The History of Australian Exploration


"Adventure" (The)--
Under Captain Tobias Furneaux, in search of the South Continent, touched on the coast of Tasmania. 1772.

Alouarn, M. de St.--
Anchored near Cape Leeuwin, but no record of his visit has been preserved. 1777.

Alt, Matthew B--
With the ships Hormuzeer and Chesterfield, through Torres Straits. 1793.

"Amsterdam," (The) "Klyn," and "Wezel"--
From Banda. commanded by Gerrit Tomaz Poole; revisited Arnheim's Land. Captain Poole was killed on the New Guinea coast. 1636.

"Arnheim" (The) and "Pera"--
On the coast of New Guinea. Captain Jan Carstens, with eight of his crew murdered; but the vessels proceeded to, and touched on the north coast of New Holland, west of the Gulf of Carpentaria, still known as "Arnheim's Land." 1623.

"Assistant" (The) and "Providence"--
Under command of Captains Bligh and Portlock, through Torres Straits. 1792.

"Astrolabe" (The) and "Boussole"--
French discovery ships, under La Perouse. Anchored in Botany Bay. 1778.

"Atrevide" (The) and "Descobierte"--
Spanish Discovery ships, under command of Don Alexandra Malaspina, at Sydney. 1793.

"Astrolabe" (The)--
Under command of Captain Dumont D'Urville, touched at Bass's Strait. 1826.

Austin, Robert--
Assistant Surveyor-General, Western Australia; in search of pastoral country, and to examine the interior for auriferous deposits. Their horses got on a patch of poison plant, and, in consequence, nearly the whole of them were laid up, unfit for work; some escaped, but the greater number died. On the return of the party to Shark's Bay, where a vessel awaited them, they found a cave in the face of a cliff, in which were drawings, similar to those reported by Grey near the Prince Regent's River. One of the party (Charles Farmer) accidentally shot himself, and died of lockjaw; he was buried at the cave spring. The exploration led to no profitable result. 1854.

Babbage, Surveyor--
Conducted a party to explore the country between Lake Torrens and Lake Gairdner. 1856.

Bampton, William--
With Matthew B. Alt, in the ships Hormuzeer and Chesterfield, through Torres Straits. 1793.

Banks, Joseph (afterwards Sir)--
Accompanied Captain James Cook on his voyage of discovery to Australia, as botanist. 1770.

Bannister, Major--
Crosses from Perth to King George's Sound. 1831.

Barker, Captain--
Murdered at Lake Alexandrina, the mouth of the Murray. 1832.

Barker, Dr.--
Albert Brodribb and Edward Hobson were the first to walk from Melbourne to Gippsland. The present road follows their tracks. 1841.

Barrailher, Ensign--
Attempted exploration of the Blue Mountains. 1802.

Bass, Dr. George--
With Matthew Flinders, in the Tom Thumb, along the coast. 1795. And again to Port Hacking. 1796.

Attempted exploration of the Blue Mountains. 1796-97.

In a whale-boat, with a crew of eight, round Wilson's Promontory, and explore Western Port. Examined six hundred miles of coastline. 1797.

Bass, Dr. George, and Matthew Flinders--
In the Norfolk; discover Bass's Straits. 1798.

"Batavia" (The)--
Commanded by Francis Pelsart, and wrecked on Houtman's Abrolhos. 1629.

Batman, John--
Founded Port Phillip. 1836.

"Bathurst" (The)--
In which Captain King completed his fourth and last voyage round the Australian coast. 1820.

Baudin, Captain Nicholas--
In command of the French ships Géographe and Naturaliste. 1801-2.

Beresford, W., and J. W. Lewis--
Sent by the South Australian Government to survey the country about Lake Eyre. 1875.

Blackwood, Captain--
In the Fly, continued the survey of Captains Wickham and Stokes. Made a minute examination of the Great Barrier Reef. 1842-45.

Blaxland, Gregory--
With Lieutenant William Lawson and William Charles Wentworth; succeed in their attempt to cross the Blue Mountains. 1813.

Bligh, Captain William--
Passed Cape York, on his way to Coepang, in the Bounty's launch. (Afterwards Governor of New South Wales.) 1791.

Bligh, Captain William, and Captain Nathan Portlook--
In the ships Providence and Assistant. Explore Torres Straits. 1792.

Bougainville, De--
Discovered the Louisade Archipelago. 1768.

"Boussole" (The) and "Astrolabe"--
French discovery ships; La Perouse in command; at Botany Bay. 1778.

Bowen, Lieutenant--
Visited Jervis Bay. 1796.

Bremer, Sir Gordon--
In the Tamar to Port Essington. 1824.

Re-settles Port Essington. 1838.

Briggs, S. G.--
Second in command, and surveyor of Queenslander Trans-Continental Expedition; leader, Ernest Favenc, from Blackall to Powell's Creek, overland telegraph line. 1878-79.

Buchanan, N.--
Made an excursion from the overland line to the Queensland border; crossed the Ranken, so called after one of the pioneers of that district, J. C. L. Ranken. Buchanan's Creek was a most important discovery of this trip, affording a highway and stock route to the great pastoral district lying between the Queensland border and the overland telegraph line. 1878.

Burke, Robert O'Hara (Leader), and
William John Wills (Surveyor and Astronomer)--

Left Melbourne on August 20th, 1860, accompanied by Charles Gray and John King, etc.; successfully cross the continent, reaching the Gulf of Carpentaria, and then return towards the depôt formed by others of the party on Cooper's Creek. Gray died; Burke, Wills, and King stop to bury him by scraping a hole in the sand, and reached the depôt only to find that Brahe and the other three men had left that morning. Stopping to bury Gray cost Burke and his companions their lives. They could scarcely walk, and their camels were in the same state. Gray died of exhaustion and fatigue. Wills, who was so weak, was left lying under some boughs, with a supply of water and nardoo, to meet his death alone. Two days after, Burke gave in, and King found himself alone. The remains of the explorers were eventually disinterred, and brought to Melbourne, where they were given a public funeral. 1860-61.

Campbell, Murdock--
West of Lake Torrens. 1857. And again with party west of Lake Eyre, looking for pastoral country. 1857.

Carpenter, Captain Pieter--
Discovered the Gulf of Carpentaria. 1628.

Carr-Boyd, W. J. H.--
With O'Donnell, from the Katherine Station, overland telegraph line, to Western Australia. Found good country, but no new geographical discovery. 1882.

Carstens, Captain Jan--
With the yachts Pera and Arnheim, landed on the coast of New Guinea, and was murdered with eight of his crew. The vessels proceeded on their voyage, and touched on the north coast of New Holland, still known as Arnheim's Land. 1623.

Cayley, George--
A botanist, sent out by Sir Joseph Banks, from Kew Gardens; attempted exploration over the Blue Mountains. 1803.

"Champion" (The)--
Schooner, examined the west coast for any rivers with navigable entrances, in view of settlement. Captain Stokes, of the Beagle, gave so unfavourable a report of that part of the coast that its immediate settlement was postponed. 1839.

