of going on to the university. A man of noble ideals, of high courage, of consuming energy, with a passionate desire for justice, he spent himself in his work. Such a man could not always be prudent, especially in connexion with his own interests, but no other man of his time so successfully brought before the people all that was best in the ideals of his party.

H. V. Evatt, Australian Labour Leader; The Sydney Morning Herald, 6 June 1934: The Bulletin, 13 June 1934; The Labour Daily, 6 June 1934; The Worker, 1916-17; Who's Who, 1934.

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HOLROYD, SIR EDWARD DUNDAS (1828-1916),

judge,

was the son of Edward Holroyd, senior commissioner of the London bankruptcy court, and grandson of Sir George Sowley Holroyd, an English judge, of whom there is an account in the Dictionary of National Biography. Holroyd was born on 25 January 1828. He was educated at Winchester College, where he won the medals for Latin and English essays, and in 1846 went to Trinity College, Cambridge. He graduated B.A. in 1851, M.A. in 1854, and was called to the bar at Gray's Inn in June 1855. He practised in London and also contributed to the press, but decided to go to Australia, and arrived in Melbourne in 1859. He made a great reputation as a barrister in equity and mining suits, and in 1872 was offered a seat on the bench of the supreme court. He refused this, became a Q.C. in 1879, and in 1881 became a puisne judge of the supreme court of Victoria. He at first took only equity cases, but later proved to be also an excellent judge in the criminal court. He would not allow himself to be ruffled, and it is related that once when he had sentenced a prisoner named Butler for highway robbery, the man, almost foaming at the mouth, heaped curses on the judge. Holroyd calmly said, "Nothing that you can say prisoner can induce me to add one day more to your sentence. I cannot tell you how I despise you." He became the senior judge, and in the absence of Sir John Madden sometimes acted as chief justice. He retired in 1906 and died at Melbourne on 5 January 1916. He married in 1862 Anna Maria Hoyles, daughter of Henry Compton, and was survived by two sons and three daughters. He took little part in public discussions, except on the question of federation. He was for some time president of the Imperial Federation League of Victoria, and also of the Athenaeum and Savage Clubs. He was knighted in 1903.

Holroyd was below medium height and slender, a good boxer in his youth, a good tennis player, and even when over 60 thought little of a 20-mile walk. He had a great sense of humour, was a good after-dinner speaker, and could enliven the dreariest argument on some point of law with a humorous interjection. He was an eminently fair judge, particularly patient with a man conducting his own defence, or a barrister struggling with a poor case. On the other hand his patient noting of witnesses' answers rather cramped the style of barristers who would have preferred to deliver volleys of questions at the witness--but probably this made for justice too. His judgments, usually written, were models of clear English, and they were seldom appealed against.

Burke's Colonial Gentry, 1891; The Age and The Argus, Melbourne, 6 January 1916; Burke's Peerage, etc., 1916.

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HOLT, JOSEPH (1756-1826), known as "General Holt",

Irish rebel,

was the son of John Holt, a farmer in the county of Wicklow, Ireland, and was born there in 1756. He belonged to a Protestant family that had gone to Ireland in Elizabethan times. Holt, having married Hester Long in 1782, took a small farm, and also became overseer of public works in the parish of Dirrelossery. In 1798 he was living a life of comparative prosperity, when the Irish rebellion broke out and Holt's house was burnt down by a party of military headed by a neighbour whose enmity he had incurred, and who had denounced him as a rebel. Up to this time Holt had been perfectly loyal to the crown, but he now joined the United Irishmen and eventually was in command of a large body of men. Even after the rebellion was practically ended Holt kept together some hundreds of rebels among the Wicklow hills, and showed himself as possibly the bravest and most skilful leader in the rebellion. He did all that was possible to restrain his men from murder, and was himself on occasions able to show generosity and clemency. Realizing that the cause was hopeless, Holt gave himself up to the authorities and was transported to New South Wales. He went out on the Minerva and on it met Captain William Cox (q.v.) who had been appointed paymaster of the New South Wales Corps. The ship arrived at Sydney on 11 January 1800, and shortly afterwards Holt agreed to manage Captain Cox's farm. He always claimed in Australia that he was a political exile and not a convict. In September 1800 he was arrested on suspicion of being concerned in a plot against the government, but was soon afterwards released as no evidence could be found against him. He was successful in his management for Cox, and afterwards bought land for himself which eventually yielded him a competence. In 1804 he heard that an insurrection was about to break out and told Captain Cox of it. Holt was again informed against, and although the evidence was of the flimsiest kind in April 1804 he was sent to Norfolk Island and put to hard labour. After he had been there 14 weeks Governor King (q.v.) sent instructions that he should be recalled to New Sou th Wales, but delays occurred and it was not until February 1806 that he arrived at Sydney again. In June 1809 Holt received a free pardon, but as this had been given after the arrest of Governor Bligh (q.v.), it had to be handed in to the government when Governor Macquarie (q.v.) arrived. Holt, however, was officially pardoned on 1 January 1811 and in December 1812, having sold some of his land and stock, with his wife and younger son took passage to Europe on the Isabella. The ship was wrecked on one of the Falkland Islands, and Holt showed great resolution and ingenuity in making the best of the conditions on the island. He was rescued on 4 April 1813 but did not reach England until 22 February 1814. He retired to Ireland, lived in respectability for the rest of his life, but regretted he had left Australia. He died at Kingston near Dublin on 16 May 1826. He was a man of great courage and force of character, a good leader of men, though it may not be advisable to accept all the accounts of his triumphs in his Memoirs at their full face value. His elder son married and remained in New South Wales, and the younger son also went there after his father's death.

T. Crofton Croker, Memoirs of Joseph Holt, General of the Irish Rebels in 1798; G. W. Rusden, Curiosities of Colonization, p. 38; W. E. H. Lecky, A History of Ireland in the Eighteenth Century, Vol. V, p. 84, 1892 ed.; Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vol. II.

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HOLT, JOSEPH BLAND (1853-1942), always known as Bland Holt,

comedian and producer,

was the son of Clarence Holt, a tragedian of ability, well-known in Australia during the middle years of the nineteenth century. He was born at Norwich, England, on 24 March 1853, came to Australia with his father in 1857, and made his first appearance on the stage when he was six years old. He was educated at the Church of England grammar school, Brighton, Victoria, and at the Otago boys' high school, New Zealand. Returning to England when 14 years old he made acting his profession, and had experience in England, the United States, and New Zealand, before establishing himself in Australia about the year 1877. His first production was New Babylon at the Victoria theatre, Sydney, and for 30 years he continued to produce the principal melodramas of the period. Most of the time of his companies was divided between the Lyceum theatre, Sydney, and the Theatre Royal, Melbourne. Nothing was too realistic to be attempted; in one play there was a hunting scene with horses dogs and a stag; in another several horses finished a race across the stage; in another a circus ring was realistically presented with the regular acts being done. Holt himself had been an excellent clown in pantomime, and he played comedy parts in melodrama with great ability. He was prudent and successful in management and retired in 1909, living at Kew, a Melbourne suburb, for part of the year, and in summer spending his time at his seaside home at Sorrento. There he would entertain every year a party of veteran members of the profession. He died at Kew on 28 June 1942 in his ninetieth year. He married in 1887 Florence, daughter of William Curling Anderson, who survived him. He had no children.

Holt practically grew up in a theatre and knew exactly what suited his public. He personally supervised every detail of his productions, working early and late, and, if he considered that a play needed revision or bringing up to date, would write fresh dialogue for it himself. He was kind and generous, and had the respect and affection of both the members of his own profession and of the public.

Cyclopedia of Victoria, 1903; The Argus and The Age, Melbourne, 30 June 1942; The Herald, Melbourne, 29 June 1942.

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HOPE, JOHN ADRIAN LOUIS (1860-1908),

seventh Earl of Hopetoun and first Marquis of Linlithgow,

son of the sixth Earl of Hopetoun and his wife, Etheldred Anne, daughter of C. T. S. Birch Reynardson, was born at Hopetoun, Scotland, on 25 September 1860. He was educated at Eton and Sandhurst, where he passed in 1879 but did not enter the army. In 1883 he became conservative whip in the house of lords, in 1885 a lord in waiting to Queen Victoria, and for the years 1887 to 1889 represented the Queen as lord high commissioner to the general assembly of the Church of Scotland. He was appointed governor of Victoria in 1889 and arrived in Melbourne on 28 November. A period of inflation was just coming to an end, and though efforts were made to bolster up a financial structure basically false, the position steadily deteriorated, and in May 1893 all the banks in Melbourne except four closed their doors and a long depression followed. Hopetoun travelled throughout the colony making a highly favourable impression on all he met. No other governor had ever been so popular and he left Australia in March 1895 to the regret of all.