"Chatham" (The) and "Discovery"--
Vessels under command of Captain George Vancouver when he explored the south-west coast and discovered King George's Sound. 1791.

"Chesterfield" (The) and "Hormuzeer"--
Under command of Matthew B. Alt and William Bampton, through Torres Straits. 1793.

Clarkson, B.--
With Messrs. Dempster and Harper, make a trial to the eastward. 1861.

Collins, Lieutenant-Governor Daniel--
From England with H.M.S. Calcutta and Ocean to form a penal settlement at Port Phillip. Deciding that the place was unfit for settlement they proceeded to Tasmania, where all were killed at Hobart Town. 1803-4.

Landed at the De Grey River, and settled on country found by F. Gregory. 1863.

Cook, Captain James--
In the Endeavour, landed at Botany Bay; carefully surveyed the east coast to Cape York, naming nearly all the principal capes and bays. At Possession Island he formally took possession of the continent, in the name of King George the Third, under the name of New South Wales. 1770.

Completed road over Blue Mountains to Bathurst. 1815.

Crozet, Captain--
With Captain Marion du Fresne, in the ships Mascarin and Castres to Tasmania, the first visitors after Tasman. Thence to New Zealand, where they were murdered by the Maories. 1772.

Curry, Captain--
With Major Ovens, to Lake George; discovered Monaroo Plains and the Morumbidgee. 1823.

Cunningham, Allan--
Found "Pandora's Pass"--a practical stock route to Liverpool Plains. 1823.

Journeying by way of Pandora's Pass, which he had before discovered, examined the tableland to the north of Bathurst. 1825.

To Darling Downs--one of his most, eventful trips. Discovers the Darling Downs, the Dumaresque, Gwydir, and Condamine Rivers, &c. 1827.

Accompanied by Charles Fraser, proceeded by sea to Moreton Bay, and connected the settlement with the Darling Downs by way of Cunningham's Gap. 1828.

His last expedition. Explores the source of the Brisbane River. 1829.

Died in Sydney. 1839. [See Appendix.]

Cunningham, E.--
And Messrs. Somer, Stenhouse, Allingharn and Miles explore the Upper Burdekin, and discover good pastoral country on the many tributaries of that river. 1860.

Cunningham, Richard--
Botanist (brother to Allan Cunningham), accompanied Sir Thomas Mitchell's second expedition. While still on the outskirts of settlement, leaving the party on some scientific quest, he lost his way, and was never again seen. A long search was made for him, and eventually his fate was ascertained from the blacks. [See Appendix.] 1833.

"Cygnet" (The)--
With Dampier and crew of buccaneers, visited the northwest coast of New Holland. 1688.

From the Upper Swan River, Western Australia. Followed up the Avon. 1830.

Dalrymple, G. E.--
Penetrated the coast country north of Rockhampton, and discovered the main tributaries of the Lower Burdekin, the Bowen, and Bogie Rivers. 1859.

Ascending the coast range, reached the upper waters of the Burdekin, and discovered the Valley of Lagoons, west of Rockingham Bay. 1862.

A convict afterwards hanged for burglary; instigated the first gold prospecting party in Australia. Having broken up a pair of brass buckles, he mixed the fragments with sand and stones, and presented it as specimens of ore he had found. 1789.

Dampier, Captain William--
The first Englishman to land in New Holland. He visited the north-west coast in the Cygnet, with a crew of buccaneers. 1688.

In charge of the Roebuck, sent by the English Government to explore the northwest coast; visited the archipelago that now bears his name. 1699.

Dawes, Lieutenant--
With Tench and Morgan explore south and west of Rose Hill. 1790.

Crossed the Nepean. 1789.

"De Brak," "Zeemeuw," and "Limmen"--
Commanded by Abel Janz Tasman, surveyed a great portion of the north and north-west coasts of New Holland. 1644.

De Lissa and Hardwicke--
Explore from Fowler's Bay to the edge of the Great Victorian Desert. 1862.

Delft, Martin Van--
With the ships Vossenbach, Wayer, and Nova Hollandia, to investigate the west coast. This was the last voyage of exploration undertaken by the Dutch, and closes the early discovery of New Holland. 1705.

D'Entrecasteaux, Admiral Bruni--
With the ships Recherché and L'Esperance, left Brest to seek La Perouse, anchored on the south coast of Australia. 1792.

"Descobierta" (The), and "Etrevida"--
Spanish discovery ships, under Don Alexander Malaspina, at Sydney. 1793.

Dillon, Captain--
In the Research, on the south coast. 1826.

Dirk Hartog, Captain--
In command of the ship Endracht, from Amsterdam, discovered the west coast of New Holland. He left a tin plate, with an inscription, on an island in Dirk Hartog's Roads, which was afterwards found by Vlaming, in 1697, who added another inscription. In 1801, the boatswain of the Naturaliste found the plate, and Captain Hamelin had it replaced on another post; but in 18ig AI. L. de Freycinet, while on his voyage round the world, took it home with him, and placed it in the Museum of the Institute, Paris. 1616.

"Discovery" (The) and "Chatham"--
Under Captain George Vancouver, on the south-west coast and King George's Sound. 1791.

Dixon, Christopher--
In the ship Ellegood, visited King George's Sound, leaving on a sheet of copper the name of his vessel and date of visit, which was found in 1801 by Flinders. 1800.

Dixon, Surveyor--
On the Bogan. 1833.

"Duke and Duchess" (The)--
Under Captain John Hayes, visited Tasmania, and renamed the discoveries of D'Entrecasteaux. 1794.

Duperry, Captain--
In La Coquille, voyaged amongst the Line Islands. 1822-24.

D'Urville, Captain Dumont--
With the Astrolabe, from Toulon, touched at Bass's Straits. 1826.

Dutton, C. W.--
With Miller; explored country back of Fowler's Bay 1857.

"Duyfhen" (The)--
Yacht from Bantam. Her commander (name unknown) unwittingly crossed tile entrance of Torres Straits, sailed across the Gulf of Carpentaria, and turned back from Cape Keer-Weer (Turn Again), being in want of provisions. 1606.

Eredia, Manoel Godinho--
A Spaniard, claims an early discovery of New Holland, but it is doubtful. 1601.

Edels, John Van--
On the west coast. 1619.

Edwards, Captain Edward--
In search of the mutineers of the Bounty. Lost on the reefs, and reached Timor in boats. 1791.

"Ellegood" (The)
Commanded by Christopher Dixon, visited King George's Sound. 1800.

"Endeavour" (The)--
Captain Cook's vessel when on his voyage of discovery to Australia. 1770.

Evans, Deputy-Surveyor--
Discovered the first Australian inland river. 1815.

Eyre, E. J.-- Port Phillip to Adelaide; discovered Lake Hindmarsh. 1838.

Left Port Lincoln on the western shore of Spencer's Gulf, to examine the country to the westward. Discovered Streaky Bay and Lake Torrens. 1839.

March round the Great Bight. 1840-41.

Favenc, Ernest--
In charge of the Queenslander Transcontinental Expedition, organised to discover the nature and value of the country in the neighbourhood of a then proposed line to Port Darwin, and the geographical features of the unknown portion. Leaving Blackall, the then most western settlement in Queensland, the party made Powell's Creek on the Overland Telegraph Line. Discovering the Corella Lagoon, Cresswell Creek, Sylvester, and De Burgh Creeks, etc. This expedition had the effect of opening up a great area of good pastoral country which is now stocked. 1878-1879.

Traced the heads of the rivers running into the Gulf of Carpentaria near the Queensland border, and in the f ollowing year took a more lengthened expedition across the coast range to the mouth of the Macarthur River. A large extent of valuable country was found in the basin drained by this river, and a fine permanent spring discovered. Followed this river down to salt water, then returned by another route to Daly Waters Telegraph Station. 1882-83.

Finnis, Colonel--
Formed settlement at Escape Cliffs. 1864.

Fitzgerald, Governor--
Western Australia. Accompanied by A. C. Gregory and party, proceeded to Champion Bay by sea, and thence inland to examine the new mineral discovery. On their return they had an affray with the natives, the Governor being speared in the leg. 1848.

Fitzroy, Captain R.--
In the Beagle, visited King George's Sound. 1829.

Flinders, Matthew--
With Bass in the Tom Thumb traced the coast from Sydney in 1795. And the following year in the same boat reached Port Hacking. 1796.

With Bass in the Norfolk, discovered Bass's Straits. 1799.

In the Norfolk, dispatched by Governor Hunter to explore the coast to the northward; reached Hervey Bay. 1799.

In command of the Investigator and Lady Nelson, left England to examine the coasts of Terra A ustralis. First sighted Australia at Cape Leeuwin. Examined the south and east coasts of Australia, and explored the Gulf of Carpentaria and the coast of Arnheim's Land. The Investigator being then found unseaworthy, he returned to Port Jackson, after a visit to, Timor. For the purpose of procuring another vessel to continue the survey, he took passage for England with his officers and crew in the Porpoise. Seven days after leaving Sydney, the vessel was wrecked on the Barrier Reef, and Flinders in an open boat made his way back to Sydney, a distance of seven hundred miles. Governor King gave him the Cumberland, in which vessel he proceeded homeward, and on putting in to the Mauritius, he was there made prisoner by General de Caen, the French Governor, and detained in the Isle of France nearly seven years. Flinders' journal of his discoveries was published the day after his death. It was Flinders who suggested the name of Australia. 1801-1803.

"Fly" (The)--
Under command of Captain Blackwood, made a minute survey of the Great Barrier, and continued the survey of Captains Wickharn and Stokes. 1842-45.

Forrest, Alexander--
Took charge of a private expedition, in search of new pastoral country. 1871.

Led an expedition from De Grey River to the telegraph line, striking Daly Waters. A most successful trip; finding some of the most valuable country in the northern part of Western Australia; which has since been stocked with both cattle and sheep, and large mineral wealth has been developed. 1879.

Forrest, John--
First expedition, Lake Barlee. Not Successful in finding good available country, but obtained a reliable survey of a great deal of country hitherto unknown. 1869.

Accompanied by his brother, made a journey from Perth to Adelaide by way of the Great Bight, not traversed since Eyre's celebrated march; and was able to give a more impartial verdict of the country, travelling, as he did, with larger facilities. His report showed that the fringe of gloomy thicket was only confined to the coast. Beyond, he found fine pastoral country. 1870.

With his brother, Alexander Forrest, started from the furthest outside station on the Murchison, and made a successful trip to Peak Station, on the overland telegraph line. With nothing but pack-horses, crossed the middle of the continent, where the very heart of the terrible desert is supposed to exist, taking his men, and most of his horses, in safety; concluding one of the most valuable journeys on record. 1874.

Fort Wellington--
At Raffles Bay. Founded 1826; abandoned 1829.

Frazer, Charles--
The botanist who accompanied Captain Stirling in H.M.S. Success during survey of coast from King George's Sound to the Swan River. 1828.

Freeling, Colonel--
Surveyor-General of South Australia. Sent to verify Goyder's reports on Blanche Water and Lake Torrens, and found that the principal features of Goyder's reports were the results of mirage. 1857.

Fremantle, Captain--
Hoisted the British Flag at Fremantle. 1829.

Fresne, Captain Marion du--
With Captain Crozet in the Mascarin and Castres, from Nance to Tasmania--the first visitors after Tasman. Thence to New Zealand, where they were murdered by the Maories. 1772.

Freycinet, L. de--
In L'Uranie, saw Edels' Land, Shark's Bay, and landed at Sydney. 1817.

Frome, Captain--
Surveyor-General of South Australia. Made some explorations in the neighbourhood of Lake Torrens. 1843.

Furneaux, Captain Tobias--
With the Adventure, accompanied Cook on his second voyage in search of the Southern Continent. Separated from Cook, and afterwards, when they met, gave his opinion that Tasmania and New South Wales were joined with a deep bay intervening. This opinion Cook thought sufficient to prevent a further examination by himself being necessary. 1772.

Gawler, Colonel--
Governor of South Australia. Made an excursion to the Murray. He was accompanied by Captain Sturt (Surveyor-General), Miss Gawler, and Mrs. Sturt, but it is to be presumed Miss Gawler and Mrs, Sturt accompanied the party but a short distance. 1839.

"Geelvink" (The)--
(See Vlaming.)

Died when out with Ernest Giles' second expedition. Scene of his death named "Gibson's Desert." 1873.

The naturalist accompanying Leichhardt's first expedition. Killed by the blacks at the head of the Gulf of Carpentaria. 1845.

Giles, Ernest--
Starting from Chamber's Pillar, South Australia, made a journey to the westward, but was stopped by a large dry salt lake. He named it Lake Amadens. He returned, having traversed a great deal of country before unknown. 1872.

Left on his second trip, starting from the Alberga, that flows into Lake Eyre, travelling north-west. Made many determined attempts to cross the spinifex desert, but returned unsuccessful. One of the party, Gibson, died, and several horses. The scene of Gibson's death is now marked as Gibson's Desert. 1873.

With an equipment of camels, made his third and successful attempt to reach Western Australia, but, from want of water, no knowledge of the country was obtained beyond their immediate track. Giles then retraced his steps to the overland line, following a track to the north of Forrests route, by way of the Murchison, and crossed over to the Ashburton. Then striking south of east he came to his former track of 1873, at the Alfred and Marie Range--the range he had so vainly tried to reach when the man Gibson met his death. Finally arrived at Peak Station. 1875-76.

Gonneville, Paulmier De--
Visited the south seas, and is claimed by the French to have landed on New Holland. 1503.