After his return to Great Britain he was made a privy councillor, was appointed paymaster-general in the Salisbury government from 1895 to 1898, and then became lord chamberlain until 1900. In October he was appointed the first governor-general of Australia, arrived there in December and took part in the inauguration of the Commonwealth of Australia by the Duke of York on 1 January 1901. Immediately after arriving he had decided that the last premier of the senior state, Sir William Lyne (q.v.) should be asked to form the first Commonwealth government. But Lyne had been an opponent of federation and could not get a following, so Edmund Barton (q.v.) became the first prime minister. Hopetoun, however, was not destined to hold his position for a long period. He had been given a salary of £10,000 a year, and he had some reason to believe some adequate provision would be made for his expenses; but this was not done and an attempt to have his salary increased was not successful. £10,000 was granted to pay the exceptional expenses incurred on account of the royal visit, but nothing else was done, and in May 1902 Hopetoun resigned. He believed that he could not carry out the functions of his office unless he were prepared to spend an additional amount of £16,000 each year or even more. Later governors were allowed the sum of £5500 a year for expenses. Hopetoun, who had to provide for two residences, one at Sydney and another at Melbourne, had been placed in a quite unreasonable position. After his return he was secretary for Scotland for a few months in 1905, but failing health, he had always had a frail constitution, prevented him from taking a further part in politics. He died at Pan on 29 February 1908. He was created Marquis of Linlithgow on 27 October 1902. He married in 1886 the Hon. Hersey Alice Eveleigh De Moleyne, daughter of the 4th Lord Ventry, who survived him with a daughter and two sons, the elder of whom, Victor Alexander John Hope, 2nd Marquis of Linlithgow, born in 1887, was viceroy and governor-general of India from 1936 to 1943.

The Times, 2 March 1908; The Argus, Melbourne 2 March 1908; H. G. Turner, A History of the Colony of Victoria and The First Decade of the Australian Commonwealth; Burkes Peerage, etc., 1908.

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HOPETOUN, LORD.

See HOPE, JOHN ADRIAN LOUIS.

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HOPKINS, LIVINGSTON (1846-1927),

caricaturist,

was born at Bellefontaine, Ohio, U.S.A., on 7 July 1846, the thirteenth of 14 children. His people were Methodists, and his upbringing was somewhat hard and puritanical. His father died when he was three years old, and the widow was left with a home and a small estate. The boy went to the district school, and from the age of 14 years worked at various avocations until he enlisted to fight in the civil war when 17 years old. He had very little active service, as the war ended a few months later. After the war he went to Toledo where some sketches he had made were shown to the proprietor of the Toledo Blade. As a result he was engaged as an illustrator, which led to an appointment on Scribner's Weekly. During this engagement he had a few months training in drawing. Going to New York, some of his drawings were accepted by Judge and the New York Daily Graphic, and he also wrote and illustrated A Comic History of United States. This was published in good time for the centennial celebrations in 1876, but the United States were taking themselves very seriously then, the book was unfavourably reviewed, and it was a failure. Hopkins continued his free-lance work for a period of 13 years and did a large amount of work for St Nicholas and for the Harper publications, the Weekly, the Magazine, the Bazaar and Young People. He was also commissioned to illustrate editions of Don Quixote, Gulliver's Travels, Baron Munchausen, and Knickerbocker's History of New York. Towards the end of 1882 W. H. Traill (q.v.) called on him and offered him an appointment as cartoonist on the Bulletin. The offer was accepted and he arrived at Sydney on 9 February 1883.

Hopkins was engaged for three years, but he continued to work for the Bulletin for over 30 years. He was scarcely in the same rank as such men as Phil May, David Low, or Will Dyson, but a constant stream of clever illustrations came from his pen, and he contributed not a little to the power wielded by the Bulletin in its most vigorous days. A selection of his drawings was published in 1904 under the title of On the Hop. Among his best known creations were the "Little Boy from Manly", "I thought1 had a stamp", and the many George Reid drawings. Reproductions of three of his etchings show that he had an excellent sense of the capabilities of that medium. He also occasionally painted in oil or water-colours. After 1913 the volume of his work for the Bulletin gradually diminished, but he kept his interest in the journal of which he was now part-proprietor. He busied himself with making violins, gardening, music and playing bowls. He died on 21 August 1927 at Mosman, Sydney, and was survived by a son and four daughters.

Hopkins was a tall, courteous, slightly austere man with something of the look of Don Quixote. A man of strong principles with more than a touch of the puritan, he was yet a good host who liked to see his friends about him. He never used models, and his work had often to be done in a hurry, but he did an enormous amount of it, always characteristic and with its own peculiar humour.

Dorothy J. Hopkins, Hop of the "Bulletin"; On the Hop, Sydney, 1904; The Sydney Morning Herald, 22 August 1927.

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HORNE, RICHARD HENRY, or HENGIST (1803-1884),

poet,

was born at Edmonton, near London, on 1 January 1803. He was originally given the names of Richard Henry, but changed his second name to Hengist after meeting a Mr Hengist in Australia who was a good friend to him. His father, a man of means, died early. Horne was sent to a school at Edmonton and then to Sandhurst, as he was designed for the army. He appears to have had as little sense of discipline as A. L. Gordon (q.v.) showed at the Royal Military College, Woolwich, and like him was asked to leave. It appears that he caricatured the headmaster, and took part in a rebellion. He began writing while still in his teens, but in 1825 went as a midshipman to the Mexican expedition, was taken prisoner, joined the Mexican service, travelled in the United States and Canada, returned to England in 1827, and took up literature as a profession. He contributed to magazines and wrote two or three now forgotten books, but in 1837 published two poetical dramas showing ability, Cosmo de Medici and The Death of Marlowe. Another drama in blank verse, Gregory VII, appeared in 1840, and in 1841 he published The History of Napoleon in prose. About the end of 1840 Horne was given employment as a sub-commissioner in connexion with the royal commission on the employment of children in mines and manufactures. This commission finished its labours at the beginning of 1843, and in the same year Horne published his epic poem, Orion, at the price of one farthing, of which three editions were published at that price, and three more at increased prices before the end of the year. Three other editions were published before the end of his life, but the poet never received a penny for himself from this work. He did, however, succeed in bringing it before the public, and it was highly praised by good judges of poetry. A New Spirit of the Age, edited by R. H. Horne, was largely written by himself, though he had some assistance from Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Bell. Other works followed including a novel, The Dreamer and the Worker, which appeared in 1851, and Horne then decided to try his fortunes at the gold-diggings in Australia.

Horne left England in June 1852 and, sailing on the same vessel with his friend William Howitt [refer to entry for Alfred William Howitt], arrived at Melbourne in September. Almost at once he was given a position as commander of a gold escort. He was made a commissioner of crown lands for the gold fields, 1853-4, and a territorial magistrate in 1855. It is usually stated that he became a commissioner of the Yan Yean water-supply either in 1858 or 1859, but as he responded for the commissioners at the dinner held on the opening day 31 December 1857, it is clear that he was given the position in that year or earlier. It is unfortunate that his lively Australian Autobiography, prefixed to his Australian Facts and Prospects published in 1859, abruptly breaks off about 1854-5. It is not clear what positions he held after 1859, but apparently he remained in government employ for another 10 years as in 1869, "dissatisfied with the failure of the Victorian government to fulfil what he conceived to be its obligations to him", he returned to England. While in Australia Horne brought out an Australian edition of Orion (1854), and in 1864 published his lyrical drama Prometheus the Fire-bringer. Another edition, printed in Australia, came out in 1866. In this year was also published The South Sea Sisters, a Lyric Masque, for which Charles Edward Horsley, then living in Melbourne, wrote the music. It was sung at the opening of the intercolonial exhibition held in 1866. During the 15 years after his return to England Horne published several books, but the only one which aroused much interest he did not write, the Letters of Elizabeth Barrett Browning to Richard Hengist Horne. He was given a civil list pension of £50 a year in 1874, which was increased to £100 in 1880. He died at Margate on 13 March 1884 leaving behind him much unpublished work. Of his published volumes only the more important have been mentioned here. A more complete list will be found in the British museum catalogue. Horne married a Miss Foggo in 1847, but husband and wife soon parted.

Horne was below medium height, strong and athletic, a fine swimmer. He had a too active brain and a too fluent pen, and never realized that even a quarter might be greater than the whole. But, however little read it may be, Orion remains one of the finest poems of its kind in English literature, and his Death of Marlowe is a masterpiece in little, far superior to most of the dropsical dramas written by other poets of his time. He did very little writing in Australia, but A. Patchett Martin (q.v.), in an article on Horne in the Academy (29 March 1884), spoke of the "impetus he gave to Australian literature during his 17 years of colonial life". This may have been so, though it is now difficult to find the evidence. Literature was certainly very much alive in Melbourne about the time of Horne's departure, and it is possible that this was more due to his influence than has been hitherto realized.

H. Buxton Forman in Nicholl and Wise's Literary Anecdotes of the Nineteenth Century, vol. I; Erie Partridge, Introduction to Orion, 1928 ed.; Sir Ernest Scott, The Argus, Melbourne, 18 August 1928; Hugh McCrae, The Bulletin, 13 February 1929.

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HORNUNG, ERNEST WILLIAM (1866-1921),

novelist,

son of John Peter Hornung, was born at Middlesbrough, England, on 7 June 1866. He was educated at Uppingham during some of the later years of its great headmaster, Edward Thring, and in 1884 went to Australia. He returned to England in 1886, and though his Australian experience had been so short, it coloured most of his literary work from A Bride from the Bush published in 1899, to Old Offenders and a few Old Scores, which appeared after his death. He was best known for his volumes of short stories in which "Raffles" is the central character, which are excellent of their kind. His brother-in-law, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. thought, however, that they harmed Hornung's reputation, as they got between the public and his better work. He considered Peccavi (1900) an outstanding novel, and Fathers of Men (1912), "one of the very best school tales in the language". Among his other books The Rogue's March (1896) may be especially mentioned. A list of about 30 volumes by Hornung will be found in Miller's Australian Literature. He married in 1893 Constance, daughter of Charles A. Doyle. Their only son and child was killed at Ypres, and Hornung then took up work with the Y.M.C.A. in France. His Notes of a Camp-Follower, published in 1919, gives a moving account of his experiences. He died at St Jean de Luz France on 22 March 1921. His wife survived him.

In addition to his novels and short stories Hornung wrote some good war verse, and a play based on the Raffles stories was produced successfully. He was much interested in cricket, and was "a man of large and generous nature, a delightful companion and conversationalist".

The Times, 24 March 1921; Who's Who, 1921; Introductions to Hornung's Old Offenders, Fathers of Men, 1919 edition, and Stingaree; E. Morris Miller, Australian Literature.

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HOTHAM, SIR CHARLES (1806-1855),

governor of Victoria,

son of the Rev. Frederick Hotham, prebendary of Rochester, and his wife Anne Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas H. Hodges, was born at Dennington, Suffolk, England, on 14 January 1806. He entered the navy in November 1818, and had a distinguished career. His last active service was as a commodore on the coast of Africa in 1846, in which year he was created K.C.B. In April 1852 he was appointed minister plenipotentiary on a mission to some of the South American republics, and in December 1853 was appointed lieutenant-governor of Victoria in succession to La Trobe (q.v.). He was afterwards made captain general and governor-in-chief. He was received with great enthusiasm when he landed at Melbourne on 22 June 1854, and there appeared to be every prospect of his being a popular governor. He found, however, that the finances of the colony were in great disorder, there was a prospective deficiency of over £1,000,000, and a bad system had grown up of advances being made to the various departments under the title of "imprests". Hotham was wise in appointing a committee of two bankers and the auditor-general to inquire into the position, and this committee promptly advised the abolition of the "imprest" system. It was eventually found that under this system a sum of £280,000 could not be accounted for. His efforts at retrenchment brought Hotham much unpopularity, but on questions of finance he was always sound and great improvements in this regard were made during his short term of office.

Hotham was, however, less successful in dealing with the wrongs of the diggers. He was a naval officer who had been used to strict discipline, and though he eventually realized that the arrogance of the officials who were administering the law was largely responsible for the trouble, when, on 25 November 1854, a deputation waited on him to demand the release of some diggers who had been arrested, he took the firm stand that a properly worded memorial would receive consideration, but none could be given to "demands". The rebellion which broke out at the Eureka stockade on 3 December 1854 was quickly subdued but the rebels arrested were all eventually acquitted. It was a time of great excitement in Melbourne, and the governor was convinced that designing men were behind the movement who hoped to bring about a state of anarchy. In these circumstances he felt that the only way of dealing with the trouble was the use of the strong hand.

Though Hotham in all constitutional questions relied on his legal advisers his position was one of great difficulty. Constitutional government had been granted but not really effected, and it was not until 28 November 1855 that the first government under Haines was formed. During this year Hotham, had been endeavouring to carry out the views of his finance committee, and was receiving much criticism from a section of the press. He was insistent that tenders for all works should be called through the Government Gazette, but not receiving support from the legislature, he ordered the stoppage of all constructional works. For some of his actions he was reprimanded by Sir William Molesworth, the secretary of state. Hotham then sent in his resignation and in doing so mentioned that his health had materially suffered. He caught a chill on 17 December 1855, died on the last day of the year, and was buried in the Melbourne general cemetery. His death was largely the result of the anxiety he had suffered. He married in December 1853 Jane Sarah, daughter of Samuel Hood Lord Bridport, who survived him.

Hotham, was able and thoroughly conscientious, but he had had little experience to help him in dealing with the exceptionally difficult problems of his period of governorship. He has been severely criticized, but his work in connexion with the finances of the colony was of great value.

The Argus, Melbourne, 1 January 1856; The Gentleman's Magazine, May 1856; H. G. Turner, A History of the Colony of Victoria, and Our Own Little Rebellion; Miss M. E. Deane, The Victorian Historical Magazine, vol. XIV, p. 35.

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HOVELL, WILLIAM HILTON (1786-1875),

explorer,

[ also refer to William HOVELL page at Project Gutenberg Australia]

was born at Yarmouth, England, on 26 April 1786, went to sea at an early age, and in 1808 was in command of a vessel trading with South America. In October 1813 he came to Sydney, and, getting in touch with Simeon Lord (q.v.), he became master of a vessel and made several trading voyages along the coast and to New Zealand. In 1819 he settled on the land near Sydney and did some exploring in a southerly direction; he discovered the Burragorang valley in 1823. About this time Governor Brisbane (q.v.) was anxious to obtain more information about any rivers that might run south in the direction of Spencer's Gulf. He got into touch with Hamilton Hume (q.v.), who was known to be a good bushman, and also with Hovell, and suggested that an expedition should be made to settle this question. His idea was that it should start either from the head of Port Phillip or Western Port and go northerly to Lake George. Hume suggested that it should go in the reverse direction. Brisbane seemed disposed to agree to this, when difficulties arose about the financing of the expedition, and the two explorers decided to make the journey practically at their own expense. All that the government did was to provide some pack-saddles, clothes, blankets and arms, from the government stores. The explorers left on 3 October 1824 with six men. They reached Hume's station 10 days later, and on 17 October began the journey proper with five bullocks, three horses and two carts. On 22 October they found that the only way to pass the Murrumbidgee, then in flood, was to convert one of the carts into a kind of boat by passing a tarpaulin under it, the men, horses, and bullocks swam over, and everything was successfully got across. A day or two later, in broken hilly country full of water-courses, they had great difficulty in finding a road for the loaded carts, and on 27 October they decided to abandon them. Until 16 November their course lay through difficult mountainous country. On that day they came to a large river which Hovell called Hume's River "he being the first that saw it". This was an upper reach of the Murray River so named by Sturt (q.v.) a few years later. It was impossible to cross here, but after a few days a better place was found, and constructing the rough frame of a boat, they managed to get across. By 3 December they had reached the Goulburn River and were able to cross it without a boat. During the next 10 days much difficult country was traversed but they then came to more level and open land, and on 16 December they sighted Port Phillip in the distance. Presently they skirted its shores south-westerly and came to what is now Corio Bay near Geelong. Here Hovell made a mistake of one degree in calculating his longitude, and they came to the conclusion that they were on Western Port. The party returned on 18 December and wisely keeping more to the west had an easier journey. On 8 January 1825 they came to the end of their provisions, and for a few days subsisted on fish and a kangaroo they were able to shoot. On 16 January they reached the carts they had left behind them, and two days later came to Lake George.

On 25 March 1825 Governor Brisbane mentioned the discoveries of Hovell and Hume in a dispatch and said that he intended to send a vessel to Western Port to have it explored. However, nothing was done until his successor, Governor Darling (q.v.), towards the end of 1826, sent an expedition under Captain Wright to Western Port. Hovell was attached to this expedition, and when it arrived the error he had previously made in his longitude was soon discovered. Hovell explored and reported on the land surrounding Western Port and to the north of it, and near the coast to the east at Cape Paterson he discovered "great quantities of very fine coal". (H.R. of A., ser. III, vol. V, p. 855). This was the first discovery of coal in Victoria. Hovell was away five months on this expedition and henceforth did no more exploring. He made various efforts during the next 10 years to obtain some special recognition from the government in addition to the grants of 1200 acres for the journey with Hume, and 1280 acres for the journey to Western Port, "subject to restrictions and encumbrances so depreciatory of its value, as to render it a very inadequate remuneration". (H.R. of A., ser. I, vol. XIV, pp. 725-9.) He appears to have had no success, but must have prospered on his run at Goulburn, where he lived for the rest of his life. He died on 9 November 1875, and in 1877 his widow left £6000 to the university of Sydney as a memorial of him, which was used to found the William Hilton Hovell lectureship on geology and physical geography.