Gosse, W. C.--
In charge of the Central and Western Exploring Expedition. Left Alice Springs, on the overland telegraph line, with the intention of reaching Perth, having a mixed equipment of camels and horses. After many attempts to penetrate westward, Gosse was obliged to return, the heat of the weather and the dryness of the country rendering it useless to think of risking his party with any hope of success. 1873.

Gould, Captain--
On the south coast, near Port Lincoln, 1827-28.

Goyder, G. W.--
Deputy Surveyor-General of South Australia. Gave a most glowing account of Blanche Water, and the country around Lake Torrens. Subsequently Colonel Freeling discovered that Goyder had been misled by a mirage. 1857.

In the Great Bight, to the north of Fowler's Bay. Found nothing but mallee scrub and spinifex. 1862.

Selected Port Darwin as a suitable site for a township, and removed to that place the settlement from Escape Cliffs. 1865.

Grant, James--
In Lady Nelson, the first vessel to pass through Bass's Straits, and verified Bass's examination. 1801.

Gray, Charles--
One of the members of Burke and Wills' expedition. (See Burke.) 1860-61.

Gregory, Frank--
Reached the long-sought Gascoyne, and followed it to Shark's Bay. Followed the Murchison down to the Geraldine mine, finding good pastoral country, and well watered. This was a much needed encouragement to the colony. 1858.

In charge of party, left Perth in the Dolphin for Nickol Bay, on the north-west coast, to land their horses and commence the trip. Discover the Fortescue, the Hammersley Range, and the Ashburton, which was traced upwards through a large extent of good pastoral country. Named the De Grey and Oakover rivers. The stigma of desolation was now partially removed by the discoveries of this expedition. 1861.

Gregory, A. C.--
Accompanied by his two brothers. Their first expedition in Western Australia; travelled through a large extent of salt swampy country, entering the salt lake region, until they reached a range of granite hills forming the watershed of the coast streams. After several disappointments, turned to the westward to examine rivers discovered by Grey. On the head of one of these (the Arrowsmith) they found a seam of coal; and returned to Bolgart Springs. 1846.

With party to explore the Gascoyne. Found a galena lode on the Murchison. 1848.

With Baron Von Mueller, the celebrated botanist, and his brother, H. C. Gregory. North Australian expedition in search of Leichhardt. Proceed north to follow the Victoria. Reached the head of that stream, and discovered Sturt's Creek and the Elsey. Crossing the head waters of the Limmen Bight River, skirted the Gulf for some distance south of Leichhardt's track, crossing the rivers that he did, only higher up on their courses. Greatly disappointed with the Plains of Promise--so named by Captain Stokes. 1855.

Barcoo expedition to trace the course of Leichhardt's party. Confirmation of the supposed identity of the Barcoo and Cooper's Creek. No fresh discoveries were made, but the second great inland river system was evolved. 1858.

Grey, Lieutenant--
Explorations on the west coast. 1837.

Grey, Lieutenant, and Lushington (Second in Command)--
Expedition to verify the existence or not of the large river supposed to find its way into the sea at Dampier's Archipelago. This expedition originated in England. Found the Glenelg, and discovered cave drawings. 1838.

(Afterwards Governor of South Australia), Started on his second expedition from the west coast. Encountering great troubles Grey had to push on to Perth and send back a relief party. A party under Lieutenant Roe, after some trouble in tracking the erratic wanderings of the unfortunates, came upon them hopelessly gazing at a point of rocks that stopped their march along the beach, too weak to climb it. They had been three days without fresh water, and Smith, a lad of eighteen, was dead. [See Appendix.] Grey claims the discovery of the Gascoyne, Murchison, Hutt, Bower, Buller, Chapman, Greenough, Irwin, Arrowsmith, and Smith Rivers. 1839.

Grimes, Surveyor-General--
Accompanied Lieutenant Murray when Port Phillip was discovered, and surveyed it. 1802.

"Gulde Zeepard"--
Under command of Captain Pieter Nuyts, touched on the south coast. 1627.

Hack, Stephen--
With Miller examined Gawler Range, and sighted Lake Gairdner. 1857.

Hacking, Quarter-master--
Attempted to cross the Blue Mountains. Reached the foot of the range. 1794 and 1798.

Hamelin, Captain--
With commander Baudin, in the French ships Naturaliste and Géographe, exploring the coasts of Australia. 1801-2.

Hann, William--
A pioneer squatter of Queensland, led an expedition, equipped by the Queensland Government, to make an examination as 'far north as the fourteenth parallel, with a special view to its mineral and other resources. Naming the Walsh, the party crossed the upper part of the Mitchell River, and thence to the river they named the Palmer. Here Warner, the surveyor, found prospects of gold, which resulted in the discovery of one of the richest goldfields in Australia. 1872.

With Messrs. Dempster and Clarkson in Western Australia, explored from the settled districts as far as Mount Kennedy. 1861.

Hartog, Captain Dirk--
In the Endracht, from Amsterdam. Discovered the west coast of New Holland. (See Dirk Hartog, 1616.)

Harvey and Ross--
Explorations around Charlotte Waters, South Australia. 1877.

Hawkesbury River--
Discovered. 1789.

Hawson, Captain--
In company with some other gentlemen, made a short excursion from Port Lincoln, finding good, well-grassed country, and an abundance of water. They named Rossitur Vale and the Mississippi. 1840.

Discovered the Denmark River, and explored the country back of Parry's Inlet. 1829.

Hayes, Captain John--
With the Duke and Duchess, visited Tasmania, renaming the discoveries of D'Entrecasteaux. 1794.

Hedley, G.--
Accompanied the Queenslander Transcontinental Expedition, led by Ernest Favenc, from Blackall to Powell's Creek, overland telegraph line. 1878-79.

"Heemskirk" (The)--
Under command of Abel Janz Tasman, when he discovered Van Dieman's Land, and took possession of New Holland. 1642.

Hely, Hovenden--
In charge of search party for Leichhardt. 1852.

Henty, Brothers--
Formed settlement in Portland Bay. 1835.

One of M'Dowall Stuart's second expedition. Discovered Hergott Springs, 1859.

Hesse and Gellibrand--
Murdered by the natives while exploring the Cape Otway country. 1837.

Hindmarsh, Captain Sir John--
In H.M.S. Buffalo founded Adelaide. 1836.

Hobson, Captain--
(Afterwards the first Governor of New Zealand.) In H.M.S. Rattlesnake; surveyed and named Hobson's Bay. 1836.

Hodgkinson, W. O.--
Commanded expedition sent by the Queensland Government to decide the amount of pastoral country existing to the Westward of the Diamantina River. Mr. Hodgkinson had been one of M'Kinlay's party when that explorer traversed the continent. This was the last exploring expedition sent out by the Queensland Government, 1876.

"Hormuzeer" and "Chesterfield"--
Under command Matthew B. Alt; through Torres Straits. 1793.

Horrocks, J. A.--
Died, soon after start of his expedition, at head of Spencer's Gulf. 1843.