It was unfortunate that in 1854 ill-feeling arose between Hume and Hovell which led to a war of pamphlets between them. In December 1853 Hovell was entertained at a public dinner in Geelong, his speech was inadequately reported in some of the newspapers, and Hume considered that Hovell had endeavoured to claim all the credit for their joint expedition. The fullest report of Hovell's speech available does not justify Hume's contention. Though unable to take an observation Hume was the better bushman of the two, and more of a natural leader. But Hovell was a well-educated man of amiable character, and during their joint expedition they seem to have worked well together. Between them they were responsible for an excellent and important piece of exploration. Hovell's later discovery of coal during his visit to Western Port was also important; it is remarkable that the discovery was overlooked for a long period.

A. W. Jose, Builders and Pioneers of Australia; Sir Ernest Scott, Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. VII, p. 289, and in same issue "Hovell's Journal", p. 307; Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols XI to XV, ser. III, vol. V; The Sydney Morning Herald, 10 November 1875; Calendar, the University of Sydney, 1938.

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HOWARD, CHARLES BEAUMONT (1807-1843),

pioneer clergyman,

was born in the year 1807. He studied at Trinity College, Dublin, graduated M.A. and was ordained in Ireland as deacon in the Church of England. Removing to the diocese of Chester he was ordained priest, and was curate at Broughbridge, Yorkshire, and afterwards incumbent of Hambleton. He was then appointed colonial chaplain in South Australia, sailed with Governor Hindmarsh (q.v.) on the Buffalo in July 1836, and arrived at Adelaide on 28 December. There was no building in Adelaide suitable for the holding of a service, so Howard borrowed a large sail from a ship, with his friend Osmond Gilles, the colonial treasurer, dragged it seven miles from the sea on a hand cart, converted the sail into a tent, and held service in it. A wooden church was afterwards sent out from England, but its frame was so flimsy that Howard decided to have a stone church built. On 26 January 1838 the foundation stone was laid of the Church of the Holy Trinity. Howard laboured alone for his church until 1840, when he was joined by the Rev. James Farrell, afterwards dean of Adelaide. In July 1843 Howard became ill, and he was also much worried by a demand for the payment of the debt on the church, for which he had made himself jointly responsible. He died at Adelaide on 19 July 1843 leaving a widow and young family.

Howard was fitted in the highest degree for his position. Broadminded, scholarly, earnest and sympathetic, he was devoted to his work.

The South Australian Register, 19 and 22 July 1843; J. W. Bull, Early Experiences of Life in South Australia; J. Blacket, The Early History of South Australia; E. Hodder, The History of South Australia; The Centenary History of South Australia.

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HOWARD, HENRY (1859-1933),

preacher,

was born at Melbourne, on 21 January 1859, the son of Henry Howard and his wife Mary. His people were in comparatively poor circumstances, and Howard at first received only a primary education. When a youth he tried to speak at a church meeting and completely broke down. Next day he told the Rev. Dr Dare, the chairman of the meeting, that in view of his failure, he had resolved never to attempt public speaking again. Dr Dare replied, "I don't call that a failure, a real failure is when a man talks for an hour and says nothing". At 17 Howard became a local preacher in the Methodist Church, and in 1878 means were found to send him to Wesley College, Melbourne, with which the "Provisional Theological Institution for Victoria and Tasmania" was linked. This institution had been founded for the training of men for the Methodist ministry, and afterwards became part of Queen's College, one of the colleges affiliated with the university of Melbourne. In 1881 Howard was given his first charge at Warragul, and subsequently officiated at Hotham (North Melbourne), Merino, Toorak, Ballarat, and Kew. In 1902 he was appointed to the Pirie-street Methodist church at Adelaide. It was a large church capable of holding 1000 people, and for 19 years Howard filled it every Sunday, bringing to it many people from other churches who had been attracted by his preaching. Early in 1921 he went to England and for a time was in charge of the Hampstead Wesleyan Church. A period of lecturing and occasional preaching in America followed, and in 1926 his preaching at the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian church, New York, attracted so much notice that he was asked to become its minister. He was 67 years of age but his preaching had lost none of its vigour, and his sermons were frequently reported in the New York press. His pastorate there was a great success. In 1931 he visited Australia, and celebrated the jubilee of his ministry by preaching at Warragul where he had begun it. Shortly after his return to America his health began to show signs of breaking down, an operation failed to give him relief, and he suffered much pain with great fortitude and unshaken faith. In June 1933 though obviously a very sick man he sailed to London to visit his sons, and died on 29 June 1933, two days after his arrival. He married in 1886 Sarah Jane Reynolds, who predeceased him. He was survived by three sons and a daughter. One of his sons, Stanford Howard, was South Australian Rhodes scholar in 1919, and was surgeon to the London general hospital at the time of his father's death. His daughter, Winifred Howard, was the author of The Vengeance of Fu Chang. Howard's works, based mostly on his sermons, include, The Raiment of the Soul (1907), The Summit of the Soul (1910), The Conning Tower of the Soul (1912), A Prince in the Making (1915), The Love that Lifts (1919), The Church Which is His Body (1923), The Peril of Power (1925), The Threshold (1926), Fast Hold on Faith (1927), The Beauty of Strength (1928), Where Wisdom Hides (1929), The Shepherd Psalm (1930), The Defeat of Fear (1931), Something Ere the End (1933). Of these The Raiment of the Soul and The Conning Tower of the Soul are possibly the best known. Howard's attitude to the discoveries of science was that they were manifestations of the divine in nature, and in the opening of his The Church Which is His Body he endeavours to apply the elementary principles of biology to the organized life of the Christian church.

Howard was a handsome man of over medium height, with a beautiful voice. Until his last illness he was full of energy and power. In private life his gifts of mimicry, his friendliness, his knowledge of the ways of common men, his sense of humour, his outspoken disdain of selfish wealth, intolerance, and bigotry, his sympathy with those who asked for advice, endeared him to all, and enabled him to work with his congregation as a happy family. He had no desire to be an ecclesiastical statesman, and his success as a preacher did not affect his basic humility. In his preaching he had a wealth of illustration, a fund of anecdote, a message of hope. He was a good extemporaneous speaker, but never relied on inspiration; his sermons were the result of much thinking and infinite pains. He could be outspoken when he felt the need. Towards the end of his life, when speaking at New York for the emergency unemployment fund, he said with great deliberation at the close of his appeal: "If these things do not interest you, then you can go to Hell, and may your money perish with you." But in general his words were a message of love, conveyed with a simplicity and absence of rhetoric that amounted to genius.

C. Irving Benson, A Century of Victorian Methodism; The Argus, Melbourne, 1, 3 and 10 July 1933; The Advertiser, Adelaide, 1 July 1933; The Times, 1 July 1933; The New York Times, 1 and 3 July 1933; The Spectator, Melbourne, 5 July 1933; E. Aye, The History of Wesley College; Who's Who in America, 1932-3; private information.

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HOWCHIN, WALTER (1845-1937),

geologist,

son of the Rev. Richard Howchin, was born at Norwich, England, on 12 January 1845. He was educated at the academy, King's Lynn, studied for the Methodist ministry, and was ordained towards the end of 1864. His first charge was Shatter Bridge not far from Newcastle-on-Tyne, and for the next 16 years he had other churches in the Tyne valley. He had begun to take an interest in geology at an early age, and found much to develop this interest in the abundant outcrops in this district of the coal-bearing and associated rocks of the Carboniferous age. At Haltwhistle he found much glacial till, the study of which led to the work that afterwards made Howchin famous. His interest in the flint implements of Northumberland was afterwards continued in the stone implements of the Australian aborigines. In 1876, in conjunction with H. B. Brolly, he did some important work on the foraminifera of Carboniferous and Permian times. He became a fellow of the Geological Society of London in 1878, and in 1881 came to Australia for health reasons. For some time he served as a supernumerary minister in South Australia, did some journalistic work, and was secretary to the Adelaide children's hospital from 1886 to 1901. He was lecturer on mineralogy at the Adelaide school of mines from 1899 to 1904, and lecturer on geology and palaeontology at the university of Adelaide from 1902 to 1918, becoming honorary professor in that year. He retired in 1920, retaining his title of honorary professor and continuing his work as a geologist for many years. He published in 1909 The Geography of South Australia, a popular book for the use of schools, which was followed in 1918 by The Geology of South Australia, a volume of well over 500 pages. The Building of Australia and the Succession of Life, with Special Reference to South Australia, was published in three parts (1925-30), and in 1934 appeared The Stone Implements of the Adelaide Tribe of Aborigines. All his life he had been publishing scientific papers, and his activity increased with age. In the last 30 years of his fife his productivity was extraordinary for a man of his years; the Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia for 1933 records more than 100 of his papers. His most important work was his discovery of a series of glacial rocks in the Cambrian series of the Mount Lofty Ranges, which gave rise to much controversy. Howchin, however, succeeded in convincing not only his own colleagues but scientists in other parts of the world. He died at Adelaide on 27 November 1937 having nearly completed his ninety-third year. He married in 1869 Earlier Gibbons, who died in 1924. He was survived by two daughters. He was awarded the Clarke medal of the Royal Society of New South Wales in 1907, the Ferdinand von Mueller medal by the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science in 1913, moiety of the Lyell Geological Fund, Geological Society of London in 1914, the Sir Joseph Verco medal of the Royal Society of South Australia in 1929, and the Lyell medal of the Geological Society of London in 1934.