Hovell, W. H.--
With H. Hume, across to Port Phillip; made the first successful trip from the eastern to the southern coast. The first white men to see the Australian Alps. 1824.

Howitt, A. W.-- In charge of relief party for Burke and Wills. King, the only survivor, found. Howitt was eventually sent back to disinter the remains of the explorers, and bring them to Melbourne, where they received a public funeral, and a statue was erected to their memory. 1861.

Hulkes and Oakden--
West side of Lake Torrens. 1851.

Hume, Hamilton--
And his brother, John Kennedy Hume, explored the country round Berrima. The first Australian born explorer. 1814.

With Meehan, surveyor. Discovered Lake George, Lake Bathurst, and Goulburn Plains. 1817.

With Messrs. Oxley and Meehan to Jarvis Bay. 1819.

With Hovell, across to Port Phillip. 1824.

Accompanied Charles Sturt on his first expedition to trace the source of the Macquarie. 1828-9.

Hunt, C. C.--
With Mr. Ridley to the De Grey River. 1863.

Jansen, Gerrit--
In command of the Zeehaan, and Abel Janz Tasman in the Heemskirk, discovered Van Dieman's Land. Afterwards took possession of New Holland. 1642.

Jardine, A.--
Police Magistrate at Rockhampton; took command of the settlement at Cape York, Somerset. 1863.

Jardine, Frank, and Alexander Jardine--
Overland with cattle from Carpentaria Downs Stationthen the farthest occupied country to the north-west--to Somerset. Cross the head of the Batavia River, probably the first white men on it since the old Dutch visits. 1864-65.

Johnson, Lieutenant, R.N.--
In the cutter Snapper, sent in search of Captain Stewart Discovered the Clyde River. 1820.

Kayzer, E. A.--
Second in charge, also surveyor and mineralogist, of the North-West Expedition, led by W.O. Hodgkinson. 1876.

Kennedy, E. B.--
Led an expedition to decide final course of Mitchell's, Barcoo (Victoria). Instead of finding on the Victoria a highway to the Gulf, they lost it in marshes. Follow the Warrego through fine grazing country. Named the Thompson. 1847.

Fatal venture up Cape York Peninsula. 1848.

Kindur, The--
A mysterious river in the unknown interior, supposed to run north-west. A runaway convict, named Clarke, brought up the story first. He said he had heard of it from the natives, so determined to make his escape and follow it, to see if it would lead him to another country. He started on his adventurous trip and said he followed the river to the sea. When at the mouth of the river he ascended a hill, and seaward saw an island inhabited, the natives told him, by copper-coloured men, who came in their canoes to the mainland for scented wood. He introduced various details of large plains which he had crossed, and a large burning mountain, but as he saw no prospect of getting away from Australia, he returned. Surveyor Mitchell took charge of an expedition to investigate the truth of his story. 1831.

King, Captain Phillip P.--
(Son of Governor King) In the Mermaid; sailed from Sydney accompanied by Mr. Allan Cunningham, botanist. His mission was to explore those portions of the coast left unvisited by previous navigators. Sailing by Cape Leeuwin, King examined the west and north-west coast, sailing from the north coast to Timor to refit. 1818. In 18iq he surveyed the lately-discovered Port Macquarie and visited Van Dieman's Land. Leaving Port Jackson, Captain King returned to the scene of his labours by way of the east coast, crossed the Gulf of Carpentaria and discovered Cambridge Gulf. In 1820 he left Port Jackson for his third voyage to the north coast; examined minutely the north-west coast. The Mermaid having sprung a leak, for the safety of the crew, Captain King had to return to Sydney. A brig was purchased, and rechristened the Bathurst. After surveying the north-west and west coast--and 'naming Dampier's Archipelago, Cygnet Bay, and Roebuck Bay, after Dampier and his vessels--he sailed to the Mauritius to refit. Returning to New Holland, he continued the survey of King George's Sound and the west coast. This concluded Captain King's fourth and last voyage round the Australian coast. 1817-20.

King, John--
The only survivor of Burke and Wills' party. Rescued by Edwin J. Welch, second in command of A. W. Howitt's relief party. 1861.

La Place, Captain--
From Toulon, visited Hobart Town and New Zealand. 1829.

Landor and Lefroy--
In Western Australia. 1843.

Landsborough, William--
Leader of the Queensland search party for Burke and Wills. journey by sea to the mouth of the Albert River, in the Gulf of Carpentaria. After exploring the country to the south, and discovering some rivers and many tributary creeks, Landsborough returned to the depôt on the Albert and heard tidings of Walker's relief party. He determined then to return overland instead of by sea. Making for the Flinders, by way of the Leichhardt, was rewarded, on following up the river, by being the discoverer of the beautiful downs country through which it runs. From thence to Bowen Downs, discovered by himself and Buchanan two years previously. The party finally proceeded to Melbourne. 1861-62.

Takes charge of the new township of Burketown, in the Gulf of Carpentaria. 1863.

Lawson, Lieutenant William-- With Wentworth and Blaxland, succeeded in crossing the Blue Mountains. 1813.

Lawson, Lieutenant William, and Scott-- Attempted to reach Liverpool Plains. Discovered the Goulburn River. 1822.

"Leeuwin" (The) (Lioness). Commander unknown--
Visited the west coast and named the Houtman Abrolhos reef after a Dutch navigator of distinction. 1622.

Lefroy (and Party)--
Eastward of York, Western Australia; finding valuable pastoral and agricultural land. 1863.

Leichhardt, Ludwig--
Left Jimbour Station, on the Darling Downs, in charge of an expedition to Port Essington, in the Gulf of Carpentaria. Gilbert, the naturalist accompanying the party, killed by the blacks. 1844-45.

Last expedition, with the intention of crossing the continent. from Mitchell's Victoria (Barcoo) River to Perth. 1848.

Leslie, Patrick--
Considered the father of settlement on the Darling Downs. Settled on the Condamine, 1840.

"L'Esperance" (The) and "Recherche"--
With Admiral Bruni D'Entrecasteaux, to seek La Perouse. Anchored on the south coast. 1792

Lewis, J.W.--
Took charge of an expedition, sent by the Governor of South Australia, to determine the channels, directions and size of the many rivers that flowed from Queensland through South Australia into Lake Eyre. 1875.

Light, Colonel--
Surveyed the shores of St. Vincent's Gulf and site of the present town of Adelaide. 1836.

"Limmen" (The) "Zeemeuw," and "De Brak"--
Under command of Abel Janz Tasman. 1644.

Lindsay, David--
Sent by the South Australian Government to complete the exploration of Arnheim's Land. On the whole the country passed over was favourable for settlement some of it being first class sugar country. 1883.

Lockyer, Major--
Made a boat excursion up the Brisbane River. 1825.

Founded King George's Sound, which was abandoned in 1830 in favour of the Swan River colony. 1826

Macdonald, J. G.--
With a small party, visited the Plains of Promise. Discovered a more practicable route for cattle and sheep to the magnificent western pastoral lands on the Flinders. 1865.

Macfarlane, Thomas--
Attempted to get inland north of the Bight, but was forced to turn back after suffering great hardship. He found fairly-grassed country, but waterless. 1863.

A Portuguese navigator in the service of the Emperor of Spain, claims having touched on the Great South Landthese claims are based on the authority of an ancient map. 1520.

Malaspina, Don Alexandro--
In the Descobierta and Atrevida, Spanish discovery ships, arrived at Sydney; was imprisoned on his return to Calais. 1793.

"Mauritius" (The)--
Commanded by Captain Zeachern, touched on the west coast; discovered and named the Wilhelm's River, near the North-West Cape, probably the present Ashburton. 1818.

Meehan, Surveyor--
With Hume, discovers Lake George, Lake Bathurst, and Goulburn Plains. 1817.

With Messrs. Oxley and Hume to Jarvis Bay. 1819.

Melville Island--
Settled, 1824. Abandoned, 1829.

With C. W. Dutton, explored the country back of Fowler's Bay. 1857.

Mitchell, Major (Sir Thomas)--
Took charge of an expedition to trace the supposed Kindur. Discovered the Drummond Range, and worked out the courses of the rivers discovered by Oxley and Cunningham. 1831-2. Accompanied by Richard Cunningham (brother to Allan Cunningham), started with his second expedition. This was more of a connecting survey than exploring the unknown. 1833.

Explores Australia Felix. 1836.

Barcoo Expedition. This was the last expedition of the Surveyor-General, and fully confirmed his reputation. 1845-46.

Died near Sydney. 1855.

Moreton Bay--
Penal settlement. 1824.

With Messrs. Tench and Dawes, explored south and west of Rose Hill. Discovered the Nepean River. 1790.

Mueller, Baron Von--
Engaged in exploring some of the still unknown portions of the south for botanical and geographical researches combined. 1847.

With A. C. Gregory's North Australian expedition. Discovery of Sturt's Creek. 1855-56.

Murray, Lieutenant John--
Succeeded James Grant in the Lady Nelson, discovered Port Phillip, and made a further exploration of Bass's Straits. 1802.

M'Cluer, John--
Sailed along Arnheim's Land to Cape Van Dieman. 1791.

M'Donnell, Sir Richard Graves--
Governor of South Australia; made explorations to the Strangways and Loddon Springs, and up the Murray River to Mount Murchison. 1858.

M'Kinlay, J.--
On the Alligator, searching for suitable site for township. His last expedition. 1864.

M'Kinlay, John--
Started from Adelaide with a relief party in search of Burke and Wills. His trip across the continent did much to dispel the stigma that rested upon the tract known as desert, and unfit for pastoral occupation. 1861.

Died at Gawler, in South Australia. 1874.

M'Intyre, Duncan--
From Paroo to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Found and buried the bodies of two unfortunate pioneers, Messrs. Curlewis and M'Culloch. They had been murdered in their sleep by the natives. 1864.

Took command of a search expedition for Leichhardt, organised by the ladies of Victoria, but when in the Gulf of Carpentaria died of malarial fever. 1865.

M'Millan, Angus--
Finds his way through the Snowy Mountains on the search for country. Discovers a river running through fine grazing plains and forest. This territory was called Gipps Land. The rivers discovered by him were afterwards re-named by Count Strzelecki, and retained, whilst those given by the real discoverer were forgotten. 1840.

M'Minn, Gilbert, and A. W. Sergison--
Equipped by the South Australian Government, to ascertain the course of the Katherine. 1876.

Explorations east of Daly Waters. May be said to have concluded the list of expeditions between the overland telegraph line and the Queensland border. 1883.

Neilson, J. and Brothers--
From Mount Ranken, on the Darling, to Cooper's Creek, in search of pastoral country. 1861.

Nares, Sir George Strong--
Commander of H.M.S. Salamander, surveyed the east and north-eastern part of Australia and Torres Straits. 1866-7.

Nuyts, Captain Pieter--
In the Gulde Zeepard. Accidentally touched on the south coast. Followed it for about seven or eight hundred miles, and gave to it the name of Pieter Nuyts' Land, 1627.

Oakden and Hulkes--
To the west of Lake Torrens. 1851.

"The first overlanders with stock from Sydney side to Port Phillip were Messrs. Ebden (afterwards treasurer), Joe Hawdon, Gardener (of Gardener's Creek), and Captain Hepburn. This was in 1837, one year before Mr. Mackinnon arrived in the colonies. In 1838 Captain Hepburn made a second overland trip, starting from Braidwood, New South Wales, with sheep purchased from Captain Coghill of that place, and in January same year (1838), Mr. Gardener started on second trip with 460 head of cattle purchased from my father, the late Dr. Reid. of Inverary Park, in Argyle; delivery of same made by myself at Yass end of January month. This trip with Mr. Gardener so far imbued me with the love for adventure that I followed with stock the June following, and formed stations on the Ovens River, near where the town of Wangaratta now stands. The first overlanders with stock to Adelaide were Joe Hawdon and Eyre, the latter afterwards celebrated as an explorer. Well can I remember the excitement caused by the then so-called race, who should be first to Adelaide, Hawdon or Eyre, but Hawdon was too good a bushman for Eyre and had more experience, and was a better judge of the season (it was a dry one). Hawdon wisely followed the course of the Murray right to Lake Alexandrina, and consequently had food and water in abundance. Eyre crossed from Goulburn to go over the Wimmera Plains--no doubt a shorter way had the season been propitious, but as it turned out dry he had to retrace his steps, and follow the track of friend Hawdon. Hawdon by this time had a long start, and arrived in Adelaide two weeks before Eyre, and had his stock disposed of. I may remark very few of us overlanders are now left, but should this meet the eye of any such of 1837 and 1838, I make no doubt they will remember the facts above stated."--Extract from "Answers to Correspondents," from Mr. David Reid, Moorwatha, Victoria, in the Australasian, May 4th, 1888.

Orr, John (and party)--
Expedition through Gippsland. Confirmed the previous glowing reports. 1841.

Ovens, Major--
With Captain Curry, started on an exploring trip south of Lake George. Discovered Morumbidgee River and Monaroo Plains. 1823.

Oxley, John--
With Lieutenant Charles Robbins, in the cutter Integrity, examined Western Port, with a view to settlement; opinion unfavourable. 1804-5.

Surveyor-General of New South Wales. Second in command, Mr. Evans. Accompanied by Mr. Allan Cunningham, King's botanist, and Charles Fraser, Colonial botanist, William Parr, mineralogist, eight men, and two boats, for the purpose of tracing the Lachlan and Macquarie. Return in 1817. The following year again started, discovering the Castlereagh River, Liverpool Plains, Apsley River, and the Goulburn Valley. Following down the River Hastings, they discovered and named Port Macquarie. 1817-18.