Howchin came to Australia at 36 years of age thinking his life was practically over. The climate did wonders for him, and at 90 years of age he was a picture of vigorous old age. In return he did a large amount of sound and distinguished work, and became one of the outstanding Australian geologists of his time.

C. Fenner, Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia, 1937; The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, vol. XCIV, p. CXVIII; F. Chapman, The Age, Melbourne, 30 July 1938; The Advertiser, Adelaide, 29 November, 1937.

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HOWE, GEORGE (1769-1821),

first Australian editor and early printer,

was the son of Thomas Howe, a printer in the West Indies, and was born at St Kitts in 1769. When about 21 he went to London and worked as a printer in The Times office. In 1800 he was sentenced to seven years transportation to New South Wales, and arrived at Sydney on 22 November. His offence is not known, but it is not unlikely that he was a political offender; his father had been involved in political turmoil in the West Indies and his son may have followed in his steps. A small printing press had been brought to Australia by Governor Phillip (q.v.), and a convict named George Hughes printed on it a considerable number of orders, rules and regulations. Soon after he arrived George Howe became the government printer, and in 1802 printed New South Wales General Standing Orders consisting of 146 pages, the first book to be printed in Australia. In May 1803 Governor King (q.v.), in a dispatch to Lord Hobart, mentioned the establishment of the Sydney Gazette as a weekly publication--its first number had appeared on 5 March--and asked that a new fount of type should be sent to Sydney. The paper was carried on at the risk of Howe, who, though he had been pardoned in 1806, did not receive a salary as government printer until 1811. It was then only £60 a year, and in the meantime Howe conducted the Gazette under incredible difficulties, often running out of paper and suffering much from patrons who fell behind in their subscriptions. Howe tried various expedients to keep his household going, at one time keeping a school and at another becoming a professional debt collector. In addition to the Gazette Howe began the publication of the New South Wales Pocket Almanac in 1806, which became a regular yearly publication from 1808 to 1821. He also began trading in sandalwood, and in 1813 found himself liable for over £90 of duty on two consignments. He appears to have become more prosperous, as in 1817 he was one of the original subscribers when the Bank of New South Wales was founded. He died on 11 May 1821 and left an estate of £400. He was married twice, and his second wife survived him with children of both marriages. He seems to have been a man of indomitable spirit and, considering his difficulties, was a good printer and editor. The memorial placed in the printing office by his son stated that "his charity knew no bounds".

Howe's eldest son, Robert Howe (1795-1829), carried on the business. He printed the first magazine The Australian Magazine; or, Compendium of Religious, Literary, and Miscellaneous Intelligence (1821), the first Australian hymn-book, An Abridgment of the Wesleyan Hymns, selected from the larger Hymn-book published in England (1821), and the first Church of England hymn-book, Select Portions of the Psalms of David etc. (1828). The first volume of verse published by a native-born Australian Wild Notes from the Lyre of a Native Minstrel by Charles Tompson junior (q.v.), which appeared in 1826, is an excellent example of R. Howe's typographical work. Conducting a newspaper in those days had many dangers. Howe survived several libel suits, he was horsewhipped by William Redfern (q.v.) and another man assaulted him with a bayonet and seriously wounded him. He applied to the governor for the title of "King's Printer" but before the news of the granting of this reached Sydney Howe was drowned off Fort Denison on 29 January 1829. A younger half-brother, George Terry Howe (c. 1806-63), went to Tasmania in October 1821, subsequently was in partnership with James Ross, and in 1825 was appointed government printer at Hobart. He afterwards returned to Sydney and died there on 6 April 1863. He was married and had six daughters and a son.

Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols IV, VII to X; J. A. Ferguson, Mrs A. G. Foster and H. M. Green, The Howes and Their Press; J. A. Ferguson, Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. XIII, pp. 344-61; G. B. Barton, Literature in New South Wales; A. W. Jose, Builders and Pioneers of Australia; J. A. Ferguson, Bibliography of Australia; Mrs A. G. Foster, Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. X, pp. 103-18.

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HOWE, MICHAEL (1787-1818),

bushranger,

was born at Pontefract, Yorkshire, England, in 1787. He had been a seaman in the navy when in 1811 he was sentenced to seven years transportation for robbing a miller on the highway. He arrived in Tasmania in October 1812, was assigned to a Mr Ingle, a merchant and grazier, but ran away and joined a large party of escaped convicts in the bush. In May 1814 Howe with others gave himself up to the authorities in response to an offer of clemency made by Governor Macquarie (q.v.). (For copy of proclamation see H.R. of A., ser. I, Vol. VIII, p. 264). Howe, however, took to the bush again and joined a band of bushrangers led by John Whitehead. Houses were robbed and ricks burned by his gang, and being pursued by an armed party of settlers, two of the latter were killed and others wounded in a fight which followed. Rewards were offered for the apprehension of the bushrangers and parties of soldiers were sent out to search for them. On one occasion the bushrangers fired a volley through the windows of a house in which soldiers were stationed, and Whitchead was killed by the return fire. Howe then became the leader of the bushrangers, and though two of the gang were caught and executed, many robberies continued to be made. In February 1817 two more bushrangers were shot and another captured, and in the following month Howe left the party accompanied only by a native girl. On one occasion, finding the military close on his heels, he attempted to shoot this girl, but only succeeded in slightly wounding her. Howe found means of sending a letter to Governor Sorell (q.v.) offering to surrender and give information about his former associates on condition that he should be pardoned. He gave himself up to a military officer on this understanding, and was taken to Hobart gaol on 29 April 1817 where he was examined by the magistrates. Howe would quite probably have been pardoned, but at the end of July he escaped and again took to the bush. In October he was captured by two men, William Drew and George Watts. Howe's hands had been tied but he managed to free them, stabbed Watts, and then taking Watts's gun shot Drew. For nearly a year he hid in the bush, but needing ammunition, on 21 October 1818 he was decoyed to a hut where William Pugh of the 48th regiment and a stock-keeper Thomas Worrall were hidden. All three fired and missed, but during the struggle which followed Howe was killed by blows on the head with a musket.

Historical Records of Australia, ser. III, vol. II; Michael Howe the Last and Worst of the Bushrangers, which appears to be the usual source of the accounts of Howe. It was published at Hobart in December 1818 and is now very rare. It was reprinted as an appendix to E. Curr's Account of the Colony of Van Diemen's Land, and is also included in J. Syme's Nine Years in Van Diemen's Land. It has also been reprinted in this century. Mike Howe the Bushranger of Van Diemen's Land by James Bonwick though a novel gives the facts of the bushranger's career.

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HOWITT, ALFRED WILLIAM (1830-1908),

explorer, geologist and anthropologist,

[ also refer to Alfred HOWITT page at Project Gutenberg Australia]

was born at Nottingham, England, on 17 April 1830. His father, William Howitt (1792-1879), wrote many volumes of poetry, history, fiction and miscellaneous writings, and was well known in his day. In 1852 he sailed for Australia with his two sons to try their fortunes on the goldfields. After his return in 1854 he published several books in which he made use of his Australian experiences including A Boy's Adventures in the Wilds of Australia, Land Labour and Gold, Tallangetta the Squatter's Home, 2 vols, and The History of Discovery in Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand. He wrote many other books and died at Rome on 3 March 1879. His wife, Mary Howitt (1799-1888), was equally industrious. The British Museum catalogue lists considerably more than a hundred volumes of her translations, poetry, fiction, etc. After a long and busy life she died at Rome in 1888.

Alfred William Howitt was their eldest surviving son. He was educated in England, Heidelberg, Germany, and University College, London. Arriving in Victoria with his father and brother on 13 September 1852 he went to the diggings and had some success. When his father returned to England in 1854 Howitt farmed land near Melbourne belonging to his uncle, Dr Godfrey Howitt. Five years later he became leader of an expedition sent out to look for pastoral country near Lake Eyre, South Australia, but found drought conditions wherever he went. On his return he took a position as manager of a station near Hamilton, but almost at once was asked to take charge of a party organized by the government to prospect for gold in Gippsland. The magnificent timber he passed through aroused his interest in the eucalypts, and he afterwards acquired an extraordinary knowledge of them both from the scientific and practical points of view. His expedition followed up the Mitchell river and its tributaries, and gold was discovered on the Crooked, Dargo, and Wentworth rivers. On returning to Melbourne Howitt found there was great anxiety about the fate of the Burke and Wills expedition, which a year before had started to cross the continent. A relief expedition was organized with Howitt as leader which started from Melbourne on 4 July 1861, but meeting the remnant of Burke's expedition at Swan Hill, came back for instructions. A fresh start was made in September, and Howitt returned on 28 November bringing the survivor King who had been living with the natives. All the members of his party were in good health and not a single horse or camel had been lost. A fortnight later Howitt again left for the interior to bring back the remains of the lost explorers. The opportunity was taken to do some exploring near Cooper's Creek. There had been recent rains and the country was in quite different condition from when Howitt had seen it two years before. He began to take an interest in the aborigines, and though he had no difficulty in finding a way of living with the Dieri tribe, some of the back country natives gave him much anxiety. He at first spoke of them as "an idle incorrigibly treacherous, lying race--I can well understand the feeling of bitter enmity which always subsists between the outside settlers and the native tribes". Larger experience later on enabled him to better appreciate the native side of the case. He returned to Melbourne with the remains of the explorers in December 1862.

In 1863 Howitt was appointed police magistrate and warden of the goldfields in Gippsland, and held that position for more than a quarter of a century. He was at first stationed at Omeo then completely in the wilds. In 1866 he removed to Bairnsdale and remained there until 1879 when he was moved to Sale. For some time he was police magistrate for the whole of Gippsland, which he traversed from end to end carrying on his work competently together with his various scientific studies. Already an authority on the timber in his district, he began his studies in petrography in 1873. His first geological paper "Notes on the Geology of part of the Mitchell River Division of the Gippsland Mining District" appeared in the progress report of the geological survey of Victoria for the year 1874. Other geological papers were afterwards published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Victoria, of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, and the Reports of the Victorian Department of Mines. His interest in the aborigines led to his study of the Kurnai tribe which was still in existence in Gippsland. He gained their confidence and was treated as though he were an initiated member of the tribe. In 1873 he got into communication with the Rev. Lorimer Fison (q.v.), whom he had casually met many years before. They formed a great friendship and worked together for many years. Of their Kamilaroi and Kurnai (1880) Baldwin Spencer said "it laid the foundation of the scientific study of the Australian aborigines, for it was in this work that, for the first time, we had given to us a detailed, accurate account of the social organization of Australian tribes" (The Victorian Naturalists, April, 1908).

In 1889 Howitt was appointed secretary for mines, and returned to Melbourne. He was still continuing his scientific studies. A long series of valuable papers by Howitt and Fison on the Australian tribes began to appear in The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland in 1883, and continued to come out at intervals until 1907. Among Howitt's other scientific papers his treatise on "The Eucalypti of Gippsland", which appeared in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Victoria in 1889, may be especially mentioned. In 1896 Howitt was appointed audit commissioner and a member of the public service board. He continued his scientific work and did not retire from the public service until 1901 when he was past 70 years of age. He settled at Metung in Gippsland and hoped to consolidate his work in Australian ethnology, but found that his services were still required by the state. He was made chairman of a royal commission on the coalfields of Victoria, and subsequently spent much time as a member of the interstate commission considering proposed sites for the future Commonwealth capital. He was awarded the Mueller medal by the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science in 1903, and in 1904, having completed his book The Native Tribes of South-east Australia, he paid a visit to England to see it through the press. It was hailed as "an anthropological classic, the standard authority on the subject with which it deals". He attended the meeting of the British association and read a paper on "Group Marriage in Australian Tribes", and the university of Cambridge conferred on him the honorary degree of doctor of science. He returned to Australia to take up again his botanical and petrological studies, and was awarded the Clarke memorial medal by the Royal Society of New South Wales. In 1906 the honour of C.M.G. was conferred on him, and he was made president of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science at the meeting held in Adelaide in 1907. Towards the end of that year he had a severe illness and died at Bairnsdale on 7 March 1908. He married Maria, daughter of Mr Justice Boothby of Adelaide. His book on the native tribes is dedicated to her memory. He was survived by two sons and three daughters. One of his daughters, Mary E. B. Howitt, assisted him in his anthropological work. Howitt's mineralogical collection was left to Melbourne university, his botanical collection to the national herbarium, and his scientific library to Queen's College, Melbourne.

Physically Howitt was below medium height and of spare frame. Brisk, alert and full of energy, he scarcely seemed to know fatigue even as an old man, and was insatiable in his desire for knowledge. As he lay dying, he dictated a message to anthropologists warning them of the necessity for caution in accepting information from Australian aborigines who had been living in contact with white men. When he died it was scarcely realized in his own country how great a man had passed away. To his fellow scientists he was the man whose knowledge of the eucalypts rivalled that of Baron von Mueller (q.v.), and whose work with Fison on the aborigines had laid the foundations of anthropology in Australia. As a geologist he stood almost alone in Victoria. His knowledge had all been developed in the spare time of a busy public official. "To the public of Victoria he was known as the man who rescued the remnant of the Burke and Wills expedition, and to those who had the privilege of knowing him personally this was merely an episode in the life of a man of simple and noble character, whose one aim was a ceaseless and tireless search for truth" (Sir W. Baldwin Spencer, The Victorian Naturalist, April 1908).

Mary Howitt, an Autobiography; Wm Howitt, History of Discovery in Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand; Sir W. Baldwin Spencer, The Victorian Naturalist, April 1908; Sir J. G. Frazer, Folk Lore, 1909, pp. 144-80; Mary E. B. Howitt, The Victorian Historical Magazine, September 1913, pp. 16-24.

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HOWSE, SIR NEVILLE REGINALD (1864-1930),

surgeon, politician, administrator,

son of Alfred Howse, physician, was born in Somerset, England, on 26 October 1864. Educated at Freelands School, Taunton, he studied medicine and qualified M.R.C.S. and L.R.C.P. in 1883. In 1889 he went to Australia, largely for health reasons, and practised at Taree, New South Wales until 1895. Returning to London he continued his medical studies and became a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1897. He bought a practice at Orange, New South Wales in 1899, but when the South African war broke out he enlisted in the New South Wales lancers, and was given a commission as second lieutenant. He showed much courage, was mentioned in dispatches, and was awarded the Victoria Cross for going out at Vredefort and bringing in a wounded man under heavy fire. Promoted captain he returned to Australia, but went to South Africa again as a major in charge of field ambulances. He practised at Orange, New South Wales, for some years, but when the 1914-18 war began accompanied the Australian expedition to New Guinea. He went with the Australian forces to Egypt, and at the landing on Gallipoli showed great resource and courage in managing the removal of the wounded from the shore to the ships. He was later given control of the medical services until the evacuation, and early in 1916 was appointed director-general of medical services for Australia and New Zealand in the Mediterranean. In January 1917 he was promoted major-general with headquarters in London, was mentioned in dispatches, and did admirable work in organizing the medical services.

Howse returned to Australia in January 1920 and from 1921 to 1925 was director-general of medical services. He was elected a member of the house of representatives for Calare, in 1922, and in 1923 was a representative of Australia at the fourth assembly of the League of Nations. He was temporary chairman of committees in the house of representatives from June 1923 to October 1924, minister for defence and minister for health in the Bruce-Page government from 16 January 1925 to 2 April 1927, minister for home and territories from 24 February to 29 November 1928, and minister for health from 24 February 1928 to 22 October 1929. He lost his seat at the election held in that year. In February 1930 he visited England and died in London on 19 September. He married in 1905 Evelyn Northcote, daughter of G. de Val Pilcher, who survived him with two sons and three daughters. He was created C.B. in 1915, K.C.B. 1917, K.C.M.G. 1919, knight of grace of the order of the hospital of St John of Jerusalem, 1919.

Outwardly cynical, though kindly and loyal to subordinates, Howse was a man of strong character, courageous and ambitious. There was a want of system in connexion with the Australian medical service in Egypt in 1915, and as this was gradually rectified it was realized that the extremely capable and diplomatic Howse was the man to take command. Both in Egypt and later in France, under his care the Australian medical service at the war became second to none. As a Commonwealth minister he showed good executive powers, and did valuable work in connexion with repatriation.

The Sydney Morning Herald, 22 September 1930; The Times, 20 September 1930; C. E. W. Bean, The Official History of Australia in the War, vol. II; The Commonwealth Parliamentary Handbook, 1901-30; Burke's Peerage, etc., 1930.

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HUDDART, JAMES (1847-1901),

shipowner, a founder of Huddart Parker Limited,

was born at Whitehaven, Cumberland, in 1847, the son of William Huddart, a shipbuilder. He was educated at the college of St Bees, came to Australia in 1860, and was taken into the coal and shipowning business of his uncle, Captain Peter Huddart, at Geelong. Some years later Captain Huddart retired to England and his nephew took over the business. In 1874 James Huddart was the owner of the Medea, a wooden barque of 423 tons, and next year the Queen Emma of 314 tons was also registered in his name. In 1876 he joined forces with T.J. Parker, J. Traill, and Captain T. Webb, and the firm of Huddart Parker and Company was founded, each of the partners having an equal interest. In 1878 the head office was moved to Melbourne, shortly afterwards several steamships were added to the fleet, and the business expanded rapidly. Huddart became general manager in 1886, and showed himself to be an enterprising and far-seeing administrator. In 1888 the business was turned into a limited company with a capital of £300,000 each of the original partners taking up one-fourth of the shares. At the beginning of the nineties their steamers were running to the principal ports of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania, and in 1893 they were also trading with ports in New Zealand.