Accompanied by Messrs. Meehan and Hume, made a short excursion to Jarvis Bay. Oxley returned by sea his companions overland. 1819.

In the Mermaid with Messrs. Uniacke and Lieutenant Stirling, left Port Jackson to investigate the coast north of Sydney, with the view of forming a penal settlement. They examine Port Curtis, Port Bowen, and Moreton Bay. Discovered the Boyne and Brisbane Rivers. 1823.

Died near Sydney, 1828. He had been a successful explorer, although in no case attaining the objects aimed at, had always brought his men through in safety, and had opened up vast tracts of country. [See Appendix.]

O'Donnell and Carr Boyd--
From the overland telegraph line to Western Australia, finding good country, but no new geographical discovery. 1883.

O'Donnell (and party)--
From the Katherine Telegraph Station, overland telegraph line to Western Australia. 1884-5.

Parry, S.--
Government Surveyor, examined the country round Lake Torrens. 1858.

Paterson, Colonel--
Intending if possible to cross the Blue Mountains, rowed up the Hawkesbury, and named the highest point reached "The Grose." 1793.

Pelsart, Francis--
In the Batavia. Wrecked on Houtman's Abrolhos. 1629.

"Pera" (The) and "Arnheim"--
Yachts commanded by Captain Jan Carstens, touched on the north coast. Pera Head in the Gulf of Carpentaria a memorial of this visit. 1623.

Perouse, Jean Francois Galup de La--
At Botany Bay with the Astrolabe and Boussole. 1778.

Phillip, Governor--
Arrived at Botany Bay with the first fleet. 1788.

Pool, Captain Gerrit Tomaz--
In the Klyn, Amsterdam, and Wezel, from Banda, was murdered on the New Guinea coast--the same spot where Captain Carstens met his death. The supercargo continued the voyage, re-visiting Arnheim's Land. 1636.

Second in command in Sturt's Great Central Desert expedition died of scurvy; and was buried at Depôt Glen. 1845.

Port Essington--
Founded by Sir Gordon Bremer, 1824, and re-settled, 1838.

Portlock, Captain, Nathan, and Captain Bligh--
In the Providence and Assistant. Through Torres Straits. 1792.

The claim to the discovery of New Holland in 1540 is doubtful.

Prout Bros.--
With one man started out from South Australia looking for country across the Queensland border. They never returned. Some months afterwards some of their horses and the bones of one of the brothers were discovered by Mr. W. J. H. Carr Boyd. It was evident, from the fragments of a diary found, that they had met their death by thirst on their homeward way. 1878.

Quiros, Pedro Fernandez de--
Being second in command to Luis Vaez de Torres sailed from Callao with two wellarmed vessels and a corvette. After minor discoveries came to a land supposed by Quiros to be the continent they were in search of, and named it Australia del Espiritu Santo. 1606.

Ranken, John C. L.--
One of the Queensland pioneers. Following closely after the explorers he formed a station upon the Isaacs, and afterwards took up Afton Downs, on the Flinders. He then with a party struck north-west, and crossed the unmarked boundary of South Australia, and finally formed stations on the head of the Herbert River. 1857-70.

Receveur, Father le--
Died at Botany Bay while with La Perouse in the Astrolabe. Feb. 17th, 1778.

"Recherche" (The) and "L'Esperance"--
Under command of Admiral Bruni D'Entrecasteaux, in search of the fate of La Perouse, anchored on the south coast of Australia, 1792.

"Research" (The)--
Under command Captain Dillon; on the south coast 1826.

Ridley and 0. C. Hunt--
To the De Grey River. 1863.

Robbins, Lieutenant Charles, and John Oxley--
In the cutter Integrity, examined Western Port, with a view to settlement. Opinion unfavourable. 1804-5.

"Roebuck" (The)--
Under William Dampier, sent out by the English Government, visited the west coast of New Holland. 1688.

Roe, Surveyor-General--
Started from York; reached the Pallinup, the last stream crossed by Eyre before reaching Albany on his Great Bight expedition. After suffering great hardships, arrived at Russell Range, from there returning to Perth. 1848-49.

Roggentier, Commodore--
Started for New Holland. Discovered the Thousand Islands. 1721.

Ross and Son--
With an equipment of camels and horses, started from the neighbourhood of Peake Station, on the overland telegraph line, to endeavour to cross the desert, but were obliged to return; a second effort being alike unsuccessful. 1874.

Ross and Harvey--
Explorations around Charlotte Waters, South Australia. 1877.

Russell, Stuart and Sydenham--
Followed the Condamine for a hundred miles from below Jimbour, the northernmost station on a Darling Downs Creek; an extensive tract of rich grazing country found; since known by the name then bestowed on it--Cecil Plains. 1841.

Russell, Stuart--
Journeyed from Moreton Bay to Wide Bay in a boat, and made an examination of some of the streams there emptying into the sea. During the same year Stuart Russell explored the country from Wide Bay to the Boyne (not Oxley's Boyne) and opened up much available pastoral country. 1842.

Saunders, Philip, and Adam, John--
Accompanied by a third man, successfully crossed from Roeburne, in Western Australia, to the overland telegraph line. 1876.

Scarr, Frank (Surveyor)--
Attempted to cross the line to the south of N. Buchanan's track, but was prevented by the waterless strip of country existing there. Finally made north, arriving at Tennant's Creek Station, and, owing to the dry season, did not extend his researches further. 1878.

Scott and Lieutenant Lawson--
Attempted to reach the Liverpool Plains. Discovered the Goulburn River. 1822.

Sergison, A. W., and Gilbert M'Minn--
Sent by the South Australian Government to ascertain the course of the Katherine River. 1876.

Sergison, A. W., and R. Travers--
Explored the country about the Daly and Fitzmaurice Rivers. 1877.

Shortland, Lieutenant--
With three ships, from Sydney to England, passed through Bougainville's Strait, north-west coast. 1788.

Discovered Hunter River. 1797.

Solander, Dr.--
Swedish botanist. Accompanied Captain Cook in the Endeavour. 1770.

Settlement at Cape York. Mr. Jardine, Police Magistrate at Rockhampton, took command, and a detachment of marines was stationed there. 1863.

Stewart, Captain--
Sent by Governor Macquarie to search for a passage supposed to exist between Lake Bathurst and the sea. He lost his boat in Twofold Bay, and on endeavouring to reach Sydney overland, was cut off by the natives. 1820.

Stirling, Captain--
Accompanied by Charles Frazer, in H.M.S. Success, surveyed coast from King George's Sound to the Swan River. 1828.

Stock, Edwin (and party)--
West of Lake Eyre. 1857.

Stockdale, Harry--
Started on an expedition from Cambridge Gulf to explore the country in the neighbourhood with a view to settlement. Landed by steamer in Cambridge Gulf, and probably the first landing that had taken place since Captain Stokes. After a hard struggle, reached the telegraph line with one man; sending back relief to the others. 1884.