Huddart had long been interested in a proposal first made by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company in 1885, that an imperial "All-Red" route should be established between Australia and Great Britain via Canada. The suggestion touched Huddart's imagination, and in 1893 he formed the Canadian-Australian Royal Mail Line, with a contract to carry mails between Sydney and Vancouver. He then tried to arrange for a similar line from England to Canada. The Canadian government agreed to pay a large subsidy, and endeavours were made to persuade the British government to supply a yearly sum of half the amount to be paid by Canada. It was however insisted that tenders must be called, and after the tenders came in the question continued to be delayed. Worn out by worry and anxiety Huddart contracted influenza, and died at Eastbourne after a few days illness on 27 February 1901. His American line had always been carried on separately from the business of Huddart Parker and Company, and he lost much of his private fortune in conducting it. His interest in Huddart Parker and Company was disposed of in 1897. He married Lois Ingham of Ballarat, who survived him with two sons and a daughter. A third son was killed in the South African war.

Huddart was a man of remarkable personality, soaring ambition, and great driving power. He may, as The Times notice suggests, "have played for higher stakes than his means allowed" but he was no mere speculator; he was imbued with aspirations for the consolidation of the British Empire, and though he may have been in advance of his time he was nevertheless a great pioneer in colonial progress. His name is preserved in that of the company he helped to found, now one of the most important in the southern hemisphere, with a capital of considerably over a million pounds and large reserves.

Huddart Parker Ltd (A record issued at the time of its jubilee in 1926); The Times, 1 and 4 March 1901, 8 January 1910; The Sydney Morning Herald, 1 March 1901; The Argus, Melbourne, 1 March 1901.

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HUGHES, SIR WALTER WATSON (1803-1887),

founder of the Adelaide university,

third son of Thomas Hughes of Fifeshire, Scotland, was born at Pittenweem, Fifeshire, on 22 August 1803. He entered the merchant service and became a master, but emigrated to South Australia in 1841 and took up land. In 1860 the Wallaroo copper-mine was discovered on his property, and in 1861 the even more important Moonta mine was discovered close by. Hughes secured interests in both mines and became wealthy. In October 1872 he joined with Thomas Elder (q.v.) in bearing the expense of the exploring expedition under Colonel Warburton (q.v.), and about the same date offered £20,000 for the endowment of a theological college. It was, however, felt that so large a gift might be better used to found a university, and Hughes agreeing, the Adelaide University Association was established. The act of incorporation of the university of Adelaide was passed in 1874, but practically speaking the university did not begin to operate until three years later. Hughes subsequently returned to England, bought the Fancourt estate at Chertsey, Surrey, and died there on 1 January 1887. He married in 1841 Sophia, daughter of J. H. Richman, who died in 1885. Hughes was knighted in 1880. He has been frequently referred to as the "father" of Adelaide university. The report of the council of the university for the year 1887, in recording their regret at his death, called him "the Founder of the Chair of Classics and of the Chair of English Language and Literature, and Mental and Moral Philosophy--whose munificence led to the establishment of the University".

The Times, 7 January 1887; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography; J. F. Conigrave, South Australia its History and Resources; E. Hodder, The History of South Australia.

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HUME, FERGUS (1859-1932),

novelist,

was born in England on 8 July 1859, the second son of Dr James Hume. Always known as Fergus Hume, his name is sometimes given as Fergus William Hume, but the obituary notice in the Otago Daily Times gave his Christian names as Fergusson Wright. As it also mentioned that a sister of Hume was then on a visit to Dunedin, the paper was in a position to get correct information. Hume was brought to Dunedin when very young by his father, and was educated at the Otago Boys' High School and the university of Otago. He was admitted to the New Zealand bar in 1885, and immediately went to Melbourne, intending to practise his profession. He began writing plays, but found it impossible to persuade the managers of the Melbourne theatres to accept or even read them. Finding that the novels of Gaboriau were then very popular in Melbourne, he obtained and read a set of them and determined to write a novel of a similar kind. The result was The Mystery of a Hansom Cab which had an immediate success when it was published in 1886. In 1888 Hume went to England, settled in Essex, and remained there for the rest of his life, except for occasional visits to France, Italy and Switzerland. For more than 30 years a constant stream of detective novels flowed from his pen. He continued to be anxious for success as a dramatist, and at one time Irving was favourably considering one of his plays, but he died before it could be produced. Hume did not court publicity and little is known of his personal life. The writer of the obituary notice in The Times stated that he was a deeply religious man who in his last years did much lecturing to young people's clubs and debating societies. He died at Thundersley, Essex, on 12 July 1932.

Hume never repeated the success of his first book, of which something like half a million copies were sold in his lifetime, but he had a public for his other books; as many as seven were sometimes published in one year. He was a capable writer of mystery stories, and may be looked upon as one of the precursors of the many writers of detective stories whose work has been so popular in the twentieth century.

Otago Daily Times, 13 July 1932; The Times, 14 July 1932; Introduction to later editions of The Mystery of a Hansom Cab; Who's Who, 1932; E. Morris Miller, Australian Literature, which records about 140 books by Hume.

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HUME, HAMILTON (1797-1873), sometimes called Alexander Hamilton Hume,

explorer,

[ also refer to Hamilton HUME page at Project Gutenberg Australia]

was born at Parramatta on 18 June 1797. He was christened Hamilton Hume (Mitchell library, Sydney), and no evidence for the additional name could be found. He was the son of Andrew Hamilton Hume, who came to Australia in 1790 as a superintendent of convicts and soon afterwards became a free settler. He was the son of the Rev. James Hume and married Elizabeth Moore Kennedy, whose father was also a clergyman. There were few opportunities for education in Australia during the first 10 years of the nineteenth century, and Hamilton Hume received most of his education from his mother. When only 17 years of age he began exploring the country beyond Sydney as far to the south-west as Berrima, and soon developed into a good bushman. In March 1817 he went on a journey with James Meehan (q.v.), the deputy surveyor-general, during which Lake Bathurst and the Goulburn Plains were discovered. Subsequently he went with Oxley (q.v.) and Meehan to Jervis Bay, and in 1822 was with the party which sailed down the east coast in search of rivers. In 1824 he was seen by Governor Brisbane (q.v.) with reference to an expedition to Spencer Gulf. Brisbane was also in touch about this time with W. H. Hovell (q.v.) on the same subject, but it is not quite clear who was the first approached. Difficulties arose about the financing of the journey and eventually the two men decided to make the journey at their own expense, except for some packsaddles, arms, clothes and blankets, which were provided from government stores. Hume in a letter dated 24 January 1825, immediately after the return of the explorers, practically claimed to have been the leader of the party. He refers to "the expedition your Excellency was pleased to entrust to my care". But Brisbane did not accept this view of it, as in a letter to the secretary, Wilmot Horton, dated 24 March 1825 he mentions the "discovery of new and valuable country . . . by two young men Messrs Hovell and Hume . . . they were directed by me to try and reach Spencer's Gulf". It may also be pointed out that in the letter to Brisbane of 28 July 1824, Hovell signed first. These facts are of interest in view of the controversy which broke out many years later. Each of the explorers brought three assigned servants with him and between them they had five bullocks, three horses and two carts. Nearly the whole of the journey was through heavy mountain country, and there were several rivers to be forded. The courage, resource and bushmanship of Hume were important factors in surmounting their many difficulties, and after a journey of 11 weeks they came to Corio Bay near the present site of Geelong. Here, possibly through faulty instruments, Hovell made a mistake of one degree in his observation, and they believed that they were on the shore of Western Port. The return journey for some time was made on a course more to the west, the country was more level, and they were back at their starting point less than five weeks later. Their provisions were finished just before the end of the journey, and the whole party was very near exhaustion. Hume and Hovell each received grants of 1200 acres of land, an inadequate reward for discoveries of great importance made by an expedition which, practically speaking, paid its own expenses.

Hume, in November 1828, was with Charles Sturt (q.v.) in his first expedition into the interior, and was of great use to him. He was able to communicate with some aborigines they met early in their journey who consented to act as guides, and later, when the aborigines left them, Sturt speaks with appreciation of Hume's ability in tracking their animals which had strayed. Being a drought year, it was a constant struggle to find water, and only good bushmanship saved the party. Sturt would have liked Hume to go with him on his second expedition, which started at the end of 1829, but he had a harvest to get in and was unable to make arrangements. He had finished his work as an explorer, and spent his remaining days as a successful pastoralist. In December 1853 an imperfect report of a speech Hovell had made at Geelong was the cause of much feeling between the two men. Hume had always regarded himself as the real leader of their joint expedition, and his indignation lost all bounds at the thought of Hovell minimizing his share in the work. Fuller reports of the speech show that this was not the case, but the vehemency of Hume and his friends at the time, led to the work of Hovell being underrated for a long period. Hume published in 1855 A Brief Statement of Facts in Connection with an Overland Expedition from Lake George to Port Phillip in 1824, which went into three editions. Hovell published two pamphlets Reply to "A Brief Statement of Facts in Connection with an Overland Expedition from Lake George to Port Phillip in 1824", and an Answer to the Preface to the Second Edition of Mr Hamilton Hume's "A Brief Statement of Facts", (for a balanced discussion of the merits of the case see paper by professor Sir Ernest Scott in Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. VII). Hume died at Yass on 19 April 1873. He married a Miss Dight who survived him without children. He is sometimes stated to have been the author of The Life of Edward John Eyre, but the Hamilton Hume who wrote this book lived in London.

Hume was an excellent explorer, a first-rate bushman never lacking in courage and resource, whose work was not adequately appreciated or rewarded by the government of the time. He had a good knowledge of the blacks, was always able to avoid conflicts with them, and appears to have learnt something of their speech. He has an established and well-deserved reputation as a great Australian explorer.

Preface to Hume's A Brief Statement of Facts; Sir Ernest Scott, Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. VII, pp. 289-378; Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols XI, XII; Chas Sturt, Two Expeditions Into the Interior of Southern Australia, vol. I; W. L. Havard, Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. XXI, pp. 128-34.

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HUNTER, JOHN (1737-1821),

second governor of New South Wales,

was born on 29 August 1737, at Leith, Scotland. The date usually given is 1738, but F. M. Bladen, in Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. I, states that he was christened at Leith on 1 September 1737. His father, William Hunter, was a captain in the merchant service. His mother a daughter of J. Drummond. As a boy he was sent to live with an uncle in the town of Lynn, where, and also at Edinburgh, he received the classical education of the time. He was sent to Edinburgh university, but soon left it to become a captain's servant in the navy. In 1755 he was made a midshipman, and after serving in various vessels passed the examination for a lieutenant in 1760. He was not, however, appointed lieutenant until 1780. When the preparation of the First Fleet was in progress, he was made second captain on the Sirius and sailed with Phillip (q.v.) to New South Wales in 1787. There he was on the best of terms with the governor, but lost his ship at Norfolk Island and had to go to England for the customary court martial at which he was exonerated. In England he prepared for publication his interesting An Historical Journal of the Transactions at Port Jackson and Norfolk Island, published at the beginning of 1793. An abridged edition appeared later in the same year. In the first edition of this work will be found the earliest reference to the possibility of there being a strait between the mainland and Tasmania. On page 126 Hunter says: "There is reason thence to believe, that there is in that space either a very deep gulf, or a straight, which may separate Van Diemen's Land from New Holland." When Hunter learned that Phillip had resigned his governorship in July 1793, he applied for the position in October, and in January 1794 was appointed. Various delays occurred, and it was not until February 1795 that he was able to sail. He arrived at Sydney on 7 September.

Hunter's difficulties soon began. Immediately Phillip left the colony the military took complete control, and during the lieutenant-governorship of Grose (q.v.) unmercifully exploited the convicts. A great traffic in spirits sprang up, on which there was an enormous profit for the officers concerned. They had obtained the control of the courts and the management of the lands, public stores, and convict labour. Hunter realized that these powers had to be restored to the civil administration, a task of great difficulty. And in Macarthur (q.v.) he had an opponent who would hardly stop at anything in defending his supposed rights. Eventually Hunter found himself practically helpless. A stronger man might have sent the officers home under arrest, but it is not unlikely that if Hunter had attempted to do so he would have only precipitated the rebellion which took place in Bligh's time. Anonymous letters were even sent to the home authorities charging Hunter with participation in the very abuses he was striving to prevent. In spite of Hunter's vehement defence of the charges made against him, he was recalled in a dispatch dated 5 November 1799. Hunter acknowledged this dispatch on 20 April 1800, and left for England on 28 September. When he arrived he endeavoured to vindicate his character with the authorities but was given no opportunity. He was obliged to state his case in a long pamphlet printed in 1802. Governor Hunter's Remarks on the Causes of the Colonial Expense of the Establishment of New South Wales. It is a valuable document in early Australian history. In 1804 Hunter was given command of the Venerable of 74 guns, which in the following November was driven ashore during a fog and lost. Hunter was subsequently acquitted of all blame. He became rear-admiral in October 1807 and vice-admiral in July 1810. He died in London on 13 March 1821.

Hunter was a courageous, humane, and amiable man, and a good officer, but the circumstances in which he was placed made it almost impossible for him to be completely successful as a governor. As his successor King (q.v.) said his conduct was "guided by the most upright intentions", and he was "most shamefully deceived by those on whom he had every reason to depend for assistance, information, and advice ". Of his sojourn in the colony Hunter said that he "could not have had less comfort, although he would certainly have had greater peace of mind, had he spent the time in a penitentiary". He did good work in exploring and opening up the country near Sydney, and also encouraged the explorations of Flinders (q.v.) and Bass (q.v.). He continued his interest in Australia for long after he left it, and the suggested reforms in his pamphlet were of much value.

F. M. Bladen, Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. I, p. 21; G. Arnold Wood, ibid, vol. XIV, p. 344; Annual Biography and Obituary, vol. VII, London, 1823; Historical Records of Australia ser. I vols I, II, and III; Historical Records of New South Wales, vol. III; H. V. Evatt, Rum Rebellion; J. Hunter, An Historical Journal of the Transactions at Port Jackson and Norfolk Island; David Collins, An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales; Eris O'Brien, The Foundation of Australia.

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HUNTER, JOHN IRVINE (1898-1924),

anatomist,

was born at Bendigo, Victoria, on 24 January 1898. His father, Henry Hunter, who married Isabella Hodgson, was an unsuccessful small merchant. When about eight years of age Hunter had a severe illness, was sent to recuperate with an aunt at Albury, New South Wales, and stayed with her for some years. He was educated first at the Albury district school, and later at the Fort Street high school, Sydney, which he left with a bursary and an exhibition. At the university, although his circumstances made it necessary for him to earn money by coaching, he succeeded in winning practically all the available prizes and scholarships, and he graduated with first class honours in 1920. He had enlisted for active service in 1917 and actually went into camp, but his remarkable merits had been recognized both by his fellow students and his teachers, and steps were taken which resulted in his being officially ordered to return to his studies. During the last two years of his course he had acted as a demonstrator in anatomy, and immediately after graduation he was appointed a resident medical tutor and demonstrator of anatomy. About two months later Professor Wilson, who had taken great interest in Hunter, resigned the Challis professorship of anatomy at Sydney, to become regius professor of anatomy at Cambridge. On his suggestion in July 1920, Hunter was appointed associate professor of anatomy. He was then only 22 years of age. About 12 months later he left for Europe to pursue his studies further, and for a year acted as an honorary lecturer at Cambridge. Before he had left Australia he had done "three important researches in utterly different fields of embryology, anthropology, and physiology. He cleared up many of the difficulties in the interpretation of ovarian pregnancy, in the real significance of the occurrence of neanderthaloid characters in aboriginal Australians, and in analysing the complicated factors of spinal shock following transverse section of the spinal cord" (Grafton Elliot Smith (q.v.), The Lancet, 20 December 1924). While at Cambridge he did much teaching and lecturing, and made himself familiar with the methods of leading anatomical schools in Great Britain and on the continent. He also gave much time to research and made valuable contributions to the solution of problems raised by the Piltdown skull and Rhodesian remains in the British Museum. He returned to Australia by way of the United States and Canada, and stayed long enough to give some lectures. The Challis professorship of anatomy had in the meantime been kept open for him, and he was appointed to that position in December 1922, a few weeks before he reached the age of 25.

Before leaving Sydney Hunter had been much interested in the physiological researches of Dr N. D. Royle. When he returned they did valuable research work together. In October 1923 a demonstration of the result of their work was given in the lecture theatre of the department of anatomy, Sydney. On 7 May 1924 the university of Sydney conferred the degree of doctor of medicine with first class honours on Hunter, and he also received the university medal and the Ethel Talbot Prize. In March Dr William J. Mayo and other representatives of the American College of Surgeons visited Australia, and were so impressed with the work of Drs Royle and Hunter that they invited them to deliver the Dr John B. Murphy oration in surgery at New York in October 1924 . There the genius of Hunter was immediately recognized, and the youngest professor of anatomy at any important university, became one of the most important figures at this great American congress.

Hunter then went to England and it was intended that he should give a course of three lectures to his former colleagues. He gave one lecture on 5 December, but had contracted enteric fever on his way to England, and died at University College hospital on 10 December 1924, to the great grief of all who had known him. For Hunter was not only a great scientist, he had endeared himself to all who came in contact with him. It was at one time feared that he might be spoilt by the success and adulation he received, but he remained simple, transparently honest, and modest. He was a fluent speaker with great gifts of exposition, and the most difficult subjects were made by him to appear plain and almost simple. His early death was a great loss to science. He married in February 1924 Hazel McPherson. A posthumous son Irvine John Hunter was born on 6 September 1925.

The Medical Journal of Australia, 20 December 1924; The British Medical Journal, 20 December 1924; The Lancet, 20 December 1924; Nature, 20 December 1924; private information.

 

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