Stokes, Captain John Lort--
Took command of the Beagle on retirement of Captain T. C. Wickham, and continued the survey, which completed our geographical knowledge of the Australian coast. The survey continued from 1837 to 1845.

Strzelecki, Count--
Followed on M'Millan's tracks when he discovered Gipps Land, and has often been erroneously considered the discoverer. The object of this trip was to gather material for his now well-known book, "The Physical Description of New South Wales, Victoria, and Van Dieman's Land." He mounted the Alps, and named one of the highest peaks Kosciusko, from its fancied resemblance to the patriot's tomb at Cracow. 1840.

Stuart, J. M'Dowall--
First expedition west of Lake Torrens. 1858.

Made another start, discovering Hergott Springs and the Neale. His horses' shoes having given out he returned, remembering the misery he suffered on his first expedition from the want of them. 1859.

Left on his third expedition, in the vicinity of Lake Eyre, reached the centre of Australia and named a tolerable high mount Central Mount Stuart. Christened the Murchison Range and Tennant's Creek, but failed to reach the head waters of the Victoria owing to a dry strip of country. 1861.

Last expedition. Crossed the continent from shore to shore, from the south coast to the north. His health never recovered the hardships endured on this journey. 1861-62.

Died in England. 1869.

Sturt, Captain Charles (39th Regiment)--
First expedition, accompanied by H. Hume, to find the course of the Macquarie, that had baffled Oxley. Discovered the Darling, New Year's Creek (Bogan). 1828-29.

Started on his Murrumbidgee expedition. Sailed down the Murray. Found its confluence with the Darling, and followed the united streams to the lake that terminated the Murray. 1829-30.

Great Central Desert expedition, Poole second in corn mand, M'Dowall Stuart as draftsman. 1844-45. His last expedition.

Sutherland, Captain--
On a sealing voyage, visited Port Lincoln. 181 g.

Swinden, Charles--
With others looking for pastoral country west of Lake Eyre. 1857.

Tasman, Abel Janz--
In command of the Heemskirk, and Gerrit Jansen, with the Neehaan, discovered Van Dieman's Land. Afterwards took possession of New Holland. 1642.

With the Limmen, Zeemeuw, and De Brak. After his discovery of Van Dieman's Land undertook this second expedition to determine, if possible, whether Nova Guinea and New Holland were one continent; also, if Tasmania joined one or the other. His journal has never been found, but an outline copy of his chart was inlaid in the floor of the Groote Zaal in the Stadhuys in Amsterdam. Many of the names still retained in the Gulf of Carpentaria are memorials of his visit. 1644.

Tench, Captain--
Crossed the Nepean. 1789.

With Dawes and Morgan explored south-west of Rose Hill. 1790.

Testu, Guillaume Le--
Claims to early discovery of Australia, based upon a map now in the Depôt de la Guerre, at Paris, bearing his name and the date. 1542.

Thompson D. (and party)--
West of Lake Eyre searching for pastoral country. 1857.

Torres, Luis Vaez de--
With Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, sailed round Cape York and discovered Torres Straits. 1606.

Travers, R--
With A. W. Sergison, explored the country about the Daly and Fitzmaurice Rivers. 1877.

Vancouver, Captain George--
In the Discovery and Chatham, explored the south-west coast, and discovered and named King George's Sound. 1791.

"Vergulde Draeck" (The)--
From Batavia. Lost on Houtman's Abrolhos. 1656.

Vlaming, William de--
Came to the South Land in search of the Ridderschap, a vessel supposed to have been wrecked on the coast of New Holland. He found and named the Swan River. At Dirk Hartog's Roads he found the plate left by Hartog, and added to it another inscription. After careful examination of the coast as far as North-West Cape, left for Batavia with his ships the Geelvink, Nyptangh, and Wezeltje. 1695.

"Vossenbach" "Wayer", and "Nova Hollandia"--
Under command of Martin Von Delft. Sent to investigate the north coast. The last voyage of discovery by the Dutch. 1705.

Walker, Frederick--
The leader of the Rockhampton search party for and Wills. Pushed through from the Barcoo to the depôt found on the Gilbert. Fresh provisioned, they returned and reached the Lower Burdekin well nigh horseless, and quite starving. 1861-62.

Examining the country at the back of Rockingham Bay, and marking a telegraph line from there to the mouth of the Norman River, in the Gulf of Carpentaria. 1864.

Warburton, Major--
Investigated the country west of Lake Torrens. 1857.

Superseded Babbage. This trip established the definite size and shape of Lake Torrens, so long the terror of the north, preventing advancement. 1858. Led an expedition to cross from the overland telegraph line to Perth. The expedition was fitted out with camels, but owing to their constant delays provisions fell short and sickness came. Warburton determined to push through the desert country he had got into, and travelled chiefly at night. Being too much occupied in pressing through, had no time to look at the country on either side. Thus it was all pronounced desert, and of seventeen camels only two survived, the starving party being obliged to slaughter some for food. 1873.

Welch, Edwin J.--
Surveyor and second in command of A. W. Howitt's relief party for Burke and Wills. Found King, the only survivor of Burke and Wills' expedition. Since the death of his companion, King had been existing for nearly three months with the blacks. 1861. [See Appendix.]

Wentworth, Charles--
With Messrs. Lawson and Blaxland, succeeded in crossing the Blue Mountains. 1813.

Wickham, Captain John Clements--
Commander of the Beagle. Retired through ill-health. 1841. Succeeded by Captain J. L. Stokes. Left England 1837 to continue the survey of the coasts of Australia, and so minutely examined the shores that the outline of the continent was perfectly complete. The survey continued from 1837 to 1841.

Wills, William John--
Surveyor and astronomer on Burke and Wills' expedition (See Burke.) 1860-61.

Winnecke and Barclay--
Two surveyors dispatched by the South Australian Government in 1878 to reach the Queensland border from the overland telegraph line, it being a matter of moment to settle the position of the border line between the two colonies. Another attempt in 1880 proved successful. 1878-80.

Witt, Willem de--
In the Vianen, sighted the north-west coast and reported (see De Witt) it "a foul and barren shore, green fields. and very wild, barbarous inhabitants." 1628.

Zeachern, Captain--
In the Mauritius, claims to have discovered Arnheim's Land. 1618.

"Zeehaan" (The)--
Under command of Captain Gerrit Jansen, accompanied by Abel Janz Tasman in the Heemskirk. Discovered Van Dieman's Land, and took possession of New Holland. 1642.

"Zeemeuw," "Limmen," and "De Brak"--
Under Abel Janz Tasman. 1644.

"Zeewyck" (The)--
Lost on Houtman's Abrolhos. In 1839 Captain Stokes found a gun and other relics of this vessel on one of the islands. 1727. >Zouch, Lieutenant (N.S.W. Mounted Police)--
Sent in command of party to arrest the natives who murdered Richard Cunningham, the botanist to Sir Thomas Mitchell's expedition. 1835. [See Appendix.]